Sample records for alara work practice

  1. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis and ALARA Work Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Nelsen, D P


    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygien...

  2. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.


    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA.

  3. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.


    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.


    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  5. Applied ALARA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.


    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  6. Five-year ALARA review of dosimetry results :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Luke R.


    A review of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) and environmental monitoring results from 1 January 2008 through 31 December 2012 performed at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform with the ALARA philosophy. ALARA is the philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  7. Five-Year ALARA Review of Dosimetry Results 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2014.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Luke R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A review of dosimetry results from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2014 was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform to the philosophy to keep exposures to radiation As Low As is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). This included a review and evaluation of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) results at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico as well as at Sandia National Laboratories, California. Additionally, results of environmental monitoring efforts at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico were reviewed. ALARA is a philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  8. Five-Year ALARA Review of Dosimetry Results 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2013.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Luke R


    A review of dosimetry results from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2013 was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform to the ALARA philosophy. This included a review and evaluation of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) results at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico as well as at Sandia National Laboratories, California. Additionally, results of environmental monitoring efforts at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico were reviewed. ALARA is a philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  9. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [and others


    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI`s low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan.

  10. Work Practice Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper


    and work practice. To understand these issues a framework of characteristics is identified and termed work practice characteristics to describe important aspects of the hybrid configuration of groupware and situated work practices. Drawing on concepts and work practice studies in the field of computer......Integrating groupware in work practices poses a range of interrelated problems comprising organisational and technological issues. These are complex issues, since they derive from the combined influence of a range of heterogeneous elements and emergent phenomena in the intersection of groupware...... supported cooperative work (CSCW) the paper argues that the interrelations of heterogeneous elements and emergent phenomena arising from the integration of groupware in practice should be made visible from a perspective encompassing both the social and the technical. Two cases from an empirical...

  11. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.


    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  12. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.


    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  13. Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Youn; Kim, Seung Nam; Kim, Ha Yong; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee


    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs.

  14. Overview, what is ALARA. Are we there

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.


    As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) in radiation protection at nuclear power plants is a complex criterion involving decisions requiring both professional judgement and quantitation. Professional judgement has been emphasized in most plants to date. However, unless quantitative studies are made it will be difficult to judge if doses at US plants are ALARA. An ALARA assessment for each plant is suggested, which would include evaluations of both qualitative, e.g., organizational, and quantitative, e.g., cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness, efforts. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. ALARA. More than LNT (linear, non-threshold); ALARA. Meer dan LNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passchier, W.F. [Afdeling Gezondheidsrisico-analyse en Toxicologie, Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)


    A brief overview is given of the basic principles of radiation protection: ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) and its relation with the linear non-threshold (LNT) model for the induction of cancer by ionizing radiation. [Dutch] Het acroniem ALARA is een basisprincipe in stralingsbescherining. Het begrip heeft in dit toepassingsgebied een beperkte betekenis gekregen: houdt de stralingsdosis zo laag als redelijkerwijs mogelijk is. De rechtvaardiging voor de ALARA-benadering verwijst naar het linear-non-threshold-model voor de inductie van kanker door ioniserende straling: elke stralingsdosis gaat gepaard met een kans op kanker later in het leven. In het Nederlandse milieu- en arbeidsomstandighedenbeleid geldt van oudsher eveneens een ALARA-aanpak. Die benadering is algemener van aard en past in een beleid gebaseerd op het voorzorgprincipe. 'Stralings-ALARA' zou meer als een verbijzondering van het algemene beginsel: geen schade tenzij dat redelijkerwijs niet kan worden gevergd, moeten worden opgevat.

  16. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L


    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  17. The Social Work Practice Doctorate (United States)

    Hartocollis, Lina; Cnaan, Ram A.; Ledwith, Kate


    This article provides a systematic review of the emerging practice doctorate in social work. Based on the experience of the first such Doctor of Social Work (DSW) program, we provide information regarding the program origins and rationale, development, current structure, and future direction. Such information will enrich the discussion on the role…

  18. Changing Work Practices in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Keld; Kensing, F.; Simonsen, Jesper


    The paper presents lessons learned in relation to changing work practices in design. We describe method dissemination activities in three IT-organisations in relation to introducing a method for design in an organisational context. From the activities a number of lessons are drawn....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Introduction Teaching practice (TP) is an essential component of the English course at Teachers’ colleges in China, in which new recruits are provided with a platform to put what they learn in the training programme into practice. The radical change from learner to teacher usually means a difficult beginning for trainees, although they have first-hand experience of learning English as a foreign language. Facing a textbook, of which each lesson consists of several components: new words, sentence patterns, text, grammar, and exercises, they are required to work out lesson plans which will ensure the achievement of the teaching objectives.

  20. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W. [comps.


    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE`s field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health`s programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors` facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters` ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors` ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  1. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W. (comps.)


    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  2. Turn to Practice Within Working Life Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke; Klemsdal, Lars


    What does practice theory and practice-based studies have to offer working life studies? This is the seminal question this special issue poses. In seven articles, researchers with an affiliation to Nordic working life studies and with a background in practice theory illustrate and reflect on how...... practice theoretical approaches can help working life studies in better understanding work practices and the material, technological, economic, organizational, and societal conditions that shape and are shaped by these practices. In addition, this issue contains three reviews of recent practice theoretical...... volumes that strive to theorize (work) practices and assess the merits of practice theoretical perspectives....

  3. Changing work practices in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Keld; Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper


    (Bødker and Kensing, 1994; Kensing et al. 1998b; Simonsen, 1997; Simonsen and Kensing, 1997). We use the term design in the same way as architects do - focusing on the analysis of needs and opportunities, and the design of functionality and form. We do acknowledge, however, that in a succeeding......The chapter reflects on activitites in three IT-organizations to change work practices in early design activitites. The activitites in the three organizations were related to introducing a new method for design in an organizational context, developed by the authors (Kensing et al., 1998a......). The method is developed based on a combination of theoretical studies and experimental development. In the experiments we - as designing researchers - have carried out ten design projects in various organizations in Denmark and the US in cooperation with designers and users from the involved companies...

  4. Team- and project work in engineering practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke


    In this paper we investigate teamwork amongst professionals in engineering consultancy companies in order to discern how teamwork affects the collaboration and work practices of the professionals. The paper investigates how professional engineering practices are enacted in two engineering...... consultancy companies in Denmark where teamwork has been or is an ideal for organizing work. Through a practice-based lens the article sets out to investigate, firstly, how discourses about teamand project work affect engineering work practices, secondly, how technology-mediated management is reconciled...... in teamwork practices, and, thirdly, how team- and project work affect engineering professionalism and collaborative work practices. A practice theoretical framework informs the analysis. Teamwork is investigated as a phenomenon enacted through the sayings, doings and relatings of practitioners in landscapes...

  5. Work Motivation: Theory and Practice. (United States)

    Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.


    Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…

  6. Situational Analysis and Engineering Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke


    groups of engineers and other experts negotiate their professionalism and expertise in work situations. We set out to demonstrate how ideals about engineering professionalism play an important role in setting standards for the work practices but we also observe how rising demands for ‘efficiency......Studies of work practices of scientists and engineers inspired by Science and Technology Studies (STS) provide new material for a richer understanding of expert cultures and expert work practices. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit...... discussions of work practices to departmental and discrete institutional settings. This micro perspective potentially overlooks the inherent and overarching normativities that inform expert culture and expert work practices. Furthermore, the micro perspective has difficulties in transgressing institutional...

  7. Researching Practice Wisdom in Social Work


    Johnson Chun-Sing Cheung


    Researching practice wisdom in social work Social workers, as skilled helpers who make professional decisions using intuitive actions rather than by following defined rules, deserve better recognition for their practice wisdom. However, since there is a tendency amongst practitioners who adhere to the evidence-based paradigm to disregard practitioners’ knowledge, empirical research on practice wisdom in social work needs to be encouraged. The author argues that the lack of a sound methodology...

  8. Dialogical communication and empowering social work practice. (United States)

    Natland, Sidsel


    How to succeed in facilitating for empowering processes within social work practice is a central topic in both theoretical discussions and regarding its principles in practice. With a particular focus on how dialogical communication can play a part in order to practice empowering social work, through this text the author frames HUSK as a project facilitating the underpinning humanistic approaches in social work. Dialogical communication and its philosophical base is presented and recognized as a means to achieve empowering social work as well as highlighting the importance of the humanistic approach. The author also underscores how HUSK projects in themselves were enabled because of the required collaboration between service users, professionals, and researchers that signified HUSK. This is pinpointed as having potential for a future research agenda as well as pointing at how the outcomes of the projects may impact future social work practice when the goal is to conduct empowering social work.

  9. Theorizing practice research in social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggerhøj, Lars


    The article focuses on theories, definitions, interests, possibilities and barriers in practice research in social work. It points out that both practice and research will be influenced by participating in and developing practice research. – and that both parts must and will learn from the process....... To elaborate and define practice research in social work, it is necessary to consider connected approaches and theories. The article will show that practice research is both connected to and can use the theoretical frames of Actual science and Mode 2 knowledge production. To understand and develop research...... practice research they do at the same time have different interests which will challenge both parts. Practice research must be looked upon as both an area of collaboration and a meeting point for different stakeholders: users, social workers, administrative management/organizers, politicians...

  10. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page.

  11. Learning within a product development working practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang

    addresses how a PD activity unfolds within interorganisational, cross-functional and daily working practices. Using the term within has methodological consequences, dictating the study to deal with a PD working practice as it unfolds when engineers conduct a PD activity. As to the methodological approach......, the logic applied throughout the thesis is abduction. The abductive logic paves the way for studying how learning occurs in consequence of the engineers’ doings when conducting a PD activity within a PD working practice. As this logic rejects any kind of dualism, the engineers’ doings are neither......This thesis examines learning within a PD working practice when creating a Wind Turbine Control (WTC) in collaboration with a customer. The focus of the research is on the learning that takes place when engineers conduct a PD activity, frequently referred to as workplace learning. The research...

  12. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim


    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from...

  13. Practical Work in the Sixth Form. (United States)

    Newton, Douglas P.


    Divides the stated aims of practical work, listed in some of the A-level syllabuses of the GCE examining boards, into four groups and discusses each: didactic aims, the development of skills, the scientific method, and affective aims. (GA)

  14. Feminist Social Work: Practice and Theory of Practice. (United States)

    Eyal-Lubling, Roni; Krumer-Nevo, Michal


    Although feminist social work has been practiced in Israel since the 1970s, little has been written about it. This qualitative study aims to fill this gap by documenting and conceptualizing feminist theory of practice and actual practice based on interviews with 12 feminist social workers. Findings reveal that the interviewees perceive feminist practice as significantly different from traditional social work practice based on four analytical principles: (1) gender analysis, (2) awareness of power relations, (3) analysis of welfare services as structures of oppression, and (4) utilization of feminist language, as well as 10 principles of action. The principles are discussed in the context of feminist social work in Israel and in light of feminist principles described in international literature.

  15. Catalyzing Innovation in Social Work Practice (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E.; Begun, Stephanie; Okpych, Nathanael; Choy-Brown, Mimi


    Social innovation is defined by novelty and improvement. This definition requires social work practice to be more effective or efficient than preexisting alternatives. Practice innovation is accomplished by leveraging technical, social, and economic factors to generate novel interventions, diffusion or adoption of the interventions into broader…

  16. Can E-Learning Change Work Practices? (United States)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack


    Stand-alone e-learning is unlikely to change work practices. This claim contrasts with a comprehensive body of research arguing that e-learning is at least as effective as face-to-face instruction in improving work performance. Such a comparison is, however, problematic. On the one hand, it relies on the premise that face-to-face instruction is…

  17. International working capital practices of Ghanaian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abor


    Full Text Available International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and international sales and accounts receivables management. The results of this study reveal low level of use of international working capital vehicles among Ghanaian firms. Recommendations are made in this regard.

  18. Contemplative spaces in social work practice. (United States)

    Jacobs, Carolyn


    Exploring contemplative practices and spirituality in social work has developed a new impetus as the understanding of the importance of those variables in patient care has increased. Social work brings its historical attention to the whole person and the many ways the social worker and patient understand their respective roles in assisting in the process of healing and coping with loss. It is essential that social workers attend to their own understanding of the space for contemplative practice in their lives. This article sets the context for this important work and provides an example of a program designed to increase the social worker's awareness and practice skills that reflect the particular dynamics of engaging spirituality in the clinical relationship.

  19. Can E-learning change work practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack


    Stand-alone e-learning is unlikely to change work practices. This claim contrasts with a comprehensive body of research arguing that e-learning is at least as effective as face-to-face instruction in improving work performance. Such a comparison is, however, problematic. On the one hand, it relies...... on the premise that face-to-face instruction is effective in changing work behaviors. This article argues that instruction—whether e-learning, face-to-face, or a blend of both—cannot stand alone. Individualized on-the-job scaffolding of employees is needed for meaningful learning transfer and sustainable...... behavior change to occur. On the other hand, e-learning can be as important as face-to-face instruction in preparing the ground for advancing work practices, when e-learning is designed in acknowledgement of its strength and limitations. In outlining the above arguments, this article contributes a four...

  20. The Social Work Reinvestment Initiative: advocacy and social work practice. (United States)

    Talbot, Elizabeth Peffer; McMillin, Joan A


    In 2006, NASW launched the Social Work Reinvestment Initiative by granting each state chapter $15,000 in seed money to address the most pressing social work needs in the state. This article describes how NASW-SD, with 246 members, launched an epic campaign that resulted in the establishment of the only MSW program in South Dakota. Using historical research methods, this article demonstrates the power of social work advocacy when members unify in pursuit of a common goal and describes how the social workers rallied to educate policymakers and the public on the value of social work and its delivery of necessary social services at all levels and in all fields of practice. The research highlights an uphill battle of advocacy and the skillful planning and implementation of a campaign to secure state funding to establish the first MSW program in the state, at the beginning of the most difficult economic recession since the Great Depression.

  1. Shady Car Dealings and Taxing Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen


    , whereas others are highly visible and are interrogated in detail. Using the concepts of the oligopticon and the panopticon to analyse the tax audit process is significant for interpretative tax and accounting studies, because this theoretical approach represents an original method of conceptualising...... taxation in practice and the work implied in tax administration. Furthermore, due to its detailed ethnography of the tax audit process, this study makes a significant methodological contribution....

  2. Conceptualising e-working: exploring innovative work practices for optimising work and travel efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lim; M. Walrave; B. van Wee; T. van der Hoorn


    The inception of 'third wave' Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has the potential of enabling innovative e-working practices in organisations beyond the traditional home teleworking. This paper conceptualises the new e-working practices adopted by 'lead users' through grounded theory

  3. LANL Environmental ALARA Program Status Report for CY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ensures that radiation exposures to members of the public and the environment from LANL operations, past and present, are below regulatory thresholds and are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) through compliance with DOE Order 458.1 Radiation Protection for the Public and the Environment, and LANL Policy 412 Environmental Radiation Protection (LANL2016a). In 2007, a finding (RL.2-F-1) and observation (RL.2-0-1) in the NNSA/ LASO report, September 2007, Release of Property (Land) Containing Residual Radioactive Material Self-Assessment Report, indicated that LANL had no policy or documented process in place for the release of property containing residual radioactive material. In response, LANL developed PD410, Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental ALARA Program. The most recent version of this document became effective in 2014 (LANL 2014a). The document provides program authorities, responsibilities, descriptions, processes, and thresholds for conducting qualitative and quantitative ALARA analyses for prospective and actual radiation exposures to the public and t o the environment resulting from DOE activities conducted on the LANL site.

  4. LANL Environmental ALARA Program Status Report for CY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gillis, Jessica Mcdonnel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ensures that radiation exposures to members of the public and the environment from LANL operations, past and present, are below regulatory thresholds and are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) through compliance with DOE Order 458.1 Radiation Protection for the Public and the Environment, and LANL Policy 412 Environmental Radiation Protection. In 2007, a finding (RL.2-F-1) and observation (RL.2-0-1) in the NNSA/ LASO report, September 2007, Release of Property (Land) Containing Residual Radioactive Material Self-Assessment Report, indicated that LANL had no policy or documented process in place for the release of property containing residual radioactive material. In response, LANL developed PD410, Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental ALARA Program. The most recent version of this document became effective on September 28, 2011. The document provides program authorities, responsibilities, descriptions, processes, and thresholds for conducting qualitative and quantitative ALARA analyses for prospective and actual radiation exposures to the public and t o the environment resulting from DOE activities conducted on the LANL site.

  5. Diversity at work the practice of inclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Barbara R


    This book outlines the key issues involved in framing, designing, and implementing inclusion initiatives for organizations and groups. It offers ideas for helping individuals develop competencies for inclusion. It shows how to apply the practices of inclusion and provides a unified model by employing diverse voices to address a range of related topics in multiple contexts. It also contains examples of how diversity and inclusion has worked in a variety of settings. The book is includes information from topic experts, including internal and external change agents and academics.

  6. Social work practice with LGBT seniors. (United States)

    Gratwick, Steve; Jihanian, Lila J; Holloway, Ian W; Sanchez, Marisol; Sullivan, Kathleen


    The Los Angeles Gay & Lesbian Center began providing services to LGBT seniors in 2008. Since then, the Center's seniors program has grown to over 3,300 clients. It provides a variety of enrichment and support services with the overarching goal of empowering seniors to successfully age in place. This article outlines the service delivery program of the Center's Seniors Services Department and describes its successes and challenges in meeting the needs of diverse LGBT seniors. It offers future directions for social work practice, policy, and research with LGBT older adults.

  7. Multiagent Work Practice Simulation: Progress and Challenges (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Shaffe, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)


    Modeling and simulating complex human-system interactions requires going beyond formal procedures and information flows to analyze how people interact with each other. Such work practices include conversations, modes of communication, informal assistance, impromptu meetings, workarounds, and so on. To make these social processes visible, we have developed a multiagent simulation tool, called Brahms, for modeling the activities of people belonging to multiple groups, situated in a physical environment (geographic regions, buildings, transport vehicles, etc.) consisting of tools, documents, and a computer system. We are finding many useful applications of Brahms for system requirements analysis, instruction, implementing software agents, and as a workbench for relating cognitive and social theories of human behavior. Many challenges remain for representing work practices, including modeling: memory over multiple days, scheduled activities combining physical objects, groups, and locations on a timeline (such as a Space Shuttle mission), habitat vehicles with trajectories (such as the Shuttle), agent movement in 3D space (e.g., inside the International Space Station), agent posture and line of sight, coupled movements (such as carrying objects), and learning (mimicry, forming habits, detecting repetition, etc.).

  8. Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.


    Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

  9. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.


    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial.

  10. History and Culture of Alara--The Action Learning and Action Research Association (United States)

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron


    As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…

  11. Situating ethics and values in social work practice


    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Bell, Linda


    An introductory chapter to an edited book on Ethics and Values in Social Work practice. The authors introduce the significance of these for practice, their current positioning in social work and the contents of the book.

  12. 40 CFR 63.803 - Work practice standards. (United States)


    ...) National Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations § 63.803 Work practice standards... environmentally desirable work practices for each wood furniture operation manufacturing operation and addresses... used successfully by other wood furniture manufacturing operations, or other criteria mutually...

  13. Making it work: successful collaborative practice. (United States)

    DeJoy, Susan; Burkman, Ronald T; Graves, Barbara W; Grow, Daniel; Sankey, Heather Z; Delk, Carolyn; Feinland, Julie; Kaplan, Janet; Hallisey, Anastasia


    There are three major examples of collaborative programs between certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) and obstetrician-gynecologists at Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts, within the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. One program is a midwifery practice that serves a diverse population in a hospital-based office, four neighborhood health centers, and a correctional facility. Another program provides a triage function for patients who present to the hospital with obstetric or gynecologic problems. The third program introduces a team approach to the education of residents with a CNM having primary responsibility for teaching normal obstetrics to first-year residents and medical students in collaboration with attending physicians. Keys to success include an understanding of the principles of collaborative practice, the use of a detailed practice agreement between midwives and attending physicians, keeping open lines of communication, understanding and accepting differing philosophies of practice, and, most importantly, maintaining trust across all levels of providers.

  14. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.


    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners.

  15. Multilateral analysis of increasing collective dose and new ALARA programme. (United States)

    Oumi, Tadashi; Morii, Yasuki; Imai, Toshirou


    JAPC (The Japan Atomic Power Company) is the only electric power company that operates different types of nuclear reactors in Japan; it operates two BWRs (boiling water reactors), one pressurised water reactor and one gas cooled reactor. JAPC has been conducting various activities aimed at reducing radiation dose received by workers for over 45 y. Recently, the collective dose resulting from periodic maintenance has increased at each plant because of the replacement of large equipment and the unexpected extension of the outage period. In particular, the collective dose at Tokai-2 is one of the highest among Japanese BWR plants((1)), owing to the replacement and strengthening of equipment to meet earthquake-proof requirements. In this study, the authors performed a multilateral analysis of unacceptably a large collective dose and devised a new ALARA programme that includes a 3D dose prediction map and the development of machines to assist workers.

  16. The Mediator Role in Social Work Practice. (United States)

    Parsons, Ruth J.


    Notes that mediation as problem-solving intervention in social work became widely used in child custody and divorce cases, child-parent conflicts, and family disputes. Argues that mediator role is inherent in social work, and examines context for and assumptions underlying it. Discusses nature of conflicts, issue of neutrality within social work…

  17. Enhancing the Practice of Social Work (United States)

    King, Ruth


    This account of practice focuses on my learning and development as a new Action Learning Facilitator. It reflects on my thoughts and feelings as I began to facilitate my own sets a year or so ago. It will discuss and reflect on topics such as communication, feedback, expectations (both mine, the set members and the organisations), values, ethics,…

  18. Teaching the Large Course: Is Practical Work Practicable? (United States)

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Letton, Kirsty M.


    Examines the psychology of learning and its application to work in the laboratory. States that the working memory capacity of students is limited; therefore the amount of information they can process needs to be controlled and "recipe following" in the laboratory is perfectly reasonable. (RT)

  19. The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Practice (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.


    As John Brekke has observed, social work does not use the word "science" to define itself, suggesting a need to articulate a science of social work. This article discusses the science of social work and its relationship to social work practice in the United States, arguing that a "rapprochement" between practice and science…

  20. Design-based practice: a new perspective for social work. (United States)

    Cohen, Burton J


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has emerged as an alternative to traditional social work practice and has ignited a new round in the decades-old debate about the relationship between knowledge and practice in the field. This article identifies several limitations inherent in the EBP perspective and argues that it would be unfortunate if EBP were to become the new paradigm for social work practice and education. It also presents a new perspective for social work called design-based practice (DBP), which is based on the work of Herbert Simon and Mary Parker Follett, and compares this perspective with EBP and authority-based practice. DBP rests on the belief that knowledge is derived from experience and interactions between practitioners and clients and that professional practice should be primarily concerned with "how things ought to be."

  1. My understanding and practices of Group Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wenyue


    @@ Group work is different from traditional teaching because it is not centered on the teacher but on the students. It is a student-centered, team-formed and has the common learning aims "m order to learn and promote each other,It experiences a common sense of honor and achievement and develops a spirit of cooperation. Thus, group work in the English class has always been play-ing an active role, It can improve learning methods and teaching strategy. At the same time,it improves the ability of individual team members.

  2. The impact of the `Getting Practical: Improving Practical Work in Science' continuing professional development programme on teachers' ideas and practice in science practical work (United States)

    Abrahams, Ian; Reiss, Michael J.; Sharpe, Rachael


    Background:Despite the widespread use of practical work in school it has been recognised that more needs to be done to improve its effectiveness in developing conceptual understanding. The 'Getting Practical' CPD (Continuing Professional Development) programme was designed to contribute towards an improvement in the effectiveness of practical work through initiating changes in teachers' predominantly 'hands-on' approach to practical work to one which manifests a more equitable balance between 'hands-on' and 'minds-on'. Purpose:To evaluate the impact of the Getting Practical: Improving Practical Work in Science CPD programme on teachers' ideas and practice in science practical work in primary and secondary schools in England. Programme description:The CPD programme was designed to improve the effectiveness of science practical work in developing conceptual understanding in primary and secondary schools in England. Sample:Ten teachers of primary science and 20 secondary science teachers. Design and methods:The study employed a condensed fieldwork strategy with data collected using interviews, observational field notes and pre- and post-CPD training observations in practical lessons within 30 schools. Results:Whilst the CPD programme was effective in getting teachers to reflect on the ideas associated with the Getting Practical programme, it was much less effective in bringing about changes in actual teaching practice. Conclusion:The findings suggest that if change, rather than only an enhanced awareness of the issues, is to be brought about in established teaching practice then there is a need for ongoing support over an extended period of time. Furthermore, the impact of such CPD is more likely to be effective if it is undertaken by a senior member of a department or school with the full support of the SMT.

  3. Sustainable working practices and minimizing burnout in emergency medicine. (United States)

    Hassan, Tajek B


    Sustainable and satisfying working practices in emergency medicine are vital to produce career longevity and prevent premature 'burnout'. A range of strategies is required to ensure success for the individual and the system in which he/she works.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Konotopov


    Full Text Available This article examines the main causes of low productivity in domestic enterprises, as well as the issues of production processes standardization and the coordination of work in relation to the possible organizational interventions aimed at improving the synergy of workforce joint activities.

  5. Practical work at the Open University of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, M.A.M.; Kirschner, P.A.


    Achieving practical objectives in an open distance educational system is a real challenge. Its philosophy requires self-instructional materials that students can study at their own time, place, and pace. Practical work, in particular laboratory work, can test the limits of this philosophy. A new way

  6. Service Learning: An Example of Multilevel School Social Work Practice (United States)

    McKay, Cassandra; Johnson, Annette


    School social work interventions that address social and emotional learning are often confined to micro-level practice. Yet the social work profession thrives on multilevel practice in all settings (micro, as well as macro). School social workers can play a pivotal role in engaging youth to become prosocial participants of their school and…

  7. Ideas of holistic engineering meet engineering work practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders


    of a small team of professionals who engage in holistic engineering work practices in an engineering consultancy company. The work practices are investigated using a philosophical empirical method that inquires into the doings, sayings, and relatings of the practitioners. The study describes the practice......This article critically reflects on the viability of the idea that reforming engineering education will result in more holistic engineering work practices. Drawing on an empirical study, the article aims to demonstrate that in order to change existing engineering work practices, it might...... be necessary to change engineers’ knowledge and skills; however, such changes are far from sufficient. Conditions and circumstances external to practitioners’ knowledge and skills are crucial if engineering work is to become more holistic. To illustrate this point, the article outlines an empirical study...

  8. Poverty-Aware Social Work Practice: A Conceptual Framework for Social Work Education (United States)

    Krumer-Nevo, Michal; Weiss-Gal, Idit; Monnickendam, Menachem


    Despite the profound commitment of social work toward people living in poverty, the social work profession has failed to develop practice based on awareness of poverty. This article shows the ways in which poverty became a marginal issue in social work practice, reviews the literature on teaching poverty in international context, and then…

  9. Boundaries, Work and Identity Practices: Being "'Asian" Migrant Educational Workers (United States)

    Joseph, Cynthia


    This article draws on the concept of boundaries in understanding the identity practices of a group of Malaysian skilled migrant women working in the Australian education sector. Drawing on in-depth interviews with these women on their migration and work experiences, the author explores the concept of boundary work within an educational framework.…

  10. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J.; Durham, J.S.; Hickey, E.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Cicotte, G.R.


    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL`s reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included.

  11. Specialty Practice or Interstitial Practice? A Reconsideration of School Social Work's Past and Present (United States)

    Phillippo, Kate L.; Blosser, Allison


    This article analyzes school social work's history to provide perspective on current dilemmas in social work practice and research. The authors use interstitial emergence theory, which holds that practices from overlapping fields (like social work and K-12 education) can develop into new fields, as an analytic framework. This perspective extends…

  12. Toward a Framework for Social Work Practice with Minorities. (United States)

    Lum, Doman


    Uses case histories to support the need for a framework for social work practice with minorities--one that recognizes the value of being able to identify psychosocial components that affect practice problems. Suggests social workers be especially aware of the harmful effects of stereotyping individuals. (Author)

  13. Dry Laboratories in Science Education : Computer-based Practical Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Huisman, W.


    Practical (laboratory) work in science education has traditionally been used to allow students to rediscover already known concepts and ideas, to demonstrate concepts taught in the classroom or, in the case of inquirybased science curricula, to teach concepts. Often, these laboratory practicals do n

  14. Teaching Practices and Social Capital. NBER Working Paper No. 17527 (United States)

    Algan, Yann; Cahuc, Pierre; Shleifer, Andrei


    We use several data sets to consider the effect of teaching practices on student beliefs, as well as on organization of firms and institutions. In cross-country data, we show that teaching practices (such as copying from the board versus working on projects together) are strongly related to various dimensions of social capital, from beliefs in…

  15. School Social Work Practice and Response to Intervention (United States)

    Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle; Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Shaffer, Gary; O'Brien, Kimberly


    School social workers have historically had a great deal of flexibility in the practices they use, yet few studies have systematically examined them. This study used data collected as part of the National School Social Work Survey to examine the practice of school social workers within the context of the principles of the response to intervention…

  16. Evaluating a Community-School Model of Social Work Practice (United States)

    Diehl, Daniel; Frey, Andy


    While research has shown that social workers can have positive impacts on students' school adjustment, evaluations of overall practice models continue to be limited. This article evaluates a model of community-school social work practice by examining its effect on problem behaviors and concerns identified by teachers and parents at referral. As…

  17. Mission Impossible? Social Work Practice with Black Urban Youth Gangs. (United States)

    Fox, Jerry R.


    Describes the adaptation of social work practice skills to serve black urban youth gangs. Presents a model for practice which respects youths' right to self-determination and community needs. Model stages discussed include contact, rapport, setting goals, assigning roles, procuring resources, and evaluation. Model applicability is suggested. (NRB)

  18. Social Work Education and Direct Practice in the Computer Age. (United States)

    Cnaan, Ram A.


    Educators must prepare social work students to use computers in practice, develop practice-relevant software, and protect and empower those who might be victimized by information technology. Issues and tasks associated with each of these areas are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  19. Work engagement in nursing practice: a relational ethics perspective. (United States)

    Keyko, Kacey


    The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments.

  20. Authentic leaders creating healthy work environments for nursing practice. (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R


    Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce; the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed.

  1. Work Based Learning in Intercultural Settings: A Model in Practice (United States)

    Leeming, David Elvis; Mora, Maria Dolores Iglesias


    The Intercultural Business Communication at the University of Central Lancashire offers a taught module with a work placement that exists within a multicultural context as part of an MA in Intercultural Business Communication. As part of this process, students must work towards completing two practical assessments, a project presented in a report…

  2. Grading Written Work: An Integral Part of Writing Workshop Practice (United States)

    Robbins, Kristen


    This article chronicles how the process of reviewing and grading student written work became an integral part of a middle school teacher's writing workshop practice. In addition to discussing how reading student work can bring educators back to the heart of the profession (including the belief that spending time with drafts can reap more rewards…

  3. School Social Work in Louisiana: A Model of Practice (United States)

    Richard, Laura A.; Villarreal Sosa, Leticia


    Although the role of the school social worker has historically been inconsistent, fragmented, and contextual, concerns about the need to advocate for school social work positions, demonstrate the effectiveness of school social work practice, understand the consequences of role ambiguity, and respond in a proactive way to policy changes has…

  4. Nursing Home Work Practices and Nursing Assistants' Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Bishop, Christine E.; Squillace, Marie R.; Meagher, Jennifer; Anderson, Wayne L.; Wiener, Joshua M.


    Purpose: To estimate the impact of nursing home work practices, specifically compensation and working conditions, on job satisfaction of nursing assistants employed in nursing homes. Design and Methods: Data are from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, responses by the nursing assistants' employers to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey,…

  5. Classifying Software to Better Support Social Work Practice. (United States)

    Nurius, Paula; Cnaan, Ram A.


    Notes that, as social work gradually enters electronic information era, interface between social work practice and computer world is often accompanied by disharmony. Presents current classification and terminology of software, identifies drawbacks, and proposes new classification approach based on needs of social workers. Discusses how combination…

  6. Methodology for making environmental as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Speer, D.R.


    An overall evaluation concept for use in making differential cost-benefit analyses in environmental as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) determinations is being implemented by Rockwell Hanford Operations. This evaluation includes consideration of seven categories: (1) capital costs; (2) operating costs; (3) state of the art; (4) safety; (5) accident or upset consequences; (6) reliability, operability, and maintainability; and (7) decommissionability. Appropriate weighting factors for each of these categories are under development so that ALARA determinations can be made by comparing scores of alternative proposals for facility design, operations, and upgrade. This method of evaluation circumvents the traditional basis of a stated monetary sum per person-rem of dose commitment. This alternative was generated by advice from legal counsel who advised against formally pursuing this avenue of approach to ALARA for environmental and occupational dose commitments.

  7. Using Tablet PCs in Social Work Practice Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Hodge


    Full Text Available Within social work practice courses, video recording has been used to record and evaluate the clinical practice skills of students. This process has been limited by labor-intensive, tapebased video equipment, non-digital means of organizing and assessing specific scenes and events within the video, and paper evaluation forms. As an interdisciplinary project, professors from professional disciplines (education, social work, and counseling worked with information technology students from computer science to design and develop Table PC-based One- Note EVAs (Extended Video Application that would provide a more effective way of evaluating clinical practice skills for professional program students. This case study presents how one interdisciplinary team was able to create an EVA for use with digital recordings of clinical practice skills so that these demonstrations could be recorded, organized, and evaluated more effectively. The issues of working through communication differences, design difficulties, and the additional steps toward implementation are explored. The lessons learned from working as an interdisciplinary team and the impact of Tablet PCs in social work practice courses is also presented.

  8. Flexible work practices and the LIS sector: balancing the needs of work and life?


    O'Brien, Terry; Hayden, Helen


    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and analysis of current legislation and various schemes and practices that are available to employers and employees in relation to work life balance, family friendly work arrangements, leave entitlements and diverse modes of flexible work in Ireland. Focuses in particular on the Library and Information sector.

  9. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roecklein, A.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications


    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  10. Practical work in secondary science a minds-on approach

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Ian


    Practical work is an essential feature of secondary science education. However, questions have been raised by some science educators about its effectiveness as a teaching and learning strategy. Whilst such an approach is generally effective in getting pupils to do things with objects and materials, it is seen as relatively ineffective in developing their conceptual understanding of the associated scientific ideas and concepts. Ian Abrahams argues that this is because it is practiced as a 'hands-on' rather than 'minds-on' activity. Abrahams draws together theory and practice on effective teaching and learning in practical work in science - covering biology, chemistry and physics. He provides clear guidance to ensure that students are encouraged and supported to be 'minds-on' as well as a 'hands-on' so that they can make the most of this learning experience. An invaluable text for inspiringaspiring andexperienced secondary science professionals, especially for those on M-level secondary science PGCE programmes.

  11. Implementation of Industrial Work Practice management at vocational high school (United States)

    Widodo, Joko; Samsudi, Sunyoto


    The purpose of this study was to develop a management model of entrepreneurship-based Industrial Work Practice (Prakerin) at Vocational High School. This research was planned for three years under Research and Development design. The respondents were public and private Vocational High Schools in Semarang, Salatiga and District of Demak, Central Java, Indonesia. Data were collected through interviews, questionnaires, observation, and documentation. The data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Preliminary study shows that the implementation of Industrial Work Practice at Vocational High School, which has been carried out, was only to prepare the graduates to become an employee of the industry instead of entrepreneur. Further study is needed to develop a management model of entrepreneurship-based Industrial Work Practice at Vocational High School.

  12. Social Work Practice Behaviors and Beliefs: Rural-Urban Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A. Croxton


    Full Text Available There is continuing debate within the social work profession on whether there are significant differences in the practice behaviors and beliefs between rural and urban clinical social workers and whether different standards should be applied in defining ethical practices. This study measures those differences with regard to five practice behaviors: bartering,maintaining confidentiality, competent practice, dual relationships, and social relationships. Differences were found in beliefs regarding the appropriateness of professional behavior though such differences did not translate into practice behaviors.More significantly, the research suggests considerable confusion about the meanings of ethical standards and the utilization of intervention techniques without formal training across both urban and rural social workers.

