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  1. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [and others

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI`s low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan.

  2. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI's low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan

  3. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA

  4. ALARA Center of Technology -- resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The purpose is to provide a source of information that can be used to assist personnel in the planning, training, and execution of radiological work using the principles of ALARA. This document is not intended to replace HNF or WHC Control Manual requirements. The ALARA Tools-List provides detailed information on the use and procurement of engineered controls, mockup training guidelines, and good radiological work practices that have been proven to be ALARA.

  5. ALARA development in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.A.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Col Lomas de Barrilaco (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    Even though the ALARA philosophy was formally implemented in the early 1980`s, to some extent, ALARA considerations already had been incorporated into the design of most commercial equipment and facilities based on experience and engineering development. In Mexico, the design of medical and industrial facilities were based on international recommendations containing those considerations. With the construction of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, formal ALARA groups were created to review some parts of its design, and to prepare the ALARA Program and related procedures necessary for its commercial operation. This paper begins with a brief historical description of ALARA development in Mexico, and then goes on to discuss our regulatory frame in Radiation Protection, some aspects of the ALARA Program, efforts in controlling and reducing of sources of radiation, and finally, future perspectives in the ALARA field.

  6. The program of the ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1984 the Brookhaven National Laboratory was asked by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set up a Center to monitor dose-reduction efforts in the US and abroad and to focus the industry's attention on ALARA. The paper summarizes the main work of the ALARA Center between 1984 and 1992. The Center maintains nine data bases for the NRC and the Nuclear Power Industry. These databases are constantly updated and access to them is provided through a personal computer and a modem and by periodic publications in the form of a newsletter and NUREG reports. Also described briefly are eight other projects related to dose-reduction at nuclear power plants that the Center has carried out for the NRC. Among these are projects that analyze the cost-effectiveness of engineering modifications, look at worldwide activities at dose reduction and compare US and foreign dose experience, examine high-dose worker groups and high-dose jobs, develop optimum techniques to control contamination at nuclear plants, and look at the doses being received by men and women in all sectors of the nuclear industry

  7. ALARA: Progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper has two main topics. The first part describes the establishment and work of the ALARA Center; the second part presents some results of studies at the Center with international data on doses at PWR plants. This data then is used to reach a preliminary understanding of some of the factors that are causing high doses at PWRs. This approach should help in reducing occupational exposures in a more effective manner

  8. What is ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.; Dickson, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy as it applies to personnel radiation exposure has been with us for a long time. The essential tenets of this philosophy surfaced quite early in the history of the Manhattan Project. Although the terminology has suffered through various translations and the application has seen many organizations and agencies come and go, the principles remain as valid today as ever. It is regretable that some regulatory agencies claim ALARA as their newfound miracle drug and that application according to their prescriptions will result in endless rounds of cyclical improvement in radiation protection practices. Others have taken advantage of the popularity of ALARA and have bastardized the philosophy to mean whatever is expedient for their purposes. In this paper, we review briefly the history of ALARA and what it seemingly means to different interest groups and offer a balanced viewpoint that health physicists should adopt

  9. ALARA training at INSTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Lefaure, C.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990 the CEPN, the National Radiological Protection Board and the INSTN organized for the first time in Europe one teaching specifically established to radioprotection optimization. This training has allowed to spread the experience of the best european specialists while guaranteeing a wide exchange between the participants coming from different countries. At the national level the training ALARA goes on at the INSTN-Saclay. Its aim is to give base notions, the methods and the tools allowing the implementation of the ALARA concept, and to privilege the exchange between the participants coming from different horizons. 2 refs., 2 figs

  10. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of the ALARA principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed through a variety of dose reduction techniques. Initiatives by the ICRP, NCRP, NRC, INPO, EPRI, and BNL ALARA Center have all contributed to a heightened interest and emphasis on dose reduction. The NCRP has formed Scientific Committee 46-9 which is developing a report on ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction ($/person-Sv), quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report

  11. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  12. What is Alara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Lochard, J.; Lombard, J.; Croft, J.; Fleishman, A.; Webb, G.

    1986-09-01

    The system of dose limitation recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection formulates three radiation protection principles: 1) the so-called justification principle which states that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit; 2) the so-called optimisation principle which states that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; 3) the limitation of individual dose which insures that the dose equivalent to an individual shall not exceed the limits recommended by the ICRP. Acknowledging the fact that these requirements are interrelated, this report is devoted to a presentation of the second principle, assuming that the two other ones are satisfied. As defined by ICRP, the optimisation principle is strictly equivalent with the commonly known ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). ALARA may be considered altogether as a guiding principle for radiological protection management, as well as a procedure allowing the implementation of this principle

  13. Project W-320 ALARA Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials

  14. Project W-320 ALARA Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, W.M.

    1995-06-06

    This supporting document establishes the As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) Plan to be followed during Sluicing Project W-320 design and construction activities to minimize personnel exposure to radiation and hazardous materials.

  15. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C. [CEPN, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Croft, J. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pfeffer, W. [GRS, Koeln (Germany); Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-03-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  16. BNL ALARA Center experience with an information exchange system on dose control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Khan, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The essential elements of an international information exchange system on dose control at nuclear power plants are summarized. Information was collected from literature abstracting services, by attending technical meetings, by circulating data collection forms, and through personal contacts. Data are assembled in various databases and periodically disseminated to several hundred interested participants through a variety of publications and at technical meetings. Immediate on-line access to the data is available to participants with modems, commercially available communications software, and a password that is provided by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center to authorized users of the system. Since January 1992, rapid access also has been provided to persons with fax machines. Some information is available for ''polling'' the BNL system at any time, and other data can be installed for polling on request. Most information disseminated to data has been through publications; however, new protocols, simplified by the ALARA Center staff, and the convenience of fax machines are likely to make the earlier availability of information through these mechanisms increasingly important

  17. Gentilly - 2 NGS ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheaume, Michel R.

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide-based oral presentation given to the COG/IAEA: Fifth technical committee meeting on 'Exchange of operating experience of pressurized heavy water reactors' held in Mangalia, Romania on 7-10 September 1998. The operation experience of Gentilly -1 and Gentilly - 2 nuclear power stations is summarized. The radiation protection philosophy is addressed, the orange/yellow/green RP qualifications are explained and the ALARA Program objectives are described. The criteria used to develop the Gentilly - 2 station ALARA Program are presented. The program is based on: strong Hydro Quebec commitments, organization (responsibilities well defined); ALARA Committee; tools; procedures; good documentation. Description of the program is given then in details. Measures for dose and radioactive sources reduction are presented. Collective doses recorded at Gentilly - 2 between 1984 and 1997 are plotted and figures are given in a table

  18. Radiation worker: the ALARA key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedon, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is a simple concept that has come to be a complicated and expensive regulatory goal. There are essentially three factors that can be manipulated to achieve ALARA: (1) radionuclide inventory (source), (2) physical arrangement (primarily distance and shielding); (3) radiation worker performance (radiation safety responsibilities and functions). Of these three elements, item 3 is utilized the least and yet has the greatest potential for reducing exposure per dollar expended. By establishing a relationship with radiation workers consisting of credible leadership and expecting the radiation workers to be responsible for specific elements of radiological safety. Health Physics can gain a degree of cooperation and performance that will provide significant ALARA gains at a very small expense

  19. Education and training for ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The practice of ALARA or the optimisation of Radiation Protection is an important feature of the task of the Radiation Protection Professionals. The teaching of the subject is an equally important part of the education and training curriculum. This paper commences with a general view of the educational process and concludes with specific comments on the educational needs. The concept of ALARA is suggested to be central to the safety culture of radiation protection practice. It is considered to be a part of the scientific culture which is well recognised but not well understood. These topics are reviewed and the conclusions applied to a proposal for a syllabus for the teaching of ALARA and this is compared with the content of courses on the subject. (Author)

  20. ALARA and planning of interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocaboy, A. [Electricite de France, Avoine (France)

    1995-03-01

    The implementation of ALARA programs implies integration of radiation protection criterion at all stages of outage management. Within the framework of its ALARA policy, Electricide de France (EDF) has given an incentive to all of its nuclear power plants to develop {open_quotes}good practices{close_quotes} in this domain, and to exchange their experience by the way of a national feed back file. Among the developments in the field of outage organization, some plants have focused on the planning stage of activities because of its influence on the radiological conditions of interventions and on the good succession of tasks within the radiological controlled areas. This paper presents the experience of Chinon nuclear power plant. At Chinon, we are pursuing this goal through careful outage planning. We want the ALARA program during outages to be part of the overall maintenance task planning. This planning includes the provision of the availability of every safety-related component, and of the variations of water levels in hthereactor and steam generators to take advantage of the shield created by the water. We have developed a computerized data base with the exact position of all the components in the reactor building in order to avoid unnecessary interactions between different tasks performed in the same room. A common language between Operation and Maintenance had been established over the past years, using {open_quotes}Milestones and Corridors{close_quotes}. A real time dose rate counting system enables the Radiation Protection (RP) Department to do an accurate and efficient follow up during the outage for all the {open_quotes}ALARA{close_quotes} maintenance tasks.

  1. Integrating ALARA into work planning and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Robb, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents various organizational structures and systematic approaches that can be of benefit in integrating ALARA into work planning and organization. It is possible to have elegant policy statements, procedures and organizations and yet fail to implement ALARA effectively. The real key to success in ALARA work management is to recognize that ALARA is primarily a way of thinking and to secure the commitment of individuals at all levels within the organization, from senior management to workers carrying out specific tasks. The authors explain that the recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 will have an impact and will maintain the downward pressure on individual doses. 6 figs

  2. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  3. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  4. ALARA engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Khan, T.A.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report is the second in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory ALARA Center on dose reduction at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health to include DOE nuclear facilities. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy Data Base, and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Information that the reader feels should be included in the next volume of this bibliography may be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center. These abstracts, which have a bearing on dose reduction, consolidates information from publications pertinent to Radiological Engineers and Operational Health Physicists. Volume 2 contains 127 abstracts numbered from 69 through 195 as well as author and subject indices. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from both the previous volume and the current volume, the latter being indicated in boldface

  5. Practical quantitative measures of ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Larson, H.V.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty specific quantitative measures to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) programs are described along with their applicability, practicality, advantages, disadvantages, and potential for misinterpretation or dortion. Although no single index or combination of indices is suitable for all facilities, generally, these five: (1) mean individual dose equivalent (MIDE) to the total body from penetrating radiations; (2) statistical distribution of MIDE to the whole body from penetrating radiations; (3) cumulative penetrating whole body dose equivalent; (4) MIDE evaluated by job classification; and (5) MIDE evaluated by work location-apply to most programs. Evaluation of other programs may require other specific dose equivalent based indices, including extremity exposure data, cumulative dose equivalent to organs or to the general population, and nonpenetrating radiation dose equivalents. Certain nondose equivalent indices, such as the size of the radiation or contamination area, may also be used; an airborne activity index based on air concentration, room volume, and radiotoxicity is developed for application in some ALARA programs

  6. ALARA engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Khan, T.A.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-05-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report, prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health, is the second in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a specific focus towards DOE facilities. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste; uranium enrichment; fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing; facility decommissioning; hot laboratories; tritium production; research, test and production reactors; weapons fabrication and testing; and accelerators. Material on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, job planning, improved operational techniques, and other topics has also been included. This volume (Volume 2 of the series) contains 127 abstracts numbered from 69 through 195, as well as author and subject indices. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from both the previous volume and the current volume, the latter being indicated in boldface. Information that the reader feels should be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center

  7. Overview, what is ALARA? Are we there?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) in radiation protection at nuclear power plants is a complex criterion involving decisions requiring both professional judgement and quantitation. Professional judgement has been emphasized in most plants to date. However, unless quantitative studies are made it will be difficult to judge if doses at US plants are ALARA. An ALARA assessment for each plant is suggested, which would include evaluations of both qualitative, e.g., organizational, and quantitative, e.g., cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness, efforts. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis and ALARA Work Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Nelsen, D P

    2002-01-01

    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygien...

  9. Alara - from theory towards practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Lombard, J.; Stokell, P.J.; Croft, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Alara principle states that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. It is a simple concept - the idea behind it is widely used in nearly all spheres of life, i.e. to do the best one can under the given circumstances. This book aims to help define what is meant by best in the context of radiation protection. It describes a procedure that is useful in structuring one's approach to any particular situation where a decision as to the best course of action is required. It also provides practical guidance on how the concept can be incorporated into radiation protection programmes. This book has been written as a reference manual on both the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. But it is especially targeted at those involved in radiation protection at the practical level

  10. Can practical ALARA be taught?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guest, R. Monty

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Outside of the nuclear industry, many users of sources of ionising radiation may be characterised as 'High Frequency/Low Dose' users. It is argued here that they have special training requirements in order to understand the ICRP concept ALARA, indeed all the fundamental concepts of radiological protection and their relevance to the workplace. It is not practicable to practise dose avoidance in many situations so dose reduction becomes even more important. For example, laboratory life sciences researchers often have to use very small quantities and activities of beta emitting radioisotopes which give small or minuscule external doses to well trained workers but can give extremely serious high doses if mishandled Similarly, dentists routinely use 60- 100 kV X-ray generators to diagnose abnormalities and disease which other techniques would fail to detect. By practising simple and effective dose reduction methods, they can reduce the dose to themselves and their patients to arguably trivial levels. Method: The paper will use examples from Radiation Protection Supervisors courses run over the past 6 years for UK pharmaceutical companies and research into courses for general dental practitioners run over the past 8 years in East Anglia, England. The latter courses must meet the requirements laid down in the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 and the requirements of the professional dental association, the British Dental Council, and the continuing professional development requirements of the dental registration body, the General Dental Council. Major Findings and Conclusions: The research findings show an urgent need to train dental practitioners in the concepts and practical aspects of dose avoidance and dose minimisation, social and economic factors being considered. Pharmaceutical company research Radiation Protection Supervisors are generally well trained but also need to know the practical implications of the ALARA principle

  11. ALARA trademark 1146 strippable coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    Strippable or temporary coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination at low cost. These coatings have become a viable option during the deactivation and decommissioning of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The ALARA trademark 1146 strippable coating was demonstrated as part of the Savannah River Site LSDDP and successfully removed transferable (surface) contamination from multiple surfaces (metal and concrete) with an average decontamination factor for alpha contamination of 6.68 and an average percentage of alpha contamination removed of 85.0%. Beta contamination removed was an average DF of 5.55 and an average percentage removed of 82.0%. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. This Innovative Technology offers a 35% cost savings over the Baseline Technology

  12. The organization of ALARA program at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setaro, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The organization of an ALARA Program at a DOE Facility (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), it's relationship with laboratory management, facility operators, and the radiation protection program is described. The use of chartered ALARA committees at two distinct levels is discussed

  13. ALARA implementation throughout project life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, M.J. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    A strength of radiation protection programs generally has been endorsement and application of the ALARA principle. In Ontario Hydro, which currently operates 20 commercial size nuclear units, great strides have been made in the last three decades in reducing occupational radiation exposure per unit of electricity generated. This paper will discuss specific applications of elements of the overall ALARA program which have most contributed to dose reduction as the nuclear program has expanded. This includes such things as management commitment, ALARA application in the design phase and major rehabilitation work, the benefits of the self protection concept, a specific example of elimination (or reduction) of the source term and the importance of dose targets. Finally, it is concluded that the major opportunities for further improvements may lie in the area of information management.

  14. ALARA in practice: How is it working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Lochard, J.

    1984-01-01

    At the first CEC scientific seminar on optimisation in 1979 (21) most of the papers were concerned with possible methodologies for quantification of the ALARA concept and difficulties in applying them. Very few gave even theoretical examples of how it could be applied in practice. In contrast, at this second seminar most of the papers are examples of how quantified techniques have been used to assist towards ALARA decisions. This rapporteurs paper examines the quantification frameworks available and how they are being used in practice on the basis of the papers presented at this meeting

  15. ALARA efforts in nordic BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Lundgren, K.; Elkert, J. [ABB Atom, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Some ALARA-related ABB Atom projects are currently under investigation. One of the projects has been ordered by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, and two others by the Nordic BWR utilities. The ultimate objective of the projects is to identify and develop methods to significantly decrease the future exposure levels in the Nordic BWRS. As 85% to 90% of the gamma radiation field in the Nordic BWRs originates from Co-60, the only way to significantly decrease the radiation doses is to effect Co and Co-60. The strategy to do this is to map the Co sources and estimate the source strength of Co from these sources, and to study the possibility to affect the release of Co-60 from the core surfaces and the uptake on system surfaces. Preliminary results indicate that corrosion/erosion of a relatively small number of Stellite-coated valves and/or dust from grinding of Stellite valves may significantly contribute to the Co input to the reactors. This can be seen from a high measured Co/Ni ratio in the feedwater and in the reactor water. If stainless steel is the only source of Co, the Co/Ni ratio would be less than 0.02 as the Co content in the steel is less than 0.2%. The Co/Ni ratio in the reactor water, however, is higher than 0.1, indicating that the major fraction of the Co originates from Stellite-coated valves. There are also other possible explanations for an increase of the radiation fields. The Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces increases approximately as the square of the burn-up level. If the burn-up is increased from 35 to 5 MWd/kgU, the Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces will be doubled. Also the effect on the behavior of Co-60 of different water chemistry and materials conditions is being investigated. Examples of areas studied are Fe and Zn injection, pH-control, and different forms of surface pre-treatments.

  16. ALARA and radiation protection optimization status of Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, D.I.

    2000-01-01

    ALARA in Radiation Protection is specifically applied as a tool in lowering B the risk of high exposure when performing necessary activities by reducing the doses as much and as reasonably possible. Is ALARA also a matter of IMAGE? ALARA is one of the main aspects that contributes to forming the image of a certain facility. Many experiences in the world show a decrease in the collective dose per station after proper ALARA implementation. This trend is more relevant for 'adult' nuclear sites. At Cernavoda NPP the authorization process itself included implementation of an effective ALARA program. (author)

  17. Shippingport station decommissioning project ALARA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crimi, F.P. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Properly planned and implemented ALARA programs help to maintain nuclear worker radiation exposures {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable.{close_quotes}. This paper describes the ALARA program developed and implemented for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The elements required for a successful ALARA program are discussed along with examples of good ALARA practices. The Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS) was the first commercial nuclear power plant to be built in the United States. It was located 35 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, PA on the south bank of the Ohio river. The reactor plant achieved initial criticality in December 1959. During its 25-year life, it produced 7.5 billion kilowatts of electricity. The SAPS was shut down in October 1982 and was the first large-scale U.S. nuclear power plant to be totally decommissioned and the site released for unrestricted use. The Decommission Project was estimated to take 1,007 man-rem of radiation exposure and $.98.3 million to complete. Physical decommissioning commenced in September 1985 and was completed in September 1989. The actual man-rem of exposure was 155. The project was completed 6 months ahead of schedule at a cost of $91.3 million.

  18. ALARA in radioactive waste management- Summary and recommendations of the 11. European ALARA Network Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Crouail, P.; Drouet, F.

    2008-01-01

    The 11. European ALARA Network (E.A.N.) workshop on 'ALARA in radioactive waste management' took place in Athens (Greece) in April 2008. The aim of that workshop was to focus on the implementation of the ALARA principle with regard to occupational and public exposures arising from the management of radioactive waste in all sectors (nuclear, medical, industrial, etc.). This workshop consisted of invited oral presentations, which highlighted the main issues, and half of the programme was devoted to discussions within working groups on specific topics. Individual presentations (papers and slides) are available to download from the E.A.N. web site (http://www.eu-alara.net). Based on report backs from the groups and discussions with all the participants, five formal recommendations have been formulated. These recommendations, addressed to international organisations (International Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, Nuclear Energy Agency), national authorities, national and local stake holders and to E.A.N. itself, deal with the following themes: international guidance on ALARA in radioactive waste management, harmonization issues at the international level, ALARA approach in non-nuclear waste management, 'broader approach' in the radioactive waste management process, stake holder involvement. The objective of this paper is to present the main conclusions and the five recommendations produced during the workshop. (authors)

  19. Steam generator replacement from ALARA aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, I.; Breznik, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is going to consider radiological related parameters important for steam generator replacement (SGR) implementation. These parameters are identified as ALARA related parameters, owner-contractor relationship, planning, health physics with logistic services, and time required for the replacement. ALARA related parameters such as source or initial dose rate and plant system configuration define the initial conditions for the planning. There is room to optimise work planning. managerial procedures and also the staff during the implementation phase. The overview of these general considerations is based on the following background: using internationally available data and the experience of one of the vendors, i.e. Siemens-Framatome, and management experience of SG replacement which took place at Krsko NPP in the spring of 2000. Generally plant decisions on maintenance or repair procedures under radiation conditions take into account ALARA considerations. But in the main it is difficult to adjudge the results of an ALARA study, usually in the form of a collective dose estimate, because a comparison standard is missing. That is, very often the planned work is of a one-off nature so comparisons are not possible or the scopes are not the same. In such a case the collective doses for other types of work are looked at and a qualitative evaluation is made. In the case of steam generator replacement this is not the case. Over years of steam generator replacements world-wide a standard has been developed gradually. The first part of the following displays an overview of SGR and sets the Krsko SGR in perspective by applying dose analysis. The second part concentrates on the Krsko SGR itself and its ALARA aspects. (authors)

  20. Integration of Formal Job Hazard Analysis and ALARA Work Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSEN, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    ALARA work practices have traditionally centered on reducing radiological exposure and controlling contamination. As such, ALARA policies and procedures are not well suited to a wide range of chemical and human health issues. Assessing relative risk, identifying appropriate engineering/administrative controls and selecting proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for non nuclear work activities extends beyond the limitations of traditional ALARA programs. Forging a comprehensive safety management program in today's (2002) work environment requires a disciplined dialog between health and safety professionals (e.g. safety, engineering, environmental, quality assurance, industrial hygiene, ALARA, etc.) and personnel working in the field. Integrating organizational priorities, maintaining effective pre-planning of work and supporting a team-based approach to safety management represents today's hallmark of safety excellence. Relying on the mandates of any single safety program does not provide industrial hygiene with the tools necessary to implement an integrated safety program. The establishment of tools and processes capable of sustaining a comprehensive safety program represents a key responsibility of industrial hygiene. Fluor Hanford has built integrated safety management around three programmatic attributes: (1) Integration of radiological, chemical and ergonomic issues under a single program. (2) Continuous improvement in routine communications among work planning/scheduling, job execution and management. (3) Rapid response to changing work conditions, formalized work planning and integrated worker involvement

  1. Management organization and administration for ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamentals of organizational structure and administration as applied to the goal of keeping occupational radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable are discussed, including consideration of management commitment, organizational separation of health physics functions, reporting levels, designation of responsibility and authority and adequacy of personnel and funding. Examples of good and poor organizational structures are shown, and the role and implementation of ALARA committees, effective communications, and review and audit processes are discussed. (author)

  2. ALARA in the radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Lefaure, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    This part treats especially the question of the training in radiation protection. The electro nuclear sector has given an ALARA principle culture and succeeded to sensitize each level of hierarchy, but for small industry, the research and the medical world the same method appears more difficult to use. It seems better to reinforce the importance of the competent person and to include a training in radiation protection on the initial formation in numerous professional categories. (N.C.)

  3. ALARA application in Spanish NPP's. New approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnel, P.; Labarta, T.; Amor, I.

    1996-01-01

    One main objective of all nuclear installations is to underlie the principle of optimization. The focus in the application of this principle varies considerably, from cost-benefit techniques in the design phases to commitment, attitude and motivation in operation. The ALARA principle should permeate the entire organisation of the company during operation. Management should be the first link of a chain originating with explicit corporate commitment, leading to increasingly specific decisions, finally to reach those who are responsible for actual performance of each task. The safety culture is an element integrating the mentality that is to prevail throughout the organisation. The organisation shall contribute to incorporating the principle of optimization in all plant operations and all phases of activity. Management's commitment and motivation are transferred to all the workers and organisations involved. The ALARA commitment naturally extends to all outside organisations. The ultimate objective is to reduce collective doses through the promotion and enforcing of an ALARA culture and compliance with the operating collective dose objectives. (author)

  4. Optimization (ALARA) of radiation protection at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weadock, A.A.; Jones, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Maintaining worker and public exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is a key objective of the Department of Energy (DOE). Responsibility for occupational ALARA program policy and guidance resides within the DOE Office of Health. Current Office of Health initiatives related to ALARA include the development of additional regulatory guidance related to ALARA program implementation at DOE contractor facilities, the review of ALARA program status at various facilities and the production of technical reports summarizing this status, and the support of various mechanisms to improve communication among the DOE ALARA community. The Office of Health also monitors revisions to radiogenic risk estimates and radiation protection recommendations to evaluate adequacy of current DOE limits and impacts of potentially revised limits. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately

  6. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W. [comps.

    1992-12-31

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE`s field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health`s programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors` facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters` ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors` ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  7. Proceedings of the Department of Energy ALARA Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W. (comps.)

