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Sample records for alara design review

  1. Fuel transfer system ALARA design review - Project A.15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is to move the SNF from the K Basins in the Hanford 100K Area to an interim dry storage at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the Hanford 200 East Area. The Fuel Transfer System (FTS) is a subproject that will move the SNF from the 105K East (KE) Facility to the 105K West (KW) Facility. The SNF will be treated for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility at the KW Basin. The SNF canisters will be loaded underwater into a Shielded Transfer Cask (STC) in the KE Basin. The fully loaded STC will be brought out of the water and placed into a Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO) by the STC Straddle Carrier. As the STC is removed from the water, it will be washed down with demineralized water by an manual rinse system. The CTO with the STC inside will be placed on a transport trailer and transferred to the KW Basin as an intra-facility transfer. The CTO will be unloaded from the shipping trailer at the KW Basin and the STC will be removed from the CTO. The STC will then be lowered into the KW Basin water and the fuel will be removed. The SNF will then be processed for shipment to the CVD. As soon as all of the fuel has been removed from the STC, the cask will be removed from the KW Basin water and placed into the CTO. The CTO will again be placed on the trailer for transport back to the KE Basin where the entire cycle will be repeated approximately 400 times. This document records the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) findings and design recommendations/requirements by the SNF Project noted during the Final Design Review of the STC, CTO, STC Transfer System, Annexes and Roadways for support of FTS. This document is structured so that all statements that include the word ''shall'' represent design features that have been or will be implemented within the project scope. Statements that include the words ''should'' or ''recommend'' represent ALARA design features to be evaluated for future implementation

  2. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  3. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included in the original project design. That is, that the design and operation of existing Cementation Process equipment and processes allows for the minimization of personnel exposure in its operation, maintenance and decommissioning and that the generation of radioactive waste is kept to a minimum

  4. Catawba nuclear station preoperational ALARA review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the particular emphasis placed on preoperational as los as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations at Duke Power's Catawba Nuclear Station. A strong station commitment to the ALARA philosophy, and review of existing capabilities, led to development of an aggressive two-part ALARA program. Capabilities consisted of sufficient numbers of available personnel, lengthy lead time during construction, a very detailed plastic model, and a sister plant of similar design. The program, as developed, consisted of a preoperational program, which looked at design and construction aspects of ALARA, and the operational program, dealing with the ALARA committee and operational problems. MAnagement's philosophy of holding everyone responsible for ALARA provided the motivation to organize the preoperational program to use that resource. The Health Physics group accepted responsibility for development, coordination, and reviewer training. The problem provided a base to build on as station personnel gained experience in their own crafts and radiation protection in general

  5. Preliminary ALARA design concept for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a space saving integral type nuclear rector with the thermal power of 330 MW. This report provides general design guide and authority in NSSS designs for SMART needed to maintain the occupational doses and doses to members of public ALARA to meet the regulatory requirements. Paragraph 20.1 of 10 CFR 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation'', states that licensee should make every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the limits specified in Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. The ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle is incorporated into Korean radiation protection law as paragraph one Article 97 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Jan. 1995). This ALARA Design Concept for SMART provides 1) description of the organization and responsibilities needed for upper level management support and authority in order for the implementation of ALARA, 2) guidance and procedures for design, review, and evaluation needed for SMART ALARA program implementation, 3) general design guidelines for SMART NSSS and BOP designers to implement ALARA principles in design stage, and 4) training and instruction requirement of SMART NSSS and BOP designers for the familiarization of ALARA principles to be implemented in NSSS designs. (Author). 4 refs., 1 tabs

  6. ALARA Review of the SHAARS Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SHARS mobile hot cell was designed and manufactured by Necsa intended to address the problem of disused Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) from teletherapy units, gamma irradiators and brachytherapy units. This unit is to be used in countries with no remote infrastructure to handle SHARS. The hot cell was designed for a 3.7E+13Bq (1000Ci) activity although it was demonstrated that it can handle even more than 7.4E+13Bq (2000Ci). The unit has a biological shield which consists of river sand sandwiched between metal plates and a viewing window filled with 50% zinc bromide solution. The unit was designed to provide sufficient shielding to ensure that doses are kept ALARA (As low As Reasonably Achieved). This paper compares the modelled dose rates with the actual measured doses during operations conducted in Sudan, Tanzania and Uruguay. It also presents the key lessons learned in the application of the ALARA principle during the SHARS missions. The new working practices and additional methods are proposed in order to reduce doses in accordance with the ALARA principle. (author)

  7. ALARA development in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980's, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field

  8. ALARA review for the 202-S plutonium loadout hood stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposures, control contamination levels, and control airborne radioactivity concentrations while conducting stabilization of the Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Facility plutonium loadout hood and associated piping, and the isolation of the ER-8 ventilation system

  9. Designing plants for ALARA-revelation or evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author traces the Duke Nuclear program from the late 1960s to today. He then looks at the future. The primary goal, he says, should be to continue to reduce individual exposure in order to reduce total station, industry exposure. In order to accomplish this goal in the design process, he recommends continued training of design personnel to reinforce the ALARA concepts and to provide new industry techniques and actual examples

  10. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  11. ALARA Review for the Sediment Relocation and Removal from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) review revision provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure, control contamination levels, and airborne radioactivity concentrations during sediment relocation and removal in the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin. This document updates and supercedes the ALARA review of the sediment-related activities contained in 100-N Basin Stabilization Project As Low As Reasonably Achievable Plan (BHI 1995)

  12. BNL ALARA Center's development of a computerized radiological assessment and design system (RADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health Physics and Industrial Hygiene sponsored a study of Radiological Engineering Programs at selected DOE contractor facilities. This study was conducted to review, evaluate, and summarize techniques and practices that should be considered in the design phase that reduce dose and the spread of radioactive materials during subsequent construction and operation of DOE radiological facilities. As in a previous study on operational ALARA programs, a variety of good-practice documents will be generated. It is envisioned that these documents will serve as a resource to assist radiological engineers in the process of designing radiological facilities, and in performing radiological safety/ALARA design reviews. This paper presents the features for three good-practice documents and related software applications that are being developed based on the findings of this study. The proposed software called Radiological Assessment and Design System (RADS) will be a menu-driven database and spreadsheet program. It will be designed to provide easy, consistent, and effective implementation of the methodologies described in the three good-practice documents. These documents and the associated RADS software will provide the user with the following three functions: (1) enter dose assessment information and data into computer worksheets and provide printed tables of the results which can then be inserted into safety analysis reports or cost-benefit analyses, (2) perform a wide variety of sorts of radiological design criteria from DOE Orders and produce a checklist of the desired design criteria, and (3) enter cost/benefit data and qualitative rating of attributes for various design alternatives which reduce dose into computer worksheets and provide printed reports of cost-effectiveness results

  13. Five-Year ALARA Review of Dosimetry Results 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2014.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Luke R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A review of dosimetry results from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2014 was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform to the philosophy to keep exposures to radiation As Low As is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). This included a review and evaluation of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) results at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico as well as at Sandia National Laboratories, California. Additionally, results of environmental monitoring efforts at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico were reviewed. ALARA is a philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  14. Five-Year ALARA Review of Dosimetry Results 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2013.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Luke R

    2014-08-01

    A review of dosimetry results from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2013 was conducted to demonstrate that radiation protection methods used are compliant with regulatory limits and conform to the ALARA philosophy. This included a review and evaluation of personnel dosimetry (external and internal) results at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico as well as at Sandia National Laboratories, California. Additionally, results of environmental monitoring efforts at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico were reviewed. ALARA is a philosophical approach to radiation protection by managing and controlling radiation exposures (individual and collective) to the work force and to the general public to levels that are As Low As is Reasonably Achievable taking social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations into account. ALARA is not a dose limit but a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below applicable dose limits As Low As is Reasonably Achievable.

  15. ALARA in design and operation of KAIGA-3 and 4, Indian 220 MW(e) PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological protection by ALARA in design and operation of nuclear power reactors had made down trend collective dose to occupational workers as well as members of the public. India is operating PHWRs type reactors RAPS onwards and gained a lot of experiences in the design and operation of 100 to 540 MW(e) rated capacity factor. The dose reduction measures have been incorporated into the design of the later reactors based on the operating experiences of earlier reactors. The various components/parts in the design stage have been modified and/or replaced in KAIGA-3 and 4, a long journey of lndian PHWRs operation. The improved operational practices have evolved which resulted in high level of the radiological safety. The radiological safety is ensured by approved guidelines, design improvements, effective shielding, source control, delay/decay of sources, radiation work control, protective equipments, contamination control, ventilation, radioactive waste management, effluent monitoring, work management, training, pep-talk/table-top, ALARA goals/achievements, close review of operational parameters, personal monitoring and other elements. This paper discusses the design and operation improvements of KAIGA-3 and 4 which reduced the Station collective dose and effluent releases. Low ambient gamma radiation field and very low tritium-in-air activity in reactor building has reduced the collective dose compared with similar reactor (KGS-1 and 2 and RAPS-3 and 4) and made record of lowest collective dose. The lowest tritium-in-air activity in accessible/shutdown areas and better fuel management has reduced tritium and FPNG gaseous effluent. The overall radiological safety of KAIGA-3 and 4 maintain low collective dose and insignificant contribution to public dose. The continual improvements in design and operation would bring down collective in the future new 700 MWe IPHWR series

  16. Alara in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews how the general frameworks of the ALARA procedures, ALARA Audits and Predictive ALARA Plans can be used in the non-nuclear power sector to give practical effect to the concept of optimization. The development of the use of ALARA Audits as an integral part of a Radiation Protection Adviser service and our experience of this structured approach is described. Particular attention is drawn to the use of site specific reference levels to trigger graded levels of response to increasing doses. Also several examples of the use of Cost Benefit Analysis within the ALARA Procedure are briefly described

  17. ALARA Review for the Decontamination, Deactivation and Housekeeping of the 233-S Viewing Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Safety and Health Procedures, Procedure 1.22, 'Planning Radiological Work', when radiological conditions exceed trigger level. The level of contamination inside the viewing room of the 233-S Facility meets this criterion. This ALARA review is for task instructions 1997-03-18-005-8.3.1, 'Instructions for Routine Entries and Minor Maintenance Work at 233-S,' and 8.3.2, 'Instructions for Deactivation, Decon, and Housekeeping in Viewing Room.' The radiological work permit (RWP) request broke the two task instructions into nine separate tasks. The nine tasks identified in the RWP request were used to estimate airborne concentrations and the total exposure

  18. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  19. ALARA review of the maintenance and repair jobs of repetitive high radiation dose at Kori Unit 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of maintaining occupational radiation dose (ORD) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) requires the effective reduction of ORD in the phases of design as well as operation of nuclear power plants. It has been identified that a predominant portion of ORD arises during maintenance and repair operations at nuclear power plants. The cost-effective reduction of ORD cannot be achieved without a comprehensive analysis of accumulated ORD data of existing nuclear power plants. To identify the jobs of repetitive high ORD, the ORD data of Kori Units 3 and 4 over 10-year period from 1986 to 1995 were compiled into the PC-based ORD database program. As the radiation job classification structure, 26 main jobs are considered, most of which are further subdivided into detailed jobs. According to the order of the collective dose values for 26 main jobs, 10 jobs of high collective dose are identified. As an ALARA review, then, top 10 jobs of high collective dose are statistically analyzed with regard to 1) dose rate, 2) crew number and 3) job frequency that are the factors determining the collective dose for the radiation job of interest. Through the ALARA review, main reasons causing to high collective dose values are identified as follows. The high collective dose of RCP maintenance job is mainly due to the large crew number and the high job frequency. The characteristics of refueling job are similar to those of RCP maintenance job. However, the high collective doses of SG-related jobs such as S/G nozzle dam job, S/G man-way job and S/G tube maintenance job are mainly due to high radiation dose rate. (author)

  20. What is ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy as it applies to personnel radiation exposure has been with us for a long time. The essential tenets of this philosophy surfaced quite early in the history of the Manhattan Project. Although the terminology has suffered through various translations and the application has seen many organizations and agencies come and go, the principles remain as valid today as ever. It is regretable that some regulatory agencies claim ALARA as their newfound miracle drug and that application according to their prescriptions will result in endless rounds of cyclical improvement in radiation protection practices. Others have taken advantage of the popularity of ALARA and have bastardized the philosophy to mean whatever is expedient for their purposes. In this paper, we review briefly the history of ALARA and what it seemingly means to different interest groups and offer a balanced viewpoint that health physicists should adopt

  1. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J.; Durham, J.S.; Hickey, E.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Cicotte, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL`s reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included.

  2. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL's reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included

  3. ALARA Review of the Activation/Repair of Fire Detectors in Zone Three at the 233-S Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure 1.22, 'Planning Radiological Work', when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the viewing room meets this criterion. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-005-8.3.3 (mini task instruction to a living work package), 'Instructions for D ampersand D Support of Fire Detector Troubleshooting and Minor Maintenance Work at 233-S,' and DynCorp 2G-98-7207C, '233-S Reconnect Smoke Detectors Zone 3.' The Radiological Work Permit (RWP) request broke these two task instructions into four separate tasks. The four tasks identified in the RWP request were used to estimate airborne concentrations and the total exposure

  4. Radiation exposure management - The Westinghouse ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse has incorporated radiation management into the design of its NSSS plants. This paper describes the Westinghouse program for incorporating As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) radiation exposure into the design process. A description is given of the method of collecting data from operating Westinghouse plants. The analysis of this data and its use in the total NSSS plant exposure estimate is presented. Application of a detailed exposure review to the development of an improved mechanical component is described. A particular exposure review for a refueling task is discussed. One high exposure task is detailed and specific design improvements are identified. The disadvantages of the existing design are expressed and design improvements are suggested. The matrix management of the team that develops the improved design is described and the resulting product is presented. The specific example is used to illustrate the operation of the Westinghouse ALARA program

  5. Project W-320 ALARA Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials

  6. Project W-320 ALARA Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, W.M.

    1995-06-06

    This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials.

  7. Establishing a process for handling radiation protection and ALARA reviews of projects at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the exciting world of emerging opportunities, establishing new projects are often synonymous with a rollercoaster ride. Even in the best circumstances there is always something lost along the way. Very often this will be the small crack that might lead to the large break a few generations down the line. With the big focus on new developments at ANSTO, it has become necessary to have Radiation Protection Advisors who will be available to provide the inputs and expertise needed to influence the designs in the earliest phases of development. Specifically looking at designs where there might be no operational experience available, judgement has to be made on best engineering practise and taking into account best estimate values for the radiological exposures related to the design. A special process is being developed to highlight the inputs needed from the designers and engineers in every phase of the design process. This process establishes the steps to be followed by the Radiation Protection Advisors in performing radiation protection reviews and identifies the outputs for every phase. They are crucial in declaring design baselines and proceeding to the next phase of the project design. These reviews of the design, operation and maintenance of the systems and components is done taking into consideration international guidelines for good radiation protection and nuclear engineering practise with regards to material composition, system design, layout, operation, maintenance and waste minimisation. The aim is to integrate this process into the overall ANSTO project management process. It will be done by applying it to the various ANSTO capital expenditure and other projects which may be in various stages of development. This will help to identify process shortcomings and to measure its efficiency. Ultimately it will be tested in its entirety from the Concept to the Detail design phase and help to provide baseline information and reasoning throughout the facility

  8. Education and training for ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practice of ALARA or the optimisation of Radiation Protection is an important feature of the task of the Radiation Protection Professionals. The teaching of the subject is an equally important part of the education and training curriculum. This paper commences with a general view of the educational process and concludes with specific comments on the educational needs. The concept of ALARA is suggested to be central to the safety culture of radiation protection practice. It is considered to be a part of the scientific culture which is well recognised but not well understood. These topics are reviewed and the conclusions applied to a proposal for a syllabus for the teaching of ALARA and this is compared with the content of courses on the subject. (Author)

  9. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  10. Alara and decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In applying ALARA somebody has to determine what is reasonable. A decision has to be made. Decision Analysis is a procedure for structuring decision problems, and therefore it might be expected to be of use in the application of the ALARA principle. This paper explores the contribution that Decision Analysis may make in this context, particularly discussing the application of multi-attribute value theory. An example of using the theory on a problem of radioactive waste disposal is given, and the potential of an increased use of Decision Analysis in making the ALARA principle work, is discussed

  11. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W. [comps.

    1992-12-31

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE`s field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health`s programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors` facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters` ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors` ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  12. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W. (comps.)

    1992-01-01

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  13. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately

  14. ALARA training at INSTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990 the CEPN, the National Radiological Protection Board and the INSTN organized for the first time in Europe one teaching specifically established to radioprotection optimization. This training has allowed to spread the experience of the best european specialists while guaranteeing a wide exchange between the participants coming from different countries. At the national level the training ALARA goes on at the INSTN-Saclay. Its aim is to give base notions, the methods and the tools allowing the implementation of the ALARA concept, and to privilege the exchange between the participants coming from different horizons. 2 refs., 2 figs

  15. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI's low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan

  16. Strengthening ALARA approach in work management at Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) occupational exposures at nuclear power plants should be included in work management as a concept. There are world-wide trends required by the utilities for improved design, operation and maintenance. Within the period of seventeen years of plant operation maintaining low radiation exposures requires additional efforts. The benefit of this effort should be reducing risks to nuclear workers, better work planning and performance. The Krsko Plant ALARA organisations has been revised recently and built on different levels of the hierarchy. The goal is to promote good industry practice and the management of work on primary systems. The established ALARA programme describes the objectives and defines the procedures and tools for its implementation. Brief presentation of the programme as well as organisational responsibilities of dedicated ALARA committee and working groups is the scope of this paper. The management tools and ALARA indicators are discussed to implement the programme and to evaluate the results.(author)

  17. ALARA: Progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has two main topics. The first part describes the establishment and work of the ALARA Center; the second part presents some results of studies at the Center with international data on doses at PWR plants. This data then is used to reach a preliminary understanding of some of the factors that are causing high doses at PWRs. This approach should help in reducing occupational exposures in a more effective manner

  18. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  19. New influences on the ALARA concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALARA concept is an essential component of an occupational radiation protection program because the fatality risk associated with continued exposure at or near the 5-rems/year limit is unacceptably high. Using a risk coefficient of 4 x 10-4 fatalities/person-rem the risk for a large worker population exposed in this manner for a working lifetime would be 10%. The ICRP fatality risk criterion is an average of 1 per year per 10 thousand workers. The average annual dose that would achieve this objective depends on the risk coefficient used. Using 4 x 10-4 again, the annual dose average would have to be 0.25 rem, a factor of 20 below the limit. It is evident that the ALARA concept is the most important aspect of occupational radiation protection and that the justification for an effective ALARA program is the cancer fatality risk. Not quite so evident but nonetheless important is the consideration that once the ICRP criterion is achieved, it is probably int eh best interest of the workforce to use resources available for their health and safety to reduce other risks. In this paper the risk information under examination by the government agencies is reviewed from the viewpoint of dose reduction through enhanced implementation of the occupational ALARA concept

  20. Technological innovations and design improvements to achieve ALARA exposures in Tarapur Atomic Power Station 3 and 4 (540 MWe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure control at the operating Nuclear Power Station is a major concern. Tarapur Atomic Power Station(TAPS) Unit- 3 and 4 is the first Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor of 540 MWe electrical capacity in-depth review of radiation safety was done to identify the impact of design modification on dose rates. Based on the experience gained in the operation of 220 MWe design modifications incorporated in TAPS unit-3 and 4. The challenging task of meeting the International standards in the field of radiation protection had been achieved at Tarapur Atomic Power Station 3 and 4 right from the initial stages of commissioning and operation. To avoid any unplanned exposures and also to keep the exposures at low level, several innovative features were introduced. These efforts were useful in achieving the lowest collective dose in the first year of operation among the Indian Nuclear Power Plants. This paper presents the brief descriptions of the systems and communication strategies adopted and design modifications implemented to reduce the dose rates and controlling exposure at TAPS 3 and 4. (author)

  1. ALARA engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report, prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health, is the second in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a specific focus towards DOE facilities. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste; uranium enrichment; fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing; facility decommissioning; hot laboratories; tritium production; research, test and production reactors; weapons fabrication and testing; and accelerators. Material on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, job planning, improved operational techniques, and other topics has also been included. This volume (Volume 2 of the series) contains 127 abstracts numbered from 69 through 195, as well as author and subject indices. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from both the previous volume and the current volume, the latter being indicated in boldface. Information that the reader feels should be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center

  2. ALARA application in Spanish NPP's. New approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One main objective of all nuclear installations is to underlie the principle of optimization. The focus in the application of this principle varies considerably, from cost-benefit techniques in the design phases to commitment, attitude and motivation in operation. The ALARA principle should permeate the entire organisation of the company during operation. Management should be the first link of a chain originating with explicit corporate commitment, leading to increasingly specific decisions, finally to reach those who are responsible for actual performance of each task. The safety culture is an element integrating the mentality that is to prevail throughout the organisation. The organisation shall contribute to incorporating the principle of optimization in all plant operations and all phases of activity. Management's commitment and motivation are transferred to all the workers and organisations involved. The ALARA commitment naturally extends to all outside organisations. The ultimate objective is to reduce collective doses through the promotion and enforcing of an ALARA culture and compliance with the operating collective dose objectives. (author)

  3. The Alara principle in backfitting Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive backfitting program, the Modifications Project, was carried out at the Borssele Nuclear Power Station. It involved sixteen modifications to technical systems. The scope of activities, and the dose rates encountered in places where work was to be performed, made it obvious from the outset that a high collective dose had to be anticipated. As a consequence, radiation protection within the project was organized in such a way that applicable radiation protection principles were applied in all phases of the project. From the point of view of radiation protection, the Modifications Project had to be subdivided into three phases, i.e., a conceptual design phase in which mainly the justification principle was applied; the engineering phase in which the Alara principle was employed; the execution phase in which management of the (internal) dose limits had to be observed in addition to the Alara principle. Throughout all project phases, radiation protection considerations and results were documented in so-called Alara reports and radiation protection checklists. As a result of the strictest possible observance of radiation protection principles in all phases of the project, a collective dose of 2505 mSv was achieved, which stands for a reduction by a factor of 4 compared to the very first estimate. In view of the scope and complex nature of the activities involved, and the radiation levels in the Borssele Nuclear Power Station, this is an excellent result. (orig.)

  4. Gentilly - 2 NGS ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a slide-based oral presentation given to the COG/IAEA: Fifth technical committee meeting on 'Exchange of operating experience of pressurized heavy water reactors' held in Mangalia, Romania on 7-10 September 1998. The operation experience of Gentilly -1 and Gentilly - 2 nuclear power stations is summarized. The radiation protection philosophy is addressed, the orange/yellow/green RP qualifications are explained and the ALARA Program objectives are described. The criteria used to develop the Gentilly - 2 station ALARA Program are presented. The program is based on: strong Hydro Quebec commitments, organization (responsibilities well defined); ALARA Committee; tools; procedures; good documentation. Description of the program is given then in details. Measures for dose and radioactive sources reduction are presented. Collective doses recorded at Gentilly - 2 between 1984 and 1997 are plotted and figures are given in a table

  5. Accountability system ALARA/optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). The aim of the project with which this report deals, is to assess an accountability system for application of ALARA (As Low As Reasonable Achievable)/optimisation and from these forthcoming bottlenecks. Herein (for this subproject) ALARA is defined as optimization of radiation protection below a risk limit which is to be assessed in another framework. In ch. 2 this discussed further. First it is indicated which categories applications/activities are to be distinguished. Then the elements of the accountability system are elaborated further. In ch. 3 a discussion is given of the actual legislation, the actual policy (national and international), the practice developed with regard to ALARA/optimization and the boundary condition forthcoming from these. In ch. 4 finally the results of ch. 2 are enlightened upon governmental consequences against the background of the actual situation, outlined in ch. 3. In behalf of the insight in the actual practice of ALARA/optimization and the governmental consequences of the in ch. 2 elaborated system interviews have been made with radiation-protection specialists. These are summarized in appendix 2. (H.W.)

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section's Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance

  7. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA

  8. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA.

  9. Integrating ALARA into work planning and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents various organizational structures and systematic approaches that can be of benefit in integrating ALARA into work planning and organization. It is possible to have elegant policy statements, procedures and organizations and yet fail to implement ALARA effectively. The real key to success in ALARA work management is to recognize that ALARA is primarily a way of thinking and to secure the commitment of individuals at all levels within the organization, from senior management to workers carrying out specific tasks. The authors explain that the recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 will have an impact and will maintain the downward pressure on individual doses. 6 figs

  10. Application of the ALARA process in the regulation of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the historical and conceptual basis of the ALARA process has been reviewed. The application solely of a prescriptive approach, particularly a rigorous quantitative approach to the decision-making process, has been questioned. While the Committees recognize the value of quantitative techniques they strongly emphasize that application of the ALARA concept is a much broader process for the determination of acceptable levels of protection. An ALARA process should take into account social and economic factors that are not quantifiable and involve representation of all those having a legitimate interest in the results of the process

  11. ETF interim design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-day ETF Interim Design Review was conducted on July 23-25, 1980, at the Sheraton Potomac Inn in Rockville, Maryland. The intent of the review was to provide a forum for an in-depth assessment and critique of all facets of the ETF design by members of the fusion community. The review began with an opening plenary session at which an overview of the ETF design was presented by D. Steiner, manager of the ETF Design Center, complemented by a physics overview by P.H. Rutherford, chairman of the ETF/INTOR Physics Committee. This was followed by six concurrent review sessions over the next day and a half. The review closed with a plenary session at which the Design Review Board presented its findings. This document consists of the viewgraphs for the opening plenary session and an edited version of the presentations made by Steiner and Rutherford

  12. VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning and communication tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human operations are required in nuclear installation, during maintenance, outage, repair and decommissioning. This leads to the exposure of the worker to radiation. It is clear that these operations must be performed according to the ALARA principle (to reduce the dose As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The person responsible for planning the job needs to evaluate different scenarios based on the exposure of the worker. This involves the manipulation of a lot of information specific to the work place such as the geometry, materials, radiological and technical boundary conditions to assess the dose. A lot of communication between the ALARA stakeholders is needed during this pre-job study. A communication that can be cumbersome and tedious when based on written documents and paper plans. The use of 3D calculation and simulation tools provide a solution to this problem. They provide an excellent means to make the above mentioned process more efficient and effective by calculating and visualising the environment and the associated radiological risk. The VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool is developed and designed by SCK-CEN as a dose assessment tool enabling the user to calculate the dose in a 3D environment for work scenarios. This software is very successful in the ALARA field. At present 22 companies in Europe use the VISIPLAN software in the field of dose assessment in maintenance and decommissioning. Recent developments and applications are discussed

  13. Chernobyl information: The ALARA backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk information to the public failed after the Chernobyl accident, also in countries where radiation protection authorities and experts initially enjoyed public confidence. In contrast to many other large accidents, the responsibility for the information failure stays mainly with the authorities and experts themselves, not with the mass media. Many factors together caused the radiation risk information from SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute), and its sister authorities in many other countries, to be confusing and inadequate, despite the best of intentions. The two major malefactors were the handling of food contamination restrictions and the short-sighted risk optimisation by applying the ALARA principle. In addition, the assurance that the Chernobyl contamination was fairly harmless made no sense to the layman, as a massive array of controlling procedures was enforced simultaneously. The food regulations became unfortunately focused on becquerel per kilogram limits instead of the primary goal, a dose reduction per year, corresponding to an yearly intake of Cs-137. The lesson learned is that the risk significant long-term intake ambition must be understood and digested by laymen and media, before any secondary limits, e.g. the activity concentration of foodstuffs expressed as becquerel per kg, for controlling or trading purposes, are introduced. As it were, the experts and authorities lost credibility, due to what people considered as ambiguities. The concept of ALARA (As Low As Readily Achievable) is in the backbone of every ionising radiation expert, and a useful strategy for optimising dose burdens during controlled situations. In connection to the Chernobyl accident many advices to the public was given based on the ALARA principle. 'Rinse leafy vegetables' sounds at first very reasonable, cheap and innocent, but if the averted dose is low, such an advice should not be given. The individual dose-reduction should be weighted against all negative

  14. ALARA and planning of interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of ALARA programs implies integration of radiation protection criterion at all stages of outage management. Within the framework of its ALARA policy, Electricide de France (EDF) has given an incentive to all of its nuclear power plants to develop open-quotes good practicesclose quotes in this domain, and to exchange their experience by the way of a national feed back file. Among the developments in the field of outage organization, some plants have focused on the planning stage of activities because of its influence on the radiological conditions of interventions and on the good succession of tasks within the radiological controlled areas. This paper presents the experience of Chinon nuclear power plant. At Chinon, we are pursuing this goal through careful outage planning. We want the ALARA program during outages to be part of the overall maintenance task planning. This planning includes the provision of the availability of every safety-related component, and of the variations of water levels in hthereactor and steam generators to take advantage of the shield created by the water. We have developed a computerized data base with the exact position of all the components in the reactor building in order to avoid unnecessary interactions between different tasks performed in the same room. A common language between Operation and Maintenance had been established over the past years, using open-quotes Milestones and Corridorsclose quotes. A real time dose rate counting system enables the Radiation Protection (RP) Department to do an accurate and efficient follow up during the outage for all the open-quotes ALARAclose quotes maintenance tasks

  15. ALARA and work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of Electricite de France (EDF) and Framatome, the Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) developed a three-year research project, between 1991 and 1993, to evaluate the impact of various work management factors that can influence occupational exposures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to assess the effectiveness of protective actions implemented to reduce them. Three different categories of factors have been delineated: those linked to working conditions (such as ergonomic of work areas and protective suits), those characterizing the operators (qualification, experience level, motivation, etc.). In order to quantify the impact of these factors, a detailed survey was carried out in five French NPPs, focusing on three types of operations: primary valves maintenance, decontamination of reactor cavity, and specialized maintenance operations on the steam generator. This survey was augmented by a literature review on the influence of open-quotes hostileclose quotes environment on working conditions. Finally, a specific study was performed in order to quantify the impact of various types of protective suits used in French nuclear installations according to the type of work to be done. All of these factors have been included in a model aiming at quantifying the effectiveness of protection actions, both from dosimetric and economic point of views

  16. Experience and new developments in implementing ALARA in occupational, public and patient exposures. Summary and recommendations of the 10. european ALARA network workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10. european ALARA network (E.A.N.) workshop took place in Prague (Czech Republic) in September 2006. This was the 10-year anniversary of the E.A.N., and unlike the previous workshops that addressed a particular ALARA topic, the aim of this workshop was to consider the implementation of the optimisation principle in all domains of activities (nuclear and conventional industry, medical sector, NORM industry). This principle is fundamental to radiation protection, and the workshop drew together key stakeholders to discuss its past, present and future status. The workshop was asked to consider the practical implementation of ALARA, and how this might be improved in the next 10 years. The objectives of the 10. E.A.N. workshop were to review the past evolution of the ALARA concept, internationally, within the Eu, and nationally, in terms of the practical impact on radiation protection; to examine the current status of the implementation of the ALARA principle; and to identify needs for future developments in the concept and implementation of optimisation. As with previous workshops, half the programme time was devoted to invited presentations, and half to working group discussions and report backs. After discussion, the output of these working groups was collated by the E.A.N. co-computers, to produce seven formal recommendations to international organizations (IAEA, International Labour Organisation, European Commission), to E.A.N. itself and to national authorities. These recommendations deal with justification of practices, holistic approach, ALARA culture, ALARA training, especially in the medical sector, ALARA focus through inspection and control, and stakeholder involvement. Individual presentations. (authors)

  17. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedures for maintenance site: application to replacement of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes generic organization and ALARA procedures for preparing a maintenance site at a NPP. After a short description of the ALARA principle, it describes the proposition for French sites. They are grouped according to the following: motivation, organisation, means. They are illustrated by the example of steam generator replacement. Three special points concerning preparation of the site are developed: education; training of operators; review of the project

  18. Ten years of ALARA experience in commercial nuclear pharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to review ten years of extremity exposure in a growing nuclear pharmacy company and determine those practices that have been most effective in keeping exposures ALARA. The focus of this study was specifically on extremity exposure since whole body exposures have not been as significant. Methods: More than 400 dispensing employees are monitored weekly for extremity exposure. Currently, these employees handle and dispense more than 9,000 Curies (333,000 GBq) of activity ready for use in nuclear medicine procedures each week. The quarterly and annual extremity exposure histories were examined and compared with the introduction of different initiatives to limit these exposures. Changes in the total activity per unit dose were considered as well as the introduction of different compounding practices during this time. An attempt was made to also determine specifically which activities contribute most to the extremity exposure of a dispenser. Procedural changes were reviewed as well as engineering controls such as new shielding materials and designs. Results: A significant conversion of cardiac doses occurred during the time period evaluated. Tc-99m heart agents became the preferred radiopharmaceutical replacing a significant portion of Tl-201 that had been used previously. Tl-201 is still used often in conjunction with a Tc-99m agent. The significance of the switch is the high percentage of dispensed doses for cardiac studies and the higher activities of the Tc-99m agents. A combination of procedural changes and engineering controls (primarily tungsten shielding devices) have been effective in preventing the extremity exposure increase one might expect based on higher activities dispensed per unit dose and the higher energy of Tc-99m compared to Tl-201. One procedural change, the mandatory use of tongs for handling unshielded syringes of radiopharmaceuticals, resulted in a 17% reduction in the average exposure to the extremities

  19. Alara - from theory towards practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alara principle states that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. It is a simple concept - the idea behind it is widely used in nearly all spheres of life, i.e. to do the best one can under the given circumstances. This book aims to help define what is meant by best in the context of radiation protection. It describes a procedure that is useful in structuring one's approach to any particular situation where a decision as to the best course of action is required. It also provides practical guidance on how the concept can be incorporated into radiation protection programmes. This book has been written as a reference manual on both the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. But it is especially targeted at those involved in radiation protection at the practical level