  13. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work. (United States)

    Wolff, Tom


    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making.

  14. Healthy organizational practices against violence at work. Study of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gimeno Navarro


    Full Text Available Violence at work is a growing problem for organizations. It involves significant costs for the organization, its members and the community. In its various dimensions, organized violence is one of the least investigated. This study provides evidence of the relevance of this dimension has on the development of violent behavior in the workplace. The results indicate that practices an organization implements an impact on levels of violence that occur at work. For the development of healthy organizations, free of violence, the company management must take a holistic approach and look at best practices related to human resource management, with leadership factors or job design

  15. Work practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance. (United States)

    Baker, K; Olson, J; Morisseau, D


    This paper focuses on work practices that may contribute to fatigue-induced performance decrements in the commercial nuclear power industry. Specifically, the amount of overtime worked by operations, technical, and maintenance personnel and the 12-h operator shift schedule are studied. Although overtime for all three job categories was fairly high at a number of plants, the analyses detected a clear statistical relationship only between operations overtime and plant safety performance. The results for the 12-h operator shift schedule were ambiguous. Although the 12-h operator shift schedule was correlated with operator error, it was not significantly related to the other five safety indicators. This research suggests that at least one of the existing work practices--the amount of operator overtime worked at some plants--represents a safety concern in this industry; however, further research is required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  16. Practical Work in Chemistry: Chemistry Students' Perceptions of Working Independently in a Less Organised Environment (United States)

    Lyall, Robert James


    A study of chemistry students in an organic practical class, where they were required to work on their own, found considerable benefits in allowing them to work independently in a less organised environment. Although apprehensive at first, they soon gained a self-belief in their own abilities and were able to complete the course with minimal input…

  17. Correcting working postures in industry: A practical method for analysis. (United States)

    Karhu, O; Kansi, P; Kuorinka, I


    A practical method for identifying and evaluating poor working postures, ie, the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS), is presented. The method consists of two parts. The first is an observational technique for evaluating working postures. It can be used by work-study engineers in their daily routine and it gives reliable results after a short training period. The second part of the method is a set of criteria for the redesign of working methods and places. The criteria are based on evaluations made by experienced workers and ergonomics experts. They take into consideration factors such as health and safety, but the main emphasis is placed on the discomfort caused by the working postures. The method has been extensively used in the steel company which participated in its development. Complete production lines have already been redesigned on the basis of information gathered from OWAS, the result being more comfortable workplaces as well as a positive effect on production quality.

  18. Mobile Communication and Work Practices in Knowledge-based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Hurme


    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile communication, mobile tools and work practices in the context of organizations, especially knowledge-based organizations. Today, organizations are highly complex and diverse. Not surprisingly, various solutions to incorporating mobile tools and mobile communication in organizations have been devised. Challenges to technological development and research on mobile communication are presented.

  19. Mobile Communication and Work Practices in Knowledge-based Organizations


    Pertti Hurme


    This paper examines the role of mobile communication, mobile tools and work practices in the context of organizations, especially knowledge-based organizations. Today, organizations are highly complex and diverse. Not surprisingly, various solutions to incorporating mobile tools and mobile communication in organizations have been devised. Challenges to technological development and research on mobile communication are presented.

  20. The Use of Computers in Social Work Practice: An Assessment. (United States)

    Miller, Henry


    The potential use of computers in social work education and practice is discussed. Possibilities are emerging in regard to case management, diagnosis and assessment, and even treatment. The bottleneck is no longer expensive hardware but the development of usable and relevant software and courseware. (Author/MH)

  1. The Role of Vocal Practice in Constructing Phonological Working Memory (United States)

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Vihman, Marilyn M.; DePaolis, Rory A.; Whitaker, Chris J.; Williams, Nicola M.


    Purpose: In this study, the authors looked for effects of vocal practice on phonological working memory. Method: A longitudinal design was used, combining both naturalistic observations and a nonword repetition test. Fifteen 26-month-olds (12 of whom were followed from age 11 months) were administered a nonword test including real words,…

  2. Historical and Theoretical Development of Culturally Competent Social Work Practice (United States)

    Kohli, Hermeet K.; Huber, Ruth; Faul, Anna C.


    This article provides a detailed review of the historical and theoretical context in which culturally competent practice has evolved in the social work profession and enables educators and practitioners to see holistic connections between the past and present. Historical review of the inclusion of diversity content is followed by definitions of…

  3. Multilingual Terminology Work in Theory – and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Lassen, Tine


    In theory, multilingual terminology work is done by creating concept diagrams in each of the languages and comparing them to establish equivalences between concepts in the two languages. In practice, however, various terminology management systems (TMS) are used, end these systems hardly ever...

  4. Opening the Box: Information Technology, Work Practices, and Wages. (United States)

    Hunter, Larry W.; Lakfas, John J.


    Analysis of 1994-95 data on customer service representatives in 303 banks revealed a positive relationship between high-involvement work practices (quality circles) and extensive use of information technology (IT) to support sales. Use of IT to automate routine processes and no quality circles were associated with lower wages. (Contains 55…

  5. Responding to the global economic crisis: inclusive social work practice. (United States)

    Strier, Ron


    The present global economic crisis raises new concerns for social workers. One of its most visible results is the further socioeconomic decline and marginalization of excluded populations. This article suggests that the current circumstances require a much more engaged, egalitarian, and reflexive practice-a practice, based on social rights, that matches the magnitude of the crisis and its negative impact on traditional social work constituencies. Consequently, the article suggests the concept of inclusive social work practice (ISWP), a conceptual framework whose main principles respond to four processes of social exclusion closely related to the present global crisis: extreme social isolation, growing dependency, multiple deprivation, and internalized oppression. The author describes the impact of the global crisis on patterns of social exclusion and presents the methodological foundations of the ISWP framework.

  6. An Analysis of Afrocentricity as Theory for Social Work Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwain A Pellebon


    Full Text Available Afrocentricity is developing rapidly within the social work profession as a theory for practice with African Americans. Afrocentric practitioners claim the theory provides a basis for understanding African Americans from an African perspective and cultural value system, and it is the most effective approach to address racial oppression. However, social work has not critically analyzed the merits of Afrocentricity as a source of knowledge to inform the profession. This article takes the initial step to determine whether Afrocentricity is in-fact a theory. Afrocentricity is described, discussed, and analyzed based on current and accepted definitions of theory.The analysis reveals Afrocentric epistemology lacks the rigor to be accepted as an empirically-based theory for practice. The author concludes that Afrocentricity is more accurately categorized as an ideology. Research and practice implications of this conclusion and the need for further critique are discussed.

  7. Contemporary social work licensure: implications for macro social work practice and education. (United States)

    Donaldson, Linda Plitt; Hill, Katharine; Ferguson, Sarah; Fogel, Sondra; Erickson, Christina


    Understanding the impact of state licensing on social work practice remains a critical concern for social work academics and professionals alike. Given the complex social problems of our times, social workers need to be prepared to intervene with the individual, in various structural dimensions, and to engage in policy debates at the core of human injustice and suffering. Currently, there is insufficient research on the impact of state licensing on the profession and on accredited social work education. The purpose of this article is to begin to address this by providing an overview of the current state of social work licensing across the United States and to analyze the implications of social work regulations as they relate to the future of macro social work practice and education.

  8. Social work and gender: An argument for practical accounts (United States)


    This article contributes to the debate on gender and social work by examining dominant approaches within the field. Anti-discriminatory, woman-centered and intersectional accounts are critiqued for reliance upon both reification and isolation of gender. Via examination of poststructural, queer and trans theories within social work, the author then presents accounts based upon structural/materialist, ethnomethodological and discursive theories, in order to open up debates about conceptualization of gender. These are used to suggest that social work should adopt a focus on gender as a practical accomplishment that occurs within various settings or contexts. PMID:26273228

  9. Quality of Work and Team- and Project Based Work Practices in Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke


    It is the aim of this paper to investigate teamwork amongst professionals in engineering consultancy companies in order to discern how teamwork affects the collaboration and work practices of the professionals and eventually their quality of work. The paper investigates how professional engineering...... ractices are enacted in two engineering consultancy companies in Denmark where ‘teamwork’ has been or is an ideal for organizing work....

  10. Paradigm for pluralism: Mikhail Bakhtin and social work practice. (United States)

    Irving, Allan; Young, Tom


    This article explores the work of the literary and cultural theorist and philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin and acknowledges him as a new voice to social work. In a larger context the authors argue that his ideas can help the profession negotiate the tricky and unsettling transition from modernity to postmodernity. In particular the authors explore two of his key concepts-dialogue and carnival-and suggest that they offer creative and innovative ways to think about three enduring issues in social work practice: (1) empowerment and social justice, (2) the creation of knowledge for practice, and (3) diversity and difference. Overall Bakhtin's thoughts provide the profession with a paradigm for pluralism that the authors believe will add new credibility and strength to the profession and its practitioners.

  11. Exploring cultural tensions in cross-cultural social work practice. (United States)

    Yan, Miu Chung


    Discussion of cultural tension in the social work literature is piecemeal. As part of a grounded theory study, this article reports some major findings on cultural tensions experienced by 30 frontline social workers. Cultural tensions caused by cultural similarities and differences among social workers, clients, organizations, and society are multifaceted. Social workers, however, are always at the center of the tensions. Findings indicate that the social work profession may need to consider the neutrality claim of the profession, the different experience of ethnic minority social workers, and the need of critical reflexivity for reflective practitioners. Implications for social work practice, social work education for ethnic minority social workers, and social work research are discussed.

  12. Practical approaches to the assessment of work-related risks. (United States)

    Kogi, K


    The control of work-related risks calls for practical improvements in job content and the working environment. For assessment of risks, it is essential to resort to the most practical methods in the local context. Important common methods are examination of the process, equipment and organisation of work, walk-through surveys, evaluation of risk factors in the working environment, inquiries and questionnaires as well as monitoring of various health indicators. Biological tests and other health indicators can thus only be regarded as components of overall occupational health-risk assessment strategy, with their advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Important are the validity of biological tests and the ethical aspects related to their use, such as confidentiality of data and the individual worker's informed consent, preference being given to noninvasive-methods. Occupational health services should thus play a positive role by providing practical advice, training and information for participatory risk assessment keeping in view such an overall strategy that facilitates immediate preventive action. Biological monitoring should be applied when the additional guidance it provides on preventive action is essential. Proposals to use biological monitoring must emphasise this justification aspect.

  13. Importance of empathy for social work practice: integrating new science. (United States)

    Gerdes, Karen E; Segal, Elizabeth


    Empathy is more important than ever to a national population worried about difficult political and socioeconomic situations. During the last 10 years, an enormous amount of research has been carried out to elucidate the nature, mechanism, and function of empathy. New research from social-cognitive neuroscience and related fields indicates that, like language or eye-hand coordination, empathy is an innate human capability that can be greatly enhanced by purposeful and informed guidance. Empathy is particularly important to social work practice. Clients experiencing empathy through treatment have improved outcomes. Empathic social work practitioners are more effective and can balance their roles better. Social work practitioners can and should learn about emerging research on empathy and use that information to better serve their client populations. This article, emphasizing research of the past decade, focuses on empathy and its benefits as an asset to social work practitioners.

  14. Joint research and the development of social work practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard; Hovland, Wenche

    - and on discussions of how the knowledge produced can contribute in the development of social work practice. We take two research projects as our point of departure, one from Denmark and one from Norway. In the Danish study, young people in contact with different social services (for young people experiencing self...... minutes each), we discuss the certain definitions and enactments of participation and co-research which each project holds – and the ways the young participants influence research questions, data production and analysis, and publication of the results. This point to a discussion across the two projects...... of how these studies and research processes can inform each other, and how this kind of knowledge (productions) can contribute in the development of social work practice across different national contexts. We would like workshop participants to actively discuss central questions – like for instance: What...

  15. Everyday practice and unnoticed professional competence in day care work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Warring, Niels; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    for the social educators to get recognition for their professional competencies and the societal importance of their work. Neoliberal governance has imposed a lot of demands for documentation, evaluation etc., and a growing focus on children’s learning in day care centers has resulted in national goals......In Denmark more than 9 out 10 children attend day care centers that are publicly funded and regulated. The main part of employees, the social educators, at day care centers have attended a 3½ years educational programme with both theoretical and practical elements. Nevertheless it has been hard...... based workshops) the paper will discuss work practice in an everyday life perspective. This perspective opens for understanding professional competence as part of creating coherence in children’s and families’ lives as well as during the day in the day care centers. It also opens for a discussion of how...

  16. Practices of Return-to-Work Coordinators Working in Large Organizations. (United States)

    Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Coutu, Marie-France; Bernier, Michael


    Purpose Although the role of return-to-work coordinators (RTW coordinators) is associated with reducing long-term disabilities, little has been written about their practices. The objective of this study was to clearly identify their tasks and activities and the stakeholders with whom they collaborate. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a web-based self-administered questionnaire. Participant inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) working for a large organization with 500 or more employees; (2) being responsible for managing disabilities and coordinating the return-to-work process; and (3) having been involved in coordinating the return to work of at least one person in the past year. Results 195 RTW coordinators completed the questionnaire. The three tasks or activities rated as most important were applying laws, policies, and regulations related to work absences and return to work; contacting the absent worker; and planning the return to work. A nursing or occupational health and safety training background significantly influenced the RTW coordinators' practices. In addition, RTW coordinators collaborated mainly with workers and their supervisors. Conclusion Despite a wide variety of contexts and diverging definitions of competencies, a set of common RTW coordination practices appears to exist across industrialized countries. RTW coordinators with a training background in the health field seem better able to assimilate the various dimensions of work disability. Moreover, concerted action was found to be minimal and a far cry from recommendations. The practices defined could serve as a benchmark for describing RTW coordinators' responsibilities in greater detail and allow for cross-organization and cross-country comparisons.

  17. Social Work in Ghana : Engaging Traditional Actors in Professional Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Avendal


    Full Text Available In contemporary Ghana, the traditional system and professional social work operate as two parallel systems within the field of social work. The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the teaching of contemporary professional social work in Ghana takes into account traditional actors and practices. The traditional system includes extended family members and traditional authorities such as chiefs or family heads. It formed the social institution that protected and cared for the vulnerable before (Western social work was introduced as a formal profession in Ghana. A 10-week ethnographic field study was conducted at the Department of Social Work at the University of Ghana. The study employed a qualitative, social constructionist approach, interpreting the results within a theoretical framework of social world theory. The empirical material consisted of interviews with students and teachers, participant observation at lectures, and various documents. The main findings of the study were that professional social workers and traditional actors can be seen as members of two subworlds – the subworld of professional social workers and the subworld of traditional actors. Students and teachers discuss interventions from the perspective of social workers and traditional actors. Their ability to take different perspectives seems to be crucial for localisation – the process by which social work is made relevant to local culture and traditions. The interviewees’ accounts reveal how localisation is not only about culture, but also about social structures and practical considerations. The poor state of the social work profession in Ghana affects interventions in a profound way.

  18. Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators: implementation of ALARA in design and operation of accelerators. (United States)

    Fassò, A; Rokni, S


    This paper considers the historical evolution of the concept of optimisation of radiation exposures, as commonly expressed by the acronym ALARA, and discusses its application to various aspects of radiation protection at high-energy accelerators.

  19. Thinking together: What makes Communities of Practice work? (United States)

    Pyrko, Igor; Dörfler, Viktor; Eden, Colin


    In this article, we develop the founding elements of the concept of Communities of Practice by elaborating on the learning processes happening at the heart of such communities. In particular, we provide a consistent perspective on the notions of knowledge, knowing and knowledge sharing that is compatible with the essence of this concept - that learning entails an investment of identity and a social formation of a person. We do so by drawing richly from the work of Michael Polanyi and his conception of personal knowledge, and thereby we clarify the scope of Communities of Practice and offer a number of new insights into how to make such social structures perform well in professional settings. The conceptual discussion is substantiated by findings of a qualitative empirical study in the UK National Health Service. As a result, the process of 'thinking together' is conceptualized as a key part of meaningful Communities of Practice where people mutually guide each other through their understandings of the same problems in their area of mutual interest, and this way indirectly share tacit knowledge. The collaborative learning process of 'thinking together', we argue, is what essentially brings Communities of Practice to life and not the other way round.

  20. Attitudes toward euthanasia: implications for social work practice. (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu


    This article reports the findings of a randomized general household survey that examined the attitudes of 618 Chinese respondents toward different types of euthanasia. The general public is found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia, but is neutral about passive euthanasia. Support for euthanasia is predicted by decreasing importance of religious belief, higher family income, experiences in taking care of terminally ill family members, being non-Protestants, and increasing age. Patients were perceived as the chief decision makers in euthanasian decisions. Finally, suggestions on social work practice and professional training are made.

  1. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.


    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  2. Promoting Resilience through Social Work Practice with Groups: Implications for the Practice and Field Curricula (United States)

    Gitterman, Alex; Knight, Carolyn


    The realities of contemporary social work practice often push social workers toward a deficit-focused orientation. The article begins with an overview of the major tenets of resiliency and adversarial growth theories and related research findings. We suggest that the group modality epitomizes the application of resiliency theory and adversarial…

  3. Social Work Practice with Pagans, Witches, and Wiccans: Guidelines for Practice with Children and Youths (United States)

    Yardley, Meg


    This article introduces social workers to the beliefs and practices associated with Paganism, Witchcraft, and Wicca and describes how social workers can help to create a welcoming environment for children and youths belonging to these religious minority groups. Drawing on social science research, social work literature, and a case example, the…

  4. Intermediary cooperative associations and the institutionalization of participative work practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Doellgast, Virginia; Bojesen, Anders


    Scandinavian countries are known for having a high adoption of cooperative models of work design. This article investigates the role of parity labour market associations, termed intermediary cooperative associations, in the dissemination of these models. Findings are based on an examination...... of the Centre for the Development of Human Resources and Quality Management (SCKK), a social partnership-based organization that funds workplace development Projects at state workplaces, and of nine participative development projects that received financial and logistical support from the SCKK. These projects...... increased union and management commitment to partnership-based approaches to problem-solving, despite their ambiguous results for both groups. This suggests that intermediary cooperative associations help to enhance the normative legitimacy of participative work practices through the provision of resources...

  5. XBoard: A Framework for Integrating and Enhancing Collaborative Work Practices (United States)

    Shab, Ted


    Teams typically collaborate in different modes including face-to-face meetings, meetings that are synchronous (i. e. require parties to participate at the same time) but distributed geographically, and meetings involving asynchronously working on common tasks at different times. The XBoard platform was designed to create an integrated environment for creating applications that enhance collaborative work practices. Specifically, it takes large, touch-screen enabled displays as the starting point for enhancing face-to-face meetings by providing common facilities such as whiteboarding/electronic flipcharts, laptop projection, web access, screen capture and content distribution. These capabilities are built upon by making these functions inherently distributed by allowing these sessions to be easily connected between two or more systems at different locations. Finally, an information repository is integrated into the functionality to provide facilities for work practices that involve work being done at different times, such as reports that span different shifts. The Board is designed to be extendible allowing customization of both the general functionality and by adding new functionality to the core facilities by means of a plugin architecture. This, in essence, makes it a collaborative framework for extending or integrating work practices for different mission scenarios. XBoard relies heavily on standards such as Web Services and SVG, and is built using predominately Java and well-known open-source products such as Apache and Postgres. Increasingly, organizations are geographically dispersed, and rely on "virtual teams" that are assembled from a pool of various partner organizations. These organizations often have different infrastructures of applications and workflows. The XBoard has been designed to be a good partner in these situations, providing the flexibility to integrate with typical legacy applications while providing a standards-based infrastructure that is

  6. Law and psychiatry. Doing forensic work, III: marketing your practice. (United States)

    Reid, William H


    "Marketing" refers to the entire process of bringing a product or service to the public and creating a demand for it. It is not simply advertising. There are good and bad ways to market one's practice, and some that are distasteful or even unethical. The quality and credibility of your work are your most important marketing tools. Reputation and word-of-mouth among attorneys is the largest referral source for most private forensic practitioners. Your professional and business practices, the quality of your staff and their interactions with clients, and your day-to-day availability are all critical. The Internet is important for some practitioners. Practice websites are inexpensive, but they should be carefully constructed and avoid appearing sensational or overly self-serving. Research the basics of websites and website traffic, and don't expect great results for the first year or so. A Web consultant may be helpful, but avoid those who charge lots of money or make grand promises. Paying for advertisements, listings, or brochures is rarely fruitful. Your primary marketing targets are likely to be attorneys, but may include courts and certain government agencies; clinicians are not usually a major referral source. Patients and potential litigants themselves are off-limits; marketing to them is generally unethical.

  7. Multiple Relationships : Maintaining Professional Identity in Rural Social Work Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Brownlee


    Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.

  8. Evaluation of radiation risk and work practices during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Raghuram, L; Korah, Ipeson P; Raj, D Victor [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004 (India)


    This study was intended to evaluate radiation risk to patients during cerebral interventions and the contribution to this risk from work practices. Thirty nine patients undergoing cerebral interventions in a digital subtraction angiography suite were included in this study. Patients who underwent cerebral interventions were categorised into two groups according to the number of cerebral interventions performed on them, and their effective doses were calculated. The effective dose for patients undergoing a single cerebral intervention (group A) varied from 1.55 to 15.9 mSv and for multiple cerebral interventions (group B) varied from 16.52 to 43.52 mSv. Two patients who underwent multiple cerebral interventions (group B) had alopecia of the irradiated scalp.

  9. Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education. (United States)

    Hawkins, J David; Shapiro, Valerie B; Fagan, Abigail A


    In the United States about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect 1 in 5 families and cost $247 million annually (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Some strategies for preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in young people have been developed, tested, and found to be effective in preventing the onset, persistence, and severity of psychological disorders, drug abuse, and delinquency. Unfortunately, tested and effective prevention policies, programs, and practices are not widely used (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). This paper highlights recent advances in prevention science and describes some opportunities and challenges in advancing the use of science-based prevention in communities. The chapter concludes by exploring the potential role of social work education in developing a workforce ready to increase community access to effective prevention strategies.

  10. Social work practice in the digital age: therapeutic e-mail as a direct practice methodology. (United States)

    Mattison, Marian


    The author addresses the risks and benefits of incorporating therapeutic e-mail communication into clinical social work practice. Consumer demand for online clinical services is growing faster than the professional response. E-mail, when used as an adjunct to traditional meetings with clients, offers distinct advantages and risks. Benefits include the potential to reach clients in geographically remote and underserved communities, enhancing and extending the therapeutic relationship and improving treatment outcomes. Risks include threats to client confidentiality and privacy, liability coverage for practitioners, licensing jurisdiction, and the lack of competency standards for delivering e-mail interventions. Currently, the social work profession does not have adequate instructive guidelines and best-practice standards for using e-mail as a direct practice methodology. Practitioners need (formal) academic training in the techniques connected to e-mail exchanges with clients. The author describes the ethical and legal risks for practitioners using therapeutic e-mail with clients and identifies recommendations for establishing best-practice standards.

  11. Working practices in a perchery system, using the OVAKO Working posture Analysing System (OWAS). (United States)

    Scott, G B; Lambe, N R


    Stockworkers should be able to easily manage alternative systems for commercial egg production. Such production systems can be analysed in terms of human welfare, based on ergonomic criteria. Work-related postures can cause discomfort and strain to workers (Stoffert, 1985). The OVAKO Working posture Analysing System (OWAS) developed in 1974 (Karhu et al, 1977) defines body positions during working practices and scores them according to the strain caused. This technique has so far not been used to assist in the design of working systems for the poultry industry. This pilot study was carried out to determine if such a technique could be easily applied to a perchery system and whether it could lead to an improved design. The stockworker was video recorded performing normal duties within the perchery and the positions of the body were assessed, using the OWAS system. It was found that manual collection of floor eggs and reaching into the middle of the perches from the litter side put the most strain on the stockworker. Modification of the perchery, in light of these results, will establish an improved perchery system for the stockworkers.

  12. The Factors Determining the Nature of Practical Work When Teaching a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Sklizmantaitė


    Full Text Available The structure and types of practical work are analyzed in the article. The authors consider a practical work as a principal unit of the pedagogic process. The type of practical work depends on the purpose of training: presentation of new subjects, repetition, test exercises. The authors single out two kinds of practical work depending on the nature of teaching: the preparatory practical work (having the nature of some training and the linguistic practice. In the course of preparatory practical work the activities of students and a lecturer, first of all, are directed to formation of skills enabling to understand the subjects taught and the usage thereof in the process of communication. The linguistic practice is usually associated with one or another kind of the linguistic activity. The structure of practical work has to be flexible and dynamic.

  13. Cone-beam computed tomography: Time to move from ALARA to ALADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaju, Prashant P.; Jaju, Sushma P. [Rishiraj College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopa(Indonesia)


    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is routinely recommended for dental diagnosis and treatment planning. CBCT exposes patients to less radiation than does conventional CT. Still, lack of proper education among dentists and specialists is resulting in improper referral for CBCT. In addition, aiming to generate high-quality images, operators may increase the radiation dose, which can expose the patient to unnecessary risk. This letter advocates appropriate radiation dosing during CBCT to the benefit of both patients and dentists, and supports moving from the concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) to 'as low as diagnostically acceptable' (ALADA.

  14. Laser physics from principles to practical work in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Eichhorn, Marc


    This textbook originates from a lecture course in laser physics at the Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A main goal in the conception of this textbook was to describe the fundamentals of lasers in a uniform and especially lab-oriented notation and formulation as well as many currently well-known laser types, becoming more and more important in the future. It closes a gap between the measureable spectroscopic quantities and the whole theoretical description and modeling. This textbook contains not only the fundamentals and the context of laser physics in a mathematical and methodical approach important for university-level studies. It allows simultaneously, owing to its conception and its modern notation, to directly implement and use the learned matter in the practical lab work. It is presented in a format suitable for everybody who wants not only to understand the fundamentals of lasers but also use modern lasers or even develop and make laser setups. T...

  15. Evidence-based practice in group work with incarcerated youth. (United States)

    Quinn, Ashley; Shera, Wes


    As a result of the Youth Criminal Justice Act's increased focus on restorative justice, treatment, rehabilitation, and reintegration of youth, many more juvenile offenders require mental health services while resident in youth detention facilities [Youth Criminal Justice Act (2002, c.1). Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved September 19, 2008 from]. Several common characteristics such as violence, aggression, and other antisocial behaviors, associated with criminal behavior, have been identified among male and female offenders. Dialectical behavior therapy, originally developed by Linehan [Linehan, M. M., 1993a. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guildford Press] for chronically parasuicidal women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, has been successfully modified for use with other populations, including violent and impulse-oriented male and female adolescents residing in correctional facilities. The intent of this article is to encourage the wider use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) with young offenders. It includes an extensive review of the evidence-base to date and describes some of the creative modifications that have been made to standard DBT program format to meet the particular needs of various groups in both Canada and the United States. In keeping with the movement toward more evidence-based practice, the authors argue that DBT is a promising approach in group work with incarcerated adolescents and should be more widely used.

  16. Low-Income African American Women's Cultural Models of Work: Implications for Education-for-Work Policies and Practice (United States)

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Way, Wendy


    This study investigated how African American women from low-income, single-parent female-headed households conceptualize work and transitions to work, and how these conceptualizations relate to the dominant discourse of work underlying policies and practices in education-for-work. The study used the construct of cultural models as a conceptual…

  17. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey (United States)

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria


    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  18. Working-time autonomy as a management practice


    Beckmann, Michael


    Allowing workers to control their work hours (working-time autonomy) is a controversial policy for worker empowerment, with concerns that range from increased shirking to excessive intensification of work. Empirical evidence, however, supports neither view. Recent studies find that working-time autonomy improves individual and firm performance without promoting overload or exhaustion from work. However, if working-time autonomy is incorporated into a system of family-friendly workplace practi...

  19. University Students' Conceptions and Practice of Collaborative Work on Writing (United States)

    Mutwarasibo, Faustin


    Collaborative work is widely regarded as a valuable tool in the development of student-centred learning. Its importance can be viewed in two ways: First of all, when students are regularly exposed to collaborative work (i.e. pair work or group work) they are likely to develop or improve a range of communication and interpersonal skills. It is also…

  20. Intellectual Workers and Their Work in Social Theory and Practice (United States)

    Cuvillier, Rolande


    An analysis of intellectual work and the relationship between intellectual workers and their work, the quality of intellectual work, and worker's rights demonstrates there are far greater differences between intellectual workers and other workers than commonly supposed. Their work must not be dehumanized--a present danger. (AG)

  1. Clinical application of ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: “How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S., E-mail: [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Krishna, Satheesh; Saxena, Akshay K.; Sinha, Anindita; Khandelwal, Niranjan [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Lee, Edward Y. [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Division, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave. Boston, MA 02115 (United States)


    Highlights: • Practice of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be saved from harmful radiation exposure if ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. • A consecutive 1302 CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children’s hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, ‘Justification’ of CT was evaluated and then ‘Optimization’ was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies that was avoided by applying ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. • Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient departments (p < 0.05). • To conclude, a substantial number of pediatric patients, particularly coming from inpatients departments, can be saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure from CT imaging when ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA are applied

  2. Course Content for Social Work Practice in Health Care. (United States)

    Berkman, Barbara; And Others


    Guidelines are presented for developing curricula that integrate health-specific content with traditional foundation content. Specific course content for practice in human behavior, social environment, organization, and policy sequences are proposed. (Author/MH)

  3. Evolvable Work-practice Interfaces Between Humans and Agents Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safe and effective interactions between humans and complex systems represent a requirement for practically all of NASA's missions. The first-of-a-kind nature of such...

  4. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna


    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  5. Collaborative Practice: The Basis of Good Educational Work (United States)

    James, Chris


    It is notoriously difficult to classify occupations as professions and to define professional work. Numerous authors have provided criteria for categorising occupations as professions but the judgement still remains a difficult one. Freidson (1991) is clear that professional work is Good Work. It has a moral purpose and arguably that sense of…

  6. Adjuncts in Social Work Programs: Good Practice or Unethical? (United States)

    Pearlman, Catherine A.


    Social work education programs rely heavily on adjunct instructors, as do most academic institutions. This article adds to existing literature on adjuncts by focusing on the unique issues in social work education, using social work values and ethics as a focus. The benefits and detriments for adjuncts, programs, and students in schools of social…

  7. Assessing the National School Social Work Practice Model: Findings from the Second National School Social Work Survey. (United States)

    Kelly, Michael S; Frey, Andy; Thompson, Aaron; Klemp, Heather; Alvarez, Michelle; Berzin, Stephanie Cosner


    The Second National School Social Work Survey in 2014 aimed to update knowledge of school social work practice by examining how practitioner characteristics, practice context, and practice choices have evolved since the last national survey in 2008. This second survey was also developed to assess how the new national school social work practice model created by the School Social Work Association of America aligns with early 21st century school social work practice realities. The second survey was conducted from February through April 2014 (3,769 total responses were collected) and represents the largest sample of American school social workers surveyed in two decades. Data from the Second National School Social Work Survey showed a field that still has not fully responded to calls to implement evidence-informed and data-driven practices. This article notes the need to better integrate pre- and postservice training in data-driven practices and provides recommendations for ways to overcome barriers that school social workers report facing.

  8. Evidence-based laboratory medicine: is it working in practice? (United States)

    Price, Christopher P


    The principles of Evidence-Based Medicine have been established for about two decades, with the need for evidence-based clinical practice now being accepted in most health systems around the world. These principles can be employed in laboratory medicine. The key steps in evidence-based practice, namely (i) formulating the question; (ii) searching for evidence; (iii) appraising evidence; (iv) applying evidence; and (v) assessing the experience are all accepted but, as yet, translation into daily clinical and laboratory practice has been slow. Furthermore, the demand for evidence-based laboratory medicine (EBLM) has been slow to develop.There are many contrasting observations about laboratory medicine, for example (i) there is too much testing vs insufficient testing; (ii) testing is expensive vs laboratories are expected to generate income; and (iii) test results have little impact on outcomes vs test results are crucial to clinical decision making. However, there is little evidence to support any of these observations. Integrating the principles of EBLM into routine practice will help to resolve some of these issues by identifying (a) where laboratory medicine fits into the care pathway; (b) where testing is appropriate; (c) the nature and quality of evidence required to demonstrate the clinical utility of a test; (d) how the test result impacts on clinical actions; (e) where changes in the care pathway will occur; and (f) where benefit/value can be achieved. These answers will help to establish the culture of EBLM in clinical and laboratory practice.

  9. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  10. Working towards Effective Practices in Distance Career Counseling. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Malone, James F.

    The time is ripe to focus on early field reports from practitioners who are using distance methodologies in career counseling. The focus is the actual establishment of a working alliance or counseling relationship through the use of technology and then the continuation of the counseling work using technology-assisted methodologies such as…

  11. Thoughts on the Use of Knowledge in Social Work Practice (United States)

    Cnaan, Ram A.; Dichter, Melissa E.


    The quest for making social work a discipline based entirely on empirical research findings is not new. In this article, the authors briefly review the field of social work in the United States during the past 100 years and discuss how the quest for the status of a profession forced the emphasis on empirical research. However, the authors claim…

  12. Working Together. Policy and Practice in Scottish Early Childhood Centres (United States)

    Paton, Grace


    A key policy response to continuing concerns about levels of poverty and social exclusion in the United Kingdom has been the promotion of integrated children's services, involving professionals from education, social work, health and other fields working together on an inter-agency basis. This small-scale qualitative research project, using an…

  13. Between Work and Learning: On Pedagogic Practice and Interstitial Space (United States)

    Mulcahy, Dianne


    In this paper I develop a response to a continuing problem in work-learning research, the connections between education, learning and work. These connections are commonly conceived in terms of the concept of transfer, integration or boundary crossing. Thinking these connections in this way, I claim, serves to consolidate a unitary, stable and…

  14. Digitizing Practical Production Work for High-Stakes Assessments (United States)

    Newhouse, C. Paul; Tarricone, Pina


    High-stakes external assessment for practical courses is fraught with problems impacting on the manageability, validity and reliability of scoring. Alternative approaches to assessment using digital technologies have the potential to address these problems. This paper describes a study that investigated the use of these technologies to create and…

  15. Epistemology, Practical Work and Academic Skills in Science Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.


    This article discusses the inherent flaws in considering and using the epistemology of the natural sciences as equivalent to a pedagogic basis for teaching and learning in the natural sciences. It begins with a discussion of the difference between practising science and learning to practice science.

  16. Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices (United States)

    Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette


    Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

  17. Integrating Social Neuroscience and Social Work: Innovations for Advancing Practice-Based Research (United States)

    Matto, Holly C.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica


    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is…

  18. Voluntary work organization in higher educational establishment: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Polatayko


    Full Text Available The article analyses basic questions of voluntary work formation in higher educational establishment, its conceptual and legislative basis, defines basic directions of students agencies activities and forms of their participation in higher educational establishment activities.

  19. The Future of School Social Work Practice: Current Trends and Opportunities



    This article discusses the information on school social work practice in the United States and summarizes recent trends and their implications for the future of school social work. The number of school social workers and current infrastructure available for the development of school social work practice is reviewed. Five sociocultural trends are summarized that are affecting public schools as well as important school-based practice trends such as standardized testing, and high stakes accounta...

  20. A role perception study of school social work practice. (United States)

    Staudt, M


    A study conducted in an intermediary educational agency examined principals' and special education teachers' perceptions of actual and ideal performance of school social work tasks. Those services seen as provided most frequently are directed toward individuals. Although respondents want these services to continue, they also want more group work services. The study contained several recommendations, including one for the development of individualized building service plans and another on the development of a screening process for special education assessments.

  1. Work engagement: a practical measure for workplace health promotion? (United States)

    Torp, S; Grimsmo, A; Hagen, S; Duran, A; Gudbergsson, S B


    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether psychological job demands, personal control and social support affect the negative health measure of depression differently than the positive measure of work engagement and to investigate whether work engagement mediates the effects of job demands and resources on the level of depression. We discuss the implications of using engagement as an outcome measure in workplace health promotion. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study among a general working population in Norway (n = 605). In the multivariate analysis, high psychological job demands as well as high control and social support correlated significantly with high work engagement. High demands as well as low control and social support correlated significantly with high levels of depression. When we included engagement as an independent variable together with demands, control and social support in the multivariate analysis, the positive correlation between demands and depression remained as well as the significant correlations between the level of depression and control and social support became non-significant. This indicates that engagement mediates the effects of control and social support on the level of depression. Encouraging enterprises to improve engagement in addition to focusing on preventing diseases may be worthwhile in workplace health promotion. Promoting engagement may have more positive organizational effects than a more traditional disease prevention focus, because engagement is contagious and closely related to good work performance and motivation.