    1992-01-01

    The report contains summaries of papers, discussions, and operational exercises presented at the first Department of Energy ALARA Workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York on April 21--22, 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for, and enhance communication among, ALARA personnel, as well as to inform DOE's field office and contractor personnel about the Office of Health's programs and expectations from the entire DOE complex efforts in the ALARA area.The two-day workshop consisted of one day dedicated to presentations on implementing various elements of a formal ALARA program at the DOE contractors' facilities, regulatory aspects of ALARA programs, and DOE Headquarters' ALARA expectations/initiatives. The second day was devoted to detailed discussions on ALARA improvements and problems, and operational exercises on cost-benefit analyses and on ALARA job/experiment reviews. At this workshop, 70 health physicists and radiation safety engineers from 5 DOE Headquarter Offices, 7 DOE operations/area offices, and 27 contractor facilities exchanged information, which is expected to stimulate further improvement in the DOE contractors' ALARA programs. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  8. Strengthening ALARA approach in work management at Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, Z.; Sirola, P.

    1999-01-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) occupational exposures at nuclear power plants should be included in work management as a concept. There are world-wide trends required by the utilities for improved design, operation and maintenance. Within the period of seventeen years of plant operation maintaining low radiation exposures requires additional efforts. The benefit of this effort should be reducing risks to nuclear workers, better work planning and performance. The Krsko Plant ALARA organisations has been revised recently and built on different levels of the hierarchy. The goal is to promote good industry practice and the management of work on primary systems. The established ALARA programme describes the objectives and defines the procedures and tools for its implementation. Brief presentation of the programme as well as organisational responsibilities of dedicated ALARA committee and working groups is the scope of this paper. The management tools and ALARA indicators are discussed to implement the programme and to evaluate the results.(author)

  9. ALARA and an integrated approach to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.; Edwards, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Exposures of individuals to ionizing radiation have been restricted for many years by a number of guidelines and rules developed by various advisory and regulatory groups. Accompanying these restrictions has been an evolving principle that exposures to individuals and groups should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), consistent with provision of the benefits of radiation use to society. Although the ALARA concept is a laudable goal in principle, its implementation in a clinical facility has not been a straightforward process. Problems of implementing ALARA have been confounded further by the efforts of regulatory agencies to incorporate the ALARA concept into regulations governing radiation exposures. To facilitate the implementation of ALARA as a workable construct in a clinical facility, guidelines are needed for its application to both individual and collective exposures to radiation. The provision of such guidelines, including action and inaction levels for both individual and collective exposures, are presented here

  10. Towards the development of an ALARA culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Thezee, C.

    2000-01-01

    The ALARA principle, which states, for each exposure situation, that doses must be kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable, taking into account economic and social factors' represents the basis of the > developed to manage the radiological risk in a responsible manner. The practical implementation of the ALARA principle is complex. It requires defining transaction mechanisms which enable a responsible management of the radiological risk, taking into account, among other things, possible risk transfers in groups and the allocation of protection resources. The players who can take part in radiological risk management are numerous and have different functions: from the authorities to exposed workers, together with company managers. They all possess specific knowledge and have objectives which are not necessarily compatible. The transactions and negotiations initiated between these players during decision-taking relative to exposure management will therefore only be efficient and productive if there exists both a mutual comprehension of individual objectives and a readiness to collaborate on a common objective: keeping the residual risk at a level both acceptable to, and accepted by, the various parties involved. A fundamental element of this process therefore lies in the development among the various players concerned of a common culture with respect to radiological risks and the methods used for their management, in order to facilitate transactions by the sharing of a common language and system of values. A possible definition of > could be: >. Based on this statement, the paper presents, illustrated by the experience of the French Utility Electricite de France, the main components which should enter into consideration for the development of an ALARA culture for the management of occupational exposures. It concludes on the necessity to construct and transmit a common patrimony of a radiological risk management system comprising the scientific and technical knowledge

  11. ALARA in the radiation protection training; ALARA dans les formations a la radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolibe, D. [CEA Saclay, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires INSTN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lefaure, Ch. [Centre d' Etudes en Protection Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1998-07-01

    This part treats especially the question of the training in radiation protection. The electro nuclear sector has given an ALARA principle culture and succeeded to sensitize each level of hierarchy, but for small industry, the research and the medical world the same method appears more difficult to use. It seems better to reinforce the importance of the competent person and to include a training in radiation protection on the initial formation in numerous professional categories. (N.C.)

  12. Dose reduction and optimization studies (ALARA) at nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been commissioned by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at LWR plants. These studies have the following objectives: identify high-dose maintenance tasks; identify dose-reduction techniques; examine incentives for dose reduction; evaluate cost-effectiveness and optimization of dose-reduction techniques; and compile an ALARA handbook on data, engineering modifications, cost-effectiveness calculations, and other information of interest to ALARA practioners

  13. Comments on two American justice decisions founded on ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the ALARA principle in the American justice is considered as a very important part of the law in evolution. The first decision called 'James decision' was the case of a worker who received a dose under the dose limit and was agreed in his demand. The second one,'Three Miles Island decision', was to refuse the ALARA principle as a norm because it would consider that the justice is more able to pilot a nuclear power plant than competent authorities. These two examples show that the ALARA principle must stay an operational guide and not a legal norm of precautions susceptible to impose sanctions by justice. (N.C.)

  14. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  15. Environmental ALARA Program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) follows the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) philosophy of keeping radiation doses to the general public as low as practical by minimizing radioactive releases to the environment. SRS accomplishes this goal by establishing challenging sitewide and area-specific Environmental ALARA Release Guides and trending radioactive releases against these guides on a monthly basis. The SRS Environmental ALARA Program, mandated by DOE Order 5400.5, is a dose-based program that has gone through many changes and improvements in recent years. A description of the SRS Environmental ALARA Program and its performance is presented in this paper. Recent SRS studies of the ''Zero Release'' option also are described

  16. ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-17

    Strippable or temporary coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination at low cost. These coatings have become a viable option during the deactivation and decommissioning of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating was demonstrated as part of the Savannah River Site LSDDP and successfully removed transferable (surface) contamination from multiple surfaces (metal and concrete) with an average decontamination factor for alpha contamination of 6.68 and an average percentage of alpha contamination removed of 85.0%. Beta contamination removed was an average DF of 5.55 and an average percentage removed of 82.0%. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. This Innovative Technology offers a 35% cost savings over the Baseline Technology.

  17. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelsen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  18. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  19. ALARA beyond dollars per person-rem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.; Harper, W.

    1983-01-01

    The trend in radiological assessments over the past decade is to extract more and more information from each bit of data. In the 1960's it was sufficient to calculate doses to the maximum individual and populations from exposure to critical nuclides in critical pathways. The 1970's brought the UNSCEAR and BEIR Reports and made the extension of calculated doses to predicted health effects fashionable. The 1980's may see data analysis extended still further to the use of an index of lost productivity. Advantages of these types of uses of dose calculations include the derivation of further insight into the system being analyzed and the attainment of a greater measure of comparability with impacts from agents other than radiological. The question is, where does the uncertainty in the analytical result overwhelm any possibility of its usefulness. This presentation addresses this question in the context of a performance analysis of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Estimates of uncertainty in dose calculations, health effects predictions and loss of productivity predictions are derived from examination of the open literature and the use of propagation of uncertainty techniques. The expected values and uncertainties are compounded as they would be in an ALARA analysis and the outcomes are analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of truncating the analysis at each stage of extension are discussed. 21 references, 3 tables

  20. The European ALARA network. Development, functioning and main activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.

    2009-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations (ICRP 103), and in particular the detailed treatment of optimisation in the ICRP Publication 101, define optimisation of protection as a source-related process aimed at keeping the likelihood of incurred exposures, the number of people exposed and the magnitude of their individual doses as low as reasonably achievable, also below constraints, taking into account economic and societal factors. Practical implementation and further development of the ALARA principle has been achieved for many years now by the successful cooperation of experts from different European organisations; first as pioneers by establishing the European ALARA Network and then by enthusiastically supporting the activities of the network itself. This contribution presents the evolution, operation and key activities of the European ALARA Network (EAN) in the last years; the successful cooperation of experts from different professional backgrounds, advocating the ALARA principle in a range of radiation protection areas, and contributing to its further development by trading experience and networking. The interaction between the EAN and international organisations, which support the ALARA principle by including relevant activities in their work programmes, is described. (orig.)

  1. Computer code for quantitative ALARA evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer code has been developed to simplify the determination of whether dose reduction actions meet the as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) criterion. The calculations are based on the methodology developed for the Atomic Industrial Forum. The code is used for analyses of eight types of dose reduction actions, characterized as follows: reduce dose rate, reduce job frequency, reduce productive working time, reduce crew size, increase administrative dose limit for the task, and increase the workers' time utilization and dose utilization through (a) improved working conditions, (b) basic skill training, or (c) refresher training for special skills. For each type of action, two analysis modes are available. The first is a generic analysis in which the program computes potential benefits (in dollars) for a range of possible improvements, e.g., for a range of lower dose rates. Generic analyses are most useful in the planning stage and for evaluating the general feasibility of alternative approaches. The second is a specific analysis in which the potential annual benefits of a specific level of improvement and the annual implementation cost are compared. The potential benefits reflect savings in operational and societal costs that can be realized if occupational radiation doses are reduced. Because the potential benefits depend upon many variables which characterize the job, the workplace, and the workers, there is no unique relationship between the potential dollar savings and the dose savings. The computer code permits rapid quantitative analyses of alternatives and is a tool that supplements the health physicist's professional judgment. The program output provides a rational basis for decision-making and a record of the assumptions employed

  2. Westinghouse Hanford Company ALARA year-end report, Calendar Year 1994: Revision 3A, Radiological engineering and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, O.D.

    1995-06-01

    It has long been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Policy that radiation doses should be maintained as far below the dose limits as is reasonably achievable. This policy, known as the ''ALARA Principle of radiation protection,'' maintains that radiation exposures should be maintained as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations. The ALARA Principle is based on the hypothesis that even very low radiation doses carry some risk. As a result, it is not enough to maintain doses at/or slightly below limits; the lower the doses, the lower the risks. Because it is not possible to reduce all doses at DOE facilities to zero, economic and social factors must be considered to determine the optimal level of radiation doses. According to the ALARA Principle, if doses are too high, resources should be well spent to reduce them. At some point, the resources being spent to maintain low doses are exactly balanced by the risks avoided. Reducing doses below this point results in a misallocation of resources; the resources could be spent elsewhere and have a greater positive impact on health and safety. The objective of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) ALARA/Contamination Control Improvement Project (CCIP) Program is to manage and control exposures (both individual and collective) to the work force, the general public, and the environment to levels as low as is reasonable using the aforementioned ALARA Principle

  3. Report on the PWR-radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, D.J. [Consumers Power Co., Covert, MI (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, representatives from several utilities with operational Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) formed the PWR-Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee. The mission of the Committee is to facilitate open communications between member utilities relative to radiation protection and ALARA issues such that cost effective dose reduction and radiation protection measures may be instituted. While industry deregulation appears inevitable and inter-utility competition is on the rise, Committee members are fully committed to sharing both positive and negative experiences for the benefit of the health and safety of the radiation worker. Committee meetings provide current operational experiences through members providing Plant status reports, and information relative to programmatic improvements through member presentations and topic specific workshops. The most recent Committee workshop was facilitated to provide members with defined experiences that provide cost effective ALARA performance.

  4. ANI/MAELU engineering inspection criteria 8.3 ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, L. [American Nuclear Insurers, West Hardford, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this criteria section is to provide guidelines for programs whose intent is to achieve occupational doses and doses to members of the public that are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The success that has been achieved by applying ALARA concepts at nuclear power plants is clearly illustrated by the major reductions in the annual cumulative dose to workers at many sites over the last few years. This success is the combined result of the general maturity of the nuclear industry, the intensive study of dose reduction practices by industry groups, and the successful sharing of experience and practices among plants. Source term reduction should be used as a primary ALARA mechanism. Methods which should be considered include: satellite and cobalt reduction, chemistry control, decontamination, submicron filters, zinc addition, hot spot reduction and permanent or temporary shielding.

  5. Experiences in ALARA application: 7th parade of maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenta R, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The achieved experience with these activities, and all the carried out during the seventh stop but that they are not included here, carried to take a serie of decisions in the ALARA group, of which can be mentioned the following: 1. Definition of goals of collective dose and singular for works, to complete the ALARA commitment toward the occupational exposure personnel of the CLV. 2. To analyze the obtained information, as quick as possible, for using it in similar situations of work (to normalize the obtained results, when this is possible. 3. To coordinate the activities in those that participate different work groups with the end of not hindering the development of the same ones. 4. To establish ALARA responsibles of the works to fulfill functions of: pursuit of the work and information to the workers for their safety

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA Report for Calendar Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1993 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes information regarding whole-body exposures to radiation, and skin contaminations. The collective whole-body radiation dose to employees during 1993 was 0.58 person-sievert (58 person-rem). This dose was 11 percent lower than the projected dose of 0.65 person-sievert (65 person-rem). The Radiation Protection Section's Field Dosimetry Services group projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 0.02 sievert (2 rem) based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the limit by the end of CY 1993. There were 15 reported cases of skin contamination for PNL employees during 1993. This number of 60 percent of the projected total of 25 cases. There were an additional 21 cases of personal-effects contamination to PNL staff: Nine of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building, nine occurred at the 325 Building, one occurred in the 327 Building, one occurred in the 3720 Building, and one occurred in the 326 Building. Line management set numerous challenging and production ALARA goals for their facilities. Appendix A describes the final status of the 1993 ALARA goals. Appendix B describes the radiological ALARA goals for 1994. The Radiation Protection Section of the Laboratory Safety Dept. routinely perform audits of radiological ALARA requirements for specific facilities with significant potential for exposure. These ALARA audits are part of a comprehensive safety audit of the facility, designed to evaluate and improve total safety performance

  7. ALARA: The next link in a chain of activation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.P.H.; Henderson, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Adaptive Laplace and Analytic Radioactivity Analysis [ALARA] code has been developed as the next link in the chain of DKR radioactivity codes. Its methods address the criticisms of DKR while retaining its best features. While DKR ignored loops in the transmutation/decay scheme to preserve the exactness of the mathematical solution, ALARA incorporates new computational approaches without jeopardizing the most important features of DKR's physical modelling and mathematical methods. The physical model uses 'straightened-loop, linear chains' to achieve the same accuracy in the loop solutions as is demanded in the rest of the scheme. In cases where a chain has no loops, the exact DKR solution is used. Otherwise, ALARA adaptively chooses between a direct Laplace inversion technique and a Laplace expansion inversion technique to optimize the accuracy and speed of the solution. All of these methods result in matrix solutions which allow the fastest and most accurate solution of exact pulsing histories. Since the entire history is solved for each chain as it is created, ALARA achieves the optimum combination of high accuracy, high speed and low memory usage. 8 refs., 2 figs

  8. ALARA review for the 202-S plutonium loadout hood stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patch, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposures, control contamination levels, and control airborne radioactivity concentrations while conducting stabilization of the Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Facility plutonium loadout hood and associated piping, and the isolation of the ER-8 ventilation system

  9. VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning and communication tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeersch, F.

    2006-01-01

    Human operations are required in nuclear installation, during maintenance, outage, repair and decommissioning. This leads to the exposure of the worker to radiation. It is clear that these operations must be performed according to the ALARA principle (to reduce the dose As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The person responsible for planning the job needs to evaluate different scenarios based on the exposure of the worker. This involves the manipulation of a lot of information specific to the work place such as the geometry, materials, radiological and technical boundary conditions to assess the dose. A lot of communication between the ALARA stakeholders is needed during this pre-job study. A communication that can be cumbersome and tedious when based on written documents and paper plans. The use of 3D calculation and simulation tools provide a solution to this problem. They provide an excellent means to make the above mentioned process more efficient and effective by calculating and visualising the environment and the associated radiological risk. The VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool is developed and designed by SCK-CEN as a dose assessment tool enabling the user to calculate the dose in a 3D environment for work scenarios. This software is very successful in the ALARA field. At present 22 companies in Europe use the VISIPLAN software in the field of dose assessment in maintenance and decommissioning. Recent developments and applications are discussed

  10. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Meinhold, C.B.; Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE's nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers'' and PNL-6577 ''Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.'' The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility

  11. ALARA tools and performance indicators at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitu, C.; Popescu, V.; Simionov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Work efficiency is an area of high concern to nuclear power plant operators. Job planning has to be done so that there will be enough time for ALARA actions to be implemented. The control of the activities involving radiological risk is part of ALARA Process. An effective control supposes the implementation of a process to systematically identify the activities performed in radiological areas. Plant Performance Indicators related to ionizing radiation exposure have been established to improve station safe performance. They are assessed and reported periodically to reflect the safe operation objectives. If target values are exceeded 'abnormal condition reports' are generated. Corrective and preventive actions aim at work planning, technical aspects, and human performance. All the staff is informed about these events and corrective actions described through the training program are implemented. (authors)

  12. Practice of ALARA in the pediatric interventional suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Bairbre; Racadio, John; Towbin, Richard

    2006-01-01

    As interventional procedures have become progressively more sophisticated and lengthy, the potential for high patient radiation dose has increased. Staff exposure arises from patient scatter, so steps to minimize patient dose will in turn reduce operator and staff dose. The practice of ALARA in an interventional radiology (IR) suite, therefore, requires careful attention to technical detail in order to reduce patient dose. The choice of imaging modality should minimize radiation when and where possible. In this paper practical steps are outlined to reduce patient dose. Further details are included that specifically reduce operator exposure. Challenges unique to pediatric intervention are reviewed. Reference is made to experience from modern pediatric interventional suites. Given the potential for high exposures, the practice of ALARA is a team responsibility. Various measures are outlined for consideration when implementing a quality assurance (QA) program for an IR service. (orig.)

  13. Designing plants for ALARA-revelation or evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The author traces the Duke Nuclear program from the late 1960s to today. He then looks at the future. The primary goal, he says, should be to continue to reduce individual exposure in order to reduce total station, industry exposure. In order to accomplish this goal in the design process, he recommends continued training of design personnel to reinforce the ALARA concepts and to provide new industry techniques and actual examples

  14. Effective use of metrics in an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, B.B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include; external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting and processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific ''indicators''. To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. This required the end users to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that customers can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer's most frequently asked questions. It is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, ''user friendly'', software and contains information from RIR's, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics

  15. LANL Environmental ALARA Program Status Report for CY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ensures that radiation exposures to members of the public and the environment from LANL operations, past and present, are below regulatory thresholds and are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) through compliance with DOE Order 458.1 Radiation Protection for the Public and the Environment, and LANL Policy 412 Environmental Radiation Protection (LANL2016a). In 2007, a finding (RL.2-F-1) and observation (RL.2-0-1) in the NNSA/ LASO report, September 2007, Release of Property (Land) Containing Residual Radioactive Material Self-Assessment Report, indicated that LANL had no policy or documented process in place for the release of property containing residual radioactive material. In response, LANL developed PD410, Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental ALARA Program. The most recent version of this document became effective in 2014 (LANL 2014a). The document provides program authorities, responsibilities, descriptions, processes, and thresholds for conducting qualitative and quantitative ALARA analyses for prospective and actual radiation exposures to the public and t o the environment resulting from DOE activities conducted on the LANL site.

  16. Improvement of ALARA in Taiwan Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, H. M.; Chang, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The ALARA(as low as reasonable achievable ) principle is a basic spirit of radiation safety culture and the most important element of a successful radiation safety program. In recent years, the ALARA principle and practices have been widely applied to the three operating nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Through the effective communication and fully cooperation between the authority and utility, the performance goals of improving radiation safety program have been set, and the implementation plans have been proposed and followed. Taking Chinshan nuclear power station as an example, in 2004, the occupational individual dose was 1.13mSv/ person in average,no one exceeded 20mSv ,and the collective dose was 1.03man-Sv/unit which achieved the best record of BWR plant in Taiwan. The radiation reduction approaches and tools adopted by the plants include removing radiation sources, setting radiation shieding, optimizing and controlling the schedule of radiation practices, considering the occupancy factors, and better administrative management to keep exposure ALARA will be discussed in this paper

  17. The uniform application of ALARA to all radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomroy, C.

    1988-05-01

    New information on the dosimetry and epidemiology of atomic bomb survivors suggests that risk estimates may have to be revised upwards. This has focussed increased attention on the ALARA principle. The ICRP believes that ALARA principle is the driving force in keeping average radiation doses low. In practice, the optimization process required for ALARA varies between different sectors of the nuclear industry. For instance, the power utilities have developed procedures for comparing different dose reduction options. Similarly, uranium mine operators have applied optimization techniques to questions concerning ventilation and shielding of ore trucks. Missing from this list however, is the use of a formal optimizing technique in medical and research uses of radioactivity or radiation. Nonetheless, average annual doses to these workers are quite low. An alternative approach to optimization calculation has been suggested, entailing the identification of sub-groups of workers with substantially higher doses to discover the reasons for the higher doses, and to develop means to reduce them to the overall average. Thus maintenance mechanics in nuclear reactors, by the very nature of their jobs, have more potential for higher dose. The utilities are developing procedures to reduce the maintenance mechanics' doses. If the same analysis is applied to medical workers, it is seen that isotope technicians and therapeutic radiology technicians have average doses well above the overall average. The feasibility of some form of optimization process for these categories of workers is discussed

  18. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-11-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report, prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health, contains the third in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. This report also contains abstracts from the two previous volumes. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy Data Base, and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, and accelerators. Material on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, job planning, improved operational techniques, and other topics are also included

  19. ALARA radiation considerations for the AP600 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The radiation design of the AP600 reactor plant is based on an average annual occupational radiation exposure (ORE) of 100 man-rem. As a design goal we have established a lower value of 70 man-rem per year. And, with our current design process, we expect to achieve annual exposures which are well below this goal. To accomplish our goal we have established a process that provides criteria, guidelines and customer involvement to achieve the desired result. The criteria and guidelines provide the shield designer, as well as the systems and plant layout designers with information that will lead to an integrated plant design that minimizes personnel exposure and yet is not burdened with complicated shielding or unnecessary component access limitations. Customer involvement is provided in the form of utility input, design reviews and information exchange. Cooperative programs with utilities in the development of specific systems or processes also provides for an ALARA design. The results are features which include ALARA radiation considerations as an integral part of the plant design and a lower plant ORE. It is anticipated that a further reduction in plant personnel exposures will result through good radiological practices by the plant operators. The information in place to support and direct the plant designers includes the Utility Requirements Document (URD), Federal Regulations, ALARA guidelines, radiation design information and radiation and shielding design criteria. This information, along with the utility input, design reviews and information feedback, will contribute to the reduction of plant radiation exposure levels such that they will be less than the stated goals.

  20. Use of metrics in an effective ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, B.B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    ALARA radiological protection programs require metrics to meet their objectives. Sources of metrics include external dosimetry; internal dosimetry; radiological occurrences from the occurrence reporting an processing system (ORPS); and radiological incident reports (RIR). The sources themselves contain an abundance of specific open-quotes indicators.close quotes To choose the site-specific indicators that will be tracked and trended requires careful review. Justification is needed to defend the indicators selected and maybe even stronger justification is needed for those indicators that are available, but not chosen as a metric. Historically, the many different sources of information resided in a plethora of locations. Even the same type of metric had data located in different areas and could not be easily totaled for the entire Site. This required the end user to expend valuable time and effort to locate the data they needed. To address this problem, a central metrics database has been developed so that a customer can have all their questions addressed quickly and correctly. The database was developed in the beginning to answer some of the customer's most frequently asked questions. IL is now also a tool to communicate the status of the radiation protection program to facility managers. Finally, it also addresses requirements contained in the Rad Con manual and the 10CFR835 implementation guides. The database uses currently available, open-quotes user friendly,close quotes software and contains information from RIR's, ORPS, and external dosimetry records specific to ALARA performance indicators. The database is expandable to allow new metrics input. Specific reports have been developed to assist customers in their tracking and trending of ALARA metrics. These include quarterly performance indicator reports, monthly radiological incident reports, monthly external dose history and goals tracking reports, and the future use of performance indexing

  1. An evaluation of high-dose jobs for ALARA improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, J. H.; Kim, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that about 70 percent of occupational dose have incurred from maintenance jobs at outage period. To reduce occupational dose, first, the high-dose jobs at the outage period should be identified and evaluated. For this, the database program is used, which contains the ORE data of reference plants, Kori Units 3 and 4. As a result, it is found that the jobs related to steam generator are the highest dose jobs in terms of collective ORE dose. From the analysis of the job procedures of those jobs, the ALARA improvements are also derived

  2. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  3. ALARA review for the deactivation of 105-N Lift Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    This ALARA review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure and to control contamination levels and airborne radioactivity concentrations, while removing water, sludge, stabilizing surfaces, and all other associated work involved in the deactivation of the 105-N Lift Station. The lift station was used as a sump and received contaminated water from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin weirs and contaminated drains in the 105-N Building. During operation water from the lift station was pumped to the 1310-N and 1325-N cribs. Deactivation of the lift station is a critical step in completing the deactivation of N-Area

  4. ALARA Review of 233-S Process Hood D and D and Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This document is an as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review of design packages for planned work at the 233-S Facility. The ALARA review was initiated in accordance with the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) Integrated Environmental, Safety, and Health Management System (ISMS) workflow process

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory plan to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higby, D.P.; Denovan, J.T.