  20. Can practical ALARA be taught?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Purpose: Outside of the nuclear industry, many users of sources of ionising radiation may be characterised as 'High Frequency/Low Dose' users. It is argued here that they have special training requirements in order to understand the ICRP concept ALARA, indeed all the fundamental concepts of radiological protection and their relevance to the workplace. It is not practicable to practise dose avoidance in many situations so dose reduction becomes even more important. For example, laboratory life sciences researchers often have to use very small quantities and activities of beta emitting radioisotopes which give small or minuscule external doses to well trained workers but can give extremely serious high doses if mishandled Similarly, dentists routinely use 60- 100 kV X-ray generators to diagnose abnormalities and disease which other techniques would fail to detect. By practising simple and effective dose reduction methods, they can reduce the dose to themselves and their patients to arguably trivial levels. Method: The paper will use examples from Radiation Protection Supervisors courses run over the past 6 years for UK pharmaceutical companies and research into courses for general dental practitioners run over the past 8 years in East Anglia, England. The latter courses must meet the requirements laid down in the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 and the requirements of the professional dental association, the British Dental Council, and the continuing professional development requirements of the dental registration body, the General Dental Council. Major Findings and Conclusions: The research findings show an urgent need to train dental practitioners in the concepts and practical aspects of dose avoidance and dose minimisation, social and economic factors being considered. Pharmaceutical company research Radiation Protection Supervisors are generally well trained but also need to know the practical implications of the ALARA principle

  1. Application of the ALARA principle to the bleed condenser relief valve replacement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlington Nuclear Generating Division's achievements in radiation dose performance can be attributed, in part, to adherence to the ALARA principle. The station's ALARA program, which is an integral part of the safety culture, derives its strength from a strong and unwavering commitment by the site Vice President. This commitment is supported by performance standards and an accountability system which holds managers and supervisors responsible for dose performance. A LAN-based hazard and dose information system with site-wide accessibility was established to facilitate work planning and exposure control. The principle of dose optimization is fully integrated into the work management process and includes work planning, progress monitoring and post-job review. An integrated performance assessment and reporting system also provides timely feedback to management on dose performance. An example of the ALARA program was the bleed condenser relieve valve replacement project. Pre-job ALARA review meetings for the project were held with supervisory staff and technicians to discuss job details and dose reduction measures. All work groups were required to prepare a detailed step be step task safety analysis (TSA). The trades and engineering staff were requested to critique the TSA and suggest ways of reducing dose. Over 30 practical ALARA suggestions were received and adopted for implementation. Daily meetings were held to review job progress and the effectiveness exposure control. A post-job ALARA review was held at the conclusion of each project to obtain feedback and lessons learned. All improvement suggestions were reviewed for implementation during subsequent installations. As a result of the ALARA initiatives, significant dose savings were achieved. The normalized dose expenditure has been reduced from 9.6 rem for the first installation to 6.9 rem for the fourth and last installation. (author)

  2. Effective use of metrics in an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include; external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific ''indicators''. To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. This required the end users to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that customers can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer's most frequently asked questions. It is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, ''user friendly'', software and contains information from RIR's, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics

  3. World class ALARA performance at Darlington Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2008, Darlington Nuclear was selected by Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) North American Technical Center to receive the 2007 World Class ALARA Performance Award for setting and achieving high standards in radiation protection. The purpose of this presentation is to share some of the station's successes and challenges in reducing dose to operation and maintenance personnel. In particular, the following dose reduction initiatives will be discussed: - Innovative shielding design including the use of water shielding walls for on-line airlock maintenance, tungsten shielding blocks for feeder replacement, and exposure reduction for horizontal flux detectors - Use of remote monitoring array to scan reactor face for hot spots to reduce dose and save critical path time - Tritium reduction through improvements in human performance, outage scheduling and introduction of new technology With increasing work scope associated with maintenance, refurbishment and retro-fit activities, there is an upward pressure on collective dose making it a critical resource for many inspection and maintenance work groups. There is a need to reduce radiation source terms as a lasting solution to address ever-increasing collective dose. Darlington's long term strategic goals to reduce tritium and gamma source terms and a bold vision for the future will be discussed. (author)

  4. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  5. Maintaining occupational dose ALARA through work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian philosophy in keeping occupational dose ALARA has been to train staff in radiation safety so that they can be fully responsible for participating in minimizing the risks associated with the hazardous work. Senior managers actively promote high standards of performance in dose reduction techniques as a means for integrating ALARA into the operation and maintenance of the station by all personnel. Minimizing radiation dose is accomplished by applying cost effective work management techniques such as Job Safety Analysis, pre-job briefings and establishing and achieving radiation dose goals. Radiation dose goals are used as a management tool for involving all work groups in reducing doses as well as providing a means of assessing the effectiveness of dose reduction actions. ALARA, along with conventional safety, is used as a lever to raise the standard of quality of work and to overall build a safety culture. (author). 4 figs

  6. Experience of implementing ALARA outside the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the structured approach of ALARA Audits can help judgements on whether the ALARA principle has been implemented. The development of ALARA Audits, their integration into a nationwide Radiation Protection Adviser service to the non nuclear power sector, and the experience of their use are described. (author)

  7. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Utilizing 3D-visualization to apply compulsory ALARA principles in nuclear power plant design and day-to-day operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an advanced visualization and simulation tool to support both design as well as day-to-day operation is presented. This tool exploits cutting edge computer graphics, physics-based effects modeling, virtual reality, and gaming technologies to establish a system that can eventually be used for the administrative planning and training of plant operators and design engineers. (authors)

  10. FDH radiological design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These guidelines discuss in more detail the radiological design review process used by the Project Hanford Management Contractors as described in HNF-PRO-1622, Radiological Design Review Process. They are intended to supplement the procedure by providing background information on the design review process and providing a ready source of information to design reviewers. The guidelines are not intended to contain all the information in the procedure, but at points, in order to maintain continuity, they contain some of the same information

  11. FDH radiological design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millsap, W.J.

    1998-09-29

    These guidelines discuss in more detail the radiological design review process used by the Project Hanford Management Contractors as described in HNF-PRO-1622, Radiological Design Review Process. They are intended to supplement the procedure by providing background information on the design review process and providing a ready source of information to design reviewers. The guidelines are not intended to contain all the information in the procedure, but at points, in order to maintain continuity, they contain some of the same information.

  12. Methodology for making environmental as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall evaluation concept for use in making differential cost-benefit analyses in environmental as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) determinations is being implemented by Rockwell Hanford Operations. This evaluation includes consideration of seven categories: (1) capital costs; (2) operating costs; (3) state of the art; (4) safety; (5) accident or upset consequences; (6) reliability, operability, and maintainability; and (7) decommissionability. Appropriate weighting factors for each of these categories are under development so that ALARA determinations can be made by comparing scores of alternative proposals for facility design, operations, and upgrade. This method of evaluation circumvents the traditional basis of a stated monetary sum per person-rem of dose commitment. This alternative was generated by advice from legal counsel who advised against formally pursuing this avenue of approach to ALARA for environmental and occupational dose commitments

  13. Development of a general framework for the practical implementation of ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of optimization of protection of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) had its roots in the realization that radiation damage is not solely a threshold phenomenon, so a system of protection could not rely solely on limits. It was originally a qualitative idea that you did what was reasonable to reduce doses in the region below the limits. In Publication 26 of the ICRP the recommendation was in terms of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). It seems that there are still a number of problem areas and misconceptions about the practical implementation of ALARA, particularly the relationship between the ALARA requirement, decision-aiding techniques and decisions. The development of a general methodological framework for ALARA studies is primary objective of a joint project between the United Kingdom National Radiological Protection Board and the French Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, sponsored by the Biology and Health Protection programme of the Commission of the European Communities. Following a review of the underlying concepts, the paper outlines progress made on the general framework in a step-by-step guide to performing ALARA studies. The framework covers the initial structuring of the radiological protection problem; the identification of alternative protection options; the selection and quantification of relevant factors for each option; the use of decision-aiding techniques incorporating judgements on the relative weight assigned to these factors; and subsequent sensitivity analyses. This framework provides a method for carrying out ALARA studies to form a structured input to decisions involving non-radiological aspects. Each stage is described, highlighting problem areas where detailed technical guidance or value judgements are required. (author)

  14. Design review report for multiport riser final design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWethy, L.M.; Sheen, E.M.

    1994-05-01

    This design review examined the design documents contained in a notebook prepared for the final design review of the multiport riser assembly. This assembly will support the Hydrogen Mitigation Test program for mitigation of safety issues for Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The purpose of the Multiport Riser is to provide multiple access ports of several diameters in a single 42 inch riser for simultaneous access of test and support equipment. The notebook was titled: {open_quotes}Multiport Riser Final Design Review.{close_quotes} The review was conducted using a database comment registration system whereby the reviewer comments were entered into the database and each comment was given a unique identifier. During the review, each comment was referred to by its identifier. Changes to comments, responses, and actions needed were made with the agreement of the committee and the reviewers at the formal design review meeting held March 1, 1994. When the structural analyses were available, they were distributed for review which allowed closure of all design review comments. Approval of the design was achieved and supporting documents are included in this report.

  15. Research experiments detailed design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The illustrations for the detailed design review of the heliostats for a solar thermal pilot plant are presented. Also included are the program schedule, meeting agenda, and component design features. (MHR)

  16. ALARA in the radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part treats especially the question of the training in radiation protection. The electro nuclear sector has given an ALARA principle culture and succeeded to sensitize each level of hierarchy, but for small industry, the research and the medical world the same method appears more difficult to use. It seems better to reinforce the importance of the competent person and to include a training in radiation protection on the initial formation in numerous professional categories. (N.C.)

  17. International Peer Reviews of Design Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International peer reviews: Design and safety assessment review service: - Review of design requirements; - Review in support of licensing; - Review in support of severe accident management; - Review in support of modifications; - Review in relation to periodic safety, or life extension; - Reviews take place at any time in NPP lifecycle from concept, through design and operations

  18. ALARA studies on spent fuel and waste casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, S.H.

    1980-04-01

    In this report, some implications of applying the ALARA concept to cask designs for transporting spent fuel, high-level commercial and defense waste, and remote-handled transuranic waste are investigated. The XSDRNPM, one-dimensional radiation transport code, was used to obtain potential shield designs that would yield total dose rates at 1.8 m from the cask surface of 10, 5, and 2 mrem/h. Gamma shields of depleted uranium, lead, and steel were studied. The capacity of the casks was assumed to be 1, 4, or 7 elements or canisters, and the wastes were 1, 3, 5, and 10 years old. Depending on the dose rate, the cask empty weights and lifetime transportation costs were estimated.

  19. ALARA studies on spent fuel and waste casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, some implications of applying the ALARA concept to cask designs for transporting spent fuel, high-level commercial and defense waste, and remote-handled transuranic waste are investigated. The XSDRNPM, one-dimensional radiation transport code, was used to obtain potential shield designs that would yield total dose rates at 1.8 m from the cask surface of 10, 5, and 2 mrem/h. Gamma shields of depleted uranium, lead, and steel were studied. The capacity of the casks was assumed to be 1, 4, or 7 elements or canisters, and the wastes were 1, 3, 5, and 10 years old. Depending on the dose rate, the cask empty weights and lifetime transportation costs were estimated

  20. ALARA engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory ALARA Center on dose reduction at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health to include DOE nuclear facilities. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy Data Base, and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Information that the reader feels should be included in the next volume of this bibliography may be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center. These abstracts, which have a bearing on dose reduction, consolidates information from publications pertinent to Radiological Engineers and Operational Health Physicists. Volume 2 contains 127 abstracts numbered from 69 through 195 as well as author and subject indices. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from both the previous volume and the current volume, the latter being indicated in boldface

  1. ALARA at Tyco Health care-Mallinckrodt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How to approach the ALARA requirement? That was one of the question in the beginning of the 1990's at the Mallinckrodt site for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This question was raised after the ICRP published their guidelines in the ICRP 60 publication, with the average effective dose limit that was changed from 50 to 20 mSv per year. In the early 1990's the individual effective dose at Mallinckrodt was up to 20 mSv7year and some of the people over this number. As a first result of the discussion Mallinckrodt adopted the 20 mSv/year as being the legal limit, although it finally took over a decade to incorporate this ICRP limit into legislation. A second action was to introduce a site internal limit: if a person would exceed 75% of the legal limit, the person would be restrained from radiation work. This restriction forced everybody to look for solutions to decrease dose and area dose rate. This was the beginning and resulted in nobody exceeding 15 mSv/year after a couple of years and a lower average dose than before, with no extra employees. The second stage in the process of ALARA was a systematic approach of the decrease in personal dose. This systematic approach consists of three phases. The first phase is dose assessment followed by routine measurements. The third phase is the ALARA step. First phase, dose assessment. Normally this could be done in a meeting or even behind the desk: assess the dose per department or per group or per activity. Make a decision on which party will get high priority, medium priority and low priority. Normally this means that the department with the highest dose will get the highest priority. (Author)

  2. Maintenance and radioprotection: the implementation of ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing maintenance works on reactors has incited Electricite de France (EDF) to adopt a dosimetry optimization policy using the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. Reactor maintenance represents 80% of the personnel exposures. This paper described the actions taken by EDF to improve the personnel (EDF and contractors) training and surveillance (medical examination, film dosemeters..) and the labor laws relative to the contractors and temporary employees. Other tools developed by EDF, such as robots, remote handling equipments, and a computerized individual and collective dosimetry database are described. (J.S.). 2 figs

  3. Experience of occupational dose ALARA through work management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational dose to radiation workers in nuclear power plants depends on not only plant-specific factors such as design features, materials, water chemistry and other factors related to dose rates but also work management particles. The long-term experience in the nuclear power industry has showed that the work management can be applied for the simultaneous achievement of two conflicting goals for cost saving and occupational dose reduction. KEPCO has been trying to fulfill these two goals through work management since early 1990s, and achieved great success in the occupational dose reduction. In this paper, the work management policy of KEPCO has been briefly described. Work management experiences for steam generator replacement job of Kori 1, RTD bypass line removal job of Kori 3 and 4, and some other important jobs presented in the ALARA workshop held in 1999 were summarized. Then the lessons learned from the experiences were discussed. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report, prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health, contains the third in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. This report also contains abstracts from the two previous volumes. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy Data Base, and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, and accelerators. Material on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, job planning, improved operational techniques, and other topics are also included

  5. Towards the development of an ALARA culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALARA principle, which states, for each exposure situation, that doses must be kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable, taking into account economic and social factors' represents the basis of the > developed to manage the radiological risk in a responsible manner. The practical implementation of the ALARA principle is complex. It requires defining transaction mechanisms which enable a responsible management of the radiological risk, taking into account, among other things, possible risk transfers in groups and the allocation of protection resources. The players who can take part in radiological risk management are numerous and have different functions: from the authorities to exposed workers, together with company managers. They all possess specific knowledge and have objectives which are not necessarily compatible. The transactions and negotiations initiated between these players during decision-taking relative to exposure management will therefore only be efficient and productive if there exists both a mutual comprehension of individual objectives and a readiness to collaborate on a common objective: keeping the residual risk at a level both acceptable to, and accepted by, the various parties involved. A fundamental element of this process therefore lies in the development among the various players concerned of a common culture with respect to radiological risks and the methods used for their management, in order to facilitate transactions by the sharing of a common language and system of values. A possible definition of > could be: >. Based on this statement, the paper presents, illustrated by the experience of the French Utility Electricite de France, the main components which should enter into consideration for the development of an ALARA culture for the management of occupational exposures. It concludes on the necessity to construct and transmit a common patrimony of a radiological risk management system comprising the scientific and technical knowledge

  6. Comments on two American justice decisions founded on ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the ALARA principle in the American justice is considered as a very important part of the law in evolution. The first decision called 'James decision' was the case of a worker who received a dose under the dose limit and was agreed in his demand. The second one,'Three Miles Island decision', was to refuse the ALARA principle as a norm because it would consider that the justice is more able to pilot a nuclear power plant than competent authorities. These two examples show that the ALARA principle must stay an operational guide and not a legal norm of precautions susceptible to impose sanctions by justice. (N.C.)

  7. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis and ALARA Work Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Nelsen, D P

    2002-01-01

    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygien...

  8. ALARA plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks contents removal project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project is to remove the liquid low-level waste from the five underground storage tanks located at OHF and transfer the resulting slurry to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks facility for treatment and disposal. Among the technical objectives for the OHF Project, there is a specific provision to maintain personnel exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) during each activity of the project and to protect human health and the environment. The estimated doses and anticipated conditions for accomplishing this project are such that an ALARA Plan is necessary to facilitate formal radiological review of the campaign. This ALARA Plan describes the operational steps necessary for accomplishing the job together with the associated radiological impacts and planned controls. Individual and collective dose estimates are also provided for the various tasks. Any significant changes to this plan (i.e., planned exposures that are greater than 10% of original dose estimates) will require formal revision and concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page. Deviations from this plan (i.e., work outside the scope covered by this plan) also require the preparation of a task-specific ALARA Review that will be amended to this plan with concurrence from all parties listed on the approval page

  9. Fluor Hanford ALARA Center is a D and D Resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation changed when the last reactor plant was shut down in 1989 and work was started to place all the facilities in a safe condition and begin decontamination, deactivation, decommissioning, and demolition (D and D). These facilities consisted of old shutdown reactor plants, spent fuel pools, processing facilities, and 177 underground tanks containing 53 million gallons of highly radioactive and toxic liquids and sludge. New skills were needed by the workforce to accomplish this mission. By 1995, workers were in the process of getting the facilities in a safe condition and it became obvious improvements were needed in their tools, equipment and work practices. The Hanford ALARA Program looked good on paper, but did little to help contractors that were working in the field. The Radiological Control Director decided that the ALARA program needed to be upgraded and a significant improvement could be made if workers had a place they could visit that had samples of the latest technology and could talk to experienced personnel who have had success doing D and D work. Two senior health physics personnel who had many years experience in doing radiological work were chosen to obtain tools and equipment from vendors and find a location centrally located on the Hanford site. Vendors were asked to loan their latest tools and equipment for display. Most vendors responded and the Hanford ALARA Center of Technology opened on October 1, 1996. Today, the ALARA Center includes a classroom for conducting training and a mockup area with gloveboxes. Two large rooms have a containment tent, several glove bags, samples of fixatives/expandable foam, coating displays, protective clothing, heat stress technology, cutting tools, HEPA filtered vacuums, ventilation units, pumps, hydraulic wrenches, communications equipment, shears, nibblers, shrouded tooling, and several examples of innovative tools developed by the Hanford facilities. See Figures I and

  10. Application of the Alara principle to the occupationally exposed workers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sets down how the Alara (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is applied in radiation protection of the occupationally exposed personnel at light-water reactors in EC countries. In some instances the practices, experiences and results from EC countries are supplemented by the practice in other States (e.g. USA, Sweden). Commencing with a short summary of the legal situation in the Member States of the European Community with regard to Alara, the report describes the framework in which the optimization practice has been developed. The main chapters elaborate in detail how the Alara principle has been put into practice in design and operation in LWRs. The importance of qualification and training of power-plant personnel in relation to optimization of radiation protection is considered and some comparisons are drawn with the US practice. Recommendations are made where reason for modification or harmonization of practices is seen in the conclusions of the different chapters and the overall conclusions and summary of the report

  11. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory

  12. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  13. The optimization (ALARA) problem: A direct formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative method to that set out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for implementing the optimization (ALARA) principle of radiation protection is proposed. The method follows directly from the basic dose limitation system and naturally integrates the three components of the system. An essential feature of the method is that 'all exposures' is taken to mean 'each and every one' rather than the 'sum of individual doses', as in the usual method using the collective dose concept. The method draws on established techniques from optimization theory and those aspects of micro-economic theory which form the basis of cost-benefit analysis. The method takes separate account of both the direct costs to the community of the effects of radiation exposures and each individual's 'risk-benefit' attitudes to radiation exposures. The conundrum concerning the 'value of a life' turns out to be operationally and quantitatively irrelevant. Various constraints including the dose limits, economic and social constraints and natural physical constraints are included in the method which leads directly to a standard form problem in mathematical programming. A practical advantage of the method is that it is conceptually consistent with the operational methods used and judgements made regularly by health physicists and radiation safety officers. While the proposed method allows an optimization problem to be readily specified, it does require some familiarity with optimization solution techniques in larger applications. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs

  14. Incremental ALARA cost/benefit computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commonwealth Edison Company has developed and is testing an enhanced Fortran Computer Program to be used for cost/benefit analysis of Radiation Reduction Projects at its six nuclear power facilities and Corporate Technical Support Groups. This paper describes a Macro-Diven IBM Mainframe Program comprised of two different types of analyses-an Abbreviated Program with fixed costs and base values, and an extended Engineering Version for a detailed, more through and time-consuming approach. The extended engineering version breaks radiation exposure costs down into two components-Health-Related Costs and Replacement Labor Costs. According to user input, the program automatically adjust these two cost components and applies the derivation to company economic analyses such as replacement power costs, carrying charges, debt interest, and capital investment cost. The results from one of more program runs using different parameters may be compared in order to determine the most appropriate ALARA dose reduction technique. Benefits of this particular cost / benefit analysis technique includes flexibility to accommodate a wide range of user data and pre-job preparation, as well as the use of proven and standardized company economic equations

  15. Computer code for quantitative ALARA evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A FORTRAN computer code has been developed to simplify the determination of whether dose reduction actions meet the as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) criterion. The calculations are based on the methodology developed for the Atomic Industrial Forum. The code is used for analyses of eight types of dose reduction actions, characterized as follows: reduce dose rate, reduce job frequency, reduce productive working time, reduce crew size, increase administrative dose limit for the task, and increase the workers' time utilization and dose utilization through (a) improved working conditions, (b) basic skill training, or (c) refresher training for special skills. For each type of action, two analysis modes are available. The first is a generic analysis in which the program computes potential benefits (in dollars) for a range of possible improvements, e.g., for a range of lower dose rates. Generic analyses are most useful in the planning stage and for evaluating the general feasibility of alternative approaches. The second is a specific analysis in which the potential annual benefits of a specific level of improvement and the annual implementation cost are compared. The potential benefits reflect savings in operational and societal costs that can be realized if occupational radiation doses are reduced. Because the potential benefits depend upon many variables which characterize the job, the workplace, and the workers, there is no unique relationship between the potential dollar savings and the dose savings. The computer code permits rapid quantitative analyses of alternatives and is a tool that supplements the health physicist's professional judgment. The program output provides a rational basis for decision-making and a record of the assumptions employed

  16. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  17. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company ALARA year-end report, Calendar Year 1994: Revision 3A, Radiological engineering and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Policy that radiation doses should be maintained as far below the dose limits as is reasonably achievable. This policy, known as the ''ALARA Principle of radiation protection,'' maintains that radiation exposures should be maintained as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations. The ALARA Principle is based on the hypothesis that even very low radiation doses carry some risk. As a result, it is not enough to maintain doses at/or slightly below limits; the lower the doses, the lower the risks. Because it is not possible to reduce all doses at DOE facilities to zero, economic and social factors must be considered to determine the optimal level of radiation doses. According to the ALARA Principle, if doses are too high, resources should be well spent to reduce them. At some point, the resources being spent to maintain low doses are exactly balanced by the risks avoided. Reducing doses below this point results in a misallocation of resources; the resources could be spent elsewhere and have a greater positive impact on health and safety. The objective of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) ALARA/Contamination Control Improvement Project (CCIP) Program is to manage and control exposures (both individual and collective) to the work force, the general public, and the environment to levels as low as is reasonable using the aforementioned ALARA Principle

  19. Report on the PWR-radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, representatives from several utilities with operational Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) formed the PWR-Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee. The mission of the Committee is to facilitate open communications between member utilities relative to radiation protection and ALARA issues such that cost effective dose reduction and radiation protection measures may be instituted. While industry deregulation appears inevitable and inter-utility competition is on the rise, Committee members are fully committed to sharing both positive and negative experiences for the benefit of the health and safety of the radiation worker. Committee meetings provide current operational experiences through members providing Plant status reports, and information relative to programmatic improvements through member presentations and topic specific workshops. The most recent Committee workshop was facilitated to provide members with defined experiences that provide cost effective ALARA performance

  20. Experiences in ALARA application: 7th parade of maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achieved experience with these activities, and all the carried out during the seventh stop but that they are not included here, carried to take a serie of decisions in the ALARA group, of which can be mentioned the following: 1. Definition of goals of collective dose and singular for works, to complete the ALARA commitment toward the occupational exposure personnel of the CLV. 2. To analyze the obtained information, as quick as possible, for using it in similar situations of work (to normalize the obtained results, when this is possible. 3. To coordinate the activities in those that participate different work groups with the end of not hindering the development of the same ones. 4. To establish ALARA responsibles of the works to fulfill functions of: pursuit of the work and information to the workers for their safety

  1. Critical Design Reviews Project: SAPHIRE 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt G. Vedros; Curtis L. Smith

    2011-09-01

    The Critical Design Review (CDR) is intended to be performed at the phase of the design request immediately before proceeding to implementation of the design request. The design request is initiated with a Design Specification document which includes a problem statement, design details, a design checklist and supporting documentation and/or projected sample output. The document then records the process through the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and on to the finalized design specification. In addition to this, the design specification has a chapter devoted to the completion of the CDR. This document describes the process of documentation of the CDR in the Design Specification.

  2. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists

  3. Measures to obtain ALARA radiation exposures in ABB Atom BWRs: the BKM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review is made of the water chemistry, fuel crud and collective radiation exposure in the ABB Atom BWRs and of a computer simulation study of decontamination strategies. The presented data represent a small selection of results that have been produced by the BKM project in order to investigate how the ALARA concept can be met in a BWR plant. The data show that an annual collective exposure of 0.5 manSv is a realistic target in newer BWR plants. (author)

  4. Design review report for the hydrogen interlock preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the completion of a preliminary design review for the hydrogen interlock. The hydrogen interlock, a proposed addition to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system portable exhauster, is intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to validate basic design assumptions and concepts to support a path forward leading to a final design. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward a final design review

  5. ALARA and decommissioning: The Fort St. Vrain experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station, the first and only commercial High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor to operate in the United States, completed initial fuel loading in late 1973 and initial startup in early 1974. Due to a series of non-nuclear technical problems, Fort St. Vrain never operated consistently, attaining a lifetime capacity factor of slightly less than 15%. In August of 1989, the decision was made to permanently shut down the plant due to control rod drive and steam generator ring header failures. Public Service Company of Colorado elected to proceed with early dismantlement (DECON) as opposed to SAFSTOR on the bases of perceived societal benefits, rad waste, and exposure considerations, regulatory uncertainties associated with SAFSTOR, and cost. The decommissioning of Fort St. Vrain began in August of 1992, and is scheduled to be completed in early 1996. Decommissioning is being conducted by a team consisting of Westinghouse, MK-Ferguson, and Scientific Ecology Group. Public Service Company of Colorado as the licensee provides contract management and oversight of contractor functions. An aggressive program to maintain project radiation exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) has been established, with the following program elements: temporary and permanent shielding contamination control; mockup training; engineering controls; worker awareness; integrated work package reviews communication; special instrumentation; video camera usage; robotics application; and project committees. To date, worker exposures have been less than project estimates. from the start of the project through Februrary of 1994, total exposure has been 98.666 person-rem, compared to the project estimate of 433 person-rem and goal of 347 person-rem. The presentation will discuss the site characterization efforts, the radiological performance indicator program, and the final site release survey plans

  6. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis and ALARA Work Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygiene with the tools necessary to implement an integrated safety program. The establishment of tools and processes capable of sustaining a comprehensive safety program represents a key responsibility of industrial hygiene. Fluor Hanford has built integrated safety management around three programmatic attributes: (1) Integration of radiological, chemical and ergonomic issues under a single program. (2) Continuous improvement in routine communications among work planning/scheduling, job execution and management. (3) Rapid response to changing work conditions, formalized work planning and integrated worker involvement

  7. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6° inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (C nH n) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry.

  8. Comparing the Design Cognition of Concept Design Reviews of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Gero, John; Hao, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of comparing the design cognition of concept design review conversations of two product design disciplines: industrial design and mechanical engineering design. The comparison is based on a protocol analysis of two concept design review cases using the FBS ontologically-based coding scheme. Inter-disciplinary differences of concept design review were first examined in terms of each review session’s focus of cognitive effort expended on reasoning abo...

  9. Guidelines for control room design reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control room design review is part of a broad program being undertaken by the nuclear industry and the government to ensure consideration of human factors in nuclear power plant design and operation. The purpose of the control room design review described by these guidelines is to (1) review and evaluate the control room workspace, instrumentation, controls, and other equipment from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities; and (2) to identify, assess, and implement control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items. The scope of the control room design review described by these guidelines covers the human engineering review of completed control rooms; i.e., operational control rooms or those at that stage of the licensing process where control room design and equipment selection are committed. These guidelines should also be of use during the design process for new control rooms. However, additional analyses to optimize the allocation of functions to man and machine, and further examination of advanced control system technology, are recommended for new control rooms. Guidelines and references for comprehensive system analyses designed to incorporate human factors considerations into the design and development of new control rooms are presented in Appendix B. Where possible, a generic approach to the control room design review process is encouraged; for example, when control room designs are replicated wholly or in part in two or more units. Even when designs are not replicated exactly, generic reviews which can be modified to account for specific differences in particular control rooms should be considered. Industry organizations and owners groups are encouraged to coordinate joint efforts and share data to develop generic approaches to the design review process. The control room design review should accomplish the following specific objectives. To determine

  10. Fuel review: fuel design data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tables of data are provided which give the specifications of fuel designs from a number of fabricators. The reactor types covered are: PWR; VVER; BWR; and Heavy Water. One or two illustrations of representative designs for each manufacturer are included. An address list of suppliers is appended. (UK)

  11. Design review of the INTOR mechanical configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INTOR conceptual design has been carried out by design teams working in the home countries with periodic workshop sessions in Vienna to review the ongoing work and to make decisions on the evolving design. The decisions taken at each workshop session were then incorporated into each national design activity, so that the four national design contributions would progressively converge toward a single design with increasingly greater detail. This paper defines the final INTOR configuration that has evolved during the conceptual design phase, defining the major system design alternatives that were considered and the rationale for selecting the final system configuration

  12. ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the first in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory ALARA Center on dose reduction at DOE facilities. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, and searches of the DOE Energy Data Base. The abstracts included in this report relate to operational health physics as well as other subjects which have a bearing on dose reduction. Facilities covered include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fabrication, unirradiated fissile materials storage, irradiated fissile material storage, reprocessing, decommissioning, recovery, hot laboratories, tritium production, reactors (research, test and production but not power reactors), and accelerators. We have also included material in improved design, materials selection, planning, and other topics which are related to dose-reduction efforts. The report contains 68 abstracts as well as subject and author indices

  13. RS-84 Engine Completes Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the kerosene-fueled RS-84 engine, one of several technologies competing to power NASA's next generation of launch vehicles. The RS-84 has successfully completed its preliminary design review as a reusable, liquid kerosene booster engine that will deliver a thrust level of 1 million pounds of force. The preliminary design review is a lengthy technical analysis that evaluates engine design according to stringent system requirements. The review ensures development is on target to meet Next Generation Launch Technology goals: Improved safety, reliability, and cost.

  14. LANL Environmental ALARA Program Status Report for CY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gillis, Jessica Mcdonnel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ensures that radiation exposures to members of the public and the environment from LANL operations, past and present, are below regulatory thresholds and are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) through compliance with DOE Order 458.1 Radiation Protection for the Public and the Environment, and LANL Policy 412 Environmental Radiation Protection. In 2007, a finding (RL.2-F-1) and observation (RL.2-0-1) in the NNSA/ LASO report, September 2007, Release of Property (Land) Containing Residual Radioactive Material Self-Assessment Report, indicated that LANL had no policy or documented process in place for the release of property containing residual radioactive material. In response, LANL developed PD410, Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental ALARA Program. The most recent version of this document became effective on September 28, 2011. The document provides program authorities, responsibilities, descriptions, processes, and thresholds for conducting qualitative and quantitative ALARA analyses for prospective and actual radiation exposures to the public and t o the environment resulting from DOE activities conducted on the LANL site.

  15. ALARA approach on Qinshan unit I lower internals recovery project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qinshan unit-1 is a 300 Mwe prototype PWR. It has been successfully operating for 4 fuel cycles about 10 years. Some loose parts by the failure of the guide tube of the reactor core neutron flux measurement thimble were observed on the lower structure of Core Barrel during periodical inspection after unloading all fuel assemblies. Qinshan Nuclear Power Company selected Westinghouse Electric Company as contractor to perform the reactor core barrel recovery service after negotiated with 4 world big company. QNPC and Westinghouse worked together to approach the ALARA by increasing water shielding, adding additional steel shielding, fuel pool cleaning and using the long hand tools, remote camera system. The training, mock-up exercise, good personal behavior was greatly contributed to the ALARA approaching. The collective dose and personal exposure of this job were successful controlled by implementing the preset ALARA program. The job was done by the cost of 70 man.mSv collective dose and 3.5 mSv maximum personal exposure despite of the high dose-rate which hot spot in some place is up to several hundred Sv per hour. (author)

  16. Service design in hotels: A conceptual review

    OpenAIRE

    Akoğlan Kozak, Meryem; Acar Gürel, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Service design is a significant method of increasing service value in hotels. This article aims to review the service design in hotels, drawing from both the service design theory and the various efforts by hotels as antecedents of service design. Despite the relative increase in hotel service quality in recent decades, customer value perception has not increased as expected. One of the main reason of this is ineffective service offerings. At the same time, the new service is a critical compe...

  17. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  19. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program's capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure

  20. ALARA and reactor shutdown organization in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To have an ALARA policy at EdF, the CEPN realized a study on unit shutdown organization and the place of radiation protection in four nuclear power plants: Ringhals (Sweden), Philippsburg (Germany), Koeberg (South Africa) and Clinton (Usa). These sites have common characteristics such strong integration of radiation protection in any phases of shutdown, a collaboration between services, a decision power given to radio protectionists and a real motivation to reduce exposure at any level of operators. Each site uses a radiological working license for intervention in controlled area. 5 refs

  1. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  2. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, Human factors engineering program review model' and '26, Review criteria for human actors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides be ing performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we well update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles

  5. History and Culture of Alara--The Action Learning and Action Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron

    2016-01-01

    As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…

  6. Design and Analysis of Windmill: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Vaibhav R. Pannase

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of wind energy is not a new technology, from rediscovery of long tradition of wind power. The wind power is non conventional source of wind energy easily obtained energy get converted into electric power. In this study short comprehensive review of wind turbine is presented. The objective of this paper to review and computational design of multiple bladed windmills by using CATIA V5 modeling software and to study various parameters affecting efficiency of windmill. Along with this to performed optimization design parameter.