  2. The Future of School Social Work Practice: Current Trends and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Franklin


    Full Text Available This article discusses the information on school social work practice in the United States and summarizes recent trends and their implications for the future of school social work. The number of school social workers and current infrastructure available for the development of school social work practice is reviewed. Five sociocultural trends are summarized that are affecting public schools as well as important school-based practice trends such as standardized testing, and high stakes accountability measures. The emerging practice trend of evidence-based practices is discussed in light of its standards and implications for school-based practice. Finally, essential knowledge for strengthening practice competencies to meet the future challenges of school-based practice is highlight.

  3. Team work load in an English general practice. I. (United States)

    Marsh, G N; McNay, R A


    A survey of the total care provided by a general practitioner and his paramedical team for 3,137 patients in Teesside in 1972 showed that even in this area of high morbidity and mortality the work load was very small. The doctor held an average of 2.3 consultations per patient per year, and the overall average for the team of doctor, nurse, and health visitor was only 3.1. By delegating work to a team of trained paramedical workers, by increasing the proportion of personal medicine, and by engaging the co-operation of his patients, the general practitioner reduced his work load considerably, without any apparent reduction in standard of care.

  4. The advanced practice professionals' perspective: keys to a good working relationship between advanced practice professions and physicians. (United States)

    Polansky, Maura


    A strong working relationship between advanced practice professionals (APPs) and supervising oncologists is essential for reducing medical errors, retaining employees, and improving work environments. Although there is rather limited data on the unique relationship of the APP and physician, fundamental communication skills-including open communication, mutual respect, establishing expectations, and working with mutual purpose-should be the foundation of these relationships. This paper addresses various aspects of relationship building between APPs and physicians with suggestions for establishing successful working relationships.

  5. Passion at work: blogging practices of knowledge workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, LA


    While experiments with blogging are underway in many businesses, research that could inform them is limited. In this dissertation early adopters of weblogs are studied to provide an understanding of uses of weblogs in relation to work and insights relevant for introducing blogging in knowledge-inten

  6. Working with Advisory Committees . . . Promising Practices. Operations Notebook 16. (United States)

    Olivero, James L.

    This publication is intended to aid school-level educational administrators in working with citizen advisory committees. After a brief discussion of the rationale for advisory committees, it focuses in turn on 1) functions of advisory committees, 2) ways to determine philosophical positions of agreement and disagreement among advisory committee…

  7. Students Integrate Knowledge Acquisition and Practical Work in the Laboratory (United States)

    Agüera, E. I.; Sánchez-Hermosín, P.; Díz-Pérez, J.; Tovar, P.; Camacho, R.; Escribano, B. M.


    The aim of the present work was to transfer a wider concept of teamwork and self-learning to the laboratory, encouraging students' capabilities when seeking, acquiring, and processing knowledge. This educational innovation was carried out with a total of 38 students (fourth year of degree in Biology) in the area of physiology (Advances in…

  8. Gandhian Principles in Social Work Practice: Ethics Revisited. (United States)

    Walz, Tom; Ritchie, Heather


    Argues that the thought of Mahatma Gandhi, as revealed in his social activism, is relevant to social work ethics and a resource for its ethical enrichment. Proposes that principles such as seeking truth through service to others, individual self-development, nonviolent social action, and material simplicity could enhance the current National…

  9. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices. (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  10. Risk Reduction Technologies in General Practice and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Rexvid


    Full Text Available General practitioners (GPs and social workers (SWs are professions whose professional autonomy and discretion have changed in the so-called risk and audit society. The aim of this article is to compare GPs’ and SWs’ responses to Evidence-Based and Organizational Risk Reduction Technologies (ERRT and ORRT. It is based on a content analysis of 54 peer-reviewed empirical articles. The results show that both professions held ambivalent positions towards ERRT. The response towards ORRT differed in that GPs were sceptical whilst SWs took a more pragmatic view. Furthermore the results suggest that SWs might experience professional benefits by adopting an adherent approach to the increased dissemination of risk reduction technologies (RRT. GPs, however, did not seem to experience such benefits. Keywords: Profession, risk, social worker, general practitioner, risk reduction technologies, evidence-based practice/medicine 

  11. Cooperative Work and Sustainable Scientific Software Practices in R (United States)

    Weber, N.


    Most scientific software projects are dependent on the work of many diverse people, institutions and organizations. Incentivizing these actors to cooperatively develop software that is both reliable, and sustainable is complicated by the fact that the reward structures of these various actors greatly differ: research scientists want results from a software or model run in order to publish papers, produce new data, or test a hypothesis; software engineers and research centers want compilable, well documented code that is refactorable, reusable and reproducible in future research scenarios. While much research has been done on incentives and motivations for participating in open source software projects or cyberinfrastrcture development, little work has been done on what motivates or incentivizes developers to maintain scientific software projects beyond their original application. This poster will present early results of research into the incentives and motivation for cooperative scientific software development. In particular, this work focuses on motivations for the maintenance and repair of libraries on the software platform R. Our work here uses a sample of R packages that were created by research centers, or are specific to earth, environmental and climate science applications. We first mined 'check' logs from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) to determine the amount of time a package has existed, the number of versions it has gone through over this time, the number of releases, and finally the contact information for each official package 'maintainer'. We then sent a survey to each official maintainer, asking them questions about what role they played in developing the original package, and what their motivations were for sustaining the project over time. We will present early results from this mining and our survey of R maintainers.

  12. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices in working women of Pakistan


    Soomro, Jamil Ahmed


    ABSTRACT Background, rationale and aim of the study Breastfeeding is considered to be an important measure to secure child s optimal health and survival. In urban areas of Pakistan most of the women can t afford to live at home longer because they serve as an important contributor of their family income. A woman's return to work has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early termination of breastfeeding. Most workplaces do not have the supportive environment for breastfeeding...

  13. Community care in practice: social work in primary health care. (United States)

    Lymbery, M; Millward, A


    This paper examines the establishment of social work within primary health care settings in Great Britain, following the passage of the National Health Service and Community Care Act in 1990. Although the improvement of relationships between social workers and primary health care teams has been promoted for a number of years, the advent of formal policies for community care has made this a priority for both social services and health. This paper presents interim findings from the evaluation of three pilot projects in Nottinghamshire, Great Britain. These findings are analysed from three linked perspectives. The first is the extent to which structures and organisations have worked effectively together to promote the location of social workers within health care settings. The second is the impact of professional and cultural factors on the work of the social worker in these settings. The third is the effect of interpersonal relationships on the success of the project. The paper will conclude that there is significant learning from each of these perspectives which can be applied to the future location of social workers to primary health care.

  14. Social Work Practice with LGBT Elders at End of Life: Developing Practice Evaluation and Clinical Skills Through a Cultural Perspective. (United States)

    Arthur, Darren P


    This article focuses on culturally sensitive clinical issues related to best practices with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) elder patients at end-of-life (EOL) at key points in the therapeutic relationship. Vital concepts, including practice evaluation and clinical skills, are presented through a cultural and oncology lens. There is a paucity of LGBT research and literature as well as a shortfall of MSW graduate school education specific to social work palliative and end-of-life care (PELC) practice with LGBT elders. The content of this article is designed to be adapted and used as an educational tool for institutions, agencies, graduate programs, medical professions, social work, and students. Learning the unique elements of LGBT cultural history and their implications on EOL care can improve social work practice. This article provides an examination from assessment and engagement basics to advance care planning incorporating specific LGBT EOL issues.

  15. Exploring critical youth media practice: connections and contributions for social work. (United States)

    Johnston-Goodstar, Katie; Richards-Schuster, Katie; Sethi, Jenna K


    Youth media is emerging as an interdisciplinary field of practice and subject of study. Over the last two decades, there have been many efforts within communities to engage in media, especially within the fields of youth work and education. Despite the increase in practice, we found surprisingly little attention to the potential for youth media within the social work literature. Drawing on a qualitative content analysis of program descriptions from 49 youth media groups, the authors attempt to examine the current field of youth media. Using a critical media literacy framework, the authors analyze the practice of these youth media groups and apply those findings to social work practice, education, and research.

  16. Role of Transformational Leadership in Effective Organizational Knowledge Creation Practices: Mediating Effects of Employees' Work Engagement (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Kolb, Judith A.; Lee, Ung Hee; Kim, Hye Kyoung


    Engagement as an area of increasing interest has been discussed in terms of a wide array of organizational policies, practices, and outcomes. This study focuses on a specific aspect of work engagement and its relationship with leadership practices and the outcome of knowledge creation. The mediating effect of employees' work engagement level was…

  17. Implementing Evidence-Based Practice Education in Social Work: A Transdisciplinary Approach (United States)

    Bellamy, Jennifer L.; Mullen, Edward J.; Satterfield, Jason M.; Newhouse, Robin P.; Ferguson, Molly; Brownson, Ross C.; Spring, Bonnie


    Evidence based practice (EBP) is reflected in social work publications, accreditation standards, research, and funding opportunities. However, implementing EBP in social work practice and education has proven challenging, highlighting the need for additional resources. This paper describes the Transdisciplinary Model of EBP, a model based on…

  18. Impact of Organisational Factors on the Knowledge Sharing Practice of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector (United States)

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh


    The current study aims to explore the various organizational factors that influence the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various organizational factors on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the study…

  19. Organizational Culture as Determinant of Knowledge Sharing Practices of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector (United States)

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh


    The current study aims to explore the influence of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various aspects of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the…

  20. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study (United States)

    Teasley, Martell; Canifield, James P.; Archuleta, Adrian J.; Crutchfield, Jandel; Chavis, Annie McCullough


    Understanding barriers to practice is a growing area within school social work research. Using a convenience sample of 284 school social workers, this study replicates the efforts of a mixed-method investigation designed to identify barriers and facilitators to school social work practice within different geographic locations. Time constraints and…

  1. Preservice and Inservice Teachers' Challenges in the Planning of Practical Work in Physics (United States)

    Nivalainen, Ville; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Sormunen, Kari; Hirvonen, Pekka E.


    Practical work in school science plays many essential roles that have been discussed in the literature. However, less attention has been paid to how teachers learn the different roles of practical work and to the kind of challenges they face in their learning during laboratory courses designed for teachers. In the present study we applied the…

  2. Ethical Dilemmas in Applying Second-Wave Information Technology to Social Work Practice. (United States)

    Cwikel, Julie G.; Cnaan, Ram A.


    Describes second wave information technology in social work as characterized by modern databases, decision-support systems, expert systems, electronic networks, and therapeutic applications that have greater impact on direct practice. Assesses ethical dilemmas posed by use of second-wave information technology in social work practice to encourage…

  3. Teaching to Transform? Addressing Race and Racism in the Teaching of Clinical Social Work Practice (United States)

    Varghese, Rani


    Faculty members are key stakeholders to support social work students' learning about race and racism in practice and to promote the professional standards established by the field. This qualitative study examines how 15 clinical social work faculty members teaching advanced practice in the Northeast conceptualize and incorporate their…

  4. The Emergence of Social Work Practice Research in the Peoples' Republic of China: A Literature Review (United States)

    Sim, Timothy; Lau, Victor C. Y.


    Objective: In China where social work is a fledgling profession, practice research is still a novelty. This article aims to provide an overview of the development of social work practice research in mainland China. Methods: This review analyzes the content of 206 Chinese journal articles published in the Peoples' Republic of China since 1915 using…

  5. The Resilience of Analog Tools in Creative Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Nanna; Petersson, Eva; Frimodt-Møller, Søren


    This paper discusses the use of digital and analog tools, respectively, in a creative industry. The research was done within the EU-funded research project IdeaGarden, which explores digital platforms for creative collaboration. The findings in a case study of LEGO® Future Lab, one of LEGO Group......’s largest innovation departments, show a preference for analog tools over digital in the creative process. This points towards a general need for tangible tools in the creative work process, a need that has consequences for the development of new digital tools for creative collaboration....

  6. Teaching Reflective Social Work Practice in Health Care: Promoting Best Practices (United States)

    McCoyd, Judith L. M.; Kerson, Toba S.


    Reflection on case material is traditionally believed to promote better clinical practice; recent neurobiological understandings explain why reflection consolidates learning and allows professional heuristics to develop. Here, we describe a practice in context (PIC) framework that requires reflection on the contextual and decisional aspects of a…

  7. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.


    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  8. Students' Views About Secondary School Science Lessons: The Role of Practical Work (United States)

    Toplis, Rob


    This paper reports an interpretive study that sought students' views about the role that practical work plays in their school science lessons. Twenty-nine students aged between 13 and 16 years were selected from three secondary schools in England. Data were collected from initial lesson observations and in-depth interviews in order to explore students' views about practical work. The findings suggest that students have three main reasons why practical work is important in their school science lessons: for interest and activity, including social and personal features such as participation and autonomy; as an alternative to other forms of science teaching involving a pedagogy of transmission, and as a way of learning, including memorizing and recall. The findings are discussed in the context of a critical view of previous work on the role of practical work, work on attitudes to science and on the student voice. The paper concludes that practical work is seen to provide opportunities for students to engage with and influence their own learning but that learning with practical work remains a complex issue that needs further research and evaluation about its use, effectiveness and of the role of scientific inquiry as a component of practical activity.

  9. Risk practices for HIV infection and other STDs amongst female prostitutes working in legalized brothels. (United States)

    Pyett, P M; Haste, B R; Snow, J


    Most research investigating risk practices for HIV infection and other STDs amongst sex workers has focused on street prostitutes to the exclusion of those prostitutes who work in different sections of the industry. This is largely a consequence of methodological difficulties in accessing prostitutes other than those who work on the streets. HIV prevention research and interventions must address the fact that risk practices may vary according to the type of prostitution engaged in. This paper reports on risk practices for HIV infection and other STDs amongst prostitutes working in legalized brothels in Victoria, Australia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed by representatives of a sex worker organization whose collaboration was an important factor in obtaining a large sample of prostitutes. The study found low levels of risk practices for prostitutes working in legal brothels in Victoria. The major risk practices indentified were injecting drug use and condom non-use with non-paying partners.

  10. Checklist Model to Improve Work Practices in Small-Scale Demolition Operations with Silica Dust Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Succop


    Full Text Available A systematic approach was developed to review, revise and adapt existing exposure control guidance used in developed countries for use in developing countries. One-page employee and multiple-page supervisor guidance sheets were adapted from existing documents using a logic framework and workers were trained to use the information to improve work practices. Interactive, hands-on training was delivered to 26 workers at five small-scale demolition projects in Maputo City, Mozambique, and evaluated. A pre-and-post walkthrough survey used by trained observers documented work practice changes. Worker feedback indicated that the training was effective and useful. Workers acquired knowledge (84% increase, p < 0.01 and applied the work practice guidance. The difference of proportions between use of work practice components before and after the intervention was statistically significant (p < 0.05. Changes in work practices following training included preplanning, use of wet methods and natural ventilation and end-of-task review. Respirable dust measurements indicated a reduction in exposure following training. Consistency in observer ratings and observations support the reliability and validity of the instruments. This approach demonstrated the short-term benefit of training in changing work practices; follow-up is required to determine the long-term impact on changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  11. Reflection on teaching effective social work practice for working with Muslim communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Khaja


    Full Text Available In many academic departments like social work, psychology, and psychiatry there is a growing consensus that teachers need to instruct students to be culturally competent especially if they are going to be effective helpers with diverse populations. Multicultural instructional counseling methods are imperative if we are to ensure that our students of counseling are well prepared to work with diverse families, particularly those from Muslim backgrounds. In this narrative the author writes about the challenges of teaching non-Muslim students effective counseling techniques with Muslim families. Culturally innovative teaching methods are illustrated to facilitate students’ learning how to be effective counselors with Muslim communities.

  12. Beliefs about research and social work practice: a systematic psychometric review of scales. (United States)

    Gregory, Virgil L


    The purpose of the author in this systematic psychometric review includes: providing social work researchers, educators, and administrators with a summary of descriptive psychometric information pertaining to scales which measure social workers' beliefs about research and social work practice, evaluating chronological changes in psychometric/statistical methodology, and summarizing the role current and future scale development efforts have in improving the use of evidence-based social work practice. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic databases and reference lists of included studies were reviewed and coded for methodological and psychometric properties. Seventeen studies satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eleven unique scales measuring social worker beliefs regarding research and social work practice were identified. The majority of scales and subscales had Cronbach's alphas that exceeded .70. Most of the scales had evidence of content, factorial, construct, and/or criterion validity. Strategies for improving psychometric research and implications for evidence-based social work practice are discussed.

  13. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis? (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo


    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it (political), why are my…

  14. Examining Inclusion of Evidence-Based Practice on Social Work Training Program Websites (United States)

    Wike, Traci L.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.; Grady, Melissa D.


    Websites represent a visible medium for social work programs to communicate information about social work research, academics, and professional training priorities, including evidence-based practice (EBP). However, few studies have examined the content of social work program websites. This exploratory study aimed to answer the question: Are EBP…

  15. Training MSSW Students for Military Social Work Practice and Doctoral Students in Military Resilience Research (United States)

    DuMars, Tyler; Bolton, Kristin; Maleku, Arati; Smith-Osborne, Alexa


    The demand for social workers with military-related practice and research experience exceeds the current supply. To advance military social work education, we developed an interlevel master's of science in social work (MSSW) field practicum and doctoral research practicum that provides military social work field experiences and contributes to…

  16. Work-Life: Policy and Practice Impacting LG Faculty and Staff in Higher Education (United States)

    Munn, Sunny L.; Hornsby, Eunice Ellen


    The work-life policies and benefits practices of public universities and the extent to which lesbian and gay (LG) faculty, staff and families receive different work-life benefits than their heterosexual married counterparts are examined. The analysis was conducted by searching university work-life benefits websites. Major benefits for domestic…

  17. Association for Specialists in Group Work: Best Practice Guidelines 2007 Revisions (United States)

    Thomas, R. Valorie; Pender, Debra A.


    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) supports the practice of ethical and effective group work through the publication of guiding principles in planning, performing and processing group work. Originally prepared, approved and published in 1998 (ASGW; Rapin and Keel), the current revision addresses changes in the American Counseling…

  18. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis? (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo


    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  19. Social Work Education and Global Issues: Implications for Social Work Practice (United States)

    Edwards, Beverly L.


    If social workers are to become more effectively involved in international organizations and global issues, the international dimension of social work education must be strengthened. Educational programs for social workers around the world give only limited attention to social issues that extend beyond national boundaries. Schools of social work…

  20. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA.

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    Vacca, J.; Job, P. K.; Rauchas, A.; Justus, A.; Veluri, V. R.


    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step.

  1. Integrating social neuroscience and social work: innovations for advancing practice-based research. (United States)

    Matto, Holly C; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica


    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is enthusiastic discussion of how to ensure that such capacity development helps the profession move forward in ways that make use of the biological sciences and that facilitate social work-specific contributions to the larger interdisciplinary scientific community. This article describes how the social work profession can make use of biomedical knowledge and technological advances from social neuroscience to inform psychosocial treatment development, and it illustrates an application to social work practice by giving an example of a substance abuse treatment development process built on social neuroscientific research.

  2. End-of-life care as a field of practice in the social work curriculum. (United States)

    Murty, Susan Alsop; Sanders, Sara; Stensland, Meredith


    Attention to end-of-life care in social work education and practice is growing. With funding from the Project on Death in America, in 2001, the University of Iowa, School of Social Work developed and implemented an End-of-Life Field of Practice. Unlike a concentration, a Field of Practice is a set of integrated courses focused on one specific area of focus. This article describes the Field of Practice, the community-based partnerships, and the curriculum that serves as a basis for training the students enrolled in this area. Strategies for other social work programs interested in developing a similar Field of Practice or specialty area in their MSW curricula are provided. These include faculty committed to the content area, comprehensive course offerings to encompass all aspects of end-of-life care, and field sites willing to help train students.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T. Helliar


    Full Text Available This is a review of the role of practical work in UK’s secondary school science lessons, the impact that practical work has in the promotion of science, the challenges created through use of non-specialist science teachers and a possible additional role for science technicians. The paper considers how improved deployment of suitably experienced school science technicians and their recognition, by schools’ management, for their involvement in the delivery of training in the use of practical work, for less experienced teachers, could benefit schools and their students. This together with its companion paper endeavours to show how the more effective use of practical work and technicians can encourage more students to select science at higher, non-compulsory levels.

  4. Practical Work Using Low-Level Radioactive Materials Available to the Public (United States)

    Whitcher, Ralph


    These notes describe six practical activities for supplementing standard practical work in radioactivity. They are based on a series of workshops given at ASE regional and national conferences by the ASE's Safeguards in Science Committee. The activities, which demonstrate aspects of radioactivity, feature consumer items that happen to be…

  5. Operationalizing Evidence-Based Practice: The Development of an Institute for Evidence-Based Social Work (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Stern, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron


    Although evidence-based practice (EBP) has received increasing attention in social work in the past few years, there has been limited success in moving from academic discussion to engaging social workers in the process of implementing EBP in practice. This article describes the challenges, successes, and future aims in the process of developing a…

  6. Personal Leadership in Practice: A Critical Approach to Instructional Design Innovation Work (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Marcia L.


    An argument is made in this article for a link between leadership and innovation, when innovation is an outcome of the work approaches and practices that underpin an educational technologist's academic course designs. The practice of instructional design (ID) is continually being challenged to rethink its conceptualization of academic course…

  7. Exploratory Practice: Work at the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Allwright, Dick; Lenzuen, Rosa


    Focuses on the aim of the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which is the development of a new, fully sustainable concept for classroom-based research--exploratory practice--and its assimilation into the normal working and professional-development practices of Rio Cultura teachers. (Author/VWL)

  8. Collaborative Reflection through Dilemma Cases of Science Practical Work during Practicum (United States)

    Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung


    In the goal of science teacher education, the role of reflection to cultivate the teacher as a transformative practitioner has been largely recognised. Reflective thinking is crucial for teachers to be mindfully and knowledgeably situated in teaching and transforming their actions. This study looks into the dilemmas of teaching practical work in elementary science classes and the roles of reflective thinking. Five preservice teachers, one inservice teacher, and one science teacher educator participated in the process of collaborative reflection (reflective writing on dilemma cases, sharing, and discussing) of teaching practical work during the preservice teachers' practicum. All participants wrote and shared two cases of his/her own dilemmas after teaching or observing lessons with science experiments. Preservice teachers also participated in a survey questionnaire and interviews to share their perspectives of practical work and the process of reflection. Looking into their reflection and discussion on the dilemmas of teaching through science practical work, the study attempts to explore how to make collaborative learning opportunities through reflective thinking. The findings of this study showed that the dilemmas of science practical work emerged in various dimensions of teachers' expectation and classroom interactions. Discussions on dilemma cases could facilitate reflecting and learning from different perspectives among participants. Based on these findings, we further discuss the implication of interactive reflection and discussion on dilemmas of practical work to enhance science teaching and develop collaborative communities in science teacher education.

  9. Patient Safety Culture in Nephrology Nurse Practice Settings: Results by Primary Work Unit, Organizational Work Setting, and Primary Role. (United States)

    Ulrich, Beth; Kear, Tamara


    Patient safety culture is critical to the achievement of patient safety. In 2014, a landmark national study was conducted to investigate patient safety culture in nephrology nurse practice settings. In this secondary analysis of data from that study, we report the status of patient safety culture by primary work unit (chronic hemodialysis unit, acute hemodialysis unit, peritoneal dialysis unit) and organizational work setting (for-profit organization, not-for-profit organization), and compare the perceptions of direct care nurses and managers/administrators on components of patient safety culture.

  10. The Impact of Organized Violence and Crime on HRM and Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jacobo; Madero, Sergio

    of organized violence and crime on HRM and work practices. The results made it possible to observe a complex configuration between HRM policies and practices and managerial style, in the context of organized crime and violence in Mexico. A combination of strict employees’ control, emphasis on soft-skills...... training and development, together with flexible management style, seems to facilitate employees to work in traumatic external contexts. Our results highlight the importance of values, such as trust, openness and participation, which tend to support HRM systems and practices. The various effects...

  11. The why of practice: utilizing PIE to analyze social work practice in Australian hospitals. (United States)

    Nilsson, David; Joubert, Lynette; Holland, Lucy; Posenelli, Sonia


    This research used a collaborative approach to gain a comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the breadth and depth of the social work role in health care. Data was collected from individual interviews with all employed hospital social workers (N = 120) across five Melbourne, Australia health networks about their most recently completed case. This data was coded using a revised version of the Karls and Wandrei (1994) Person-in-Environment (PIE) tool to retrospectively analyze the reasons for social work involvement over the course of the case. The findings demonstrate that the hospital social work role is multidimensional across a number of domains but centers predominantly on assisting clients and their significant others with issues of altered social roles and functioning; particularly in relation to role responsibility, dependency, and managing associated role-change losses. The findings of this study will assist hospital social workers, managers, and academics to better describe and effectively undertake this complex work. These findings will also assist in the development of professional training and education to up-skill social workers who operate within this complex setting.

  12. Practice-Based Evidence of Evidence-Based Practice: Professional Practice Portfolios for the Assessment of Work-Based Learning (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth


    This article proposes that professional education programmes can help promote the development of professional judgment by the use of a well-designed professional practice portfolio as an assessment tool. An explanation of the portfolio process is followed by evidence from a four-year action research study, demonstrating how compiling a…

  13. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini J. Negi


    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  14. The Complex Tasks Using for Practical Work in the Study of Computer Science in High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelya V. Degtyareva


    Full Text Available In this article discusses methods for diagnosing of training results of high school students in the study of computer science. The author highlights the positive aspects of some methods of diagnosing anddiscusses the need for combining tasks in the practical work: testing, integrative tasks and tasks of competency-based. The author argues that testing helps to master the theoretical foundations of computer science, practical exercise promotes the development of skills of used information technology, the creative task stimulates intellectual activity and an unconventional approach to solving. The author gives an example of the practical work for the study of spreadsheets. In practical work demonstrates the testing and use of various types of tests in more detail. This article describes the results of a survey of teachers and students about objective method of diagnostics of knowledge. There is a study of the formation of IT-competencies and core competencies while performing tasks such.

  15. Youth Work Transitions: A Review with Implications for Counselling and Career Practice (United States)

    Parada, Filomena; Young, Richard A.


    We critically review studies highlighting youth's work transitions and derive some implications for career and counselling theory and practice. We first discuss today's hypermodern world, specifically the meanings being conveyed by today's complex social realities and their impact on individuals' (work) lives. An overview of…

  16. Promising Homework Practices: Teachers' Perspectives on Making Homework Work for Newcomer Immigrant Students (United States)

    Bang, Hee Jin


    This study examines the homework practices of eight teachers working in a high school designed to serve newcomer immigrant students. Individual structured interviews were conducted in which teachers working in an innovative setting explained their purposes of assigning homework, their beliefs about factors affecting their students' homework…

  17. An Inclusive Definition of Spirituality for Social Work Education and Practice (United States)

    Senreich, Evan


    A formidable body of recent literature advocates the incorporation of spirituality into the bio-psycho-social framework of social work education and practice. No consistent conceptualization of spirituality has been developed, however, that can be used with all clients and that is fully consonant with social work values as taught in schools of…

  18. Student Affairs Case Management: Merging Social Work Theory with Student Affairs Practice (United States)

    Adams, Sharrika D.; Hazelwood, Sherry; Hayden, Bruce


    Case management is a functional area in higher education and student affairs that emerged after the mass shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007. Although new to higher education, case management emerged from established social work practice. This article compares social work theory and case management standards with a new case management model for…

  19. Instructor's Manual: Education for Social Work Practice with American Indian Families. (United States)

    Brown, Eddie F., Ed.; Shaughnessy, Timothy F., Ed.

    Numerous and varied learning activities are provided in this instructor's manual for a course designed to help non-Indian social work students and social service providers expand their understanding of Indian culture with the purpose of achieving greater transcultural appreciation and, consequently, more effective social work practices appropriate…

  20. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works (United States)

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara


    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  1. Service Learning and Community-Based Partnerships: A Model for Teaching Macro Practice Social Work (United States)

    Nandan, Monica; Scott, Patricia


    This article describes an innovative project that combined service learning and community-based partnerships to teach macro practice skills to social work students and citizenship skills to primary school students. The partners, a small social work program, several primary schools, and an internationally recognized civic engagement program,…

  2. A New Approach for the Construction of Practical Laboratory and Field Work Examination (United States)

    Natarajan, V.; Prakach, Ved


    The tradition in India of practical/laboratory field work carried out by students individually or in small groups is reviewed, and recommendations for assessing such work are outlined, including such skills as recording observations, interpreting results, planning procedures and techniques for solving special problems. (LBH)

  3. Opening Options: Making Field Education Work in a Private Practice Clinic Setting (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Knaggs, Constance; Hock, Robert; LaCharite, David


    This article describes the use of social work field placements in a private practice setting to prepare MSW students for clinical work. The authors used "autoethnography", which is personal narrative that explores the writer's experience of life, to describe interpersonal and contextual characteristics, as well as procedures implemented to conduct…

  4. Using Student Group Work in Higher Education to Emulate Professional Communities of Practice (United States)

    Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Eng, Tan Yoke


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of social learning from group work that emulates a professional community of practice. Design/methodology/approach: A thought piece that first, examines the role of group-work projects as part of social learning, then outlines key arguments for social learning based upon applying a…

  5. Promoting Healthy Work for Employees with Chronic Illness : Analysis of Models of Good Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Anja; Have, Kristin ten; Gründemann, Rob; Wevers, Cees


    The ENWHP project and campaign Promoting Healthy Work for Employees with Chronic Illness (PH Work) should contribute towards the implementation of effective workplace health practices within corporate policies of enterprises in Europe. More specific the project should stimulate activities and polici

  6. A handbook of ethical practice a practical guide to dealing with ethical issues in information and library work

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    McMenemy, David; Burton, Paul


    This book looks at all of the ethical issues facing information and library professionals in one overarching, and practically-focused, text. As such, it is of great benefit to both practitioners and to LIS students. The focus of the book is two-fold: (1) It contains a detailed discussion of the issues that impact on the day-today practice of information workers in the 21st century; and (2) contains case studies discussing potential solutions to ethical problems faced. The book provides sections which work like flowcharts leading from ethical issues through decision points to proposed solutions

  7. Brahms An Agent-Oriented Language for Work Practice Simulation and Multi-Agent Systems Development (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; van Hoof, Ron J. J.

    Brahms is a multi-agent modeling language for simulating human work practice that emerges from work processes in organizations. The same Brahms language can be used to implement and execute distributed multi-agent systems, based on models of work practice that were first simulated. Brahms demonstrates how a multi-agent belief-desire-intention language, symbolic cognitive modeling, traditional business process modeling, activity-and situated cognition theories are brought together in a coherent approach for analysis and design of organizations and human-centered systems.

  8. Of deadlocks and peopleware-collaborative work practices in global software development




    peer-reviewed As part of a research project dedicated to the Social Organizational and Cultural Aspects of Global Software Development, the author has chosen to focus on collaborative work practices and knowledge management aspects of collaborative work. More precisely, the focus is on how the global distribution of software development affects collaborative work. The current paper is a first attempt to unveil, through a concrete situation observed in a distributed software development ...

  9. The dement in the community: Social work practice with people with dementia revisited. (United States)

    Manthorpe, Jill


    While social work practice with people with dementia and their families has a long but largely hidden history, it is an emerging area of specialism. The increased incidence, prevalence and recognition of dementia suggest that this area of practice will expand and so learning from previous practice may offer helpful insights. This paper describes and reflects upon social work practice with 'dements' in the 1950s in England. It draws on a reading of a small book written by a psychiatric social worker, Miss M (Muriel) H Bree, outlining her role in providing after-care to patients with neuro-syphilis who had been discharged from hospital to live with their families between 1942 and 1952 through her consideration of 275 case records and seven illustrative case studies. As a historical document, Bree's account presents a rich description of the patients and their social circumstances in post-war Britain; an account of practice from a hospital based setting that reached into the community, and of the engagement of a social worker with her clients and their family members. Threads and continuities with contemporary social work practice with people with dementia are explored; particularly work with family carers, younger people with dementia, and the value placed upon continuity of care.

  10. The Effect of Personality Value Practice of Principals toward Attitude, Discipline, Qualities and Communications of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asri


    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the effect of personality value practice of principals toward work attitude, work discipline, work quality and work communication of teachers in senior high schools such as public senior high schools (SMA, vocational senior high schools (SMK, religion senior high schools (MAN in Makassar city, South Sulawesi province of Indonesia. The sample consisted of 295 teachers. It used random sampling method. The study used a questionnaire to collect data. Data were analyzed by the statistical inference of linear regression to test the hypotheses. Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire is 0.879. The results showed a strong effect of personality values of principals toward work attitude, work quality and work communication of teachers at schools. While, personality value of principals have moderate influence on teachers’ work discipline.

  11. Perceptions of professional practice and work environment of new graduates in a nurse residency program. (United States)

    Bratt, Marilyn Meyer; Felzer, Holly M


    New nurses continue to face challenging work environments and high expectations for professional competence as they enter practice. Nurse residency programs are gaining prominence as a mechanism to ease new graduates' transition to practice. This study examined new graduates' perceptions of their professional practice competence and work environment throughout a yearlong nurse residency program. Employing a repeated measures design, data were collected at baseline, at 6 months, and at 12 months. Results showed that job satisfaction was significantly lowest at 6 months and highest at 12 months. Job stress was found to be lowest at 12 months and organizational commitment was highest at baseline. Of the variables related to professional practice, clinical decision-making was highest at 12 months and quality of nursing performance significantly increased at each measurement point. These data add to the growing evidence supporting the efficacy of nurse residency programs.

  12. The Integration of Clients' Religion and Spirituality in Social Work Practice: A National Survey. (United States)

    Oxhandler, Holly K; Parrish, Danielle E; Torres, Luis R; Achenbaum, W Andrew


    This article describes the results of a cross-sectional study of licensed clinical social workers' (LCSWs') views and behaviors related to integrating clients' religion and spirituality in clinical practice. A total of 442 LCSWs from across the United States who advertised their services on the Internet provided anonymous responses to an online administration of the Religious/Spiritually Integrated Practice Assessment Scale. The results indicate that LCSWs have positive attitudes, high levels of self-efficacy, and perceive such integration as feasible, but report low levels of engagement in integrating clients' religious and spiritual beliefs into practice. Moreover, two variables emerged as significant predictors for LCSWs' overall orientation toward integrating clients' religion and spirituality in practice: practitioners' intrinsic religiosity and prior training (prior course work or continuing education). Implications and next steps for social work education and continuing training efforts are discussed.

  13. The practical epistemologies of the classroom: A study of laboratory work (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof


    The practical epistemologies of university students during laboratory work in chemistry are analyzed to enhance understanding of how teaching practices interact with learners. The purpose is to develop a theoretical framework of learning as action that can be used by educational researchers to examine meaning-making, but also by teachers in close association with their daily work to understand the course learning takes in their own classrooms. Here this framework is adopted to demonstrate how the sequence of learning may affect the subject content learnt. It is also demonstrated how learning can be understood in terms of habits, and how observations of such habits could be used by a teacher to inform her/his teaching. The theory of practical epistemologies is based on the later Wittgenstein, pragmatics, and sociocultural approaches identifying learning with talk, action, and habits situated in practices.

  14. Pargament's Theory of Religious Coping: Implications for Spiritually Sensitive Social Work Practice. (United States)

    Xu, Jianbin


    This article proposes that Pargament's theory of religious coping can be a theoretical beacon to spiritually sensitive social work practice. It begins with a discussion of the raison d'être of spiritually sensitive social work, which is examined as being able to cast a holistic and positive glow on social work. Then it provides an overview and a critique of Pargament's theory, emphasising that the theory offers a fuller and more impartial picture of religious coping. In addition, it explores the implications of Pargament's theory for spiritually sensitive social work practice with religious clients in terms of engagement, assessment and intervention. This article concludes by discussing how social work practitioners can avoid the pitfalls and limitations of Pargament's theory.