    1982-12-01

    This document describes the radiation safety program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The practices and administrative policies of this program support the principles of ALARA (to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable). This document also describes a program to establish safety goals at PNL to help ensure that operations are conducted according to ALARA principles

  6. As low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) studies relative to the NWTS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, L.A.; Schlegel, R.L.; Sullivan, R.P.

    1977-10-01

    The history of development of the as-low-as-is-reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept and ALARA criteria for radiation exposures as applied to both off-site (environmental) and on-site (occupational) exposures at nuclear power plants are reviewed. The current status of activities within the various federal agencies directed toward developing ALARA criteria for other areas of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented. Based on the historical development, the present activities, and on discussions with numerous people involved in this area, the future development of ALARA criteria and implications for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is forecast. Environmental ALARA criteria which relate to minimizing radiation to the surrounding populaltion are discussed along with current occupational ALARA criteria and quidelines for risk-benefit assessments that are under development and recommendations to assure that evolving ALARA concepts are periodically brought up to date and that such concepts be made available to those subcontractors who have responsibility for design and operation of a repository. An annotated bibliography of some 83 sources giving information on ALARA criteria and its application is included. (JRD)

  7. History and Culture of Alara--The Action Learning and Action Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron

    2016-01-01

    As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…

  8. As low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) studies relative to the NWTS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, L.A.; Schlegel, R.L.; Sullivan, R.P.

    1977-10-01

    The history of development of the as-low-as-is-reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept and ALARA criteria for radiation exposures as applied to both off-site (environmental) and on-site (occupational) exposures at nuclear power plants are reviewed. The current status of activities within the various federal agencies directed toward developing ALARA criteria for other areas of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented. Based on the historical development, the present activities, and on discussions with numerous people involved in this area, the future development of ALARA criteria and implications for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is forecast. Environmental ALARA criteria which relate to minimizing radiation to the surrounding populaltion are discussed along with current occupational ALARA criteria and quidelines for risk-benefit assessments that are under development and recommendations to assure that evolving ALARA concepts are periodically brought up to date and that such concepts be made available to those subcontractors who have responsibility for design and operation of a repository. An annotated bibliography of some 83 sources giving information on ALARA criteria and its application is included

  9. ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices - Summary and recommendations of the 12. European ALARA network workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Crouail, P.; Drouet, F.

    2010-01-01

    The 12. European ALARA Network (EAN) workshop on 'ALARA issues arising for safety and security of radiation sources and security screening devices' took place in Vienna (Austria) in October 2009. The aim of that workshop was to consider how the implementation of ALARA3, in terms of planned and emergency situations, involving worker and public doses, is affected by the introduction of security-related measures. In the case of new equipment and procedures, there was also the question of whether exposures arising from security screening devices can be justified and optimised. This workshop consisted of invited oral presentations, which highlighted the main issues, and half of the programme was devoted to discussions within working groups on specific topics. During their discussions, the working groups identified recommendations dealing with the following topics: the implementation of the Code of Conduct and HASS4 - ensuring ALARA; balancing security and safety - how to achieve an optimum solution; the management of an emergency exposure situation from an ALARA perspective; the justification and optimisation of the use of security devices. The objective of this paper is to present the main conclusions and recommendations produced during the workshop. Individual presentations (papers and slides) as well as the reports from the working groups are available to download on the EAN web site (http://www.eu-alara.net). (authors)

  10. Computer and computer graphics support for the ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, D.; Hall, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Computer programs have been developed which support three aspects of the ALARA program at Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO): 1) Setting annual dose and skin contamination goals, 2) Analyzing trends in operational organizations' dose, numbers of skin contaminations, or radiation occurrences, and 3) Presenting graphic displays to enhance worker safety awareness. Programs have been written which search dosemetry files and produce histograms of annual occupational exposure and skin contamination histories utilizing the DISSPLA software or a desk top color graphics terminal. These programs and associated graphics are used to assemble dose and skin contamination information in a summary format so that ALARA teams can assess the past year's performance and establish reduction goals for the coming year. In addition, the graphics provide a management tool for recognizing desirable or undesirable trends in an organization's occupational dose or number of skin contaminations. Desk top graphics capabilities have been used to display safety-related data to enhance management review and worker awareness of radiological and industrial safety conditions in the work area. The following graphs are prepared on a monthly basis: 1) Numbers of skin contaminations company wide and for specific operating organizations within the company, 2) Numbers of radiation occurrences, 3) Dose histories for specific operational organizations, 4) Numbers of OSHA recordable incidents, 5) OSHA recordable incident rates and severity levels and 6) Lost workday cases

  11. Decommissioning ALARA programs Cintichem decommissioning experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, J.J.; LaGuardia, T.S. [TLG Services, Inc., Bridgewater, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Cintichem facility, originally the Union Carbide Nuclear Company (UCNC) Research Center, consisted primarily of a 5MW pool type reactor linked via a four-foot-wide by twelve-foot-deep water-filled canal to a bank of five adjacent hot cells. Shortly after going into operations in the early 1960s, the facility`s operations expanded to provide various reactor-based products and services to a multitude of research, production, medical, and education groups. From 1968 through 1972, the facility developed a process of separating isotopes from mixed fission products generated by irradiating enriched Uranium target capsules. By the late 1970s, 20 to 30 capsules were being processed weekly, with about 200,000 curies being produced per week. Several isotopes such as Mo{sup 99}, I{sup 131}, and Xe{sup 133} were being extracted for medical use.

  12. The European ALARA network, support and medium of radioprotection optimisation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, C.; Lefaure, C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the ALARA principle which has been used in radioprotection for the past thirty years, and also the network bearing the same name. ALARA means 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable'. The article recalls the different stages of theoretical and conceptual developments which gave birth to a radioprotection optimisation procedure. It also recalls practical developments. It presents the EAN, the European ALARA Network, its objectives, its recent evolution. It evokes the impact of its recommendations, its means of information, and indicates its perspectives

  13. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W.; Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose

  14. Cobalt reduction of NSSS valve hardfacings for ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Hak; Lee, Sang Sub

    1994-07-01

    This report informs NSSS designer that replacement of materials is one of the major means of ALARA implementation, and describes that NSSS valves with high-cobalt hardfacing are significant contributors to post-shutdown radiation fields caused by activation of cobalt-59 to cobalt-60. Generic procedures for implementing cobalt reduction programs for valves are presented. Discussions are presented of the general and specific design requirements for valve hardfacing in nuclear service. The nuclear safety issues involved with changing valve hardfacing materials are discussed. The common methods used to deposit hardfacing materials are described together with an explanation of the wear measurements. Wear resistance, corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, and mechanical properties of candidate hardfacing alloys are given. World-wide nuclear utility experience with cobalt-free hardfacing alloys is described. The use of low-cobalt or cobalt-free alloys in other nuclear plant components is described. 17 figs., 38 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  15. Culture of safety. Indicators of culture of safety. Stage of culture of safety. Optimization of radiating protection. Principle of precaution. Principle ALARA. Procedure ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursa, E.

    2006-01-01

    Object of research: is the theory and practice of optimization of radiating protection according to recommendations of the international organizations, realization of principle ALARA and maintenance of culture of safety (SC) on the nuclear power plant. The purpose of work - to consider the general aspects of realization of principle ALARA, conceptual bases of culture of safety, as principle of management, and practice of their introduction on the nuclear power plant. The work has the experts' report character in which the following questions are presented: The recommendations materials of the IAEA and other international organizations have been assembled, systematized and analyzed. The definitions, characteristics and universal SC features, and also indicators as a problem of parameters and quantitative SC measurements are described in details advanced. The ALARA principles - principle of precaution; not acceptance of zero risk; choice of a principle ALARA; model of acceptable radiation risk are described. The methodology of an estimation of culture of safety level and practical realization of the ALARA principle in separate organization is shown on a practical example. The SC general estimation at a national level in Republic of Moldova have been done. Taking into consideration that now Safety Culture politics are introduced only in relation to APS, in this paper the attempt of application of Safety Culture methodology to Radiological Objects have been made (Oncological Institute of the Republic of Moldova and Special Objects No.5101 and 5102 for a long time Storage of the Radioactive Waste). (authors)

  16. ALARA Council: Sharing our resources and experiences to reduce doses at Commonwealth Edison Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescek, F. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Commonwealth Edison Company is an investor-owned utility company supplying electricity to over three million customers (eight million people) in Chicago and northern Illinois, USA. The company operates 16 generating stations which have the capacity to produce 22,522 megawatts of electricity. Six of these generating stations, containing 12 nuclear units, supply 51% of this capacity. The 12 nuclear units are comprised of four General Electric boiling water (BWR-3) reactors, two General Electric BWR-5 reactors, and six Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactors (PWR). In August 1993, Commonwealth Edison created an ALARA Council with the responsibility to provide leadership and guidance that results in an effective ALARA Culture within the Nuclear Operations Division. Unlike its predecessor, the Corporate ALARA Committee, the ALARA Council is designed to bring together senior managers from the six nuclear stations and corporate to create a collaborative effort to reduce occupational doses at Commonwealth Edison`s stations.

  17. Reducing patient radiation exposure during paediatric SVT ablations: use of CARTO® 3 in concert with "ALARA" principles profoundly lowers total dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Robert H; Gates, Gregory G; Gellis, Laura A; Nappo, Lynn; Ceresnak, Scott R

    2015-06-01

    "ALARA--As Low As Reasonably Achievable" protocols reduce patient radiation dose. Addition of electroanatomical mapping may further reduce dose. From 6/11 to 4/12, a novel ALARA protocol was utilised for all patients undergoing supraventricular tachycardia ablation, including low frame rates (2-3 frames/second), low fluoro dose/frame (6-18 nGy/frame), and other techniques to reduce fluoroscopy (ALARA). From 6/12 to 3/13, use of CARTO® 3 (C3) with "fast anatomical mapping" (ALARA+C3) was added to the ALARA protocol. Intravascular echo was not utilised. Demographics, procedural, and radiation data were analysed and compared between the two protocols. A total of 75 patients were included: 42 ALARA patients, and 33 ALARA+C3 patients. Patient demographics were similar between the two groups. The acute success rate in ALARA was 95%, and 100% in ALARA+C3; no catheterisation-related complications were observed. Procedural time was 125.7 minutes in the ALARA group versus 131.4 in ALARA+C3 (p=0.36). Radiation doses were significantly lower in the ALARA+C3 group with a mean air Kerma in ALARA+C3 of 13.1±28.3 mGy (SD) compared with 93.8±112 mGy in ALARA (p<0.001). Mean dose area product was 92.2±179 uGym2 in ALARA+C3 compared with 584±687 uGym2 in ALARA (p<0.001). Of the 33 subjects (42%) in the ALARA+C3 group, 14 received ⩽1 mGy exposure. The ALARA+C3 dosages are the lowest reported for a combined electroanatomical-fluoroscopy technique. Addition of CARTO® 3 to ALARA protocols markedly reduced radiation exposure to young people undergoing supraventricular tachycardia ablation while allowing for equivalent procedural efficacy and safety.

  18. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedures for maintenance site: application to replacement of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Lefaure, C.

    1989-08-01

    This report proposes generic organization and ALARA procedures for preparing a maintenance site at a NPP. After a short description of the ALARA principle, it describes the proposition for French sites. They are grouped according to the following: motivation, organisation, means. They are illustrated by the example of steam generator replacement. Three special points concerning preparation of the site are developed: education; training of operators; review of the project

  19. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  20. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts

  1. Interpretation of ALARA in the Canadian regulatory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utting, R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is responsible for the regulation of all aspects of atomic energy in Canada. This includes the complete nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to long-term disposal of nuclear fuel, as well as the medical and industrial utilization of radioisotopes. Clearly, the regulatory approach will differ from practice to practice but, as far as possible, the AECB has attempted to minimize the degree of prescription of regulatory requirements. The traditional modus operandi of the AECB has been to have broad general principles enshrined in regulations with the requirement that licensees submit specific operating policies and procedures to the AECB for approval. In the large nuclear facilities with their sophisticated technical infrastructures, this policy has been largely successful although in a changing legal and political milieu the AECB is finding that a greater degree of proactive regulation is becoming necessary. With the smaller users, the AECB has for a long time found it necessary to have a greater degree of prescription in its regulatory function. Forthcoming General Amendments to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations will, amongst other things, formally incorporate the concept of ALARA into the Canadian regulatory framework. Within the broad range of practices licensed by the AECB it is not practical to provide detailed guidance on optimization that will be relevant and appropriate to all licensees, however the following general principles are proposed.

  2. ALARA and de minimis concepts in regulation of personnel exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ALARA process should not be limited by a de minimis level on either collective or individual dose, but should be limited or defined by an acceptable discount-rate on future costs and effects, and a monetary value for detriment, to be used in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit calculations at dose levels well below the regulatory limits. This approach would provide the desired benefit of simplifying the decision process, it makes it more cost effective, and would avoid the inconsistencies of limits on only one of the four parameters of importance in the optimization process. These are average individual effective dose equivalent rate, number of individuals to be included in the summation, years of exposure, and costs, which include costs of analysis to reduce the exposure. This approach emphasizes that these doses to an individual may not be considered trivial by society when given to a very large population, especially if they could easily be avoided. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Department of Energy ALARA implementation guide. Response to the Health Physics Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, J.M. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In the August 1993 Health Physics Society (HPS) newsletter, the HPS Scientific and Public Issues Committee published a Position Statement entitled {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.{close_quotes}. In this article, this HPS committee made the statement that they were deeply concerned by the trend for agencies to incorporate the ALARA concept as a regulatory requirements, without providing specific guidance as to what it means and how to implement it consistently. The HPS position paper was in response to the DOE notice on proposed rulemaking for Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 834, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment{close_quotes} (10 CFR 834). In the notice of proposed rulemaking for 10 CFR 834, the Department of Energy (DOE) defined ALARA as follows: {open_quotes}As used in this part, ALARA is not a dose limit, but rather a process which has the objective of attaining doses as far below the applicable limit of this part as is reasonably achievable{close_quotes} (10 CFR 834.2, p. 16283 of the Federal Register). The HPS position paper continues, {open_quotes}The section goes on to elaborate on what is meant by a process without providing sufficient guidance to assure uniform applicability of the process.{close_quotes}. Although this concern is directed towards the ALARA process as it relates to the environment, the Office of Health, which is responsible for occupational workers, shares the same definition for ALARA.

  4. ALARA and decommissioning: The Fort St. Vrain experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borst, T.; Niehoff, M. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Platteville, CO (United States); Zachary, M. [Scientific Ecology Group, Platteville, CO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station, the first and only commercial High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor to operate in the United States, completed initial fuel loading in late 1973 and initial startup in early 1974. Due to a series of non-nuclear technical problems, Fort St. Vrain never operated consistently, attaining a lifetime capacity factor of slightly less than 15%. In August of 1989, the decision was made to permanently shut down the plant due to control rod drive and steam generator ring header failures. Public Service Company of Colorado elected to proceed with early dismantlement (DECON) as opposed to SAFSTOR on the bases of perceived societal benefits, rad waste, and exposure considerations, regulatory uncertainties associated with SAFSTOR, and cost. The decommissioning of Fort St. Vrain began in August of 1992, and is scheduled to be completed in early 1996. Decommissioning is being conducted by a team consisting of Westinghouse, MK-Ferguson, and Scientific Ecology Group. Public Service Company of Colorado as the licensee provides contract management and oversight of contractor functions. An aggressive program to maintain project radiation exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) has been established, with the following program elements: temporary and permanent shielding contamination control; mockup training; engineering controls; worker awareness; integrated work package reviews communication; special instrumentation; video camera usage; robotics application; and project committees. To date, worker exposures have been less than project estimates. from the start of the project through Februrary of 1994, total exposure has been 98.666 person-rem, compared to the project estimate of 433 person-rem and goal of 347 person-rem. The presentation will discuss the site characterization efforts, the radiological performance indicator program, and the final site release survey plans.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory ALARA report for Calendar Year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, S.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides summary results of the Calendar Year (CY) 1994 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Program performance at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This report includes data regarding performance in the area of personnel exposures to radiation, skin contaminations, control of contaminated areas, minimization of radioactive waste, and control of radioactive releases. In CY 1994: (1) The collective total effective dose equivalent to PNL employees during 1994 was 55 person-rem. The Field Dosimetry Services of the Radiological Control Department, Technical Support Section, projected that no PNL employee's dose would exceed 2 rem based on dosimeters processed during the year; no worker actually exceeded the projection-by the end of CY 1994. The maximum dose to any individual was 1.11 rem. (2) There were 34 instances of skin and personal-clothing contamination events for PNL employees during 1994. Eighteen of these contamination events occurred at the 324 Building; eleven occurred at the 325 Building; two occurred in the 327 Building; one occurred in the 326 Building; one occurred in the 3708 Building; and one occurred in the RTL Building. (3) PNL facilities contained 12 Airborne Radioactivity Areas, and 60 Contamination Areas and High Contamination Areas. The area of the Airborne Radioactivity Areas was 383 m 2 (4125 ft 2 ). The area of the Contamination Areas was 5290 m 2 (56,947 ft 2 ). The area of the High Contamination Areas was 266 m 2 (2863 ft 2 ). (4) PNL disposed of 10.5 m 3 (371 ft 3 ) of compacted low level waste. Also disposed was 423 m 3 (14,949 ft 3 ) of noncompacted low level and mixed waste that was not subject to volume reduction. The total radioactivity of the disposed waste was 1217 Ci. (5) PNL facilities released 165.2 Ci of noble gas, 3.0E-5 Ci of airborne particulate radioactive material, and 12.2 Ci of tritium to the environment

  6. ALARA dosimetry study for non productive radiation exposures in Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.

    1981-04-01

    A special ALARA study was conducted during 1980 in selected Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities. The study utilized thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) which were designed to detect gamma, beta, and neutron exposures; however, only gamma exposures are evaluated in this report. The processing of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) dosimeters was performed by the Dosimetry Technology Section of the Radiological Sciences Department. Evaluation of dosimetry data and locations was performed in conjunction with the Radiation Monitoring Section and the Radiological Safety and Engineering Section of the Occupational and Environmental Protection Department. This study was prompted by a DOE-RL directive to reduce radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) with a goal of no personnel whole-body penetrating exposures exceeding 3 rem for calendar year 1980. The purpose of this study was to characterize the background radiation environment at selected locations within PNL facilities. Attention was focused on non productive radiation exposure received from the work environment

  7. ALARA Review for Concrete Sampling and Robot Deployment at 221-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    This document is an as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review for performing characterization activities at 221-U Plant (U-Plant) in support of the Canyon Disposition Initiative. The scope of work includes sampling concrete and deployment of the robot into the ventilation tunnel to support characterization activities. While performing a radiological review of the work scope, it was determined that contamination levels in the work area may exceed the Level 2 ALARA review trigger levels specified in BHI-SH-02, Volume 1, Safety and Health Procedures, Procedure 1.22, ''Planning Radiological Work.'' This ALARA review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure, control contamination levels, and control airborne radioactivity concentrations while conducting characterization and sampling activities at the 221-U Plant (U-Plant)

  8. Methodology for making environmental as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Speer, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall evaluation concept for use in making differential cost-benefit analyses in environmental as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) determinations is being implemented by Rockwell Hanford Operations. This evaluation includes consideration of seven categories: (1) capital costs; (2) operating costs; (3) state of the art; (4) safety; (5) accident or upset consequences; (6) reliability, operability, and maintainability; and (7) decommissionability. Appropriate weighting factors for each of these categories are under development so that ALARA determinations can be made by comparing scores of alternative proposals for facility design, operations, and upgrade. This method of evaluation circumvents the traditional basis of a stated monetary sum per person-rem of dose commitment. This alternative was generated by advice from legal counsel who advised against formally pursuing this avenue of approach to ALARA for environmental and occupational dose commitments

  9. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  10. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roecklein, A.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  11. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  12. ALARA cost/benefit analysis at Union Electric company using the ARP/AI methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a specific method for justification of expenditures associated with reducing occupational radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This methodology is based on the concepts of the Apparebt Reduction Potential (ARP) and Achievability index (AI) as described in NUREG/CR-0446, Union Eletric's corporate planning model and the EPRI Model for dose rate buildup with reactor operating life. The ARP provides a screening test to determine if there is a need for ALARA expenditures based on actual or predicted exposure rates and/or dose experience. The AI is a means of assessing all costs and all benefits, even though they are expressed in different units of measurement such as person-rem and dollars, to determine if ALARA expenditures are justified and their value. This method of cost/benefit analysis can be applied by any company or organization utilizing site-specific exposure and dose rate data, and incorporating consideration of administrative exposure controls which may vary from organization to organization. Specific example cases are presented and compared to other methodologies for ALARA cost/benefit analysis

  13. Radiation protection-culture. Culture improvement in radiation protection and ALARA behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    In order to that the optimization principle become an actual professional liable dynamical critter in the radiological protection topics, the hierarchic impulse and the personnel sensitiveness are determining. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) in the firm cultivation modify the behaviour and act philosophy. 7 refs., 2 figs

  14. The Evaluation of personnel radiation dose and society radiation on RSG-GAS around as proposal determination of ALARA value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande Made Udiyani; Puradwi IW

    2007-01-01

    Each nuclear installation to achieve radiation safety has to meet the ALARA concepts. The ALARA value of a nuclear installation should be enacted by regulator body. ALARA value can be determined by evaluation radiation exposure and dose acceptance of nuclear installation operation. As case study in Indonesia, ALARA assessment in nuclear installation is done at RSG-GAS reactor. Intention of this research is to determine gyration reference assess ALARA by evaluate radiation dose acceptance by RSG-GAS radiation personnel and the influence of RSG-GAS operation to presentation of radiation accepted by society which living around its. ALARA of RSG-GAS determined based on evaluation of measurement data of the radiation doses which is accepted by personnel radiation. While evaluation of radiation doses which is accepted by society in the radius 5 km of the RSG-GAS conducted to data result of calculation using program package of CAP-88 and measurement result with method of carborne survey. Result of radiation dose evaluation obtained which not pass dose definition for the radiation worker that is 50 mSv/year, and for society around RSG-GAS that is 5 mSv/year. Based on the result of evaluation hence obtained value of ALARA for RSG-GAS in value of gyration 17 - 50 mSv/year. (author)

  15. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren, R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  17. ALARA database value in future outage work planning and dose management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Green, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    ALARA database encompassing job-specific duration and man-rem plant specific information over three refueling outages represents an invaluable tool for the outage work planner and ALARA engineer. This paper describes dose-management trends emerging based on analysis of three refueling outages at Clinton Power Station. Conclusions reached based on hard data available from a relational database dose-tracking system is a valuable tool for planning of future outage work. The system's ability to identify key problem areas during a refueling outage is improving as more outage comparative data becomes available. Trends over a three outage period are identified in this paper in the categories of number and type of radiation work permits implemented, duration of jobs, projected vs. actual dose rates in work areas, and accuracy of outage person-rem projection. The value of the database in projecting 1 and 5 year station person-rem estimates is discussed

  18. ALARA database value in future outage work planning and dose management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.W.; Green, W.H. [Clinton Power Station Illinois Power Co., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    ALARA database encompassing job-specific duration and man-rem plant specific information over three refueling outages represents an invaluable tool for the outage work planner and ALARA engineer. This paper describes dose-management trends emerging based on analysis of three refueling outages at Clinton Power Station. Conclusions reached based on hard data available from a relational database dose-tracking system is a valuable tool for planning of future outage work. The system`s ability to identify key problem areas during a refueling outage is improving as more outage comparative data becomes available. Trends over a three outage period are identified in this paper in the categories of number and type of radiation work permits implemented, duration of jobs, projected vs. actual dose rates in work areas, and accuracy of outage person-rem projection. The value of the database in projecting 1 and 5 year station person-rem estimates is discussed.