  7. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms

  8. Construction safety and digital design: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wei; Whyte, Jennifer; Sacks, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    As digital technologies become widely used in designing buildings and infrastructure, questions arise about their impacts on construction safety. This review explores relationships between construction safety and digital design practices with the aim of fostering and directing further research. It surveys state-of-the-art research on databases, virtual reality, geographic information systems, 4D CAD, building information modeling and sensing technologies, finding various digital t...

  9. ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices - Summary and recommendations of the 12. European ALARA network workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 12. European ALARA Network (EAN) workshop on 'ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices' took place in Vienna (Austria) in October 2009. The aim of that workshop was to consider how the implementation of ALARA3, in terms of planned and emergency situations, involving worker and public doses, is affected by the introduction of security-related measures. In the case of new equipment and procedures, there was also the question of whether exposures arising from security screening devices can be justified and optimised. This workshop consisted of invited oral presentations, which highlighted the main issues, and half of the programme was devoted to discussions within working groups on specific topics. During their discussions, the working groups identified recommendations dealing with the following topics: the implementation of the Code of Conduct and HASS4 - ensuring ALARA; balancing security and safety - how to achieve an optimum solution; the management of an emergency exposure situation from an ALARA perspective; the justification and optimisation of the use of security devices. The objective of this paper is to present the main conclusions and recommendations produced during the workshop. Individual presentations (papers and slides) as well as the reports from the working groups are available to download on the EAN web site (http://www.eu-alara.net). (authors)

  10. The program of the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984 the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set up a Center to monitor dose-reduction efforts in the US and abroad and to focus the industry's attention on ALARA. The paper summarizes the main work of the ALARA Center between 1984 and 1992. The Center maintains nine data bases for the NRC and the Nuclear Power Industry. These databases are constantly updated and access to them is provided through a personal computer and a modem and by periodic publications in the form of a newsletter and NUREG reports. Also described briefly are eight other projects related to dose-reduction at nuclear power plants that the Center has carried out for the NRC. Among these are projects that analyze the cost-effectiveness of engineering modifications, look at worldwide activities at dose reduction and compare US and foreign dose experience, examine high-dose worker groups and high-dose jobs, develop optimum techniques to control contamination at nuclear plants, and look at the doses being received by men and women in all sectors of the nuclear industry

  11. Design review of the N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the design features of the N Reactor was initiated at the request of the Secretary of Energy, John S. Herrington, shortly after, and as a consequence of, reports of the accident at the Soviet reactor complex located at Chernobyl, on April 26, 1986. In the review, special attention was given to those plant systems which are most important in preventing the release of radioactive materials from the plant in the event of combined major equipment failures and human errors. Also, the review studied the potential effects of various severe accident sequences, and addressed the question of whether an event similar in causes or consequences to the Chernobyl accident could occur in the N Reactor. In light of experiences at both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, the potential for accumulation of hydrogen in excess of flammable limits was given particular attention. The review team was also asked to identify possible improvements to the N Reactor plant, and to evaluate the effects and significance of service-induced degradation. The overall conclusion of the design review is that the N Reactor is safe to operate and that there is no reason to stop or alter its operation in any major respect at this time. Certain additional analyses and testing, are recommended to provide a firmer basis for decisions on long-term operation and on measures which may be needed in the future to accommodate long-term operation

  12. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose

  13. The ALARA project of the EDF nuclear park exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To bring the exploitation of the nuclear park of EDF at the level of the best exploiters in the world in matter of collective and individual dosimetry, the ALARA principle coordinates numerous actions: to associate the temporary societies, to define common language, methods and tools for the whole park to organize a level effect in this area, to optimize the maintenance that is expansive in radiation doses, to make the different levels of management responsible on dosimetric stakes, to reduce the singular sources of exposure, to assure the organisation and exploitation of the experience back in this field and adapt consequently the system of information. The results are cheerful and the objectives for 2000 are: less than 1.2 h.Sv by year and by reactor, no intervener whom annual radiation dose is upper than 20 mSv (out of exceptional case). (N.C.)

  14. Digital Dosemeter 'ALARA OD 2 - ORT' Monitoring Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: New Croatian radiation protection law regulations are based, among other positive principles, on the principle of establishing the controlled area in which the workers undergo legal and obligatory external occupational dosimetry monitoring. Outside the area the 1 mSv/year level of exposure is not to be exceeded by the operating radiation source. 'ORT' is the common name for the above mentioned 'outside area' which is to be monitored. The new digital dosimeter device ALARA OD, produced by ALARA Instruments Ltd. has the probe sensitive to the background radiation and fast enough to record any change in normal environmental-background radiation field. If user or dosimeter device enter the higher radiation field area or radiation source produces higher radiation output, second mode will separately start to measure the dose which is at least two times higher than the background at the spot. This methodology of measurement was performed one year long with the set of 60 devices on more than 35 X-ray units used for the civil baggage control on the airports and else. The dosimeter device was a part of whole x-ray system, meaning that one device was always on the spot which was recommended from the manufacturer as a spot with highest external exposure possibilities if any at all. Devices integrated the radiation for the whole year (battery cap. 5 years) and the net result is that there is no need for obligatory dosimetry monitoring of the workers and other stuff working with or near such X-ray units because the integrated dose while X-ray units working on the full load did not exceed the 1 mSv/year level. (author)

  15. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-03

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location.

  16. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location

  17. Determining the open-quotes Rclose quotes in ALARA: A parametric study to establish cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of a tool for establishing criteria for cleanup of low-level radioactive contamination that will result in cost-effective remedial action. Central to this tool is the application of the principles of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). ALARA goals are driven by a desire to remediate a site to meet the strictest criteria practicable; to meet economic requirements, waste volumes must be minimized. The result of using this tool is the development of a remedial action program that satisfies ALARA requirements while limiting health and environmental risks to acceptable levels. Topics discussed in depth include the ALARA process, its principles, and its application to remedial action programs. The paper concludes with a case study in which the tool is applied to establishing cleanup criteria for the Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

  18. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  19. Fluor hanford ALARA center -showcases- tools, equipment, and work practices used during D and D work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Fluor established the ALARA Center at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State to 'showcase' tools and equipment used to support the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Much of the work was being done by workers who used hand tools while dressed in multiple sets of protective clothing. The Center was opened so that workers could see and handle the latest tools and equipment and have experienced personnel to help them plan work evolutions. Experienced personnel who were familiar with the ALARA concept as well as new technology were assigned to the Center. In addition, vendors were asked to display their products so the Hanford workers could experience state-of-the-art tools and equipment for doing work in a radiological environment. Since opening, the ALARA Center has evolved into a tremendous resource - not only for Hanford, but also most of the entire DOE Complex, as well as contractors around the world. Classes in fundamental radiological work practices are presented when the facilities recognize a need. The ALARA Center has a variety of products that range from simple hand tools to robots, video scopes, and gamma cameras. The tools and equipment on display are used in these training classes to train the workers on the work practices to operate them, take them apart to determine how they work and decide how to maintain them. Many facilities invite the ALARA Center staff to attend planning meetings at the facilities and participate in job walk-downs. Generally, ALARA Center personnel provide several options on how the radiological work can be accomplished safely and recommend the option that is ALARA and safest for the workers. A few years ago, it became obvious that the work scope was changing and many facilities had a new job to clean out the facilities and demolish them. The ALARA Center began contacting vendors who had tools and equipment that could be used for D and D work. Today, the ALARA

  20. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  1. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  2. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  3. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  4. Review: BNL graphite blanket design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) minimum activity graphite blanket designs is made. Three designs are identified and discussed in the context of an experimental power reactor (EPR) and commercial power reactor. Basically, the three designs employ a thick graphite screen (typically 30 cm or greater, depending on type as well as application-experimental power reactor or commercial reactor). Bremsstrahlung energy is deposited on the graphite surface and re-radiated away as thermal radiation. Fast neutrons are slowed down in the graphite, depositing most of their energy. This energy is then either radiated to a secondary blanket with coolant tubes, as in types A and B, or is removed by intermittent direct gas cooling (type C). In types A and B, radiation damage to the structural material of the coolant tubes in the secondary blanket is reduced by one or two orders of magnitude by the graphite screen, while in type C, the blanket is only cooled when the reactor is shut down, so that coolant cannot quench the plasma, whatever the degree of radiation damage

  5. Preliminary design review: Brayton Isotope Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design aspects covered include flight system design, design criteria/margins/reliability, GDS design, system analysis, materials, system assembly procedure, and government furnished equipment-BTPS

  6. Man-rem audit - a tool for exposure ALARA at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALARA - acronym for As Low As Reasonably Achievable, which means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical. ICRP has recommended ALARA to be implemented as a formal practice into the System of Dose Limitation, which contains three parts, 1) Justification of practice 2) Optimization 3) Dose Limits. As with the human endeavor, there is always room for improvement. Keeping this in mind, ALARA program is being practiced in our Nuclear Power Plants over the years. There has been a gradual reduction of collective dose in our Nuclear Power Plants due to successful implementation of the ALARA programs. This was possible due to the rigorous application of O and M experience, feedback and active participation of workforce towards ALARA. Furthermore, ALARA is an ongoing continual improvement programme towards collective dose reduction and has enough scope for improvement at any point of time. In order to substantiate the gains of ALARA programme and to improve it further, first time Mam-rem Audit was conducted at MAPS during the month of Sep-Oct 2010. This paper gives the brief outline about the method man-rem audit, its findings, corrective action implementation and the benefits derived from it. Man-rem audit similar to financial audit, serves as a tool for finding out grey areas where improvements is required so that station collective dose can be further optimized. It is one of the identified missions to achieve excellence in area of reducing station collective dose, unplanned exposures and RPP deviation. The scope of this audit is to bring further improvements in the reduction in station collective dose, create more awareness among the employees about ALARA principles and seek valuable suggestions for improvements. Audit team consisting of senior HP persons had one to one interaction with the individuals of the respective section in the field and tried to gather the information from the individual and

  7. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested

  8. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-05-24

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested.

  9. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step

  10. Commissioning of experimental enclosures (Hutches) at the Advanced Photon Source - A to Z ALARA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacca, J.; Job, P. K.; Rauchas, A.; Justus, A.; Veluri, V. R.

    2000-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), 7 GeV electron Storage Ring at the Argonne National Laboratory is designed to be a major national user facility providing high-brilliance x-ray beams. Figure 1 shows a plan view of the APS. At completion, APS will have 35 bending magnet (BM) beamlines and 35 insertion device (ID) beamlines. A typical x-ray beamline at APS comprises of a front end (FE) that confines the beam; a first optics enclosure (FOE) which houses optics to filter and monochromatize the beam; and beam transports, additional optics, and the experiment stations. Figure 2 shows a section of the storage ring with the layout of the ID and BM beamlines and typical experiment stations. The first x-ray beam was delivered to an experiment station in 1995. Ever since, to date, over 120 experimental stations (hutches) have been commissioned and are receiving intense x-ray beams of varying energies for various experiments. This paper describes in some detail the steps involved in the process of commissioning experimental stations and the implementation of the ALARA at each step.

  11. Department of Energy ALARA implementation guide. Response to the Health Physics Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the August 1993 Health Physics Society (HPS) newsletter, the HPS Scientific and Public Issues Committee published a Position Statement entitled open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.close quotes. In this article, this HPS committee made the statement that they were deeply concerned by the trend for agencies to incorporate the ALARA concept as a regulatory requirements, without providing specific guidance as to what it means and how to implement it consistently. The HPS position paper was in response to the DOE notice on proposed rulemaking for Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 834, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environmentclose quotes (10 CFR 834). In the notice of proposed rulemaking for 10 CFR 834, the Department of Energy (DOE) defined ALARA as follows: open-quotes As used in this part, ALARA is not a dose limit, but rather a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below the applicable limit of this part as is reasonably achievableclose quotes (10 CFR 834.2, p. 16283 of the Federal Register). The HPS position paper continues, open-quotes The section goes on to elaborate on what is meant by a process without providing sufficient guidance to assure uniform applicability of the process.close quotes. Although this concern is directed towards the ALARA process as it relates to the environment, the Office of Health, which is responsible for occupational workers, shares the same definition for ALARA

  12. Digital Dosemeters - 'ALARA OD' - Personal and Environmental Monitoring Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The importance of prompt dose reporting rises when dose is received within short-time interval or when the radiation source suffers technical failures. New dosimetry concept, where radiation exposure is recognized as a private /or/ group hazard of each person involved in occupational ionizing sources handling, taking into account actual radiation quality of the source, based among other principles, on the principle of establishing the well defined controlled area is introduced. New digital dosemeter device, produced by ALARA Instruments Ltd., measures small occupational doses, including the background. Device is based on ionizing GM tube, a set of modern EEPROM memory chips and Li compound battery set. It operates in two modes and the measurements are continuously performed no matter which mode is on. First mode integrates the dose (including background). If user or dosemeter device enter the higher radiation field area second mode will separately start to measure the dose which is at least two times higher than the surrounding background. The level above which the higher field is considered has to be preprogrammed during the calibration of device. Level depends on the workplace type /or/ environmental conditions where the device will be used. Device is suitable as well for the low level measurements and for the high radiation outputs. When used in the stronger fields, several devices can form a field monitoring system. Device is suitable for the various non-occupational purposes. With some telecommunication electronics and technical improvement, this device is usable as a point (Ort) environmental measuring station. Probe is sensitive to the background radiation and it is fast enough to record any change in normal environmental radiation field, send the data to the central station and raise alarm if necessary. We have built a prototype for environmental monitoring connectable to any kind of telecommunication net. (author)

  13. Lessons Learned from Canadian Pre-Project Design Review - Quality assurance of design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with lessons learned from Canadian pre-project design review. It provides an overview of the Canadian legislative and regulatory framework and the pre-licensing review process. It highlights 12 lessons learned from design reviews, including incomplete project quality assurance program, lack of definition of design management process, lack of implementing procedures, weaknesses in considerations of interconnections between systems, non-conformances related to control of design, and difficulties in addressing the functions and responsibilities of the design authority

  14. ALARA radiation protection applications at NPP A1 decommissioning using VISPLAN planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCK.CEN developed during the BR3 reactor decommissioning a graphical interfaced 3D dose assessment tool aimed at the above mentioned dose optimization problems. The tool was improved further and commercialized under the name VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. The use of VISIPLAN tool at NPP A1 decommissioning was advised by EDF within the IAEA TCP SLR/4008 project missions as a component of a 3D technological chain ensuring acquisition and evaluation of digitized information leading to ALARA optimisation of the developed decommissioning working procedures (see Fig. 1). VISIPLAN license was purchased by IAEA and granted to VUJE and NPP A1 within the IAEA TCP project SLR/4008, covering also the necessary basic and advanced training (at NPP A1 real decommissioning environment), and is currently used by VUJE analysts at NPP A1 decommissioning as an ALARA tool for intervention planning and optimisation. The VISIPLAN allows a fast dose assessment for work planned in a radioactive environment. The calculations are based on a 3D model of the work place. This PC-based tool is user friendly and calculates a detailed dose account for different work scenarios defined by the ALARA analyst, taking into account worker position, work duration and subsequent geometry and source distribution changes. The VISIPLAN methodology is described. The VISIPLAN tool was applied to several ALARA studies carried out by the VUJE within development and analysis of various Work Programs for NPP Al decommissioning tasks. The applications ranged from simpler to complex ALARA planning tasks covering simple shielding applications to selection of the most suitable order of complex working procedures. Removal of inner liners from underground reservoirs 6/1 and 6/2 as well as Dismantling of pipes and components from a (hostile) 60 m corridor are described. (authors)

  15. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  16. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roecklein, A.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  17. Purchasing Organization and Design: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Glock, Christoph H.; Hochrein, Simon

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive literature review of the organization of purchasing covering the period from 1967 to 2009. The review provides a structured overview of prior research topics and findings and identifies gaps in the existing literature that may be addressed in future research. The intention of the review is to a) synthesize prior research, b) provide researchers with a structural framework on which future research on the organization of purchasing may be orien...

  18. Configuration review of TFCX design options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the preconceptual design effort of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX), several candidate design options have been explored in order to identify a preferred option that will be developed in further detail during the conceptual design phase of the TFCX program. The development of the TFCX concepts has been a collaborative effort between the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) with broad community input. The design options being considered include an all-superconducting design, a superconducting/copper toroidal field (TF) hybrid design, and several different all-copper configurations

  19. Preliminary design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose, originating from radionuclides absorbed in the K East Basin concrete, is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. This report documents a preliminary design review conducted to ensure that design approaches for cleaning/coating basin walls and modifying other basin components were appropriate. The conclusion of this review was that design documents presently conclusion of this review was that design documents presently completed or in process of modification are and acceptable basis for proceeding to complete the design

  20. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  1. Dose assessment and dose optimisation in decommissioning using the VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimisation of radiological protection of the workers in nuclear industry is an important part of the safety culture especially in the field of decommissioning where we are confronted with a radioactive environment that is in the process of constant change. The application of the ALARA concept (to keep exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable) is not always straightforward in such cases. A good ALARA pre-job study must be performed and should contain predicted doses in the work area and investigate the effects of geometry, material, source or work position changes. This information provides a quantitative basis to select between various alternative work scenario's for a specific operation. In order to handle this information SCK-CEN developed the VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. This PC-based tool makes it possible to create and edit work scenarios taking into account worker positions and subsequent geometry and source distribution changes in a 3D environment. The presentation will show the current status of the tool and its application to the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and other installations. New developments will also be presented regarding the geometric and radioactive characterisation of a decommissioning site. The use of human motion simulation tools in ALARA assessment will also be discussed. This will show how new developments of software and measurement tools can help dealing with the new challenges of decommissioning in the field of dose optimization. (authors)

  2. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE's nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers'' and PNL-6577 ''Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.'' The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility

  3. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs. Status 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Meinhold, C.B.; Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE`s nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ``Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers`` and PNL-6577 ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.`` The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility.

  4. Radiation protection-culture. Culture improvement in radiation protection and ALARA behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to that the optimization principle become an actual professional liable dynamical critter in the radiological protection topics, the hierarchic impulse and the personnel sensitiveness are determining. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) in the firm cultivation modify the behaviour and act philosophy. 7 refs., 2 figs

  5. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Reviewer`s checklist: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 2 is a complete set of the guidelines contained in Volume 1, Part 2, but in a checklist format that can be used by reviewers to assemble sets of individual guidelines for use in specific design reviews. The checklist provides space for reviewers to enter guidelines evaluations and comments.

  6. Review on JMTR safety design for LEU core conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety of the JMTR was fully reviewed for the core conversion to low enriched uranium fuel. Fundamental policies for the JMTR safety design were reconsidered based on the examination guide for safety design of test and research reactors, and safety of the JMTR was confirmed. This report describes the safety design of the JMTR from the viewpoint of major functions for reactor safety. (author)

  7. Model-based design of integrated production systems: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ould Sidi, Mohamed Mahmoud; Lescourret, Francoise

    2011-01-01

    Pest resistance and water pollution are major issues caused by the excessive use of pesticides in intensive agriculture. The concept of integrated production system (IPS) has been thus designed to solve those issues and also to meet the need for better food quality and production. Methodologies such as agronomic diagnosis-based design, prototyping, and model-based design have been developed. Here we review the model-based design of IPS. We identify tools for the development of comprehensive m...

  8. A Review on quality by design approach (QBD) for Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Vemuri Pavan Kumar; N. Vishal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Quality by Design is the modern approach for quality of pharmaceuticals. It describes use of Quality by Design to ensure quality of Pharmaceuticals. In this review, the Quality by Design is described and some of its elements identified. Process parameters and quality attributes are identified for each unit operation. Benefits, opportunities and steps involved in Quality by Design of Pharmaceutical products are described. It is based on the ICH Guidelines Q8 for pharmaceutical development, Q9 ...

  9. Critical review of water based radiant cooling system design methods

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Interests in radiant cooling systems have increased in recent years. There is, however, no standardized method for radiant system design that is broadly accepted by the building industry. Through literature review, twelve surveys and eight interviews with leading practitioners, this paper summarizes the design methods documented in the guidelines, assesses the state of the industry, and identifies potential gaps and limitations in current design practice. The findings include: 1) design guide...

  10. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 3, Design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several models have been formed for investigating the maximum electromagnetic loading and magnetic field levels associated with the Tokamak Physics eXperiment (TPX) superconducting Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The analyses have been performed to support the design of the individual fourteen hoop coils forming the PF system. The coils have been sub-divided into three coil systems consisting of the central solenoid (CS), PF5 coils, and the larger radius PF6 and PF7 coils. Various electromagnetic analyses have been performed to determine the electromagnetic loadings that the coils will experience during normal operating conditions, plasma disruptions, and fault conditions. The loadings are presented as net body forces acting individual coils, spatial variations throughout the coil cross section, and force variations along the path of the conductor due to interactions with the TF coils. Three refined electromagnetic models of the PF coil system that include a turn-by-turn description of the fields and forces during a worst case event are presented in this report. A global model including both the TF and PF system was formed to obtain the force variations along the path of the PF conductors resulting from interactions with the TF currents. In addition to spatial variations, the loadings are further subdivided into time-varying and steady components so that structural fatigue issues can be addressed by designers and analysts. Other electromagnetic design issues such as the impact of the detailed coil designs on field errors are addressed in this report. Coil features that are analyzed include radial transitions via short jogs vs. spiral type windings and the effects of layer-to-layer rotations (i.e clocking) on the field errors

  11. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 3, Design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-30

    Several models have been formed for investigating the maximum electromagnetic loading and magnetic field levels associated with the Tokamak Physics eXperiment (TPX) superconducting Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The analyses have been performed to support the design of the individual fourteen hoop coils forming the PF system. The coils have been sub-divided into three coil systems consisting of the central solenoid (CS), PF5 coils, and the larger radius PF6 and PF7 coils. Various electromagnetic analyses have been performed to determine the electromagnetic loadings that the coils will experience during normal operating conditions, plasma disruptions, and fault conditions. The loadings are presented as net body forces acting individual coils, spatial variations throughout the coil cross section, and force variations along the path of the conductor due to interactions with the TF coils. Three refined electromagnetic models of the PF coil system that include a turn-by-turn description of the fields and forces during a worst case event are presented in this report. A global model including both the TF and PF system was formed to obtain the force variations along the path of the PF conductors resulting from interactions with the TF currents. In addition to spatial variations, the loadings are further subdivided into time-varying and steady components so that structural fatigue issues can be addressed by designers and analysts. Other electromagnetic design issues such as the impact of the detailed coil designs on field errors are addressed in this report. Coil features that are analyzed include radial transitions via short jogs vs. spiral type windings and the effects of layer-to-layer rotations (i.e clocking) on the field errors.

  12. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable

  13. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-05-30

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable.

  14. Final design review report for K basin dose reduction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the K East Basin concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. This report documents a final design review for cleaning/coating basin walls and modifying other basin components where appropriate. The conclusion of this review was that the documents developed constitute an acceptable design for the Dose Reduction Project

  15. Formal design review report project W-151 mixer pump procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crass, D.W.

    1997-01-21

    A formal design review for WHC-S-0040 was held on January 21, 1993. The review was completed January 29, 1993. No outstanding action items existed. Comments were recorded on Record Comment Record (RCR) forms and incorporated into the specification. The specification was considered acceptable, approved and issued as WHC-S-0040, Rev. 0 on March 4, 1993.

  16. LHCb RICH 2 engineering design review report

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Allebone, L R; Ameri, M; Barber, G J; Barczyk, A; Bellunato, T F; Benayoun, M; Bibby, J; Braem, André; Brew, C A J; Brook, N; Buckley, A; Calvi, M; Campbell, M; Chamonal, R; Cole, J; Cuneo, S; D'Ambrosio, C; Damerell, G; Densham, C J; Dornan, Peter John; Duane, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Eisenhardt, S; Flavell, AJ; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R W; Franek, B J; Frei, C; George, K; Gibson, V; Girone, M; Gracco, Valerio; Guy, J; Gys, Thierry; Harnew, N; Head, R; Hill, R; Jolly, S; Jones, C; Katvars, S G; Khan, A; Laub, M; Lawrence, J; Libby, J; Lidbury, J A; Losasso, M; MacGregor, A; Matteuzzi, C; Mini, G; Morris, J V; Muheim, F; Musico, P; Musy, M; Negri, P; Newby, C; O'Shea, V; Papanestis, A; Parkes, CJ; Patrick, G N; Petrolini, A; Phillips, A; Piazzoni, C; Pickford, A N; Piedigrossi, D; Playfer, S; Presland, A; Price, D R; Radermacker, J; Sannino, M; Savage, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Smale, N J; Snoeys, W; Soler, F J P; Temple, S A; Topp-Jørgensen, S; Ullaland, O; Ward, C P; Websdale, D M; White, R; Wilkinson, G; Wilson, F; Woodward, M L; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    2002-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a single arm spectrometer designed to exploit the large number of b-hadrons produced at the LHC in order to make precision studies of CP asymmetries and of rare decays in the B-meson system. It is therefore essential for the experiment that the detector configuration includes a particle identification system with high separation power between kaons and pions. We will present in this note the engineering solutions for the lightweight, high precision Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector, RICH2, of the spectrometer. The design is built around a large space frame used as a high stability support for the optical system and as a supporting structure for the magnetic shielding needed for the photon detectors. All material not essential for the operation of the detector is located outside the acceptance of the spectrometer. The space frame also defines the Cherenkov gas volume.

  17. Porcelain veneers - preparation design: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preparation of tooth design for porcelain veneers. It follows the literature more than three decades back in the past. From the very beginning, porcelain veneers were placed to no/minimally prepared tooth substance, showing different problems in clinical use. Later, the technique of etching the porcelain and controlling the reduction of tooth structure, presented the great steps forward in porcelain veneers accepting. A special accent concerning the preparative design was placed on variations of incisal edge preparation - the problem, which is still present in current practice. Additionally, the paper emphasizes the extremely demanding protocols in making the porcelain veneers as well as their expanded clinical indications.

  18. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated and the amount of magnet material used. This is done by characterizing each design by a figure of merit magnet design efficiency parameter, $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{cool}$. The designs are then compared and the best design found. Finally recommendations for designing the ideal magnet design are presented based on the analysis of the reviewed designs.

  19. A Review on Chipless RFID Tag Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashemi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for RFID tags has recently increased due to the development of the RFID. Over the past decade, great efforts have been devoted to the design of RFID tags without chip inside. The concept of chipless RFID tags appears to be a promising solution for low cost item tagging because the cost of active RFID tag depends mainly on the chip used in them. This paper presents the progress of the chipless RFID tag and introduces major studies in this filed. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are pointed out.

  20. Development of an ALARA programme based on radiological measurements at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach, recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the control of radiation exposures of personnel, requires assigning monetary value to the detriment implied in the radiation exposure based on social and economic consideration. It is, however, felt that the global application of such an approach could neither be practical nor be objective in view of the widely differing socio-economic conditions of various countries. In view of these difficulties, an analytical method has been developed to quantify avoidable collective external dose of the work force at a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in implementing ALARA methodology

  1. ALARA database value in future outage work planning and dose management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALARA database encompassing job-specific duration and man-rem plant specific information over three refueling outages represents an invaluable tool for the outage work planner and ALARA engineer. This paper describes dose-management trends emerging based on analysis of three refueling outages at Clinton Power Station. Conclusions reached based on hard data available from a relational database dose-tracking system is a valuable tool for planning of future outage work. The system's ability to identify key problem areas during a refueling outage is improving as more outage comparative data becomes available. Trends over a three outage period are identified in this paper in the categories of number and type of radiation work permits implemented, duration of jobs, projected vs. actual dose rates in work areas, and accuracy of outage person-rem projection. The value of the database in projecting 1 and 5 year station person-rem estimates is discussed

  2. Principal physics developments evaluated in the ITER design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the ITER Design Review and in response to the issues identified by the Science and Technology Advisory Committee, the ITER physics requirements were reviewed and as appropriate updated. The focus of this paper will be on recent work affecting the ITER design with special emphasis on topics affecting near-term procurement arrangements. This paper will describe results on: design sensitivity studies, poloidal field coil requirements, vertical stability, effect of toroidal field ripple on thermal confinement, material choice and heat load requirements for plasma-facing components, edge localized modes control, resistive wall mode control, disruptions and disruption mitigation.

  3. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. Caruth

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

  4. ALARA optimization at decommissioning of NPP A1, Slovak Republic, using advanced radiation protection tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning operations effect changes in the environment and lead to situations where occupational doses strongly depend on space distribution of dose rates (DR) and time duration of critical activities. In such cases one needs an adequate geometrical and source model that allows the user to calculate the DR dose exposures. In the end a comparison of doses for alternative sets of work trajectories can lead to the selection of the most adequate scenario with minimised dose burden to the workers. The use of laser scanning with respective as-built 3D modeling software, gamma imagery of the dominant sources and application of 3D ALARA planning tool, VISIPLAN, for the above mentioned purposes was the solution advised by EDF, the technical advisor within the IAEA TCP SLR/4008 project. The above-mentioned components were intended to create a 3D technological chain ensuring acquisition and evaluation of digitized information leading to ALARA optimisation of the decommissioning work procedures. In the case of very complex structures to be modelled for ALARA purposes, an auxiliary code, VISIMODELLER, allows the direct transfer of already existing 3D objects to VISIPLAN. This means the saving of a lot of man-power in drawing the geometry. For gamma imaging and positioning of main sources in the installation the old version gamma camera, ALADIN, owned by NPP A1 was used. Applications of radiation protection techniques at NPP A1 decommissioning project are presented in the paper. These range from simple shielding application by the 3D VISIPLAN planning tool, or creating a 3D as-built model, to ALARA applications for alternative work trajectories in complex geometrical and hostile environment with multiple sources. As examples, removal of plastic liner from large underground reservoirs and removal of contaminated pipes from a long corridor are described in more detail. (author)

  5. Disciplinary Discourse in Design Reviews: Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Lande, Micah; Oplinger, James

    2014-01-01

    An increase in focus on design thinking in the engineering community and design education has led to innovative outcomes. A part of the design thinking education comes from the goals and teaching methods of instructors. From a given dataset of design reviews two different courses were evaluated: industrial design and mechanical engineering. This work analyzes how instructor interactions with individuals or teams fulfill course outcomes. From a discussion of the data analysis it is suggested t...

  6. Review of revised Japanese seismic guidelines for NPP design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From new knowledge in recently aseismic design studies, some of the conventional design methods we understood to be conservative, and review for guideline of private sector and preparation for by-laws of administrative office thereby have been promoted since 1984. This paper presents the state-of-arts and trends of current aseismic design methods and the guideline and the by-laws thereof for Japanese NPP, including items on determination of the design basis earthquake, investigation of ground condition and seismic stability, treatment of soil-structure interaction, limitation for uplift of building basement, evaluation of non-linear characteristics and response, and provision of design basis damping. (orig.)

  7. Design features of the cold vacuum drying facility to keep worker doses as low as reasonably achievable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-06-24

    This report describes the design features and steps taken to ensure that the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility satisfies regulatory requirements that personnel doses be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report also documents an analysis of worker doses and demonstrates that the ALARA goal of limiting individual doses to 500 mrem per year can be met.

  8. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  9. The stepped wedge trial design: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilford Richard J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stepped wedge randomised trial designs involve sequential roll-out of an intervention to participants (individuals or clusters over a number of time periods. By the end of the study, all participants will have received the intervention, although the order in which participants receive the intervention is determined at random. The design is particularly relevant where it is predicted that the intervention will do more good than harm (making a parallel design, in which certain participants do not receive the intervention unethical and/or where, for logistical, practical or financial reasons, it is impossible to deliver the intervention simultaneously to all participants. Stepped wedge designs offer a number of opportunities for data analysis, particularly for modelling the effect of time on the effectiveness of an intervention. This paper presents a review of 12 studies (or protocols that use (or plan to use a stepped wedge design. One aim of the review is to highlight the potential for the stepped wedge design, given its infrequent use to date. Methods Comprehensive literature review of studies or protocols using a stepped wedge design. Data were extracted from the studies in three categories for subsequent consideration: study information (epidemiology, intervention, number of participants, reasons for using a stepped wedge design and methods of data analysis. Results The 12 studies included in this review describe evaluations of a wide range of interventions, across different diseases in different settings. However the stepped wedge design appears to have found a niche for evaluating interventions in developing countries, specifically those concerned with HIV. There were few consistent motivations for employing a stepped wedge design or methods of data analysis across studies. The methodological descriptions of stepped wedge studies, including methods of randomisation, sample size calculations and methods of analysis, are

  10. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  11. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  12. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  13. MI Gap Clearing Kicker Magnet Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Chris; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    The kicker system requirements were originally conceived for the NOvA project. NOvA is a neutrino experiment located in Minnesota. To achieve the desired neutrino flux several upgrades are required to the accelerator complex. The Recycler will be used as a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI). As the Recycler is the same size as the MI, it is possible to do a single turn fill ({approx}11 {micro}sec), minimizing the proton injection time in the MI cycle and maximizing the protons on target. The Recycler can then be filled with beam while the MI is ramping to extract beam to the target. To do this requires two new transfer lines. The existing Recycler injection line was designed for 10{pi} pbar beams, not the 20{pi} proton beams we anticipate from the Booster. The existing Recycler extraction line allows for proton injection through the MI, while we want direct injection from the Booster. These two lines will be decommissioned. The new injection line from the MI8 line into the Recycler will start at 848 and end with injection kickers at RR104. The new extraction line in the RR30 straight section will start with a new extraction kicker at RR232 and end with new MI injection kickers at MI308. Finally, to reduce beam loss activation in the enclosure, a new gap clearing kicker will be used to extract uncaptured beam created during the slip stack injection process down the existing dump line. It was suggested that the MI could benefit from this type of system immediately. This led to the early installation of the gap clearing system in the MI, followed by moving the system to Recycler during NOvA. The specifications also changed during this process. Initially the rise and fall time requirements were 38 ns and the field stability was {+-}1%. The 38 ns is based on having a gap of 2 RF buckets between injections. (There are 84 RF buckets that can be filled from the Booster for each injection, but 82 would be filled with beam. MI and Recycler contain 588 RF buckets

  14. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  15. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development. 21 refs., 3 figs

  16. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development

  17. Final design review of boron carbide safety rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this paper discusses the design review of the boron carbide safety rod for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This paper reviewed information presented by personnel of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Equipment Engineering Section, SRL Materials Technology Section and Reactor Materials Engineering and Technology. From this report, views, opinions and recommendations were made on the safety rod from materials testing to production

  18. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well other topics, has been included. This volume (Volume 4 of the series) contains 209 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume

  19. Review of Automated Design and Optimization of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Fan, Zhun; Bolognini, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    In recent years MEMS saw a very rapid development. Although many advances have been reached, due to the multiphysics nature of MEMS, their design is still a difficult task carried on mainly by hand calculation. In order to help to overtake such difficulties, attempts to automate MEMS design were...... carried out. This paper presents a review of these techniques. The design task of MEMS is usually divided into four main stages: System Level, Device Level, Physical Level and the Process Level. The state of the art o automated MEMS design in each of these levels is investigated....