  15. Getting it right in the mix: Teaching social work practice skills inclusively to diverse student groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Jennifer Goldingay


    Full Text Available Social work has traditionally attracted a diverse mix of students with varying levels of academic preparedness and practice skill experience. Current trends in higher education indicate the possibility of further challenges for academic staff in social work as universities seek to both widen participation from university graduates and, at the same time, prioritise practice and academic excellence among students. Drawing on reflective journal entries by the author, this paper examines the challenges that social work academics might face in teaching social work practice skills effectively to the increasingly diverse student cohorts enrolled across Bachelor and Masters of Social Work (Qualifying degrees. The reflective process adopted in this study explores the gaps between the author’s intentions and the reality of the classroom experience. Key observations included language barriers impeding engagement with the material and cultural differences in relating to others and conceptualising practice. These problems were apparent in both the process of delivery (pedagogy and content (curriculum. The reflective process highlighted the need for further research in order to optimally respond to the diversity in social work education.

  16. Are New Work Practices and New Technologies Biased against Immigrant Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Røed, Marianne; Schøne, Pål

    . In this paper we analyse whether these developments - by increasing the importance of communication and informal human capital - have had a negative effect on employment opportunities of immigrants. The results show that firms that use PCs intensively and firms that give their employees broad autonomy employ...... fewer non-Western immigrants who have not been raised in Norway (i.e. arrived as adults). Furthermore, the negative relationships are especially strong for low-skilled non-Western immigrants. These results may add support to the hypothesis stating that new technologies and (some) new work practices......New technologies and new work practices have been introduced and implemented over a broad range in the production process in most advanced industrialised countries during the last two decades. New work organisation practices like team organisation and job rotation require interpersonal...

  17. Translating the common elements approach: social work's experiences in education, practice, and research. (United States)

    Barth, Richard P; Kolivoski, Karen M; Lindsey, Michael A; Lee, Bethany R; Collins, Kathryn S


    The expansion of the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in mental health services is well under way and social work seeks to further its appropriate implementation in both specialty and nonspecialty mental health settings. The common elements approach is now recognized as demonstrating promise for use in a range of settings. This article discusses the attractiveness of the common elements approach and describes several efforts to integrate its content into social work education and to disseminate this approach into the field. Then the article presents research initiatives regarding two areas of nonspecialty mental health practice with children and families: (a) engaging clients in mental health services and (b) preventing the need for out-of-home placement for youth. Finally, we consider the challenges of the common elements framework for social work education and practice and future directions for research.

  18. The importance, challenges and prospects of taking work practices into account for healthcare quality improvement. (United States)

    Allen, Davina


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to underline the importance of taking work practices into account for quality improvement (QI) purposes, highlight some of the challenges of doing so, and suggest strategies for future research and practice. Patient status at a glance, a Lean-inspired QI intervention designed to alleviate nurses of their knowledge mobilisation function, is deployed as an illustrative case. Design/methodology/approach - Ethnographic data and practice-based theories are utilised to describe nurses' knowledge mobilisation work. The assumptions about knowledge sharing embedded in patient status at a glance white boards (PSAGWBs) are analysed drawing on actor network theory. Findings - There is a disparity between nurses' knowledge mobilisation practices and the scripts that inform the design of PSAGWBs. PSAGWBs are designed to be intermediaries and to transport meaning without transformation. When nurses circulate knowledge for patient management purposes, they operate as mediators, translating diverse information sources and modifying meaning for different audiences. PSAGWBs are unlikely to relieve nurses of their knowledge mobilisation function and may actually add to the burdens of this work. Despite this nurses have readily embraced this QI intervention. Research limitations/implications - The study is limited by its focus on a single case and by the inferential (rather than the empirical) nature of its conclusions. Originality/value - This paper illustrates the importance of taking practice into account in healthcare QI, points to some of the challenges of doing so and highlights the potential of practice-based approaches in supporting progress in this field.

  19. Practices of corporate social responsibility and sustainable systems work in Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angela Prialé


    Full Text Available Through a literature review, this exploratory study seeks to determine whether the practices related to its colaborators, who report as part of its action responsible Peruvian companies issuing sustainability reports can be considered sustainable management practices of human resources. To this end, it was used the approach of sustainable work systems as a general approach. It was found that some of the practices of responsible management of human resources that implement the analyzed companies address the human dimensions of sustainability, although not all dimensions are considered equally or similar depth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Harrison


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study made on the impact of improved deployment of science technicians in the classroom could directly benefit students in practical science investigations. Science technicians are skilled individuals whose understanding of practical work is a valuable resource not being used of in support of students understanding of science. Aspects of practical work and technician support were scrutinised, through information attained from a post-16 student survey to improve understanding about this teaching tool, to establish if it was being used to its full potential within science lessons. Analysis was also made of students’ perceptions of school science. The main outcomes were that the majority of students enjoyed science practical work and felt that science could not be taught without it. Students studying science at pre-university level attained a greater understanding, through participating in relevant practical work, than students who had studied it at earlier, compulsory levels. Students reported that science technicians provide impact on student learning when contact time was the greatest.

  1. Preparedness and Practice Management Skills of Graduating Dental Students Entering the Work Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Manakil


    Full Text Available Dental education aims to produce competent graduates with the ability to provide quality care to the patients and facilitate the smooth integration into professional practice. The objective of this study was to explore the overall preparedness of graduands for integrating into professional practice. The survey was tested for reliability and analysed the career paths, learning preferences, overall knowledge, and confidence amongst graduating dentists in integrating and managing a dental practice on graduation. Sixty-nine students (89.6% in age group of 20–50 years participated in the study. Students indicated a high level of confidence in their skills and ability to work in a team in a practice or collaboratively with other colleagues and specialists but expressed some reservation on their practice management skills (73.1%. Challenges in gaining employment and pressures to repay educational debts are amongst the reasons for graduands preferring a paid job immediately on graduation regardless of demographics. Students indicated that an increase in speciality training and clinical/outreach placements could enhance employability. This study explores the students’ perception of their confidences, knowledge, learning preferences, and practice management skills as a method of evaluating their preparedness to practice on graduation and provides a base line for curriculum structuring to prepare graduands to enter the competitive dental work force.

  2. 25 tips for working through language and cultural barriers in your medical practice. (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs


    The language and cultural barriers facing medical patients with limited English language proficiency pose tremendous challenges and risks. Moreover, medical practices today are more likely than ever to employ individuals whose first language is not English or who do not possess native-like knowledge of American culture. Knowing how to work through the language and cultural barriers you are likely to encounter in your medical practice has become increasingly more important. This article is written by a practice management consultant who has graduate-level linguistics training and second-language teaching credentials and experience. It offers 25 practical tips to help you communicate more effectively with individuals who are outside of your native culture and language. These include easy-to-implement tips about English language pronunciation, grammar, and word choice. This article also suggests what you can do personally to bridge the cultural divide with your patients and co-workers. Finally, this article includes a case study of one Virginia practice in which cultural differences interfered with the practice's smooth operation. It explains how the practice eventually worked through and overcame this cultural obstacle.

  3. A Scoping Review of Social Media Use in Social Work Practice. (United States)

    Chan, Chitat


    The trend of using social media in social work is increasing, but research which systematically reviews and evaluates their uses in actual practice is limited. This article reviews the social work literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media in social work practice, and identifies current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future social work research. Articles in 64 social work journals published between 2000 and 2014 were screened and analyzed. The included articles (n = 20) were analyzed with particular reference to their level of evidence and ways of social media use. The methodological quality of the studies in this review was low, and this was consistent with the findings of recent systematic reviews of social media use in medical healthcare. The findings initially suggested that social media can potentially contribute to various social work processes, including: service user engagement, need assessment, intervention, and program evaluation. Limitations include lack of quality control, reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. In social work, the dominant research concern in social media is more about professional ethics than their application in intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Nine structures and leadership practices essential for a magnetic (healthy) work environment. (United States)

    Kramer, Marlene; Schmalenberg, Claudia; Maguire, Patricia


    Improving clinical nurse work environments is a major challenge faced by nurse executives today. To meet this challenge, nurse leaders must implement the "right" structures and best leadership practices so that clinical nurses can engage in the work processes and relationships that are empirically linked to quality patient outcomes. What are these "right" structures and best leadership practices? Meta-analyses of 2 sets of publications were used to identify organizational structures and best leadership practices essential to a healthy work environment, that is, a work environment that enables them to engage in the work processes and relationships needed for quality patient care outcomes. The first set was 12 publications from 7 professional organizations/regulatory bodies that advocated forces, hallmarks, and standards for a healthy work environment. The second set was 18 publications from the Essentials of Magnetism structure-identification studies, in which the aggregated results from 1300 interviews with staff nurse, manager, and physician "experts" were compared with the agency results. Broadening the categories and final aggregation yielded the 9 most important and influential structures essential to a quality work environment. Suggestions for implementing these structures are provided.

  5. Interpretative Social Work: On the Uses of Qualitative Methods for Practice, Reflection and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Völter


    Full Text Available Qualitative methods could play an important role in the context of a lively, life-world oriented, and emancipatory self-reflective social work. They are already applied in three realms of social work: social work research, the daily practice of social workers and professional self-reflection. Even though these three realms overlap they are three distinct spheres of knowledge and action, which have specific aims. Therefore qualitative methods have to be adjusted to the needs of social science, practice and practice reflection. When students and practitioners of social work learn to use qualitative methods in this sense, they gain a competence which can be referred to as "ethnographic sophistication." This "ethnographic sophistication" contains essential elements of social work professionalism. Familiarity with qualitative methods and their application are highly relevant for the acquisition of basic competencies in social work, i.e., that what has become known as "reconstructive social pedagogy" is much more than just one social work method among others. But a consequence of the introduction of academic reforms of the so called "Bologna process" all over Europe is that it has become more difficult in many universities and universities of applied sciences to implement this approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801563

  6. Social Work Students’ Use of Knowledge in Direct Practice – Reasons, Strategies and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This article describes a study of Swedish social work students’ use of knowledge during their field practice. Data was collected by using short written narratives, where the students reflect on situations from practice, situations they experienced as critical or problematic. The narratives were analysed with a method inspired by the interpretation theory of Paul Ricoeur. The article starts with a discussion adhering to the present trend of evidence-based social work practice. This is followed by a study of 144 narratives from social work students containing critical or problematic events. A quantitative description of the material as well as qualitative model of two type-strategies, that social work students use, is presented. The results show, among other things, that students use several forms of knowledge, where facts/evidence is one of several. The study also shows that there is a strong adaptation to varying critical situations. A conclusion is that it is difficult to a priori define the types and proportions of knowledge to use in social work practice.

  7. Conceptual Demand of Practical Work in Science Curricula. A Methodological Approach (United States)

    Ferreira, Sílvia; Morais, Ana M.


    This article addresses the issue of the level of complexity of practical work in science curricula and is focused on the discipline of Biology and Geology at high school. The level of complexity is seen in terms of the emphasis on and types of practical work and, most importantly, in terms of its level of conceptual demand as given by the complexity of scientific knowledge, the degree of inter-relation between knowledges, and the complexity of cognitive skills. The study also analyzes recontextualizing processes that may occur within the official recontextualizing field. The study is psychologically and sociologically grounded, particularly on Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse. It uses a mixed methodology. The results show that practical work is poorly represented in the curriculum, particularly in the case of laboratory work. The level of conceptual demand of practical work varies according to the text under analysis, between the two subjects Biology and Geology, and, within each of them, between general and specific guidelines. Aspects studied are not clearly explicated to curriculum receivers (teachers and textbooks authors). The meaning of these findings is discussed in the article. In methodological terms, the study explores assumptions used in the analysis of the level of conceptual demand and presents innovative instruments constructed for developing this analysis.

  8. The role of relationships in connecting social work research and evidence-based practice. (United States)

    Jones, Johnny M; Sherr, Michael E


    Critics of evidence-based practice (EBP) often challenge the efficacy of applying social work research in practice. Such skepticism underscores the historic chasm that still exists between social work researchers and practitioners. If taught and implemented consistently, the EBP model can mend the connection between researchers and practitioners by merging their roles. Merging their roles, however, requires a renewed emphasis on relationships in the research process. This article explores the role of relationships in social work research. Using a researcher/practitioner continuum, we assess the types of interactions faculty have with stakeholders. We then offer strategies for cultivating relationships with stakeholders that lead to community-derived and implemented research that is critical to advancing the widespread use of EBP in social work.

  9. The effects of PACS on radiographer's work practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, W. [CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail:; Aspelin, P. [CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergquist, M. [Department of Informatics, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Hillergard, K. [CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, B. [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Moelndals Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lindskoeld, L. [CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Wallberg, J. [CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundberg, N. [CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)


    This paper identifies and analyses the effects of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) on radiographers' work practice. It shows that the introduction of PACS did not simply entail the transfer of data and information from the analogue world to the digital world, but it also led to the introduction of new ways of communicating, and new activities and responsibilities on the part of radiography staff. Radiographers are called upon to work increasingly independently, and individual practitioners require higher levels of professional expertise. In all, this paper demonstrates that new technical solutions sometimes lead to substantial changes in responsibilities in work. In this example, the radiographers' work practice has become more highly scientific and they are enjoying a higher level of prestige.

  10. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  11. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  12. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.


    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  13. Confessions of Practice: Multidimensional Interweavings of Our Work as Teacher Educators (United States)

    Snow, Jennifer L.; Martin, Susan M.


    In this article, we describe our inquiry and confess how our work as teacher educators weaves through multiple contexts and roles to reinforce a stronger enactment and construction of knowledge and practical relevance. We examined the complex nature of teacher education roles through collaborative self-study. Questions included the following: What…

  14. Benefits from retrieval practice are greater for students with lower working memory capacity. (United States)

    Agarwal, Pooja K; Finley, Jason R; Rose, Nathan S; Roediger, Henry L


    We examined the effects of retrieval practice for students who varied in working memory capacity as a function of the lag between study of material and its initial test, whether or not feedback was given after the test, and the retention interval of the final test. We sought to determine whether a blend of these conditions exists that maximises benefits from retrieval practice for lower and higher working memory capacity students. College students learned general knowledge facts and then restudied the facts or were tested on them (with or without feedback) at lags of 0-9 intervening items. Final cued recall performance was better for tested items than for restudied items after both 10 minutes and 2 days, particularly for longer study-test lags. Furthermore, on the 2-day delayed test the benefits from retrieval practice with feedback were significantly greater for students with lower working memory capacity than for students with higher working memory capacity (r = -.42). Retrieval practice may be an especially effective learning strategy for lower ability students.

  15. Good Images, Effective Messages? Working with Students and Educators on Academic Practice Understanding (United States)

    Gannon-Leary, Pat; Trayhurn, Deborah; Home, Margaret


    Work at Northumbria University has focussed on activity that extends opportunities for students to engage directly with the skills development necessary for sound academic practice. This has included highly visual campaigns on the "Plagiarism trap", providing access to Turnitin plagiarism detection software, guides and sessions to…

  16. The Impact of Public Housing Policy on Family Social Work Theory and Practice (United States)

    McCarty, Dawn


    Social workers are the professionals most engaged with families living in low-income and subsidized housing and most familiar with the problems associated with inadequate housing. Yet the discussion of public housing policy has been left largely to economists and housing activists and the clear implications for family social work practice have not…

  17. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula (United States)

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie


    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  18. Knowledge Translation of Interprofessional Collaborative Patient-Centred Practice: The Working Together Project Experience (United States)

    MacDonald, Colla J.; Archibald, Douglas; Stodel, Emma; Chambers, Larry W.; Hall, Pippa


    The Working Together (WT) project involved the design and delivery of an online learning resource for healthcare teams in long-term care (LTC) so that knowledge regarding interprofessional collaborative patient-centred practice (ICPCP) could be readily accessed and then transferred to the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to better…

  19. The Hero(ine) on a Journey: A Postmodern Conceptual Framework for Social Work Practice (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip


    Narrative therapy, the strengths perspective, and solution-focused therapy are 3 prominent examples of social work practices heavily informed by social constructionism. Yet getting students from understanding theory to applying theory can often be challenging. This article offers a conceptual framework to aid students in the application of social…

  20. Research on Social Work Practice: A Bibliometric Evaluation of the First Decade (United States)

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Lioi, Justin


    Objective: This article describes a bibliometric analysis of articles appearing in the journal "Research on Social Work Practice" (RSWP). Method: Descriptive and predictive analyses for the sample of 322 articles are presented. Results: The typical RSWP article was 15 pages long, had two authors and 28 references, and was cited for the first time…

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards (United States)


    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDD, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDDDD... the following applicable emission limits and work practice standards: If your boiler or process...

  2. Guided work-based learning: sharing practical teaching knowledge with student teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Velzen; M. Volman; M. Brekelmans; S. White


    Building quality work-based learning opportunities for student teachers is a challenge for schools in school-university partnerships. This study focused on the guidance of student teachers by means of a mentoring approach aimed at sharing practical knowledge, with student teachers’ learning needs as

  3. Conceptualising the Socio-Personal Practice of Learning in Work as Negotiation (United States)

    Smith, Raymond


    The concept of "negotiation" is often used to describe and explain the interactive nature of vocational learning. Such learning is accomplished as workers engage in the joint activities that comprise their occupational practice. In doing so they interact with the material and cultural resources that enable their work to produce and…

  4. Practice-Based Inservice Teacher Education: Generating Local Theory about the Pedagogy of Group Work (United States)

    Higgins, Joanna; Eden, Raewyn


    Developing local theories about what best works for Maori students is of critical importance to Aotearoa New Zealand. This discussion paper focuses on grouping as arranging for learning, by examining multiple ways in which grouping as pedagogy appears in practice settings and associated literature. We take the stance of interpretive bricoleurs to…

  5. Narrative and Collaborative Practices in Work with Families that Are Homeless (United States)

    Fraenkel, Peter; Hameline, Thomas; Shannon, Michele


    This article reports on the use of narrative therapy ideas and practices in working with families that are homeless in a shelter-based, multiple-family discussion group program called Fresh Start for Families. It begins with a review of the challenges facing homeless families. It then briefly describes the collaborative methods used to develop the…

  6. 40 CFR 60.18 - General control device and work practice requirements. (United States)


    ... § 60.18 General control device and work practice requirements. (a) Introduction. (1) This section... MJ/scm (300 Btu/scf) or greater if the flare is steam-assisted or air-assisted; or with the net heating value of the gas being combusted being 7.45 MJ/scm (200 Btu/scf) or greater if the flare...

  7. Teachers' work engagement: Considering interaction with pupils and human resources practices as job resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, P.R.; Sanders, K.; Konermann, J.


    The goal of these 2 studies was to investigate whether teachers' work engagement is related to the extent to which they experience their interactions with pupils and human resource (HR) practices within their schools as motivating. Study 1 was a qualitative study, including document analysis and int

  8. Developing a Teaching Model Using an Online Collaboration Approach for a Digital Technique Practical Work (United States)



    This research is aimed to produce a teaching model and its supporting instruments using a collaboration approach for a digital technique practical work attended by higher education students. The model is found to be flexible and relatively low cost. Through this research, feasibility and learning impact of the model will be determined. The model…

  9. Working with anxious or fearful patients: a training tool for the medical practice staff. (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs


    Every medical practice must work with at least some patients who are fearful or anxious. This article explores the seven most common root causes of patient fear and anxiety and offers practical suggestions for avoiding or minimizing these fears. It addresses, in particular, the patient's fear of the unknown, of being humiliated, of reenacting a medical legend or horror story, and of being vulnerable and helpless. It also explores the patient's fear of high medical fees or being unable to pay, a poor or disappointing clinical outcome, and being in a hospital-like environment. The author suggests that the medica lpractice staff may wish to seek training in fear control and includes practical how-to strategies for minimizing fear when working with children.

  10. Social work practitioners' integration of clients' religion and spirituality in practice: a literature review. (United States)

    Oxhandler, Holly K; Pargament, Kenneth I


    Emerging research on religion, spirituality, health, and mental health has begun to catch the attention of helping professionals. Some clients are expressing a desire for their health and mental health practitioners to initiate discussion of their religious or spiritual beliefs as they relate to their case. Social workers are the most represented group among personnel providing mental health services, so it is important to understand their attitudes, views, and behaviors regarding integrating clients' religion and spirituality (RS) into practice. Few studies have assessed such an integration; those that are available focus primarily on practitioner characteristics and use of specific helping activities to integrate clients' RS in treatment. This article discusses how RS have been integrated into social work practice and education and reviews instruments used to assess such practices. In addition, the findings from previous studies examining social workers' integration of clients' RS are compared with those of other helping professions. Finally, implications for education and practice are discussed.

  11. Who is in charge of patient safety? Work practice, work processes and utopian views of automatic drug dispensing systems. (United States)

    Balka, Ellen; Kahnamoui, Nicki; Nutland, Kelsey


    In June 2003, a large, Canadian tertiary care facility introduced automatic drug dispensing machines on all units when it opened up a new building. In this paper, we provide an overview of the automatic drug dispensing system (ADS) implementation at the hospital. Our findings, based on daily field observations and interviews during and after implementation, with regular follow-up visits to the field site illustrate how the introduction of the ADS brought to light work practices that sometimes compromised patient safety. We suggest that utopian views of automatic drug dispensing machines obfuscate the challenges inherent to implementing such systems, and deter stakeholders from performing rigorous evaluation of the costs (both social and economic) and benefits of investing in such systems. Our work contributes to debates about the socio-technical efficacy of automating medication dispensing and delivery, and suggests that the balance of power in the patient safety equation lies in the work context and implementation issues, and not just the technology. For technology implementations to be successful considering that technologies frequently cross over jurisdictional boundaries, planning and implementation have to be conducted at a system wide level.

  12. Practice with persons with autism spectrum disorders: predictors of self-efficacy among social work students. (United States)

    Dinecola, Cassie M; Lemieux, Catherine M


    Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been on the rise, and the need for knowledgeable and competent professionals is dire. However, few social workers enter the field of ASDs. Rooted in social cognitive theory, this study examined the extent to which knowledge, interest, contact, and training predicted master's in social work students' self-efficacy in working with individuals with ASDs. Approximately 18% of the variance was explained (R(2) = .18, p social work practice and education are discussed.

  13. Medical social work practice in child protection in China: A multiple case study in Shanghai hospitals. (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Hämäläinen, Juha; Chen, Yu-Ting


    With the rapid development of the child welfare system in China over recent years, medical social work has been increasingly involved in providing child protection services in several hospitals in Shanghai. Focusing on five cases in this paper, the exploratory study aims to present a critical overview of current practices and effects of medical social work for child protection, based on a critical analysis of the multidimensional role of social work practitioners engaged in the provision of child protection services as well as potential challenges. Implications and suggestions for future improvements of China's child protection system are also discussed.

  14. Reflexive Professionalism as a Second Generation of Evidence-Based Practice: Some Considerations on the Special Issue "What Works? Modernizing the Knowledge-Base of Social Work" (United States)

    Otto, Hans-Uwe; Polutta, Andreas; Ziegler, Holger


    This article refers sympathetically to the thoughtful debates and positions in the "Research on Social Work Practice" ("RSWP"; Special Issue, July, 2008 issue) on "What Works? Modernizing the Knowledge-Base of Social Work." It highlights the need for empirical efficacy and effectiveness research in social work and appreciates empirical rigor…

  15. Working Capital Management Practices In Agricultural/Agro-Allied Quoted Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chuke Nwude


    Full Text Available This study investigated the working capital practices of quoted agricultural/Agro-allied firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE from 2000-2014. Quantitative approach was used to find the working capital practices of the firms. The study discovered that in days-period the sector as a whole was a net credit receiver in time but some of the individual firm ended up in some years as net extenders of credit in time. On monetary value terms the Livestock feeds was the most receiver of net credit with most conservative credit policy, Presco was the most extender of net credit thereby operating the most liberal credit policy. While FTN could be said to have being operating matching credit policy on the average to smoothen the policy over the years, Okomu operated a moderate policy interspersed with aggressive policy. The agricultural/agro-allied sector firms operated a mixture of net credit extenders and receivers in time and value. In all the firms except in Livestock feeds the aggressive working capital investment practices were followed by aggressive working capital financing policy. That is the lower the investment in working capital the lower the amount of current liabilities.

  16. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society. (United States)

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W


    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.

  17. The Case for Family-Friendly Work Practices in the Australian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Francis


    Full Text Available Although significant changes at the social, demographic, technological and workforce levelshave transformed the relationship between family and work, these changes have notbeen reflected in the employment practices of many construction companies. Many of thejob and organisational factors found to be negatively associated with family functioning arepertinent to construction professionals. Staff are expected to work long hours in demandingroles and this, combined with job insecurity and frequent relocation, means that familylife and individual well-being can be compromised. A growing body of research has foundthat the implementation of family-friendly work policies and practices can lead to greaterproductivity, lower attrition rates and higher morale in the workplace. In addition providinga work environment that is supportive of workers' family roles can help to alleviate workrelatedmental health problems.This paper outlines the changing demographic trends and societal attitudes that are makingindividuals and organisations question current work cultures and structures. Optionsfor making the construction industry a more family-friendly work environment are considered.All professionals, regardless of their age, gender and family responsibilities, canbenefit from these initiatives. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of theseissues for construction companies and future research work.

  18. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. (United States)

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon


    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health.

  19. Professional nursing practice in critical units: assessment of work environment characteristics (United States)

    Maurício, Luiz Felipe Sales; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Campanharo, Cássia Regina Vancini; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag


    ABSTRACT Objective: assess the autonomy, control over environment, and organizational support of nurses' work process and the relationships between physicians and nurses in critical care units. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 162 nurses working in the intensive care units and emergency service of a university hospital. The workers' satisfaction with their work environment was assessed using Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, translated and adapted for the Brazilian culture. Results: average age was 31.6 ± 3.9 years; 80.2% were women; 68.5% Caucasians and 71.6% worked in intensive care units. The nurses considered autonomy (2.38 ± 0.64) and their relationship with physicians (2.24 ± 0.62) to be characteristics of the work environment that favored professional practice. Control over environment (2.78 ± 0.62) and organizational support (2.51 ± 0.54), however, were considered to be unfavorable. No statistically significant differences were found between the units based on the scores obtained by the professionals on the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised. Conclusion: autonomy, relationship between physicians and nurses, and organizational support were considered by the units to be characteristics that favored nurses' professional practices. On the other hand, control over environment and organizational support were considered unfavorable. PMID:28301034

  20. Persistent Discontinuities in Global Software Development Teams: Adaption through Closely Coupled Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Eskild

    study of a Danish-Philippine software development project, this dissertation contributes by asking the following research question: How do IT developers coordinate the work to adapt to frequent changes in global software development projects? The data material revealed a gradual shift towards more...... closely coupled work practices over the course of three years as practitioners adjusted to make the collaboration work. Firstly, mutually shared financial responsibility was key to establishing interdependence between the Danish and Philippine project members. Secondly, the organizational structures were...... this as a starting point, it is clear that researchers still know little about how practitioners adjust and adapt to persistent discontinuities in globally distributed teams or how practitioners coordinate the work to bridge persistent discontinuities. Investigating the data material from an ethnographic work place...

  1. Collaborative ethnography for information systems research Studying knowledge work practices and designing supportive information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Maier


    Full Text Available Understanding knowledge work and supporting it with information systems (ISs are challenging tasks. Knowledge work has changed substantially recently and studies on how knowledge work is currently performed are scarce. Ethnography is the most suitable qualitative research method for studying knowledge work, yet too time-consuming, costly and unfocused for the fast changing IS domain. Moreover, results from qualitative studies need to be transformed into artefacts useful for IS requirements engineering and design. This paper proposes a procedure for collaborative ethnography to study knowledge work practices and inform IS requirements gathering and design illustrated with the case of a collaborative ethnographic study of seven organisations in four European countries performed in a large-scale international IS research and development project. The paper also critically discusses the procedure’s applicability and limitations.

  2. Effectively Teaching Social Work Practice Online: Moving Beyond Can to How

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Forgey


    Full Text Available Schools of social work are increasingly developing online courses and programs. While the majority of research comparing online and face–to-face courses has found equivalent outcomes, skepticism still exists, particularly about the ability to teach practice courses effectively online. This study adds to the growing body of research within social work that specifically examines the comparative effectiveness of online and face-to-face practice courses. Using an anonymous survey, 23 face-to-face and 12 online students enrolled in two separate sections of social work generalist practice rated the quality of the learning environment, the extent to which the course objectives were met, and the effectiveness of the teaching strategies from the students’ perspective. In addition, scores on assignment rubrics and student course evaluations were also compared. Results indicate no significant differences in learning outcomes as measured by assignment rubric scores, student perceptions of the extent to which learning objectives were met, the quality of the learning environment, and the effectiveness of five of the six teaching strategies used. We recommend that research moves beyond determining if online practice courses are as effective as face-to-face courses, and instead focus on a closer examination of the factors responsible for teaching effectiveness.

  3. Technology-based interventions in social work practice: a systematic review of mental health interventions. (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex T; Montgomery, Katherine


    Despite concerns around the use of technology-based interventions, they are increasingly being employed by social workers as a direct practice methodology to address the mental health needs of vulnerable clients. Researchers have highlighted the importance of using innovative technologies within social work practice, yet little has been done to summarize the evidence and collectively assess findings. In this systematic review, we describe accounts of technology-based mental health interventions delivered by social workers over the past 10 years. Results highlight the impacts of these tools and summarize advantages and disadvantages to utilizing technologies as a method for delivering or facilitating interventions.

  4. Making it lean applying lean practices to the work of it

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Howard


    Making IT Lean: Applying Lean Practices to the Work of IT presents Lean concepts and techniques for improving processes and eliminating waste in IT operations and IT Service Management, in a manner that is easy to understand. The authors provide a context for discussing several areas of application within this domain, allowing you to quickly gain insight into IT processes and Lean principles.The text reviews IT Service Management, with reference to the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL®) as a framework for best practices-explaining how to use it to accommod

  5. Profiles of eight working mothers who practiced exclusive breastfeeding in Depok, Indonesia. (United States)

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Wibowo, Yulianti; Fahmida, Umi; Roshita, Airin


    Exclusive breastfeeding practice is generally low because of multifaceted factors internally within mothers themselves and also the surroundings. In addition, studies have consistently found that maternal employment outside the home is related to shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding. With all these challenges, it is interesting that there are some mothers who manage to exclusively breastfeed their infants. Therefore, this report aims at exploring the characteristics of working mothers who are able to practice exclusive breastfeeding. The original study population was non-working and working mothers who have infants around 1 to 6 months old. The study design is an observational study with a mixed methods approach using a quantitative study (survey) and qualitative methods (in-depth interview) in sequential order. In addition, in-depth interviews with family members, midwives, supervisors at work, and community health workers were also included to accomplish a holistic picture of the situation. The study concludes that self-efficacy and confidence of the breastfeeding mothers characterize the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Good knowledge that was acquired way before the mothers got pregnant suggests a predisposing factor to the current state of confidence. Home support from the father enhances the decision to sustain breastfeeding.

  6. Using the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Evidence-Based Practice Kits in Social Work Education (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wodarski, John S.


    In today's climate, it is becoming increasingly important to provide social work students with practice knowledge on research-supported social work interventions. CSWE has placed greater emphasis on using research-based knowledge to inform and guide social work practice, and the field has recognized the value of adhering to the evidence-based…

  7. A practical guide to working with H2S at the interface of chemistry and biology. (United States)

    Hartle, Matthew D; Pluth, Michael D


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the most recently accepted endogenously produced gasotransmitter and is now implicated in a variety of physiological functions. In this tutorial review, our goal is to provide researchers new to the field of H2S chemical biology with practical considerations, pitfalls, and best practices to enable smooth entry into investigations focused on biological H2S. We present practical handling and safety considerations for working with this reactive biomolecule, and cover basic roles of H2S biogenesis and action. Experimental methods for modulating H2S levels, including enzymatic knockout, RNA silencing, enzymatic inhibition, and use of small molecule H2S donors are highlighted. Complementing H2S modulation techniques, we also highlight current strategies for H2S detection and quantification.

  8. The New Color is Green: Social Work Practice and Service-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T. Lucas-Darby


    Full Text Available Attention to saving the environment is gaining momentum daily. Citizens have a fundamental right to protect the environment from harm due to human activities. The profession of social work has a role to play in greening and sustaining the environment. The inclusion of this content in social work courses is a natural fit given the profession’s person-in-environment perspective which emphasizes the relationship between individuals, their behavior and the environment and advocacy for preservation of human welfare and human rights. Participatory environmentalism considers the role of community members in demonstrating their civic responsibility toward preservation of the natural environment and resources. Social work students must be encouraged to accept vital leadership roles that address environmental concerns in addition to serving client populations. A community practice course which includes a service-learning requirement chose “greening” as a theme. Students worked with communities to identify and implement semester-long “green” projects.

  9. Working with LGBT Individuals: Incorporating Positive Psychology into Training and Practice. (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C; Vaughan, Michelle D; Rodriguez, Eric M; Shmerler, David L


    This paper examines how positive psychology principles can be incorporated into clinical training and practice to work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) clients. LGBT psychology literature has all too often relied on heterosexual and cisgender reference groups as the norm with respect to psychological health, primarily framing the experiences of LGBT individuals through the lens of psychopathology. As a result, strengths that could be ascribed to the LGBT experience have been overlooked within training and practice. While positive psychology is actively being incorporated into clinical and counseling psychology curricula, broadening the paradigm to include LGBT individuals has generally not been included in the discussion. Specific recommendations for training psychologists to incorporate and foster positive social institutions, positive subjective experiences and character strengths when working with LGBT clients and celebrating their unique experiences are provided.

  10. Using Technology in Social Work Practice: The mDad (Mobile Device Assisted Dad Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna J. Lee


    Full Text Available Mobile technology presents an exciting opportunity for social workers to reach populations that are typically underserved by interventions and services. We present one application of technology that is particularly relevant to social work practice. The mDad (Mobile Device Assisted Dad app was developed to augment existing social work practices by providing a father-friendly tool to help new fathers learn about and engage with their infants and toddlers. We discuss the process of developing the app content and conducting usability testing of the mDad app. We conclude with a discussion of the lessons learned from the mDad project, and the challenges of implementation and dissemination of technology-based interventions in community contexts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández-Montaño


    Full Text Available This theoretical review is structured around two main parts: In one hand, an approach to the key concepts for Feminist Social Work, such as gender, sexism, violence based on gender and patriarchy, and in the other hand, an approach about the role of social workers against gender inequality, both practically and theoretical, allowing the author to analyzes the need for redefinition in this profession as essential for social transformation that advocates to social justice for women and men. Social Work is often limited to a corseted intervention in a patriarchal social system whose values apprehended continue inequality between women and men. This is why explore situations of inequality, analyze sexism and their origin, questioning the social structures that support them, it should be a part of the practical field of this profession.

  12. An inclusive approach to raising standards in general practice: working with a 'community of practice' in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilcox Helen


    substantially improved the quality of their referral letters. For recruitment it was important to work with a champion for the project from within the practice. The project took several months to complete therefore some GPs became disengaged. Some were very disappointed by their performance when compared to colleagues. This reaction may be an important motivation to change, however it needs to be sensitively handled if participants are not to become disillusioned or disheartened.

  13. It takes a Village: community practice, social work, and aging-in-place. (United States)

    McDonough, Kathryn E; Davitt, Joan K


    The US population of older adults will increase significantly in the coming decades. Most of these individuals prefer to age in their homes/communities. However, most communities are not prepared to handle the long-term care needs of an aging population. This article examines one model that communities are using to help older adults age-in-place, the Village. A conceptual lens based in community practice and empowerment theory is offered to explicate this model and critically evaluate social work's role in it. It also presents challenges to social work roles in facilitation and evaluation of the model.

  14. Post 9-11 Terror Hysteria: Social Work Practice and The US Patriot Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred H. Besthorn


    Full Text Available It was only weeks after the planes crashed into the twin towers on that bright, sunlit morning of September 11th, 200l, that it became apparent that the most important challenge now facing American democracy was how well would we strike a balance between liberty and security. This paper will look at the history of civil liberties in light of threats to national security. It will examine components of the US Patriot Act, how these provisions are being applied and the potential implication of the act on social work education and practice. Suggestions of how social work might respond to these new realities will be discussed.