  19. Radiation exposure usage accountability and impact with respect to ALAP (ALARA) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    A unique method has been developed for radiation exposure usage accounting at the N Reactor. This method accounts for exposure usage by specific job and working crafts. The accounting system provides information for use in job planning, exposure resource management, and ALAP (ALARA) analysis. It provides justification for ALAP expenditures, documentation of the effectiveness of exposure reduction efforts, and can be used to establish priorities for ALAP efforts

  20. Interpretation of the concepts of ALARA and bat for radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the important concepts of both ALARA and BAT associated with the characteristics of effluent releases from the existing nuclear installations and the abatement techniques for effluents, this paper elaborates the principle of controlling radioactive effluent concentration from nuclear installation, that is based on the BAT focusing on the abatement techniques for effluents, introduces the good practice in the projects, and optimize the effluent releases with account taken of external factors such as the site condition. (authors)

  1. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  2. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  3. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  4. Application of the Alara principle to the occupationally exposed workers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Haider, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report sets down how the Alara (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is applied in radiation protection of the occupationally exposed personnel at light-water reactors in EC countries. In some instances the practices, experiences and results from EC countries are supplemented by the practice in other States (e.g. USA, Sweden). Commencing with a short summary of the legal situation in the Member States of the European Community with regard to Alara, the report describes the framework in which the optimization practice has been developed. The main chapters elaborate in detail how the Alara principle has been put into practice in design and operation in LWRs. The importance of qualification and training of power-plant personnel in relation to optimization of radiation protection is considered and some comparisons are drawn with the US practice. Recommendations are made where reason for modification or harmonization of practices is seen in the conclusions of the different chapters and the overall conclusions and summary of the report

  5. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals

  6. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory

  7. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  8. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  9. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  10. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  11. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  12. Report on the BWR owners group radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, L.R. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiation protection programs at U.S. boiling water reactor (BWR) stations have evolved during the 1980s and early 1990s from a regulatory adherence-based endeavor to a proactive, risk-based radiation protection and prevention mission. The objectives are no longer to merely monitor and document exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. The focus of the current programs is the optimization of radiation protection of occupational workers consistent with the purpose of producing cost-effective electric power. The newly revised 10 CFR 20 defines the term ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) to take into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of the technology, and the benefits to the public health and safety. The BWR Owners Group (BWROG) initially formed the Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee in January 1990 to evaluate methods of reducing occupational radiation exposure during refueling outages. Currently, twenty U.S. BWR owner/operators (representing 36 of the operational 37 domestic BWR units), as well as three foreign BWR operators (associate members), have broadened the scope to promote information exchange between BWR radiation protection professionals and develop good practices which will affect optimization of their radiation protection programs. In search of excellence and the challenge of becoming {open_quotes}World Class{close_quotes} performers in radiation protection, the BWROG Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee has recently accepted a role in assisting the member utilities in improving radiation protection performance in a cost-effective manner. This paper will summarize the recent activities of this Committee undertaken to execute their role of exchanging information in pursuit of optimizing the improvement of their collective radiation protection performance.

  13. Report on the BWR owners group radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation protection programs at U.S. boiling water reactor (BWR) stations have evolved during the 1980s and early 1990s from a regulatory adherence-based endeavor to a proactive, risk-based radiation protection and prevention mission. The objectives are no longer to merely monitor and document exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. The focus of the current programs is the optimization of radiation protection of occupational workers consistent with the purpose of producing cost-effective electric power. The newly revised 10 CFR 20 defines the term ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) to take into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of the technology, and the benefits to the public health and safety. The BWR Owners Group (BWROG) initially formed the Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee in January 1990 to evaluate methods of reducing occupational radiation exposure during refueling outages. Currently, twenty U.S. BWR owner/operators (representing 36 of the operational 37 domestic BWR units), as well as three foreign BWR operators (associate members), have broadened the scope to promote information exchange between BWR radiation protection professionals and develop good practices which will affect optimization of their radiation protection programs. In search of excellence and the challenge of becoming open-quotes World Classclose quotes performers in radiation protection, the BWROG Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee has recently accepted a role in assisting the member utilities in improving radiation protection performance in a cost-effective manner. This paper will summarize the recent activities of this Committee undertaken to execute their role of exchanging information in pursuit of optimizing the improvement of their collective radiation protection performance

  14. Practical application of the ALARA principle in management of the nuclear legacy: optimization under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham; Sneve, Malgorzata K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiological protection has a long and distinguished history in taking a balanced approach to optimization. Both utilitarian and individual interests and perspectives are addressed through a process of constrained optimisation, with optimisation intended to lead to the most benefit to the most people, and constraints being operative to limit the degree of inequity among the individuals exposed. At least, expressed simplistically, that is what the recommendations on protection are intended to achieve. This paper examines the difficulties in achieving that objective, based on consideration of the active role of optimisation in regulatory supervision of the historic nuclear legacy. This example is chosen because the application of the ALARA principle has important implications for some very major projects whose objective is remediation of existing legacy facilities. But it is also relevant because timely, effective and cost efficient completion of those projects has implications for confidence in the future development of nuclear power and other uses of radioactive materials. It is also an interesting example because legacy management includes mitigation of some major short and long term hazards, but those mitigating measures themselves involve operations with their own risk, cost and benefit profiles. Like any other complex activity, a legacy management project has to be broken down into logistically feasible parts. However, from a regulatory perspective, simultaneous application of ALARA to worker protection, major accident risk mitigation and long-term environmental and human health protection presents its own challenges. Major uncertainties which exacerbate the problem arise from ill-characterised source terms, estimation of the likelihood of unlikely failures in operational processes, and prospective assessment of radiological impacts over many hundreds of years and longer. The projects themselves are set to run over decades, during which time the

  15. Use of rank sum method in identifying high occupational dose jobs for ALARA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong Ho; Kang, Chang Sun

    1998-01-01

    The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) dose at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORE dose data of existing plants. It is necessary to identify what are high ORE jobs for ALARA implementation. In this study, the Rank Sum Method (RSM) is used in identifying high ORE jobs. As a case study, the database of ORE-related maintenance and repair jobs for Kori Units 3 and 4 is used for assessment, and top twenty high ORE jobs are identified. The results are also verified and validated using the Friedman test, and RSM is found to be a very efficient way of analyzing the data. (author)

  16. Optimisation of structural shielding of accelerator control room for compliance with ALARA principle under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Masood; Singh, Brijesh

    1999-01-01

    The case of a 20 MV x-ray accelerator has been considered in this paper for optimisation. An internationally recommended value of α = US$ 1000 per person-sievert has been assumed. Cost of concrete has been assumed as US$ 82.7/m 3 . It is seen that, extra shielding is needed to satisfy the ALARA principle. Further, the amount of requisite shielding increases with the degree of occupancy and, also, if the local construction materials or the labour are cheaper than considered in this paper. Accordingly 1.5 to 4.75 HVLs may be needed as extra shielding in different situations. Therefore, a site specific and installation specific optimisation of shielding is necessary

  17. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedure for preparation, follow-up and experience gained from maintenance: application to replacement of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Lefaure, Christian

    1989-12-01

    This report proposes the organisation and ALARA procedures for preparation, follow-up and analysis of the lessons learned during maintenance works at a nuclear power plant. After a brief description of the ALARA principle in the first chapter, the following chapters describe proposals for establishing and start-up of a maintenance building site. The proposals are illustrated by the replacement of the pressure vessel as an example

  18. Proposal of organisation and ALARA procedure for preparation, follow-up and experience gained from maintenance: application to replacement of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Lefaure, Christian

    1990-01-01

    This report proposes the organisation and ALARA procedures for preparation, follow-up and analysis of the lessons learned during maintenance works at a nuclear power plant. After a brief description of the ALARA principle in the first chapter, the following chapters describe proposals for establishing and start-up of a maintenance building site. The proposals are illustrated by the replacement of the pressure vessel as an example

  19. ALARA Review of the Activation/Repair of Fire Detectors in Zone Three at the 233-S Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure 1.22, 'Planning Radiological Work', when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the viewing room meets this criterion. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-005-8.3.3 (mini task instruction to a living work package), 'Instructions for D ampersand D Support of Fire Detector Troubleshooting and Minor Maintenance Work at 233-S,' and DynCorp 2G-98-7207C, '233-S Reconnect Smoke Detectors Zone 3.' The Radiological Work Permit (RWP) request broke these two task instructions into four separate tasks. The four tasks identified in the RWP request were used to estimate airborne concentrations and the total exposure

  20. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S P.R. can loadout and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. Disassembly of the loadout hood and its associated equipment may be done in parallel with the isolation of 233-S from REDOX via the pipe trench equipment removal. The work scope is to remove the entire loadout hood from the Product Receiver (P.R.) Can Loadout and Decon Room inside the 233-S Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the loadout hood and its associated equipment is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the loadout hood and disassembly commences. This ALARA review is for the task instruction 1997-03-18-010 Revision 0, 233-S Loadout Hood Decon and Dismantlement

  1. Low dose radiation and ALARA: the potential risks to patients and staff from alpha-therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, N.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    This year a new drug containing radium-223, an alpha-emitting radionuclide, was approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration for the palliative treatment of advanced prostate cancer metastases. Other drugs containing short-lived alpha-emitters are on clinical trial in Europe. Commonly, these employ a radionuclide attached to an antibody that specifically targets tumor cells to produce a highly localized radio-therapeutic dose to the tumor. However, normal tissues within the body will also be irradiated, albeit sometimes at low dose, and the question arises as to whether this presents a significant additional risk to the patient. Similarly, medical staff that handle these radionuclides could receive intakes of the radionuclides. What is the risk to staff? To assess the risk resulting from small tissue alpha-doses the toxicological, both human and animal, database was re-examined. The results of 20 epidemiological and toxicological studies with alpha-emitting radionuclides were analysed. In all cases a polynomial function provided a better fit to the data than a linear, no thresholds function. Also, in 19 cases a threshold dose below which no cancer is seen was indicated. The position of this threshold varied according to cancer type, but was typically in the range 0.1 to 1.0Gy of tissue dose - with a mean of 0.5Gy. It is concluded that alpha-radiation induced tumorogenesis is a threshold response and that as long as tissue doses are kept below these thresholds no additional cancers would be seen in either patients receiving alpha-therapy or in staff exposed to 'spilt' radionuclide. The presence of thresholds questions the appropriateness of current ALARA practices that are mostly used to drive occupational alpha-radiation exposures to as close to zero as possible. (author)

  2. Reducing patient radiation dosage during pediatric SVT ablations using an "ALARA" radiation reduction protocol in the modern fluoroscopic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Laura A; Ceresnak, Scott R; Gates, Gregory J; Nappo, Lynn; Pass, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    Ablation for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) relies upon fluoroscopy (fluoro), which exposes the patient and staff to ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to present a new "ALARA--As Low As Reasonably Achievable" protocol with alterations to fluoroscopic x-ray parameters to reduce dose without an electroanatomical (EAM) approach. All patients SVT at our institution from June 2011 to April 2012 were included. EAM was not utilized in any case. An ALARA protocol of low frame rates (2 or 3 fps), low fluoro dose/frame (10-18 nGy/frame), and other techniques aimed at reducing use of fluoroscopy were employed. Demographics, procedural, and radiation data were analyzed. Forty-two patients underwent ablation and were studied. Median age was 14.1 years (range 4.8-21.1 years), weight was 51 kg (range 18.2-75 kg), and body surface area was 1.51 m(2) (range 0.72- 1.94 m(2)). Seventeen (41%) had Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, 14 (33%) atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, and 11 (26%) concealed pathways. Median procedural time was 114 minutes (57-246 minutes). Median dose area product (DAP) for posterioanterior and lateral fluoroscopy was 343.2 uGym(2) (range 38.2-3,172 uGym(2)); the median air Kerma product (K) was 45.4 mGy (range 6.7-567.5 mGy). DAP and K are lower than prior data from EAM and fluoroscopy techniques. The acute success rate was 95%; no procedural complications. An ALARA protocol for ablation of SVT reduced radiation to below levels previously reported for combined EAM/fluoro approaches. Success rates were excellent with no complications and without the costs of EAM. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. ALARA review of the maintenance and repair jobs of repetitive high radiation dose at Kori Unit 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Moon, J.H.; Kang, C.S.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    The policy of maintaining occupational radiation dose (ORD) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) requires the effective reduction of ORD in the phases of design as well as operation of nuclear power plants. It has been identified that a predominant portion of ORD arises during maintenance and repair operations at nuclear power plants. The cost-effective reduction of ORD cannot be achieved without a comprehensive analysis of accumulated ORD data of existing nuclear power plants. To identify the jobs of repetitive high ORD, the ORD data of Kori Units 3 and 4 over 10-year period from 1986 to 1995 were compiled into the PC-based ORD database program. As the radiation job classification structure, 26 main jobs are considered, most of which are further subdivided into detailed jobs. According to the order of the collective dose values for 26 main jobs, 10 jobs of high collective dose are identified. As an ALARA review, then, top 10 jobs of high collective dose are statistically analyzed with regard to 1) dose rate, 2) crew number and 3) job frequency that are the factors determining the collective dose for the radiation job of interest. Through the ALARA review, main reasons causing to high collective dose values are identified as follows. The high collective dose of RCP maintenance job is mainly due to the large crew number and the high job frequency. The characteristics of refueling job are similar to those of RCP maintenance job. However, the high collective doses of SG-related jobs such as S/G nozzle dam job, S/G man-way job and S/G tube maintenance job are mainly due to high radiation dose rate. (author)

  4. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique

  5. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  6. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  7. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report

  8. Application of the ALARA principle to minimize the collective dose in NPP accident management within the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorad, V.; Slepchenko, O.; Kyrylenko, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on application of the ALARA principle to minimize the collective doses (both for NPP personnel and the public) related to admission of personnel to the containment for accident management activities and depending on operation of ventilation systems. Results from assessment of radiation consequences are applied to a small - break LOCA with failure of LPIS at VVER - 1000 reactors. The public doses are evaluated using up - to - date RODOS, MACCS and HotSpot software for assessment of radiation consequences. The personnel doses are evaluated with MicroShield and InterRAS codes. The time function and optimal value of the collective dose are defined. The developed approach can be applied for minimization of the collective dose for optimization of accident management strategies at NPPs

  9. New recommendations of the ICRP and the ALARA program of the Nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla C, I.

    1991-01-01

    In view of the events happened in it finishes it decade, in the nuclear environment, it is necessary that any he/she practices that it involves exhibition to the radiation, real or potential, be detailed and systematically analyzed by the light of the current knowledge, capitalizing the generated experience. They think about three fundamental aspects in the campaign of radiological cultivation: 1. New methods of evaluation of equivalent dose. 2. Limit of individual dose, base of the change and control implications, and 3. Analysis philosophies and the application of the system of dose limitation. The program ALARA of the Laguna Verde Central from its installation in 1987 observes and it implements actions trending to optimize it practice of situation of potential and planned exhibition with the purpose of fulfilling the commitment settled down in the declaration of political of this program

  10. ALARA (As Low As Reasonable Achievable) procedure applied to fuel assembly fabrication with enriched reprocessing uranium (ERU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos; Degrange, Jean Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The study introduced by this paper compose the first step to the implementation of ALARA (As Low As Reasonable Achievable) for a nuclear fuel assembly factory which one of its two production lines will be designed to work with Enriched Reprocessing Uranium (ERU). This step includes the reference situation analysis is based on previsional dosimetric evaluations for individual and collective exposures of each factory operator (117 in total) working on 7 work stations, considering 6 annual production scenarios (10, 50 75, 100 and 150 ERU tons), which corresponds to an annual production of 600 tons (ERU plus enriched natural uranium ENU). The exposure indicators evolution, expressed in terms of collective dose, annual individual dose and radiological detrimental cost for workers, is also used in a complimentary way to guide the analysis. (author)

  11. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P and A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented

  12. Practice and experience of radiation protection and optimization (ALARA) management system in Daya Bay NPP during the past 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Degan; He Yu; Yang Maochun; Gu Jingzhi

    2004-01-01

    With the practice of 10 years safe operation, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station has established and continuously improved the management system for radiation protection and optimization (ALARA) which contains 3 basic requirements: all workers are trained, all employees are engaged in totally, and work management is implemented for the whole process. At the same time, strong efforts have been made to build the 'infrastructure' as a platform for its effective operation. This article introduces the contents and characteristics of the system and basic experiences of its effective implementation. In order to implement the management system effectively, it is necessary for NPPs to strengthen the responsibility system for radiation protection and the leading role of the radiation protection personnel, especially the role of technical support and supervision during the work with high radiation risk, emphasize the organic combination and actively mutual action with the safe operation management system of the plant, and pay great attention to the formation of safety culture and the experience feedback to ensure the continuous improvement of the management system

  13. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well other topics, has been included. This volume (Volume 4 of the series) contains 209 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume

  14. Argon-41 ALARA, or reduction of argon-41 released from the OSTR by use of a nitrogen purging system for the rotating rack facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    During a generally concurrent era, the NRC began emphasizing the concept of keeping all radiation doses and releases of radioactivity to the environment 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). In much the same way as the physical security regulations were expanded, the ALARA idea was defined for a number of different NRC licensee categories, but the underlying principle remained the same, namely, reduce occupational doses and releases of radioactivity. In keeping with this NRC policy (i.e., regulatory requirement), the OSTR staff conducted a study of the argon-41 production sites throughout the facility, with the idea of minimizing the production without increasing the potential for higher occupational doses to the staff. The reduction in argon-41 production and release should, after a full year's implementation, result in the 41.68 curie value documented for the past reporting year (July 1, 1980 through June 30, 1981) being cut to about 9 curies per year. This value is based on the fact that the LN purging system was used about the last four months of the stated reporting period. From a dose commitment standpoint, this should reduce the maximum projected annual dose in the unrestricted area under the worst case hypothetical conditions from the currently estimated 1.04 mrem per year to about 0.23 mrem per year

  15. The necessary guidance on the application of JUSTIFICATION and ALARA by the nuclear authorities, using 'Accountability for Reasonableness' as a decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veuchelen, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In all branches of law, but foremost in international nuclear law, the global economic system brings along a vast record of Soft Law covering General Principles and Standards. For a part we can find these Soft Law Principles and Standards back in the clothing of hard law, or in the licensing procedures, at the national level. The larger part however is never 'transposed' into national laws and especially the harmonization, the implementation and control of such Principles and Standards remain doubtful. In this paper the focus lies on JUSTIFICATION and ALARA, as the main nuclear safety principles, accepted world-wide. The regulatory guidance and demonstration of these Principles, indicating which (numerical) safety levels or safety objectives are mandatory and which are only guidance should be undertaken by the international regulators and authorities, but are often lacking. It is the aim of this paper to come up with a better procedural framework for a priority setting process by nuclear authorities. Establishing a fair process for priority setting is easier than agreeing on principles. We use the idea of 'Accountability for Reasonableness', developed in the field of Health Care Management. An ideal model of priority setting within the JUSTIFICATION/ALARA approach will need to specify what should be done (i.e. justified ethically) and how it can be done (i.e. based in empirical reality and on benchmarking), to reach optimal levels of nuclear safety. (author)

  16. ALARA and work management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C. [Centre d`etude sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Perin, M. [Environmental Radiation Protection and Security Dept., Saint-Denis (France); Saumon, P. [Framatome, Lyon (France)

    1995-03-01

    At the request of Electricite de France (EDF) and Framatome, the Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) developed a three-year research project, between 1991 and 1993, to evaluate the impact of various work management factors that can influence occupational exposures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to assess the effectiveness of protective actions implemented to reduce them. Three different categories of factors have been delineated: those linked to working conditions (such as ergonomic of work areas and protective suits), those characterizing the operators (qualification, experience level, motivation, etc.). In order to quantify the impact of these factors, a detailed survey was carried out in five French NPPs, focusing on three types of operations: primary valves maintenance, decontamination of reactor cavity, and specialized maintenance operations on the steam generator. This survey was augmented by a literature review on the influence of {open_quotes}hostile{close_quotes} environment on working conditions. Finally, a specific study was performed in order to quantify the impact of various types of protective suits used in French nuclear installations according to the type of work to be done. All of these factors have been included in a model aiming at quantifying the effectiveness of protection actions, both from dosimetric and economic point of views.

  17. When RCRA meets ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify an inconsistency between RCRA and AEA and for distinguishing a true inconsistency from a compliance difficulty. The paper also provides examples of each situation, accommodating specific RCRA requirements to maintain adherence to radiation protection requirements. The proposed method is derived from radiation protection guidance to Federal agencies for occupational exposure that was issued by EPA, under authority derived from Executive Order 10831, the AEA, and Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970. This EPA guidance was approved by President Reagan on January 20, 1987 and closely reflects the guidance of national and international radiation standard-setting groups

  18. ALARA and work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Perin, M.; Saumon, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the request of Electricite de France (EDF) and Framatome, the Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) developed a three-year research project, between 1991 and 1993, to evaluate the impact of various work management factors that can influence occupational exposures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to assess the effectiveness of protective actions implemented to reduce them. Three different categories of factors have been delineated: those linked to working conditions (such as ergonomic of work areas and protective suits), those characterizing the operators (qualification, experience level, motivation, etc.). In order to quantify the impact of these factors, a detailed survey was carried out in five French NPPs, focusing on three types of operations: primary valves maintenance, decontamination of reactor cavity, and specialized maintenance operations on the steam generator. This survey was augmented by a literature review on the influence of open-quotes hostileclose quotes environment on working conditions. Finally, a specific study was performed in order to quantify the impact of various types of protective suits used in French nuclear installations according to the type of work to be done. All of these factors have been included in a model aiming at quantifying the effectiveness of protection actions, both from dosimetric and economic point of views

  19. ALARA notes, Number 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the 'tyranny' of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment

  20. Ecological aspects of the radiation-migration equivalence principle in a closed fuel cycle and its comparative assessment with the ALARA principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluektov, P.P.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Nikipelov, B.V.; Rachkov, V.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Voloshin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    .e. the ALARA principle. Economic factors are disregarded in constructing the RME principle (for example, the cost of SNF reprocessing to the corresponding depth). However, the RME principle may be demonstrated to broad sections of the public with achieving the necessary understanding, which is of crucial importance. The ALARA principle is not reduced to the RME principle and is a more general programme into which the RME principle may be embedded. The ALARA principle covers all the stages of creating a burial, including the design, building, operation, and closing with the subsequent monitoring. This principle regulates the stages of burial building, the location of waste, the use of remote control and protected equipment for location of waste, environmental control, measures for a decrease in the probability of emergences and their consequences, which should provide the main aim the control and a decrease in the dose load on staff and members of the public at all the stage of creating and operating the RW burial. (author)

  1. Optimization (Alara) and probabilistic exposures: the application of optimization criteria to the control of risks due to exposures of a probabilistic nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper described the application of the principles of optimization recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to the restrain of radiation risks due to exposures that may or may not be incurred and to which a probability of occurrence can be assigned. After describing the concept of probabilistic exposures, it proposes a basis for a converging policy of control for both certain and probabilistic exposures, namely the dose-risk relationship adopted for radiation protection purposes. On that basis some coherent approaches for dealing with probabilistic exposures, such as the limitation of individual risks, are discussed. The optimization of safety for reducing all risks from probabilistic exposures to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels is reviewed in full. The principles of optimization of protection are used as a basic framework and the relevant factors to be taken into account when moving to probabilistic exposures are presented. The paper also reviews the decision-aiding techniques suitable for performing optimization with particular emphasis to the multi-attribute utility-analysis technique. Finally, there is a discussion on some practical application of decision-aiding multi-attribute utility analysis to probabilistic exposures including the use of probabilistic utilities. In its final outlook, the paper emphasizes the need for standardization and solutions to generic problems, if optimization of safety is to be successful

  2. Evaluating remote control and robotics actions in NPPs in an ALARA perspective: lessons from the evolution of steam generator tube plugging technique in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Lochard, J.; Blain, A.

    1989-01-01

    Introducing remote tooling and robotics in NPPs raises many questions. Is it better to develop specific robotic tools for each type of operation, or to conceive more generic multipurpose tool carriers. Does the introduction of remote control and robotics always reduce human involvement and collective doses. What are the impacts on individual doses distribution for the most exposed operators. Under what conditions is robotics justified from an economical point of view. Even if robotics and remote tooling actions can reduce significantly individual and collective exposures, because of their high costs of development, they will be adopted only if simultaneously the potential for operational cost savings is also clearly demonstrated. Integrating operational cost savings in the cost evaluation of the ALARA procedure is important to compare and select among different robotics and remote control actions. This paper presents how to evaluate in a systematic way dose reductions, operational costs savings as well as the conditions under which robotics and remote control actions can effectively improve occupational radiation protection in NPPs. The demonstration is based on an analysis of the evolution of the steam generator tube plugging technique developed in French PWRs

  3. ALARA Principle Application for Loading Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies from Nuclear Research Reactor WR-S Mergal-Bucharest Romania into Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Safety implementation of Spent Nuclear Fuels Assemblies (SNFA) handling procedures at the WR-S reactor site is ensured by technical perfection and reliability of equipment, monitoring of its condition, qualification and discipline of personnel as well as organization and execution of work complied with requirements of regulatory documents, process procedures, guidance and manuals. The personnel training for execution loading of SNF FAs is other important aspect for radiation protection and safely activities. Estimations carried out using Micro Shield software show that maximal dose rate upon working site when loading four FAs into basket of cask will not exceed 1.7 and 956;Sv/h, excluding natural radiation. Radiation Safety Analyses estimates for loading 70 SNFA in 18 transportation casks are: maximal individual dose: 4274.7 and 956;Sv, maximal expected collective dose persons: 17 031.2 man and 956;Sv. By application ALARA principle with technical and administrative measures the loading process developed in the following conditions: maximal individual dose: 68 and 956;Sv, the collective dose persons: 732 man and 956;Sv. The work will presented the technical measures and procedures applied in loading process.