  20. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Adaptive trial designs: a review of barriers and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairalla John A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on data accumulating within a study. The promise of greater flexibility and efficiency stimulates increasing interest in adaptive designs from clinical, academic, and regulatory parties. When adaptive designs are used properly, efficiencies can include a smaller sample size, a more efficient treatment development process, and an increased chance of correctly answering the clinical question of interest. However, improper adaptations can lead to biased studies. A broad definition of adaptive designs allows for countless variations, which creates confusion as to the statistical validity and practical feasibility of many designs. Determining properties of a particular adaptive design requires careful consideration of the scientific context and statistical assumptions. We first review several adaptive designs that garner the most current interest. We focus on the design principles and research issues that lead to particular designs being appealing or unappealing in particular applications. We separately discuss exploratory and confirmatory stage designs in order to account for the differences in regulatory concerns. We include adaptive seamless designs, which combine stages in a unified approach. We also highlight a number of applied areas, such as comparative effectiveness research, that would benefit from the use of adaptive designs. Finally, we describe a number of current barriers and provide initial suggestions for overcoming them in order to promote wider use of appropriate adaptive designs. Given the breadth of the coverage all mathematical and most implementation details are omitted for the sake of brevity. However, the interested reader will find that we provide current references to focused reviews and original theoretical sources which lead to details of the current state of the art in theory and practice.

  2. An ALARA-conscious hot particle control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989 approximately twenty-five percent of the radiation dose received by the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (PBNP) Health Physics group was due to its hot particle control program. The Health Physics group initiated a review of the program with the objective of decreasing the dose expenditure for hot particle control while maintaining a high standard for hot particle detection and control. In this paper the methods and results of this evaluation are described. The components of the hot particle control program, rules of thumb, and radionuclide composition at PBNP are presented

  3. A Review of Literacy Frameworks for Learning Environments Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Kristen Radsliff

    2013-01-01

    This article charts the development of three literacy research frameworks: multiliteracies, new literacies, and popular literacies. By reviewing the literature surrounding three current conceptions of literacy, an attempt is made to form an integrative grouping that captures the most relevant elements of each for learning environments design.…

  4. A review of design issues specific to hypersonic flight vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziroczak, D.; Smith, H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current technical issues and challenges associated with the design of hypersonic vehicles. Two distinct classes of vehicles are reviewed; Hypersonic Transports and Space Launchers, their common features and differences are examined. After a brief historical overview, the paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach to these vehicles, discusses various design aspects, and technical challenges. Operational issues are explored, including mission profiles, current and predicted markets, in addition to environmental effects and human factors. Technological issues are also reviewed, focusing on the three major challenge areas associated with these vehicles: aerothermodynamics, propulsion, and structures. In addition, matters of reliability and maintainability are also presented. The paper also reviews the certification and flight testing of these vehicles from a global perspective. Finally the current stakeholders in the field of hypersonic flight are presented, summarizing the active programs and promising concepts.

  5. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-02-25

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

  6. Reference values of the workers' collective dose unit for the implementation of ''ALARA'' policy in EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementing the ALARA principle at the design, operation and maintenance stages of EDF's PWRs aims at ensuring a coherent management of individual and collective exposures. The objective of such a policy is, as recommended by ICRP 60, to keep exposures (number of individuals exposed and levels of exposure) as low as reasonably achievable, with an equitable distribution taking into consideration economical and social aspects. This leads EDF to adopt, among other tools, a system of reference monetary values for the unit of collective dose averted. After having recalled the ethical issue associated with such an approach as well as the international consensus on the dose-risk relationship for low doses, the model adopted, integrating risk aversion considerations, is presented. Its main characteristic is a rapid increase of the monetary values with the level of annual individual doses coming close to the regulatory limits. This model will be used as a decision-aiding tool for the evaluation and comparison of alternative protection actions within the optimization process of workers'exposure

  7. NRT Rotor Structural / Aeroelastic Analysis for the Preliminary Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennis, Brandon Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document describes the initial structural design for the National Rotor Testbed blade as presented during the preliminary design review at Sandia National Laboratories on October 28- 29, 2015. The document summarizes the structural and aeroelastic requirements placed on the NRT rotor for satisfactory deployment at the DOE/SNL SWiFT experimental facility to produce high-quality datasets for wind turbine model validation. The method and result of the NRT blade structural optimization is also presented within this report, along with analysis of its satisfaction of the design requirements.

  8. Review of stellarator/heliotron design issues towards MFE DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first review is presented for the recent stellarator designs of FFHR, HSR, ARIES-CS, which are based on the experimental device projects of LHD, W-7X, NCSX, respectively. The main advantageous features of those designs are common on (1) current-free plasmas, which leads to steady, high Q and disruption-free reactors and (2) high density operations, which largely reduces the diverter heat load. Design optimization and engineering feasibility are highlighted including maintainability, fabricability and showing future R and D key issues with prospect towards DEMO.

  9. Study designs in dermatology: A review for the clinical dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2015-11-01

    A working knowledge of common research study designs and their advantages and disadvantages is necessary for critical reading of the literature by clinicians. However, understanding study designs and related statistical methodologies may be perceived as being complex and difficult to execute. This review aims to provide a practical foundation for basic study designs and to help physicians identify pitfalls that commonly occur in clinical studies and their level of evidence. Topics covered include the pros and cons of observational versus prospectively controlled studies, case-control, cohort, randomized controlled studies, adaptive controlled trials and metaanalyses, and the role of matching in studies. PMID:26475532

  10. A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D. W. L.; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

    2009-01-01

    The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes.

  11. Universal design in housing for people with disabilities: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Kalkhalah Shahrom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Housing standard for disabled people is a new dimension in quality of life. To the disabled people who are housebound, the house is the central focus of their existence. Over the last ten years, more focused studies have been conducted on the relationship between housing and people with disabilities. This paper reveals the needs of universal design in housing for disabled people and policies that can be improved. The main focus is on housing design for people with disabilities that begins with an overview on housing needs concept, theory and model, and followed by the topics on housing crisis for disabled people. These reviews looked at the existing literatures on universal design in residential remodeling including the principles of universal design, housing features, design, space and accessibility. It concludes by providing housing strategy for people with disabilities including disabled rights, information and advocacy from various countries.

  12. Report on the BWR owners group radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection programs at U.S. boiling water reactor (BWR) stations have evolved during the 1980s and early 1990s from a regulatory adherence-based endeavor to a proactive, risk-based radiation protection and prevention mission. The objectives are no longer to merely monitor and document exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. The focus of the current programs is the optimization of radiation protection of occupational workers consistent with the purpose of producing cost-effective electric power. The newly revised 10 CFR 20 defines the term ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) to take into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of the technology, and the benefits to the public health and safety. The BWR Owners Group (BWROG) initially formed the Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee in January 1990 to evaluate methods of reducing occupational radiation exposure during refueling outages. Currently, twenty U.S. BWR owner/operators (representing 36 of the operational 37 domestic BWR units), as well as three foreign BWR operators (associate members), have broadened the scope to promote information exchange between BWR radiation protection professionals and develop good practices which will affect optimization of their radiation protection programs. In search of excellence and the challenge of becoming open-quotes World Classclose quotes performers in radiation protection, the BWROG Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee has recently accepted a role in assisting the member utilities in improving radiation protection performance in a cost-effective manner. This paper will summarize the recent activities of this Committee undertaken to execute their role of exchanging information in pursuit of optimizing the improvement of their collective radiation protection performance

  13. Safety design guide for radiation protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety design guide describes the radiation protection philosophy, objectives and requirements to be used through out the design of CANDU 9. After describing the hazards associated with different systems, equipments and components, the guide then, identifies the regulatory limits which must be satisfied during operation of the plant and outlines the principal features of a viable radiation protection design. Finally, the guide identifies the specific design requirement which is systems and structures must satisfy. As a part of the ALARA approach, the guide also describes a Radiation Exposure Control Program. This program is a systemic review of the radiation exposures accumulated in the operation, inspection, maintenance or repair of each system or component. The program will be demonstrate that we have, from a radiological view point, an optimized design. The change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and this safety design guide shall be updated accordingly. 13 tabs. (Author) .new

  14. Book review. Design for Care: Innovating Healthcare Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Aguirre Ulloa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adapted from a review on the same book published by The Design Observer Group on April 4th, 2014. You can access the original publication online at http://designobserver.com/feature/design-for-care/38382/ Peter Jones´ recently published book represents a timely and comprehensive view of the value design brings to healthcare innovation. The book uses an empathic user story that conveys emotions and life to a structure that embraces the different meanings of Design for Care: Spanning from caring at the personal level to large-scale caring systems. The author has a main objective for each of its three main target audiences: Designers, companies and healthcare teams. Firstly, it allows designers to understand healthcare in a holistic and patient-centered way, breaking down specialized silos. Secondly, it shows how to design better care experiences across care continuums. Consequently, for companies serving the healthcare sector, the book presents how to humanize information technology (IT and services and meet the needs of health seekers. Finally, the book aims to inform healthcare teams (clinical practitioners and administrators the value design brings in research, co-creation and implementation of user and organizational experiences. It also proposes that healthcare teams learn and adopt design and systems thinking techniques so their innovation processes can be more participatory, holistic and user-centered.

  15. Networking as a tool to promote stakeholder involvement: Example of the European ALARA Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European ALARA Network (EAN), set up in 1996 by the European Commission, has helped reveal stakeholders needs regarding feedback on good radiation protection practice and helped towards stakeholders' satisfaction through their direct involvement into the network's life. Good examples of that involvement are the EAN workshops. The stakeholders are involved during the preparation phase, the workshops themselves, the development of recommendations and finally within the follow up actions. More and more categories of stakeholders are interested in topics covered within the EAN, and other similar networks are being set up in other regions. (author)

  16. Design review and hazop studies for stable salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins has been assisting Moltex Energy in carrying out a review of their Stable Salt Reactor (SSR) (formerly the Simple Molten Salt Reactor (SMSR)), which they believe has many benefits over other nuclear reactor systems. Their current design is for a 2.5 GW thermal output reactor, supplying a superheated steam turbine that could provide an electrical output of 1GW. Our first task was to carry out an assessment of the SSR concept against relevant UK Regulatory Requirements, using data and information that was provided by Moltex Energy. Moltex Energy updated their design using the output from this review. The next activity was to carry out a Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) review to identify issues that may not have been apparent in the original design and the UK Regulatory Requirements assessment. For the HAZOP, we brought together a Process Engineer, Fuel Route and Mechanical Handling Specialist, Safety Case Engineer, Reactor Chemist, Decommissioning and Waste Management Specialist. The HAZOP review gave rise to the generation of a list of key Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) that would be necessary in a fully designed reactor system, which were discussed and described in a report. This report provided the scope and assumptions that were used as the basis for the costing estimate, using expertise provided in-house by Faithful and Gould. Our paper will discuss the processes used in more detail, identify how these processes increased the knowledge and design concepts to ascertain the SSCs in more detail. Discuss the costing approach and the use of a three-point capital cost estimate, modelled using Monte Carlo simulation, to provide a cost/uncertainty distribution profile. Discussion on how Atkins can assist with the Indian reactor programme using a similar approach detailed above

  17. Clinical application of ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: “How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Practice of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be saved from harmful radiation exposure if ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. • A consecutive 1302 CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children’s hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, ‘Justification’ of CT was evaluated and then ‘Optimization’ was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies that was avoided by applying ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. • Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient departments (p < 0.05). • To conclude, a substantial number of pediatric patients, particularly coming from inpatients departments, can be saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure from CT imaging when ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA are applied

  18. Clinical application of ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: “How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S., E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Krishna, Satheesh; Saxena, Akshay K.; Sinha, Anindita; Khandelwal, Niranjan [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Lee, Edward Y. [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Division, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave. Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Practice of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be saved from harmful radiation exposure if ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. • A consecutive 1302 CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children’s hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, ‘Justification’ of CT was evaluated and then ‘Optimization’ was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies that was avoided by applying ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. • Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient departments (p < 0.05). • To conclude, a substantial number of pediatric patients, particularly coming from inpatients departments, can be saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure from CT imaging when ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA are applied

  19. Reviewing Privacy during Design - Voluntary Technology Dialogue System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kathryn; Fisher, Kevin

    This paper introduces a framework proposal encouraging industry and regulators to conduct data protection and privacy technology design reviews early in the design process, as driven by the 2008-2009 Comité Européen de Normalisation/Information Society Standardization System (European Committee for Standardisation, known as CEN/ISSS) Data Protection and Privacy (“DPP”) Workshop(1) work programme. Included are a description of the proposed project, working method and approach, precedents and previous work, as well as the rationale, objectives and consequences of not developing such a model, concluding with comments regarding policy relevance and market impact.

  20. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  1. Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P. K.; Patel, B. P.; Harbans Lal

    2016-01-01

    The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one ...

  2. Universal design for learning: A meta-analytic review of 80 abstracts from peer reviewed journals

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiatordi, A; Serenelli, F

    2013-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework mainly focusing on the concept of variability in learning, providing guidelines for content creation, class teaching and assessment. Previous literature reviews suggest that there is a limited amount of evidence about its effectiveness, and in general about other frameworks based on Universal Design. So an exploratory meta?analysis was performed in order to investigate the trends in the existing amount of research evidence about the test? ed ...

  3. BNL ALARA Center experience with an information exchange system on dose control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential elements of an international information exchange system on dose control at nuclear power plants are summarized. Information was collected from literature abstracting services, by attending technical meetings, by circulating data collection forms, and through personal contacts. Data are assembled in various databases and periodically disseminated to several hundred interested participants through a variety of publications and at technical meetings. Immediate on-line access to the data is available to participants with modems, commercially available communications software, and a password that is provided by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center to authorized users of the system. Since January 1992, rapid access also has been provided to persons with fax machines. Some information is available for ''polling'' the BNL system at any time, and other data can be installed for polling on request. Most information disseminated to data has been through publications; however, new protocols, simplified by the ALARA Center staff, and the convenience of fax machines are likely to make the earlier availability of information through these mechanisms increasingly important

  4. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT) from Preliminary Design Review (PDR) to Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a 12U cubesat with a primary mission to demonstrate the iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET) propulsion system. The spacecraft (SC) will operate throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the propulsion system for use in future applications. The benefit of the HET is that it uses a propellant, iodine, which is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. This paper will describe the thermal analysis and design of the SC between Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR). The design of the satellite has undergone many changes due to a variety of challenges, both before PDR and during the time period discussed in this paper. Thermal challenges associated with the system include a high power density, small amounts of available radiative surface area, localized temperature requirements of the propulsion components, and unknown orbital parameters. The thermal control system is implemented to maintain component temperatures within their respective operational limits throughout the mission, while also maintaining propulsion components at the high temperatures needed to allow gaseous iodine propellant to flow. The design includes heaters, insulation, radiators, coatings, and thermal straps. Currently, the maximum temperatures for several components are near to their maximum operation limit, and the battery is close to its minimum operation limit. Mitigation strategies and planned work to solve these challenges will be discussed.

  5. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused

  6. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWELL, W.J.

    1999-11-29

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused.

  7. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant control rooms as a result of several factors. These include: (1) incorporation of new systems such as safety parameter display systems, (2) backfitting of current control rooms with new technologies when existing hardware is no longer supported by equipment vendors, and (3) development of advanced control room concepts. Control rooms of the future will be developed almost exclusively with advanced instrumentation and controls based upon digital technology. In addition, the control room operator will be interfacing with more intelligent systems which will be capable of providing information processing support to the operator. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the operator's role in the system as well as the ways in which he interacts with it. At present, however, the only guidance available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces is NUREG-0700. It is a document which was written prior to these technological changes and is, therefore, tailored to the technologies used in traditional control rooms. Thus, the present guidance needs to be updated since it is inadequate to serve as the basis for NRC staff review of such advanced or hybrid control room designs. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline suitable for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will take the form of a portable, interactive, computer-based document that may be conveniently used by an inspector in the field, as well as a text-based document

  8. Human factors engineering review for CRT screen design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information interface between man and machine may be more important than hardware and workplace layout considerations. Transmitting and receiving data through this information interface can be characterized as a communication or interface problem. Management of man-machine interface is essential for the enhancement of the information processing and decision-making capability of computer users working in real time, demanding task. The design of human-computer interface is not a rigid and static procedure. The content and context of each interface varies according to the specific application. So, the purpose of this study is to review the human factor design process for interfaces, to make human factor guidelines for CRT screen and to apply these to CRT screen design. (author)

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Cold Vacuum Drying facility comprehensive formal design review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) design and construction is complete; isolated portions are still in the design and fabrication process. The project commissioned a formal design review to verify the sufficiency and accuracy of current design media to assure that: (1) the design completely and accurately reflects design criteria, (2) design documents are consistent with one another, and (3) the design media accurately reflects the current design. This review is a key element in the design validation and verification activities required by SNF-4396, ''Design Verification and Validation Plan For The Cold Vacuum Drying Facility''. This report documents the results of the formal design review

  10. Review of evolving trends in blended wing body aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Paul; Smith, Howard

    2016-04-01

    The desire to produce environmentally friendly aircraft that is aerodynamically efficient and capable of conveying large number of passengers over long ranges at reduced direct operating cost led aircraft designers to develop the Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept. The BWB aircraft represents a paradigm shift in the design of aircraft. The design provides aerodynamics and environmental benefits and is suitable for the integration of advanced systems and concepts like laminar flow technology, jet flaps and distributed propulsion. However, despite these benefits, the BWB is yet to be developed for commercial air transport due to several challenges. This paper reviews emerging trends in BWB aircraft design highlighting design challenges that have hindered the development of a BWB passenger transport aircraft. The study finds that in order to harness the advantages and reduce the deficiencies of a tightly coupled configuration like the BWB, a multidisciplinary design synthesis optimisation should be conducted with good handling and ride quality as objective functions within acceptable direct operating cost and noise bounds.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System Marks Critical Design Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    With completion of its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, NASA is deep into the manufacturing and testing phases of its new Space Launch System (SLS) for beyond-Earth exploration. This CDR was the first in almost 40 years for a NASA human launch vehicle and marked another successful milestone on the road to the launch of a new era of deep space exploration. The review marked the 90-percent design-complete, a final look at the design and development plan of the integrated vehicle before full-scale fabrications begins and the prelude to the next milestone, design certification. Specifically, the review looked at the first of three increasingly capable configurations planned for SLS. This "Block I" design will stand 98.2 meters (m) (322 feet) tall and provide 39.1 million Newtons (8.8 million pounds) of thrust at liftoff to lift a payload of approximately 70 metric tons (154,000 pounds). This payload is more than double that of the retired space shuttle program or other current launch vehicles. It dramatically increases the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration. Additionally, it will decrease overall mission risk, increase safety, and simplify ground and mission operations - all significant considerations for crewed missions and unique, high-value national payloads. The Block 1 SLS will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an uncrewed flight beyond the moon and back and the first crewed flight around the moon. The current design has a direct evolutionary path to a vehicle with a 130t lift capability that offers even more flexibility to reduce planetary trip times, simplify payload design cycles, and provide new capabilities such as planetary sample returns. Every major element of SLS has hardware in production or testing, including flight hardware for the Exploration 1 (EM-1) test flight. In fact, the SLS MPCV-to-Stage-Adapter (MSA) flew successfully on the Exploration Flight Test (EFT) 1 launch of a Delta IV and Orion spacecraft in

  12. Advanced control room design review guidelines: Merging old and new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry is currently developing operator interface systems based on innovative applications of digital computers. To assure that this advanced technology is incorporated in a way that maximizes the potential safety benefits of the technology and minimizes the potential negative effects on human performance, human factors principles must be considered. NUREG-0700 contains guidelines for the review of operator interfaces. However, in light of the rapid technological advances in digital technology which have taken place in the eleven years since its publication, it is no longer adequate to assess the rapidly changing human-system interfaces. A research program, the purpose of which is to upgrade NUREG-0700, has been initiated. Thus far a set of draft advanced control room design review (ACRDR) guidelines has been complied. Three tasks, which were oriented towards integrating the applicable guidelines in NUREG-0700 into the ACRDR document, are described in the paper

  13. Design review report for rotary mode core sample truck (RMCST) modifications for flammable gas tanks, preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the completion of a preliminary design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck (RMCST) modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCST modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to validate basic design assumptions and concepts to support a path forward leading to a final design. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward a final design review

  14. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA): is it appropriate for low level exposures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through various researches and investigations it has been established that high doses of ionizing radiation are harmful to health and there is a linear relationship between dose and the effect. There is substantial controversy regarding the biological and health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation in humans and the biota, in vitro and in vivo despite the large amount of work carried out (both laboratory and epidemiological). By low-level exposure, we mean the exposure to radiation levels comparable to those encountered in the natural environment (ambient radiation level). The proponents of the ALARA policy are the believers of LNT hypothesis adopted by major scientific, official and governmental organizations such as ICRP, NCRP, the NAS-NRC etc. for risk assessment, according to which exposure to any amount of radiation, no matter howsoever small is potentially harmful. The idea that the dose to radiation worker should be As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is only appropriate if small doses have a risk. Current radiation risk estimates, drawn by linear extrapolation, from high dose and dose rate of radiation to zero dose, clearly ignore the effects of the repair of DNA- the target of radiation damage. If the hormetic effect is added to the effect predicted by the LNT hypothesis, the resultant effect will be somewhat different from that predicted by the LNT hypothesis alone. Excellent human data show that a moderate increase in background radiation decreases the risk of cancer and significantly increases longevity. There are strong arguments, both experimental and epidemiological, which support the radiation hormesis (beneficial effects of low-level ionizing radiation). In the present paper, we propose to highlight the results of a comprehensive study of the available literature, data and reports of various radiation exposure and protection studies carried out in India and abroad. In conclusion, we find that the radiation hormesis contradicts the

  15. Practical application of the ALARA principle in management of the nuclear legacy: optimization under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiological protection has a long and distinguished history in taking a balanced approach to optimization. Both utilitarian and individual interests and perspectives are addressed through a process of constrained optimisation, with optimisation intended to lead to the most benefit to the most people, and constraints being operative to limit the degree of inequity among the individuals exposed. At least, expressed simplistically, that is what the recommendations on protection are intended to achieve. This paper examines the difficulties in achieving that objective, based on consideration of the active role of optimisation in regulatory supervision of the historic nuclear legacy. This example is chosen because the application of the ALARA principle has important implications for some very major projects whose objective is remediation of existing legacy facilities. But it is also relevant because timely, effective and cost efficient completion of those projects has implications for confidence in the future development of nuclear power and other uses of radioactive materials. It is also an interesting example because legacy management includes mitigation of some major short and long term hazards, but those mitigating measures themselves involve operations with their own risk, cost and benefit profiles. Like any other complex activity, a legacy management project has to be broken down into logistically feasible parts. However, from a regulatory perspective, simultaneous application of ALARA to worker protection, major accident risk mitigation and long-term environmental and human health protection presents its own challenges. Major uncertainties which exacerbate the problem arise from ill-characterised source terms, estimation of the likelihood of unlikely failures in operational processes, and prospective assessment of radiological impacts over many hundreds of years and longer. The projects themselves are set to run over decades, during which time the

  16. Review on development and their basic design of thickeners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao-xi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the research discovery,it is obvious that sedimentation process undertakes an important role in both domestic application and industrial production procedure. And thickener is a typical equipment of this process. It has been applied in several aspects such as water treatment,chemical industry,pharmaceutical industry and mineral industry etc.This paper reviews the relevant literature and the different types and basic operation methods of thickeners. Moreover, the representative calculation methods which involve the design and selection of suitable thickener will be discussed.

  17. Carbon Taxes. A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Hillary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  18. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  19. Tritium Systems Test Assembly: design for major device fabrication review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document has been prepared for the Major Device Fabrication Review for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). The TSTA is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems. The principal objectives for TSTA are: (a) demonstrate the fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems; (b) develop test and qualify equipment for tritium service in the fusion program; (c) develop and test environmental and personnel protective systems; (d) evaluate long-term reliability of components; (e) demonstrate long-term safe handling of tritium with no major releases or incidents; and (f) investigate and evaluate the response of the fuel cycle and environmental packages to normal, off-normal, and emergency situations. This document presents the current status of a conceptual design and cost estimate for TSTA. The total cost to design, construct, and operate TSTA through FY-1981 is estimated to be approximately $12.2 M

  20. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Review software and user's guide: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant's HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 3 contains an interactive software application of the NUREG-0700, Revision 1 guidance and a user's guide for this software. The software supports reviewers during review preparation, evaluation design using the human factors engineering guidelines, and in report preparation. The user's guide provides system requirements and installation instructions, detailed explanations of the software's functions and features, and a tutorial on using the software

  1. Nuclear renaissance, public perception and design criteria: An exploratory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently an international drive to build new nuclear power plants, bringing about what is being termed a 'nuclear renaissance'. However, the public perception of nuclear energy has historically been, and continues to be, a key issue, particularly in light of the Fukushima nuclear incident. This paper discusses the disparity between perceived and calculated risks based on the last four decades of research into risk perception. The leading psychological and sociological theories, Psychometric Paradigm and Cultural Theory, respectively, are critically reviewed. The authors then argue that a new nuclear-build policy that promotes a broader approach to design incorporating a wider range of stakeholder inputs, including that of the lay public, may provide a means for reducing the perceived risk of a nuclear plant. Further research towards such a new approach to design is proposed, based on integrating expert and lay stakeholder inputs and taking into account broader socio-cultural factors whilst maintaining the necessary emphasis on safety, technological development, economics and environmental sustainability. - Highlights: → Globally, a number of countries are investing in or considering building new nuclear plants. → Public acceptance of nuclear safety is important to continuing new nuclear build efforts. → Theories are discussed attempting to explain the public perception of nuclear safety. → A socially informed design process is proposed which could assist in ensuring public support. → Further research to understand how this design process might be performed is proposed.

  2. Nuclear renaissance, public perception and design criteria: An exploratory review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, Martin J., E-mail: Martin.Goodfellow@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The Mill, Sackville Street, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Rolls-Royce, SINA-CNB-1, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, Hugo R. [Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, University Rd., Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The Mill, Sackville Street, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    There is currently an international drive to build new nuclear power plants, bringing about what is being termed a 'nuclear renaissance'. However, the public perception of nuclear energy has historically been, and continues to be, a key issue, particularly in light of the Fukushima nuclear incident. This paper discusses the disparity between perceived and calculated risks based on the last four decades of research into risk perception. The leading psychological and sociological theories, Psychometric Paradigm and Cultural Theory, respectively, are critically reviewed. The authors then argue that a new nuclear-build policy that promotes a broader approach to design incorporating a wider range of stakeholder inputs, including that of the lay public, may provide a means for reducing the perceived risk of a nuclear plant. Further research towards such a new approach to design is proposed, based on integrating expert and lay stakeholder inputs and taking into account broader socio-cultural factors whilst maintaining the necessary emphasis on safety, technological development, economics and environmental sustainability. - Highlights: > Globally, a number of countries are investing in or considering building new nuclear plants. > Public acceptance of nuclear safety is important to continuing new nuclear build efforts. > Theories are discussed attempting to explain the public perception of nuclear safety. > A socially informed design process is proposed which could assist in ensuring public support. > Further research to understand how this design process might be performed is proposed.

  3. Design/Operations review of core sampling trucks and associated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of the design and operations of the core sampling trucks was commissioned by Characterization Equipment Engineering of the Westinghouse Hanford Company in October 1995. The review team reviewed the design documents, specifications, operating procedure, training manuals and safety analysis reports. The review process, findings and corrective actions are summarized in this supporting document

  4. Managing the radiological risk: ALARA, a principle, an obligation, a state of mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the 1993 data published by French nuclear operators and by the Ionizing Radiations Protection Office (OPRI), only two workers have exceeded the maximum annual permissible dose of 50 mSv. However, the respect of dose limits is not a sufficient warranty to accept the ionizing radiations exposure risk. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle is a masterpiece of the radiological protection system. Its goal is to maintain the exposures as low as reasonably achievable taking into account the socio-economical constraints. In France, the application of this principle is as compulsory as the respect of dose limits. The proper management and optimization of radiological risk requires the motivation of everybody. (J.S.). 2 refs., 3 figs

  5. Use of rank sum method in identifying high occupational dose jobs for ALARA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) dose at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORE dose data of existing plants. It is necessary to identify what are high ORE jobs for ALARA implementation. In this study, the Rank Sum Method (RSM) is used in identifying high ORE jobs. As a case study, the database of ORE-related maintenance and repair jobs for Kori Units 3 and 4 is used for assessment, and top twenty high ORE jobs are identified. The results are also verified and validated using the Friedman test, and RSM is found to be a very efficient way of analyzing the data. (author)

  6. 76 FR 49797 - Designation of ONDCP SES Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... CONTROL POLICY Designation of ONDCP SES Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice of Designation of ONDCP SES Performance Review Board. Headings: Designation Pursuant of ONDCP SES Performance Review Board Pursuant to 5 CFR 4 30.310. SUMMARY: The Director of...

  7. Designing phase II trials in cancer: a systematic review and guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S R; Gregory, W. M.; Twelves, C. J.; M. Buyse; Collinson, F; Parmar, M; Seymour, M T; J M Brown

    2011-01-01

    Background: Literature reviews of cancer trials have highlighted the need for better understanding of phase II statistical designs. Understanding the key elements associated with phase II design and knowledge of available statistical designs is necessary to enable appropriate phase II trial design. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to identify phase II trial designs applicable to oncology trials. The results of the review were used to create a library of currently availabl...

  8. 78 FR 52804 - mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... COMMISSION mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Design-Specific Review Standard (DSRS) for the mPower\\TM\\ Design; re-opening of comment period. SUMMARY: On May 14... for the mPower\\TM\\ design (mPower\\TM\\ DSRS). The purpose of the mPower\\TM\\ DSRS is to more...

  9. 78 FR 28258 - mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... COMMISSION mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Design-Specific Review Standard (DSRS) for the mPower\\TM\\ Design; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear... the mPower\\TM\\ design (mPower\\TM\\ DSRS). The purpose of the mPower\\TM\\ DSRS is to more fully...

  10. A review of designing machine tool for leanness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Gupta; T K Kundra

    2012-04-01

    As an ideology, Leanness is not a new concept but still researchers strive for developing new methods to reduce almost all kinds of identified wastages at almost every stage and in every activity — right from design till delivery of final product to the end-customer. Newly developed manufacturing ideologies, paradigms and systems are always critically examined from the point of view of leanness. In other words, leanness is becoming an important evaluation tool to compare the recently developed/pioneered approaches. There has been a gradual evolution of the leanness over the years from the shop floor level of a manufacturing (automobile) organization to almost every operational and management aspect now. The Leanness has undergone and still is undergoing a process of continuous and never-ending evolution due to its inherently built dynamic concept of continuous improvement. Although in the literature a lot of work has been reported to the application of lean tools, principles, theories and methodologies to production systems, but a very few is evident in the area of Lean design process of a product and machine tool. For this reason an attempt is being made here to focus a significant proportion of this paper on evolutionary aspect of leanness from manufacturing to design stage. Also, this paper reviews the concepts and practices being followed till date by the industrialists, researchers and academicians in applying lean tools and techniques in the design of product and machine tools along with the methods to measure the lean improvements in the systems.

  11. Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one of the critical components of blast valve have been discussed. The merits and demerits of sensing mechanisms viz. remote and direct sensing are discussed. The leakage of blast pressure during finite closing period of the valve (one of the critical problems and the shock tube as a major experimental facility for testing of blast valves are briefly discussed.

  12. Incentive Design in Peer Review: Rating and Repeated Endogenous Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yuanzhang; Dörfler, Florian; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Peer review (e.g., grading assignments in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), academic paper review) is an effective and scalable method to evaluate the products (e.g., assignments, papers) of a large number of agents when the number of dedicated reviewing experts (e.g., teaching assistants, editors) is limited. Peer review poses two key challenges: 1) identifying the reviewers' intrinsic capabilities (i.e., adverse selection) and 2) incentivizing the reviewers to exert high effort (i.e., mo...

  13. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedure for preparation, follow-up and experience gained from maintenance: application to replacement of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes the organisation and ALARA procedures for preparation, follow-up and analysis of the lessons learned during maintenance works at a nuclear power plant. After a brief description of the ALARA principle in the first chapter, the following chapters describe proposals for establishing and start-up of a maintenance building site. The proposals are illustrated by the replacement of the pressure vessel as an example

  14. ALARA in pediatric interventional and fluoroscopic imaging: striving to keep radiation doses as low as possible during fluoroscopy of pediatric patients--a white paper executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Keith J; Kaste, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    Pediatric patients might be as much as 10 times more radiosensitive than adults. Thus, adherence to the principle of "As low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) represents a practice mandate that minimizes ionizing radiation exposure while optimizing imaging results. This symposium is the third multidisciplinary program that focused on the ALARA principle in pediatric imaging and addressed issues associated with pediatric fluoroscopy and interventional imaging techniques. PMID:17412149

  15. The design of pig stunning tong electrodes-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrey, J M; Wotton, S B

    1997-09-01

    The effectiveness of current electrical stunning systems for pigs is discussed and the need for improvements in the design and construction of stunning tongs and electrodes are explored. A review of existing stunning tong electrodes for use with free standing or restrained pig is discussed. The potential problems with existing systems are highlighted as: (1) the profile of the pigs head precludes the application of existing electrodes in the correct position; (2) the small area of contact enhances carbon build-up which increases electrical impedance; (3) the electrodes are easily tarnished with few cleaning tools provided. Good tong positions that span the brain are described as between the eye and ear on each side of the head, below the ear on each side of the head or, diagonal application between the top and bottom of the head. The notional contact impedance is the major component of resistance to current flow within the stunning system. The proposed use of different electrode designs and constructional material is investigated. The effect of the introduction of the fail-safe device would be to heighten the interest in contact impedance within the plant and that could ensure that the investigation of different electrodes is explored at least at plant level. PMID:22062623

  16. A Review on Design of Compaction Press Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. R. B. Phadatare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The real advantage of PM is to cost effectively produce large volume, highly tolerance metal components & widely applied to produce mainly automotive parts such as bearings cap, cams, synchronisation hub, sprocket and toothed components. The ongoing debate has always centred on properties, such as strength, size and life of Tool. Tool material selection and material characteristics are being engineered to specific applications and requirements. Flexibility and knowledge of process variables is the key for both the end-user and the component manufacturer. We, as an industry, see challenging new horizons that only require a little inspiration, ingenuity and persistence. There is little repetitive failure during production of Compaction (Forming press tool found in manufacturing process. Each failure causes very high Economical cost to manufacturer in terms of production loss due to down time as well as commitments to the customer. The failure analysis of this compaction press tool was found most interesting. During these work modes of failures of tool was studied to conclude and recommend the solution. Design of compaction press tool was the methodology used to analysis the problem. Reviewed the history of the compaction tool compared the capacity of the pressing various possible design conditions, results and conclusion of the study will be very useful for compaction in future planning process.