  15. Good practice guidelines for clinical psychologists working in paediatric cochlear implant teams. (United States)

    Bathgate, Fionna; Bennett, Emily; Cropper, Jenny; Edwards, Lindsey; Emond, Alice; Gamble, Caroline; Kentish, Rosie; Samuel, Victoria


    There are relatively few clinical psychologists working in paediatric cochlear implant centres in the UK and in this respect we lag behind other countries such as the USA and The Netherlands. In an effort to promote the added value our profession can offer teams, the clinical psychologists working in paediatric CI centres have put together good practice guidelines. This article outlines the rationale for putting together the guidelines, highlights the unique contribution clinical psychologists can offer, outlines the evidence base for psychological input in this clinical population, and offers a fictional case study for illustration.

  16. Doing the work of reference practical tips for excelling as a reference librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S


    Become more versatile, competent, and resourceful with these practical suggestions!Becoming a first-class reference librarian demands proficiency in a wide range of skills. Doing the Work of Reference offers sound advice for the full spectrum of your responsibilities. Though many aspects of a reference librarian's work are changing with astonishing speed, the classic principles in this volume will never go out of date. This comprehensive volume begins with hints for orienting yourself to a new job and concludes with ideas for serving the profession. On the way, Doing the Wo

  17. How to do a grounded theory study: a worked example of a study of dental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Grounded theory is the methodology most-often cited by authors of qualitative studies in medicine, but it has been suggested that many 'grounded theory' studies are not concordant with the methodology. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Methods We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice. Results We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. Conclusions By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.

  18. Social Work Gerontological Practice: The Need for Faculty Development in the New Millennium. (United States)

    Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L


    There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium.

  19. A psychiatric medication decision support guide for social work practice with pregnant and postpartum women. (United States)

    Bentley, Kia J; Price, Sarah Kye; Cummings, Cory R


    In their work in human services organizations and community agencies across service sectors, social workers encounter pregnant and postpartum women experiencing mental health challenges. This article offers an evidence-informed Decision Support Guide designed for use by social workers working with pregnant and postpartum women who are struggling with complicated decisions about psychiatric medication use. The guide is built on contemporary notions of health literacy and shared decision making and is informed by three areas: (1) research into the lived experiences of pregnant and postpartum women and health care providers around psychiatric medication decision making, (2) a critical review of existing decision aids, and (3) feedback on the strategy from social work practitioners who work with pregnant and postpartum women. Emphasizing the relational nature of social work in supporting effective health-related decision making, the guide relies on maintaining a collaborative practice milieu and using a decision aid that engages clients in discussions about mental health during and around the time of pregnancy. The guide offers social workers a practice tool to support responsive and compassionate care by embracing their roles in problem solving and decision making, providing emotional and psychosocial support, and making appropriate referrals to prescribers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Čekić Bašić


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the social work profession is considered to be a profession “promoting ... empowerment and liberation of individuals in order to attain greater level of well-being“, the inclusion of the user perspective is a relatively new and still much debated phenomenon. Having in mind that the involvement of service users as experience experts in social work practice, education and research is a very demanding and complex process, the paper analyses a number of challenges faced by social workers, teachers and researchers in their everyday work due to the requirement of inclusion of the service user perspective. The idea of service user involvement in planning, execution and evaluation of curricular contents is a quite recent one in Bosnia and Herzegovina since the social work education reflects the idea on professionals (social workers, teachers or researchers as ultimate knowledge holders. The author defines two categories of factors obstructing the service user involvement in the education and research process: one is related to education institutions and the other to service users, i.e. their organizations, and discusses necessary prerequisites for stronger connections between institutions (departments of social work, practice and service users.

  1. Performing global citizenship: women NGO workers' negotiations of complicities in their work practices


    de Jong, Sara


    The practices of NGOs and development agencies located in the global North have been criticised for displaying (post-)colonial continuities. Concurrently, western feminism has been critiqued for assuming universality in the experiences of white western women. Hence there is a need for reflection on operating within and resisting of these power structures. Using interview data, this thesis investigates the reflections of women NGO workers located in the global North working on gendered iss...

  2. Supporting chemistry teachers in implementing formative assessment of investigative practical work in Botswana


    Motswiri, Moipolai Joseph


    With the assumption that exemplary curriculum materials have the potential to serve as an effective support for teachers implementing an innovative curriculum reform, this study was initiated in September 1999. Its aim was to investigate the characteristics of BGCSE exemplary curriculum materials (consisting of a teacher guide and students' materials) meant to support teachers in the implementation of formative assessment of investigative practical work in Form 4 upper secondary chemistry cla...

  3. [Biochemistry for the benefit of humanity (practical achievements of my scientific work)]. (United States)

    Huliĭ, M F


    Science unites theory and practice, but theory is always in advance. Even our works (mentioned above) which are also important for practice and were awarded the State prizes could not be made without preliminary theoretical investigations. It should be said that our works with elaborated methods of therapy and drugs to treat chronic alcoholism, drug addiction, leucosis are rather of theoretical than of practical importance. Some our works which proved that carbon dioxide is the basis of life are also of especially great theoretical value. The paper deals with the investigations devoted to the problems of biochemistry in cattle breeding (the raising of fat content in milk; elaboration of the efficient method of fodder ensilage; raising of milk yield using the drug "Karboxilin"; development of the methods of isolation of crystalline glucose-oxidase and catalase used for clarifying blood) as well as to the problems of biochemistry in medicine (creation of the drug "Microcid", antileucosis drug "Corectin", drugs "Medichronal" and "Medicit" for treating alcoholism and drug addiction, drug "Namacit" for hindering the organism aging). Great attention is given to the problem of relations between the theoretical conception concerning the importance of CO2 in vital activity of human and animal organism and production of new drugs.

  4. Project work across borders in the arctic Barents region: practical challenges for project members. (United States)

    Immonen, Ingrid; Anderssen, Norman; Lvova, Maria


    The aim of this article was to explore cross-border project cooperation in applied settings in health education as this emerges in the Barents region. Specifically, we wanted to identify the practical challenges for those who participate in the work. This is of direct and indirect relevance to nursing education due to the rapidly increasing student exchange rates, the teachers' increased impetus to take part in international collaboration, and the increased emphasis within nursing education to be culture sensitive and ethnically fair. The considerable differences between countries in the Barents region present clear challenges. Knowledge based on experience from everyday cross-cultural and multinational project work has not been communicated extensively, and each project will have to acquire its own knowledge. Based on participation in various cross-national collaboration projects, we organize the identified practical challenges into five interrelated, everyday challenges: (1) cultural differences: obvious and overlooked, (2) the continuous challenge of language, (3) organizational variations, (4) possibilities and obstacles related to technology, and (5) the important minutiae of project logistics. These exist in all stages of a project. In project applications, these challenges and corresponding realistic consequences for funding are vital. Nursing students and their teachers should be aware that practical cross-national project work poses important challenges that nevertheless might be overcome.

  5. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others


    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  6. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others


    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  7. Barriers to effective practice for health visitors working with asylum seekers and refugees. (United States)

    Burchill, John; Pevalin, David


    The objective of this study was to determine the barriers to effective practice that health visitors experience when working with refugees and asylum seekers. This was a qualitative study based on the analysis of in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 14 health visitors describing their experiences working with refugees and asylum seekers. These were analysed using the Framework process, a thematic matrix-based analytical method. The findings identified that the barriers to effectiveness for health visitors when working with refugees and asylum seekers were underpinned by ineffective use of services and stretched resources. The results imply that commissioners of services need to have an understanding of these barriers to commission effectively.

  8. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel


    Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001) across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.

  9. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissela eBergman Nutley


    Full Text Available Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM during development. Subjects (n = 352 between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64 on two or three occasions, two years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, Verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002, processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027 and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001 across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008, areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, Verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006 but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090. These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other afterschool activites. In conclusion, these results indicates that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.

  10. Australian and South African perspectives on the implementation of flexible work practices (Fwp: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta Odendaal


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify examples of good and innovative practices of Flexible Work Practices to benchmark against and then to use the information to develop strategies of implementation that will assist South African organisations to emulate their success. One hundred-and-twenty (120 individuals, representing different stakeholder groups were requested to complete a questionnaire, based on an Australian study. Comparative findings of both countries strongly confirmed variables that are positively associated with the adoption and successful implementation of Flexible Work Practices (FWP. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om voorbeelde van goeie en innoverende gebruike van Buigsame Werkspraktyke te identifiseer ten einde daarteen te kan vergelyk, en dan om hierdie inligting te gebruik ten einde implementeringstrategieë te ontwikkel wat Suid Afrikaanse maatskappye kan gebruik om sukses na te volg. Honderd en twintig (120 individue, wat verskillende belangegroepe verteenwoordig, is genader om ‘n vraelys, gebaseer op ‘n Australiese studie, te voltooi. Vergelykende bevindinge van beide lande bevestig veranderlikes wat positief geassosieer word met die aanvaarding en suksesvolle implementering van Buigsame Werkspraktyke (BWP.

  11. Investigating the exercise-prescription practices of nurses working in inpatient mental health settings. (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda; Reaburn, Peter


    Nurses working in mental health are well positioned to prescribe exercise to people with mental illness. However, little is known regarding their exercise-prescription practices. We examined the self-reported physical activity and exercise-prescription practices of nurses working in inpatient mental health facilities. Thirty-four nurses completed the Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire - Health Practitioner Version. Non-parametric bivariate statistics revealed no relationship between nurses' self-reported physical activity participation and the frequency of exercise prescription for people with mental illness. Exercise-prescription parameters used by nurses are consistent with those recommended for both the general population and for people with mental illness. A substantial number of barriers to effective exercise prescription, including lack of training, systemic issues (such as prioritization and lack of time), and lack of consumer motivation, impact on the prescription of exercise for people with mental illness. Addressing the barriers to exercise prescription could improve the proportion of nurses who routinely prescribe exercise. Collaboration with exercise professionals, such as accredited exercise physiologists or physiotherapists, might improve knowledge of evidence-based exercise-prescription practices for people with mental illness, thereby improving both physical and mental health outcomes for this vulnerable population.

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Design, Operation, and Maintenance Requirements (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work Practice Standards-Design... Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Design, Operation, and Maintenance Requirements As stated... step into an electrolyzer bottom, either remove all visible mercury from your footwear or replace...

  13. Beliefs and Practices about Writing in a Foreign Language among Economists Working in Two Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    or publishability. Simultaneously language-policy scholars have problematised the predominance of English in many academic fields. There is of course a great deal of individual variation in terms of language choice and publication success. We investigated the writing practices of some 75 Danish academics in various......Product-oriented analyses have shown that academic English (the predominant L2 in their environment: Phillipson and Skuttnab-Kongas 1995) written by Scandinavian writers differs from that of L1 English writers in ways that might work to the disadvantage of the writers in terms of recognition...... fields of economics and business studies by means of a questionnaire, and then interviewed a proportion of the respondents to get a richer sense of their practices, the intertextuality that lies behind them, the factors that lead to differential language choice and success, and the academics´ attitude...

  14. Integration of Religion and Spirituality With Social Work Practice in Disability Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Higashida


    Full Text Available This case study examines the integration of religion and spirituality (RS into disability issues from the perspective of social work in Sri Lanka. Participant observation was applied in the model administrative division of the national community-based rehabilitation (CBR program in Anuradhapura from February 2013 to January 2015. Theravada Buddhists constitute more than 99% of the population in the area studied. The participation opportunities included group activities, home visits to disabled people, and informal interviews with stakeholders. This study used the author’s field notes, which were based on the participant observation. By applying qualitative analysis, episodes and narratives were summarized into two main categories: RS-related activities and secondary RS-related phenomena. We found that the possible functions of RS practices, by disabled people and the other stakeholders, were alternative education, promotion of participation, and a sense of unity. These findings suggest that integration can be the practice to reconstruct RS aspects in disability issues.

  15. Using focus groups to identify characteristics of an ideal work environment for Advanced Practice Clinicians. (United States)

    Motley, Robert J; Mazzaccaro, Richard J; Burmeister, David B; Land, Samuel D; Boulay, Richard M; Chung, Heiwon; Deitrick, Lynn; Sumner, Andrew D


    Advanced Practice Clinicians (APCs) in collaborative practice represent a diverse and valuable group of health care professionals, including nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives. Because these healthcare professionals have been identified as part of the solution to physician shortages, it is critical for health networks to examine and address issues affecting collaborative relationships. We invited our network APCs to participate in focus group sessions to determine both attributes and barriers to an ideal work environment. Four major themes emerged: (1) compensation, (2) network representation, (3) employment structure, and (4) workplace culture. While issues relating to compensation and representation were prevalent, discussions also revealed the importance of relationships and communication. To ensure successful collaboration and, thereby, reduce clinician turnover, leaders must address gaps between the existing and ideal states in structural factors affecting job satisfaction (Themes 1-3) as well as the behavioral factors represented in workplace culture (Theme 4).

  16. Empowering school social work practices for positive youth development: Hong Kong experience. (United States)

    To, Siu-ming


    Empowerment has become a popular concept in working with adolescents in recent years. It challenges the deficit model of youth work and focuses on creating a facilitative climate in which young people can make maximum use of the opportunity to learn and grow. While many practitioners have adopted the empowerment approach in youth services, however, we know little about the possibilities for empowerment practice in the field of school social work. Based on the findings of a qualitative study conducted in Hong Kong, this paper explores how school social workers engage in different dimensions of empowerment: (1) the personal dimension in regard to how students recapture a sense of competence to meet life challenges and fight for their own benefits; (2) the school and community dimensions in regard to how practitioners collaborate with service users and partners to initiate constructive changes to school policies and strengthen the school-community partnership for student development; and (3) the institutional dimension in regard to how practitioners play the advocacy role in the education sector. The findings provide rich information for other youth workers, especially those who render service in the school setting, as they apply the empowerment approach in daily practice.

  17. Racism, anti-racist practice and social work: articulating the teaching and learning experiences of Black social workers


    Wainwright, John


    In the mid 1990s a Black practice teacher programme was established in Manchester and Merseyside with the primary aim to increase the number of Black practice teachers in social work organisations, and in turn provide a supportive and encouraging learning environment for Black student social workers whilst on placement. In the north‐west of England research has been undertaken, to establish the quality of the practice teaching and student learning taking place with Black practice teachers and...

  18. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaghuis Sarah S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. Methods The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a framework development; b instrument development; and c field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112. Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation. Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. Results The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p Conclusions The theoretical framework offers a valuable starting point for the analysis of sustainability on the level of actual changed work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the evaluation of improvement projects.

  19. Work. (United States)

    Haines, Annette M.


    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that…

  20. Are new work practices and new technologies biased against immigrant workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Røed, Marianne; Pål, Schøne


    regression Tobit models are estimated. The dependent variable is wage costs share of immigrants at the plant. The important explanatory variables are measures of new technologies and work practices. Findings – The results show that workplaces where employees use personal computers intensively and have broad...... autonomy hire fewer non-western immigrants who have not been raised in Norway. The negative relationship is especially strong for low-skilled non-western immigrants. Originality/value – The estimation framework for studying this topic is new. The paper also presents original evidence on the relationship...

  1. Work-Practice Changes Associated with an Electronic Emergency-Department Whiteboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper


    Electronic whiteboards are introduced at emergency departments (EDs) to improve work practices. This study investigates whether the time physicians and nurses at an ED spend in patient rooms versus at the control desk increases after the introduction of an electronic whiteboard. After using...... this whiteboard for four months nurses, but not physicians, spend more of their time with the patients. With the electronic whiteboard, nurses spend 28% of their time in patient rooms and physicians 20%. Importantly, the changes facilitated by the electronic whiteboard are also dependent on implementation issues...

  2. Prisoner reentry: a public health or public safety issue for social work practice? (United States)

    Patterson, George T


    A significant literature identifies the policy, economic, health, and social challenges that confront released prisoners. This literature also describes the public health and public safety risks associated with prisoner reentry, provides recommendations for improving the reentry process, and describes the effectiveness of prison-based programs on recidivism rates. Public health and public safety risks are particularly significant in communities where large numbers of prisoners are released and few evidence-based services exist. The purpose of this article is to describe the public health and public safety risks that released prisoners experience when they reenter communities, and to discuss the social justice issues relevant for social work practice.

  3. Assessment of knowledge, practices, and work place condition related to ergonomics among dental students of Bhopal city - A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Munaga


    Full Text Available Background: Dental profession is susceptible to various postural and nonpostural occupational risks. Aim : To determine knowledge, practice, and condition of work place regarding ergonomic posture among dental students from Bhopal city, Central India. Also to observe any correlation among knowledge, practice, and condition of work place scores. Materials and Methods : A self-administered questionnaire study was conducted among 231 dental students. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: Knowledge, practice, and condition of work place. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean of knowledge, practice of clinical posture, and condition of work place. Pearson′s correlation coefficient has been applied to compute correlation among knowledge, practice, and condition of work place scores. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. Results : We found that 70% of dental students perform torsion of the body and cervical flexion to improve vision and prefer direct vision when working. Only 59% reported that they are working with ergonomically designed dental unit and instruments. Most of them reported that the work stool is not comfortable. Mean knowledge, practice, and condition of work place scores were 3.93 (1.26, 5.01 (1.58, and 2.60 (1.14, respectively. Significant differences between the groups were noted for means of practice scores (P ≤ 0.01. Significant linear correlation was seen between knowledge-practice scores (r = 0.20 (P ≤ 0.01, practice-condition of work place scores (r = 0.14 (P ≤ 0.05, and knowledge-condition of work place scores (r = 0.14 (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion : The knowledge of ergonomic postural requirements and their clinical application among the dental students surveyed were not satisfactory. A multifactorial approach that includes preventive education, postural and positioning strategies, proper selection, and use of ergonomic equipment should be employed.

  4. The work of nurses in the Family Health Strategy - aspects of promoting health practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Abrahão


    Full Text Available The study was focused on the identification of strategies of care focused on health promotion, used in the work of nurses in family health. It is a descriptive study in a qualitative approach performed in the health units in the city of Iguaba Grande, RJ, Brazil. As a result two categories emerged. The first one, ‘Tension in the area of the caregiver’ found that the work of professionals is guided in a permanent tension between the practice focused on the use of instruments from the biomedical model and actions to create a dialogical care. ‘Production of unique areas’ demonstrated that nurses value the unique needs of the health users. It is concluded that strategies of health promotion from the investigative experience incorporate elements of production of unique areas under tensions from the clinical model of attention, leading to a creative investment and creator of strategies in this setting of primary care.

  5. Effect of empowerment on professional practice environments, work satisfaction, and patient care quality: further testing the Nursing Worklife Model. (United States)

    Spence Laschinger, Heather K


    The purpose of this study was to test Leiter and Laschinger's Nursing Worklife Model linking structural empowerment to Lake's 5-factor professional practice work environment model and work quality outcomes. A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 234 staff nurses. The analysis revealed that professional practice environment characteristics mediated the relationship between structurally empowering work conditions and both job satisfaction and nurse-assessed patient care quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Osca


    Full Text Available Work-related accidents are a problem of extreme importance due to their serious consequences. Available data on the level of personal injuries and on the economic cost of work accidents justify their study. However, the amount of variables involved, the difficulty of accessing the data and “experimental mortality”, among other reasons, may explain why this field is not a highly attractive one for researchers. Nevertheless, over the last few years, there has been a significant increase in research studies related to this area not only in our country but also in neighbouring countries. The economic crisis has aggravated this problem as employment has become more precarious. This article summarizes the principal results of two research projects carried out by the Social and Organizational Psychology Department of UNED on work-related accidents. The sample of the first study is made up of professional soldiers and the second comprises workers from two especially dangerous sectors, construction and agriculture. Following previous classifications that distinguish between personal, job and organizational variables, we review the main models and data obtained. Several practical recommendations to improve the research in this field as well as the prevention of work-related accidents can be found at the end of this article.

  7. Advancing the Africentric paradigm shift discourse: building toward evidence-based Africentric interventions in social work practice with African Americans. (United States)

    Gilbert, Dorie J; Harvey, Aminifu R; Belgrave, Faye Z


    For over a decade, a number of social work scholars have advocated for an Africentric paradigm shift in social work practice with African Americans; yet the paradigm shift has been slow in coming with respect to infusing Africentric theory and interventions into social work practice, education, and research. Interventions that infuse Africentric values (such as interdependence, collectivism, transformation, and spirituality) have been shown to create significant change across a number of areas important to social work practice with African Americans. However, a barrier to the full integration of Africentric models into social work practice is that Africentric programs lack cohesive documentation and replication and, thus, have limited potential to be established as evidence-based practices. The authors present an overview of various Africentric interventions, including their program components and methods of evaluation, with the aim of establishing guideposts or next steps in developing a discourse on Africentric interventions that are promising best practices or are emerging as evidence-based practices. The authors conclude with implications for social work practice, education, and research and a call for Africentric scholars to engage in increased discussion, dissemination of manualized treatments, and collaborative research to build the evidence-based Africentric knowledge base and foster replication of studies.

  8. Secondment as a means of practice development for Community Learning Disability Nurses working with children. (United States)

    Cheseldine, Sally; Brown, Marie; Wilkie, Fiona


    Many Community Learning Disability Nurses (CLDNs) in Scotland who work with children will have had some child health input during their registered nurse education programme, but often not specific to the needs of children who might be referred to them now as result of population changes, community care policy and improved methods of diagnosis (PHIS, 2004). Community nurses have relatively poor skills in detecting and managing mental health problems and identify training as a means of addressing this (Fox et al., 2003). To address the practice development needs identified by CLDNs through their Personal Development Plans (PDPs), secondments were provided to a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) for children and young people with learning disabilities for 2 days a week for six months. This was taken up by five CLDNs over a period of 3 years. The goals they set in their secondments were evaluated using Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS). This paper aims to discuss the use of GAS within secondments, as a means of identifying learning needs and developing practice in the area of CAMH nursing. The background to the paper, work based learning, health needs of children with LD and GAS are highlighted. Recommendations for future development are made.

  9. Preparedness for clinical practice - Perceptions of graduates and their work supervisors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, S.J. [School of Health Care Professions, Allerton Building, University of Salford, Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Anderson, A.C. [Tameside General Hospital, Fountain Street, Lancashire (United Kingdom); Hogg, P. [School of Health Care Professions, Allerton Building, University of Salford, Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: The standards of performance of healthcare professionals are now well defined and used to determine health professional curricula. Empirical research evidence exists in medicine and nursing which explores how well these curricula prepare their students for clinical practice but not in the radiography profession. This research aims to determine how well prepared newly qualified radiographers were for clinical practice and to identify strengths and weaknesses in their preparedness to inform curriculum development. Methods: A postal questionnaire and semi-structured interview were used to obtain data from newly qualified diagnostic radiographers and their work-based supervisors. The questionnaire assessed graduate preparedness against a number of items drawn from published documents which define UK radiographic practice. Statistical analysis, using ANOVA and Wilcoxon, examined differences between the groups' perception of preparedness. A sample of graduates and their work supervisors were interviewed to explore preparedness. Results: There were significant differences (p {<=} 0.05) between; the preparedness scores of the graduates and supervisors, with supervisors rating the graduates higher than the graduates themselves; subscales of teamwork (p {<=} 0.05), personal attributes (p {<=} 0.05) and digital skills (p {<=} 0.01). No significant differences were found between graduates employed in their training hospital and those employed elsewhere. Interview data revealed perceived areas of graduate strength, weaknesses and areas for curriculum development. Suggestions for improvement to the methodology were identified for exploring preparedness in other health professional programmes. Conclusion: The graduates were well prepared for their role as a diagnostic radiographer. Some curriculum development is needed in specific areas and advice on methodological improvement is offered.

  10. Developing clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy: A report from the ILAE Epilepsy Guidelines Working Group. (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Perucca, Emilio; French, Jacqueline; Dunkley, Colin; de Marinis, Alejandro; Kirkpatrick, Martin; Jetté, Nathalie


    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contain evidence-based recommendations to guide clinical care, policy development, and quality of care improvement. A recent systematic review of epilepsy guidelines identified considerable variability in the quality of available guidelines. Although excellent frameworks for CPG development exist, processes are not followed uniformly internationally, and resources to develop CPGs may be limited in certain settings. An International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) working group was charged with proposing methodology to guide the development of future epilepsy-specific CPGs. A comprehensive literature search (1985-2014) identified articles related to CPG development and handbooks. Guideline handbooks were included if they were publicly available, and if their methodology had been used to develop CPGs. The working group's expertise also informed the creation of methodologies and processes to develop future CPGs for the ILAE. Five handbooks from North America (American Academy of Neurology), Europe (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network & National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), Australia (National Health and Medical Research Council), World Health Organization (WHO), and additional references were identified to produce evidence-based, consensus-driven methodology for development of epilepsy-specific CPGs. Key components of CPG development include the following: identifying the topic and defining the scope; establishing a working group; identifying and evaluating the evidence; formulating recommendations and determining strength of recommendations; obtaining peer reviews; dissemination, implementation, and auditing; and updating and retiring the CPG. A practical handbook and toolkit was developed. The resulting CPG development toolkit should facilitate the development of high-quality ILAE CPGs to improve the care of persons with epilepsy.

  11. Spatial conception of activities: a socio-cognitive perspective for simulating work practices. (United States)

    Clancey, William J


    People conceive their everyday affairs (their practices) as social actors in activities, in which they perceive, infer, move, manipulate objects, and communicate in some physical setting (e.g., going to the grocery to buy dinner). These behaviors are conceptually choreographed in an ongoing, usually tacit understanding of "what I'm doing now," encapsulating roles ("who I'm being now"), norms ("what I should be doing"; "how I should be dressed/talking/sitting"), and progress appraisals ("how well I'm doing"). Activity motives and modalities vary widely (e.g., waiting in line, listening to music, sleeping), all of which require time and occur in particular settings. Brahms is a multi-agent work systems design tool for modeling and simulating activities, used extensively to design aerospace work systems. For example, the Generalized Überlingen Model (Brahms-GÜM) simulates air transportation practices, focusing on how pilots and air traffic controllers interact with automated systems in safety-critical, time-pressured encounters. Spatial cognition is pervasive: scanning displays of multiple workstations; coordinating airspaces and flight paths; and prioritizing and timing interventions to maintain aircraft separations. Brahms-GÜM demonstrates how events may become unpredictable when aspects of the work system are missing or malfunctioning, making a routinely complicated system into one that is cognitively complex and becomes out of control. Normally, asynchronous processes become coupled in space and time, leading to difficulty comprehending the situation ("what is happening now") as a familiar multi-modal flow of events. Such examples illustrate the dynamics of spatial cognition inherent in our conceptually situated experience--our consciousness--of who we are and what we are doing.

  12. Is Social Work Evidence-Based? Does Saying So Make It So? Ongoing Challenges in Integrating Research, Practice and Policy (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen


    The integration of research and practice is of concern in all helping professions. Has social work become an evidence-based profession as some claim? Characteristics of current-day social work are presented that dispute this view, related continuing concerns are suggested, and promising developments (mostly outside social work) are described that…

  13. Social Work Intervention Research With Adult Cancer Patients: A Literature Review and Reflection on Knowledge-Building for Practice. (United States)

    Pockett, Rosalie; Dzidowska, Monika; Hobbs, Kim


    The results of a literature review of social work intervention research with adult cancer patients found only a small number of studies conducted by social work researchers. The findings of the review are presented followed by a reflective discussion on the nature of knowledge-building and research knowledge for practice. Knowledge building is considered as a continuous, negotiated process within communities of practice focused on psychosocial perspectives that draw on a range of knowledge sources. Epistemology, worldviews and research orientations are considered along with the values and stance of social work, all of which create the domain of the practice-researcher.

  14. Examining the premises supporting the empirically supported intervention approach to social work practice. (United States)

    McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene


    Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations.

  15. Bridging the gap between research-supported interventions and everyday social work practice: a new approach. (United States)

    Rubin, Allen


    This article describes a rationale for a focus on case studies that would provide a database of single-group pre-post mean effect sizes that could be analyzed to identify which service provision characteristics are associated with more desirable outcomes when interventions supported by randomized clinical trials are adapted in everyday practice settings. In addition, meta-analyses are proposed that would provide benchmarks that agency practitioners could compare with their mean effect size to inform their decisions about whether to continue, modify, or replace existing efforts to adopt or adapt a specific research-supported treatment. Social workers should be at the forefront of the recommended studies in light of the profession's emphasis on applied research in real-world settings and the prominence of social work practitioners in such settings.

  16. Advancing work practices: Rethinking online professional development in the context of intervention-based sustainable change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack


    -executed instructional interventions will advance work practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper synthesizes contemporary social-psychological and educational research in the creation of a model of intervention-based change. In addition, the findings from an empirical study of online teacher professional...... development simultaneously inspire and exemplify the model. Findings The paper suggests that increased attention to individual motivational drivers is needed, especially post intervention, to help ensure meaningful learning transfer and sustainable behavior change. The importance of individualized on...... interventions currently. It conceptualizes intervention-based change and the key motivational drivers of such change. In doing so, it illuminates highly contextual dynamics presumed to have a critical impact on the effectiveness of e-Learning for PD....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper focused on an overview of the different approaches in the literature to the concept of high performance work practices (HPWP, showing how this term evolves over time. Analyzing the literature, the significance of this term are seen as an evolved with customer requirements. Organizations need employees easily adaptable, able to meet customer needs in a timely manner. Therefore, organizations must on the one hand to satisfy their customers, on the other hand, employees, those in which firms can achieve their goals. Currently have placed particular emphasis on employee motivation, training, their involvement in decision making, delegation of authority, remuneration based on performance, rewarding loyalty. All above are considered HPWP and the AMO model is representative of these. The implementation of HPWP is a current problem for organizations wishing to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. In this sense, this article may provide information of interest to business.

  18. Designing sociotechnical systems with cognitive work analysis: putting theory back into practice. (United States)

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Stanton, Neville A


    Cognitive work analysis (CWA) is a framework of methods for analysing complex sociotechnical systems. However, the translation from the outputs of CWA to design is not straightforward. Sociotechnical systems theory provides values and principles for the design of sociotechnical systems which may offer a theoretically consistent basis for a design approach for use with CWA. This article explores the extent to which CWA and sociotechnical systems theory offer complementary perspectives and presents an abstraction hierarchy (AH), based on a review of literature, that describes an 'optimal' CWA and sociotechnical systems theory design system. The optimal AH is used to assess the extent to which current CWA-based design practices, uncovered through a survey of CWA practitioners, aligns with sociotechnical systems theory. Recommendations for a design approach that would support the integration of CWA and sociotechnical systems theory design values and principles are also derived.

  19. Social Work Practice with Arab Families: The Implications of Spirituality vis-à-vis Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Hall


    Full Text Available In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, spiritualism has become apparent as critical to social work practice with Arab families. Regrettably, research on Arab families today is all but non-existent.Their belief in Islam is the fastest growing form of spirituality in Central Asia. Social workers who do not acknowledge this fact will be at a severe disadvantage in their attempts to treat Arab clientele. It is not compulsory that practitioners endorse client belief systems or other aspects of their spirituality, but practitioners should acknowledge said systems as a critical point in the client’s frame of reference. In the interest of social justice, social workers are thus challenged to develop creative treatment strategies less confined to Western bias.

  20. Integration of a nationally procured electronic health record system into user work practices

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    Cresswell Kathrin M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that many small- and medium-scale Electronic Health Record (EHR implementations encounter problems, these often stemming from users' difficulties in accommodating the new technology into their work practices. There is the possibility that these challenges may be exacerbated in the context of the larger-scale, more standardised, implementation strategies now being pursued as part of major national modernisation initiatives. We sought to understand how England's centrally procured and delivered EHR software was integrated within the work practices of users in selected secondary and specialist care settings. Methods We conducted a qualitative longitudinal case study-based investigation drawing on sociotechnical theory in three purposefully selected sites implementing early functionality of a nationally procured EHR system. The complete dataset comprised semi-structured interview data from a total of 66 different participants, 38.5 hours of non-participant observation of use of the software in context, accompanying researcher field notes, and hospital documents (including project initiation and lessons learnt reports. Transcribed data were analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches, and drawing on NVivo8 software to facilitate coding. Results The nationally led "top-down" implementation and the associated focus on interoperability limited the opportunity to customise software to local needs. Lack of system usability led users to employ a range of workarounds unanticipated by management to compensate for the perceived shortcomings of the system. These had a number of knock-on effects relating to the nature of collaborative work, patterns of communication, the timeliness and availability of records (including paper and the ability for hospital management to monitor organisational performance. Conclusions This work has highlighted the importance of addressing potentially adverse

  1. Aplication of the Simulation Process During the Working Practice of Chemical Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jesús Muñoz Batista


    Full Text Available The success of chemical engineering graduates depends on their aptitude and the skills received during the academic formation. Employers not only require that graduates have the knowledge of basic chemical engineering principles but knowing how to apply this knowledge in solving practical problems. In this paper, one form to obtain important skills is presented. The working practice is one of the most important subjects in the curriculum. HYSYS simulator which can realize the energetic evaluation was introduced. A simulation model of the preheat train of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit was obtained. The model was built using prebuilt models in HYSYS, however a fired heater to steady state doesn’t exist. In this case, a spreadsheet was utilized in programming the energetic evaluation. Sometimes it is useful because it is necessary to use our models for specific equipment. Finally, the model was utilized to predict the system efficiency when changes on the operation variables occur. The use of simulation inside of core subjects helps to improve the level and quality of students’ formation.

  2. Data Mining for Social Work Students: Teaching Practice-Based Research in Conjunction with a Field Work Placement (United States)

    Auslander, Gail K.; Rosenne, Hadas


    Although research studies are important for social work students, the students rarely like research classes or see their value. At the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, one group of BSW students was encouraged to carry out the required research in their field work setting, the Hadassah University Medical Center. Students used data mining, that is,…

  3. "Teamwork" or "Working as a Team"? The Theory and Practice of Top Team Working in UK Higher Education (United States)

    Woodfield, Steve; Kennie, Tom


    This article focuses on the theory and practice of teamwork in "top management teams" in UK higher education institutions. It is informed by some of the key findings from a recent two-year research project sponsored by the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education that investigated the different ways in which UK higher education…

  4. Trainers and Learners Constructing a Community of Practice: Masculine Work Cultures and Learning Safety in the Mining Industry. (United States)

    Somerville, Margaret; Abrahamsson, Lena


    Interviews and observations involving 20 coal miners and 7 trainers found the group constructed a community of practice that reinforced the culture of masculinity. Miners learned safety measures through experience and from coworkers. Trainers viewed their work as simulated environments and codified practices, which implicitly devalue experiential…

  5. "Named Small but Doing Great": An Investigation of Small-Scale Chemistry Experimentation for Effective Undergraduate Practical Work (United States)

    Tesfamariam, Gebrekidan Mebrahtu; Lykknes, Annette; Kvittingen, Lise


    In theory, practical work is an established part of university-level chemistry courses. However, mainly due to budget constraints, large class size, time constraints and inadequate teacher preparations, practical activities are frequently left out from chemistry classroom instruction in most developing countries. Small-scale chemistry (SSC)…

  6. Implementation of Evidence-Based Models in Social Work Practice: Practitioners' Perspectives on an MST Trial in Sweden (United States)

    Gustle, Lars-Henry; Hansson, Kjell; Sundell, Knut; Andree-Lofholm, Cecilia


    The implementation of new treatment methods in social work practice is warranted. Moreover, little is known about professionals' attitudes toward the introduction of evidence-based practices into their communities. Therefore, this article reports on the implementation of a Swedish research project that evaluated Multisystemic Therapy (MST). All…

  7. High performance work practices in small firms: a resource-poverty and strategic decision-making perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, B.; Voorde, F.C. van de; Timmers, J.


    High performance work practices (HPWPs) are human resource management practices aimed at stimulating employee and organisational performance. The application of HPWPs is not widespread in small organisations. We examine whether the implementation of coherent bundles of HPWPs (aimed at employee abili

  8. Cross-level effects of high-performance work practices on burnout: Two counteracting mediating mechanisms compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, F.C. van de; Kroon, B.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of management practices - specifically, high-performance work practices (HPWPs) - on employee burnout. Two potential mediating mechanisms that counterbalance each other in the development of burnout are compared: a critical mechanism that

  9. Nature, Genetics and the Biophilia Connection: Exploring Linkages with Social Work Values and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred H. Besthorn


    Full Text Available Social work’s notion of environment and its environmental responsibilities has always been narrowly defined. The profession has tended to either neglect natural environmental issues or accept shallow, ecological conceptualizations of nature as something other, quite separate from the human enterprise and/or outside the reach of social work activity. The Biophilia Hypothesis, first articulated by Harvard biologist E.O.Wilson in 1984, offers social work as a fundamentally different view of the person/environment construct and argues for a primary shift in the way the profession views its relationship with the natural world. This article traces the conceptual development of the Biophilic theory and reviews pivotal empirical evidence explicitly arguing for the essential Biophilic premise that humans have acquired, through their long evolutionary history, a strong genetic predisposition for nature and natural settings. It offers key insights and examples for incorporating Biophilia into social work’s values and knowledge base and how it may impact the profession’s practice strategies and techniques.