  4. Clinical application of ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: “How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S., E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Krishna, Satheesh; Saxena, Akshay K.; Sinha, Anindita; Khandelwal, Niranjan [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Lee, Edward Y. [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Pulmonary Division, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave. Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Practice of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be saved from harmful radiation exposure if ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. • A consecutive 1302 CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children’s hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, ‘Justification’ of CT was evaluated and then ‘Optimization’ was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies that was avoided by applying ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. • Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient departments (p < 0.05). • To conclude, a substantial number of pediatric patients, particularly coming from inpatients departments, can be saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure from CT imaging when ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA are applied

  5. Clinical application of ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: “How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Krishna, Satheesh; Saxena, Akshay K.; Sinha, Anindita; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Lee, Edward Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Practice of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be saved from harmful radiation exposure if ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. • A consecutive 1302 CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children’s hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, ‘Justification’ of CT was evaluated and then ‘Optimization’ was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies that was avoided by applying ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. • Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient departments (p < 0.05). • To conclude, a substantial number of pediatric patients, particularly coming from inpatients departments, can be saved from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure from CT imaging when ‘Justification’ and ‘Optimization’ principle of ALARA are applied

  6. Dose response relationship and Alara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1986-09-01

    In this paper, it will be shown how dose-response relationships allow to give quantitative figures for the detriment of irradiation. At this stage, the detriment is expressed directly as a certain number of health effects, whose valuation is not dealt with here. The present tools for quantifying, their weaknesses and their strenghts, and their scientific basis will be developed

  7. Applied ALARA Workshops Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DECKER, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this standard is to provide Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) with guidance for ensuring radiological considerations are adequately addressed throughout the work planning process. Incorporating radiological controls in the planning process is a requirement of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-I), Chapter 3, Part 1. This standard is applicable to all PHMC contractors and subcontractors. The essential elements of this standard will be incorporated into the appropriate site level work control standard upon implementation of the anticipated revision of the PHMC Administration and Procedure System

  8. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) concept in pediatric interventional and fluoroscopic imaging: striving to keep radiation doses as low as possible during fluoroscopy of pediatric patients - a white paper executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Keith J.; Kaste, Sue C.

    2006-01-01

    ALARA represents a practice mandate adhering to the principle of keeping radiation doses to patients and personnel As Low As Reasonably Achievable. This concept is strongly endorsed by the Society for Pediatric Radiology, particularly in the use of procedures and modalities involving higher radiation doses such as CT and fluoroscopic examinations of pediatric patients. There is no doubt that medical imaging, which has undergone tremendous technological advances in recent decades, is integral to patient care. However, these technological advances generally precede the knowledge of end-users concerning the optimal use and correct operation of the resulting imaging equipment, and such knowledge is essential to minimizing potential risks to the patients. Current imaging methods must be optimized for radiation dose reduction in pediatric patients who might be as much as ten times more radiosensitive than adults. Unlike straightforward radiographic examinations, radiation dose to the patient during fluoroscopy is dependent on the operator's training, experience with the fluoroscope, and efficiency in completing a diagnostic study. The range of pediatric radiation doses from fluoroscopy is wide because this examination is performed not only by pediatric radiologists but also by general radiologists who occasionally care for children, interventional cardiologists, gastroenterologists, urologists and others. Thus, a venue where multidisciplinary interaction by this variety of operators can occur serves to improve pediatric patient care

  9. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program`s capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure.

  10. ALARA for cask MRS by remote operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.H.; Vick, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dose rates in a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility are high enough to warrant the evaluation of robotic systems to achieve personnel dose reductions. Robots with sufficient mobility and dexterity to perform Health Physics surveys and maintenance are currently in use. The addition of artificial intelligence computer methods to the robot removes the need for a human operator for normal surveillance activities. Use of an Expert System creates a robot with sufficient flexibility to recognize and respond to off-normal conditions such as radiation leaks

  11. N Area Post-Deactivation ALARA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides information about a wide range of radiological work activities at the N Area Deactivation Project. The report is divided into sections that are based on specific N Area scopes of work. Each section contains specific information that was of significant radiological importance in completing N Area Deactivation work. The information presented in this report may be applicable and beneficial to similar projects throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and in commercial industry

  12. Individual monitoring: A tool for active ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.

    1989-01-01

    The system of individual monitoring at CERN is presented. Following the substantial decrease of individual doses over the last decade, emphasis is now placed on monitoring rather than on dosimetric aspects. Future developments have to face a possible decrease of dose limits that are difficult to control in view of the lower detection limits for the detectors presently used. One possible solution to the problem is the increase in the wearing time for individual dosemeters. (author)

  13. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program's capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure

  14. Experience with ALARA and ALARA procedures in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamse, J.C. [N.V. Elektriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    The nuclear power plant Borssele is a Siemens two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor having a capacity of 480 MWe and in operation since 1973. The nuclear power plant Borssle is located in the southwest of the Netherlands, near the Westerschelde River. In the first nine years of operation the radiation level in the primary system increased, reaching a maximum in 1983. The most important reason for this high radiation level was the cobalt content of the grid assemblies of the fuel elements. After resolving this problem, the radiation level decreased to a level comparable with that of other nuclear power plants.

  15. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  16. Applying the ALARA concept to the evaluation of vesicoureteric reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Richard S.; Diamond, David A. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is a widely used study to define lower urinary tract anatomy and to diagnose vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in children. We examine the technical advances in the VCUG and other examinations for reflux that have reduced radiation exposure of children, and we give recommendations for the use of imaging studies in four groups of children: (1) children with urinary tract infection, (2) siblings of patients with VUR, (3) infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH), and (4) children with a solitary functioning kidney. By performing examinations with little to no radiation, carefully selecting only the children who need imaging studies and judiciously timing follow-up examinations, we can reduce the radiation exposure of children being studied for reflux. (orig.)

  17. Alara benefits of an MPC robotic welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, R.G. Jr.; Stringer, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The potential occupational exposure savings for a robotic welding system for the MPC system as described in the Sandia Report (ref. 1) could be as much as 9 mili-person-Seiverts(mpS) (900 mili-person-Rem, mpR) for a single MPC loaded to a storage system or to a transportation cask. For the entire DOE MPC system, this could reduce the at-reactor exposure by as much as 96 person-Seiverts (9,600 person-Rem) for the full 86,000 metric tons of projected commercial spent fuel inventory over a 37 year time period. The robotic closure system may also be applied to other canister welding operations and to the waste package closure operations at the MGDS. It is also projected to decrease the time to perform welding operations and to utilize far fewer qualified welders and operating personnel. This reduction in occupational exposure would reduce the at-reactor portion of the MPC system exposure to a value equal to or less than that for the reference system. (See Table 3-1 in the Health and Safety report, reference 2)

  18. Effect of design improvements on ALARA exposures in PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.N.; Mohandas, P.V.; Gupta, Ashok; Hussain, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Design improvements in Indian PHWRs over last thirty years have remarkably reduced the occupational and public exposures. Some of the radiologically offending systems were altogether changed, equipment was judiciously relocated and at component level reduction in number and improvement in quality was carried out. As a result the collective occupational exposures could be brought down by a factor of about 4-5 and average public exposure by a factor of about 10. Since the design improvements are continuous ongoing processes further reduction in exposure will be definitely brought in the coming years. (author)

  19. Design Improvements and ALARA at U.S. Uranium In Situ Recovery Facilities - 16415

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed . Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium In Situ Leaching / In Situ Recovery (ISL / ISR - also referred to as 'solution mining'), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and are expected to make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since the mid 1970's. However, current designs are expected to result in less radiological wastes and emissions relative to these 'first' generation plants (which were designed, constructed and operated through the 1980's). These early designs typically used alkaline leach chemistries in situ including use of ammonium carbonate which resulted in groundwater restoration challenges, open to air recovery vessels and high temperature calcining systems for final product drying vs the 'zero emission' vacuum dryers as typically used today. Improved containment, automation and instrumentation control and use of vacuum dryers in the design of current generation plants are expected to reduce production of secondary waste byproduct material, reduce Radon emissions and reduce potential for employee exposure to uranium concentrate aerosols at the back end of the milling process. In Situ Recovery in the U.S. typically involves the circulation of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing (gaseous oxygen e.g) and complexing agents (carbon dioxide, e.g) into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant (mill). Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which radon gas is evolved in the process and the unique aspects of controlling solution flow patterns underground. The radiological character of these processes are described using empirical data collected from many operating facilities. Additionally, the major aspects of the health physics and radiation protection programs that were developed at these first generation facilities are discussed and contrasted to circumstances of the current generation and state of the art of uranium ISR technologies and facilities. This paper has presented an overview of in situ Uranium recovery processes and associated major radiological aspects and monitoring considerations. Admittedly, the purpose was to present an overview of those special health physics considerations dictated by the in situ Uranium recovery technology, to point out similarities and differences to conventional mill programs and to contrast these alkaline leach facilities to modern day ISR designs. As evidenced by the large number of ISR projects currently under development in the U.S. and worldwide, non conventional Uranium recovery techniques, such as ISL / ISR (solution mining), can play a significant role in complimenting Uranium supplies during the next decade. (author)

  20. The ALARA assessment system based on virtual concurrent environment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kang, ShinYoung

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest the method and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities, it is necessary that assessment system is developed. This system has been successfully developed so that exposure dose to workers could be real-time measured and assessed in virtual decommissioning environments. It can be concluded that this system could be protected from accidents and enable workers to improve his familiarization about working environments. It is expected that this system can reduce human errors because workers are able to improve the proficiency of hazardous working environments due to virtual training like real decommissioning situations

  1. The application of ALARA to the design and operation of the U.K. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, R.B.; Dutton, L.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    When operating a nuclear establishment, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) is required to conform with all the requirements of national legislation. In term of radiological protection, this essentially means that the requirements of ICRP 26 must be met. The three main precepts of ICRP 26 are: (i) no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produce a positive net benefit; (ii) all exposure shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; and (iii) the effective dose-equivalent to individuals shall not exceed the limits recommended for the appropriate circumstances by the Commission. This paper is concerned with compliance with the second of the above requirements

  2. A user friendly database for use in ALARA job dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodiates, A.M.; Willcock, A. [Cheshire, England (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    The pressurized water reactor (PWR) design chosen for adoption by Nuclear Electric plc was based on the Westinghouse Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant (SNUPPS). This design was developed to meet the United Kingdom requirements and these improvements are embodied in the Sizewell B plant which will start commercial operation in 1994. A user-friendly database was developed to assist the station in the dose and ALARP assessments of the work expected to be carried out during station operation and outage. The database stores the information in an easily accessible form and enables updating, editing, retrieval, and searches of the information. The database contains job-related information such as job locations, number of workers required, job times, and the expected plant doserates. It also contains the means to flag job requirements such as requirements for temporary shielding, flushing, scaffolding, etc. Typical uses of the database are envisaged to be in the prediction of occupational doses, the identification of high collective and individual dose jobs, use in ALARP assessments, setting of dose targets, monitoring of dose control performance, and others.

  3. Implementation of ALARA at the design stage of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, A.; Ridoux, P. [Electricite de France, Villeurbanne (France)

    1995-03-01

    In the 1970s, Electricite de France (EdF) had limited knowledge and experience of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Electricity generation by nuclear units was oriented towards gas-graphite reactors, even though EdF had a share in the PWR unit of CHOOZ A-1 (250 MWe, later upgraded to 320 MWe). Some facts about the origin of doses in that king of reactor were known to the research and development (R&D) support staff of EdF, which mainly comprises the French Atomic Commission (CEA), but only a few of EdF`s engineers were aware of these facts. One has to bear in mind that CHOOZ A-1 only went critical in April 1967 and was officially connected to the grid in May 1970 after some important problems had been solved. Meanwhile, the nuclear program was launched at full speed, beginning with the order for FESSENHEIM 1 in 1970, FESSENHEIM 2 and BUGEY 2 and 3 in 1971. TIHANGE 1, in which EdF had a share, went on-line in September 1975. Also, supposing that EdF had had such knowledge and experience, it is quite evident that it would have been very difficult to modify the lay-out inside the reactor building.

  4. An overview of ALARA considerations during Yankee Atomic`s Component Removal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, B.; Babineau, G.; Colby, B.; Cox, B. [Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Rowe, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In Februrary 1992, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) permanently shutdown Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, after thirty-two years of efficient operation. Yankee`s plan decommissioning is to defer dismantlement until a low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility is available. The plant will be maintained in a safe storage condition until a firm contract for the disposal of LLRW generated during decommissioning can be secured. Limited access to a LLRW disposal facility may occur during the safe storage period. Yankee intends to use these opportunities to remove components and structures. A Component Removal Project (CRP) was initiated in 1993 to take advantage of one of these opportunities. A Componenet Removal Project (CRP) was initiated in 1993 to take advantage of one of these opportunities. The CRP includes removal of four steam generators, the pressurizer, and segmentation of reactor vessel internals and preparation of LLRW for shipment and disposal at Chem-Nuclear`s Barnwell, South Carolina facility. The CRP is projected to be completed by June 1994 at an estimated total worker exposure of less than 160 person-rem.

  5. Evaluation of DUF6-G-Q-STU-001 (ALARA analysis supporting approval of authorized limits)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranek, N. L.; Croff, A. G.; Cheng, J.-J.; Gillette, J. L.; Avci, H. I.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (UDS) to proceed with disposition of the inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) for which DOE has management responsibility. To accomplish this task, UDS will construct and operate facilities at two DOE-owned sites, one near Paducah, Kentucky, and another near Portsmouth, Ohio, to convert DUF 6 to uranium oxide (principally U 3 O 8 ). The off-gas treatment system for the conversion process will produce aqueous hydrogen fluoride (AqHF), also known as hydrofluoric acid, and a relatively small amount of calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ), each containing some residual radioactive material. As part of its contractual charge, UDS must identify and implement a disposition for all three products generated by the DUF 6 conversion facilities: uranium oxide, AqHF, and CaF 2 . The UDS DUF 6 Conversion Product Management Plan (DUF 6 -UDS-PLN-004, September 2003) concludes that a viable commercial market exists for AqHF, which, if not sold, would have to be neutralized, producing a relatively large quantity of additional CaF 2 . Although CaF 2 has very limited market potential, there is some possibility that it also could be sold. If these potential markets could be developed, DOE would save the costs of neutralizing AqHF and/or disposing of the CaF 2 neutralization product. Accordingly, UDS has decided to seek approval from DOE for unrestricted release of both AqHF and CaF 2 that would be generated if AqHF could not be sold or if sales were interrupted. If AqHF were sold, the relatively small quantity of CaF 2 still being generated by the DUF 6 conversion process off-gas treatment system would most likely be disposed of as waste. The main product of conversion, depleted uranium oxide, will be reused to the extent possible or disposed of as waste, if no practical reuse option is found

  6. The application of non-parametric statistical method for an ALARA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Ho; Herr, Young Hoi

    2003-01-01

    The cost-effective reduction of Occupational Radiation Dose (ORD) at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORD data of existing plants. Through the data analysis, it is required to identify what are the jobs of repetitive high ORD at the nuclear power plant. In this study, Percentile Rank Sum Method (PRSM) is proposed to identify repetitive high ORD jobs, which is based on non-parametric statistical theory. As a case study, the method is applied to ORD data of maintenance and repair jobs at Kori units 3 and 4 that are pressurized water reactors with 950 MWe capacity and have been operated since 1986 and 1987, respectively in Korea. The results was verified and validated, and PRSM has been demonstrated to be an efficient method of analyzing the data

  7. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  8. Engineered design features in the HI-STAR/HI-STORM systems to maximize ALARA, safety, and community acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Heltec International is a U.S. corporation headquartered in New Jersey, dedicated to providing capital goods and technical services to the power industry. Over 75 percent of the company's product output is destined for nuclear power plants. Holter counts among its active clients a majority of the nuclear plants in the United States, as well as Korea, Taiwan, Mexico, and Brazil. The company also has a growing market presence in Japan and the European Union. Leading U.S. nuclear plant owners, such as Entergy, Exelon, FPL, Southern Nuclear, PG and E and TVA have a long-term and continuous business relationship with Holtec International. This article deals with Holtec dry storage system description, the multi-purpose canister, hi-star 100 overpack, hi-storm 100 overpack and unique advantages of holtec's dry storage technology

  9. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasso, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  10. Novel real-time 3D radiological mapping solution for ALARA maximization, D and D assessments and radiological management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubart, Philippe; Hautot, Felix [AREVA Group, 1 route de la Noue, Gif sur Yvette (France); Morichi, Massimo; Abou-Khalil, Roger [AREVA Group, Tour AREVA-1, place Jean Millier, Paris (France)

    2015-07-01

    Good management of dismantling and decontamination (D and D) operations and activities is requiring safety, time saving and perfect radiological knowledge of the contaminated environment as well as optimization for personnel dose and minimization of waste volume. In the same time, Fukushima accident has imposed a stretch to the nuclear measurement operational approach requiring in such emergency situation: fast deployment and intervention, quick analysis and fast scenario definition. AREVA, as return of experience from his activities carried out at Fukushima and D and D sites has developed a novel multi-sensor solution as part of his D and D research, approach and method, a system with real-time 3D photo-realistic spatial radiation distribution cartography of contaminated premises. The system may be hand-held or mounted on a mobile device (robot, drone, e.g). In this paper, we will present our current development based on a SLAM technology (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) and integrated sensors and detectors allowing simultaneous topographic and radiological (dose rate and/or spectroscopy) data acquisitions. This enabling technology permits 3D gamma activity cartography in real-time. (authors)

  11. Novel real-time 3D radiological mapping solution for ALARA maximization, D and D assessments and radiological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubart, Philippe; Hautot, Felix; Morichi, Massimo; Abou-Khalil, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Good management of dismantling and decontamination (D and D) operations and activities is requiring safety, time saving and perfect radiological knowledge of the contaminated environment as well as optimization for personnel dose and minimization of waste volume. In the same time, Fukushima accident has imposed a stretch to the nuclear measurement operational approach requiring in such emergency situation: fast deployment and intervention, quick analysis and fast scenario definition. AREVA, as return of experience from his activities carried out at Fukushima and D and D sites has developed a novel multi-sensor solution as part of his D and D research, approach and method, a system with real-time 3D photo-realistic spatial radiation distribution cartography of contaminated premises. The system may be hand-held or mounted on a mobile device (robot, drone, e.g). In this paper, we will present our current development based on a SLAM technology (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) and integrated sensors and detectors allowing simultaneous topographic and radiological (dose rate and/or spectroscopy) data acquisitions. This enabling technology permits 3D gamma activity cartography in real-time. (authors)

  12. U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-l2 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer programs, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, provide pollution prevention information and documentation, and produce independent government estimates. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrapyard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums

  13. Shielding design for the target room of the proton accelerator research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Y. S.; Lee, C. W.; Mun, K. J.; Nam, J.; Kim, J. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developing a 100-MeV proton linear accelerator. Also, PEFP has been designing the Proton Accelerator Research Center (PARC). In the Accelerator Tunnel and Beam Experiment Hall in PARC, 10 target rooms for the 20- and 100-MeV beamline facilities exist in the Beam Experiment Hall. For the 100-MeV target rooms during 100-MeV proton beam extraction, a number of high energy neutrons, ranging up to 100-MeV, are produced. Because of the high beam current and space limitations of each target room, the shielding design of each target room should be considered seriously. For the shielding design of the 100-MeV target rooms of the PEFP, a permanent and removable local shield structure was adopted. To optimize shielding performance, we evaluated four different shield materials (concrete, HDPE, lead, iron). From the shielding calculation results, we confirmed that the proposed shielding design made it possible to keep the dose rate below the 'as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)' objective.

  14. Utilizing 3D-visualization to apply compulsory ALARA principles in nuclear power plant design and day-to-day operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R. L.; Lake, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    The development of an advanced visualization and simulation tool to support both design as well as day-to-day operation is presented. This tool exploits cutting edge computer graphics, physics-based effects modeling, virtual reality, and gaming technologies to establish a system that can eventually be used for the administrative planning and training of plant operators and design engineers. (authors)

  15. The International System on Occupational Exposure. An ALARA Success Story Relying on Strong Individual Commitments, Effective International Feedback and Exchanges, and a Robust Database - 20 years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, Christian; Doty, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Why, more than 20 years ago, did there emerge the need for an International System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE)? How was it created? What were the problems and their possible solutions? Who were the main stakeholders? These are a few of the questions that the ISOE NEA Secretariat and Bureau asked Christian Lefaure, ex CEPN Deputy Director, to address in preparing a report on the history of ISOE and its progress. He had been directly involved in the brainstorming that preceded ISOE establishment, and he became the first head of the ISOE European Technical Centre, in charge of the world database development and management from 1991 to 2007. For writing this report, he made use of his own souvenirs and documentation as well as of those of tens of ISOE participants, both from major international and regional organisations (OECD/NEA, IAEA, EC and BNL), nuclear power plant utilities and national regulatory authorities. He voluntarily focused not only on the technical aspects but also on the human components of that story. This was done through personal interviews with many individuals who have played an important role at one moment of ISOE life, the analysis of answers to a questionnaire, and reviews of the minutes of many ISOE meetings that were held before and after the official establishment of the ISOE, along its lifespan to date. The most important inputs were the accounts from many individuals having very actively participated in the ISOE life at one step or another. The contacts were not always easy to make 15 or 20 years later. But in general, the questions were welcomed and the answers to the interviews and to a short questionnaire have fed this report. More than 50 individuals have answered these requests one way or another. Some have followed ISOE birth and premises; some have not seen the first steps of ISOE but have participated later on or are still participating. Some have been able to provide pictures, drawings or relevant publications. All their accounts are part of the collective memory of that important adventure shared during the last two decades by many individuals all over the world. They have allowed a more lively description than the one that would have come solely from documents, which have also been checked. This report provides excerpts of their interviews verbatim and written answers. This report is divided into three parts: Chapter 2: Why ISOE? Chapter 3: What has been the evolution of ISOE? Chapter 4: How has ISOE been perceived and is now perceived?

  16. U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. The Center has gotten off to a fast start. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-12 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer software, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, produce pollution prevention information and documentation, manage their materials inventory, produce independent government estimates, and implement sale/service contracts. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrap yard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums. Members of the Center look forward to working with all DOE sites, regulatory authorities, the private sector, and other stakeholders to achieve the metals recycle goals

  17. The rate of repeating X-rays in the medical centers of Jenin District/Palestine and how to reduce patient exposure to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Abed Al Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Reduction of the patient's received radiation dose to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is based on recommendations of radiation protection organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and characteristics of rejected / repeated radiographic films in governmental and private centers in Jenin city. The radiological centers were chosen based on their high volume of radiographic studies. The evaluation was carried out over a period of four months. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. Overall 5000 films (images) were performed in four months, The average repeat rate of radiographic images was 10% (500 films). Repetition rate was the same for both thoracic and abdominal images (42%). The main reason for repeating imaging was inadequate imaging quality (58.2%) and poor film processing (38%). Human error was the most likely reason necessitating the repetition of the radiographs (48 %). Infant and children groups comprised 85% of the patient population that required repetition of the radiographic studies. In conclusion, we have a higher repetition rate of imaging studies compared to the international standards (10% vs. 4-6%, respectively). This is especially noticeable in infants and children, and mainly attributed to human error in obtaining and processing images. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a national level due to the ill effects associated with excessive exposure to radiation especially in children, and to reduce cost of the care delivered.

  18. Assessment and control of shielding in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrianantenaina, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of adequate shielding is a guarantor of the application of the ALARA principle. This work provides a method for the assessment of the thickness of shields and armouring of a medical radiology control room. An application of this method was performed for the verification of the thicknesses of protective barriers at AMIT (Association Médicale Inter-entreprises de Tananarive) center Behoririka, Antananarivo, Madagascar. [fr

  19. Transforming Welfare Institutions through Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette

    Abstract til ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress, South Africa from 4 – 7 November 2015 Pretoria, Sydafrika......Abstract til ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress, South Africa from 4 – 7 November 2015 Pretoria, Sydafrika...

  20. PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Arnfjord, Steven

    Abstract, ALARA2015012:PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland for consideration and inclusion in the programme for the ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress to be held at St. George Hotel and Conference Centre...

  1. Data base on nuclear power plant dose reduction research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    Staff at the ALARA Center of Brookhaven National Laboratory have established a data base of information about current research that is likely to result in lower radiation doses to workers. The data base, concerned primarily with nuclear power generation, is part of a project that the ALARA Center is carrying out for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes its current status. A substantial amount of research on reducing occupational exposure is being done in the US and abroad. This research is beginning to have an impact on the collective dose expenditures at nuclear power plants. The collective radiation doses in Europe, Japan, and North America all show downward trends. A large part of the research in the US is either sponsored by the nuclear industry through joint industry organizations such as EPRI and ESEERCO or is done by individual corporations. There is also significant participation by smaller companies. The main emphasis of the research on dose reduction is on engineering approaches aimed at reducing radiation fields or keeping people out of high-exposure areas by using robotics. Effective ALARA programs are also underway at a large number of nuclear plants. Additional attention should be given to non-engineering approaches to dose reduction, which are potentially very useful and cost effective but require quantitative study and analysis based on data from nuclear power plants. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Radiological practices using dosimetric films and electronic dosimeters in F-18 production at cyclotron complex center at IEN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Osvaldir P. dos; Silva, J.C.P.; Silva, Luiz Carlos Reina P. da

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, guide and correct radiological practices based on dose rate values obtained from dosimetric films and electronic dosimeters used by technicians involved in Fluorine-18 production facilities at IEN/CNEN. Standard statistical methods have been used to analyze and to evaluate these results. The comparison between these results is the first step to orient decisions concerning radiological practices. Besides, radiometric routine surveys are under evaluation in order to improve radiological control in these facility areas. The electronic dosimeters provide the technicians immediate reading and this help them take protective action immediately. So the comparison between dosimetric film and electronic dosimeters data will provide information about how the recently employed electronic dosimeters are being used and what corrections in their practical use are necessary in order to achieve correct practices. In addition the results and observations obtained will be very important to implement possible changes in radiological routine practices in order to optimize them and keep occupationally exposed individuals radiological dose rates, as low as reasonably achievable, according to ALARA principle. (author)

  3. Licensee programs for maintaining occupational exposure to radiation as low as is reasonably achievable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.H.