  17. Optimization (Alara) and probabilistic exposures: the application of optimization criteria to the control of risks due to exposures of a probabilistic nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper described the application of the principles of optimization recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to the restrain of radiation risks due to exposures that may or may not be incurred and to which a probability of occurrence can be assigned. After describing the concept of probabilistic exposures, it proposes a basis for a converging policy of control for both certain and probabilistic exposures, namely the dose-risk relationship adopted for radiation protection purposes. On that basis some coherent approaches for dealing with probabilistic exposures, such as the limitation of individual risks, are discussed. The optimization of safety for reducing all risks from probabilistic exposures to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels is reviewed in full. The principles of optimization of protection are used as a basic framework and the relevant factors to be taken into account when moving to probabilistic exposures are presented. The paper also reviews the decision-aiding techniques suitable for performing optimization with particular emphasis to the multi-attribute utility-analysis technique. Finally, there is a discussion on some practical application of decision-aiding multi-attribute utility analysis to probabilistic exposures including the use of probabilistic utilities. In its final outlook, the paper emphasizes the need for standardization and solutions to generic problems, if optimization of safety is to be successful

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project dose management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dose management plan facilitates meeting the dose management and ALARA requirements applicable to the design activities of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, and establishes consistency of information used by multiple subprojects in ALARA evaluations. The method for meeting the ALARA requirements applicable to facility designs involves two components. The first is each Spent Nuclear Fuel Project subproject incorporating ALARA principles, ALARA design optimizations, and ALARA design reviews throughout the design of facilities and equipment. The second component is the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project management providing overall dose management guidance to the subprojects and oversight of the subproject dose management efforts

  19. Assessment of occupational radiation exposure for two fusion power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the occupational radiation exposure issues of the fusion power stations has been performed focusing on the primary heat transport system (PHTS) of safety and environmental assessment of fusion power (SEAFP) reactor models. Fuel cycle systems have been considered for completeness, but not assessed. Fission reactor experience and fusion power reactor studies formed the basis of this assessment. Four assessments were performed. Two were based on SEAFP models 1 and 2, and the other two were based on improvements of these models suggested by an as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review. The following main conclusions are drawn from the assessments. The PHTS dose estimated for SEAFP model 1 (about 300 p-mSv/a) is below the current fission industry norm (about 500 p-mSv/a), but it is not ALARA. An ALARA value of 130 p-mSv/a is achievable and would be a reasonable target for the PHTS. The PHTS dose estimated for SEAFP model 2 (about 3000 p-mSv/a) is well above the current fission industry norm. Some design measures have been identified, that can reduce this dose to about 1200 p-mSv/a. While this is a substantial reduction, it is still well above the fission industry norm, therefore, additional effort is needed to obtain further reductions. The large difference in heat transport system doses between model 1 and model 2 is due to two main factors, the coolant and the coolant tubing material. The helium coolant eliminates the presence of corrosion products, and the vanadium alloy reduces the sputtering rate

  20. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant`s or licensee`s HSI design.

  1. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant's HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant's or licensee's HSI design

  2. Independent design review report for truck {number_sign}1 modifications for flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.W.

    1997-05-09

    The East and West Tank Farm Standing Order 97-01 requires that the PMST be modified to include purging of the enclosed space underneath the shielded receiver weather cover per National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 496, Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment. The Standing Order also requires that the PMST be modified by replacing the existing electrical remote latch (RLU) unit with a mechanical remote latch unit. As the mechanical remote latch unit was exactly like the RLU installed on the Rotary Mode Core Sampler Trucks (RMCST) and the design for the RMCST went through formal design review, replacing the RLU was done utilizing informal design verification and was completed per work package ES-97-0028. As the weather cover purge was similar to the design for the RMCSTS, this design was reviewed using the independent review method with multiple independent reviewers. A function design criteria (WHC-SD-WM-FDC-048, Functional Design Criteria for Core Sampling in Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks) provided the criteria for the modifications. The review consisted of distributing the design review package to the reviewers and collecting and dispositioning the RCR comments. The review package included the ECNs for review, the Design Compliance Matrix, copies of all drawings affected, and copies of outstanding ECNs against these drawings. A final meeting was held to ensure that all reviewers were aware of the changes to ECNs from incorporation of RCR comments.

  3. REVIEW OF CURRENT RBC (ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR) PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN PROCEDURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid emergence of rotating biological contactor (RBC) technology as an alternative secondary wastewater treatment process has increased the need to review their performance history to provide information to the design engineer. This study, to review and compare current desig...

  4. Design optimization of rotary tiller blades: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Kr Mandal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tillage is an operation performed to obtain a desirable soil structure for a seedbed or root bed. A granular structure is desirable to allow rapid infiltration and good retention of rainfall and to minimize resistance to root penetration. Rotavator (also called rotary tiller is a tractor operated cultivating implement that breaks or works the soil with the help of rotating blades. The use of rotavator is increasing due to its versatility in doing a good quality tillage job with minimum number of passes. The rotavator do simultaneous ploughing and harrowing in dry and optimum soil moisture in single operation. The blades are the main critical parts of a rotary tiller which are engaged with soil.  So, wearing takes places at the cutting edges of these blades due to high stresses are coming. In this context a lot of research on rotavator blade has been carried out in different parts of the world. This paper briefly reviews the work done so far on the rotary tillers’ blade design optimization and development.

  5. Investigating Peer Review as a Systemic Pedagogy for Developing the Design Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions of Novice Instructional Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated peer review as a contemporary instructional pedagogy for fostering the design knowledge, skills, and dispositions of novice Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) professionals. Participants were graduate students enrolled in an introductory instructional design (ID) course. Survey, artifact, and observation data were…

  6. Design review report for the Hanford K East and K West Basins MCO loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This design report presents the final design of the MCO Loading System. The report includes final design drawings, a system description, failure modes and recovery plans, a system operational description, and stress analysis. Design comments from the final design review have been incorporated

  7. Design review report for the RMCS exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-27

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCS Exhauster modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve Engineering Change Orders and new drawings, at the 100% design completion state. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward fabrication and delivery.

  8. Design review report for the MCO loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This design report presents the design of the MCO Loading System. The report includes final design drawings, a system description, failure modes and recovery plans, a system operational description, and stress analysis

  9. SMS design review summary report: Preliminary, NASA approval pending, type 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The minutes of Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) design review sessions are presented. Notes concerning design deficiencies of the SMS control panels are listed. The SMS power system, instructor/operator stations, and forward crew station are evalutated.

  10. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented

  11. A review on the lattice design of large hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual evolution of the accelerator lattice design is discussed. Indicated are aspects of IR design. We emphasize the cancellation of stop-band width in the cluster design. The case of symmetric vs antisymmetric design is also discussed. The SSC lattice is used as an example. 9 refs

  12. Status of achievements reached in applying optimization of protection in design and normal operation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased emphasis in recent years on the ALARA principle and its practical implementation has opened new perspectives in the organisation of radiological protection. This change could be characterised as a shift from an 'a posteriori' control, (i.e. demonstrating that dose limits had not been exceeded), towards an 'a priori' management or dose predictive approach. Undoubtedly in both operation and design conscious efforts are made to achieve ALARA. However, there are certainly differences in various organisations' perceptions of what this practically entails and there is scope for us all to learn. If the 'ALARA Procedure' remains only a tool used at the early stage of design or as an elegant means of justifying past choices, it will have missed its main objective which is to give more rational and coherent management of practical protection at both the design and operational stages. We feel that the integration of the structured approaches of the ALARA Procedure and the ALARA Audit, into radiation protection programmes provides the best way forwad. This would require ALARA studies moving from the province of the 'experts' to the 'practitioners'. This in turn will require us to provide them with the tools to do the job. The methodology is secure but the areas of dose data collection and the costing of detriment need to be addressed further. Similarly, there is perhaps a need for the 'experts' to develop further experience of using the multiattribute and multicriteria techniques for the higher level decisions

  13. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the...... magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated and the...... amount of magnet material used. This is done by characterizing each design by a figure of merit magnet design efficiency parameter, Λcool. The designs are then compared and the best design found. Finally recommendations for designing the ideal magnet design are presented based on the analysis of the...

  14. An integrated design approach for system 80+TM For improved operations and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated design approach has been utilized in the development of the System 80+TM Standard Plant Design to obtain a cost effective plant that is easier to construct, operate, and maintain. This approach started early in the design process and will continue through construction of the lead plant. All areas of the plant including structures, systems, and components are being subjected to a detailed operability and maintainability review by a multiplicand's team with expertise in all aspects of the plant. Previous industry experience and owner-operator desires for future plants are being factored into the design through close adherence to the EPRI ALRR Utility Requirements Document and through the startup and operations of ABB. Combustion Engineering designed plants and Duke Power Company nuclear units. To achieve economical, sustained plant operations, careful attention has been paid from the inception of the design process to the configuration of systems, the arrangement of components, and the layout of structures. Proper attention to these aspects helps ensure that the plant staff will be able to conduct their activities in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. From an operations standpoint, design features that provide margin to operating limits, longer response times, and unambiguous operator actions have been principal focuses. In the maintenance area, ease of access, abundance of lay down space, reduction of required testing, and strong awareness of ALARA considerations have guided the engineers and designers. This design effort is being aided by use of an advanced, three-dimensional plant computer model to evaluate accessibility, removability of equipment, ALARA, and many other aspects that require an integrated approach to design. The net result of this process will be a plant with higher availability and lower operations and maintenance costs

  15. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance

  16. 24 CFR 597.300 - HUD action and review of nominations for designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required by § 597.202(b). (c) Evaluation of nominations. In the process of reviewing each nomination... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Designation Process § 597.300 HUD action and review of... by this part. HUD will notify the State(s) and local government(s) whether or not the nomination...

  17. INNOVATIVE ALARA TECHNIQUES and WORK PRACTICES USED AT HANFORD FOR D and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Hanford Site has several nuclear facilities in the process of decontamination and decommissioning (DandD) with many more to follow. These facilities contain hazardous and highly radioactive materials in plant systems, gloveboxes, hot cells, rooms, collection tanks, ventilation ducts, fuel pools and outside these facilities. Some of the radioactive isotopes are fissile material and have to be closely guarded and require special handling. To safely work in this environment, workers had to learn new skills and develop innovative techniques to decontaminate, remove all equipment and demolish these radioactive work facilities without spreading contamination to the environment. Changing the workscope and worker attitudes involves a culture change for workers, managers, Department of Energy (DOE) and support organizations. DandD involves making different types of risk-based decisions than were made when the plants were operated or sitting dormant. Management involvement, use of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), communications and sharing lessons learned are essential ingredients in developing a successful DandD strategy. New technologies have to be learned including the use of robotic devices and manipulative arms due to high dose rates and amount of radioactive contamination. Minimizing the amount of Transuranic and Mixed radioactive waste and learning how to ship the large quantities of waste are additional skills the Hanford workers have had to learn. DandD work at Hanford is in progress and Hanford Contractors have completed some very difficult and intense DandD work. This presentation will provide information on the best As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) protective measures, work practices, and the lessons learned to date

  18. A Review of Research on Universal Design Educational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kavita; Ok, Min Wook; Bryant, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Universal design for learning (UDL) has gained considerable attention in the field of special education, acclaimed for its promise to promote inclusion by supporting access to the general curriculum. In addition to UDL, there are two other universal design (UD) educational models referenced in the literature, universal design of instruction (UDI)…

  19. Developing an Interactive Augmented Prototyping Methodology to Support Design Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Physical prototypes and scale models play an important role in engineering design processes, especially in the field of industrial design. Such models are typically used to explore and discuss design concepts in various stages, from initial idea generation to manufacturing. Over the last decade, au

  20. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  1. Review of Y/OWI/TM-36: repository design performance in salt, granite, shale or basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the ongoing work by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to evaluate repository design performance, this memorandum presents a review of the preconceptual repository design described in Y/OWI/TM-36, Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, April 1978. The purpose of this review is: to assess the adequacy of the design procedures and assumptions; to identify inappropriate or unsubstantiated design issues; to identify areas where additional numerical analyses may be required; and to develop data for inclusion in a reference repository design. The preconceptual repository design is presented in the form of 23 volumes of data base, analyses, and design layouts for four rock types: bedded salt, shale, granite and basalt. This memorandum reviews all four repository designs

  2. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique

  3. ALARA principle and applications in the safety files of Laboratories and factories. Experience return from three years expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispositions of operational radiation protection used by the nuclear exploiting societies contribute to the safety of their installations. The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) is led to evaluate these dispositions, particularly the application of the ALARA principle. It appears that it was interesting to make an accounting on the period where the optimization and workers protection were taken into account. The accounting presented in this work is relative to the installations else than power reactors, that is to say: laboratories, fuel cycle facilities, research installations, irradiators. (N.C.)

  4. Empirical pillar design methods review report: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes and evaluates empirical pillar design methods that may be of use during the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The methods are discussed according to category (i.e, main, submain, and panel pillars; barrier pillars; and shaft pillars). Of the 21 identified for main, submain, and panel pillars, one method, the Confined Core Method, is evaluated as being most appropriate for conceptual design. Five methods are considered potentially applicable. Of six methods identified for barrier pillars, one method based on the Load Transfer Distance concept is considered most appropriate for design. Based on the evaluation of 25 methods identified for shaft pillars, an approximate sizing criterion is proposed for use in conceptual design. Aspects of pillar performance relating to creep, ground deformation, interaction with roof and floor rock, and response to high temperature environments are not adequately addressed by existing empirical design methods. 152 refs., 22 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Review and Recommendation of Cold Asphalt Emulsion Mixtures Caems Design

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Arya Thanaya

    2007-01-01

    Note from the Editor Cold Asphalt Emulsion Mixture (CAEM) is a mixture of aggregates and asphalt emulsion that is mixed at room temperature. It is relatively simple to produce, but the design procedure provided by the Asphalt Institute and the Ministry of Public Work of Indonesia pose some problems in its practical application. This Technical Note discusses limitations of the current design procedures and presents a simpler and more practicable design procedure

  6. Review and Recommendation of Cold Asphalt Emulsion Mixtures Caems Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Arya Thanaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Note from the Editor Cold Asphalt Emulsion Mixture (CAEM is a mixture of aggregates and asphalt emulsion that is mixed at room temperature. It is relatively simple to produce, but the design procedure provided by the Asphalt Institute and the Ministry of Public Work of Indonesia pose some problems in its practical application. This Technical Note discusses limitations of the current design procedures and presents a simpler and more practicable design procedure

  7. Automotive HMI design and participatory user involvement: Review and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCOIS, Mathilde; Osiurak, François; Fort, Alexandra; CRAVE, Philippe; Navarro, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Automotive human-machine interface (HMI) design is facing new challenges due to the technological advances of the last decades. The design process has to be adapted in order to address human factors and road safety challenges. It is now widely accepted that user involvement in the HMI design process is valuable. However, the current form of user involvement in industry remains at the stages of concept assessment and usability tests. Moreover, the literature in other fields (e.g. information s...

  8. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders; Pryds, Nini

    2014-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed base...

  9. Organization Design for Dynamic Fit: A Review and Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Nissen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fit is central to organization design. In the organizational literature, fit historically has been portrayed as a static concept. Both organizations and their environments, however, are continually changing, so a valid concept of fit needs to reflect organizational dynamics. In this article, I analyze various theoretical perspectives and studies that relate to organizational fit, differentiating those that employ an equilibrating or a fluxing approach. Four substantive themes emerge from this analysis: design orientation, design tension, designer/manager roles, and measurement and validation. Implications of each of these themes for dynamic fit are derived, and promising future research directions are discussed.

  10. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig

  11. Incentive-Based Policy Design for Pollution Control and Biodiversity Conservation : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Frans P. de Vries; HANLEY, NICHOLAS DAVID

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a succinct review of the main developments in the literature on incentive-based policy mechanisms in the contexts of pollution control and biodiversity conservation, dating from the early beginnings of the science in the 1960s. A focal point in the review is on the design features of these policy mechanisms. Key developments in policy design were originally established in controlling externalities arising from pollution and have since been extended to policy design tailore...

  12. Report of the review panel for the design review of high-average-current RF photoinjector for 100 Kwatt FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, G. (Gerry); Rybarcyk, L. J. (Lawrence J.); Schrage, D. L. (Dale L.)

    2004-01-01

    A formal design review of the high-average-current RF photoinjector for a 100 Kwatt FEL was held on January 21st and 22nd, 2004, at Advanced Energy Systems in Medford, New York. The main conclusion of the review was that reducing the accelerating gradient in the third cell would reduce the thermal loads to an acceptable level. The panel recommended that this revision be made.

  13. Peer Review of a Formal Verification/Design Proof Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The role of formal verification techniques in system validation was examined. The value and the state of the art of performance proving for fault-tolerant compuers were assessed. The investigation, development, and evaluation of performance proving tools were reviewed. The technical issues related to proof methodologies are examined. The technical issues discussed are summarized.

  14. Review of fuel for research reactors of Russian design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The most widely spread FA designs with tubular fuels elements (FEs) (WWR-M2, WWR-M5, IRT-2M, IRT-2M, MR, MIR, WWR-TS, IVV-2M, IVV-10) and more than 20 % U-235 enriched nuclear fuel used in research reactors of Russian designs are described. The list of operations which are used to test FAs and FEs for demonstration of their quality is given. The results of activities of conversion of foreign research reactors of Russian designs to low-enriched less than 20% U-235 enrichment) fuel that are performed in accordance with Russian program 'Reduced Enrichment of Research reactors' are presented

  15. The Relationship Between Individual Attributes and Job Design: Review and Annotated Bibliography. Technical Report 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Gerald V.; And Others

    The annotated bibliography, review of literature, and glossary of terms contained in this document relate to current and past trends in job design. Topics covered are Quality of Work Life; Conceptual and Theoretical Framework for Job Design; Measurement of Tasks and Job Structural Attributes and Tasks; Survey Research on Job Design; Case, Field,…

  16. ESF [Exploratory Shaft Facility] Title II 60% interim design review findings report:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Interim Design Review Findings Report contains the results of the review, the Design Review Board (DRB) conclusions and recommended future actions, the technical checklist, and required supporting documentation. Brief descriptions of the major issues raised during the 60% design review are: a definite need for greater ICWG participation and active direction in the design process; approval and issuance of the ESF Vulnerability Study; inclusion of an alternative to concrete blocks in the design of the preliminary liner in salt; development of achievable excavation specifications and criteria to be used during shaft sinking; development of ground support plan that is flexible to the needs of the testing requirements; decision to either retain or eliminate shaft liner ''D'' in the lower salt section of the shafts and decision to either retain or eliminate mechanical cooling of the ESF underground ventilation air

  17. Human-factors engineering-control-room design review: Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. Draft audit report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Shoreham control room was performed at the site on March 30 through April 3, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The presented sections are numbered to conform to the guidelines of the draft version of NUREG-0700. They summarize the teams's observations of the control room design and layout, and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment

  18. The poacher turned gamekeeper, or getting the most out of the design review process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Simon C.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an accumulation of knowledge from both sides of the design review table. Using experience gained over many reviews and post-mortems, some painful, some less painful; examining stakeholder's viewpoints and expectations; challenging aspects of accepted wisdom and posing awkward questions, the author brings out what he considers to be key criteria for a constructive design review. While this is not a guarantee to a successful outcome, it may nudge the balance from the reviews being an obligatory milestone (millstone?) towards them being a beneficial mechanism for project development.

  19. High-temperature heat exchanger design - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of high-temperature heat exchangers substantially effects the performance and efficiency of operating and new power and processing plants. The availability of high-temperature materials and the development of reliable design methods are prerequisite to their use in high technology system. High-temperature recuperators are in the development stage. Their design is a complex process due to radiation heat transfer and the still insufficiently explored effects of surface fouling. It is believed that the interpenetrating continua method will, in the first approximation, model real conditions encountered in these heat exchangers. Experience gained in high-temperature regenerator design has yielded data and relevant equations on which information from the literature will be presented in this paper. High-temperature heat exchanger design is greatly upgraded if mathematical modeling is used i.e. mathematical methods are developed and subsequently experimentally verified on the basis of present-day know-how and state-of-the-art computers

  20. A bootstrap lunar base: Preliminary design review 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A bootstrap lunar base is the gateway to manned solar system exploration and requires new ideas and new designs on the cutting edge of technology. A preliminary design for a Bootstrap Lunar Base, the second provided by this contractor, is presented. An overview of the work completed is discussed as well as the technical, management, and cost strategies to complete the program requirements. The lunar base design stresses the transforming capabilities of its lander vehicles to aid in base construction. The design also emphasizes modularity and expandability in the base configuration to support the long-term goals of scientific research and profitable lunar resource exploitation. To successfully construct, develop, and inhabit a permanent lunar base, however, several technological advancements must first be realized. Some of these technological advancements are also discussed.

  1. Kinematic couplings: A review of design principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Slocum, Alexander H.

    2009-01-01

    From the humble three-legged milking stool to a SEMI standard wafer pod location to numerous sub-micron fixturing applications in instruments and machines, exactly constrained mechanisms provide precision, robustness, and certainty of location and design. Kinematic couplings exactly constrain six degrees of freedom between two parts and hence closed-form equations can be written to describe the structural performance of the coupling. Hertz contact theory can also be used to design the contact...

  2. Universal design in housing for people with disabilities: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Kalkhalah Shahrom; Rosilawati Zainol

    2015-01-01

    Housing standard for disabled people is a new dimension in quality of life. To the disabled people who are housebound, the house is the central focus of their existence. Over the last ten years, more focused studies have been conducted on the relationship between housing and people with disabilities. This paper reveals the needs of universal design in housing for disabled people and policies that can be improved. The main focus is on housing design for people with disabilities that begins wit...

  3. A corporate ALARA engineering support for all EDF nuclear power plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1991, EDF has established a national ALARA programme with a very effective result in terms of dose reduction. Of course, EDF management has decided to further improve occupational exposure management and dose reduction (both collective and individuals). Since 2002, one key element allowing reaching the new goals, is the set up of a national corporate engineering as a support for EDF sites for preparing maintenance interventions. Its objective is to reduce occupational exposure with the help of up to date tools and methods. That engineering support consists of a growing up team comprising at the moment about ten engineers, including CAD specialists and health physicists. It is in charge of using very efficient tools such as P.A.N.T.H.E.R. -R.P. to perform national modelling studies concerning the reactor and auxiliary buildings areas, which are the most costly in terms of doses. That tool has been developed initially for the first steam generator replacements by EDF S.E.P.T.E.N. engineering department. It uses friendly user 3D software to create a geometrical model of the concerned area with all existing materials (pipes, valves, concrete walls allowing visualizing on personal computers, each area from all perspectives. Other important inputs for P.A.N.T.H.E.R. R.P. are the quantities of radioisotopes present in each material. The code allows then estimating the dose rates at each location in the area, calculating the contribution of each equipment (i.e sources) in the area to the dose rate in each point; calculating also the contribution of each radio isotope to the dose rates. With the help of these models the engineering is then able to perform in depth generic work areas optimisation studies, taking into account the workload in each workstation. Up to recently these studies were performed only for huge operations such as steam generator replacements, they are now proposed to EDF sites for more usual interventions. The selection of these interventions takes

  4. DESIGN OF UNIVERSAL ACCESS USING RFID TAG: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Miss.Bhede Snehal V.*; Prof.M.N.Kakatkar

    2016-01-01

    Time and efficiency are matter of priority now. Smart card emerges as one of the converging technologies. This review paper contains smart access using smart card in toll gate control, and in bus ticketing system. RFID plays major role in auto ID applications like RFID contact less smart cards. Proposed system will present an automated system for ticketing in the Public Transport System (PTS) which is based on passenger identification and also system presents automated system for toll collect...

  5. Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, Volume 6 Book 2, contains design studies for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. Topics discussed include: materials handling; processing; support systems; support utilities; spent fuel; high-level radioactive wastes and storage; field drywell storage; ALARA consideration; safety considerations; and design approach

  6. Review of structural design criteria for heat exchanger tube sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey of various tube sheet design criteria was made in order to establish structural design criterion for the high-temperature tube sheet of the Intermediate Heat Exchanger of the Experimental Multipurpose VHTR. From this survey, it was found that there is no appropriate design criterion for the IHX high-temperature tube sheet among those tube sheet design criteria. However, the stress analysis method of tube sheet given in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III Appendix A-8000 is considered to be useful, which is two dimensional stress analysis method by replacing the perforated region of tube sheet to the equivalent solid plate. Concerning this method given in A-8000, recently, T.Slot et al. have proposed more accurate effective elastic constants than those given in A-8000. Then, it was examined what degree of the difference there is between the stress analysis results obtained from the data given in A-8000 and those from the data proposed by T.Slot et al. (author)

  7. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 2, PF systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-07-28

    This system development specification covers the Poloidal Field (PF) Magnet System, WBS 14 in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory TPX Program to build a tokamak fusion reactor. This specification establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements of the PF Magnet System.

  8. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 2, PF systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This system development specification covers the Poloidal Field (PF) Magnet System, WBS 14 in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory TPX Program to build a tokamak fusion reactor. This specification establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements of the PF Magnet System

  9. A REVIEW ON GREEN WALLS TECHNOLOGY, BENEFITS & DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    A. F. Shaikh; P. K. Gunjal; N. V. Chaple

    2015-01-01

    A ‘Green Wall’, also commonly referred to as a ‘Vertical Garden’, is a descriptive term that is used to refer to all forms of vegetated wall surfaces. Green wall technologies may be divided into two major categories: Green Facades and Living Walls. There are significant benefits to both the public and private sectors resulting from the successful use of green walls. This is a review paper on green walls technology. Green walls have a great potential for positive environmental chan...

  10. A REVIEW ON GREEN WALLS TECHNOLOGY, BENEFITS & DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Shaikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A ‘Green Wall’, also commonly referred to as a ‘Vertical Garden’, is a descriptive term that is used to refer to all forms of vegetated wall surfaces. Green wall technologies may be divided into two major categories: Green Facades and Living Walls. There are significant benefits to both the public and private sectors resulting from the successful use of green walls. This is a review paper on green walls technology. Green walls have a great potential for positive environmental change in dense urban areas, particularly given the large surface areas on buildings that are available for retrofitting to these technologies.

  11. On-line Peer Review in Teaching Design-oriented Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ning

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer review has been one of the very important designfacilitating processes practiced in education field, particularly in design-oriented courses such as MIT's 2.007 Robot Design. Typically students exchange ideas sketched on a piece of paper and critique on each other's design within a small team. We designed PREP web application backed up by a range of web services that handle the peer-review process on-line, and we argue that this is a significant step towards supporting designoriented course on-line. We believe that the lessons learned could be applied to other interested institutes that offer designoriented courses.

  12. Regulatory review of passive plant design certification test programs. Results and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its review of advanced, passive light water reactor designs for certification, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has almost completed its review of test programs developed by the reactor vendors to demonstrate passive safety system performance and to support development and validation of safety analysis computer codes. Results of the test program reviews are discussed, focusing on the data and its analysis. The NRC's regulatory perspective and important lessons learned are also addressed

  13. Final design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project Clean and Coat Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. The concrete walls need to be coated to prevent future radionuclide absorption into the walls. This report documents a final design review of equipment to clean and coat basin walls. The review concluded that the design presented was acceptable for release for fabrication

  14. Conceptual design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project clean and coat task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose originating from radionuclides absorbed in the concrete is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. The concrete walls need to be coated to prevent future radionuclide absorption into the walls. This report documents a conceptual design review of equipment to clean and coat basin walls. The review concluded that the proposed concepts were and acceptable basis for proceeding with detailed final design

  15. Review Question Formats and Web Design Usability in Computer-Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca S.; Eppler, Marion A.; Ironsmith, Marsha; Wuensch, Karl L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the effects of two embedded review question formats and the application of web design guidelines in a computer-assisted mastery learning course in developmental psychology. Students used either a branching review question format that redirected them to relevant portions of the study module after incorrect answers or a linear format that…

  16. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J. [Carlow International Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  17. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  18. Design considerations and operational performance of Anaerobic Digester: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ahmad Mir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the decline in fossil fuel reservoirs, the researchers emphasized more on the production of biogas from organic waste. Producing the renewable energy from biodegradable waste helps to overcome the energy crisis and solid waste management, done by anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is controlled breakdown of organic matter into methane gas (60%, carbon dioxide (40%, trace components along with digested used as soil conditioner. However there is vast dearth of literature regarding the design considerations. The batch digestion system yields a cost-effective and economically viable means for conversion of the food waste to useful energy. It is therefore recommended that such process can be increasingly employed in order to get and simultaneously protect the environment .This paper aims to draw key analysis and concern about the design considerations, analysis of gas production, substrates and inoculums utilization, uses and impacts of biogas.

  19. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones

  20. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  1. Technical basis for the ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR) is the 4th major milestone, representing the progress made in the ITER Engineering Design Activities. With the approval of the Detailed Design Report (DDR), the design work was concentrated on the requirements of operation, with only relatively minor changes to design concepts of major components. The FDR is the culmination of almost 6 years collaborative design and supporting technical work by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under the terms of the ITER EDA Agreement

  2. POTENTIAL PHYTOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS IN DESIGN OF ETHOSOMES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery is one of the efficient methods in novel drug delivery system. Skin is a major target as well as a principle barrier for transdermal drug delivery. The major disadvantage of this system is low diffusion rate of drug(s across stratum corneum. Ethosomes are modified lipid carriers that enables drug to reach deep into the systemic delivery system. Ethosomes are soft, malleable vesicles embodying alcohol in relatively higher concentration and efficient in delivering drug across the skin. The present review is an attempt to overview the applications of ethosomal formulations and various herbal options (plants or their active therapeutic principles that may be explored further in the form of ethosomes for treating various types of skin ailments v.i.z. itching , eczema , leucoderma , scabies and other skin diseases.

  3. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering...

  4. LHCb Upgraded RICH 2 Engineering Design Review Report

    CERN Document Server

    Garsed, Philip John; Cardinale, Roberta; Petrolini, Alessandro; Benettoni, Massimo; Simi, Gabriele; Zago, M; Easo, Sajan; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Frei, Christoph; He, Jibo; Piedigrossi, Didier

    2016-01-01

    During the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC, the LHCb experiment and, specifically, its two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors will undergo a major upgrade. RICH 2 will be refurbished with new photon detectors and their associated electronics, with the capability of up to 40 MHz sustained acquisition rate. A new support and cooling system has been developed for the two photodetector arrays, retaining the vessel, gas and optical systems unchanged. This document describes their new mechanical arrangement, its engineering design, installation and alignment. A summary of the project schedule and Institute responsibilities is provided.

  5. LHCb Upgraded RICH 1 Engineering Design Review Report

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, Marco; Petridis, Konstantinos; Rademacker, Jonas; Garsed, Philip John; Wotton, Stephen; Cardinale, Roberta; Petrolini, Alessandro; Clark, David Edward; Egede, Ulrik; Mccann, Michael Andrew; Patel, Mitesh; Savidge, Trevor Edward; Websdale, David; Brock, Matthew; Harnew, Neville; Tacon, M; Benettoni, Massimo; Brummitt, Amanda Jayne; Easo, Sajan; Papanestis, Antonis; Ricciardi, Stefania; Wilson, Fergus; D'ambrosio, Carmelo; Frei, Christoph; He, jibo; Piedigrossi, Didier

    2016-01-01

    During the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC, the LHCb collaboration will replace the upstream Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH 1). The magnetic shield of the current RICH 1 will be modified, new spherical and plane mirrors will be installed and a new gas enclosure will be manufactured. New photon detectors (multianode photomultiplier tubes) will be used and these, together with their readout electronics, require a new mechanical support system. This document describes the new optical arrangement of RICH 1, its engineering design, installation and alignment. A summary of the project schedule and institute responsibilities is provided.

  6. Report of the DOE Review Committee on the conceptual design of the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of the conceptual design of the Superconducting Super Collider includes a review of the scientific basis of the facility and an overview of its technical systems, conventional systems, environment and safety, and reliability. The technical systems are evaluated, including the accelerator physics, injector systems, magnets, and cryogenic and vacuum systems. An overall review and evaluation is given with respect to the cost estimate, construction schedule, and funding profile. Subcommittee reports are appended for accelerator physics, injector systems, magnets, cryogenics and vacuum, other technical systems, conventional facilities, management support, and environment and safety. Cost estimates of the Conceptual Design Group and the DOE are compared by work breakdown structure

  7. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed. PMID:25476753

  8. Designing Cropping Systems for Metal-Contaminated Sites: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ye-Tao; CHEN Tong-Bin; G. ECHEVARRIA; T. STERCKEMAN; M. O. SIMONNOT; J. L. MOREL; DENG Teng-Hao-Bo; WU Qi-Hang; WANG Shi-Zhong; QIU Rong-Liang; WEI Ze-Bin; GUO Xiao-Fang; WU Qi-Tang; LEI Mei

    2012-01-01

    Considering that even contaminated soils are a potential resource for agricultural production,it is essential to develop a set of cropping systems to allow a safe and sustainable agriculture on contaminated lands while avoiding any transfer of toxic trace elements to the food chain.In this review,three main strategies,i.e.,phytoexclusion,phytostabilization,and phytoextraction,are proposed to establish cropping systems for production of edible and non-edible plants,and for extraction of elements for industrial use.For safe production of food crops,the selection of low-accumulating plants/cultivars and the application of soil amendments are of vital importance.Phytostabilization using non-food energy and fiber plants can provide additional renewable energy sources and economic benefit with minimum cost of agriculturai measures.Phytoextracting trace elements (e.g.,As,Cd,Ni,and Zn) using hyperaccumulator species is more suitable for slightly and moderately polluted sites,and phytomining of Ni from serpentine soils has shown a great potential to extract Ni-containing bio-ores of economic interests.We conclude that appropriate combinations of soil types,plant species/cultivars,and agronomic practices can restrict trace metal transfer to the food chain and/or extract energy and metals of industrial use and allow safe agricultural activities.