  10. Working practices and success of infection prevention and control teams: a scoping study. (United States)

    Hale, R; Powell, T; Drey, N S; Gould, D J


    Little research has been undertaken on how infection prevention and control (IPC) teams operate and how their effectiveness is assessed. This review aimed to explore how IPC teams embed IPC throughout hospitals, balance outbreak management with strategic aspects of IPC work (e.g. education), and how IPC team performance is measured. A scoping exercise was performed combining literature searches, evidence synthesis, and intelligence from expert advisers. Eleven publications were identified. One paper quantified how IPC nurses spend their time, two described daily activities of IPC teams, five described initiatives to embed IPC across organizations following legislation since 1999 in the UK or changes in the delivery of healthcare, and three explored the contribution of IPC intermediaries (link nurses and champions). Eight publications reported research findings. The others reported how IPC teams are embedding IPC practice in UK hospitals. In conclusion, there is scope for research to explore different models of IPC team-working and effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness. Other topics that need addressing are the willingness and ability of ward staff to assume increased responsibility for IPC and the effectiveness of intermediaries.

  11. Nurse Work Engagement Impacts Job Outcome and Nurse-Assessed Quality of Care: Model Testing with Nurse Practice Environment and Nurse Work Characteristics as Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mathieu Van Bogaert


    Full Text Available Key words: burnout,job satisfaction, nurse retention, nurse practice environment,quality of care, acute health care,structural equation modelling. Aim:To explore the mechanisms through which nurse practice environment dimensions are associated with job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care. Mediating variables tested included nurse work characteristics of workload, social capital, decision latitude, as well as work engagement dimensions of vigor, dedication and absorption.Background: Understanding to support and guide the practice community in their daily effort to answer most accurate complex care demands along with a stable nurse workforce are challenging.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method:Based on previous empirical findings,a structural equation model designed with valid measurement instruments was tested.The study population was registered acute care hospital nurses(N = 1201 in twoindependent hospitals and one hospital group with six hospitals in Belgium.Results: Nurse practice environment dimensions predicted job outcome variables and nurse ratings of quality of care.Analyses were consistent with features of nurses’ work characteristics including perceived workload,decision latitude,and social capital,as well as three dimension of work engagement playing mediating roles between nurse practice environment and outcomes.A revised model adjusted using various fit measures explained 60 % and 47 % of job outcomes and nurse - assessed quality of care,respectively.Conclusion: Study findings show that aspects of nurse work characteristics such as workload,decision latitude and social capital along with nurse work engagement(e.g.vigor, dedication and absorption play a role between how various stakeholders such as executives,nurse managers and physicians will organize care and how nurses perceive job outcomes and quality of care.

  12. Science-based prevention through communities that care: a model of social work practice for public health. (United States)

    Haggerty, Kevin P; Shapiro, Valerie B


    This article describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work's intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers.

  13. Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D. E.; Hooker, C. D.; Herrington, W. N.; Gilchrist, R. L.


    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

  14. General practice and specialist palliative care teams: an exploration of their working relationship from the perspective of clinical staff working in New Zealand. (United States)

    Keane, Barry; Bellamy, Gary; Gott, Merryn


    With the future focus on palliative and end-of-life care provision in the community, the role of the general practice team and their relationship with specialist palliative care providers is key to responding effectively to the projected increase in palliative care need. Studies have highlighted the potential to improve co-ordination and minimise fragmentation of care for people living with palliative care need through a partnership between generalist services and specialist palliative care. However, to date, the exact nature of this partnership approach has not been well defined and debate exists about how to make such partnerships work successfully. The aim of this study was to explore how general practice and specialist palliative care team (SPCT) members view their relationship in terms of partnership working. Five focus group discussions with general practices and SPCT members (n = 35) were conducted in 2012 in two different regions of New Zealand and analysed using a general inductive approach. The findings indicate that participants' understanding of partnership working was informed by their identity as a generalist or specialist, their existing rules of engagement and the approach they took towards sustaining the partnership. Considerable commitment to partnership working was shown by all participating teams. However, their working relationship was based primarily on trust and personal liaison, with limited formal systems in place to enable partnership working. Tensions between the cultures of 'generalism' and 'specialism' also provided challenges for those endeavouring to meet palliative care need collaboratively in the community. Further research is required to better understand the factors associated with successful partnership working between general practices and specialist palliative care in order to develop robust strategies to support a more sustainable model of community palliative care.

  15. Enhancing Practitioner Knowledge through a Unique Abstracting Format Used with "Research on Social Work Practice" Journal Articles (United States)

    Holosko, Michael J.


    In an effort to bridge the long-standing schism between social work researchers and practitioners, "Research on Social Work Practice" ("RSWP") presents an additional structured abstract for inclusion in their published articles called the practitioner knowledge abstract (PKA). Its conceptualization and rationale are presented, as are some case…

  16. Deliberate Practice in Medicine: The Motivation to Engage in Work-Related Learning and Its Contribution to Expertise (United States)

    van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet


    This study examined physicians' motivation to engage in work-related learning and its contribution to expertise development beyond work experience. Based on deliberate practice theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 residents and 28 experienced physicians in internal medicine, focusing on the activities they engaged in during…

  17. Influential Factors for Knowledge Creation Practices of CTE Teachers: Mutual Impact of Perceived School Support, Transformational Leadership, and Work Engagement (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Hye Kyoung


    This study examined the structural relationships among perceived school support, transformational leadership, teachers' work engagement, and teachers' knowledge creation practices. It also investigated the mediating effects of transformational leadership and work engagement in explaining the association between perceived school support…

  18. Blending critical realist and emancipatory practice development methodologies: making critical realism work in nursing research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Parlour, Randal


    This paper examines the efficacy of facilitation as a practice development intervention in changing practice within an Older Person setting and in implementing evidence into practice. It outlines the influences exerted by the critical realist paradigm in guiding emancipatory practice development activities and, in particular, how the former may be employed within an emancipatory practice development study to elucidate and increase understanding pertinent to causation and outcomes. The methodology is based upon an emancipatory practice development approach set within a realistic evaluation framework. This allows for systematic analysis of the social and contextual elements that influence the explication of outcomes associated with facilitation. The study is concentrated upon five practice development cycles, within which a sequence of iterative processes is integrated. The authors assert that combining critical realist and emancipatory processes offers a robust and practical method for translating evidence and implementing changes in practice, as the former affirms or falsifies the influence that emancipatory processes exert on attaining culture shift, and enabling transformation towards effective clinical practice. A new framework for practice development is proposed that establishes methodological coherency between emancipatory practice development and realistic evaluation. This augments the existing theoretical bases for both these approaches by contributing new theoretical and methodological understandings of causation.

  19. Social media and nursing practice: changing the balance between the social and technical aspects of work. (United States)

    Casella, Evan; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim


    Modern communication methods are drastically changing the way people interact with each other. Professions such as nursing need to evolve to remain relevant as social infrastructure changes. In the 1960s, researchers developed a sociotechnical theory that stated workers were more motivated and productive if there was a good balance between the social and technical aspects of their work. Today's technology is blurring the boundaries between the social and the technical thereby transforming human contact and communication into a multi-method process. In Australia, people are adept at utilising social media technology to become more efficient, creative and connected; Australian nurses also need to embrace changing technology to capitalise on the professional opportunities offered by social media. This paper imagines a world where nurses integrate social media into assessing, diagnosing, planning, implementing and evaluating care. Discussion draws on a combination of real-world examples of best-practice and blue-sky thinking to demonstrate that evidence-based care must be combined with the adoption of future-forward technology.

  20. Researching Solution Based on Islamic Views and Practice in Managing Financial and Work Place Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatijah Othman


    Full Text Available Generally, stress is a common factor that influences every human being through out their life time. The way people handle it depends to the stress retention level and the way they managing the stress. Hence, to experience and having stress is considered normal to every human. However in some cases stress become too pressurize, uncontrollable and damaging. This paper is to highlight how the researching into Islamic views and practice able to materialize the Islamic way in managing stress. The roles of religiosity no doubt play an important factor in stress solution. Therefore, the focal point of discussions through out this paper are fortifies on belief and religiosity which proven as substantial remedy in Islam. Researching evidenced based on Quranic verses and prophetic traditions, essences that stress are manageable in a better way. For this purpose, this conceptual paper embarked on a few compilations of Quranic verses and Prophetic traditions with specifically addresses the issues on managing financial and work place stresses.

  1. Guidelines for collecting vouchers and tissues intended for genomic work (Smithsonian Institution: Botany Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Funk


    Full Text Available The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing into the disciplines of plant systematics, ecology, and metagenomics, among others, has resulted in a phenomenal increase in the collecting and storing of tissue samples and their respective vouchers. This manual suggests standard practices that will insure the quality and preservation of the tissue and vouchers and their respective data. Although written for use by the Smithsonian Institution botanists it suggests a framework for collecting tissues and vouchers that other research programs can adapt to their own needs. It includes information on collecting voucher specimens, collecting plant tissue intended for genomic analysis, how to manage these collections, and how to incorporate the data into a database management system. It also includes many useful references for collecting and processing collections. We hope it will be useful for a variety of botanists but especially those who know how to collect plants and want to collect tissue samples that will be useful for genomic research, and those who are skilled in lab work and want to know how to properly voucher and record their tissue collections.

  2. Skin and surface lead contamination, hygiene programs, and work practices of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors. (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D


    A 2005 regulatory review of the lead in construction standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) noted that alternative pathways of exposure can be as significant as inhalation exposure and that noncompliance with the standard pertaining to hygiene facilities and practices was the second most commonly violated section of the standard. Noncompliance with provisions of the standard and unhealthy work and hygiene practices likely increase the likelihood of take-home lead via contaminated clothing, automobiles, and skin, thus contributing to elevated blood lead levels (BLL) among construction workers and their family members. We performed a cross-sectional study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts to investigate causes of persistent elevated BLLs and to assess lead exposures. Thirteen work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which surface and skin wipe samples were collected and qualitative information was obtained on personal hygiene practices, decontamination and hand wash facilities, and respiratory protection programs. Results showed lead contamination on workers' skin, respirators, personal automobiles, and the decontamination unit, indicating a significant potential for take-home lead exposure. Overall, the geometric mean (GM) skin lead levels ranged from 373 microg on workers' faces at end of shift to 814 microg on hands at break time. The overall GM lead level inside respirators was 143 microg before work and 286 microg after work. Lead contamination was also present inside workers' personal vehicles as well as on surfaces inside the clean side of the decontamination unit. Review of the respiratory protection programs, work site decontamination and hand wash facilities, and personal hygiene practices indicated that these factors had significant impact on skin and surface contamination levels and identified significant opportunities for improving work site facilities and personal practices

  3. Personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices of Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with Jewish Israelis. (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Kheit, Ayat Abu


    The present study investigates the connection between personal value preferences, group identifications, and cultural practices among Palestinian Israelis working in close contact with the Jewish population in Israel. One hundred twenty-two Palestinian Israelis participated in the study. The participants were employed in different professional positions in the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area and were recruited to the study using the snowball technique. A stronger national identification was associated with a higher preference for the security and conformity values, and a lower preference for the humility values. A stronger ethnic identification was associated with a lower preference for the security, power, and stimulation values. Group identifications mediated the connection between personal value preferences and cultural practices. A longer time working in close contact with the majority group and less frequent visits home were associated with a greater adherence to the majority group's cultural practices but not with adherence to the ethnic group's practices and not with the group identifications.

  4. Graduate students' perceptions of the practice of posting scholarly work to an online class forum: balancing the rhetorical triangle. (United States)

    Park, Caroline L


    In both healthcare and education, basing one's practice upon research evidence, has become very important. This paper presents the findings from a descriptive analysis of graduate students' perceptions of the practice of posting their scholarly work to a class discussion forum, where it can be read by their peers. The resulting themes are described and discussed in relation to the balance of a model of rhetorical stance or a rhetorical triangle. This will be of interest to instructors facilitating courses with online capacity.

  5. Exploring the Impact of High Performance Work Systems in Professional Service Firms: A Practices-Resources-Uses-Performance Approach


    Fu, Na


    This article aims to explore how a system of human resource management (HRM)practices influence firm performance in a professional service context. It integrates multidisciplinary theory and research findings. The system of HRM practices are labeled as high performance work systems (HPWS). In this article, it is proposed that HPWS influence firm performance through two steps: (1) by creating resources of human, social and organizational capital; and (2) by efficient uses of these resource...

  6. Studying work practices: a key factor in understanding accidents on the level triggered by a balance disturbance. (United States)

    Derosier, C; Leclercq, S; Rabardel, P; Langa, P


    Accidents on the level (AOL) rank second amongst the most numerous and serious occupational accidents with days lost in France and are a major health and safety problem in every sector of activity. The case study described in this paper was conducted at a metallurgical company with 300 employees. The aims of this work were dual: 1) to extend the general knowledge required for preventing these accidents; 2) to propose prevention measures to this company. Existing data on company occupational accidents were gathered and analysed to identify a work situation that appeared likely to cause AOL. This work situation was analysed in detail. Several risk factors were identified within this work situation, by way of interviews with 12 operators. These risk factors concerned various dimensions of the work situation, particularly its physical dimension (e.g. templates structure) and organisational dimension (e.g. parts availability). Interviews were conducted, focusing on risk factors perceived by operators and involving allo-confrontations based on accounts of four AOL occurring in this situation. Allo-confrontations were interviews confronting operators with a risk occupational situation that was accidental for one of their colleagues, the latter being absent from the interview. Results highlighted the fact that the work practices implemented are key factors in understanding these accidents. This study underlines the role of work practices in AOL causality and prevention. It also provides explanations associated with various work situation dimensions involving adoption of more or less safe work practices. AOL are serious and frequent in occupational situations. Injury claims analysis and interviews in an industrial company emphasise the specific characteristics of an occupational situation and of prevention actions forming the basis of an intervention. The need for a better understanding of factors affecting work practice is highlighted in relation to research.

  7. Availability of Family-Friendly Work Practices and Implicit Wage Costs: New Evidence from Canada


    Fakih, Ali


    Using Canadian linked employer-employee data covering the period 1999-2005, I examine the determinants of the availability of family-friendly "care" practices and the impact of such practices on wages. The results show that the provision of family-friendly practices is not mainly derived from socio-demographic characteristics of workers but rather from job- and firm-related factors. The findings also reveal that there is a trade-off between the provision of family-friendly practices and earni...

  8. Building organizational capacity for a healthy work environment through role-based professional practice. (United States)

    Cornett, Patricia A; O'Rourke, Maria W


    The professional practice of registered nurses (RNs) and their professional role competence are key variables that have an impact on quality and patient safety. Organizations in which RNs practice must have the capacity to fully support the professional role of those RNs in exercising their legitimate power derived through nurse licensing laws and professional standards and ethics. The interplay of individual RN practice and organizational practice, and measurement thereof, are the essence of organizational capacity. Two models are discussed that tie together the attributes of healthy workplace environments and provide the structure to guide and sustain organizational capacity.

  9. Deconstructing multi-agency working: an exploration of how the elicitation of 'tacit knowledge' amongst professionals working in a multi-agency team can inform future practice


    Hymans, Michael


    The theory of organisational knowledge creation and conversion clarified the difference between explicit and tacit knowledge and highlighted the importance of tacit knowledge in the workplace. The key components of successful multi-agency working and accompanying group processes have been explained in terms of activity theory and the sharing of different forms of knowledge and practices. This research has illustrated how professionals in a multi-agency family support team construe their role ...

  10. Practices and Processes Used in the Return to Work of Injured New South Wales nurses: Are These Consistent With RTW Best Practice Principles? (United States)

    James, Carole; Antoine, Michelle; Guest, Maya; Rivett, Darren; Kable, Ashley


    Purpose Workplace injury and illness rates are high within the nursing profession, and in conjunction with current nursing shortages, low retention rates, and the high cost of workplace injury, the need for effective return to work (RTW) for injured nurses is highlighted. This study aimed to identify current practices and processes used in the RTW of injured nurses, and determine if these are consistent with the seven principles for successful RTW as described by the Canadian Institute for Work & Health. Method As part of a larger cross-sectional study, survey data were collected from New South Wales nurses who had sustained a major workplace injury or illness. Survey questions were coded and matched to the seven principles for successful RTW. Results Of the 484 surveys eligible for analysis, most were from Registered Nurses (52%) in the Public Hospital Sector (48%). Responses indicated four main areas of concern: a commitment to health and safety by the workplace; early and considerate employer contact; provision of modified work; and individual knowledge of and involvement in the RTW process. Positive participant responses to co-worker and supervisor involvement were identified as areas consistent with best practice principles. Conclusions These findings suggest the practices and processes involved in the RTW of injured nurses are inconsistent with best practice principles for RTW, highlighting the need for interventions such as targeted employer education and training for improved industry RTW outcomes.

  11. Getting evidence into practice: the work of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of care Group (EPOC). (United States)

    Mowatt, G; Grimshaw, J M; Davis, D A; Mazmanian, P E


    Policy makers and continuing educators often face difficult decisions about which educational and quality assurance interventions to provide. Where possible, such decisions are best informed by rigorous evidence, such as that provided by systematic reviews. The Cochrane Collaboration is an international organization that aims to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining, and ensuring the accessibility of systematic reviews of the benefits and risks of health care interventions. International collaborative review groups prepare Cochrane reviews for publication in The Cochrane Library, a collection of databases available on CD-ROM and the World Wide Web and updated quarterly. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC) aims to prepare and maintain systematic reviews of professional, financial, organizational, and regulatory interventions that are designed to improve professional practice and the delivery of effective health services. EPOC has 17 reviews and 20 protocols published in Issue 3, 2000, of the Cochrane Library, with further protocols in development. We also have undertaken an overview of previously published systematic reviews of professional behavior change strategies. Our specialized register contains details of over 1,800 studies that fall within the group's scope. Systematic reviews provide a valuable source of information for policy makers and educators involved in planning continuing education and quality assurance initiatives and organizational change. EPOC will attempt to keep the Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions informed on an ongoing basis about new systematic reviews that it produces in the area of continuing medical education and quality assurance.

  12. Adopting a Social Marketing Mind-Set in School Social Work Practice (United States)

    Beauchemin, Pat; Kelly, Michael S.


    School social workers often conduct their business behind closed doors because much of their work is confidential. Even when they are not working in their offices, school social workers often blend into the fabric of the school culture, typically working behind the scenes and rarely taking credit for the valuable work they perform. However, if…

  13. Empowerment in Context: Lessons from Hip-Hop Culture for Social Work Practice (United States)

    Travis, Raphael, Jr.; Deepak, Anne


    Hip-hop culture can be used as a conduit to enhanced cultural competence and practice skills through the individual and community empowerment framework. This framework is introduced as a tool for direct practice that allows social workers to understand the competing messages within hip-hop culture and how they may impact youths by promoting or…

  14. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.; London, L.; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R.N.; Kromhout, H.


    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-N

  15. School Social Work with Students with Mental Health Problems: Examining Different Practice Approaches (United States)

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.; Kelly, Michael S.; Frey, Andy J.; Alvarez, Michelle E.; Shaffer, Gary L.


    School social workers frequently serve as the primary mental health providers to youths with mental health problems. Although school social workers play a primary role in care, many students also receive outside counseling services. Previous research has not examined whether practice approaches differ when considering mental health practice with…

  16. Perceptions, Views and Opinions of University Students about Chemistry Learning during Practical Work at School (United States)

    Sneddon, Peter H.; Hill, Robert A.


    The teaching of chemistry through practical experiments has long been an established practice. It forms a key component of teaching of that subject at both school and university level and students have strong views of this method of teaching. This paper reports on the view of undergraduate level 1 chemistry students in relation to their…

  17. The Problems of Practice: Bricolage as a Metaphor for Teachers' Work and Learning (United States)

    Scribner, Jay Paredes


    In this article the author uses Levi-Strauss' (1966) metaphor of Bricolage to examine how teachers, not policymakers, make sense of their "problems of practice" in three United States high schools. The article also examines how teachers address these problems of practice. It concludes by underscoring the disconnect between teachers' and…

  18. Examining Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice with Homeless Children (United States)

    Canfield, James P.


    School social workers are at the forefront of serving homeless children and youths as they pursue education. Because of the negative impact homelessness can have on academic outcomes for children, understanding what factors are perceived to either hinder or facilitate practice and what factors might influence perceptions of practice with this…

  19. Examining practice: the perceptions of learners and employers on a work-based Early Years Sector Endorsed Foundation Degree


    Joshi, Urmi


    This research investigates whether work-based learning facilitates the development of practical skills and theoretical insights by early years practitioners. Foundation degrees symbolise both an opportunity and a challenge. The opportunity relates to creating a new vocational qualification which has work-based learning central to its delivery, in attempting to meet the demands of a skilled workforce necessitated by a shifting economy. The challenge is to form workable and sustainable partners...

  20. Inter-professional work based learning within an MSc in Advanced Practice: lessons from one UK higher education programme. (United States)

    Gaskell, Lynne; Beaton, Susan


    This paper will describe the implementation of inter-professional work based education (IPE) in one postgraduate Advanced Practitioner programme in the UK. The concept of Advanced Practice has developed as a response of a number of drivers including change in junior doctor training; government policy and increasing demands on the central government funded UK health service (the NHS). The programme was commissioned by the then greater Manchester Strategic Health Authority (now NHS North West) to meet service needs. The educational philosophy underpinning the MSc Advanced Practice (health and social care) provided by the University of Salford is IPE linked to work based learning. The process of work based learning (WBL) and inter-professional learning underpinning the programme will be discussed in relation to feedback from university staff, Advanced Practitioner (AP) students and employer feedback taken from programme and module evaluations. We argue that IPE at this level facilitates a greater understanding of the connectivity between professionals working in the health care system in the UK; a better understanding of the skills and knowledge base of colleagues; more inter-professional working and appropriate referrals in the work place. This has raised the profile of Advanced Practice (AP) in the region and ultimately resulted in better patient care with more effective and efficient use of resources (Acton Shapiro, 2006, 2008).

  1. [Usefulness of group work as a teaching strategy for long-term practical training in the 6-year pharmaceutical education]. (United States)

    Kubo, Kazuko; Okazaki, Hiromi; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Nishihara, Shigeki; Nawa, Hideki; Okazaki, Masatoshi; Kawasaki, Yoichi; Nakura, Hironori; Matsunaga, Hisashi; Sendo, Toshiaki


    At the initiation of long-term practical training in the 6-year pharmaceutical education, there are many issues to be solved. For example, it is necessary for teaching pharmacists, who are in charge of both staffing and teaching pharmacy students, to manage their workload with other staff pharmacists. To overcome this situation and to improve the motivation of teaching pharmacists towards student practical training, we twice held group work (GW) sessions for teaching pharmacists, and then evaluated whether such training was effective for their understanding of the Model Core Curriculum for Practical Training and for promoting a higher level of motivation. During the two-day GW discussions, teaching pharmacists, who work daily in the dispensing area, were separated into two groups to discuss teaching skills. A questionnaire survey was completed by participants before and after each GW session. According to the survey, more than 90% of the pharmacists had a higher motivation level for practical training after the sessions. Particularly in the second GW training, the response rate of "being actively involved" improved from 40% to 70%. Furthermore, "The Educational Evaluation Testing" was conducted, which confirmed the increased participant comprehension. The median scores of the comprehensive exams significantly (pteaching pharmacists involved in the practical training of students. We hope that this exercise will lead to higher student motivation and satisfaction during their practical training.

  2. Tracing lines of flight: implications of the work of Gilles Deleuze for narrative practice. (United States)

    Winslade, John


    The philosophical groundwork of Gilles Deleuze is examined for its relevance for narrative practice in therapy and conflict resolution. Deleuze builds particularly on Foucault's analytics of power as "actions upon actions" and represents power relations diagrammatically in terms of lines of power. He also conceptualizes lines of flight through which people become other. These concepts are explored in relation to a conversation with a couple about a crisis in their relationship. Tracing lines of power and lines of flight are promoted as fresh descriptions of professional practice that fit well with the goals of narrative practice.

  3. Restorative Encounters in Terrorist Victimization in Spain: Theoretical Reflections and Practical Insights from Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jose Olalde


    Full Text Available After the ceasefire announcement by the terrorist organization ETA in 2011, new horizons and scenarios of peace have opened in the Basque Country, a land that has been badly hurt by violence over several decades.Restorative justice, a new paradigm for an old kind of justice, the reparation of the harm caused to victims and their consequent importance in the judicial process, has been knocking at our door for a long time. Since the beginning of this decade, following European trends, our country has begun to implement restorative justice at different levels.This article wants to bring the reader closer to understanding of the possibilities which restorative justice offers to the victims of terrorism. We describe the central elements of the restorative encounters held between ex-members of ETA and direct or indirect victims. Furthermore, we support our restorative intervention with theoretical arguments and practical examples from social work. Tras el anuncio del cese de la actividad armada por parte de la organización armada ETA, en 2011, nuevos escenarios y horizontes de pacificación se abren en la historia para esta tierra, castigada por la violencia durante decenas de años.La Justicia restaurativa, un nuevo paradigma para una vieja reivindicación, la reparación de la víctima y su protagonismo en la resolución y abordaje de las consecuencias de los conflictos penales, lleva años asomando a nuestro contexto. Tras la incorporación de España a principios de esta década a las corrientes europeas, se constata la validación de la práctica restaurativa.Este artículo quiere acercar a la persona lectora la comprensión de las posibilidades de justicia restaurativa en victimización terrorista. Describimos los elementos centrales de los encuentros restaurativos celebrados entre ex miembros de ETA y víctimas directas e indirectas. Y nos apoyamos en elementos teóricos y prácticos del trabajo social para nuestra intervención restaurativa.

  4. Business Trends and Tendencies in Organization Design and Work Design Practice: Identifying Cause- and-Effect Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hernaus


    Full Text Available Current global business environment has a strong impact on theory and practice of organizations, as well as on working behavior of their employees. Increased complexity and competitiveness is changing settled ways of organizing and working. The ultimate search for the holy grail of achieving organizational effectiveness through better design solutions is gaining momentum. There are many possible areas and means for improvement. Great opportunities emerge from better understanding of contemporary organization and work environment. To seize them, the link between organization design and work design tendencies will be emphasized. Through an in-depth theoretical research on current business trends and their impact on the changing nature of work in organizations, potentially very strong patterns between these two different environmental categories and levels of analysis will be identified. Our extensive analysis of current trends and tendencies in organization design and work design field will provide useful insights for business practitioners and researchers.

  5. HR Practices Perceptions, Emotional Exhaustion, and Work Outcomes: A Conservation-of-Resources Theory in the Chinese Context (United States)

    Sun, Li-Yun; Pan, Wen


    The conservation-of-resources theory provided the theoretical underpinning for the relationship among HR practices perceived by employees, emotional exhaustion, and work outcomes (job satisfaction and job performance). To fully understand the underlying mechanism of the relationship, the study examined (1) the main and interactive effects of HR…

  6. A survey of environmental and occupational work practices in the automotive refinishing industry of a developing country: Sonora, Mexico. (United States)

    Velázquez, Luis; Bello, Dhimiter; Munguia, Nora; Zavala, Andrea; Marin, Amina; Moure-Eraso, Rafael


    The automotive repair and refinishing industry has been studied intensively in industrialized countries, in part due to use of hazardous chemicals such as isocyanates and solvents, but little is known about industry practices in the developing world. The main objective of this paper was to investigate environmental and occupational work practices of this industry in a developing region, Sonora, Mexico. An integrated survey approach maximizes the opportunity for identifying risks as well as reducing risks. This investigation included detailed workplace visits to 41 body shops and 6 paint suppliers, as well as a survey of shop owners and 24 workers. Information was collected on work practices, level of technology in the shops, use of personal protective equipment, consumption and handling of hazardous chemicals and waste, hazard communication, and environmental consciousness. Most shops had little capital, outdated technology for exposure control, poor working conditions, high potential for exposure to hazardous chemicals, and little awareness of environmental and occupational health and safety. We concluded that work practices in the Sonoran auto refinishing industry are unsustainable and may pose a health risk to workers and the environment.

  7. When You Come to a Fork in the Road, Take It: Teaching Social Work Practice Using Blended Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine de Boer


    Full Text Available The debates surrounding the effectiveness of teaching social work online highlight the challenges of adequately preparing students for face-to-face practice by way of web-based technologies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to briefly describe how a particular School of Social Work when designing its part-time undergraduate degree program (BSW, arrived at a fork in the road and instead of choosing between the paths of in-class or online course delivery, the School decided to offer the entire degree using a blended learning platform. Secondly, to compare the development and implementation of three specific practice courses within the part-time degree program (interviewing and assessment, social work theory, and a practicum integration seminar each of which was offered using blended learning. This paper contributes to the debate about the value of using web-based components when teaching social work practice and will be helpful to educators from within many disciplines, who are wishing to critique their own development processes when designing and teaching practice courses using blended learning.

  8. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.


    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams (United States)


    ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020... your wastewater streams. For each . . . You must . . . 1. Wastewater tank used to store a Group...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2241 - What are the work practice requirements and how must I meet them? (United States)


    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood... rotary dryers instead of the work practices for dry rotary dryers. If you have a hardwood veneer dryer or veneer redryer, you may choose to designate your hardwood veneer dryer or veneer redryer as a...

  11. Applications of collaborative helping maps: supporting professional development, supervision and work teams in family-centered practice. (United States)

    Madsen, William C


    Collaborative, family-centered practice has become an influential approach in helping efforts across a broad spectrum of human services. This article draws from previous work that presented a principle-based, practice framework of Collaborative Helping and highlighted the use of Collaborative Helping maps as a tool both to help workers think their way through complex situations and to provide a guideline for constructive conversations between families and helpers about challenging issues. It builds on that work to examine ways to utilize Collaborative Helping maps at worker, supervisory, and organizational levels to enhance and sustain collaborative, family-centered practice and weave its core values and principles into the everyday fabric of organizational cultures in human service agencies and government agencies that serve poor and marginalized families and communities.

  12. Working together. Best practices in sustainable utility building; Samen aan de slag. Best practices in duurzame utiliteitsbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzen, E.; Verstraete, E.; Mathlener, R.; Wenting, R. [PricewaterhouseCoopers PwC, s.l. (Netherlands); De Waal, L.; Kuijpers, S.; Veendrick, P.; Scheelbeek, J. [Rabobank International, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fraanje, P. [Bouwend Nederland, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)


    Rabobank and PwC have taken the initiative to work with players in the construction and real estate sector to find success factors of sustainable construction of utility buildings. With the cooperation of industry leaders is a selection is made of case studies, quotes and findings. They are illustrative and should inspire to seek a personal interpretation of sustainability. [Dutch] Rabobank en PwC hebben het initiatief genomen om samen met spelers in de bouw- en vastgoedsector te zoeken naar succesfactoren van duurzame utiliteitsbouw. Met medewerking van toonaangevende bedrijven is een selectie gemaakt uit praktijkvoorbeelden, quotes en bevindingen. Ze zijn illustratief en moeten inspireren om op zoek te gaan naar een eigen invulling van duurzaamheid.

  13. On the counterintuitive consequences of high-performance work practices in cross-border post-merger human integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilaki, A.; Smith, Pernille; Giangreco, A.


    , this article investigates the impact of systemic and integrated human resource practices [i.e., high-performance work practices (HPWPs)] on human integration and how their implementation affects employees' behaviours and attitudes towards post-merger human integration. We find that the implementation of HPWPs......Human integration in cross-border mergers poses challenges to the successful implementation of post-merger processes. Executives often rely on human resource practices to achieve human integration in newly formed organisations. Using an ethnographic study of a merger of four banks in four countries......, such as communication, employee involvement, and team building, may not always produce the expected effects on human integration; rather, it can have the opposite effects if top management does not closely monitor the immediate results of deploying such practices. Implications for managers dealing with post...

  14. Understanding the Working College Student: New Research and Its Implications for Policy and Practice (United States)

    Perna, Laura W., Ed.


    Despite the fact that work is a fundamental part of life for nearly half of all undergraduate students--with a substantial number of "traditional" dependent undergraduates in employment, and working independent undergraduates averaging 34.5 hours per week--little attention has been given to how working influences the integration and engagement…

  15. Clinical Social Work Practice and Education: What Would Flexner Think Now? (United States)

    Tosone, Carol


    A century has passed since Abraham Flexner posed the question on whether social work is a profession. This article attempts to answer that question, and considers several definitions put forth by global and national social work professional organizations, including a definition of clinical social work. Addressing the current state of social work…

  16. The Role and Challenges of School Social Work: An Examination from Practice in Osaka (United States)

    Yamano, Noriko


    This article describes the development of school social work in the Osaka Prefecture of Japan. The article focuses on micro, mezzo, and macro levels of school social work and documents the growth and development of school social work since 2005. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

  17. Radiological Work Planning and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, J E


    Each facility is tasked with maintaining personnel radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A continued effort is required to meet this goal by developing and implementing improvements to technical work documents (TWDs) and work performance. A review of selected TWDs from most facilities shows there is a need to incorporate more radiological control requirements into the TWD. The Radioactive Work Permit (RWP) provides a mechanism to place some of the requirements but does not provide all the information needed by the worker as he/she is accomplishing the steps of the TWD. Requiring the engineers, planners and procedure writers to put the radiological control requirements in the work steps would be very easy if all personnel had a strong background in radiological work planning and radiological controls. Unfortunately, many of these personnel do not have the background necessary to include these requirements without assistance by the Radiological Control organization at each facility. In add...

  18. Racing for What? Anticipation and Acceleration in the Work and Career Practices of Academic Life Science Postdocs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Müller


    Full Text Available In the wake of contemporary new public management, the temporalities of academic work have undergone significant transformations. One key feature of these changes is a perceived acceleration of working pace. While this phenomenon is widely acknowledged in scholarship about the transforming universities, to date there are only few studies investigating its empirical details. Building on qualitative interviews with 38 postdoctoral life scientists in Austria, this article investigates how these researchers experience the temporalities of their work and career practices. Postdocs are particularly susceptible to the changing demands of academic work life, as they mostly inhabit fragile institutional positions while they aspire to establish themselves in academia. The experience of being in a highly competitive race that requires a continuously accelerating working pace as well as a strong focus on individual achievement is central to their narratives about working for a career in academia. Drawing on recent scholarship on anticipation (ADAMS, MURPHY & CLARKE, 2009, acceleration (ROSA, 2003 and the entrepreneurial self (BRÖCKLING, 2007, I develop the concepts of anticipatory acceleration and latent individualization to analytically capture postdocs' experiences of temporalities in the context of their work and career practices. In conclusion I discuss the possible impacts of these particular temporal orientations for the contents and formats of academic knowledge production and ask in how far concepts and movements such as "slow science" help to address effects and problems of these specific forms of acceleration and anticipation. URN:

  19. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment. (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine


    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems.

  20. Learning to work collaboratively: nurses' views of their pre-registration interprofessional education and its impact on practice. (United States)

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I


    One of the challenges of contemporary health care is the need for health and social care professionals to work differently to meet the complex needs of patients/clients. However it cannot be assumed that these professionals have been prepared with the skills and confidence to collaborate effectively, outside of traditional professional boundaries. Interprofessional education (IPE) is well established as an effective learning and teaching approach to prepare practitioners for collaborative practice at the point of qualification (DOH 2001; Hale 2003; Morison et al., 2003; Department of Health 2006; Hammick et al., 2007). The phenomenological study reported in this paper sought to follow up a group of newly qualified adult nurses at six months post-qualification. These nurses had undertaken a pre-registration curriculum in which classroom-based interprofessional learning was well embedded and formally assessed within their three year programme. Data from eight in depth interviews were analysed and five key themes were emerged: common understanding of IPE; teaching and learning; understanding of professional roles; stereotypes; influence of the practice environment. The outcome of the study suggested IPE should be as practice focused as possible to improve its relevance to nursing practice. This study contributed to the development of an innovative curriculum which provides the opportunity for nurses to integrate IPE theory within their collaborative working practice.