    1983-06-01

    This report defines the concept of maintaining occupational exposures to radiation as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) and describes the elements necessary for specific licensees to implement, operate, and evaluate an effective ALARA program. Examples of cost-effectiveness analysis and optimization are provided. The rationale for providing more detailed guidance to specific licensees stems from the current recommendations provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, as well as from the increased regulatory emphasis on maintaining occupational exposures ALARA. The objective of this work is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with a basis for updating Regulatory Guide 8.10

  4. Virtual reality-based simulation system for nuclear and radiation safety SuperMC/RVIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, T.; Hu, L.; Long, P.; Shang, L.; Zhou, S.; Yang, Q.; Zhao, J.; Song, J.; Yu, S.; Cheng, M.; Hao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The suggested work scenarios in radiation environment need to be iterative optimized according to the ALARA principle. Based on Virtual Reality (VR) technology and high-precision whole-body computational voxel phantom, a virtual reality-based simulation system for nuclear and radiation safety named SuperMC/RVIS has been developed for organ dose assessment and ALARA evaluation of work scenarios in radiation environment. The system architecture, ALARA evaluation strategy, advanced visualization methods and virtual reality technology used in SuperMC/RVIS are described. A case is presented to show its dose assessment and interactive simulation capabilities. (author)

  5. Savannah River Site dose control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) visited the Savannah River Site (SRS) as one of 12 facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) contractors with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). Their charter was to review, evaluate and summarize as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) techniques, methods and practices as implemented. This presentation gives an overview of the two selected ALARA practices implemented at the SRS: Administrative Exposure Limits and Goal Setting. These dose control methods are used to assure that individual and collective occupational doses are ALARA and within regulatory limits

  6. DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure report, _Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security. December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek Hagemeyer, Yolanda McCormick

    2012-12-12

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2011 occupational radiation dose data along with trends over the past 5 years, and provides instructions to submit successful as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) projects.

  7. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  8. The social stakes of the radiological risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Lochard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation studies the management of radiological risk in the frame of public confidence and risk acceptability. The ALARA principle is studied to see how it can be an acceptability factor in the radiological risk management. (N.C.)

  9. Twenty years of experience in the control of low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspani, C.E.; Lescano, R.

    1997-01-01

    The steps taken in the health care institutions of the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina, are described which aim to optimize radiation protection in accordance with the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) concept

  10. Nuclear dismantling and asbestos elimination: the same challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.; Deboodt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The ALARA principle constitutes a powerful tool for workers dosimetry management in the nuclear field. A consequence of the application of this principle could be an accentuation of the nuclear risk face to the industrial risk. Using works of asbestos elimination in nuclear medium, the present article examines how a generalization of the utilization of the ALARA principle is conceivable and how the existing obstacles could be removed. (N.C.)

  11. Economics v pragmatics: the control of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.E. (Salford Univ. (UK). Environmental Health and Housing Div.)

    1990-01-01

    The economic principles lying behind the phrase ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) are examined with respect to the indictment of British Nuclear Fuels following certain incidents in its Sellafield Reprocessing Plant in November 1983. Based on the evidence submitted to the trial it is argued that the ALARA approach is of questionable utility to the more sensitive areas of contemporary environmental management. (author).

  12. Nuclear dismantling and asbestos elimination: the same challenge?; Demantelement nucleaire et elimination d'asbeste: un meme challenge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoumont, J.; Deboodt, P. [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-07-01

    The ALARA principle constitutes a powerful tool for workers dosimetry management in the nuclear field. A consequence of the application of this principle could be an accentuation of the nuclear risk face to the industrial risk. Using works of asbestos elimination in nuclear medium, the present article examines how a generalization of the utilization of the ALARA principle is conceivable and how the existing obstacles could be removed. (N.C.)

  13. 4. S.F.R.P. days on the optimization of radiation protection in the electronuclear, industrial and medical areas; 4. journees SFRP sur l'optimisation de la radioprotection dans les domaines electronucleaire, industriel et medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    These days are dedicated to the implementation of the radiation protection optimization in the activities of the electronuclear sector, of the industrial sector, the medical sector, the laboratories and the centers of research and the university sector. All the aspects of the practical application of the radiation protection optimization of the workers, the public and the patients will be approached. The oral communications and posters concern the following subjects: foundations of the optimization principle, new statutory context, transmission of ALARA principle, operational dosimetry, conception, operating and maintenance of the installations, the construction sites of dismantling, industrial radiology, radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  14. 4. S.F.R.P. days on the optimization of radiation protection in the electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    These days are dedicated to the implementation of the radiation protection optimization in the activities of the electronuclear sector, of the industrial sector, the medical sector, the laboratories and the centers of research and the university sector. All the aspects of the practical application of the radiation protection optimization of the workers, the public and the patients will be approached. The oral communications and posters concern the following subjects: foundations of the optimization principle, new statutory context, transmission of ALARA principle, operational dosimetry, conception, operating and maintenance of the installations, the construction sites of dismantling, industrial radiology, radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  15. Training Workers to use Localized Ventilation for Radiological Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    Work on radiological systems and components needs to be accomplished using techniques that reduce radiation dose to workers, limit contamination spread, and minimize radioactive waste. One of the best methods to control contamination spread is to use localized ventilation to capture radioactive material and keep it from spreading. The Fluor Hanford ALARA Center teaches workers how to use ventilation in partnership with other engineered controls and this has resulted in improved work practices, minimized the impact on adjacent work operations, and decreased the amount of radioactive waste generated. This presentation will emphasize how the workers are trained to use localized ventilation for contamination control

  16. Status of achievements reached in applying optimization of protection in design and normal operation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Croft, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The increased emphasis in recent years on the ALARA principle and its practical implementation has opened new perspectives in the organisation of radiological protection. This change could be characterised as a shift from an 'a posteriori' control, (i.e. demonstrating that dose limits had not been exceeded), towards an 'a priori' management or dose predictive approach. Undoubtedly in both operation and design conscious efforts are made to achieve ALARA. However, there are certainly differences in various organisations' perceptions of what this practically entails and there is scope for us all to learn. If the 'ALARA Procedure' remains only a tool used at the early stage of design or as an elegant means of justifying past choices, it will have missed its main objective which is to give more rational and coherent management of practical protection at both the design and operational stages. We feel that the integration of the structured approaches of the ALARA Procedure and the ALARA Audit, into radiation protection programmes provides the best way forwad. This would require ALARA studies moving from the province of the 'experts' to the 'practitioners'. This in turn will require us to provide them with the tools to do the job. The methodology is secure but the areas of dose data collection and the costing of detriment need to be addressed further. Similarly, there is perhaps a need for the 'experts' to develop further experience of using the multiattribute and multicriteria techniques for the higher level decisions

  17. Hastings Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientists Join Forces Read more HASTINGS CENTER NEWS Artificial intelligence and brain-computer interfaces could revolutionize the treatment ... more HASTINGS CENTER NEWS With the power of artificial intelligence, machines can perform increasingly complex tasks, such as ...

  18. 3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhov, K; Sneve, M K; Szőke, I; Mazur, I; Mark, N K; Kudrin, I; Shandala, N; Simakov, A; Smith, G M; Krasnoschekov, A; Kosnikov, A; Kemsky, I; Kryuchkov, V

    2014-12-01

    Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators.

  19. Collective dose scenario at MAPS - a fifteen year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, V.; Viswambharam, K.R.; Mohandas, P.G.; Chudalayandi, K.; Krishnamoorthy, S.

    1999-01-01

    Madras Atomic Power Station - a two unit PHWR- has provided a large data based on occupational exposure since 1983. ICRP-1990 recommendations have forced ALARA practices to be implemented seriously at MAPS to put a check on collective dose. In this paper, an analysis of collective dose has been made with fifteen years of experience in background (1983-97). The distribution of collective dose among different groups shows definite trend over the years. Focus has been made to identify the critical work group, critical jobs, critical work areas, critical radionuclides and the critical systems vis-a-vis the collective dose. Distribution of dose is off-centered, resulting in selective groups (casual workers, mechanical and operation) getting more than sixty percent of station dose and therefore these groups require special focus on dose reduction strategies. There is a reduction in collective dose by a factor of 2 to 5 in different jobs due to refining work procedures and other ALARA efforts. (author)

  20. Applications of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: An Overview of Published Indications and Clinical Usage in United States Academic Centers and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jeffrey B; Stone, Jeffrey D; Clark, Robert S; Mercer, James E

    2016-04-01

    The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons appointed a task force to study the indications, safety, and clinical practice patterns of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS). The charge was to review the published applications of CBCT in OMS, identify the current position of academic thought leaders in the field, and research the adoption and usage of the technology at the clinical practitioner level. This study reviewed the CBCT world literature and summarized published indications for the modality. A nationwide survey of academic thought leaders and practicing oral and maxillofacial surgeons was compiled to determine how the modality is currently being used and adopted by institutions and practices. This report summarizes published applications of CBCT that have been vetted by the academic and practicing OMS community to define current indications. The parameters of patient safety, radiation exposure, accreditation, and legal issues are reviewed. An overview of third-party adoption of CBCT is presented. CBCT is displacing 2-dimensional imaging in the published literature, academia, and private practice. Best practices support reading the entire scan volume with a written report defining results, patient exposure, and field of view. Issues of patient safety, ALARA ("as low as reasonably achievable"), accreditation, and the legal and regulatory environment are reviewed. Third-party patterns for reimbursements vary widely and seem to lack consistency. There is much confusion within the provider community about indications, authorizations, and payment policies. The current medical and dental indications for CBCT in the clinical practice of OMS are reviewed and an industry guideline is proposed. These guidelines offer a clear way of differentiating consensus medical indications and common dental uses for clinicians. This matrix should bring a predictable logic to third-party authorizations, billing, and predictable

  1. Radiation protection optimisation techniques and their application in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.

    1996-01-01

    Since the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendation 60, the optimisation principle appears to be the core of the radiation protection system. In practice applying it, means implementing an approach both predictive and evolutionary - that relies essentially on a prudent and responsible state of mind. the formal expression of this process, called optimization procedure, implies and indispensable tool for its implementation: the system of monetary values for the unit of collective dose. During the last few years, feed ALARA principle means that a global work management approach must be adopted, considering together all factors contributing to radiation dose. In the nuclear field, the ALARA approach appears to be more successful when implemented in the framework of a managerial approach through structure ALARA programmes. Outside the nuclear industry it is necessary to clearly define priorities through generic optimisation studies and ALARA audits. At the international level much efforts remain to be done to expand efficiently the ALARA process to internal exposure as well as to public exposure. (author)

  2. Radiation protection optimisation techniques and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C

    1996-12-31

    Since the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendation 60, the optimisation principle appears to be the core of the radiation protection system. In practice applying it, means implementing an approach both predictive and evolutionary - that relies essentially on a prudent and responsible state of mind. the formal expression of this process, called optimization procedure, implies and indispensable tool for its implementation: the system of monetary values for the unit of collective dose. During the last few years, feed ALARA principle means that a global work management approach must be adopted, considering together all factors contributing to radiation dose. In the nuclear field, the ALARA approach appears to be more successful when implemented in the framework of a managerial approach through structure ALARA programmes. Outside the nuclear industry it is necessary to clearly define priorities through generic optimisation studies and ALARA audits. At the international level much efforts remain to be done to expand efficiently the ALARA process to internal exposure as well as to public exposure. (author) 2 graphs, 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Usage Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinaltenkamp, Michael; Plewa, Carolin; Gudergan, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance extant theorizing around resourceintegration by conceptualizing and delineating the notion of a usage center. Ausage center consists of a combination of interdependent actors that draw onresources across their individual usage processes to create...... value.Design/methodology/approach:This paper provides a conceptual inquiry into the usage center. Findings: This paper delineates the notion of a usage center by way of focal andperipheral resource integrators, as well as focal and peripheral resources thatform part of interdependent resource usage...... processes. The conceptual analysisreveals the need for resources to be accessible and shareable to focal andperipheral actors, with rivalry and emergence central factors influencing theactor’s usage processes.Originality/value: Responding to recent calls for research developing insights intomulti...

  4. Environmental Assessment For Cleanup and Closure of the Energy Technology Engineering Center. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-01

    DOE analyzed two cleanup and closure alternatives and the No Action Alternative, in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021). Under Alternative 1, DOE is proposing to clean up the remaining ETEC facilities using the existing site specific cleanup standard of 15 mrem/yr. (plus DOE's As Low As Reasonably Achievable--ALARA-principle) for decontamination of radiological facilities and surrounding soils (Alternative 1). An annual 15-millirem additional radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual (assumed to be an individual living in a residential setting on Area IV) from all exposure pathways (air, soil, groundwater) equates to an additional theoretical lifetime cancer risk of no more than 3 x 10-4 (3 in 10,000). For perspective, it is estimated that the average individual in the United States receives a dose of about 300 millirem each year from natural sources of radiation. However, actual exposures generally will be much lower as a result of the application of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle. Based on post-remediation verification sampling previous cleanups have generally resulted in a 2 x 10-6 level of residual risk. DOE would decontaminate, decommission, and demolish the remaining radiological facilities. DOE would also decommission and demolish the one remaining sodium facility and all of the remaining uncontaminated support buildings for which it is responsible. The ongoing RCRA corrective action program, including groundwater treatment (interim measures), would continue. Other environmental impacts would include 2.5 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of LLW shipments and 6.0 x 10-3 fatalities as a result of emission exhaust from all shipments. DOE would also decommission and demolish the remaining sodium facility and decommission and

  5. Occupational dose reduction developments and data collected at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Occupational dose reduction developments and data collected at nuclear power plants have been described. Written descriptions of repetitive high dose jobs, their collective dose equivalent ranges and list of dose reduction techniques will aid in reducing collective dose equivalents from these dose-reduction targets. Knowing which components contribute to high maintenance or repair dose will aid in reducing routine maintenance collective dose equivalents. The radwaste dose reduction improvements will aid in reducing radwaste operations collective dose equivalent and reduce the number of radwaste workers who exceed their administrative dose limits. The identification and rating of managers' and workers' ALARA incentives will provide the basis for recommendations to improve dose reduction incentives. Lastly, the identification and rating of the key components of an ALARA program will aid in the development and coordination of the nuclear station ALARA programs

  6. Radiation protection training for personnel at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Section 19.12 Instructions to Workers, of 10 CFR Part 19, Notices, Instructions, and Reports to Workers; Inspections, requires that individuals be given instruction in radiation protection that is commensurate with the potential radiation protection problems they may encounter in restricted areas as defined in para. 19.3(e) of 10 CFR Part 19. Para. 20.1(c) of 10 CFR Part 20, Standards for Protection Against Radiation, states that occupational radiation exposure should be kept as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). Appropriate training is an essential aspect of an ALARA program. This guide describes a radiation protection training program consistent with the ALARA objective and acceptable to the NRC staff for meeting the training requirements of 10 CFR Part 19 with respect to individuals that enter restricted areas at nuclear power plants

  7. Optimization of radioprotection in the nuclear power, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.

    2002-06-01

    These 3. SFRP days are devoted to the optimization of radioprotection in the context of the evolution of the regulation in this domain with the introduction of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in the public health regulations. First of all, the optimization of radioprotection is a principle of action aiming at elaborating a practical organization of risk taking based on the responsibility of the different actors and leading to an individual and collective management of the radiological risk. These days are oriented towards practical applications of this optimization and in a lesser extend towards the general radioprotection policies and the technical aspects, in particular the operational dosimetry: 1 - Alara bases and regulation: bases of radioprotection optimization; optimization and Belgium regulation: the contribution of the Royal by-law from July 20, 2001; status of the French regulation; 2 - Alara policies in the nuclear power domain: maintenance of PWR reactor vessels: exploratory approach of a joint safety and radioprotection control by the nuclear safety authority; implementation of the Alara approach at the CEA: status and perspectives; optimization of activities and Alara project at EdF; the file for the intervention in radioactive environment: an Alara tool; 3 - practical applications and experience feedback: optimization in interventional vascular radiology unit; forecast evaluation and personnel exposures optimization in the experiment hall of the laser integration line at CESTA; a French system of radioprotection experience feedback for radiological incidents; the European Alara network: a growing up dialogue and improvement structure; 4 - Alara policies in the medical and first aid services: dosimetry of radiodiagnosis personnel; integration of the radioactive waste management organization to the elimination files of hospital wastes; optimization of patient's radioprotection: a calculation approach of the specific risk by sex

  8. IRASM Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.C.; Moise, I.V.; Georgescu, R.; Ene, M.

    2003-01-01

    IRASM is a national center for radiation processing developed around an industrial Co60 gamma irradiator. Being a department in an R and D national institute, IRASM Center is dealing with radiation treatment, pre/post microbiological control, validation of irradiation sterilization, detection of irradiated foodstuffs. Training is available for operators of new irradiation facilities focused on radiation technologies, dosimetry, sterilization, food treatment, conservation by irradiation of cultural heritage, quality assurance. Expertise on proper choosing the plastics for packaging versus dose is offered to the potential clients. IRASM Center is also involved in interdisciplinary applied research like chitosan treatment, sterile male technique or implementation of irradiation step in production of pharmaceuticals. All important activities: irradiation treatment, dosimetry, microbiology, detection of irradiated food, radioprotection, nuclear safety, physical protection. are performed in accordance with the proper standards in the frame of a certified quality management system. In this way Co60 industrial sources, a byproduct of certain nuclear power plants like Candu type, appear to be the key of a large technical and R and D domain. (authors)

  9. General Employee Radiological Training: Study guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Upon completion of this class, the participant will be able to discuss his/her responsibilities for maintaining exposures to radiation and radioactive material As Low As Reasonably Achievable. The participant will be able to select the correct response from a group of responses which verifies his/her ability to: Identify natural background and man-made sources of radiation; state the whole body radiation exposure limit for non-radiological workers; state the potential biological effects from chronic radiation exposure; identify the ALARA concept and practices; state methods used to control radiological material; and state employee responsibilities for the ALARA Program

  10. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program is to provide the NRC licensing staff with data which will allow an assessment of radiation exposure during decommissioning and the implementation of ALARA techniques. The data will also provide information to determine the funding level necessary to ensure timely and safe decommissioning operations. Actual decommissioning costs, methods and radiation exposures are compared with those estimated by the Battelle-PNL and ORNL NUREGs on decommissioning. Exposure reduction techniques applied to decommissioning activities to meet ALARA objectives are described. The lessons learned concerning various decommissioning methods are evaluated

  11. Trend analysis of aquatic radioactivity discharges (1998 - 2012) from Effluent Treatment Plant using Mann-Kendall statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Shashikala; Bella, E.J.; Singh, S.; Krishnamohanan, T.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Jain, S.

    2014-01-01

    Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) of Waste Management Facilities, Trombay discharges radioactivity, below permissible limit set by regulatory body, into Mumbai Harbour Bay. To check whether ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle is also followed, it is important to carry out the trend analysis for the discharges. It has been stated by many authors that implementation of ALARA principle significantly contributes to the reduction of effluent releases and to minimize the impact on the environment and the public. In this paper trend analysis has been carried out for the discharges using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's non-parametric slope estimator

  12. Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The comparison of various protection options in order to determine which is the best compromise between cost of protection and residual risk is the purpose of the ALARA procedure. The use of decision-aiding techniques is valuable as an aid to selection procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce two rather simple and well known decision aiding techniques: the cost-effectiveness analysis and the cost-benefit analysis. These two techniques are relevant for the great part of ALARA decisions which need the use of a quantitative technique. The study is based on an hypothetical case of 10 protection options. Four methods are applied to the data

  13. Radiation protection experience for divers working underwater in radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallance, Charles A.; Barritt, Scott W.; White, Mark; Martinson, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Divers work in areas where radiological exposures would be prohibitive or even fatal to workers in dry conditions. To perform such work safely, while minimizing exposure, requires special equipment and techniques. This paper will provide an overview of the latest procedures and equipment necessary to perform work underwater in high radiation areas while meeting ALARA goals. Recent projects performed in spent fuel storage pools and inside primary containment at commercial nuclear power plants will be described to demonstrate the use of procedures and techniques for ALARA planning, personnel dose minimization, project execution, dose tracking, and control of radioactive waste

  14. DOE's process and implementation guidance for decommissioning, deactivation, decontamination, and remedial action of property with residual contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domotor, S.; Peterson, H. Jr.; Wallo, A. III

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents DOE's requirements, process, and implementation guidance for the control and release of property that may contain residual radioactive material. DOE requires that criteria and protocols for release of property be approved by DOE and that such limits be selected using DOE's As Low as is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) process. A DOE Implementation Guide discusses how the levels and details (e.g., cleanup volumes, costs of surveys, disposal costs, dose to workers and doses to members of the public, social and economic factors) of candidate release options are to be evaluated using DOE's ALARA process. Supporting tools and models for use within the analysis are also highlighted. (author)

  15. Data base on nuclear power plant dose reduction research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains project information on the research and development activities of the nuclear power industry in the area of dose reduction. It is based on a data base of information set up at the ALARA Center of Brookhaven National Laboratory. One purpose of this report is to draw attention to work in progress and to enable researchers and subscribers to obtain further information from the investigators and project managers. Information is provided on 180 projects, divided according to whether they are oriented to Engineering Research or to Health Physics Technology. The report contains indices on main category, project manager, principal investigator, sponsoring organization, contracting organization, and subject. This is an initial report. It is intended that periodic updates be issued whenever sufficient material has been accumulated.

  16. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    This is the third volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose-reduction research and health physics technology for nuclear power plants. The information is taken from data base maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory's ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents information on 80 new projects, covering a wide area of activities. Projects on steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvement in reactor materials, and inspection techniques, among others, are described in the research section. The section on health physics technology includes some simple and very cost-effective projects to reduce radiation exposures. Collective dose data from the United States and other countries are also presented. In the conclusion, we suggest that although new advanced reactor design technology will eventually reduce radiation exposures at nuclear power plants to levels below serious concern, in the interim an aggressive approach to dose reduction remains necessary. 20 refs.

  17. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  18. Optimization of the workers radiation protection in the electro nuclear, industrial and medical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference is devoted to the radiation protection and the best way to optimize it. It reviews each area of the nuclear industry, and explores also the medical sector. Dosimetry, ALARA principle and new regulation are important points of this meeting. (N.C.)

  19. The development and application of advanced analytical methods to commercial ICF reactor chambers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousseau, P.; Engelstad, R.; Henderson, D.L.

    1997-10-01

    Progress is summarized in this report for each of the following tasks: (1) multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics computer code development; (2) 2D radiation-hydrodynamic code development; (3) ALARA: analytic and Laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis -- a complete package for analysis of induced activation; (4) structural dynamics modeling of ICF reactor chambers; and (5) analysis of self-consistent target chamber clearing

  20. Analysis of the evolution of the collective dose in nuclear power plants in Spain; Analisis de la evolucion de la dosis colectiva en las centrales nucleares de Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponjuan Reyes, G.; Ruibia Rodiz, M. A. de la; Rosales Calvo, M.; Labarta Mancho, T.; Calavia Gimenez, I.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of the evolution of occupational collective dose of the Spanish nuclear power plants during the period 2000 - 2008 within the international context, by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) in order to have information contrasted to assessing the extent of application of the ALARA criteria in the Spanish plants and identify areas of priority attention.

  1. Cean air and clear responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, K.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper is the text of the address given by Commissioner Kenneth C. rogers, USNRC, at the 23rd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. Mr. Rogers reviews the regulatory approach to the subject, discussing the requirements of 10CFR20 and ALARA principles. A discussion of the talk follows the text.