  9. Designing and Integrating Purposeful Learning in Game Play: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    Via a systematic review of the literature on learning games, this article presents a systematic discussion on the design of intrinsic integration of domain-specific learning in game mechanics and game world design. A total of 69 articles ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were coded for the literature synthesis. Exemplary learning games…

  10. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design theory;…

  11. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict resol

  12. Product-oriented design theory for digital information services: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give a structured literature review, design concepts, and research propositions related to a product-oriented design theory for information services. Information services facilitate the exchange of information goods with or without transforming these goods.

  13. Wolsong 2, 3, and 4 quarterly progress review report on NSSS design and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the Quarterly Progress Review Report for Wolsong NPP 2, 3 and 4 NSSS Design and Engineering which evaluates the performance of the project and describes the project highlight, manpower loading status, design and engineering and project related meetings by quarterly basis. 17 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  14. ITER final design report, cost review and safety analysis (FDR) and relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the fourth major milestone report and documents associated with its acceptance, review and approval. This ITER Final Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis was presented to the ITER Council at its 13th meeting in February 1998 and was approved at its extraordinary meeting on 25 June 1998. The contents include an outline of the ITER objectives, the ITER parameters and design overview as well as operating scenarios and plasma performance. Furthermore, design features, safety and environmental characteristics and schedule and cost estimates are given

  15. Fish-inspired robots: design, sensing, actuation, and autonomy--a review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Aditi; Thakur, Atul

    2016-06-01

    Underwater robot designs inspired by the behavior, physiology, and anatomy of fishes can provide enhanced maneuverability, stealth, and energy efficiency. Over the last two decades, robotics researchers have developed and reported a large variety of fish-inspired robot designs. The purpose of this review is to report different types of fish-inspired robot designs based upon their intended locomotion patterns. We present a detailed comparison of various design features like sensing, actuation, autonomy, waterproofing, and morphological structure of fish-inspired robots reported in the past decade. We believe that by studying the existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from the successful robots. The review also summarizes the open research issues that need to be taken up for the further advancement of the field and also for the deployment of fish-inspired robots in practice. PMID:27073001

  16. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-10-02

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established.

  17. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established

  18. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed method design related to the use of a combination of methods, usually quantitative and qualitative, is increasingly used for the investigation of complex phenomena. This review discusses the book, "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures," by Janice M. MORSE and Linda NIEHAUS. A distinctive feature of their approach is the consideration of mixed methods design out of a core and a supplemental component. In order to define these components they emphasize the overall conceptual dir...

  19. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  20. Technical basis for the ITER detailed design report, cost review and safety analysis (DDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Detailed Design Report (DDR), Cost Review and Safety Analysis is the 3rd major milestone representing the progress made in the ITER Engineering Design Activities. With the approval of the Interim Design Report (IDR), it has been possible to freeze the main concepts and system approaches for ITER and to develop the design in more detail for the individual components and sub-systems. This report, although designed to be fully understandable as a separate document, focusses particularly on the main changes since the IDR

  1. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  2. Replacement of neutron absorbers in the spent fuel pool storage facility of the Tihange 3: an ALARA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiated fuel assemblies placed in the storage racks (pools) subject the Boraflex to an intense gamma flux, which causes degradation of the Boraflex arising from the radiolysis reaction and rupture and rearrangement of the chemical bonds by the gamma rays. The decision was taken to remove the Boraflex from the existing racks and reuse them with a neutron absorber, boron steel or borated stainless steel. Throughout this replacement project, the ALARA principle has been applied in developing tools and choosing methods. Each phase was then re-evaluated in terms of dosimetry cost in order to make improvements that would mean a reduction in the dosimetry of the operation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  4. New recommendations of the ICRP and the ALARA program of the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the events happened in it finishes it decade, in the nuclear environment, it is necessary that any he/she practices that it involves exhibition to the radiation, real or potential, be detailed and systematically analyzed by the light of the current knowledge, capitalizing the generated experience. They think about three fundamental aspects in the campaign of radiological cultivation: 1. New methods of evaluation of equivalent dose. 2. Limit of individual dose, base of the change and control implications, and 3. Analysis philosophies and the application of the system of dose limitation. The program ALARA of the Laguna Verde Central from its installation in 1987 observes and it implements actions trending to optimize it practice of situation of potential and planned exhibition with the purpose of fulfilling the commitment settled down in the declaration of political of this program

  5. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report

  6. Place of the radiation safety officer in the implementation of the ALARA principle through European directive 97-43 items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to define the role of the radiation safety officer in raising the awareness of the radiology staff to the ALARA (As low as reasonable achievable) principle specified in European directive 97-43. The actions taken and the techniques used in our hospital, as well as the potential improvements that could be achieved with extra funding, will be presented. The didactic value of flow charts recording technical factors and fluoroscopy times for quality improvement will be demonstrated. In the future, a dosimeter incorporated on the new equipment could allow direct recording of the dose. The different items presented in this paper should allow routine implementation of the required elements described in the law 2003-270, i.e the French translation of European Directive 97-43. (author)

  7. [Place of the radiation safety officer in the implementation of the ALARA principle through European directive 97-43 items].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozziconacci, J G; Ayivi, J; Loat, A; Ifergan, J; Mourbrun, M; Drevet, B

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the role of the radiation safety officer in raising the awareness of the radiology staff to the ALARA (As low as reasonable achievable) principle specified in European directive 97-43. The actions taken and the techniques used in our hospital, as well as the potential improvements that could be achieved with extra funding, will be presented. The didactic value of flow charts recording technical factors and fluoroscopy times for quality improvement will be demonstrated. In the future, a dosimeter incorporated on the new equipment could allow direct recording of the dose. The different items presented in this paper should allow routine implementation of the required elements described in the law 2003-270, i.e the French translation of European Directive 97-43. PMID:16114200

  8. Technical Reviews on Design of Experiment in Process Analytical Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Design of experiment (DOE)' provides the information on the relationship between the different factors affecting a experiment and the output of that experiment in a very efficient and accurate way. DOE also can provides the basis for the standard operation procedure of the process, and the selection criteria for raw materials, instruments, and measurement methods by understanding the underlying important variables and by determining the optimum conditions. Since 1970s, DOE has been considered as one of the quality management tools in so-called '6-Sigma', which is adopted actively in many major companies in Korea for the improvement of the all sorts of qualities throughout management, marketing, office, research and development. Process analytical technology (PAT) is a new concept in the field of process analytics proposed by US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) in Oct. 2002. US FDA encouraged the pharmaceutical industries to implement PAT in the pharmaceutical industry through 'GMPs for the 21st Centry' and the guidance 'PAT - A Framework for Innovative Pharmaceutical Manufacture and Quality Assurance'. PAT has drawn much attention from pharmaceutical industries in response to the US FDA's PAT initiative

  9. Project Icarus: A Review of Interstellar Starship Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obousy, R. K.

    Interstellar missions have been proposed as a priority for research into (1) the interstellar medium and any number of astrophysical studies which could be performed en-route, (2) astrophysical studies of a target star, or stars, if a multiple system is selected, (3) planetary science studies of any planets in the target system, including moons and large asteroids, and (4) astrobiological and exobiological studies of any habitable planets which may be found in a target system.The primary challenges associated with any interstellar mission relate to the distances involved, and missions conducted on timescales of a human lifetime are not possible using conventional chemical propulsion. Numerous unique solutions have been proposed including; beamed energy propulsion, fission/fusion propulsion, antimatter propulsion, and more exotic ideas like wormholes and warp drives. In this talk a broad overview of the state-of-the-art in starship design is presented. In addition a discussion the merits and limitations of these proposals is included. Finally an examination of the technological maturity of these concepts and the possibility of their realization within a century is presented.

  10. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California

  11. DSRS guidelines. Reference document for the IAEA Design Safety Review Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication covers the general topic of design safety review of a nuclear power plant. It is intended to make Member States aware of the possibility of a service through which they can have a better appreciation of the overall design of a facility or of a plant already in operation. It includes a generic and procedural part followed by a technical part corresponding to different systems of a nuclear power plant. It is intended to be used mainly in preparation and execution of a design review service by the IAEA and to provide information to potential recipients of the service regarding the effort involved and the topics that can be covered. it is expected to be useful if Member States decide to conduct such reviews themselves either through regulatory authorities or as part of self assessment activities by plant management

  12. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum L. Mine safety code review for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial review of New Mexico and Federal mining standards and regulations has been made to determine their applicability to the WIPP conceptual design. These standards and regulations are reviewed point by point and the enclosed listing includes comments and recommendations for those which will affect the design and/or eventual operations of WIPP. The majority of the standards, both federal and state, are standard safe mining practices. Those standards are listed which are thought should be emphasized for development of the design; also those that would increase the hazard risk by strict compliance. Because the WIPP facility is different in many respects from mines for which the regulations were intended, strict compliance in some respects would provide an increased hazard, while in other instances the regulations are less strict than is desirable. These are noted in the attached review

  13. SRNL Review And Assessment Of WTP UFP-02 Sparger Design And Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During aerosol testing conducted by Parsons Constructors and Fabricators, Inc. (PCFI), air sparger plugging was observed in small-scale and medium-scale testing. Because of this observation, personnel identified a concern that the steam spargers in Pretreatment Facility vessel UFP-02 could plug during Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) operation. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide consultation on the evaluation of known WTP bubbler, and air and steam sparger issues. The authors used the following approach for this task: reviewed previous test reports (including smallscale testing, medium-scale testing, and Pretreatment Engineering Platform [PEP] testing), met with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) personnel to discuss sparger design, reviewed BNI documents supporting the sparger design, discussed sparger experience with Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Sellafield personnel, talked to sparger manufacturers about relevant operating experience and design issues, and reviewed UFP-02 vessel and sparger drawings

  14. SRNL Review And Assessment Of WTP UFP-02 Sparger Design And Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R.; Duignan, M. R.; Fink, S. D.; Steimke, J. L.

    2014-03-24

    During aerosol testing conducted by Parsons Constructors and Fabricators, Inc. (PCFI), air sparger plugging was observed in small-scale and medium-scale testing. Because of this observation, personnel identified a concern that the steam spargers in Pretreatment Facility vessel UFP-02 could plug during Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) operation. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide consultation on the evaluation of known WTP bubbler, and air and steam sparger issues. The authors used the following approach for this task: reviewed previous test reports (including smallscale testing, medium-scale testing, and Pretreatment Engineering Platform [PEP] testing), met with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) personnel to discuss sparger design, reviewed BNI documents supporting the sparger design, discussed sparger experience with Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Sellafield personnel, talked to sparger manufacturers about relevant operating experience and design issues, and reviewed UFP-02 vessel and sparger drawings.

  15. Agile attitude:Review of agile methods for use in design education

    OpenAIRE

    Ovesen, Nis; Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the growing number of hybrid products with extensive software and service components, this paper reviews four representative agile methods from the domain of software for their applicability to both the industrial design education and practice. The review is based on a comparative analysis of the methods through four scopes, including their application spectrum, level of guidance, process coverage and project management capabilities. Based on the analysis, it is argued that agile...

  16. 76 FR 17160 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs... Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs... Nuclear Power Plants,'' March 2007, Standard Review Plan (SRP), Section 8.3.1 and Sections 9.5.4 through...

  17. One plant, three regulators. A case history of the impact of regulatory review on EPRTM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA's EPRTM1- reactor has been the subject of thorough reviews by nuclear regulators in several countries. This paper describes how the EPRTM design was subject to regulatory reviews in France, Finland, and the United States during both pre-application interactions and during the licensing or certification reviews of specific plants. Early interaction with French and German nuclear regulators began in 1989, continued through the 1993 'Common safety approach for future PWRs,' and the 2000 'Technical Guidelines for the Design and Construction of the New Generation of PWRs'. The regulatory interactions of the 1990's thus affected key features of the EPRTM plant as it has been offered in Finland, France, and the United States, among other countries. Since 2000, each of the three countries has exercised a process for early interaction between the regulator and the designer of a new plant. After early interaction, formal regulatory reviews proceeded with specific reviews for units at Olkiluoto and Flamanville as well as part of U.S. Design Certification. In some cases, the EPRTM design has been updated to comply with specific local requirements which were not requested by the French and German regulators. Since those early interactions, formal permissions to construct have been granted in France and Finland. Looking back, it will be apparent that the regulatory process of new-plant design review has caused both advancement and, to at least some degree, divergence. Standardization is of key importance for safe and economic development of nuclear power plants worldwide, benefiting all stakeholders. AREVA is determined to foster this approach. (author)

  18. Review of design approaches of advanced pressurized LWRs. Report of a technical committee meeting and workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop was devoted to review and discuss differences and commonalties in the various design approaches with the aim of increasing the understanding of the design decisions taken, and a number of general conclusions were drawn. Though many differences in design approaches were found in the presentations, a number of common features could also be identified. These included design approaches to achieve further improvements with respect to safety, design simplification, reduction in cost, incorporation of feedback from operating experience, and control room improvements regarding human factors and digitization. Design approaches to achieve further improvements in safety included consideration of severe accidents in the design process, increased thermal margins and water inventories, longer grace periods and double containments. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Yucca Mountain Project: ESF Title I design control process review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) Title 1 Design Control Process Review was initiated in response to direction from the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) (letter: Kale to Gertz, NRC Concerns on Title 1 Design Control Process, November 17, 1988). The direction was to identify the existing documentation that described ''hor-ellipsis the design control process and the quality assurance that governed hor-ellipsis'' (a) the development of the requirements documents for the ESF design, (b) the various interfaces between activities, (c) analyses and definitions leading to additional requirements in the System Design Requirements Documents and, (d) completion of Title 1 Design. This report provides historical information for general use in determining the extent of the quality assurance program in existence during the ESF Title 1 Design

  20. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 1, Presentation and design description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first volume of the five volume set begins with a CPDR overview and then details the PF magnet system, manufacturing R ampersand D, Westinghouse R ampersand D, the central solenoid, the PF 5 ring coil, the PF 6/7 ring coil, quality assurance, and the system design description

  1. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 1, Presentation and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, D.; Naumovich, [Everson Electric Co., Bekthlehem, PA (United States); Walstrom, P.; Clarkson, I.; Schultheiss, J.; Burger, A. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States)

    1995-09-22

    This first volume of the five volume set begins with a CPDR overview and then details the PF magnet system, manufacturing R&D, Westinghouse R&D, the central solenoid, the PF 5 ring coil, the PF 6/7 ring coil, quality assurance, and the system design description.

  2. Shape-changing interfaces: a review of the design space and open research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken K.; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these...

  3. The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Rob B. M.; Wever, Kimberley E; Avey, Marc T.; Stephens, Martin L.; Sena, Emily S.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews o...

  4. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Le-Anh, Tuan; Koster, René

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict resolution. We discuss and classify important models and results from key publications in literature on automated guided vehicle systems, including often-neglected areas, such as idle-vehicle positionin...

  5. (Cost)effectiveness of life review for Older Adults: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Onrust Simone; Melenhorst Anne-Sophie; Pot Anne; Bohlmeijer Ernst T

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design This manuscript describes the design of a study evaluating 'Looking for Meaning', a newly developed prevention course for older adults with depressive symptoms, based on life-review. Both clinical and economic effectiveness are evaluat...

  6. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Suhaily,; Mohammad Jawaid; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil,; A. Rahman Mohamed; , F. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and te...

  7. AECL review of CANDU 6 design in light of the Ontario Hydro nuclear IIPA technical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 1997, Ontario Hydro (OH) conducted an Independent, Integrated Performance Assessment (IIPA) to address long-standing management, process and equipment issues within the Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) organization and its multi-unit CANDU stations. This review included six Safety System Functional Inspections (SSFIs) on: Bruce A Emergency Coolant Injection System; Bruce B Service Water Systems; Darlington Compressed Air Systems; Pickering Electrical Distribution Systems; Fire Protection (Programmatic); In-Service Environmental Qualification Program (Programmatic). Overall, the OHN inspections found that 'the design of the CANDU plant is robust and plant hardware (including equipment and materials), for the most part, is adequately reliable.' However, the SSFIs also identified a number of deficiencies in the areas of management, control of design/engineering, operations, training, maintenance, testing and quality assurance. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has undertaken an in-depth review of all design-related issues to assess their applicability and impact on the current CANDU 6 design. The AECL review has determined that equipment/design and programmatic deficiencies identified at the OLIN plants have been addressed in the current CANDU 6 design through an effective design feedback process and the application of modem codes and standards that were not in place during the design of the early OHN stations. Many of the design-related SSFI findings can be attributed to inadequate configuration management and the impact of unauthorized design modifications. Problems in these areas can arise at any nuclear station and prevention requires adherence to quality engineering procedures and documentation processes. (author)

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of User Perception and Behavioral Intention for Different Review Types: Customers and Designers Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Atika Qazi; Ram Gopal Raj; Muhammad Tahir; Mahwish Waheed; Saif Ur Rehman Khan; Ajith Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users’ perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N=400) and designers (N=106), curr...

  9. Universal Design for Instruction in Postsecondary Education: A Systematic Review of Empirically Based Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kelly D.; Park, Hye Jin; Brown, Steven; Cook, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) in postsecondary education is a relatively new concept/framework that has generated significant support. The purpose of this literature review was to examine existing empirical research, including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods, on the use of UDI (and related terms) in postsecondary education.…

  10. Design and operation of nitrifying trickling filters in recirculating aquaculture: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2006-01-01

    This review deals with the main mechanisms and parameters affecting design and performance of trickling filters in aquaculture. Relationships between nitrification rates and easily accessible process parameters, like bulk phase concentration of TAN, O2, organic matter (COD), nitrite, temperature, HC

  11. Design and realization of the review station of 60Co train inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author illustrates design and realization of the review station software of 60Co train inspection system (TCT-SCAN). The software have two remarkable functions: processing images of carriages and accessing information of inspection, which are provided by two processes respectively. The communication between processes is realized by memory-mapped file

  12. Digital Games, Design, and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas B.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Killingsworth, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed research on digital games and learning for K-16 students. We synthesized comparisons of game versus nongame conditions (i.e., media comparisons) and comparisons of augmented games versus standard game designs (i.e., value-added comparisons). We used random-effects meta-regression models with robust…

  13. An Extensive Review on Generator Excitation System Modeling, Design, and Parameter Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Wilensky, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it is attempted to review different aspects of power generator's excitation system modeling and design. It starts with the introduction of the excitation system. Then, the new proposed methods will be discussed. Afterward, the new aspects of the controllers' components will be discussed. At the end, the system identification methods necessary for determining the controllers' parameters are discussed.

  14. Innovative Peer Review Model for Rural Physicians: System Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Josie R.; Mechler, Kathy; Akins, Ralitsa B.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The peer review process in small rural hospitals is complicated by limited numbers of physicians, conflict of interest, issues related to appropriate utilization of new technology, possibility for conflicting recommendations, and need for external expertise. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to design, test, and implement a virtual…

  15. The System 80+ Standard Plant design control document. Volume 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Design Control Document (DCD) is a repository of information comprising the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design. The DCD also provides that design-related information to be incorporated by reference in the design certification rule for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. Applicants for a combined license pursuant to 10 CFR 52 must ensure that the final Design Certification Rule and the associated Statements of Consideration are used when making all licensing decisions relevant to the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The Design Control Document contains the DCD introduction, The Certified Design Material (CDM) [i.e., ''Tier 1''] and the Approved Design Material (ADM) [i.e., ''Tier 2''] for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design. The CDM includes the following sections: (1) Introductory material; (2) Certified Design Material for System 80+ systems and structures; (3) Certified Design Material for non-system-based aspects of the System 80+ Certified design; (4) Interface requirements; and (5) Site parameters. The ADM, to the extent applicable for the System 80+ Standard Plant Design, includes: (1) the information required for the final safety analysis report under 20 CFR 50.34; (2) other relevant information required by 10 CFR 52.47; and (3) emergency operations guidelines. This volume contains all five parts of section 12 (Radiation Protection) of the ADM Design and Analysis. Topics covered are: ALARA exposures; radiation sources; radiation protection; dose assessment; and health physics program. All six parts and appendices A and B for section 13 (Conduct of Operations) of the ADM Design and Analysis are also contained in this volume. Topics covered are: organizational structure; training program; emergency planning; review and audit; plant procedures; industrial security; sabotage protection (App 13A); and vital equipment list (App 13B)

  16. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  17. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  18. Decommissioning Lines-of-Inquiry for Design Review of New Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent review of the design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) at Savannah River included a requirement to address the ability to decommission the facility. This paper addresses the lines of inquiry (that were developed for the review and their use in future for reviews of other projects, referred to herein as 'DDLOI'. Decommissioning activities for almost any type of facility are well within the technological state-of-the-art. The major impacts for complications resulting from insufficient consideration during design of a new facility that involves radioactive processes and/or material is the cost of: a) gaining access to high radiation areas and b) dealing with high levels of contamination. For this reason, the DDLOI were developed as a way of raising the awareness of designers and design reviewers to design features that can impede or facilitate ultimate decommissioning. The intent is that this report can be used not only for review, but also by engineers in the early stages of design development when requirements are being assembled. The focus for the DDLOI is on types of facilities that contain nuclear and/or radioactive processes and materials. The level of detail is more specific than would be found in decommissioning plans prepared for regulatory purposes. In commencing this review, the author's could find no precedent for a systematic review of design for decommissioning that included results of a review. Therefore, it was decided to create a report that would provide detailed lines of inquiry along with the rationale for each. The resulting DDLOI report included 21 topical areas for design review. The DDLOI combined the authors' experience in developing baselines for facilities to be deactivated or demolished with prior publications by the U.S. Army and the International Atomic Energy Agency. These two references were found via an Internet search and were the only ones judged to be useful at a field application level. Most others

  19. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  20. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  1. A review of seismicity, siting and design criteria in Canada and Pacific Basin countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a brief review of the earthquake history of the Pacific Basin region. Three different types of plate boundary fault system occurs at different parts of the Pacific Rim. This accounts for the relative levels of seismicity in the Pacific Rim countries. Canada, Western USA, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia and New Zealand are relatively active areas, while Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Australia are less active. A brief review of the trends in development of seismic design criteria for 'critical facilities' in Canada is given. This indicates an effort to provide consistent levels of seismic design for a full range of facilities in addition to nuclear power plants. The rigorous methods developed for nuclear power plants may be of benefit in the development of design codes for other facilities

  2. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnacetrays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented

  3. Biomarker-Guided Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranta Antoniou

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine is a growing area of research which aims to tailor the treatment given to a patient according to one or more personal characteristics. These characteristics can be demographic such as age or gender, or biological such as a genetic or other biomarker. Prior to utilizing a patient's biomarker information in clinical practice, robust testing in terms of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility is necessary. A number of clinical trial designs have been proposed for testing a biomarker's clinical utility, including Phase II and Phase III clinical trials which aim to test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment; these designs can be broadly classified into adaptive and non-adaptive. While adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on accumulating information during a trial, non-adaptive designs are typically simpler but less flexible.We have undertaken a comprehensive review of biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs proposed in the past decade. We have identified eight distinct biomarker-guided adaptive designs and nine variations from 107 studies. Substantial variability has been observed in terms of how trial designs are described and particularly in the terminology used by different authors. We have graphically displayed the current biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs and summarised the characteristics of each design.Our in-depth overview provides future researchers with clarity in definition, methodology and terminology for biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs.

  4. Optimizing Mass Spectrometry Analyses: A Tailored Review on the Utility of Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Elizabeth S.; Oberg, Ann L.; Muddiman, David C.

    2016-05-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a tool that can analyze nearly all classes of molecules, with its scope rapidly expanding in the areas of post-translational modifications, MS instrumentation, and many others. Yet integration of novel analyte preparatory and purification methods with existing or novel mass spectrometers can introduce new challenges for MS sensitivity. The mechanisms that govern detection by MS are particularly complex and interdependent, including ionization efficiency, ion suppression, and transmission. Performance of both off-line and MS methods can be optimized separately or, when appropriate, simultaneously through statistical designs, broadly referred to as "design of experiments" (DOE). The following review provides a tutorial-like guide into the selection of DOE for MS experiments, the practices for modeling and optimization of response variables, and the available software tools that support DOE implementation in any laboratory. This review comes 3 years after the latest DOE review (Hibbert DB, 2012), which provided a comprehensive overview on the types of designs available and their statistical construction. Since that time, new classes of DOE, such as the definitive screening design, have emerged and new calls have been made for mass spectrometrists to adopt the practice. Rather than exhaustively cover all possible designs, we have highlighted the three most practical DOE classes available to mass spectrometrists. This review further differentiates itself by providing expert recommendations for experimental setup and defining DOE entirely in the context of three case-studies that highlight the utility of different designs to achieve different goals. A step-by-step tutorial is also provided.

  5. Review of the design status of the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heat Pipe Space Nuclear Reactor (HPSNR) System is one of the advanced designs for space nuclear power applications presently being considered. However, a number of design features will continue to require substantial technology and development before considering the system for deployment. This paper reviews the design status of the HPSNR system, as of October 1982, discusses the limitations of the current design and emphasizes those technical areas requiring additional research needed to support continual system development. The topics and design limitations discussed are common to most space nuclear power systems that are currently being developed under the SP-100 program to produce 100 kWe of continuous power in a space environment

  6. ONWI (Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation) 30% design review findings report for Exploratory Shaft Facility, Deaf Smith site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-08

    This document describes a review of the standards for the design of the high-level radioactive waste facility at the Deaf Smith, Texas site. It includes public comments and the official responses to the designs produced to date. (TEM)

  7. ONWI [Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation] 30% design review findings report for Exploratory Shaft Facility, Deaf Smith site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes a review of the standards for the design of the high-level radioactive waste facility at the Deaf Smith, Texas site. It includes public comments and the official responses to the designs produced to date

  8. Engineered design features in the HI-STAR/HI-STORM systems to maximize ALARA, safety, and community acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessing, Christian [Holtec International, New Jersey (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Heltec International is a U.S. corporation headquartered in New Jersey, dedicated to providing capital goods and technical services to the power industry. Over 75 percent of the company's product output is destined for nuclear power plants. Holter counts among its active clients a majority of the nuclear plants in the United States, as well as Korea, Taiwan, Mexico, and Brazil. The company also has a growing market presence in Japan and the European Union. Leading U.S. nuclear plant owners, such as Entergy, Exelon, FPL, Southern Nuclear, PG and E and TVA have a long-term and continuous business relationship with Holtec International. This article deals with Holtec dry storage system description, the multi-purpose canister, hi-star 100 overpack, hi-storm 100 overpack and unique advantages of holtec's dry storage technology.

  9. Engineered design features in the HI-STAR/HI-STORM systems to maximize ALARA, safety, and community acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heltec International is a U.S. corporation headquartered in New Jersey, dedicated to providing capital goods and technical services to the power industry. Over 75 percent of the company's product output is destined for nuclear power plants. Holter counts among its active clients a majority of the nuclear plants in the United States, as well as Korea, Taiwan, Mexico, and Brazil. The company also has a growing market presence in Japan and the European Union. Leading U.S. nuclear plant owners, such as Entergy, Exelon, FPL, Southern Nuclear, PG and E and TVA have a long-term and continuous business relationship with Holtec International. This article deals with Holtec dry storage system description, the multi-purpose canister, hi-star 100 overpack, hi-storm 100 overpack and unique advantages of holtec's dry storage technology

  10. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  11. Design review report: 200 East upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314's 200 East (200E) Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314 is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farm waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project's work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first design package (AN Valve Pit Upgrades) was completed in November 1997, and the associated design verification activities are documented in HNF-1893. The second design package, 200 East (200E) Upgrades, was completed in March 1998. This design package identifies modifications to existing valve pits 241-AX-B and 241-A-B, as well as several new waste transfer pipelines to be constructed within the A Farm Complex of the 200E Area. The scope of the valve pit modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.5204 - Review and approval of a designated contractor's personal property management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review and approval of a... property management system. (a) An initial review of a designated contractor's personal property management... needs, and good business practices. If circumstances preclude completion of the initial review...

  13. A review on the mechanical design elements of ankle rehabilitation robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Yusuf M; Gouwanda, Darwin; Parasuraman, Subramanian

    2015-06-01

    Ankle rehabilitation robots are developed to enhance ankle strength, flexibility and proprioception after injury and to promote motor learning and ankle plasticity in patients with drop foot. This article reviews the design elements that have been incorporated into the existing robots, for example, backdrivability, safety measures and type of actuation. It also discusses numerous challenges faced by engineers in designing this robot, including robot stability and its dynamic characteristics, universal evaluation criteria to assess end-user comfort, safety and training performance and the scientific basis on the optimal rehabilitation strategies to improve ankle condition. This article can serve as a reference to design robot with better stability and dynamic characteristics and good safety measures against internal and external events. It can also serve as a guideline for the engineers to report their designs and findings. PMID:25979442

  14. A review of creep analysis and design under multi-axial stress states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of multi-axial states of stress cannot be avoided in elevated temperature components. It is essential to understand the associated failure mechanisms and to predict the lifetime in practice. Although metal creep has been studied for about 100 years, many problems are still unsolved, in particular for those involving multi-axial stresses. In this work, a state-of-the-art review of creep analysis and engineering design is carried out, with particular emphasis on the effect of multi-axial stresses. The existing theories and creep design approaches are grouped into three categories, i.e., the classical plastic theory (CPT) based approach, the cavity growth mechanism (CGM) based approach and the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based approach. Following above arrangements, the constitutive equations and design criteria are addressed. In the end, challenges on the precise description of the multi-axial creep behavior and then improving the strength criteria in engineering design are presented

  15. Biomaterial based modulation of macrophage polarization: a review and suggested design principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmani Sridharan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages have long been known for their phagocytic capabilities and immune defence; however, their role in healing is being increasingly recognized in recent years due to their ability to polarize into pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Historically, biomaterials were designed to be inert to minimize the host response. More recently, the emergence of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has led to the design of biomaterials that interact with the host through tailored mechanical, chemical and temporal characteristics. Due to such advances in biomaterial functionality and an improved understanding of macrophage responses to implanted materials, it is now possible to identify biomaterial design characteristics that dictate the host response and contribute to successful tissue integration. Herein, we begin by briefly reviewing macrophage cell origin and the key cytokine/chemokine markers of macrophage polarization and then describe which responses are favorable for both replacement and regenerative biomaterials. The body of the review focuses on macrophage polarization in response to inherent cues directly provided by biomaterials and the consequent cues that result from events related to biomaterial implantation. To conclude, a section on potential design principles for both replacement and regenerative biomaterials is presented. An in depth understanding of biomaterial cues to selectively polarize macrophages may prove beneficial in the design of a new generation of ‘immuno-informed’ biomaterials that can positively interact with the immune system to dictate a favorable macrophage response following implantation.

  16. A Review and study of the design technique of Microstrip Patch Antenna Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar shukla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,study and survey of microstrip antenna elements is presented, with emphasis on theoretical and practical design techniques and material used, as previous study have been proved that material used play significant role in the performance such as gain ,directivity ,frequency of radiation Available substrate materials are reviewed along with the relation between dielectric constant tolerance and resonant frequency of microstrip patches. Several theoretical analysis techniques are summarized. Practical procedures are given for both standard rectangular and circular patches. The quality, bandwidth, and efficiency factors of typical patch designs are discussed.

  17. Performance of Different Experimental Absorber Designs in Absorption Heat Pump Cycle Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ibarra-Bahena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The absorber is a major component of absorption cycle systems, and its performance directly impacts the overall size and energy supplies of these devices. Absorption cooling and heating cycles have different absorber design requirements: in absorption cooling systems, the absorber works close to ambient temperature, therefore, the mass transfer is the most important phenomenon in order to reduce the generator size; on the other hand, in heat transformer absorption systems, is important to recover the heat delivered by exothermic reactions produced in the absorber. In this paper a review of the main experimental results of different absorber designs reported in absorption heat pump cycles is presented.

  18. Book Review: Designing the Modern Interior. From the Victorians to Today by Penny Sparke et al

    OpenAIRE

    Gieben-Gamal, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Title of article: Book Review: Designing the Modern Interior. From the Victorians to Today by Penny Sparke et al' Author: E. Gieben-GamalTitle of Journal: West 86th: A Journal of Decorative Arts, Design History and Material CultureDate of Publication: (2011) v.18, n. 1,Publisher: Bard Graduate Center (BGC) with the University of Chicago Press.URL or DOI (if available): http://www.west86th.bgc.bard.edu/west86th-print-issue/index.html

  19. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit report: Byron Generating Station, Commonwealth Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Byron Unit 1 control room was performed at the site on November 17 through November 19, 1981. This review was accomplished using the Unit 2 control room appropriately mocked-up to reflect design changes already committed to be incorporated in Unit 1. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's audit of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from BioTechnology, Inc. (Falls Church, Virginia), and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California

  20. ERG review of containment failure probability and repository functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The June 1984 meeting of the ERG considered two topics: (1) statistical probability for containment of nuclides within the waste package and (2) repository design criteria. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these two subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by ERG

  1. A selective review of knowledge-based approaches to database design

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrul Azman Noah; Michael Lloyd-Williams

    1995-01-01

    The inclusion of real world knowledge or specialised knowledge has not been addressed by the majority of the systems reviewed. ODA has real world knowledge provided by using a thesaurus-type structure to represent generic models. Only NITDT includes the specialised knowledge in its knowledge base. NITDT classified its knowledge into application specific, domain specific and general knowledge. However the literature does not discuss in detail how this knowledge is applied during the design ses...

  2. Design of electrolyte solutions for Li and Li-ion batteries: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews approaches to the design of advanced electrolyte solutions for Li and Li-ion batteries. Important challenges are wide electrochemical windows, a wide temperature range of operation, acceptable safety features, and most important, appropriate surface reactions on the electrodes that induce efficient passivation, but not on the account of low impedance. We describe research tools, quick tests, and discuss some selected examples and strategies for R and D of solutions of improved performance

  3. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy A. Steeves; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R.; Eugene C. Fitzhugh; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior mo...