  1. Influences of attribution and stigma on working relationships with providers practicing Western psychiatry in the Taiwanese context. (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Wu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chun-Jen


    This study examined influences of causal attributions of schizophrenia and perceived and internalized mental illness stigma on perceived working alliance with, and informational support received from doctors practicing Western psychiatry in the Taiwanese social-cultural context. This cross-sectional quantitative study used a non-probability, purposive sampling technique to recruit 212 Taiwanese diagnosed with schizophrenia from Taiwanese Alliance of the Mentally Ill, 4 community mental health rehabilitation centres and 2 psychiatric hospitals between July 2012 and March 2013. Linear regression models were used for analysis. The results showed that environmental attributions were positively associated with both perceived working alliance and perceived informational support, while supernatural attributions were negatively associated with perceived working alliance and perceived informational support. Perceived stigma had a negative association with perceived working alliance. The discrimination domain of internalized stigma specifically had a positive association with perceived working alliance, while the withdraw domain had a negative association with perceived informational support. Findings inform the importance of culturally sensitive practices in developing an effective working relationship. Western psychiatric care providers need to explore consumers' casual attributions of mental illness and understand the impact of stigma so that providers may successfully engage consumers in care and provide tailored illness education and information.

  2. Work/Life Practices and the Recruitment and Retention of Large School Districts' Foodservice Professionals (United States)

    Harrison, Mary Kate


    With the forthcoming retirement of school foodservice directors, the increasing pressures faced by employees at home and work, and the financial constraints of school districts, recruiting and retaining skilled and diverse employees will be challenging. Marketing work/life benefits to potential employees and supporting these policies to current…

  3. Understanding Work-Related Stress and Practice of Professional Self-Care--An Innovative Pedagogical Approach (United States)

    Kwong, Kenny


    Social workers experience tremendous work-related stress--particularly among those providing direct services in healthcare settings. A review of related literature summarized several critical challenges faced by social workers who work with highly difficult clients in these settings, including (a) clients who engage in manipulative high-risk…

  4. Teaching Social Work Practice Research to Enhance Research-Minded Expertise (United States)

    Satka, Mirja; Kääriäinen, Aino; Yliruka, Laura


    The emphasis on student cognitive knowledge and expertise in social work education has been shifting more toward reflective learning that features learning networks and dialogical interaction. In the context of innovative knowledge communities for promoting social work expertise, educators have become facilitators of learning that is expanding…

  5. Employability Skill Development in Work-Integrated Learning: Barriers and Best Practice (United States)

    Jackson, Denise


    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is widely considered instrumental in equipping new graduates with the required employability skills to function effectively in the work environment. Evaluation of WIL programs in enhancing skill development remains predominantly outcomes-focused with little attention to the process of what, how and from whom students…

  6. Social Exclusion and Youth Work--From the Surface to the Depths of an Educational Practice (United States)

    Van de Walle, Tineke; Coussee, Filip; Bouverne-De Bie, Maria


    The current dominant discourse on social exclusion and youth work depicts inclusion in youth work as an instrument for inclusion in other more pivotal institutions of society. Recent studies have shown, however, that the participation of socially vulnerable young people does not necessarily yield the anticipated inclusions. Suggestions are…

  7. Operationalizing Social Work Science through Research-Practice Partnerships: Lessons from Implementation Science (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Amy S.; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Hertel, Amy Locklear


    Recent efforts to identify and promote a distinct science for the discipline of social work have led to an ongoing debate regarding the nature and function of such a science. Central to this debate is a lack of consensus as to how to operationalize a social work science. Drawing from the field of implementation science and its application in…

  8. The Psychology of Working: A New Framework for Counseling Practice and Public Policy (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Kenna, Alexandra C.; Gill, Nadia; DeVoy, Julia E.


    The authors present the "psychology-of-working perspective" (D. L. Blustein, 2006; N. Peterson & R. C. Gonzalez, 2005; M. S. Richardson, 1993) as an alternative to traditional career development theories, which have primarily explored the lives of those with choice and volition in their working lives. The major historical and conceptual features…

  9. Inter- and Transdisciplinary Work: Connecting Research on Hormones with Problems of Educational Practice (United States)

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Watamura, Sarah E.


    More than ever before, leaders within the field of education are looking to research on basic processes to inform and improve educational practices. Success requires building a reciprocal relationship between the field of education and research on learning and development, similar to what exists between biology and medicine. Key to this effort is…

  10. Where Critical Postmodern Theory Meets Practice: Working in the Intersection of Instrumental, Social, and Cultural Education. (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.


    Outlines a critical postmodern adult education practice that is inclusive of peoples and knowledges and inhabits a dynamic space. Key concepts include identity difference; intersection of power relations; community as a social contract; and conflict, voice, and dialog for transformative learning. (SK)

  11. The effect of organizational level and practice area on managerial work in hospital dietetic services. (United States)

    Palacio, J P; Spears, M C; Vaden, A G; Dayton, A D


    All areas of practice in hospital dietetic services include a management component; however, the nature of the managerial role in various areas of dietetic practice has not been identified clearly. The definition of dietetic practice in the Conceptual Framework for the Profession of Dietetics supports the importance of managerial skills. The effect of organizational level and practice area on managerial activities and roles of professional staff in hospital dietetic services was examined in this study. The nationwide sample included professionals in hospitals with 300+ beds. A total of 3,280 dietetic professionals participated. Five groups were defined: low administrative, low clinical, middle administrative, middle clinical, and upper administrative. Mintzberg identified 10 managerial roles and categorized them as interpersonal, informational, or decisional. The 10 roles were used as the basis for developing an 80-item instrument on which respondents rated each item for importance and time demand. Perceived importance of managerial activities tended to be greater at higher organizational levels. The managerial aspects of the lower clinical and upper administrative position were the most clearly defined. The lower clinical group tended to rate all of the managerial roles as significantly less important than did those in other positions; however, the middle clinical position included a substantial managerial responsibility.

  12. Situated Learning in Practice: Teaching Assistants Engaged with a Work-Based Foundation Degree in England (United States)

    Taylor, Claire


    A qualitative case study was carried out in order to understand the enacted reality for three primary school teaching assistants of the notion of situated learning in relation to Lave and Wenger's concept of communities of practice and their description of legitimate peripheral participation. The case study subjects were studying for a…

  13. Project 2000-3 Leading Edge Enterprise: Insights into Employment and Training Practices. Working Paper. (United States)

    Long, Michael; Fischer, John

    Leading-edge firms (LEFs)--at the forefront of their industry in terms of growth or market share--may influence skill development through diffusion of technology, products, or practices and use of market power to set standards or change customer businesses. Study of LEFs can identify the type and mix of skills needed in the industry. LEFs are…

  14. Toward a Social Practice Perspective on the Work of Reading Inscriptions in Science Texts (United States)

    Pozzer-Ardenghi, Lilian; Roth, Wolff-Michael


    In the social studies of science, visuals and graphical representations are theorized by means of the concept of inscription, a term that denotes all representations other than text inscribed in some medium including graphs, tables, photographs, and equations. Inscriptions constitute an intrinsic and integral part of scientific practice; their…

  15. A Gendered Study of the Working Patterns of Classical Musicians: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn


    Despite an increase in participation at all levels of the music profession, women continue to experience fewer opportunities to forge careers in music and are less likely than men to apply for leadership positions. This article presents results from a study in which 152 instrumental musicians reflected upon their professional practice and career…

  16. The didactics of group work – between means and aims in theory and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd


    The aim of this paper is to discuss aims and means of group work as a teaching and learning method. In Denmark, group work has been implemented at all levels of education since the 1970s from primary school to university but also in training sessions in organizations. The discussion in this paper...... will take its point of departure in pedagogical textbook introductions where group work is often presented as a means to learning social skills and co-workability. However, as most students and teachers know, this is not always the case. Observations of long-term group work show that this can be a tough...... experience for the students (Christensen 2013). Contrary to expectations, the group work seemed to foster anti-social behavior and development of selfish skills. The paper will therefore conclude by suggesting how the (often) laissez-faire group pedagogy, which is dominant in Denmark, could be improved...

  17. Preventing work-related stress among staff working in children's cancer Principal Treatment Centres in the UK: a brief survey of staff support systems and practices. (United States)

    Beresford, B; Gibson, F; Bayliss, J; Mukherjee, S


    Growing evidence of the association between health professionals' well-being and patient and organisational outcomes points to the need for effective staff support. This paper reports a brief survey of the UK's children's cancer Principal Treatment Centres (PTCs) regarding staff support systems and practices. A short on-line questionnaire, administered in 2012-2013, collected information about the availability of staff support interventions which seek to prevent work-related stress among different members of the multi-disciplinary team (MDT). It was completed by a member of staff with, where required, assistance from colleagues. All PTCs (n = 19) participated. Debriefs following a patient death was the most frequently reported staff support practice. Support groups were infrequently mentioned. There was wide variability between PTCs, and between professional groups, regarding the number and type of interventions available. Doctors appear to be least likely to have access to support. A few Centres routinely addressed work-related stress in wider staff management strategies. Two Centres had developed a bespoke intervention. Very few Centres were reported to actively raise awareness of support available from their hospital's Occupational Health department. A minority of PTCs had expert input regarding staff support from clinical psychology/liaison psychiatry.

  18. Practice based design for learning at work (doi: 10.3991/ijac.v1i2.620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lundin


    Full Text Available Designing for learning at work in a manner that embraces the rich situatedness of practice involves a number of challenges in bridging normative and descriptive perspectives, as well as closing the gap between IS design theory and practice. In this paper, we propose a grounded approach that combines influence from learning theories with studies of existing learning practices. This approach could result in learning models, constituted of a sequence of learning activities that outlines the didactics of the workplace. The arguments are based on the empirical findings from an action-oriented research project in collaboration with six SME:s, and are illustrated through a e-learning model called “The Competence Kick-off”.

  19. Practical intelligence at work: relationship between aging and cognitive efficiency among managers in a bank environment. (United States)

    Colonia-Willner, R


    A study was conducted to determine which better predicts performance among bank managers: tacit practical knowledge as assessed by the Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Managers (TKIM) or 2 psychometric measures of reasoning, the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (Raven's) and the Verbal Reasoning subtest of the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). Two hundred bank managers (43 experts and 157 nonexperts), ages 24-59 years old, participated. Increased age was associated with lower performance in Raven's and the DAT but less so in the TKIM; best performing older managers on average had high levels of tacit knowledge, although they scored lower on psychometric reasoning measures; TKIM predicted managerial skill; DAT and Raven's did not. These results suggest that stabilization of some aspects of intelligence may occur in old age. Implications of the findings for the study of practical intelligence, expertise, and compensatory abilities are discussed.

  20. Association Between Maternal Stress, Work Status, Concern About Child Weight, and Restrictive Feeding Practices in Preschool Children. (United States)

    Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth


    Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.

  1. Determinants for return to work among sickness certified patients in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Celsing Anna-Sophia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. Early identification of the condition is essential to facilitate return to work. The aim of this study was to analyse possible determinants of return to work and their relative impact. Methods All 943 subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness certified at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden from 1 January until 31 August 2004, were followed up for three years. Baseline information on sex, age, sick leave diagnosis, employment status, extent of sick leave, and sickness absence during the year before baseline was obtained, as was information on all compensated days of sick leave, disability pension and death during follow-up. Results Slightly more than half the subjects were women, mean age was 39 years. Half of the study population returned to work within 14 days after baseline, and after three years only 15 subjects were still on sick leave. In multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis the extent of previous sick leave, age, being on part-time sick leave, and having a psychiatric, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous disease, digestive system, or injury or poisoning diagnosis decreased the return to work rate, while being employed increased it. Marital status, sex, being born in Sweden, citizenship, and annual salary had no influence. In logistic regression analyses across follow-up time these variables altogether explained 88-90% of return to work variation. Conclusions Return to work was positively or negatively associated by a number of variables easily accessible in the GP’s office. Track record data in the form of previous sick leave was the most influential variable.

  2. Transformational leadership in medical practice: capturing and influencing principles-driven work. (United States)

    Gabel, Stewart


    The importance of leadership in medicine is well recognized. Transformational leadership is a well-defined model that provides an empirically supported approach to foster organizational and personal change. It has been applied in health care settings with favorable outcomes. Transformational leadership is intended to help subordinates and followers transcend usual expectations of their own capabilities to reach higher levels of performance and personal meaning. The application of transformational leadership is appropriate to physicians in many roles, including to those who are supervisors in medical education or practice as team members in outpatient settings. Illustrations exemplify these points.

  3. Putting Foucault to work: an approach to the practical application of Foucault's methodological imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the methodological approach taken in a recently completed Foucauldian discourse analysis of physiotherapy practice. In keeping with other approaches common to postmodern research this paper resists the temptation to define a proper or ‘correct’ interpretation of Foucault’s methodological oeuvre; preferring instead to apply a range of Foucauldian propositions to examples drawn directly from the thesis. In the paper I elucidate on the blended archaeological and genealogical approach I took and unpack some of the key imperatives, principles and rules I grappled with in completing the thesis.

  4. Managers' practices related to work-family balance predict employee cardiovascular risk and sleep duration in extended care settings. (United States)

    Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu; Ertel, Karen; Okechukwu, Cassandra


    An increasing proportion of U.S. workers have family caregiving responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether employees in extended care settings whose managers are supportive, open, and creative about work-family needs, such as flexibility with work schedules, have lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and longer sleep than their less supported counterparts. From semistructured interviews with managers, we constructed a work-family balance score of manager openness and creativity in dealing with employee work-family needs. Trained interviewers collected survey and physiologic outcome data from 393 employees whose managers had a work-family score. Employee outcomes are sleep duration (actigraphy) and CVD risk assessed by blood cholesterol, high glycosylated hemoglobin/diabetes, blood pressure/hypertension, body-mass index, and tobacco consumption. Employees whose managers were less supportive slept less (29 min/day) and were over twice as likely to have 2 or more CVD risk factors (ORs = 2.1 and 2.03 for low and middle manager work-family scores, respectively) than employees whose managers were most open and creative. Employees who provide direct patient care exhibited particularly elevated CVD risk associated with low manager work-family score. Managers' attitudes and practices may affect employee health, including sleep duration and CVD risk.

  5. Teaching Note--Integrating Prevention Content into Clinical Social Work Practice Courses (United States)

    Rishel, Carrie W.


    Rapid changes in health care services and delivery suggest an upcoming paradigm shift in the field of mental health. Recent national reports, health care policy changes, and growing evidence support a shift toward prevention-focused mental health care. The social work profession is uniquely positioned to act as leaders in this shift as the…

  6. A Comparative Investigation of Safer Sex Practices among Canadian and New Zealand Prostitutes. NALL Working Paper. (United States)

    Meaghan, Diane

    This project examined attitudes, expectations, and behaviors that make prostitutes successful in learning to establish their autonomy and work safely. Ethnographic studies were conducted of 47 prostitutes in Canada and 60 in New Zealand through semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and open-ended discussions supplemented by researchers'…

  7. Working with Child Prostitutes in Thailand: Problems of Practice and Interpretation (United States)

    Montgomery, Heather


    Conducting anthropological fieldwork on the emotive issue of child prostitution raises difficult issues for anthropologists and other researchers. This article examines the ethical dilemmas of working with these extremely vulnerable children, focusing on the difference between the researcher's own interpretations and those given by the children…

  8. An Educator's Guide to the Development of Advanced Practice Competencies in Clinical Social Work (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Gray, Susan W.; Miehls, Dennis


    The 2008 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards identified 10 core competencies that all social work graduates should master. MSW programs found themselves with a need to identify knowledge, values, and skill statements that reflected what concentration-year students were expected to know and be able to do. In 2009 a group of educators…

  9. The Manifestation and Integration of Embodied Knowing into Social Work Practice (United States)

    Sodhi, Mininder K.; Cohen, Harriet L.


    Traditionally, research in both adult education and social work fields have focused on cognitive ways of knowing. Although both disciplines have acknowledged other ways of knowing, there has been minimal focus on noncognitive ways of knowing, including embodied knowing. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how social workers…

  10. Promoting Chemistry Learning through Undergraduate Work Experience in the Chemistry Lab: A Practical Approach (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Bin


    Hiring undergraduate lab assistants in chemistry departments is common in college. However, few studies have focused on promoting undergraduate chemistry learning and thinking skills through this work experience in chemistry teaching laboratories. This article discusses the strategy we implemented in the lab assistant program. The…

  11. Applying Best Practices From The Delta Works And New Orleans To Galveston Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoeten, K.J.


    This report provides a comparison of the Dutch Delta Works, New Orleans and the Ike Dike concept. The Ike Dike is a coastal barrier that, when completed, would protect the Houston-Galveston region including Galveston Bay from hurricane storm surge.

  12. Politicised Notions of Professional Identity and Psychosocial Practice among Practitioners Working with Asylum Seekers and Refugees (United States)

    Apostolidou, Zoe


    This is the first study undertaken in the UK that investigates the notion of professional identity among practitioners who work with asylum seekers and refugees. Drawing on a social constructionist epistemology and a Foucauldian theoretical and methodological framework of power and discourse, I analysed extracts from semi-structured interviews…

  13. A Literature Review of School Practices to Overcome School Failure. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 68 (United States)

    Faubert, Brenton


    The purpose of this report is to review the body of literature concerned with reducing school failure by improving equity in schools and classrooms. The literature review will be used to inform the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Project "Overcoming School Failure: Policies that Work" and hopefully, future educational…

  14. Mothers' Perceptions of Social Work Helpgiving Practices: Implications for the Role of the School Social Worker (United States)

    Lind, Kristina S.


    The Individual with Disabilities Act has strengthened the role of parents in their children's special education. School social workers are one of the educational professionals in attendance at IEP staffings, yet their role definition continues to be poorly articulated. This qualitative study investigated school social work helpgiving practices…

  15. Promising School Social Work Practices of the 1920s: Reflections for Today (United States)

    Shaffer, Gary L.


    As we celebrate the centennial of school social work, the field faces many of the same professional and social situations first encountered at the turn of the past century. Immigrant populations are growing rapidly, social worker-student ratios continue to be high, and schools remain bureaucratic, inflexible, and slow to change. The "Roaring…

  16. Fitness for work in health care workers from the prospective of ethics, science and good practices. (United States)

    Alessio, L; Arici, Cecilia; Franco, G


    Fitness for work (FFW) is the final task of both risk assessment and health surveillance, aimed at protecting workers' health and working capacity. There are numerous specific concerns regarding health care workers. In particular: i) the frequent difficulty in determining at pre-employment/pre-placement examinations the specific task that the individual worker will perform; ii) the prevalence of female workers and the contemporary presence of numerous occupational risk factors that are a potential cause of harmful effects on women's reproductive health; iii) the progressive aging of the staff especially nurses; iv) the risk to third parties, with particular reference to the issues of biological risk and substance abuse, also in relation to shift work, fatigue and occupational stress; v) the increasing number of immigrant workers among support staff In such cases the occupational physician, respecting both ethical principles and regulations and with an appropriate balance between scientific evidence and the precautionary principle, should express a FFW judgment that allows both the adaptation of work to the worker and vice versa, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). Proper FFW judgment also permits the expected benefits to be achieved, not only for the workers but also for employers, companies and society.

  17. The Work of Steering Instruction toward the Mathematical Point: A Decomposition of Teaching Practice (United States)

    Sleep, Laurie


    Despite its centrality in teaching, what it takes to identify the goals of instruction and use those goals to manage the work has yet to be articulated in ways that it can be adequately studied or taught. Using data from preservice teachers' mathematics lessons, this study identifies and illustrates seven central tasks of "steering instruction…

  18. Assessing the "I" in group work assessment: : State of the art and recommendations for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Joost; Latijnhouwers, Mieke; Norbart, Adriaan; Tio, Rene A.


    Introduction: The use of group work assessment in medical education is becoming increasingly important to assess the competency of collaborator. However, debate continues on whether this does justice to individual development and assessment. This paper focuses on assessing the individual component w

  19. High School Students' Goals for Working Together in Mathematics Class: Mediating the Practical Rationality of Studenting (United States)

    Webel, Corey


    In this article I explore high school students' perspectives on working together in a mathematics class in which they spent a significant amount of time solving problems in small groups. The data included viewing session interviews with eight students in the class, where each student watched video clips of their own participation, explaining and…

  20. International Perspectives on the School-to-Work Transition. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy and Practice. (United States)

    Stern, David, Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

    This book provides a policy update on the school-to-work (STW) transition in a wide range of countries. Fourteen chapters give a comprehensive overview of the main issues in policy formulation and a detailed consideration of how policies have been considered and implemented in those countries. The chapters are: "Introduction: STW Policies in…

  1. Working at the nexus between public health policy, practice and research. Dynamics of knowledge sharing in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Maria W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joining the domains of practice, research and policy is an important aspect of boosting the quality performance required to tackle complex public health problems. “Joining domains” implies a departure from the linear and technocratic knowledge-translation approach. Integrating the practice, research and policy triangle means knowing its elements, appreciating the barriers, identifying possible cooperation strategies and studying strategy effectiveness under specified conditions. This article examines the dynamic process of developing an Academic Collaborative Centre for Public Health in the Netherlands, with the objective of achieving that the three domains of policy, practice and research become working partners on an equal footing. Method An interpretative hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the phenomenon of collaboration at the nexus between the three domains. The project was explicitly grounded in current organizational culture and routines, applied to nexus action. In the process of examination, we used both quantitative (e.g. records and qualitative data (e.g., interviews and observations. The data were interpreted using the Actor-Network, Institutional Re-Design and Blurring the Boundaries theories. Results Results show commitment at strategic level. At the tactical level, however, managers were inclined to prioritize daily routine, while the policy domain remained absent. At the operational level, practitioners learned to do PhD research in real-life practice and researchers became acquainted with problems of practice and policy, resulting in new research initiatives. Conclusion We conclude that working at the nexus is an ongoing process of formation and reformation. Strategies based on Institutional Re-Design theories in particular might help to more actively stimulate managers’ involvement to establish mutually supportive networks.

  2. Involvement as inclusion? Shared decision-making in social work practice in Israel: a qualitative account. (United States)

    Levin, Lia


    Shared decision-making (SDM), a representation of shared knowledge and power between social workers and their clients, is gaining popularity and prevalence in social services around the world. In many senses, SDM reflects values traditionally associated with social work and service provision, such as equality and anti-discrimination. In the complex context of social problem-solving, however, the relationship between SDM, social workers and their clients is multi-faceted and deserves particular attention. The current study examined SDM and the dilemmas it entails through interviews conducted in 2012 with 77 Israeli social workers and policy makers whose responses were analysed according to the guiding principles of descriptive phenomenological content analysis and dialogical commonality. Participants' responses represent notions of hope, change, identity and choice. Findings are discussed in correspondence with current and recent trends in Israeli social services, and the social work profession in Israel.

  3. Induction as an empirical problem: how students generalize during practical work (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof


    We examined how university students made generalizations when making morphological observations of insects. Five groups of two or three students working together were audio recorded. The results were analysed by an approach based on the work of Wittgenstein and on a pragmatic and sociocultural perspective. Results showed that students rarely made generalizations in terms of universal statements and they did not use induction or produced hypotheses for testing in an analytic philosophical sense. The few generalizations they made of this kind were taken from zoological authorities like textbooks or lectures. However, students used induction when in more familiar contexts. Moreover, when generalizations were analysed in the sense of Dewey, it became evident that students are fully capable of making generalizations by transferring meaning from one experience to another. The implications of these results for using induction and hypotheses testing in instruction are discussed.

  4. The workings of norms and pursuit of inclusion in practices of peer reviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Hee; Phillips, Louise Jane; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    and different knowledge forms. We also subscribe to the principle that knowledge should be ethically situated, meaningful, generative and if by any means possible relevant for the persons involved or concerned with the themes we work with as researchers. Prior to the congress, we will each write a short text...... on what we personally consider the most important criteria by which we evaluate the works of others and our own. The texts will include examples from our own research and current debates on research quality/ excellence. We will set out to ‘liberate’ our criteria of quality from the grips of “taken...... for grantedness” and fixed schematic categories when it comes to argument, analytical accounts, relevance and results. Methodologically, the panel will take as its point of departure reactions mobilized by close readings of each other’s texts, based on the question: 'What made the biggest impression on you when...

  5. Working with African American clients: considering the "homeplace" in marriage and family therapy practices. (United States)

    Burton, Linda M; Winn, Donna-Marie; Stevenson, Howard; Clark, Sherri Lawson


    In this article, we discuss perspectives on the "homeplace" that are important to consider in marriage and family therapy involving African American clients. The homeplace comprises individual and family processes that are anchored in a defined physical space that elicits feelings of empowerment, rootedness, ownership, safety, and renewal. Critical elements of the homeplace include social relationships that shape individuals' and families' sense of social and cultural identity. We draw on our ethnographic and clinical research with African American families in urban and rural settings to describe typical schisms between therapists and African American clients when communicating about the homeplace. We also explore the impact of homeplace disruptions on experiences of "yearning." Recommendations for integrating a homeplace perspective into therapy practices are provided.

  6. Teaching and learning community work online: can e-learning promote competences for future practice?



    This article presents a case study of an online course in Community Work and the learning outcomes for an international group of students participating in the course. Examples from the process of, and results from the development of virtual-learning material are presented. Finally, the students' learning experience and competences achieved by the use of innovative learning material and ICT communication tools are presented.

  7. Naturaleza, cultura y símbolo: la imagen de la montaña de Peñalara en el paisajismo español moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ortega Cantero


    Full Text Available La montaña ha ocupado un lugar muy destacado en las visiones modernas (geográficas y culturales del paisaje. Ha adquirido con frecuencia un alto valor simbólico, relacionado con su propia naturaleza y con el significado cultural que se le ha atribuido. Es lo que ha sucedido con algunas montañas españolas a lo largo de los siglos XIX y XX, como demuestran ejemplarmente las imágenes de la Sierra de Guadarrama ofrecidas entonces por diversos círculos intelectuales de ideología liberal y reformista. Este artículo se dedica a considerar la imagen de la montaña de Peñalara, la más elevada de la Sierra de Guadarrama, procurando delimitar sus dimensiones culturales y simbólicas. Esa imagen se conformó durante el periodo comprendido entre 1875 y 1936, e incorporó las claves de la visión moderna del paisaje de montaña, inicialmente promovidas por el romanticismo y prolongadas y actualizadas a lo largo del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Todo ello ayudó a entender la montaña de Peñalara no sólo como una acabada expresión de los valores de la naturaleza, sino también como un lugar singularmente dotado de cualidades culturales, entre las que se contó la de constituir un verdadero símbolo de la propia historia y de la identidad nacional asociada A Ella.

  8. Smoking and workers' autonomy: a qualitative study on smoking practices in manual work. (United States)

    Katainen, Anu


    A massive amount of research has brought out the association of daily smoking with social class. Smoking remains very common in the most disadvantaged groups, but it has also maintained its popularity among manual workers. The starting point of the article is that what needs to be taken into account in explaining the social differentiation of smoking is the social context in which smoking takes place. The study is based on interviews of daily smokers, ex-smokers and occasional smokers from different occupational backgrounds. In this article, the focus is on manual workers (N = 19), and the main interest is in the meaning of smoking in working-class contexts and how it is attached to daily routines and social settings in manual work. Theoretically, the study draws on the pragmatist idea of habits and how they are formed in accordance with the context. As a shared ritual, smoking was a self-evident part of daily routines at the workplaces under scrutiny. The study shows how smoking was a legitimate way to challenge the official rules and to make the work more bearable by increasing social contacts and a sense of belonging. Paradoxically, smoking was to a great extent an unquestioned routine, but at the same time it increased the autonomy of the workers in terms of their daily tasks.

  9. Zoonotic disease risk perceptions and infection control practices of Australian veterinarians: call for change in work culture. (United States)

    Dowd, Karen; Taylor, Melanie; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Hooker, Claire; Dhand, Navneet K


    This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of zoonotic disease risk among Australian veterinarians, the infection control practices they use to protect themselves from zoonotic diseases, and the factors influencing their use of these protective practices. A questionnaire was designed and piloted prior to its administration to veterinarians at the annual Australian Veterinary Association Conference in May 2011. The questionnaire comprised 21 closed, semi-closed and open questions. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression analyses to determine significant factors for veterinarians' use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A total of 344 veterinarians completed the questionnaire of which 63.7% were women, 63.2% worked in small/companion animal practice, and 79.9% worked in private veterinary practice. Of the respondents, 44.9% reported contracting a zoonosis during their careers with 19.7% reporting a suspected case and 25.2% reporting a confirmed incidence. Around 40-60% of veterinarians perceived exposure to zoonosis likely or very likely in a variety of situations. With reference to current national industry guidelines, the reported use of PPE was less than "adequate" for most scenarios except for performing postmortems, surgery or dental procedures. No PPE was used by 60-70% of veterinarians for treating respiratory and neurological cases and by 40-50% when treating gastrointestinal and dermatological cases. Workplace conditions need improvement as 34.8% of workplaces did not have isolation units for infected animals, 21.1% did not have separate eating areas for staff, and 57.1% did not have complete PPE kits for use. Veterinarians were more likely to use PPE if they had undertaken postgraduate education, perceived that zoonosis exposure from animals and procedures was likely, consciously considered PPE use for every case they dealt with and believed that liability issues and risks encouraged use of PPE. In contrast

  10. Learning for interprofessional and inter-agency practice in the new social work curriculum: evidence from an earlier research study. (United States)

    Whittington, C; Bell, L


    The UK Government's consultation document, A Quality Strategy for Social Care (2000) seeks consistency and excellence in care services and enhanced service partnerships. It states that this requires improved training for social workers and raises the prospect of a new social work curriculum in which learning for interprofessional and inter-agency practice will be strengthened. The document stresses the importance of evidence in decision-making in social care and this principle applies equally to training but there are few recent research findings on interprofessional and inter-agency learning in the social work curriculum. There are, however, findings from an earlier study which contributed to the mid-1990s review of the Diploma in Social Work but which have not previously been published in the mainstream media. These findings are reported and show: the kinds of organisations and professions with whom social work practitioners were in close contact in their jobs; the importance attached by social workers to defined skills in working with them; the perceived usefulness of training in developing relevant knowledge and skills; perceptions of shared training; and marked differences of learning experience reported by practitioners who had taken different training courses. Each set of findings is described and used as the basis of questions for the new social work curriculum.

  11. Expanding the scope of practice for enrolled nurses working in an Australian rural health service - implications for job satisfaction. (United States)

    Hoodless, Mary; Bourke, Lisa


    Career opportunities have been limited for enrolled nurses (ENs) working in small, rural health services. Medication endorsement offers ENs expanded scope of practice which may lead to improved job satisfaction. This small study compared job satisfaction between a group of ENs with recent medication endorsement and a group who elected not to undertake the course in a small, isolated health service. A questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction containing the measure of job satisfaction (MJS) scale and other information regarding the course in medication administration. Interviews were also conducted with medication endorsed nurses to gain a greater understanding about the course and their expanded scope of practice. Medication endorsed nurses were newer to nursing and their current job, and reported higher job satisfaction on all five factors. Non-medication endorsed nurses cited lack of confidence and ability as key reasons for not undertaking the course while medication endorsed nurses reported professional and personal reasons for expanding their scope of practice. Most enjoyed the responsibility and reported satisfaction from distributing medications and responding to pain while one viewed it as added work. The findings from this small study suggest that providing local education will improve job satisfaction of ENs.

  12. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH


    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  13. The practice of working with children left without parental care in foreign developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Larin


    Full Text Available We discuss different approaches to work with children left without parental care, implemented in developed foreign countries. We emphasize that, to facilitate socialization and adaptation of these children in Russia, we should take into account the experience of all the systems of education, take the best of them, adapt them to the Russian mentality, increase funding for children's homes system, develop a comprehensive approach to prevent homelessness and neglect of children, and create conditions for promoting adoption of children by foster families

  14. A Sociomaterial View on the Scaffolding of Information Technology Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leclercq, Aurelie; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    through which IT use unfolds. An investigation of mobile IT usage in 10 companies indicates a model of four modalities of behaviors: (1) When people perceive that the mobile technology supports their local needs, they will use it in the prescribed way; (2) when they perceive that the mobile technology can...... produce additional advantages, they augment its use beyond that prescribed; (3) when possible, people use unprescribed technologies to complement their prescribed mobile technology; and (4) people use unprescribed mobile technology to scaffold their work and limit their use of the prescribed IT as much...

  15. 'Wicked' ethics: Compliance work and the practice of ethics in HIV research. (United States)

    Heimer, Carol A


    Using ethnographic material collected between 2003 and 2007 in five HIV clinics in the US, South Africa, Uganda, and Thailand, this article examines "official ethics" and "ethics on the ground." It compares the ethical conundrums clinic staff and researchers confront in their daily work as HIV researchers with the dilemmas officially identified as ethical issues by bioethicists and people responsible for ethics reviews and compliance with ethics regulations. The tangled relation between ethical problems and solutions invites a comparison to Rittel and Webber's "wicked problems." Official ethics' attempts to produce universal solutions often make ethics problems even more wickedly intractable. Ethics on the ground is in part a reaction to this intractability.

  16. Risk mitigation of shared electronic records system in campus institutions: medical social work practice in singapore. (United States)

    Ow Yong, Lai Meng; Tan, Amanda Wei Li; Loo, Cecilia Lay Keng; Lim, Esther Li Ping


    In 2013, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Campus initiated a shared electronic system where patient records and documentations were standardized and shared across institutions within the Campus. The project was initiated to enhance quality of health care, improve accessibility, and ensure integrated (as opposed to fragmented) care for best outcomes in our patients. In mitigating the risks of ICT, it was found that familiarity with guiding ethical principles, and ensuring adherence to regulatory and technical competencies in medical social work were important. The need to negotiate and maneuver in a large environment within the Campus to ensure proactive integrative process helped.

  17. Integrating communication theory and practice: Successes and challenges in boundary-spanning work (United States)

    Weiss, M.; Fallon Lambert, K.


    The Science Policy Exchange (SPE) is a consortium of leaders in ecosystem research united to facilitate science from innovation to impact. In our unique model, we catalyze actionable science on pressing environmental issues such as climate change, and undertake comprehensive stakeholder engagement, public communication, and policy outreach. Built on more than 10 years of experience creating programs at the interface of science and policy at Hubbard Brook, Harvard Forest, and other LTER sites, we apply science communication research to practice in various ways depending on the context and problem being addressed. In keeping with the research on co-production and the importance of establishing credibility, salience, and legitimacy, we engage stakeholders from the outset of each project. Stakeholders and scientists collaborate to define the scope of the project, frame questions relevant to society, and define communication products to meet their needs. To promote broader distribution and uptake, we combine message development, storytelling, and media training to craft and deliver relatable stories that tap into news values and human values. Three recent SPE successes include: (1) Wildlands and Woodlands: A regional forest conservation report released in 2010 that generated 137 media stories and influenced land conservation policy, (2) Changes to the Land: A suite of communication products developed in 2013 for a landscape scenarios project in Massachusetts that saturated the state's media markets and have been widely cited by policymakers, and (3) Co-benefits of Carbon Standards: A national air quality report released in 2014 that was cited in 76 media stories and helped reframe the national debate on carbon dioxide emissions standards in terms of their potential local health and environmental benefits. We will describe our successful applications of science communication research and discuss several critical disconnections between research and practice. These include

  18. Evidence-based risk recommendations for best practices in the training of qualified exercise professionals working with clinical populations. (United States)

    Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Foulds, Heather J A; McKenzie, Don C; Shephard, Roy J


    This systematic review examines critically "best practices" in the training of qualified exercise professionals. Particular attention is given to the core competencies and educational requirements needed for working with clinical populations. Relevant information was obtained by a systematic search of 6 electronic databases, cross-referencing, and through the authors' knowledge of the area. The level and grade of the available evidence was established. A total of 52 articles relating to best practices and (or) core competencies in clinical exercise physiology met our eligibility criteria. Overall, current literature supports the need for qualified exercise professionals to possess advanced certification and education in the exercise sciences, particularly when dealing with "at-risk" populations. Current literature also substantiates the safety and effectiveness of exercise physiologist supervised stress testing and training in clinical populations.