  2. RIMS/sup tm/ - radiological information management system: software package EI-029-S86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    RIMS/sup tm/ has been developed for health physics record keeping and reporting. It provides for the management needs relating to radiological information control at a nuclear facility. The program is comprised of the following modules: Personnel Radiological Information, Radiological Work Permit, Radiation Survey Records, Access Control, ALARA Reporting, and Respirator and Survey Instrument Inventory Modules

  3. Views of the employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, J.

    2003-01-01

    The employer shall establish and maintain a safety management system, which is a part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the occupational health and safety risks associated with the business of the organization. In addition to meeting its legal responsibilities, the employer should aim to improve its occupational health and safety performance, and its safety management system, effectively and efficiently, to meet changing business and regulatory needs. Occupational radiation protection is also a part of its activities. The concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) presumes that any increment of radiation dose may produce a proportionate incremental risk, and that all radiation doses shall be kept ALARA, taking into account social and economic factors. Up to now, by implementing various activities in accordance with the principle of ALARA, employers have been minimizing the exposure dose of plant workers. Owing to improvements in hardware and administrative control, the exposure dose of workers has followed a remarkable downward trend, and now the number of workers exceeding 20 mSv/a is nearly zero. By implementing more thorough radiation protection and safety programmes, as well as by promoting safety consciousness among individual workers, the employers are continuing their efforts, respecting ALARA, to prevent workers from being exposed to radiation unnecessarily. As a consequence, the average individual dose of workers has dropped to 1 mSv/a or so. There may no longer be a discernible decrease in doses received at most of nuclear facilities

  4. Health physics aspects of advanced reactor licensing reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, C.S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The last Construction Permit to be issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a U.S. light water reactor (LWR) was granted in the late 1970s. In 1989 the NRC issued 10 CFR Part 52 which is intended to serve as a framework for the licensing of future reactor designs. The NRC is currently reviewing four different future on {open_quotes}next-generation{close_quotes} reactor designs. Two of these designs are classified as evolutionary designs (modified versions of current generation LWRs) and two are advanced designs (reactors incorporating simplified designs and passive means for accident mitigation). These {open_quotes}next-generation{close_quotes} reactor designs incorporate many innovative design features which are intended to maintain personnel doses ALARA and ensure that the annual average collective dose at these reactors does not exceed 100 person-rems (1 person-sievert) per year. This paper discusses some of the ALARA design features which are incorporated in the four {open_quotes}next-generation{close_quotes} reactor designs incorporate many innovative design features which are intended to maintain personnel doses ALARA and ensure that the annual average collective dose at these reactors does not exceed 100 person-rems (1 person-sievert) per year. This paper discusses some of the ALARA design features which are incorporated in the four {open_quotes}next-generation{close_quotes} reactor designs currently being reviewed by the NRC.

  5. 75 FR 57987 - Evaluation of the Groundwater Task Force Report: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... created or received at the NRC are available electronically at the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . From this page, the public can gain entry into ADAMS, which... quantitative definition of the ``As Low As Is Reasonably Achievable'' (ALARA) concept be adopted with respect...

  6. Occupational radiation dose assessment for a non site specific spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.; Eble, R.G. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    To expedite the licensing process of the non site specific Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) the Department of Energy has completed a phase I CISF Topical Safety Analysis Report (TSAR). The TSAR will be used in licensing the phase I CISF if a site is designated. An occupational radiation does assessment of the facility operations is performed as part of the phase I CISF design. The first phase of the CISF has the capability to receive, transfer, and store SNF in dual-purpose cask/canister systems (DPC's). Currently there are five vendor technologies under consideration. The preliminary dose assessment is based on estimated occupational exposures using traditional power plant ISFSI and transport cask handling processes. The second step in the process is to recommend ALARA techniques to reduce potential exposures. A final dose assessment is completed implementing the ALARA techniques and a review is performed to ensure that the design is in compliance with regulatory criteria. The dose assessment and ALARA evaluation are determined using the following input information: Dose estimates from vendor SAR's; ISFSI experience with similar systems; Traditional methods of operations; Expected CISF cask receipt rates; and feasible ALARA techniques. 5 refs., 1 tab

  7. Human and technical factors in the doses reduction and optimization at Cogema/Marcoule; Facteurs techniques et humains dans la reduction et l'optimisation des doses a Cogema/Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgogne, J.L. [Cogema, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    1998-07-01

    In the case of Cogema/Marcoule, the constant decrease of radiation doses is attributed to three factors: technical with a surveillance system and doses optimization, relational with the promotion of confidence in teams of radiation protection services as an acceptation factor of radiation protection techniques and psychological with an evolution of minds towards the ALARA approach. (N.C.)

  8. Vegetation management 1994 fiscal year end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    This year-end report evaluates vegetation management operations on the Hanford reservation conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1994 and proposed control methods to be used in FY 1995 and following years. The 1995 control methods proposed are based on an evaluation of past and current ALARA principles, employee safety, environmental impacts, applicable regulations, site esthetics, and other site-specific factors

  9. Optimization of the workers radiation protection in the electro nuclear, industrial and medical fields; Optimisation de la radioprotection des travailleurs dans les domaines electronucleaire, industriel et medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This conference is devoted to the radiation protection and the best way to optimize it. It reviews each area of the nuclear industry, and explores also the medical sector. Dosimetry, ALARA principle and new regulation are important points of this meeting. (N.C.)

  10. Radiation safety requirements for training of users of diagnostic X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the aim of requirements regarding the use and ownership of diagnostic medical X-ray equipment is to limit radiation by abiding by the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle. The ignorance of radiographers with regard to radiation safety requirements, however, is currently a cause of ...

  11. Radioprotection optimization in the electro-nuclear, industrial and medical fields; Optimisation de la radioprotection dans les domaines electronucleaire industriel et medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Dept. Etudes et Assistance Medicales, 75 - Paris (France); Gagna, G. [Service de protection radiologique des armees (SPRA), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2010-07-01

    This document proposes abstracts of interventions which have been proposed during a two-day meeting in Saint-Malo in September 2010. Thus, it evokes recent legal and regulatory evolutions (new recommendations by the International Commission for Radiological Protection or ICRP, the new Basic Safety Standards of BSS of the European Commission), the optimization in the electro-nuclear field (overview of the situation for the main nuclear operators, practical examples of radioprotection optimization through the ALARA approach), in the industrial field (ALARA approach for the design of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility of IFMIF, alternative techniques of use of industrial gamma-graphy, radon management in private dwelling in Switzerland, optimization implementation in NORMS companies, management of solids and sites polluted by radioactive substances), in the medical field (teaching in radioprotection, use of ALARA in design in a proto-therapy centre, development of alternative techniques for the use of ionizing radiations in the medical field, use of diagnosis reference levels for optimization in radio-diagnosis, ALARA in veterinary radio-diagnosis, optimization of doses in nuclear medicine, optimization in interventional radiology). A last set of interventions dealt with the activity international networks for the development of radioprotection

  12. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  13. Radiological services pact relies on teamwork and experience [dose management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruden, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    Virginia Power has entered into a radiological service agreement with Westinghouse. The contract commits Westinghouse to work in partnership with Virginia Power to improve performance in the areas of radiological protection, decontamination, ALARA, and radioactive waste management. It is expected that the agreement will solve the problems caused by the shortage of qualified contractor personnel during scheduled outages. (U.K.)

  14. Human and technical factors in the doses reduction and optimization at Cogema/Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgogne, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    In the case of Cogema/Marcoule, the constant decrease of radiation doses is attributed to three factors: technical with a surveillance system and doses optimization, relational with the promotion of confidence in teams of radiation protection services as an acceptation factor of radiation protection techniques and psychological with an evolution of minds towards the ALARA approach. (N.C.)

  15. RCT: 2.05 Contamination Control, Course #8770

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report focuses on the detection and control of radioactive contamination, which are an integral part of an aggressive ALARA program and provide an indication of the effectiveness of engineering controls and proper work practices in preventing the release of radioactive material. Radioactive contamination, if undetected or not properly controlled, can be spread and contaminate areas, equipment, personnel, and the environment.

  16. RIMS/sup tm/ - radiological information management system: software package EI-029-S86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    RIMS/sup tm/ has been developed for health physics record keeping and reporting. It provides for the management needs relating to radiological information control at a nuclear facility. The program is comprised of the following modules: Personnel Radiological Information, Radiological Work Permit, Radiation Survey Records, Access Control, ALARA Reporting, and Respirator and Survey Instrument Inventory Modules.

  17. RADIOR, a software of training to the optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipaud, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    The optimisation of radiation protection is a very good theme for a training software, which presents various means of knowledge expression: animation, case study, multiple choice question. PRODIDACT has just produced RADIOR, with the scientific contribution of CEPN. This courseware aims at leading people to discover and understand the ALARA process. (author)

  18. Guidelines on how to meet the requirement to keep all exposures as low as reasonably achievable. Regulatory guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of Regulatory Guide G-129 (E) is to provide Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) licensees with guidelines on how to meet the forthcoming AECB regulatory requirement to keep doses received by workers and members of the public As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), social and economic factors taken into account. it is realized that the scope for realistic dose reductions will vary depending on the nature of the licensed activity. Therefore, criteria are given in section D for determining if doses can be deemed to be as low as reasonably achievable without further evaluation. The elements that the AECB considers to be essential in the approach to ALARA are described in section E and are summarized as follows: a demonstrated management commitment to the ALARA principle; the implementation of ALARA through a licensee's organization and management, provision of resources, training, establishment of action levels, documentation and other measures; and regular operational reviews. The above elements will be the focus of any AECB assessment to verify compliance with the requirement to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

  19. US Department of Energy standardized radiation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    The following working groups were formed under the direction of a radiological training coordinator: managers, supervisors, DOE auditors, ALARA engineers/schedulers/planners, radiological control personnel, radiation-generating device operators, emergency responders, visitors, Pu facilities, U facilities, tritium facilities, accelerator facilities, biomedical researchers. General courses for these groups are available, now or soon, in the form of handbooks

  20. Reactor. Mind picture of the future Jules-Horowitz Reactor (RHJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustache, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives information about the future research reactor, named Reactor Jules-Horowitz (RJH). This irradiation reactor will be placed at industrialists disposal, for research concerning the competitiveness and the safety french electro-nuclear park. Principles and innovations are detailed. This reactor will respect the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable). (A.L.B.)

  1. Tests Conducted with Strippable Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. E. Archibald; R. L. Demmer

    1999-08-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of several strippable coatings and their use in decontamination. Pentek 604, Bartlett (TLC), and ALARA 1146 were products examined for their overall effectiveness and ease of use. Conclusions were reached about the effective use of these coatings, and field test examples, with radioactive contamination are incorporated.

  2. The Watergate Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training in Business and Industry, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The Watergate Learning Center, recently opened by Sterling Learning Center in Washington, D. C., blueprints the plan established by Sterling and Marriott Hotels for a national chain of learning centers with much the same facilities. (EB)

  3. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ROPS Rebate Skin Cancer Screening Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm Medicine Center was established in 1981 in response to occupational health problems seen in farm patients coming to Marshfield Clinic. The center continues ...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  5. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  6. Children's cancer centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  7. Womens Business Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...

  8. Progress report on the management of the NEA ISOE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1995-03-01

    The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was launched by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) on 1 January, 1992, to facilitate the communication of dosimetric and ALARA implementation data among nuclear utilities around the world. After two years of operation the System has become a mature interactive network for transfer of data and experience. Currently, 37 utilities from 12 countries, representing 289 power plants, and 12 national regulatory authorities participate in ISOE. Agreements for cooperation also exist between the NEA and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), and the Paris Center of the WOrld Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO-PC). In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is acting as a co-sponsor of ISOE for the participation of non-NEA member countries. Three Regional Technical Centres, Europe, Asia, and Non-NEA member countries, serve to administer the system. The ISOE Network is comprised of three data bases and a communications network at several levels. The three ISOE data bases include the following types of information: NEA1 - annual plant dosimetric information; NEA2 - plant operational characteristics for dose and dose rate reduction; and NEA3 - job specific ALARA practices and experiences. The ISOE communications network has matured greatly during 1992 and 1993. In addition to having access to the above mentioned data bases, participants may now solicit information on new subjects, through the Technical Centres, from all other participants on a real-time basis. Information Sheets on these studies are produced for distribution to all participants. In addition, Topical Reports on areas of interest are produced, and Topical Meetings are held annually.

  9. LERF Basin 44 Process Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents a plan to process a portion of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Basin 44 wastewater through the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this process test is to determine the most effective/efficient method to treat the wastewater currently stored in LERF Basin 44. The process test will determine the operational parameters necessary to comply with facility effluent discharge permit limits (Ecology 1995) and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) acceptance criteria (BHI-00139), while achieving ALARA goals and maintaining the integrity of facility equipment. A major focus of the test plan centers on control of contamination due to leaks and/or facility maintenance. As a pre-startup item, all known leaks will be fixed before the start of the test. During the course of the test, a variety of contamination control measures will be evaluated for implementation during the treatment of the remaining Basin 44 inventory. Of special interest will be techniques and tools used to prevent contamination spread during sampling and when opening contaminated facility equipment/piping. At the conclusion of the test, a post ALARA review will be performed to identify lessons learned from the test run which can be applied to the treatment of the remaining Basin 44 inventory. The volume of wastewater to be treated during this test run is 500,000 gallons. This volume limit is necessary to maintain the ETF radiological inventory limits per the approved authorization basis. The duration of the process test is approximately 30 days

  10. Study of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for radiation detection. Application to an optical fibre {gamma}-radiation sensor; Etude de la luminescence stimulee optiquement (OSL) pour la detection de rayonnements: application a un capteur a fibre optique de rayonnement {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, O. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Electronique et d`Instrumentation Nucleaire]|[Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-12-31

    This work shows up the usefulness of the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to resolve radioprotection problems. We study the use of OSL as a gamma dosimetric technique with respect to the ALARA`s concept (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). A new approach based on optical fibers and luminescent materials showing OSL properties (closely related to Thermoluminescence phenomena) is presented in order to improve the remote real time dosimetry monitoring. Like thermoluminescent materials (TLD), OSL materials can trap charges under an irradiation (UV, X, {gamma},...). Instead of heating, the charges trapped are released by light stimulation and produce a visible luminescence which amount is proportional to trap the `data stored` left by irradiation, enabling the dose measurement. The OSL phenomenon offers the same advantages as TLD plus the interesting possibility of a remote optical stimulation. The end-user objective deals with the development of a {gamma}-radiation Optical FIber Sensor (OFS) for dose measurement which can offer new functionalities based on OSL materials coupled with an optical fiber. Rare earth doped Alkaline Earth Sulphides (AES), BAFX:EU{sup 2+} (X = Cl, Br, I) and halogen alkaline have been studied (crystalline form, synthesis techniques, influence of dopants and color centers). Their characteristics are presented and extensively discussed. A specific experimental set-up to characterise various OSL phosphors has been developed. It allows the study of sensitivity, linearity, time decay behaviour of OSL signal and zeroing time. A joint study of OSL and TL has shown the technical limitations as well as the thermal fading and the origin of the long zeroing time. An Optical Fiber Sensor (OFS) based on OSL and using MgS:Sm has been developed for practical applications on nuclear fields. Its specifications are presented and discussed, moreover improvements are proposed. (author) 320 refs.

  11. National Health Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ODPHP Food and Nutrition Physical Activity Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder health.gov About ODPHP National Health Information Center National Health Information Center The National Health ...

  12. Find a Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HRSA Health Centers care for you, even if you have no health insurance – you pay what you can afford based on your income. Health centers provide services that...

  13. New Mexico Convention Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of convention centers in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because it's a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety Blog Safety Education Centers Neighborhood Safety Network Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster ... Sitemap RSS E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information ( ...

  16. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) explores the unique properties of materials and processes at the nanoscale. The CFN is a user-oriented research center...

  17. Tornadoes: A Center Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman-Rothlein, Liz; Meinbach, Anita M.

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on how to put together a learning center. Discusses information and activity packets for a complete learning center on tornadoes including objectives, directions, materials, photographs of physical arrangements, and posttest. (DC)

  18. Genetic Science Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic Science Learning Center Making science and health easy for everyone to understand Home News Our Team What We Do ... Collaboration Conferences Current Projects Publications Contact The Genetic Science Learning Center at The University of Utah is a ...

  19. Hydrologic Engineering Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), an organization within the Institute for Water Resources, is the designated Center of Expertise for the U.S. Army Corps of...

  20. Wound care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... center; Ischemic ulcer - wound center References Kim PJ, Evans KK, Steinberg JS, Pollard ME, Attinger CE. Critical ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  1. NIH Clinical Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH Clinical Center consists of two main facilities: The Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, which opened in 2005, houses inpatient units, day hospitals,...

  2. Day Care Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of day care centers for 50 states and Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico. The dataset only includes center based day care locations...

  3. MARYLAND ROBOTICS CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Maryland Robotics Center is an interdisciplinary research center housed in the Institute for Systems Research (link is external)within the A. James Clark School...

  4. Center of buoyancy definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, V.

    1988-12-01

    The center of buoyancy of an arbitrary shaped body is defined in analogy to the center of gravity. The definitions of the buoyant force and center of buoyancy in terms of integrals over the area of the body are converted to volume integrals and shown to have simple intuitive interpretations

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon ... All CO Safety Guides ")); jQuery(".node-type-safety-education-center ... Camping Equipment Home Heating Equipment On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More ...

  6. Data Center Tasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temares, M. Lewis; Lutheran, Joseph A.

    Operations tasking for data center management is discussed. The original and revised organizational structures of the data center at the University of Miami are also described. The organizational strategy addresses the functions that should be performed by the data center, anticipates the specialized skills required, and addresses personnel…

  7. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab

  8. The guiding center Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.

    1986-01-01

    Recursion relations determining the guiding center Langrangian Λ and the associated guiding center variables to all orders are derived. We consider some particularly simple forms of Λ obtainable by specific choices of certain arbitrary functions appearing as free parameters in the theory. It is, for example, possible to locally define the guiding center variables so that the expression for the corresponding Langrangian is unchanged by all higher order terms. (orig.)

  9. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  10. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  11. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  12. Audio Visual Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Audiovisual Services Center provides still photographic documentation with laboratory support, video documentation, video editing, video duplication, photo/video...

  13. Environmental Modeling Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Modeling Center provides the computational tools to perform geostatistical analysis, to model ground water and atmospheric releases for comparison...

  14. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  15. Advanced Simulation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Simulation Center consists of 10 individual facilities which provide missile and submunition hardware-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. The following...

  16. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  17. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  18. Radioprotection optimization in the electronuclear, industrial and medical domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Abela, G.; Ammerich, M.; Balduyck, S.; Batalla, A.; Drouet, F.; Fracas, P.; Gauron, Ch.; Le Guen, B.; Lombard, J.; Mougnard, Ph.; Murith, Ch.; Rannou, A.; Rodde, S.; Selva, M.; Tranchant, Ph.; Schieber, C.; Solaire, T.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Jolivet, P.; Chauveau, D.; Mathevet, L.; Juhel, T.; Mertz, L.; Bochud, F.O.; Desmaris, G.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Roy, C.; Delacroix, S.; Sevilla, A.; Rehel, J.L.; Bernhard, S.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Lochard, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Wack, G.; Barange, K.; Delabre, H.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Thirty one presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - implementation of the ALARA principle in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains: status and challenges (C. Schieber); 2 - image quality and scanner irradiation: what ingredients to chose? (T. Solaire); 3 - radioprotection stakes and implementation of the ALARA approach during the IFMIF design (Y. Le Tonqueze); 4 - ALARA at the design stage of the EPR (P. Jolivet); 5 - alternative techniques to iridium 192 gamma-graphy for welds control: results and recommendations from the ALTER-X project (D. Chauveau); 6 - alternative techniques to ionizing radiations use in the medical domain: implementation of navigation strategies (L. Mathevet); 7 - justification of ionizing radiations use in non-medical imaging: overview of the French situation and perspectives status (S. Rodde); 8 - ISOE: task scheduling for radioprotection optimization in nuclear power plants (G. Abela); 9 - Practices and ALARA prospects among big nuclear operators (T. Juhel); 10 - experience feedback on the use of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in diagnostic imaging optimization (L. Mertz); 11 - DRLs: Swiss strategy and concept limits (F.O. Bochud); 12 - external dosimetry tools: the existing, the developing and the remaining problems (A. Rannou); 13 - is the optimization principle applicable to the aircraft personnel's exposure to cosmic radiation? (G. Desmaris); 14-15 - experience feedback of the ALARA approach concerning an operation with strong dosimetric stakes (P. Mougnard and N. Fontaine); 16 - optimization of reactor pool decontaminations ((P. Tranchant); 17 - radiopharmaceuticals transport - ALARA principle related stakes (G. Turquet de Beauregard); 18 - ALARA in vet radio-diagnosis activity: good practices guide (C. Roy); 19 - implementation of the ALARA approach at the Proton-therapy centre of Orsay's Curie Institute

  19. Radioprotection optimization in the electronuclear, industrial and medical domains; Optimisation de la radioprotection dans les domaines electronucleaire, industriel et medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Abela, G.; Ammerich, M.; Balduyck, S.; Batalla, A.; Drouet, F.; Fracas, P.; Gauron, Ch.; Le Guen, B.; Lombard, J.; Mougnard, Ph.; Murith, Ch.; Rannou, A.; Rodde, S.; Selva, M.; Tranchant, Ph.; Schieber, C.; Solaire, T.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Jolivet, P.; Chauveau, D.; Mathevet, L.; Juhel, T.; Mertz, L.; Bochud, F.O.; Desmaris, G.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Roy, C.; Delacroix, S.; Sevilla, A.; Rehel, J.L.; Bernhard, S.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Lochard, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Wack, G.; Barange, K.; Delabre, H.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Thirty one presentations are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - implementation of the ALARA principle in the nuclear, industrial and medical domains: status and challenges (C. Schieber); 2 - image quality and scanner irradiation: what ingredients to chose? (T. Solaire); 3 - radioprotection stakes and implementation of the ALARA approach during the IFMIF design (Y. Le Tonqueze); 4 - ALARA at the design stage of the EPR (P. Jolivet); 5 - alternative techniques to iridium 192 gamma-graphy for welds control: results and recommendations from the ALTER-X project (D. Chauveau); 6 - alternative techniques to ionizing radiations use in the medical domain: implementation of navigation strategies (L. Mathevet); 7 - justification of ionizing radiations use in non-medical imaging: overview of the French situation and perspectives status (S. Rodde); 8 - ISOE: task scheduling for radioprotection optimization in nuclear power plants (G. Abela); 9 - Practices and ALARA prospects among big nuclear operators (T. Juhel); 10 - experience feedback on the use of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in diagnostic imaging optimization (L. Mertz); 11 - DRLs: Swiss strategy and concept limits (F.O. Bochud); 12 - external dosimetry tools: the existing, the developing and the remaining problems (A. Rannou); 13 - is the optimization principle applicable to the aircraft personnel's exposure to cosmic radiation? (G. Desmaris); 14-15 - experience feedback of the ALARA approach concerning an operation with strong dosimetric stakes (P. Mougnard and N. Fontaine); 16 - optimization of reactor pool decontaminations ((P. Tranchant); 17 - radiopharmaceuticals transport - ALARA principle related stakes (G. Turquet de Beauregard); 18 - ALARA in vet radio-diagnosis activity: good practices guide (C. Roy); 19 - implementation of the ALARA approach at the Proton-therapy centre of Orsay's Curie

  20. Simple Machine Science Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessin, Debby

    2007-01-01

    Science centers can engage students; accommodate different learning styles and individual interests; help students become independent and confident learners; and encourage social skills among students. In this article, the author worked with third-grade students as they completed activities at learning centers during a week-long unit on simple…

  1. ENERGY RESOURCES CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Virginia

    1979-11-01

    First I will give a short history of this Center which has had three names and three moves (and one more in the offing) in three years. Then I will tell you about the accomplishments made in the past year. And last, I will discuss what has been learned and what is planned for the future. The Energy and Environment Information Center (EEIC), as it was first known, was organized in August 1975 in San Francisco as a cooperative venture by the Federal Energy Administration (FEA), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These three agencies planned this effort to assist the public in obtaining information about energy and the environmental aspects of energy. The Public Affairs Offices of FEA, ERDA and EPA initiated the idea of the Center. One member from each agency worked at the Center, with assistance from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Information Research Group (LBL IRG) and with on-site help from the EPA Library. The Center was set up in a corner of the EPA Library. FEA and ERDA each contributed one staff member on a rotating basis to cover the daily operation of the Center and money for books and periodicals. EPA contributed space, staff time for ordering, processing and indexing publications, and additional money for acquisitions. The LBL Information Research Group received funds from ERDA on a 189 FY 1976 research project to assist in the development of the Center as a model for future energy centers.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  3. Dimensioning large call centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Borst (Sem); A. Mandelbaum; M.I. Reiman

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a framework for asymptotic optimization of a queueing system. The motivation is the staffing problem of call centers with 100's of agents (or more). Such a call center is modeled as an M/M/N queue, where the number of agents~$N$ is large. Within our framework, we determine the

  4. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email not for emergency use. Ohio Central Texas Poison Center Address Scott and White Memorial Hospital 2401 South 31st Street Temple, TX 76508 Service area: Central Texas Mail donation to: Central Texas Poison Center (Above address) For questions contact: jennifer.watson@ ...

  5. Optoelectronics Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-16

    ipan byr the Naval teuh Laoratoy. Tentative explanations have been put forth [14], but no B. W. Mufins was with the Center for high Tehnology Materia ad...semiconductor laser in an external cavity. CHAOS IN SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS Hua Li , Jun Ye and John (. Mclnemey Center for High Tehnology Materials The

  6. Relative Lyapunov Center Bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schilder, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Relative equilibria (REs) and relative periodic orbits (RPOs) are ubiquitous in symmetric Hamiltonian systems and occur, for example, in celestial mechanics, molecular dynamics, and rigid body motion. REs are equilibria, and RPOs are periodic orbits of the symmetry reduced system. Relative Lyapunov...... center bifurcations are bifurcations of RPOs from REs corresponding to Lyapunov center bifurcations of the symmetry reduced dynamics. In this paper we first prove a relative Lyapunov center theorem by combining recent results on the persistence of RPOs in Hamiltonian systems with a symmetric Lyapunov...... center theorem of Montaldi, Roberts, and Stewart. We then develop numerical methods for the detection of relative Lyapunov center bifurcations along branches of RPOs and for their computation. We apply our methods to Lagrangian REs of the N-body problem....