  4. Review of the Socket Design and Interface Pressure Measurement for Transtibial Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Pirouzi; Abu Osman, N. A.; Eshraghi, A.; Ali, S; H. Gholizadeh; W.A.B. Wan Abas

    2014-01-01

    Socket is an important part of every prosthetic limb as an interface between the residual limb and prosthetic components. Biomechanics of socket-residual limb interface, especially the pressure and force distribution, have effect on patient satisfaction and function. This paper aimed to review and evaluate studies conducted in the last decades on the design of socket, in-socket interface pressure measurement, and socket biomechanics. Literature was searched to find related keywords with trans...

  5. Design management aspects in Brazilian dissertations and theses: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Souza Libanio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the design management theme had being developed worldwide, especially in research centers in countries like France, Portugal, USA and Italy. In Brazil, although educational institutions who excel in research on Design Management, the scenario is still unclear. This work aims at a systematic review of academic literature on the subject of design management, mapping the intellectual production developed in the last twenty years in the post graduate programs, in Brazil, addressing completely or partly the Design Management subject. The research was conducted on the world wide web, using search engine database of theses and dissertations, search engines and websites of Brazilian university libraries, using the keywords ‘design management’, ‘strategic design’, ‘designer’ and ‘design manager’. The results show the state of the art and the evolution of research on the subject in question, as well as an overview about the current stage in which the research center and studies on design management take place in Brazil.

  6. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  7. Topological design and additive manufacturing of porous metals for bone scaffolds and orthopaedic implants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojian; Xu, Shanqing; Zhou, Shiwei; Xu, Wei; Leary, Martin; Choong, Peter; Qian, M; Brandt, Milan; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-03-01

    One of the critical issues in orthopaedic regenerative medicine is the design of bone scaffolds and implants that replicate the biomechanical properties of the host bones. Porous metals have found themselves to be suitable candidates for repairing or replacing the damaged bones since their stiffness and porosity can be adjusted on demands. Another advantage of porous metals lies in their open space for the in-growth of bone tissue, hence accelerating the osseointegration process. The fabrication of porous metals has been extensively explored over decades, however only limited controls over the internal architecture can be achieved by the conventional processes. Recent advances in additive manufacturing have provided unprecedented opportunities for producing complex structures to meet the increasing demands for implants with customized mechanical performance. At the same time, topology optimization techniques have been developed to enable the internal architecture of porous metals to be designed to achieve specified mechanical properties at will. Thus implants designed via the topology optimization approach and produced by additive manufacturing are of great interest. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of topological design and manufacturing processes of various types of porous metals, in particular for titanium alloys, biodegradable metals and shape memory alloys. This review also identifies the limitations of current techniques and addresses the directions for future investigations. PMID:26773669

  8. A selective review of knowledge-based approaches to database design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Azman Noah

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of real world knowledge or specialised knowledge has not been addressed by the majority of the systems reviewed. ODA has real world knowledge provided by using a thesaurus-type structure to represent generic models. Only NITDT includes the specialised knowledge in its knowledge base. NITDT classified its knowledge into application specific, domain specific and general knowledge. However the literature does not discuss in detail how this knowledge is applied during the design session. One of the key factors that distinguish computer-based expert systems from human experts is that the latter apply not only their specialised expertise to a problem but also their general knowledge of the world. NITDT is the only system reviewed here that holds any form of internal domain specific knowledge, which can be easily augmented, enriched and updated, as required. This knowledge allows the designer to be an active participant along with the user in the design process and significantly eases the user task. The inclusion of real world knowledge and specialised knowledge is an area that must be further addressed before intelligent tools are able to offer a realistic level of assistance to the human designers.

  9. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  10. Review of current status for designing severe accident management support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub

    2000-05-01

    The development of operator support system (OSS) is ongoing in many other countries due to the complexity both in design and in operation for nuclear power plant. The computerized operator support system includes monitoring of some critical parameters, early detection of plant transient, monitoring of component status, plant maintenance, and safety parameter display, and the operator support system for these areas are developed and are being used in some plants. Up to now, the most operator support system covers the normal operation, abnormal operation, and emergency operation. Recently, however, the operator support system for severe accident is to be developed in some countries. The study for the phenomena of severe accident is not performed sufficiently, but, based on the result up to now, the operator support system even for severe accident will be developed in this study. To do this, at first, the current status of the operator support system for normal/abnormal/emergency operation is reviewed, and the positive aspects and negative aspects of systems are analyzed by their characteristics. And also, the major items that should be considered in designing the severe accident operator support system are derived from the review. With the survey of domestic and foreign operator support systems, they are reviewed in terms of the safety parameter display system, decision-making support system, and procedure-tracking system. For the severe accident, the severe accident management guideline (SAMG) which is developed by Westinghouse is reviewed; the characteristics, structure, and logical flow of SAMG are studied. In addition, the critical parameters for severe accident, which are the basis for operators decision-making in severe accident management and are supplied to the operators and the technical support center, are reviewed, too.

  11. Safety Review models on radioactive source term design for PWR waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The source of all liquid, gaseous and solid radioactive waste in the pressure water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) originate from leakage of fission products out of the fuel rods into the primary coolant and neutron activation of materials within and around the primary coolant system and reactor vessel. The source term design used to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the reactor coolant, which could be: (1) A conservative source term which predicts the maximum concentration of nuclides in the Reactor Coolant System establishes the design basis of the various onsite processing systems for the purpose of defining system capacity and shielding requirements and (2) A realistic source term for the purpose of evaluating the reasonably expected inventories and releases of radionuclides under normal operating condition, including anticipated operational occurrences. This paper will discuss the safety review models on source term design for the PWR waste system mainly on the basis of the conception of the conservative source term. (author)

  12. A review on soil cover in Waste and contaminant containment: design, monitoring, and modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng PENG; Huilian JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Soil cover is a widely-used but relatively new method for solid waste containment. Standard while site-specific procedures for cover design, monitoring, and evluation are needed to insure reliable cover performance. This paper presents a review of soil cover types, design principles and procedures, cover monitoring, and long-term performance modeling. Cover types and cover design are introduced with the general concepts and discussed on their specific applicabilities in different circumstances. Detailed discussion is given on unsaturated flow system properties and their field measurements, including meth-ods, apparatuses/equipments and their advantages and disadvantages. Several unsaturated flow simulators are discussed and compared with regards to their simulation capacities for critical parameters closely related to soil cover performance such as runoff, infiltration and evaporation. Finally, research subjects are suggested for future work for better soil cover monitoring and modeling.

  13. Book Review. Inger Marie Lid: Universal design. Core values​​, knowledge, and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Asmervik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sigmund Asmervik, dr.ing. Professor emeritus, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB, has reviewed Inger Marie Lid’s book Universell utforming: Verdigrunnlag, kunnskap og praksis (Universal design: Core values​​, knowledge, and practices. He states that this book provides very good suggestions about topics relating to issues such as how people should be able to develop in the community with others and how to look after issues relating to dignity and bodily vulnerability. This expands and challenges the discourse around the concept of universal design, and is the book's most important contribution. As a textbook aimed at students of architecture and engineering, occupational therapy and physiotherapy studies, and otherwise to anyone who is engaged in universal design in practice, as it says on the publisher's website, it has some significant challenges.

  14. Review of design criteria and safety analysis of safety class electric building for fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. HANARO fuel test loop was designed for CANDU and PWR fuel testing. Safety related system of Fuel Test Loop such as emergency cooling water system, component cooling water system, safety ventilation system, high energy line break mitigation system and remote control room was required 1E class electric supply to meet the safety operation in accordance with related code. Therefore, FTL electric building was designed to construction and install the related equipment based on seismic category I. The objective of this study is to review the design criteria and analysis the safety function of safety class electric building for fuel test loop, and this results will become guidance for the irradiation testing in future. (author). 10 refs., 6 tabs., 30 figs.

  15. Zebrafish housing systems: a review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations. PMID:23382349

  16. A Review on Effectiveness and Adaptability of the Design-Build Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Masataka; Miyatake, Ichiro; Baba, Kazuhito; Yokoi, Hiroyuki; Fueta, Toshiharu

    In the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), various approaches have been taken for efficient implementation of public works projects, one of which is the ongoing use of the design-build method on a trial basis, as a means to utilize the technical skills and knowledge of private companies. In 2005, MLIT further introduced the a dvanced technical proposal type, a kind of the comprehensive evaluation method, as part of its efforts to improve tendering and contracting systems. Meanwhile, although the positive effect of the design build method has been reported, it has not been widely published, which may be one of the reasons that the number of MLIT projects using the design-build method is declining year by year. In this context, this paper discusses the result and review of the study concerning the extent of flexibility allowed for the process and design (proposal) of public work projects, and the follow-up surveys of the actual test case projects, conducted as basic researches to examine the measure to expand and promote the use of the design-build method. The study objects were selected from the tunnel construction projects using the shield tunneling method for developing the common utility duct, and the bridge construction projects ordering construction of supers tructure work and substructure work in a single contract. In providing the result and review of the studies, the structures and the temporary installations were separately examined, and effectiveness and adaptability of the design-build method was discussed for each, respectively.

  17. Designing Patient-facing Health Information Technologies for the Outpatient Settings: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of health information technologies (HITs has changed the dynamics of doctor–patient communication in outpatient settings. Designing patient-facing HITs provides patients with easy access to healthcare information during the visit and has the potential to enhance the patient-centred care.   Objectives: The objectives of this study are to systematically review how the designs of patient-facing HITs have been suggested and evaluated, and how they may potentially affect the doctor–patient communication and patient-centred care.   Method: We conducted an online database search to identify articles published before December 2014 relevant to the objectives of this study. A total of nine papers have been identified and reviewed in this study.   Results: Designing patient-facing HITs is at an early stage. The current literature has been exploring the impact of HITs on doctor–patient communication dynamics. Based on the findings of these studies, there is an emergent need to design more patient-centred HITs. There are also some papers that focus on the usability evaluation of some preliminary prototypes of the patient-facing HITs. The design styles of patient-facing HITs included sharing the health information with the patients on: (1 a separate patient display, (2 a projector, (3 a portable tablet, (4 a touch-based screen and (5 a shared computer display that can be viewed by both doctors and patients. Each of them had the strengths and limitations to facilitate the patient-centred care, and it is worthwhile to make a comparison of them in order to identify future research directions.   Conclusion: The designs of patient-facing HITs in outpatient settings are promising in facilitating the doctor-patient communication and patient engagement. However, their effectiveness and usefulness need to be further evaluated and improved from a systems perspective.

  18. A review of design concepts for the Advanced Fluids Module (AFM) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Myron E.; Tschen, Peter S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews preliminary fluid module design concepts for the Advanced Fluids Module (AFM) project. The objective of this effort is to provide a facility that can handle a wide variety of fluids experiments. Sample science requirements were written and conceptual designs were subsequently generated during the last year. Experiments from the following fluid physics subject areas were used as conceptual design drivers: static and dynamic interfacial phenomena; bubble/droplet thermocapillary migration; surface tension convection and instabilities; thermal/solutal convection; pool boiling; and multiphase flow. After the conceptual designs were completed, the next phase attempted to combine experiments capabilities into a multipurpose, multiuser apparatus configured for the Space Station Freedom. It was found that all the fluid subject areas considered could be accommodated by three basic types of fluids modules. These modules are the Static Fluid Cell Module, the Dynamic Fluid Cell Module, and the Multiphase Flow Module. Descriptions of these preliminary modules designs and their particular sub-systems (e.g., fluid and thermal systems) are discussed. These designs will be refined as the nature of the flight program becomes clearer over the next six to twelve months.

  19. ONWI (Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation) 30% design review findings report for Exploratory Shaft Facility, Deaf Smith site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-08

    Based on the performance of a TMP-05 Design Review with integration into the review, via TMP-22, of comments by SRP contractors other than ONWI, the Design Review Board has developed conclusions and recommendations with respect to the 30% design effort submitted by PB/PB-KBB for interim design review. A number of comments were submitted on the design basis criteria and requirements furnished as guidance to PB/PB-KBB. These comments are forwarded to SRPO for disposition and resolution. Additionally, comments whose resolution by PB/PB-KBB require input from other SRP contractors are included. All comments forwarded to SRPO are compiled and subdivided by appropriate category in Section 11.0 of this Findings Report.

  20. ONWI [Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation] 30% design review findings report for Exploratory Shaft Facility, Deaf Smith site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the performance of a TMP-05 Design Review with integration into the review, via TMP-22, of comments by SRP contractors other than ONWI, the Design Review Board has developed conclusions and recommendations with respect to the 30% design effort submitted by PB/PB-KBB for interim design review. A number of comments were submitted on the design basis criteria and requirements furnished as guidance to PB/PB-KBB. These comments are forwarded to SRPO for disposition and resolution. Additionally, comments whose resolution by PB/PB-KBB require input from other SRP contractors are included. All comments forwarded to SRPO are compiled and subdivided by appropriate category in Section 11.0 of this Findings Report

  1. A user friendly database for use in ALARA job dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressurized water reactor (PWR) design chosen for adoption by Nuclear Electric plc was based on the Westinghouse Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant (SNUPPS). This design was developed to meet the United Kingdom requirements and these improvements are embodied in the Sizewell B plant which will start commercial operation in 1994. A user-friendly database was developed to assist the station in the dose and ALARP assessments of the work expected to be carried out during station operation and outage. The database stores the information in an easily accessible form and enables updating, editing, retrieval, and searches of the information. The database contains job-related information such as job locations, number of workers required, job times, and the expected plant doserates. It also contains the means to flag job requirements such as requirements for temporary shielding, flushing, scaffolding, etc. Typical uses of the database are envisaged to be in the prediction of occupational doses, the identification of high collective and individual dose jobs, use in ALARP assessments, setting of dose targets, monitoring of dose control performance, and others

  2. Planar air-bearing microgravity simulators: Review of applications, existing solutions and design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybus, Tomasz; Seweryn, Karol

    2016-03-01

    All devices designed to be used in space must be thoroughly tested in relevant conditions. For several classes of devices the reduced gravity conditions are the key factor. In early stages of development and later due to financial reasons, the tests need to be done on Earth. However, in Earth conditions it is impossible to obtain a different gravity field independent on all linear and rotational spatial coordinates. Therefore, various test-bed systems are used, with their design driven by the device's specific needs. One of such test-beds are planar air-bearing microgravity simulators. In such an approach, the tested objects (e.g., manipulators intended for on-orbit operations or vehicles simulating satellites in a close formation flight) are mounted on planar air-bearings that allow almost frictionless motion on a flat surface, thus simulating microgravity conditions in two dimensions. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of research activities related to planar air-bearing microgravity simulators, demonstrating achievements of the most active research groups and describing newest trends and ideas, such as tests of landing gears for low-g bodies. Major design parameters of air-bearing test-beds are also reviewed and a list of notable existing test-beds is presented.

  3. Review of the Socket Design and Interface Pressure Measurement for Transtibial Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Pirouzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Socket is an important part of every prosthetic limb as an interface between the residual limb and prosthetic components. Biomechanics of socket-residual limb interface, especially the pressure and force distribution, have effect on patient satisfaction and function. This paper aimed to review and evaluate studies conducted in the last decades on the design of socket, in-socket interface pressure measurement, and socket biomechanics. Literature was searched to find related keywords with transtibial amputation, socket-residual limb interface, socket measurement, socket design, modeling, computational modeling, and suspension system. In accordance with the selection criteria, 19 articles were selected for further analysis. It was revealed that pressure and stress have been studied in the last decaeds, but quantitative evaluations remain inapplicable in clinical settings. This study also illustrates prevailing systems, which may facilitate improvements in socket design for improved quality of life for individuals ambulating with transtibial prosthesis. It is hoped that the review will better facilitate the understanding and determine the clinical relevance of quantitative evaluations.

  4. The Use and Reporting of the Cross-Over Study Design in Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews: A Systematic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Ian; Dwan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of treatment interventions in stable or chronic conditions often require the synthesis of clinical trials with a cross-over design. Previous work has indicated that methodology for analysing cross-over data is inadequate in trial reports and in systematic reviews assessing trials with this design. Objective We assessed systematic review methodology for synthesising cross-over trials among Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group reviews published to July 2015, and assessed the quality of reporting among the cross-over trials included in these reviews. Methodology We performed data extraction of methodology and reporting in reviews, trials identified and trials included within reviews. Principal Findings We reviewed a total of 142 Cochrane systematic reviews including 53 reviews which synthesised evidence from 218 cross-over trials. Thirty-three (63%) Cochrane reviews described a clear and appropriate method for the inclusion of cross-over data, and of these 19 (56%) used the same method to analyse results. 145 cross-over trials were described narratively or treated as parallel trials in reviews but in 30 (21%) of these trials data existed in the trial reports to account for the cross-over design. At the trial level, the analysis and presentation of results were often inappropriate or unclear, with only 69 (32%) trials presenting results that could be included in meta-analysis. Conclusions Despite development of accessible, technical guidance and training for Cochrane systematic reviewers, statistical analysis and reporting of cross-over data is inadequate at both the systematic review and the trial level. Plain language and practical guidance for the inclusion of cross-over data in meta-analysis would benefit systematic reviewers, who come from a wide range of health specialties. Minimum reporting standards for cross-over trials are needed. PMID:27409076

  5. The Use and Reporting of the Cross-Over Study Design in Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews: A Systematic Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Nolan

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of treatment interventions in stable or chronic conditions often require the synthesis of clinical trials with a cross-over design. Previous work has indicated that methodology for analysing cross-over data is inadequate in trial reports and in systematic reviews assessing trials with this design.We assessed systematic review methodology for synthesising cross-over trials among Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group reviews published to July 2015, and assessed the quality of reporting among the cross-over trials included in these reviews.We performed data extraction of methodology and reporting in reviews, trials identified and trials included within reviews.We reviewed a total of 142 Cochrane systematic reviews including 53 reviews which synthesised evidence from 218 cross-over trials. Thirty-three (63% Cochrane reviews described a clear and appropriate method for the inclusion of cross-over data, and of these 19 (56% used the same method to analyse results. 145 cross-over trials were described narratively or treated as parallel trials in reviews but in 30 (21% of these trials data existed in the trial reports to account for the cross-over design. At the trial level, the analysis and presentation of results were often inappropriate or unclear, with only 69 (32% trials presenting results that could be included in meta-analysis.Despite development of accessible, technical guidance and training for Cochrane systematic reviewers, statistical analysis and reporting of cross-over data is inadequate at both the systematic review and the trial level. Plain language and practical guidance for the inclusion of cross-over data in meta-analysis would benefit systematic reviewers, who come from a wide range of health specialties. Minimum reporting standards for cross-over trials are needed.

  6. Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest

  7. Human-system interface design review guideline: The development of draft revision 1 to NUREG-0700

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Brown, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies are being developed in the commercial nuclear power industry. These HSIs may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the ways in which the operator interacts with and supervises an increasingly complex system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of nuclear plants to ensure that operator performance and reliability are supported. The NRC is developing guidance to support its review of these advanced designs. The guidance consists of an evaluation methodology and an extensive set of human factors guidelines which are used in one aspect of the evaluation. The paper describes the guidance development of the evaluation methodology and the guidelines.

  8. Impact of main radiological pollutants on contamination risks (ALARA) optimisation of physico-chemical environment and retention techniques during operation and shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this paper is to precise the behaviour of different radiochemical species in the primary coolant of PWR plants. Managing these pollutants must lead to limit Reactor Coolant System (RCS) walls 'over-contamination' to decrease the dose rates during the maintenance operations (ALARA). In French Plants, 60Co, silver and antimony represent the major radiochemical pollutants which require a good knowledge of the different phenomena to ensure the lowest contamination risks. The stakes deal with the control and the optimisation of collective and individual doses including waste treatment with low costs. These stakes represent primordial elements of nuclear acceptability. (authors)

  9. SPES3 Facility RELAP5 Sensitivity Analyses on the Containment System for Design Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Achilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Italian MSE R&D programme on Nuclear Fission is funding, through ENEA, the design and testing of SPES3 facility at SIET, for IRIS reactor simulation. IRIS is a modular, medium size, advanced, integral PWR, developed by an international consortium of utilities, industries, research centres and universities. SPES3 simulates the primary, secondary and containment systems of IRIS, with 1:100 volume scale, full elevation and prototypical thermal-hydraulic conditions. The RELAP5 code was extensively used in support to the design of the facility to identify criticalities and weak points in the reactor simulation. FER, at Zagreb University, performed the IRIS reactor analyses with the RELAP5 and GOTHIC coupled codes. The comparison between IRIS and SPES3 simulation results led to a simulation-design feedback process with step-by-step modifications of the facility design, up to the final configuration. For this, a series of sensitivity cases was run to investigate specific aspects affecting the trend of the main parameters of the plant, as the containment pressure and EHRS removed power, to limit fuel clad temperature excursions during accidental transients. This paper summarizes the sensitivity analyses on the containment system that allowed to review the SPES3 facility design and confirm its capability to appropriately simulate the IRIS plant.

  10. Designing and Using Videos in Undergraduate Geoscience Education - a workshop and resource website review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, K.; Mcconnell, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Do you use video in your teaching? Do you make your own video? Interested in joining our growing community of geoscience educators designing and using video inside and outside the classroom? Over four months in Spring 2014, 22 educators of varying video design and development expertise participated in an NSF-funded On the Cutting Edge virtual workshop to review the best educational research on video design and use; to share video-development/use strategies and experiences; and to develop a website of resources for a growing community of geoscience educators who use video: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/video/workshop2014/index.html. The site includes links to workshop presentations, teaching activity collections, and a growing collection of online video resources, including "How-To" videos for various video editing or video-making software and hardware options. Additional web resources support several topical themes including: using videos to flip classes, handling ADA access and copyright issues, assessing the effectiveness of videos inside and outside the classroom, best design principles for video learning, and lists and links of the best videos publicly available for use. The workshop represents an initial step in the creation of an informal team of collaborators devoted to the development and support of an ongoing network of geoscience educators designing and using video. Instructors who are interested in joining this effort are encouraged to contact the lead author.

  11. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  12. What Evidence Underlies Clinical Practice in Paediatric Surgery? A Systematic Review Assessing Choice of Study Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Allin

    Full Text Available Identify every paediatric surgical article published in 1998 and every paediatric surgical article published in 2013, and determine which study designs were used and whether they were appropriate for robustly assessing interventions in surgical conditions.A systematic review was conducted according to a pre-specified protocol (CRD42014007629, using EMBASE and Medline. Non-English language studies were excluded. Studies were included if meeting population criteria and either condition or intervention criteria.Children under the age of 18, or adults who underwent intervention for a condition managed by paediatric surgeons when they were under 18 years of age.One managed by general paediatric surgeons.Used for treatment of a condition managed by general paediatric surgeons.Studies were classified according to whether the IDEAL collaboration recommended their design for assessing surgical interventions or not. Change in proportions between 1998 and 2013 was calculated.1581 paediatric surgical articles were published in 1998, and 3453 in 2013. The most commonly used design, accounting for 45% of studies in 1998 and 46.8% in 2013, was the retrospective case series. Only 1.8% of studies were RCTs in 1998, and 1.9% in 2013. Overall, in 1998, 9.8% of studies used a recommended design. In 2013, 11.9% used a recommended design (proportion increase 2.3%, 95% confidence interval 0.5% increase to 4% increase, p = 0.017.A low proportion of published paediatric surgical manuscripts utilise a design that is recommended for assessing surgical interventions. RCTs represent fewer than 1 in 50 studies. In 2013, 88.1% of studies used a less robust design, suggesting the need for a new way of approaching paediatric surgical research.

  13. Physics towards next generation Li secondary batteries materials: A short review from computational materials design perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, ChuYing; Chen, LiQuan

    2013-12-01

    The physics that associated with the performance of lithium secondary batteries (LSB) are reviewed. The key physical problems in LSB include the electronic conduction mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics of lithium ion migration, electrode/ electrolyte surface/interface, structural (phase) and thermodynamics stability of the electrode materials, physics of intercalation and deintercalation. The relationship between the physical/chemical nature of the LSB materials and the batteries performance is summarized and discussed. A general thread of computational materials design for LSB materials is emphasized concerning all the discussed physics problems. In order to fasten the progress of the new materials discovery and design for the next generation LSB, the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) for LSB materials is a promising strategy and the related requirements are highlighted.

  14. Review of the Optimal Design on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuan-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid renewable energy systems, combining various kinds of technologies, have shown relatively high capabilities to solve reliability problems and have reduced cost challenges. The use of hybrid electricity generation/storage technologies is reasonable to overcome related shortcomings. While the hybrid renewable energy system is attractive, its design, specifically the determination of the size of PV, wind, and diesel power generators and the size of energy storage system in each power station, is very challenging. Therefore, this paper will focus on the system planning and operation of hybrid generation systems, and several corresponding topics and papers by using intelligent computing methods will be reviewed. They include typical case studies, modeling and system simulation, control and management, reliability and economic studies, and optimal design on a reliable hybrid generation system.

  15. Methodology for performing the design review of plant shielding and environmental qualification required after TMI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After TMI-2, the NRC issued several documents requiring a design review of plant shielding and environmental qualification for spaces/systems which may be used in post-accident operations. The objective of this requirement was to confirm the shielding provided around systems that may contain highly radioactive materials as a result of an accident, which may unduly limit personnel occupancy or degrade safety equipment by radiation. The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed to obtain the inputs needed for shielding and dose calculations. It has to be pointed out that criteria for determination of vital areas, system flow paths and fluid data were not well defined by the NRC and the events considered were beyond design basis. The paper described (1) the approach adopted, exposing the conservative hypothesis applied to meet the intention of requirements, (2) more significant differences in this job between PWR and BWR, and (3) some complementary applications of the work developed

  16. A REVIEW ON USER INTERFACE DESIGN PRINCIPLES TO INCREASE SOFTWARE USABILITY FOR USERS WITH LESS COMPUTER LITERACY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Darejeh; Dalbir Singh

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review on how software usability could be increased for users with less computer literacy. The literature was reviewed to extract user interface design principles by identifying the similar problems of this group of users. There are different groups of users with less computer literacy. However, based on the literature three groups of them need special attention from software designers. The first group is elderly users, as users with lack of computer background. The se...

  17. Investigating Peer Review as an Intentional Learning Strategy to Foster Collaborative Knowledge-Building in Students of Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Hodges, Charles B.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review has been advocated for as an intentional strategy to support the knowledge and skill attainment of adult learners preparing for professional practice, including those students preparing for instructional design and technology practice. The purposes of this article are to discuss the practical application of peer review as an…

  18. Electrical Impedance Tomography for pulmonary oedema extent monitoring: review and updated design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring pulmonary oedema would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a graphical representation of its size and density to guide therapeutic interventions. Currently the clinician has only indirect estimations because X-ray imaging or computed tomography can not be repeated often. To avoid the transfer of critically ill patients and to have continuous information Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is suggested. Circuit designs for EIT are reviewed, including wave generators, current sources, differential amplifiers, synchronous voltmeters, multiplexers and control modules. Nine designs are studied, the characteristics of five of them are presented (UK 2005, Uruguay 2002, Iran 2006, China 2007 and Switzerland 2012). Three different solutions are compared (components cost range from) and an optimal design is proposed which includes a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) for signal generation, a modified Howland configuration for current source, 16 bits for the analog to digital conversion, and a digital signal processor (DSP) for the synchronous demodulation as well as to process the measurements for the reconstruction algorithm. This allows us to design low cost, gross graphical representations for oedema extent monitoring, with little anatomical accuracy.

  19. Behavioral pharmacology of designer cathinones: a review of the preclinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Ryan A; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-02-27

    "Bath salts" is one street name for a family of synthetic cathinones that display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and commonly abused amphetamines. Despite extensive legislation aimed at the criminalization of bath salts, several designer cathinones are gaining a foothold in the illicit drug scene; for example, in the United Kingdom, mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, MEPH) is highly popular among drug abusers whereas, in the United States, MDPV (methylenedioxypyrovalerone) and methylone are highly prevalent. To date, knowledge about the hazards of designer cathinones is based mostly on hospital reports and anecdotal evidence derived from online surveys. Despite the paucity of preclinical studies directed toward designer cathinones, a number of invaluable findings arising from those studies are enabling scientists to develop their neuropharmacological profiles. Despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce different behavioral effects, including unique effects on locomotor activity, learning, anxiety, thermoregulation, and abuse liability. The present review will discuss the behavioral effects of MEPH, MDPV, and methylone and compare those effects to established psychostimulant drugs. The rise in the use of designer cathinones in the United States and abroad justifies further investigations into these compounds, both for a greater understanding of the danger that "bath salts" pose to the public, and to provide insight into replacement cathinones as they emerge onto the market. PMID:24231450

  20. Development of safety and regulatory requirements for Korean next generation reactor - Development of human factors design review guidelines (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cheon, Se Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model' and '26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and the characteristics of the KNGR design, and reviewing the reference documents of NURGE-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides at KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system design review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we updated the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design that published after 1994. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. (Costeffectiveness of life review for Older Adults: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onrust Simone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design This manuscript describes the design of a study evaluating 'Looking for Meaning', a newly developed prevention course for older adults with depressive symptoms, based on life-review. Both clinical and economic effectiveness are evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The control condition of this 12-session preventive intervention is a 20-minute video movie. The primary outcome is symptoms of depression at post-treatment and follow-up (6 months after post-treatment. Secondary outcomes are symptoms of anxiety, satisfaction with life, mastery, reminiscence styles, quality of life, and health care costs. An additional result of this study is the insight into the working elements of the course, provided by the qualitative study. The qualitative data, mainly based on 20 open-ended interviews with participants, are to be analyzed with an emphasis on newly emerging insight. Discussion This study will add to the existing scientific knowledge in several ways, especially by also including an economic evaluation and a qualitative study to gain insight into the working mechanisms of the course, both rather new in the field of life review. Positive results of this study will make an evidence-based intervention to improve public health among older people available. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials Ltd, ISRCTN66645855

  2. CAD-VR geometry and meta data synchronization for design review applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCHILLING Arne; KIM Seokryul; WEISSMANN Daniel; TANG Ziying; CHOI Sangsu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the MEMPHIS middleware framework for the integration of CAD geometries and assemblies with derived Virtual Reality (VR) models and its specific meta data and attributes. The goal of this work is to connect real time VR applications, especially for the Design Review, with enterprise software storing and managing CAD models (Product Data Management-PDM). The preparation of VR models requires expert knowledge, is time consuming, and includes selection of required CAD data, tessellation, healing of unwanted gaps, applying materials and textures, and special surface and light effects. During the Design Review process, decisions are made concerning the choice of materials and surface forms. While materials can be switched directly on the VR model, the modification of part geometries must be made on the CAD model. Our system synchronizes modifications of the original CAD geometries and of attributes that are relevant for the realistic rendering using the PLM Services standard. Thus, repeated work for the VR preparation can be avoided.

  3. Statistical design and analysis for NAEG studies: current status and a review of past efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summarized are statistical design and analysis activities for the NAEG since 1971, and current status is reported. The statistical analyses completed during calendar year 1977 are discussed and recommendations are made for future cleanup and other studies. A list of references on statistical topics studied for the NAEG is also provided and past synthesis efforts are briefly reviewed. Some specific items discussed in this paper are: (1) a historical review of the design and analysis of field data for estimating Pu spatial distribution and inventory at safety-shot and nuclear test sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), (2) maps giving the latest information on spatial pattern of 239240Pu, 241Am, and 137Cs soil concentrations and beta plus gamma GM instrument readings at Nuclear Site (NS)-201, (3) a grid map showing where additional soil samples at NS-201 have been obtained, (4) a grid map for a possible new field FIDLER and soil survey of the Clean Slate 2 site on the TTR to investigate the need for possible cleanup or remedial action at that site, and (5) a grid map showing sampling plans for NS-200 on NTS

  4. A critical review of environmental assessment tools for sustainable urban design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameen, Raed Fawzi Mohammed, E-mail: MohammedAmeenRF@cardiff.ac.uk [BRE Centre of Sustainable Construction, School of Engineering, The Parade, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Karbala (Iraq); Mourshed, Monjur, E-mail: MourshedM@cardiff.ac.uk [BRE Centre of Sustainable Construction, School of Engineering, The Parade, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Li, Haijiang, E-mail: LiH@cardiff.ac.uk [BRE Centre of Sustainable Construction, School of Engineering, The Parade, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cities are responsible for the depletion of natural resources and agricultural lands, and 70% of global CO{sub 2} emissions. There are significant risks to cities from the impacts of climate change in addition to existing vulnerabilities, primarily because of rapid urbanization. Urban design and development are generally considered as the instrument to shape the future of the city and they determine the pattern of a city's resource usage and resilience to change, from climate or otherwise. Cities are inherently dynamic and require the participation and engagement of their diverse stakeholders for the effective management of change, which enables wider stakeholder involvement and buy-in at various stages of the development process. Sustainability assessment of urban design and development is increasingly being seen as indispensable for informed decision-making. A sustainability assessment tool also acts as a driver for the uptake of sustainable pathways by recognizing excellence through their rating system and by creating a market demand for sustainable products and processes. This research reviews six widely used sustainability assessment tools for urban design and development: BREEAM Communities, LEED-ND, CASBEE-UD, SBTool{sup PT}–UP, Pearl Community Rating System (PCRS) and GSAS/QSAS, to identify, compare and contrast the aim, structure, assessment methodology, scoring, weighting and suitability for application in different geographical contexts. Strengths and weaknesses of each tool are critically discussed. The study highlights the disparity in local and international contexts for global sustainability assessment tools. Despite their similarities in aim on environmental aspects, differences exist in the relative importance and share of mandatory vs optional indicators in both environmental and social dimensions. PCRS and GSAS/QSAS are new incarnations, but have widely varying shares of mandatory indicators, at 45.4% and 11.36% respectively, compared to

  5. A critical review of environmental assessment tools for sustainable urban design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities are responsible for the depletion of natural resources and agricultural lands, and 70% of global CO2 emissions. There are significant risks to cities from the impacts of climate change in addition to existing vulnerabilities, primarily because of rapid urbanization. Urban design and development are generally considered as the instrument to shape the future of the city and they determine the pattern of a city's resource usage and resilience to change, from climate or otherwise. Cities are inherently dynamic and require the participation and engagement of their diverse stakeholders for the effective management of change, which enables wider stakeholder involvement and buy-in at various stages of the development process. Sustainability assessment of urban design and development is increasingly being seen as indispensable for informed decision-making. A sustainability assessment tool also acts as a driver for the uptake of sustainable pathways by recognizing excellence through their rating system and by creating a market demand for sustainable products and processes. This research reviews six widely used sustainability assessment tools for urban design and development: BREEAM Communities, LEED-ND, CASBEE-UD, SBToolPT–UP, Pearl Community Rating System (PCRS) and GSAS/QSAS, to identify, compare and contrast the aim, structure, assessment methodology, scoring, weighting and suitability for application in different geographical contexts. Strengths and weaknesses of each tool are critically discussed. The study highlights the disparity in local and international contexts for global sustainability assessment tools. Despite their similarities in aim on environmental aspects, differences exist in the relative importance and share of mandatory vs optional indicators in both environmental and social dimensions. PCRS and GSAS/QSAS are new incarnations, but have widely varying shares of mandatory indicators, at 45.4% and 11.36% respectively, compared to 30% in BREEAM

  6. Independent review of design and analysis for Holtec spent fuel storage racks of CPP 666 Pool 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the analyses and review performed to develop and validate the design of the new fuel storage racks for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Fuel Storage Area (FSA). Holtec International is responsible for the design and fabrication of the storage racks. This report describes the issues raised in the review effort and the resolutions to these issues. The conclusion is reached that the review issues for the racks of Pool 1 have been satisfactorily resolved in the final design and analysis for these racks. Section 1 of this report gives a brief description of the project. Section 2 describes the approach that Holtec used in analyzing the racks and results from these analyses. Section 3 describes the independent review process. Section 4 discusses the identification of and resolution to comments on the design analysis. Section 5 describes additional analysis performed to address major concerns with the Holtec design analysis. Section 6 presents a summary of AEC's independent review, which is based on AEC's final review report. Finally, Section 7 gives the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) position on the acceptability of Holtec's design

  7. The necessary guidance on the application of JUSTIFICATION and ALARA by the nuclear authorities, using 'Accountability for Reasonableness' as a decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In all branches of law, but foremost in international nuclear law, the global economic system brings along a vast record of Soft Law covering General Principles and Standards. For a part we can find these Soft Law Principles and Standards back in the clothing of hard law, or in the licensing procedures, at the national level. The larger part however is never 'transposed' into national laws and especially the harmonization, the implementation and control of such Principles and Standards remain doubtful. In this paper the focus lies on JUSTIFICATION and ALARA, as the main nuclear safety principles, accepted world-wide. The regulatory guidance and demonstration of these Principles, indicating which (numerical) safety levels or safety objectives are mandatory and which are only guidance should be undertaken by the international regulators and authorities, but are often lacking. It is the aim of this paper to come up with a better procedural framework for a priority setting process by nuclear authorities. Establishing a fair process for priority setting is easier than agreeing on principles. We use the idea of 'Accountability for Reasonableness', developed in the field of Health Care Management. An ideal model of priority setting within the JUSTIFICATION/ALARA approach will need to specify what should be done (i.e. justified ethically) and how it can be done (i.e. based in empirical reality and on benchmarking), to reach optimal levels of nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL), and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.). Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594)=1.33; P=0.18). The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks. PMID:27354760

  9. 75 FR 63532 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated Aliases as Foreign... for the 2003 re-designation of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) as foreign terrorist organization...