  19. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems? (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine


    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  20. Working data together: the accountability and reflexivity of digital astronomical practice. (United States)

    Hoeppe, Götz


    Drawing on ethnomethodology, this article considers the sequential work of astronomers who combine observations from telescopes at two observatories in making a data set for scientific analyses. By witnessing the induction of a graduate student into this work, it aims at revealing the backgrounded assumptions that enter it. I find that these researchers achieved a consistent data set by engaging diverse evidential contexts as contexts of accountability. Employing graphs that visualize data in conventional representational formats of observational astronomy, experienced practitioners held each other accountable by using an 'implicit cosmology', a shared (but sometimes negotiable) characterization of 'what the universe looks like' through these formats. They oriented to data as malleable, that is, as containing artifacts of the observing situation which are unspecified initially but can be defined and subsequently removed. Alternating between reducing data and deducing astronomical phenomena, they ascribed artifacts to local observing conditions or computational procedures, thus maintaining previously stabilized phenomena reflexively. As researchers in data-intensive sciences are often removed from the instruments that generated the data they use, this example demonstrates how scientists can achieve agreement by engaging stable 'global' data sets and diverse contexts of accountability, allowing them to bypass troubling features and limitations of data generators.

  1. Characterizing Students' Attempts to Explain Observations from Practical Work: Intermediate Phases of Understanding (United States)

    Mestad, Idar; Kolstø, Stein Dankert


    This study aims to characterize a group of students' preliminary oral explanations of a scientific phenomenon produced as part of their learning process. The students were encouraged to use their own wordings to test out their own interpretation of observations when conducting practical activities. They presented their explanations orally in the whole class after having discussed and written down an explanation in a small group. The data consists of transcribed video recordings of the presented explanations, observation notes, and interviews. A genre perspective was used to characterize the students' explanations together with analysis of the students use of scientific terms, gestures, and the language markers "sort of" and "like." Based on the analysis we argue to separate between event-focused explanations, where the students describe how objects move, and object-focused explanations, where the students describe object properties and interactions. The first type uses observable events and few scientific terms, while the latter contains object properties and tentative use of scientific terms. Both types are accompanied by an extensive use of language markers and gestures. A third category, term-focused explanations, is used when the students only provide superficial explanations by expressing scientific terms. Here, the students' use of language markers and gestures are low. The analyses shows how students' explanations can be understood as tentative attempts to build on their current understanding and observations while trying to reach out for a deeper and scientific way of identifying observations and building explanations and new ways of talking.

  2. Social Support Strategies for Immigrants: The Context of Social Work Practice in Lithuania

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    Aistė Bartkevičienė


    Full Text Available Intensification of migration flows makes Lithuania one of the immigrants host countries which, like other European Union countries, faces the challenge of integration of immigrants and in this process an important role has a social worker. The aim of research was to reveal the social support strategies used by social workers in solving social problems of immigrants during the process of their integration. The qualitative research using semi-structured interview method and content analysis method was done. The survey results suggest that immigrants during the process of integration face these social problems: the search for housing, employment, legal, financial, lack of access to relevant information. The results revealed that social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, evaluate their nature and level and then apply the appropriate level of intervention. Social workers apply these micro level interventions: information and consultancy of immigrants, mediation and emotional support, which include individual social assistance. Social workers, solving the social problems of immigrants, apply these mezzo level interventions: development of social network of immigrants, organization of socio-cultural events, organization and coordination of volunteer activities. Social workers providing social assistance to immigrants' integration process, use the following macro level interventions: dissemination of information onimmigrantissues, conduction and dissemination of researches based on immigrant integration issues, dissemination of best practice of social workers.

  3. Relating the practice of working librarian for benchmarks quality distance higher education

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    Cintia Kath Blank


    Full Text Available Introduction: The issue EAD has been studied now, however, it considered that with regard to the librarian's work there is still much to be debated.Objective: To contribute to insights into the activities of the librarian combined with the items listed in the "Benchmarks of Quality for Distance Higher Education."Methodology: Literature review.Results: The higher the distance is reality that is increasingly present in our society, both in the public and in particular in big cities or towns and all professionals involved in education should pay attention to the issue of quality in EAD in order to be offered an educational process that enables the full development of the student in their learning process.Conclusion: It was observed that the role of the librarian is renewed every moment, this requires ongoing professional reflection and reinvention of their skills, knowledge and techniques to better serve the users of information service.

  4. Working environment interventions – Bridging the gap between policy instruments and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, Klaus T.


    is paid to why and how public and private organisations subsequently are to improve their working environment. This paper suggests a model which can bridge this gap. It is based on a combination of theories about basic policy instruments (regulation, incentives and information) with realistic analysis...... analysis of the case shows how various actors, including the authorities, employers, unions and bi-partite committees, developed a programme combining the policy instruments over a considerable period of time and that all three institutional mechanisms affected the outcome. This integration of various...... actors and instruments, which was not necessarily planned from the beginning, proved to be an effective way of facilitating the implementation of new preventive measures in bricklaying. The analysis also indicates new intermediary mechanisms, such as programme development, as an iterative process...

  5. Use of additive technologies for practical working with complex models for foundry technologies (United States)

    Olkhovik, E.; Butsanets, A. A.; Ageeva, A. A.


    The article presents the results of research of additive technology (3D printing) application for developing a geometrically complex model of castings parts. Investment casting is well known and widely used technology for the production of complex parts. The work proposes the use of a 3D printing technology for manufacturing models parts, which are removed by thermal destruction. Traditional methods of equipment production for investment casting involve the use of manual labor which has problems with dimensional accuracy, and CNC technology which is less used. Such scheme is low productive and demands considerable time. We have offered an alternative method which consists in printing the main knots using a 3D printer (PLA and ABS) with a subsequent production of castings models from them. In this article, the main technological methods are considered and their problems are discussed. The dimensional accuracy of models in comparison with investment casting technology is considered as the main aspect.

  6. The police, social services and psychiatry cooperation in Denmark—A new model of working practice between governmental sectors. A description of the concept, process, practice and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Dorthe; Rasmussen, Mikael Flemming; Vitus, Kathrine


    to provide the needed support to the individual citizen. Due to the success of the PSP cooperation in Frederiksberg, the PSP model was implemented by law in Denmark in 2009. In order to evaluate the model, a qualitative study based on structured interviews, focus group discussions and observations......In 2004 a new model of working practice between three public sectors, the local Police Department, Social Services and Psychiatry/Mental Health Services (PSP) was introduced in the municipality of Frederiksberg, Denmark. The aim of this cooperation was to enhance support to vulnerable citizens, who...... do not belong solely to one of the three sectors and thereby often get lost in the system. The PSP cooperation was introduced to ensure that relevant information concerning vulnerable citizens was shared between the three sectors and to improve collaboration between the sectors involved in order...

  7. Husbandry, working practices and field performance when using draught oxen in land preparation in Shambat, Nile Valley, Sudan. (United States)

    Makki, Elsamawal Khalil


    Little quantitative information is available on animal power in the Nile Valley in Sudan, despite that it is being used in the area for centuries and playing an important role in agriculture in the present day. A survey was conducted to assess draught oxen management and its association with field capacity and efficiency at the farm level and to identify potential areas for intervention. A sample of 50 farmers was selected for this purpose using the systematic random sampling technique. The main management parameters discussed were animal health, feeding, housing, work strategy and care for yoke and plough. The results showed that most of the farmers poorly manage their animals, and this was reflected in low working speeds and field efficiencies. The main dimensions of poor management were in veterinary care (78 % did not take their animals to the veterinary centre), feeding (66 % feed their animals shortly before work) and care for yoke (80 % did not follow daily care measures for their yokes) and plough (74 % did not follow plough care measure before and after work). Low working speeds (0.90–2.0 km/h) were recorded by the majority of the farmers (64 %). The majority of the farmers (70 %) recorded field capacities between 0.06 and 0.10 ha/h, while all of them worked at high field efficiencies of >86 %. The only parameter that significantly affected field capacity was the yoke-related wounds (p = 0.019). Extension advice and capacity building in husbandry and working practices were identified as principal entry points for intervention.

  8. Interprofessional education in practice: Evaluation of a work integrated aged care program. (United States)

    Lawlis, Tanya; Wicks, Alison; Jamieson, Maggie; Haughey, Amy; Grealish, Laurie


    Health professional clinical education is commonly conducted in single discipline modes, thus limiting student collaboration skills. Aged care residential facilities, due to the chronic and complex health care needs of residents, provide an ideal placement to provide a collaborative experience. Interprofessional education is widely acknowledged as the pedagogical framework through which to facilitate collaboration. The aim of the evaluation was to assess student attitudes towards collaboration after active involvement in an interprofessional education program. Students studying nursing, occupational therapy, and aged care were invited to complete a version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale before and after participating in a three-week pilot interprofessional program. A positive change in student attitudes towards other health professionals and the importance of working in interprofessional teams was reported with significant differences between two statements indicated: Learning with health-care students before qualifications would improve relationships after qualifications; and I learned a lot from the students from the other disciplines. The innovative pilot project was found to enhance student learning in interprofessional teams and the aged care environment. Further development of this and similar interprofessional programs is required to develop sustainable student projects that have health benefits for residents in aged care residential facilities.

  9. The Curricular Practice of a Work-Competency Model for Adult Higher Education

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    Etty Haydeé Estévez


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to get to know the true curriculum of the Northwestern University’s Get Ahead, a special undergraduate program based on the work competencies model and aimed at adults already in the workforce. The goal was to back up the curricular improvement of an educational alternative unique of its kind in Sonora (Mexico. The methodology of Estevez and Fimbres (1998 was used for the formal curriculum analysis and its comparison with the real curriculum from the perspective of its protagonists: teachers and students. The curriculum’s internal and external sources were analyzed in order to define the instruments and variables, and to interpret the results. We concluded that the teachers showed that the teachers were more up to date than the students in regard to disciplinary topics. However, they lack adequate teaching strategies to make an impact on students’ learning process. Moreover, neither teachers nor students are familiar with the competence model, nor do teachers apply a diagnostic examination to determine their students’ competency at the beginning of the course. This indicates that the formal curriculum is distant from the real curriculum.

  10. On the Discovery of Preferred Work Practice Through Business Process Variants (United States)

    Lu, Ruopeng; Sadiq, Shazia

    Variance in business process execution can be the result of several situations, such as disconnection between documented models and business operations, workarounds in spite of process execution engines, dynamic change and exception handling, flexible and ad-hoc approaches, and collaborative and/or knowledge intensive work. It is imperative that effective support for managing process variance be extended to organizations mature in their BPM (Business Process Management) uptake so that they can ensure organization wide consistency, promote reuse and capitalize on their BPM investments. Process variants are complex objects that contain features of different dimensions, such as variant design or variant execution data. This paper provides a technique for effective utilization of the adaptations manifested in process variants. In particular, we will present a facility for discovery of preferred variants through effective search and retrieval based on the notion of process similarity, where multiple aspects of the process variants are compared according to specific query requirements. The major advantage of this approach is the ability to provide a quantitative measure for the similarity between process variants, which further facilitates various BPM activities such as process reuse, analysis and discovery.

  11. Engaging Consumer Voices in Health Care Policy: Lessons for Social Work Practice. (United States)

    Law, Kristi Lohmeier; Saunders, A


    Community health centers provide comprehensive public health care in some of the most disadvantaged communities in the United States. To ensure that health centers meet the needs of their consumers, they uniquely engage them in their organizational decision-making and policy-development processes by requiring that their boards of directors encompass a 51 percent consumer majority. To understand the quality of board members' experiences, a critical ethnography was conducted using Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation and the socioecological model as a framework. The analysis identified multiple influences on the quality of participation among consumer members. Findings also confirm other research that has found that knowledge of the economic, political, and cultural factors surrounding the context of the individual health center is important to understanding meaningful participation. The experience is important to understand given the shift driven by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 in health care, which emphasizes a patient-entered model of care. Social work practitioners and others in the public health arena interested in empowering consumers to have a role in the provision of services need to understand the impact of each of these areas'and the experience of this unique sample of health center board members.

  12. The Perception of Cost for Work-Life Balance(WLB) Practice Use and Employee outcomes




    近年、経営組織における両立支援施策の導入及び浸透ついて関心が人的資源管理 の観点から高まっているも、実用的な示唆に向け関心があり理論考察と議論が十分に蓄積されていな。本稿は、仕事育児を両立する女性正社員支援施策を利用するにあたって負うとされキャリア上のコスト認識焦点当雇継続及び両立満足への影響を検証した。キャリア上コスト認識は主要な二つ従属変数に負の有意な影響を与えていた。ま、 そは数に負の有意な影響を与えていた。ま、 そは数に負の有意な影響を与えていた。ま、 そはWLB文脈において導出さ れた心理的契約の履行 (psychological contract fulfillment)によって調節された。, Recently, a social and legal foundation has been laid in Japan to support balance(WLB). However, the situation of female regular employees' early retirement for reasons of birth an...

  13. Thoughts about the work of translation and interpretation in sign language as ethical and political practice in self care

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    Lucyenne Matos da Costa Vieira-Machado


    Full Text Available Think about the work of sign language translator and interpreter (SLTI as ethical and political practice in self care constitutes an urgent question in our time and it is the main objective of this paper. With this constitution of academic and specialized knowledge of the translation and interpretation studies of sign language e its affiliation with the Translation Studies field, the displacement of the SLTI is emergent. Besides the introduction and final conclusions, the text will be divided in three parts. The first part, we will discuss about research and political questions that emerges about the SLTI. Those are undertaken by government devices with the objective to locate the relevance of the purpose of this text that is beyond prescriptive and descriptive ethics and discuss it as practical life. In the second part of the text it will be problematized, questions, inspired by Foucault, that penetrates the ethical practice of the SLTI starting from the comprehension of its function as intellectual in the area and its responsibility that asumes in the elaboration of its own subjectivity. To finish, in the last part of this paper, the commitment with the translation and the text and with the other as an ethical position adopted.

  14. The impact of mobile handheld technology on hospital physicians' work practices and patient care: a systematic review. (United States)

    Prgomet, Mirela; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I


    The substantial growth in mobile handheld technologies has heralded the opportunity to provide physicians with access to information, resources, and people at the right time and place. But is this technology delivering the benefits to workflow and patient care promised by increased mobility? The authors conducted a systematic review to examine evidence regarding the impact of mobile handheld technology on hospital physicians' work practices and patient care, focusing on quantification of the espoused virtues of mobile technologies. The authors identified thirteen studies that demonstrated the ability of personal digital assistants (PDAs) to positively impact on areas of rapid response, error prevention, and data management and accessibility. The use of PDAs demonstrates the greatest benefits in contexts where time is a critical factor and a rapid response crucial. However, the extent to which these devices improved outcomes and workflow efficiencies because of their mobility was largely absent from the literature. The paucity of evidence calls for much needed future research that asks explicit questions about the impact the mobility of devices has on work practices and outcomes.

  15. Knowledge and Practices of Nurses Working in an Education Hospital on Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervix Cancers.

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    Ozlem Ozdemir


    Full Text Available AIM: This research has aimed to determine knowledge and practice status of nurses about breast self-examination (BSE, clinical breast examination (CBE, mammography and Pap smear and about influencing status of some variables related to these examinations. METHOD: This descriptive study was conducted in an education hospital in Ankara between March 1st and May 30th, 2008. Three hundred-fifty nurses (82.7% have accepted to participate in the study. Data were collected by a questionnaire form including questions about demographics, their knowledge and practice status about BSE, CBE, mammography and Pap smear. Chi-square test, numbers and percentages were used for evaluating the data. RESULTS: Overall, 46.9% of nurses had enough knowledge about early diagnosis of breast and cervix cancer. 60.2% of them can carry BSE, 18.8% can carry out CBE and 7.3% can carry out mammography. Pap smear is carried out by 23.7% of the nurses. Negligence, fear of cancer and thought of finding them unnecessary were determined as reasons for avoidance. Their knowledge and practice were significantly different (p<0.05 according to their age and service where they work. CONCLUSION: It has been concluded that although knowledge and practices of nurses on breast and cervix cancer are at a good level, this isn’t enough when importance of early diagnosis in breast and cervix cancer are taken into consideration, which are among common cancers in women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 605-612

  16. Validation of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI for the Portuguese nurse population

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    Eileen Lake


    Full Text Available Background: The need to obtain efficiency gains and to focus practice on obtaining value has influenced research in the area of nursing environment and nursing outcomes. The conclusions reached in those studies highlight the need for better nurse/patient ratios, better qualified nurses, and greater involvement of nurses in decision-making and in clinical management, which will lead to increased levels of productivity and satisfaction and, consequently,better patient outcomes and better organization. The study and creation of favourable practice environments may play a fundamental role on that. Practice environments have been studied since the 1980s (Lake, 2002 with the aim of better understanding their effect on nursing professionals and on patient outcomes. More recently, focus has also been put on their connection to patient safety.Aim: To translate and validate the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI for producing a Portuguese version of the scale ready to be used for the assessment of nursing practice environments in Portugal.Methodology: Translation, cultural validation and back-translation were achieved with the collaboration of a group of nurses and nursing teachers. The psychometric validation of the Portuguese version was reached by extracting the principal components using a varimax rotation (construct validity. The analysis of the criterionvalidity was carried out through correlation using Barton’s Job Satisfaction Scale and scale reliability was assessed through the analysis of internal consistency using Cronbach’s Alpha. An electronic version of the instrument was created and given to a sample of nurses who were members of the National Board for Nursing and who were invited to fill out the scale via email. A total of 418 responses were received.Results: The analysis identified an eight-factor solution which, following a deeper semantic analysis resulted in seven subscales. The scale’s global internal

  17. Art,Science and Technology——Computed Aided Design in Practice & How computer technology affect designer’s work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Introduction:Computing technology has developed significantly in the past few decades.It affects almost everyone in the modern society,creating new ways of communication which affects both our work and leisure activities.Particularly,in today’s world of design and technology,computer aided design is fast becoming a technologically and economically feasible reality.Most designers have accepted the fact that computer aided design plays an important role in the success of their practices,not due to it’s value as an efficient drafting and modeling tool,but also because of clients’perception that it makes sound financial sense to utilize CAD.On the other hand,many people argue that computers are not fully autonomous,they are merely unconscious digital slaves or tools of production.In addition,the abusive use of software technology would turn creative art design into a purely industrial activity.

  18. Practical Guidelines for Studies on Sandfly-Borne Phleboviruses: Part I: Important Points to Consider Ante Field Work. (United States)

    Ayhan, Nazli; Baklouti, Amal; Prudhomme, Jorian; Walder, Gernot; Amaro, Fatima; Alten, Bulent; Moutailler, Sara; Ergunay, Koray; Charrel, Remi N; Huemer, Hartwig


    The purpose of this review is to provide practical information to help researchers intending to perform "from field to laboratory" studies on phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies. This guideline addresses the different steps to be considered starting from the field collection of sandflies to the laboratory techniques aiming at the detection, isolation, and characterization of sandfly-borne phleboviruses. In this guideline article, we address the impact of various types of data for an optimal organization of the field work intending to collect wildlife sandflies for subsequent virology studies. Analysis of different data sets should result in the geographic positioning of the trapping stations. The overall planning, the equipment and tools needed, the manpower to be deployed, and the logistics to be anticipated and set up should be organized according to the objectives of the field study for optimal efficiency.

  19. Graph 500 on OpenSHMEM: Using a Practical Survey of Past Work to Motivate Novel Algorithmic Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Max [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Pritchard Jr., Howard Porter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Budimlic, Zoran [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Sarkar, Vivek [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    Graph500 [14] is an effort to offer a standardized benchmark across large-scale distributed platforms which captures the behavior of common communicationbound graph algorithms. Graph500 differs from other large-scale benchmarking efforts (such as HPL [6] or HPGMG [7]) primarily in the irregularity of its computation and data access patterns. The core computational kernel of Graph500 is a breadth-first search (BFS) implemented on an undirected graph. The output of Graph500 is a spanning tree of the input graph, usually represented by a predecessor mapping for every node in the graph. The Graph500 benchmark defines several pre-defined input sizes for implementers to test against. This report summarizes investigation into implementing the Graph500 benchmark on OpenSHMEM, and focuses on first building a strong and practical understanding of the strengths and limitations of past work before proposing and developing novel extensions.

  20. Study of adaptation and validation of the Practice environment scale of the nursing work index for the portuguese reality

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    Maria Regina Sardinheiro do Céu Furtado Ferreira


    Full Text Available Objective: Testing the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Method: A descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study, for the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the psychometric properties of the scale. The study participants were 236 nurses from two hospitals in the regions of Lisbon and Vale do Tejo. Results: The 0.92 Cronbach’s alpha was obtained for overall reliability and support of a five-dimension structure. Conclusion: The excellent quality of adjustment of analysis confirms the validity of the adapted version to hospital care settings, although there was no total coincidence of items in the five dimensions

  1. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania. (United States)

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta


    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-scorechildren on the first day after birth. A thin gruel was introduced after a median of 2 months (25th-75th percentiles; 1-3). The time mothers spent farming was a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0·04). Illness, food shortage and dry-season cultivation were significant risk factors for underweight (Pfeeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status.

  2. Diagnostic work-up of neurological syndromes in a rural African setting: knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers.

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    Alain Mpanya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a "diviner" do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. CONCLUSION: Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach.

  3. Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: from evidence to practice

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    Anema Johannes R


    . Conclusions The feasibility and practical relevance of the communication skills training course that was developed seem promising. Such a course may be relevant for physicians in many countries who perform work disability assessments. The development of the first training course of this type represents an important advancement in this field.

  4. Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students. Educator's Practice Guide. What Works Clearinghouse.™ NCEE 2015-4010 (United States)

    Star, Jon R.; Foegen, Anne; Larson, Matthew R.; McCallum, William G.; Porath, Jane; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Caronongan, Pia; Furgeson, Joshua,; Keating, Betsy; Lyskawa, Julia


    Mastering algebra is important for future math and postsecondary success. Educators will find practical recommendations for how to improve algebra instruction in the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students". The methods and examples included in…

  5. When Failing Doesn't Matter: A Narrative Inquiry into the Social Work Practice Learning Experiences of Black African Students in England (United States)

    Tedam, Prospera


    This paper reports the findings of a small-scale empirical study into the practice learning experiences of black African students of social work in England. Undertaken in the form of a pilot study, the findings reveal that practice learning experiences can be beneficial in enhancing skills and knowledge but can also cause distress, lower…

  6. The Psychosocial Work Environment, Employee Mental Health and Organizational Interventions: Improving Research and Practice by Taking a Multilevel Approach. (United States)

    Martin, Angela; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Biron, Caroline; Sanderson, Kristy


    Although there have been several calls for incorporating multiple levels of analysis in employee health and well-being research, studies examining the interplay between individual, workgroup, organizational and broader societal factors in relation to employee mental health outcomes remain an exception rather than the norm. At the same time, organizational intervention research and practice also tends to be limited by a single-level focus, omitting potentially important influences at multiple levels of analysis. The aims of this conceptual paper are to help progress our understanding of work-related determinants of employee mental health by the following: (1) providing a rationale for routine multilevel assessment of the psychosocial work environment; (2) discussing how a multilevel perspective can improve related organizational interventions; and (3) highlighting key theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to these aims. We present five recommendations for future research, relating to using appropriate multilevel research designs, justifying group-level constructs, developing group-level measures, expanding investigations to the organizational level and developing multilevel approaches to intervention design, implementation and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Perspectives of Safe Work Practices: Improving Personal Electrical Safety of Low-Voltage Systems from Electrical Hazards

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    Y. Mobarak,


    Full Text Available A person’s understanding of a safety hazard has a dramatic effect on his or her behavior. An in-depth understanding of a hazard usually results in a healthy respect for what can happen. People who know the most about a specific hazard tend to rely more heavily on procedures and plans to guide their actions. Personal protective equipment selection and use are influenced by increased understanding of a hazard. Training and training programs are influenced by the depth of knowledge held by all members of the line organization. Recent work has focused attention on the thermal effects of arc flashes. However, when electrical energy is converted into thermal energy in an arcing fault, still another energy conversion is taking place. Applications are on record that suggest that a considerable amount of force is created during an arcing fault. Concrete block walls can be destroyed by the increased pressure that is created during an arcing fault. This study is present about preventing injuries to people. We will study about injuries and then develop some understanding about electrical hazards. Also, we will present about safe work practices, responsible, and then about what makes us act as we do.

  8. How teams work--or don't--in primary care: a field study on internal medicine practices. (United States)

    Chesluk, Benjamin J; Holmboe, Eric S


    We conducted a field study in three primary care practices representing different practice types: a solo practice; a certified patient-centered medical home; and a multiphysician, multispecialty practice connected to a local university. All three practices shared a common culture in the way that practice members related to each other. In each instance, the practice team operated in separate social "silos," isolating physicians from each other and from the rest of the practice staff. We concluded that current practice structures are primarily focused on supporting physicians' hectic routines and have trouble accommodating the diversity of patients' needs. For practices to succeed in managing diverse patients and in helping them understand and manage their own health, it will be critical to break down the silos and organize teams with shared roles and responsibilities.

  9. Impact of Gamification on User’s Knowledge-Sharing Practices:Relationships between Work Motivation, Performance Expectancy and Work Engagement


    Silic, Mario; Back, Andrea


    How to engage and motivate employees to share their knowledge has become one of the main organizational strategic goals. This study, supported by the Flow theory and Kahn’s theory of engagement, investigated how the impact of gamification on user’s knowledge-sharing practices. We ran an online survey of 147 participants from a large organization that implemented social engagement and motivational systems to leverage internal knowledgesharing practices. Our study revealed important drivers of ...

  10. The Extent of Practicing the Skills of Team Work Leadership among Heads of Departments in Directorate of Education in Methnb, Saudi Arabia: A Field Study (United States)

    Alotaibi, Norah Muhayya; Tayeb, Aziza


    Sound leadership has an important role in achieving the success of any institution; so the leader must possess some work team leadership skills such as decision-taking, communication, motivation, conflict management and meeting management. The current study is an attempt to identify the extent of practicing team work leadership skills among the…

  11. Perceptions of Breast Cancer Survivors on the Supporting Practices of Their Supervisors in the Return-to-Work Process: A Qualitative Descriptive Study. (United States)

    Caron, Maryse; Durand, Marie-José; Tremblay, Dominique


    Purpose Supervisors are known to be key actors in ensuring the success of absent employees in their return-to-work process. However, to date, little is known about the perceptions of breast cancer survivors on the practices put in place by their supervisors to support them during this process. The objective of this study was to describe the perceptions of breast cancer survivors on the practices put in place by their supervisors to support them during their return-to-work process. Method A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with breast cancer survivors (n = 10) who had returned to work after treatment and were still at work more than 18 months later. Each interview was audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim for qualitative thematic content analysis using a semi-open codification framework. Results Participants identified three main practices put in place by their supervisors to support them and which they perceived as particularly helpful during the return-to-work process: (1) maintaining communication during their period of absence; (2) working with them to structure their return-to-work process before their actual return; and (3) allowing them flexibility in their schedule for a certain period, particularly at the beginning of the return-to-work process. Breast cancer survivors also identified an omission in the practice of employers: lack of follow-up over time. Conclusion Knowledge about the practices perceived as helpful by breast cancer survivors during their return-to-work process lays the groundwork for the eventual development of services to help breast cancer survivors in their return to work.

  12. Ethical Conventions: A Study on Dental Practitioner’s Knowledge and Practice of Ethics in their Line of Work in Bangalore, India (United States)

    Raju, Vamsee Krishnam; Nanjundaiah, Vanishree; Laksmikantha, Ramesh; Nayak, Sushma Shankar; Kshetrimayum, Nandita


    Introduction Dentistry, being one of the healing professions, has an obligation to society that its members will stick on to high ethical standards of conduct. In India, studies done to assess whether the dental practitioners adhere to ethics in their line of work are very meager. Aim The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of ethics in their line of work among practicing dentists from various dental colleges in Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 258 practicing dentists attached to various dental colleges in Bangalore city of Karnataka, India. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the knowledge and practice scores according to gender and qualification. One way ANOVA was used to compare knowledge and practice score according to practice type and practice period. Results Mean knowledge score among males is 8.9 as compared to 9.43 among females and mean practice scores among males was 8.25 as compared to 8.29 in females. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean knowledge and practice scores among graduate dentists and specialists. Mean knowledge score among graduate dentists was 8.44 as compared to 9.36 among specialists and mean practice scores among graduate dentists was 7.7 as compared to 8.53 in specialists. Conclusion A significant association between the knowledge and practice scores was observed, implying that with an increase in knowledge, there was also an increase in the practices of ethics among study population. PMID:27656570

  13. Beyond the Debate over “Post-” vs. “Neo-”Taylorism: The Contrasting Evolution of Industrial Work Practices


    Lomba, Cédric


    International audience; This article aims at studying the evolution of the organisation of work, working practices and social and professional relationships in industry. It seeks to demonstrate that it is possible to transcend traditional analyses of factory work in terms of binary oppositions (Taylorism versus post-Taylorism or neo-Taylorism) by analysing the diversity of production models in conjunction with long-term fieldwork. In this study of the Belgian iron and steel industry, the vari...

  14. Does Research Degree Supervisor Training Work? The Impact of a Professional Development Induction Workshop on Supervision Practice (United States)

    McCulloch, Alistair; Loeser, Cassandra


    Supervisor induction and continued professional development programmes constitute good practice and are enshrined in institutional policies and national codes of practice. However, there is little evidence about whether they have an impact on either supervisors' learning or day-to-day practice. Set in a discussion of previous literature, this…

  15. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver tumors. Principles and practical guidelines of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzing, Florian [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Klinische Kooperationseinheit Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Brunner, Thomas B. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Radiologische Klinik, Freiburg (Germany); Ernst, Iris; Greve, Burkhard [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Baus, Wolfgang W. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Koeln (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Guckenberger, Matthias [UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich, Klinik fuer Radio-Onkologie, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a practical guideline for safe and effective stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver tumors. The literature on the clinical evidence of SBRT for both primary liver tumors and liver metastases was reviewed and analyzed focusing on both physical requirements and special biological characteristics. Recommendations were developed for patient selection, imaging, planning, treatment delivery, motion management, dose reporting, and follow-up. Radiation dose constraints to critical organs at risk are provided. SBRT is a well-established treatment option for primary and secondary liver tumors associated with low morbidity. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe Stereotaxie der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie (DEGRO) legt hier eine Empfehlung zur sicheren und effektiven Durchfuehrung der SBRT von Lebertumoren vor. Eine Literaturrecherche zur Untersuchung der Evidenz der SBRT sowohl fuer primaere Lebertumore als auch fuer Lebermetastasen wurde durchgefuehrt. Auf dieser Basis werden Empfehlungen fuer technisch-physikalische Voraussetzungen wie auch fuer die taegliche Praxis der Leber-SBRT gegeben. Weiterhin werden radiobiologische Besonderheiten dieses Verfahrens dargestellt. Praktische Vorgaben werden fuer Patientenselektion, Bildgebung, Planung, Applikation, Bewegungsmanagement, Dosisdokumentation und Follow-up gegeben. Dosisempfehlungen fuer die kritischen Risikoorgane werden dargestellt. Die SBRT stellt eine etablierte Behandlungsmethode fuer primaere und sekundaere Lebertumore dar und ist mit niedriger Morbiditaet assoziiert. (orig.)

  16. Work Practice Simulation of Complex Human-Automation Systems in Safety Critical Situations: The Brahms Generalized berlingen Model (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael


    The transition from the current air traffic system to the next generation air traffic system will require the introduction of new automated systems, including transferring some functions from air traffic controllers to on­-board automation. This report describes a new design verification and validation (V&V) methodology for assessing aviation safety. The approach involves a detailed computer simulation of work practices that includes people interacting with flight-critical systems. The research is part of an effort to develop new modeling and verification methodologies that can assess the safety of flight-critical systems, system configurations, and operational concepts. The 2002 Ueberlingen mid-air collision was chosen for analysis and modeling because one of the main causes of the accident was one crew's response to a conflict between the instructions of the air traffic controller and the instructions of TCAS, an automated Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System on-board warning system. It thus furnishes an example of the problem of authority versus autonomy. It provides a starting point for exploring authority/autonomy conflict in the larger system of organization, tools, and practices in which the participants' moment-by-moment actions take place. We have developed a general air traffic system model (not a specific simulation of Überlingen events), called the Brahms Generalized Ueberlingen Model (Brahms-GUeM). Brahms is a multi-agent simulation system that models people, tools, facilities/vehicles, and geography to simulate the current air transportation system as a collection of distributed, interactive subsystems (e.g., airports, air-traffic control towers and personnel, aircraft, automated flight systems and air-traffic tools, instruments, crew). Brahms-GUeM can be configured in different ways, called scenarios, such that anomalous events that contributed to the Überlingen accident can be modeled as functioning according to requirements or in an

  17. Development of Radiation protection and measurement technology - Evaluation of monetory values of radiation dose for implementation of ALARA in radiation protection practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon; Lee, Choon Sik; Won, In Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Chung Woo [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Approaches for estimation of the monetory values of radiation dose were reviewed to establish an appropriate model for evaluation of .alpha. values for quantitative optimization in radiation protection in Korea. Relevant socio-economical factors such as human capital, willingness to pay for saving a life, GNP, medicare cost for a cancer patient, were estimated as input data for the calculation. Base case alpha values were evaluated for low doses of different exposure situations; occupational exposure, exposure of member of the public, medical exposure of adults and children, exposure to natural radiation, and potential exposure. The estimated generic alpha value per sievert for base case was approximately the same as the GNP per caput. The alpha value at high doses were calculated by escalating the base case values with appropriate exponential risk aversion factor. Special values of alpha, $100000/Sv for base for example, were assigned for radiation protection in nuclear power plants for which contribution of non-quantifiable factors is much larger. Quantitative optimization procedures were explained with numerical illustrations using the protection options and related factors provided in ICRP 55 for a uranium mine. 34 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs. (author)

  18. Open access and its practical impact on the work of academic librarians collection development, public services, and the library and information science literature

    CERN Document Server

    Bowering Mullen, Laura


    This book is aimed at the practicing academic librarian, especially those working on the 'front lines' of reference, instruction, collection development, and other capacities that involve dealing directly with library patrons in a time of changing scholarly communication paradigms. The book looks at open access from the perspective of a practicing academic librarian and challenges fellow librarians to continue the dialogue about how the movement might be affecting day-to-day library work and the future of academic libraries. * Written by a practicing academic librarian with many years experience in reference, as well as in collection development and faculty liaison roles* Written with the "front-line" academic librarian in mind from a practical point of view* Contains numerous references to refer the reader to many open access resources; includes extensive footnotes for further reading

  19. Exploring the Sacred-Secular Dialect in Everyday Social Work Practice: An Analysis of Religious Responses to Managerialism among Outreach Social Workers in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Groves, Julian M; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton


    We examine the recent proliferation of religious discourses among front line social workers in the former British Colony of Hong Kong in order to explore the nature of 're-enchantment' in modern social work practice. In-depth qualitative interviews with twenty social workers who identify as 'Christian social workers' in a variety of social work organisations (both religious and secular) reveal the adoption of religious identities and discourses to navigate the encroachment of managerialism. A systematic analysis of these narratives suggests that Christian social workers evoke religion to reclaim feelings of authenticity in their work, to facilitate more personalised relationships with their clients, and to empower themselves following the introduction of managerialist policies. We illuminate the dialectical relationship between religious discourses and managerialism to critique claims in the literature about a 're-enchantment' in social work, and to understand the essence of religion in modern social work practice.

  20. A social work practice reflection on issues arising for LGBTI older people interfacing with health and residential care: rights, decision making and end-of-life care. (United States)

    Duffy, Francis; Healy, John Paul


    This article is a social work practice reflection on issues arising for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) older people interfacing with health and residential care in Australia; focusing on clients, families, and carers in relation to rights, decision making, and end-of-life care. The article explores relevant case examples from social work practice in a health and residential care setting that highlight some specific complexities of working with this client group. This article brings greater attention to issues arising for older LBGTI when interfacing with health and residential care and has the potential to improve practice for social workers and other health professionals and improve outcomes for LGBTI older people.