  10. Turbidimeter Design and Analysis: A Review on Optical Fiber Sensors for the Measurement of Water Turbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zubir Bin MatJafri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbidimeters operate based on the optical phenomena that occur when incident light through water body is scattered by the existence of foreign particles which are suspended within it. This review paper elaborates on the standards and factors that may influence the measurement of turbidity. The discussion also focuses on the optical fiber sensor technologies that have been applied within the lab and field environment and have been implemented in the measurement of water turbidity and concentration of particles. This paper also discusses and compares results from three different turbidimeter designs that use various optical components. Mohd Zubir and Bashah and Daraigan have introduced a design which has simple configurations. Omar and MatJafri, on the other hand, have established a new turbidimeter design that makes use of optical fiber cable as the light transferring medium. The application of fiber optic cable to the turbidimeter will present a flexible measurement technique, allowing measurements to be made online. Scattered light measurement through optical fiber cable requires a highly sensitive detector to interpret the scattered light signal. This has made the optical fiber system have higher sensitivity in measuring turbidity compared to the other two simple turbidimeters presented in this paper. Fiber optic sensors provide the potential for increased sensitivity over large concentration ranges. However, many challenges must be examined to develop sensors that can collect reliable turbidity measurements in situ.

  11. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suhaily,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and technology. This research also discusses the need for biocomposite materials that do not depend on the growth of populations, but on the growth and development of the economy. This study focuses on globally available agro-based biocomposites, especially those from oil palm biomass: plywood, medium density fiberboard (MDF, wood plastic composite (WPC, laminated veneer lumber (LVL, oriented strand board (OSB, hardboards, and particleboard. Additional positive aspects of biocomposites are their environmentally friendly character, high quality, competitive design, and capacity to improve the value proposition of high-end products. These attributes increase the demand for agro-based biocomposite furniture on the international market.

  12. A Review of Design and Policy Interventions to Promote Nurses' Restorative Breaks in Health Care Workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Adeleh; Shepley, Mardelle; Rodiek, Susan

    2016-02-01

    The nursing profession in the United States is on the precipice of a crisis. Nurses are essential to the health care industry, and maintaining quality nursing care is a primary concern of today's health care managers. Health care facilities report high rates of staff burnout and turnover, and interest in the nursing profession among younger students is declining. Health care leaders must improve nurses' job satisfaction, performance, and retention. However, they often overlook the need for nurses' respite and underestimate the value of well-designed staff break areas. An exhaustive and systematic literature search was conducted in the summer of 2014, and all studies found on the topic were reviewed for their relevance and quality of evidence. The existing literature about the main causes of nurses' fatigue, barriers that prevent nurses from taking restorative breaks, and consequences of nurses' fatigue for staff, patient, and facility outcomes demonstrates the pressing need for interventions that improve nurses' working conditions. Additional literature on the restorative effects of breaks and the value of well-designed break areas indicates that efforts to improve breakroom design can play an important role in improving nurses' job satisfaction and performance. PMID:26814229

  13. A Review of Material Degradation Modelling for the Analysis and Design of Bioabsorbable Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Enda L; Shine, Rosa; Kelly, Nicola; Sweeney, Caoimhe A; McHugh, Peter E

    2016-02-01

    The field of percutaneous coronary intervention has witnessed many progressions over the last few decades, more recently with the advancement of fully degradable bioabsorbable stents. Bioabsorbable materials, such as metallic alloys and aliphatic polyesters, have the potential to yield stents which provide temporary support to the blood vessel and allow native healing of the tissue to occur. Many chemical and physical reactions are reported to play a part in the degradation of such bioabsorbable materials, including, but not limited to, corrosion mechanisms for metals and the hydrolysis and crystallization of the backbone chains in polymers. In the design and analysis of bioabsorbable stents it is important to consider the effect of each aspect of the degradation on the material's in vivo performance. The development of robust computational modelling techniques which fully capture the degradation behaviour of these bioabsorbable materials is a key factor in the design of bioabsorable stents. A critical review of the current computational modelling techniques used in the design and analysis of these next generation devices is presented here, with the main accomplishments and limitations of each technique highlighted. PMID:26271520

  14. When RCRA meets ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a method to identify an inconsistency between RCRA and AEA and for distinguishing a true inconsistency from a compliance difficulty. The paper also provides examples of each situation, accommodating specific RCRA requirements to maintain adherence to radiation protection requirements. The proposed method is derived from radiation protection guidance to Federal agencies for occupational exposure that was issued by EPA, under authority derived from Executive Order 10831, the AEA, and Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970. This EPA guidance was approved by President Reagan on January 20, 1987 and closely reflects the guidance of national and international radiation standard-setting groups

  15. ALARA notes, Number 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the 'tyranny' of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment

  16. Designer steroids - over-the-counter supplements and their androgenic component: review of an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnema, C D; Crosnoe, L E; Kim, E D

    2015-03-01

    Colloquially referred to by various misleading monikers ('pro-hormones', 'natural steroids', 'testosterone boosters', etc.) designer anabolic steroids have been popular now for over a decade as a way to achieve classic anabolic steroid-like results from products sold in the legal marketplace. Recent evidence suggests that anabolic steroid use may be the most common cause of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age. Despite recent regulatory efforts that have banned specific compounds, many anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) remain available in over-the-counter dietary supplements that are legally sold in the United States. Severe side effects including hepatotoxicity, cholestasis, renal failure, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and infertility have been reported secondary to the use of these products. While some of these side effects may be reversible, more aggressive use may result in more permanent end-organ damage as has been previously described for the case of aggressive AAS users (Rahnema et al., Fertil Steril, 2014). Designer AAS remain easily available for purchase in over-the-counter bodybuilding supplements and these products appear to be increasingly popular, despite the known health risks associated with their use. We conducted a systematic search to identify the designer steroids that are most commonly sold in dietary supplements as of April 2014 and review what is known regarding their potency and toxicity. We propose that the impact of AAS use on the reproductive and hormonal health of men is underestimated in the literature owing to previous studies' failure to account for designer steroid use. Lastly, we make clinical recommendations to help physicians steer patients away from potentially harmful supplements, and summarize key regulatory obstacles that have allowed potent androgens to remain unregulated in the legal marketplace. PMID:25684733

  17. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors. PMID:21811678

  18. The Iodine Satellite (iSat) Project Development Towards Critical Design Review (CDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Selby, Michael; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Byrne, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of Small Satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy (i.e. high pressure vessels). These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The project formally began in FY15 as a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is in final preparation of the Critical Design Review prior to initiating the fabrication and integration phase of the project. The iSat project is on schedule for a launch opportunity in November 2017.

  19. Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

  20. Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review I: Design, trade-offs and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rigaut, Francois; Boccas, Maxime; d'Orgeville, Céline; Vidal, Fabrice; van Dam, Marcos A; Arriagada, Gustavo; Fesquet, Vincent; Galvez, Ramon L; Gausachs, Gaston; Cavedoni, Chad; Ebbers, Angelic W; Karewicz, Stan; James, Eric; Lührs, Javier; Montes, Vanessa; Perez, Gabriel; Rambold, William N; Rojas, Roberto; Walker, Shane; Bec, Matthieu; Trancho, Gelys; Sheehan, Michael; Irarrazaval, Benjamin; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Flicker, Ralf; Gratadour, Damien; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Daruich, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope in Cerro Pach{\\'o}n is the first sodium-based multi-Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics system. It uses five LGSs and two deformable mirrors to measure and compensate for atmospheric distortions. The GeMS project started in 1999, and saw first light in 2011. It is now in regular operation, producing images close to the diffraction limit in the near infrared, with uniform quality over a field of view of two square arcminutes. The present paper (I) is the first one in a two-paper review of GeMS. It describes the system, explains why and how it was built, discusses the design choices and trade-offs, and presents the main issues encountered during the course of the project. Finally, we briefly present the results of the system first light.

  1. Effective Teaching Methods and Proposed Web Libraries for Designing Animated Course Content: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Kaushal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of education system is to improve cognitive and computational skills in students. It cannot be achieved by just using the latest technology. This goal can only be achieved through effective teaching methods in combination with effective technology. Lot of researchers has offered effective teaching methods and published their findings in the past. Most of them offered teaching through animations, puzzles, games and storyline. This research paper focuses on identifying effective teaching methods offered by researchers and their findings by reviewing last few years articles published in renowned journals and conferences. Another aim of this paper is to propose ideas to make teaching tools more effective that can help students to understand difficult concepts deeply, improve cognitive and computational skills and retain knowledge for longer times. These ideas will serve as future research directions in this area. Another aim of this research paper is to introduce latest web libraries that can help educators to design animated courses.

  2. Passive blood plasma separation at the microscale: a review of design principles and microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Bala Varun Kumar, Y. V.; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-08-01

    Blood plasma separation is vital in the field of diagnostics and health care. Due to the inherent advantages obtained in the transition to microscale, the recent trend in these fields is a rapid shift towards the miniaturization of complex macro processes. Plasma separation in microdevices is one such process which has received extensive attention from researchers globally. Blood plasma separation techniques based on microfluidic platforms can be broadly classified into two categories. While active techniques utilize external force fields for separation, the passive techniques are dependent on biophysical effects, cell behavior, hydrodynamic forces and channel geometry for blood plasma separation. In general, passive separation methods are favored in comparison to active methods because they tend to avoid design complexities and are relatively easy to integrate with biosensors; additionally they are cost effective. Here we review passive separation techniques demonstrating separation and blood behavior at microscale. We present an extensive review of relevant biophysical laws, along with experimental details of various passive separation techniques and devices exploiting these physical effects. The relative performances, and the advantages and disadvantages of microdevices discussed in the literature, are compared and future challenges are brought about.

  3. Empirical Evidence of Study Design Biases in Randomized Trials: Systematic Review of Meta-Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Savović, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials. Design Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies. Methods We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome (“mortality” versus “other objective” versus “subjective”). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study) and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study). The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition) is unclear. Conclusions Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several characteristics, particularly attrition and selective reporting, is needed. PMID:27398997

  4. Meta-analysis and review: effectiveness, safety, and central port design of the intraocular collamer lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mark Packer Mark Packer MD Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant data from publications appearing in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over the past decade since US Food and Drug Administration approval of the implantable collamer lens (ICL, and, in particular, to review studies relating to sizing methodology, safety, and effectiveness, as well as more recent studies reporting clinical outcomes of the V4c Visian ICL with KS Aquaport, VICMO. A literature search was conducted using two databases, PubMed.gov and Science.gov, to identify all articles published after 2005 related to the Visian ICL (STAAR Surgical, Inc.. Articles were examined for their relevance to sizing methodology, clinical safety, and effectiveness, and the references cited in each article were also searched for additional relevant publications. The literature review revealed that all currently reported methods of determining the best-fit size of the ICL achieve similarly satisfactory results in terms of vault, the safe distance between the crystalline lens and the ICL. Specifically, meta-analysis demonstrated that sulcus-to-sulcus and white-to-white measurement-based sizing methods do not result in clinically meaningful nor statistically significant differences in vault (two-sample two-sided t-test using pooled mean and standard deviations; t (2,594=1.33; P=0.18. The reported rates of complications related to vault are very low, except in two case series where additional risk factors such as higher levels of myopia and older age impacted the incidence of cataract. On the basis of preclinical studies and initial clinical reports, with up to 5 years of follow-up, the new VICMO central port design holds promise for further reduction of complications. Given its safety record and the significant improvement in vision and quality of life that the ICL makes possible, the benefits of ICL implantation outweigh the risks

  5. The human factors of color in environmental design: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Barbara K.; Wise, James A.

    1988-01-01

    The literature on environmental color to enhance habitability in the design of Space Station interiors is reviewed. Some 200 studies were examined to determine the relative contributions of the three dimensions of color (hue, saturation, and brightness or lightness) to responses to environmental colorations. Implications of the study for color usage in novel settings and locales include: (1) There are no hard-wired linkages between environmental colors and particular judgmental or emotional states; (2) Perceptual impressions of color applications can, however, affect experiences and performances in settings; (3) Color behavior studies cannot yet specify an optimal color scheme, but instead must consider differing objectives, the relative importance of each, and design features such as the coordination of geometry, color, texture, etc.; (4) Some color-behavior effects are governed by low-level retinal and limbal mechanisms as well as by cognitive processes; and (5) Colors should first be specified in terms of what they are to do instead of what they are. Some exercise of choice is therefore needed to establish a sense of personal competence in the setting, since color must be ultimately be accepted by the people who are to live with it.

  6. Review of software tools for design and analysis of large scale MRM proteomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Christopher M; Chung, Lisa; Bruce, Can; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2013-06-15

    Selective or Multiple Reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) is a liquid-chromatography (LC)/tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method that enables the quantitation of specific proteins in a sample by analyzing precursor ions and the fragment ions of their selected tryptic peptides. Instrumentation software has advanced to the point that thousands of transitions (pairs of primary and secondary m/z values) can be measured in a triple quadrupole instrument coupled to an LC, by a well-designed scheduling and selection of m/z windows. The design of a good MRM assay relies on the availability of peptide spectra from previous discovery-phase LC-MS/MS studies. The tedious aspect of manually developing and processing MRM assays involving thousands of transitions has spurred to development of software tools to automate this process. Software packages have been developed for project management, assay development, assay validation, data export, peak integration, quality assessment, and biostatistical analysis. No single tool provides a complete end-to-end solution, thus this article reviews the current state and discusses future directions of these software tools in order to enable researchers to combine these tools for a comprehensive targeted proteomics workflow. PMID:23702368

  7. Human-Robot Collaboration: A Literature Review and Augmented Reality Approach in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Green

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available NASA?s vision for space exploration stresses the cultivation of human-robotic systems. Similar systems are also envisaged for a variety of hazardous earthbound applications such as urban search and rescue. Recent research has pointed out that to reduce human workload, costs, fatigue driven error and risk, intelligent robotic systems will need to be a significant part of mission design. However, little attention has been paid to joint human-robot teams. Making human-robot collaboration natural and efficient is crucial. In particular, grounding, situational awareness, a common frame of reference and spatial referencing are vital in effective communication and collaboration. Augmented Reality (AR, the overlaying of computer graphics onto the real worldview, can provide the necessary means for a human-robotic system to fulfill these requirements for effective collaboration. This article reviews the field of human-robot interaction and augmented reality, investigates the potential avenues for creating natural human-robot collaboration through spatial dialogue utilizing AR and proposes a holistic architectural design for human-robot collaboration.

  8. The design and performance of CW and pulsed power couplers—A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, T.

    2006-07-01

    The design of input power couplers represents one of the most important challenges of accelerators that use super-conducting RF technology. These devices must fulfill several functions while being subject to mechanical, electromagnetic, vacuum and cryogenic constraints. The rapidly increasing number of projects, planned or under construction, which propose to use super-conducting cavities has prompted developments in power couplers for both CW and pulsed applications. Amongst the projects for which couplers have been, or are being, developed one finds VUV and X-ray free electron lasers (based on self-amplified spontaneous emission), spallation neutron sources (SNS), energy recovery linacs, and high energy colliders. We will review the design requirements and performances obtained for several of these couplers. Particular attention will be paid to the couplers which have been used on the TESLA Test Facility at DESY, the variations of this coupler which are under consideration for future synchrotron light sources and the coupler chosen for use on the SNS.

  9. Designing Peer Review for Pedagogical Success: What Can We Learn from Professional Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares peer review in professional versus education settings, summarizing key aspects of scientific peer review and reflecting on how these relate to the process as experienced by students. Consideration of professional peer review benefits educators in two ways. First, systems used for student peer review can employ some of the…

  10. A systematic review of eHealth cancer prevention and control interventions: new technology, same methods and designs?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Michael A.; Rabin, Borsika A.; Gaglio, Bridget; Henton, Michelle; Elzarrad, M Khair; Purcell, Peyton; Glasgow, Russell E

    2013-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of eHealth programs in cancer and other content areas, but few reviews have focused on the methodologies and designs employed in these studies. We conducted a systematic review of studies on eHealth interventions on cancer prevention and control published between 2001 and 2010 applying the Pragmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) criteria and external validity components from the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) f...

  11. An analysis of personnel dose records which justifies the application of cost-benefit analysis techniques in the design of an afterloading facility and the use of controlled areas and systems of work within suite to control occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, D; Godden, T J; Kear, D

    1990-03-01

    The sealed source operational policies employed at the Bristol Radiotherapy and Oncology Centre were originally designed to meet the requirements of the 1972 Code of Practice by ensuring that individual personnel doses were kept below the relevant quarterly and annual dose limits. In 1982-1983, measures were taken to improve personnel radiation safety within the brachytherapy treatment facility by (a) making preparations for the introduction of Selectron medium-dose-rate (MDR) afterloading systems at the centre for intracavitary brachytherapy and (b) reviewing the operational policies to ensure that they meet the more stringent requirements of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle, a principle subsequently embodied in the 1985 UK ionising Radiations Regulations (IRR 85). When considering the implications of making existing single-bedded side wards, originally designed for low-dose-rate brachytherapy and suitable for the new systems, the cost of the extra protection required to reduce the instantaneous dose rate in the ward corridors adjacent to the treatment room to less than 7.5 microSv h-1 had to be determined. On the basis of the cost-benefit analysis, it was decided not to provide additional shielding but rather to introduce administrative controls based on local rules which contained systems of work and the operational policies for the afterloading systems. After using the MDR afterloading systems for 2 years, a period in which there has also been a marked increase in interstitial brachytherapy, an analysis was made of the doses received by nursing staff over the past 8 years. This has shown that, in spite of higher dose rates in the corridor areas because of the use of an MDR system and the increase in interstitial techniques, the doses to ward nurses have been significantly reduced by encouraging staff to comply with the ALARA principle and the introduction of afterloading systems. PMID:2110492

  12. Should students participate in curriculum design? Discussion arising from a first year curriculum design project and a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Bovill, C.; Morss, K.; Bulley, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the findings from a QAA (Scotland) funded project exploring first year curriculum design (Bovill et al. 2008). Whilst many examples exist of curricula being designed in ways to engage first year students, there are fewer published examples of active student participation in curriculum design processes. In the current higher education context where student engagement in learning is emphasised (Carini et al, 2006), this paper asks more generally whether students shou...

  13. Pressure vessel design codes: A review of their applicability to HTGR components at temperatures above 800 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The governments of USA and Federal Republic of Germany have approved of cooperation between the two countries in an endeavour to establish structural design code for gas reactor components intended to operate at temperatures exceeding 800 deg C. The basis of existing codes and their applicability to gas reactor component design are reviewed in this paper. This review has raised a number of important questions as to the direct applicability of the present codes. The status of US and FRG cooperative efforts to obtain answers to these questions are presented

  14. Design and analysis of field studies with bees: A critical review of the draft EFSA guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The specific protection goal, primary assessment endpoints, acceptable effect thresholds, and experimental design proposed in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) update of the bee guidance document are subjected to critical review. It is concluded that the negligible effect criteria were established without sufficient regulatory definition and without convincing scientific argumentation. For the assessment endpoints, effects on hive strength lack temporal definition and the reduction to numbers of bees is inappropriate to evaluate effects. Restricting mortality assessments to homing failure is not theoretically justified and specific criteria were incorrectly derived. The combination of acute effect estimates with models for chronic stressors is biased risk assessment and a temporal basis for the acceptability of effects is missing. Effects on overwintering success cannot be experimentally assessed using the proposed criteria. The experimental methodology proposed is inappropriate and the logistical consequences, in particular those related to replication and land use are such that field studies are no longer a feasible option for the risk assessment. It may be necessary to explore new lines of thought for the set-up of field studies and to clearly separate experimentation from monitoring. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:422-428. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26436642

  15. Communication training for aircrews: A review of theoretical and pragmatic aspects of training program design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1987-01-01

    This study is the final report of a project studying methods of communications training applicable to both civilian and military aviation personnel, including multiperson teams or single pilot fixed wing or rotary wing aircraft. A review is provided of a number of theories proposed as relevant for producing training materials for improved communications. Criteria are given for evaluating the applicability of training programs to the aviation environment, and these criteria are applied to United Airlines' Resources Management Training, as well as to a number of commercially available general purpose training programs. The report considers in detail assertiveness training and grid management training, examining their theoretical background and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. It was found that there are substantive difficulties in assessing the effectiveness of both training programs, as well as problems with the theories underlying them. However, because the aviation environment offers unique advantages for studying the effectiveness of communications training, recommendations are made on the design of appropriate training programs and on procedures that might be used to validate them.

  16. Urban drainage system planning and design--challenges with climate change and urbanization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Zeinab; Sharma, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are in general failing in their functions mainly due to non-stationary climate and rapid urbanization. As these systems are becoming less efficient, issues such as sewer overflows and increase in urban flooding leading to surge in pollutant loads to receiving water bodies are becoming pervasive rapidly. A comprehensive investigation is required to understand these factors impacting the functioning of urban drainage, which vary spatially and temporally and are more complex when weaving together. It is necessary to establish a cost-effective, integrated planning and design framework for every local area by incorporating fit for purpose alternatives. Carefully selected adaptive measures are required for the provision of sustainable drainage systems to meet combined challenges of climate change and urbanization. This paper reviews challenges associated with urban drainage systems and explores limitations and potentials of different adaptation alternatives. It is hoped that the paper would provide drainage engineers, water planners, and decision makers with the state of the art information and technologies regarding adaptation options to increase drainage systems efficiency under changing climate and urbanization. PMID:26177398

  17. A Review of Methodological Approaches for the Design and Optimization of Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Herbert-Acero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the state of the art of the Wind Farm Design and Optimization (WFDO problem. The WFDO problem refers to a set of advanced planning actions needed to extremize the performance of wind farms, which may be composed of a few individual Wind Turbines (WTs up to thousands of WTs. The WFDO problem has been investigated in different scenarios, with substantial differences in main objectives, modelling assumptions, constraints, and numerical solution methods. The aim of this paper is: (1 to present an exhaustive survey of the literature covering the full span of the subject, an analysis of the state-of-the-art models describing the performance of wind farms as well as its extensions, and the numerical approaches used to solve the problem; (2 to provide an overview of the available knowledge and recent progress in the application of such strategies to real onshore and offshore wind farms; and (3 to propose a comprehensive agenda for future research.

  18. Designing Zoning of Remote Sensing Drones for Urban Applications: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norzailawati, M. N.; Alias, A.; Akma, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses on-going research related to zoning regulation for the remote sensing drone in the urban applications. Timestamped maps are presented here follow a citation-based approach, where significant information is retrieved from the scientific literature. The emergence of drones in domestic air raises lots understandable issues on privacy, security and uncontrolled pervasive surveillance that require a careful and alternative solution. The effective solution is to adopt a privacy and property rights approach that create a drone zoning and clear drone legislatures. In providing a differential trend to other reviews, this paper is not limited to drones zoning and regulations, but also, discuss on trend remote sensing drones specification in designing a drone zones. Remote sensing drone will specific according to their features and performances; size and endurance, maximum airspeed and altitude level and particular references are made to the drones range. The implementation of laws zoning could lie with the urban planners whereby, a zoning for drone could become a new tactic used to specify areas, where drones could be used, will provide remedies for the harm that arise from drones, and act as a different against irresponsible behaviour. Finally, underlines the need for next regulations on guidelines and standards which can be used as a guidance for urban decision makers to control the drones' operating, thus ensuring a quality and sustainability of resilience cities simultaneously encouraging the revolution of technology.

  19. A review of the design, construction and development of the PUSPATI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The setting up of the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI) was decided upon in September 1972 and soon after, plans were underway for the purchase of a research reactor and the construction of a research centre to house it. The centre was originally planned to be located at Sungai Buloh about 20 km to the north-west of Kuala Lumpur. However, in September 1978, a decision was made to locate the centre at Bangi, about 32 km to south of Kuala Lumpur. Earth work was started in January 1979 with clearing of the forest at the proposed site. Building construction started in February 1980. By September 1981, the reactor building was practically completed and enable reactor construction to begin. This was finished on July 15, 1982 when the reactor was officially handed over to PUSPATI. Work on the rest of the complex fell behind schedule and was only completed in July 1983 when PUSPATI moved in to occupy the research laboratories. The implementation of the PUSPATI project has been completed not without its share of problems. Its completion also marks the beginning of a new era for the development of nuclear science and technology in this country. This paper reviews the design, construction and development of the entire project. (author)

  20. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (269) The Science of Imaging - An Introduction Northern Lights Vacuum Bazookas, Electric Rainbow Jelly, and 27 other Saturday Science Projects Physics and Engineering in Medicine in the New Millennium CD-ROM REVIEWS (272) I fell in love with a STARBase trooper Aber - greatest hits... WEB WATCH (273) 'Here is the guess of their true strength and forces' Gary Williams EDITOR'S NOTE (275) Reviews of Christopher Bishop's Astrophysics (John Murray, 2000) PHYSICS TEASER (276) Why or How, Sophistry and Guestimation

  1. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document

  2. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  3. A review of optimization techniques used in the design of fibre composite structures for civil engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We reviewed existing optimization techniques of fibre composite structures. → Proposed an improved methodology for design optimization. → Comparison showed the MRDO is most suitable. -- Abstract: Fibre composite structures have become the most attractive candidate for civil engineering applications. Fibre reinforced plastic polymer (FRP) composite materials have been used in the rehabilitation and replacement of the old degrading traditional structures or build new structures. However, the lack of design standards for civil infrastructure limits their structural applications. The majority of the existing applications have been designed based on the research and guidelines provided by the fibre composite manufacturers or based on the designer's experience. It has been a tendency that the final structure is generally over-designed. This paper provides a review on the available studies related to the design optimization of fibre composite structures used in civil engineering such as; plate, beam, box beam, sandwich panel, bridge girder, and bridge deck. Various optimization methods are presented and compared. In addition, the importance of using the appropriate optimization technique is discussed. An improved methodology, which considering experimental testing, numerical modelling, and design constrains, is proposed in the paper for design optimization of composite structures.

  4. 75 FR 74127 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU and Other Aliases) as a... of State. BILLING CODE 4710-10-P...

  5. 77 FR 11186 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Islamic Jihad Union; AKA Islamic Jihad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Islamic Jihad Union; AKA Islamic Jihad Group; AKA Jama'at... Jamiat al-Jihad al-Islami; AKA Dzhamaat Modzhakhedov; AKA Islamic Jihad Group of Uzbekistan; AKA...

  6. 77 FR 44307 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas and Other Aliases) As a... State, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-10-P...

  7. Advanced Behavioral Applications in Schools: A Review of R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies: An Applied Behavior Analysis Systems Approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies" is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS[R]) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include…

  8. Cancer Survivorship Research: A Review of the Literature and Summary of Current NCI-Designated Cancer Center Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Harrop, J. Phil; Dean, Julie A.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2011-01-01

    The number of cancer survivors and amount of cancer survivorship research has grown substantially during the past three decades. This paper provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  9. 78 FR 69927 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Kurdistan Worker's Party (and Other Aliases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Kurdistan Worker's Party (and Other Aliases) as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based...

  10. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California

  11. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-03-10

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  12. Designing medical and educational intervention studies. A review of some alternatives to conventional randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Clare

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of RCT designs are discussed, and a range of alternative designs for medical and educational intervention studies considered. Designs selected are those that address the much neglected psychological issues involved in the recruitment of patients and allocation of patients to treatments within trials. Designs include Zelen's (18) randomized consent design, Brewin and Bradley's (20) partially randomized patient-centered design, and Korn and Baumrind's (21) partial...

  13. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  14. Design and application of chitosan microspheres as oral and nasal vaccine carriers: an updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ariful Islam,1–3,* Jannatul Firdous,1–3,* Yun-Jaie Choi,1 Cheol-Heui Yun,1–4 Chong-Su Cho1,21Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, 2Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, 3Center for Food and Bioconvergence, 4World Class University Biomodulation Program, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Chitosan, a natural biodegradable polymer, is of great interest in biomedical research due to its excellent properties including bioavailability, nontoxicity, high charge density, and mucoadhesivity, which creates immense potential for various pharmaceutical applications. It has gelling properties when it interacts with counterions such as sulfates or polyphosphates and when it crosslinks with glutaraldehyde. This characteristic facilitates its usefulness in the coating or entrapment of biochemicals, drugs, antigenic molecules as a vaccine candidate, and microorganisms. Therefore, chitosan together with the advance of nanotechnology can be effectively applied as a carrier system for vaccine delivery. In fact, chitosan microspheres have been studied as a promising carrier system for mucosal vaccination, especially via the oral and nasal route to induce enhanced immune responses. Moreover, the thiolated form of chitosan is of considerable interest due to its improved mucoadhesivity, permeability, stability, and controlled/extended release profile. This review describes the various methods used to design and synthesize chitosan microspheres and recent updates on their potential applications for oral and nasal delivery of vaccines. The potential use of thiolated chitosan microspheres as next-generation mucosal vaccine carriers is also discussed.Keywords: chitosan microspheres, oral, nasal, vaccine delivery, mucosal and systemic immune responses

  15. A Review of Cavity Design for Kerr Lens Mode-Locked Solid-State Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Yefet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide a critical review of the fundamental concepts of Kerr lens mode-locking (KLM, along with a detailed description of the experimental considerations involved in the realization of a mode-locked oscillator. In addition, we review recent developments that overcome inherent limitations and disadvantages in standard KLM lasers. Our review is aimed mainly at readers who wish to realize/maintain such an oscillator or for those who wish to better understand this major experimental tool.

  16. Review Committee report on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment: Role and mission of TPX; overview of design; physics design assessment; engineering design assessment; evaluation of cost, schedule, and management plans; and, environment safety and health.

  17. Review Committee report on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics on the conceptual design of the Tokamak Physics Experiment: Role and mission of TPX; overview of design; physics design assessment; engineering design assessment; evaluation of cost, schedule, and management plans; and, environment safety and health

  18. Book review: Research design: creating robust approaches for the social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    "Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences." Stephen Gorard. SAGE Publications. February 2013. --- Research design is of critical importance in social research, despite its relative neglect in many methods resources. This book discusses the nature of design, offers a flexible approach to new designs, and looks at a range of standard design models. Stephen Gorard‘s book is illustrated with case studies of real work and concludes with suggested readings and topics for ...

  19. Systematic reviews incorporating evidence from nonrandomized study designs: reasons for caution when estimating health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, B.C.; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Weel, C. van

    2005-01-01

    Systematic reviews that include nonrandomized studies (NRS) face a number of logistical challenges. However, the greatest threat to the validity of such reviews arises from the differing susceptibility of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and NRS to selection bias. Groups compared in NRS are unlik

  20. Report of the Survey on the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 1 - Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the members agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report, which is the first volume, provides a discussion of the survey responses related to Instrumentation and Control (I and C). The Instrumentation and Control category includes the twelve following technical topics: Reactor trip system, actuation systems for Engineered Safety Features (ESF), safe shutdown system, safety-related display instrumentation, information and interlock systems important to safety, controls systems, main control room, supplementary control room, diverse I and C systems, data communication systems, software reliability and cyber-security. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the Level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Among the regulatory organisations that responded to the survey, there are similarities in the design information provided by an applicant. In most countries, the design information provided by an applicant includes, but is not limited to, a description of the I and C system design and functions, a description of the verification and validation programmes, and provisions for analysis, testing, and inspection of various I and C systems. - In addition to the regulations, it is a common practice for countries