  7. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  8. Information sharing guidebook for transportation management centers, emergency operations centers, and fusion centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This guidebook provides an overview of the mission and functions of transportation management centers, emergency operations centers, and fusion centers. The guidebook focuses on the types of information these centers produce and manage and how the sh...

  9. Information sharing guidebook for transportation management centers, emergency operations centers, and fusion centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This guidebook provides an overview of the mission and functions of transportation management centers, emergency operations centers, and fusion centers. The guidebook focuses on the types of information these centers produce and manage and how the sh...

  10. USU Patient Simulation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — he National Capital Area (NCA) Medical Simulation Center is a state-of-the-art training facility located near the main USU campus. It uses simulated patients (i.e.,...

  11. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  12. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruckdeschel, John

    1999-01-01

    ... through screening, and the testing of methods to prevent cancer. In addition, the Center created and supports education programs to provide increased cancer awareness and established working collaborations with the James...

  13. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  14. Advanced Missile Signature Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  15. Center for Practical Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directors Center Fellows Staff News Headlines What is bioethics? Programs PAINS Pain Action Alliance to Implement a ... Us Videos Symposium Videos Lecture Videos Audio Interviews Bioethics Channel Resources Caring Conversations Free Downloads Order Prints ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  17. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Symptoms & Treatment Help with Relationships Support for Helpers Balanced Mind Parent Network Family Center I'm ... not a substitute for consultation with a health professional. Regardless of the results of a screen, if ...

  18. Clean Air Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Technology Center provides resources for emerging and existing air pollution prevention and control technologies and provides public access to data and information on their use, effectiveness and cost.

  19. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  20. National Automotive Center - NAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Encouraged by the advantages of collaboration, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) worked with the Secretary of the...

  1. The ORFEUS Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dost

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 1993 the ORFEUS Data Center (ODC; Dost, 1991 changed hosting organisation. It moved within the Netherlands from the University of Utrecht to the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNM1 in de Bilt. This change in hosting organisation was necessary to ensure a longer term stability in the operation of the ODC. Key issues for the ODC are the rapid on-line data access and quality controlled, complete and efficient off-line data access. During 1992 the ODC became the European node in the international SPYDER system which provides near real-time access to digital broadband data from selected high quality stations. Electronic messages trigger soveral centers well distributed over the globe. These centers then collect the data by modem from selected stations in their region. Finally, data are distributed between data centers over internet.

  2. Center Innovation Fund Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To stimulate and encourage creativity and innovation within the NASA Centers. The activities are envisioned to fall within the scope of NASA Space Technology or...

  3. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  4. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  5. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  6. NRC operation center's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has maintained a 24-hour-a-day, 365 days-a-year, manned Operations Center since the emergency incident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant in 1979. The Center functions as the NRC's point of direct communication through dedicated telephone lines for reports of significant events at licensed nuclear power plants and certain fuel cycle facilities. The Center has become a key element in the agency's emergency preparedness. The effectiveness of the NRC Operations Center depends in large measure on complete and accurate reports from the licensees. The information provided is used to: identify generic safety issues and precursor events that may compromise plant safety; develop licensee performance trends that are used to adjust NRC regulatory emphasis; and, evaluate and provide for the appropriate NRC response to events in a real time mode

  7. Mobility Data Analytics Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mobility Data Analytics Center aims at building a centralized data engine to efficiently manipulate : large-scale data for smart decision making. Integrating and learning the massive data are the key to : the data engine. The ultimate goal of underst...

  8. HUD Homeownership Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD Homeownership Centers (HOCs) insure single family Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgages and oversee the selling of HUD homes. FHA has four Homeownership...

  9. New marine studies center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple University has established a Center for Marine Studies with faculty members from four of its colleges. The center will offer courses leading to a certificate in marine studies.Studies will focus on urbanization's impact on the marine environment and will focus on management and economics of waterfront utilization. In addition, faculty members will be constructing an artificial reef off Absecon Inlet to determine if increasing protective environments will permit increased sport fishing.

  10. NASA Center update: Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    1993-02-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: spacecraft operations, life cycle testing an the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), and destructive physical analysis at COMSAT laboratories. The subtopics under spacecraft operations are the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS), the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The subtopics under the life cycle testing at NSWC are the following: advanced NiCd cells from Hughes Aircraft Company/Eagle Picher Industries; conventional NiCd cells from Gates Aerospace Batteries; conventional NiCd cells from General Electric; NiCd cells from SAFT; NiH2 celss from Eagle Picher Industries; and data as of 10/26/92.

  11. "Infotonics Technology Center"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzemeier, L. [Infotonics Technology Center Inc., Canandaigua, NY (United States); Boysel, M. B. [Infotonics Technology Center Inc., Canandaigua, NY (United States); Smith, D. R. [Infotonics Technology Center Inc., Canandaigua, NY (United States)

    2004-09-30

    During this grant period July 15, 2002 thru September 30, 2004, the Infotonics Technology Center developed the critical infrastructure and technical expertise necessary to accelerate the development of sensors, alternative lighting and power sources, and other specific subtopics of interest to Department of Energy. Infotonics fosters collaboration among industry, universities and government and operates as a national center of excellence to drive photonics and microsystems development and commercialization. A main goal of the Center is to establish a unique, world-class research and development facility. A state-of-the-art microsystems prototype and pilot fabrication facility was established to enable rapid commercialization of new products of particular interest to DOE. The Center has three primary areas of photonics and microsystems competency: device research and engineering, packaging and assembly, and prototype and pilot-scale fabrication. Center activities focused on next generation optical communication networks, advanced imaging and information sensors and systems, micro-fluidic systems, assembly and packaging technologies, and biochemical sensors. With targeted research programs guided by the wealth of expertise of Infotonics business and scientific staff, the fabrication and packaging facility supports and accelerates innovative technology development of special interest to DOE in support of its mission and strategic defense, energy, and science goals.

  12. Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC) is committed to quality testing and inspection services that are delivered on time and...

  13. International Water Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  14. Entanglement with centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-Te

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that each state cannot be described individually. Entanglement entropy gives quantitative understanding to the entanglement. We use decomposition of the Hilbert space to discuss properties of the entanglement. Therefore, partial trace operator becomes important to define the reduced density matrix from different centers, which commutes with all elements in the Hilbert space, corresponding to different entanglement choices or different observations on entangling surface. Entanglement entropy is expected to satisfy the strong subadditivity. We discuss decomposition of the Hilbert space for the strong subadditivity and other related inequalities. The entanglement entropy with centers can be computed from the Hamitonian formulations systematically, provided that we know wavefunctional. In the Hamitonian formulation, it is easier to obtain symmetry structure. We consider massless p-form theory as an example. The massless p-form theory in (2 p + 2)-dimensions has global symmetry, similar to the electric-magnetic duality, connecting centers in ground state. This defines a duality structure in centers. Because it is hard to exactly compute the entanglement entropy from partial trace operator, we propose the Lagrangian formulation from the Hamitonian formulation to compute the entanglement entropy with centers. From the Lagrangian method and saddle point approximation, the codimension two surface term (leading order) in the Einstein gravity theory or holographic entanglement entropy should correspond to non-tensor product decomposition (center is not identity). Finally, we compute the entanglement entropy of the SU( N) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory in the fundamental representation using the strong coupling expansion in the extended lattice model to obtain spatial area term in total dimensions larger than two for N > 1.

  15. Entanglement with centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chen-Te [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2016-01-13

    Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that each state cannot be described individually. Entanglement entropy gives quantitative understanding to the entanglement. We use decomposition of the Hilbert space to discuss properties of the entanglement. Therefore, partial trace operator becomes important to define the reduced density matrix from different centers, which commutes with all elements in the Hilbert space, corresponding to different entanglement choices or different observations on entangling surface. Entanglement entropy is expected to satisfy the strong subadditivity. We discuss decomposition of the Hilbert space for the strong subadditivity and other related inequalities. The entanglement entropy with centers can be computed from the Hamitonian formulations systematically, provided that we know wavefunctional. In the Hamitonian formulation, it is easier to obtain symmetry structure. We consider massless p-form theory as an example. The massless p-form theory in (2p+2)-dimensions has global symmetry, similar to the electric-magnetic duality, connecting centers in ground state. This defines a duality structure in centers. Because it is hard to exactly compute the entanglement entropy from partial trace operator, we propose the Lagrangian formulation from the Hamitonian formulation to compute the entanglement entropy with centers. From the Lagrangian method and saddle point approximation, the codimension two surface term (leading order) in the Einstein gravity theory or holographic entanglement entropy should correspond to non-tensor product decomposition (center is not identity). Finally, we compute the entanglement entropy of the SU(N) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory in the fundamental representation using the strong coupling expansion in the extended lattice model to obtain spatial area term in total dimensions larger than two for N>1.

  16. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan Centers Cemetery Locations Search Enter your search text Enter your search ... Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional ...

  17. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging ... Employment Center Returning Service Members Vocational Rehabilitation & Employment Homeless Veterans Women Veterans Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving ...

  18. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ...

  19. Starting an aphasia center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Roberta J

    2011-08-01

    Starting an aphasia center can be an enormous challenge. This article provides initial issues to review and consider when deciding whether starting a new organization is right for you. Determining the need for the program in your community, the best size and possible affiliation for the organization, and available resources, as well as developing a business plan, marketing the program, and building awareness in the community, are some of the factors that are discussed. Specific examples related to starting the Aphasia Center of California are provided. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  20. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  1. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless ... ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration ...

  2. Data Analysis and Assessment Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The DoD Supercomputing Resource Center (DSRC) Data Analysis and Assessment Center (DAAC) provides classified facilities to enhance customer interactions with the ARL...

  3. Johnson Space Center Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafka, Tammy; Terrier, Doug; Smith, James

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation is a review of the work of Johnson Space Center. It includes a section on technology development areas, (i.e., composite structures, non-destructive evaluation, applied nanotechnology, additive manufacturing, and fracture and fatigue analytical methods), a section on structural analysis capabilities within NASA/JSC and a section on Friction stir welding and laser peening.

  4. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  5. School Resource Center (SRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Resource Center, Austin, TX.

    The School Resource Center (SRC) in Austin, Texas, is intended to provide a system to link teachers and parents with various public and private information sources in order to improve instructional practice and eliminate unnecessary and costly referrals to special education services. It will collect information from private education agencies,…

  6. Mechanical Properties Data Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    programming Computer, Information Systems Keith Smoak and Education Suk Y. Cho Kimberly Koehl Helen Pestel Coordination of Information Services...SAH P. Wu 30 Oct STAG, Republic of China Center Activities M. Ogawa, M. Hirai 23 Nov Fujitsu, Japan Database Activities R. McNamara, M. Imos 17 Dec Gen

  7. Heart Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center CME Resources THI Journal THI Cardiac Society Register for the Cardiac Society Symposium This year’s meeting is May 11. Read ... Your Heart Tips for Reducing Salt Intake Trace Elements Understanding Food Labels Understanding Omega-3 Fatty Acids ...

  8. vCenter troubleshooting

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Chuck

    2015-01-01

    The book is designed for the competent vCenter administrator or anyone who is responsible for the vSphere environment. It can be used as a guide by vSphere architects and VMware consultants for a successful vSphere solution. You should have good knowledge and an understanding of core elements and applications of the vSphere environment.

  9. Centering of quadrupole family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinayev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for finding the individual centers for a family of quadrupoles fed with a single power supply is described. The method is generalized for using the correctors adjacent to the quadrupoles. Theoretical background is presented as well as experimental data for the NSLS rings. The method accuracy is also discussed

  10. Precision Joining Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. W.; Westphal, D. A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10-12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG&G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  11. User-Centered Design through Learner-Centered Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Burçak

    2014-01-01

    This article initially demonstrates the parallels between the learner-centered approach in education and the user-centered approach in design disciplines. Afterward, a course on human factors that applies learner-centered methods to teach user-centered design is introduced. The focus is on three tasks to identify the application of theoretical and…

  12. Economics of data center optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Traffic to and from data centers is now reaching Zettabytes/year. Even the smallest of businesses now rely on data centers for revenue generation. And, the largest data centers today are orders of magnitude larger than the supercomputing centers of a few years ago. Until quite recently, for most data center managers, optical data centers were nice to dream about, but not really essential. Today, the all-optical data center - perhaps even an all-single mode fiber (SMF) data center is something that even managers of medium-sized data centers should be considering. Economical transceivers are the key to increased adoption of data center optics. An analysis of current and near future data center optics economics will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Use of cost benefit analysis in the field of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Webb, G.A.M.; Tattersall, P.; Sutherland, A.; Spence, E.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade NRPB has had a program of work on the development of cost benefit analysis (CBA) techniques in the optimisation of radiological protection. A provisional framework for including suggestions for assigning a value to unit collective dose was published for consultation in 1981/82 and after various interim statements this process culminated in formal advice in 1986. As part of this work, and as part of a project for the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) the NRPB has carried out a number of case studies to demonstrate the practical implementation of ALARA or optimisation of protection using CBA. These techniques, used in conjunction with ALARA audits, are now in general use in the NRPB's Radiation Protection Advisor Service. They have been used for a variety of medical and industrial situations, but mainly in industrial radiography as this is the part of the non-nuclear sector where occupational exposure problems predominate. Three cases are presented as representative examples

  14. Strategy proposed by Electricite de France in the development of automatic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaing, C.; Cazin, B. [Electricite de France, Noisy le grand (France)

    1995-03-01

    The strategy proposed by EDF in the development of a means to limit personal and collective dosimetry is recent. It follows in the steps of a policy that consisted of developing remote operation means for those activities of inspection and maintenance on the reactor, pools bottom, steam generators (SGs), also reactor building valves; target activities because of their high dosimetric cost. One of the main duties of the UTO (Technical Support Department), within the EDF, is the maintenance of Pressurized Water Reactors in French Nuclear Power Plant Operations (consisting of 54 units) and the development and monitoring of specialized tools. To achieve this, the UTO has started a national think-tank on the implementation of the ALARA process in its field of activity and created an ALARA Committee responsible for running and monitoring it, as well as a policy for developing tools. This point will be illustrated in the second on reactor vessel heads.

  15. ORNL implementation of new health and safety requirements (DOE Order 5480.11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abercrombie, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    New mandates in radiological protection outlined in DOE Order 5480. 11, include changes in the methodology for determining total radiation dose, ALARA program accountability, monitoring requirements, and standards for public entrance into controlled areas. The new order places distinct requirements concerning training at all DOE facilities. Radiation protection training requirements are addressed, including the effective communication of operations changes to all employees. This paper details the endeavors underway at ORNL in designing, developing, and delivering the training required by the new mandates. Strategies taken to reach the intended goals are explained. Efforts involve the design and implementation of the above mentioned radiation protection programs, a job-specific ALARA instructional package, and a Risk-Based Philosophy program matched to operational changes. 4 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Narveos: a virtual reality simulation environment for nuclear radiating working sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenon, J.B.; Ferey, Th.; Lopez, L.; Chabal, C.; Chodorge, L.; Morganti, Ph.; Desbats, Ph.

    2008-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, any company involved in the management and/or the design and performance of interventions on equipment must find the most appropriate scenario considering several constraints: technical requirements: feasibility, kind of means to use, operating modes, tasks scheduling; economical requirements: global mission cost minimization and long-term funding; environmental requirements: waste management, contamination containment, different impacts; legal and regulatory requirements: the ALARA principle, some specific facility rules, the target state with respect to governmental decrees. Today, complex questions about interventions design with increasing reactivity, lower costs and shorter delays must be addressed. In addition, one must deal with unexpected situations during the effective realization of the interventions, and finally the experience feedback of the missions must be consolidated. One important question related to the above mentioned aspects is the choice of a human versus a remote handling or robotic intervention including ALARA consideration for decommissioning workers. (authors)

  17. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook

  18. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » PTSD: National Center for PTSD » Public » Videos PTSD: National Center for ... About Us: National Center for PTSD The National Center for PTSD does not provide direct clinical care, individual referrals or benefits information. For help please ...

  19. Aperture center energy showcase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

  20. Call Center Capacity Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Bang

    is known as skills-based routing. It involves designing the routing policies in a way that results in customers receiving a desired service level such as the waiting time they experience. The emphasis of this thesis is on the design of these policies. The first paper, Queues with waiting time dependent...... infrastructure allows customers to be divided into classes depending on their requests or their value to the call center operator. The agents working in call centers can in the same way be split into groups based on their skills. The discipline of matching calls from different customer classes to agent groups...... service, introduces a novel approach to analyzing queueing systems. This involves using the waiting time of the first customer in line as the primary variable on which the analysis is based. The legacy approach has been to use the number of customers in queue. The new approach facilitates exact analysis...

  1. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT,J.

    2004-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security.

  2. Basis for limiting exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, W.R.

    1979-07-01

    In view of the uncertainty about the size of the risk from radiation, it is assumed that all doses are potentially harmful with the probability of harm proportional to the dose, without threshold. Canada participates in the work of UNSCEAR, and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board follows the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in setting its dose limits, encouraging the application of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) concept through its licensing and compliance activities

  3. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  4. Reducing radiation exposures at nuclear power plants using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is an innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities and to improve ALARA job planning. ADEPT combines visualization and simulation of the radioactive environment at a nuclear station to estimate worker dose. It allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. (author)

  5. Twelfth biennial conference on reactor operating experience maintenance and modifications for availability and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the following topical sessions: (1) Formal Availability Improvement Programs; (2) Maintenance Aids and Diagnostics; (3) Nuclear Plant Inspection and Testing; (4) Secondary Cycle Improvement to Programs; (5) Recent Plant Experiences; (6) Training, Research, and Test Reactors; (7) Impact of Plant Maintenance on Availability; (8) Intragranular Stress Corrosion Cracking: Repair, Inspection, and Mitigating Techniques; (9) Availability Improvement - Recent Development and Trends; (10) Water Chemistry and Corrosion Control; and (11) ALARA: Experiences with Dose Reduction

  6. Analysis of the evolution of the collective dose in nuclear power plants in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponjuan Reyes, G.; Ruibia Rodiz, M. A. de la; Rosales Calvo, M.; Labarta Mancho, T.; Calavia Gimenez, I.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the evolution of occupational collective dose of the Spanish nuclear power planLs during the period 2000 - 2008 within the international context, by the Nuclear SafeLy Council (CSN) in order to have information contrasted to assessing the extent of applicaLion of the ALARA criLeria in the Spanish plants and identify areas of priority attention.

  7. Stralingsblootstelling en beskerming in ’n chirugiese teater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda van der Merwe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die stralingswerker behoort ioniserende bestraling aan die pasiënt en personeel te alle tye tot dieminimum te beperk deur die toepassing van die ALARA- beginsel. Die doel van die studie was omdie ioniserende stralingsvlakkke rondom die teatertafel aan weerskante van die C-Arm te bepaalom vas te stel of die bestralingsdosis tydens rugpynbehandelings binne die bestralingslimiete is soos bepaal deur die International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP.

  8. Radiological hazard assessment of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, D.D.; Vermeere, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent introduction of ESWL to the clinical environment, a new health physics challenge has entered the medical consulting area. The x-ray imaging systems used in the devices are of a conventional design, but in an unusual configuration that is difficult to properly assess. The scope of this paper considers specific evaluation problems, and deals with methods developed during experience with 4 units in California. Pertinent regulations are also covered, along with a synopsis of data obtained and ALARA recommendations

  9. Use of technology in implementing radiation protection good practices at RAPS-5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawal, S.R.; Kakkar, Amandeep; Yadav, Umed; Venkataramana, K.; Ramasomayajulu, M.; Khot, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL), is committed to perform all its activities while providing high level of radiological protection and continue to meet international standards on radiological safety. In continuation to reducing in expenditure of station collective dose/individual dose both in terms of external and internal dose is attained by adopting many new and innovative good radiological practices as per ALARA principle. Some of these improved radiological practices of RAPS-5 and 6 are discussed in this paper

  10. Radiation surveillance of exposed workers during activities of moving of the earth area of Montecillo; Vigilancia radiologica de los trabajadores expuestos durante las actividades de movimiento de tierras del area del Montecillo del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, M. T.; Alvarez, A.; Garcia, E.; Diaz, P.; Quinones, J.

    2013-07-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to limit the doses received by exposed workers and the public (in this case the workers of the CIEMATs buildings next to the work) by setting the appropriate criteria of optimization and protection.In addition was a theoretical evaluation of the dose inhalation, workers would have received if ALARA study protection measures has not been established. (Author)

  11. Engineering report for simulated riser installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-09

    The simulated riser installation field tests demonstrated that new access ports (risers) can be installed safely, quickly, and economically in the concrete domes of existing underground single- shell waste storage tanks by utilizing proven rotary drilling equipment and vacuum excavation techniques. The new riser installation will seal against water intrusion, provide as table riser anchored to the tank dome, and be installed in accordance with ALARA principles. The information contained in the report will apply to actual riser installation activity in the future.

  12. Backfit modifications to operating radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgione, D.M.; Dresser, C.D.; Irving, T.J.; La Marca, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive radwaste modification project to replace corroded tanks and piping and increase liquid radwaste storage capacity is described. The major factor potentially affecting both schedule and cost is the low labor productivity associated with work in radiation areas. Engineering design and construction planning activities were formulated to minimize the impact on system operation and control exposure during construction. A detailed Health Physics Plan was developed which provides for decontamination of work areas consistent with ALARA/cost benefit considerations

  13. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison

  14. Apparatus of hot cell for iodine-123 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Rautenberg, F.A.; Souza, A.S.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    The hot cell installation at IEN cyclotron (Brazilian-CNEN) for sup(123)I production is presented. Several devices, such as, tube furnace coupling system, tube furnace driving system, sup(123)I target transfer system, product extraction system, furnace control system, and effluent systems, were constructed and modified for implanting process engineering. The requirements of safety engineering for operation process were based on ALARA concept. (M.C.K.)

  15. Dose reduction due to the use of pulsed miction-cystourethrography in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettinger, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The miction-cystourethrography (MCU) is the most frequently used radiographic method (30-50%) in pediatrics. The absorbed doses were significantly reduced during the last years aimed to realize the ALARA principle. The scope of the work is to study the possibility of a further dose reduction using pulsed radiation systems based on a computer-aided analysis of the dose-time curve during MCU examination.

  16. Panthere V2: Multipurpose Simulation Software for 3D Dose Rate Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penessot, Gaël; Bavoil, Éléonore; Wertz, Laurent; Malouch, Fadhel; Visonneau, Thierry; Dubost, Julien

    2017-09-01

    PANTHERE is a multipurpose radiation protection software developed by EDF to calculate gamma dose rates in complex 3D environments. PANTHERE takes a key role in the EDF ALARA process, enabling to predict dose rates and to organize and optimize operations in high radiation environments. PANTHERE is also used for nuclear waste characterization, transport of nuclear materials, etc. It is used in most of the EDF engineering units and their design service providers and industrial partners.

  17. Decontamination demonstration facility (D.D.F) modularization/mobility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility

  18. RTP Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfred, S.L.; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Nurhayati Ramli

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Monitoring System aiming to limiting dose exposed to personnel to the lowest level referring to the concept of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). Atomic Energy Licensing (Basic Safety Radiation Protection) Regulation 2010 (Act 304) is a baseline to control employee and public radiation protection program and guideline, as well as to meet the requirement of the Occupational Safety and Health 1994 (Act 514). (author)

  19. Occupational exposure in the National Institute of Nuclear Research between 1990-1994. Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar A, L.; Molina, G.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an analysis of the occupational doses of the workers is performed, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs and activities of the radiological occupational control that the Radiological Protection Department has been carrying out in order to execute the ALARA Recommendation. It is also discussed the possibility of adopting the recommendations about dose limits of ICRP 60. (authors). 4 refs., 6 figs

  20. Limiting values for radioactive materials in food; Grenzwerte fuer radioaktive Stoffe in Lebensmitteln. Beispiel Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiation protection: LNT (linear, no threshold) hypotheses, ALARA (a slow as reasonably achievable), limiting values. Using the example the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the differences in contamination development in different foodstuffs in Germany is demonstrated including recommended limiting values and the radiation exposures after 30 years due to consumption of contaminated food. The natural radioactivity is about 0.3 mSv/year.

  1. Dose management programmes at Kaiga Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.; Prabhakaran, V.; Managavi, Sadashiv B.; Danannavar, Veerendra; Biju, P.; Manoj Kumar, M.; Shrikrishna, U.V.

    2001-01-01

    Kaiga Generating Station (KGS) has two units of pressurized heavy water reactors of 220 MWe each capacity. KGS-2 started power generation since 1999 and KGS-1 since 2000. Several programmes such as assessment of radioactive condition, training on radiological safety aspects, job planning in radioactive areas, etc. are conducted periodically to implement an effective dose control programmes in KGS. These efforts are briefly discussed in this report. Facilities and techniques to implement ALARA programs are also highlighted in this report. (author)

  2. Radiation protection optimization and work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.

    1994-09-01

    The influence quantification of bound factors to work management, and the obtained results when you apply the dosimetric economical evaluation model of the radiation protection experiments, prove that ALARA principle application musn't bound to actions on the radiation sources, but that you can find a wide act field in the irradiation work volume management topics. 53 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs., 4 appendixes

  3. Glass to contain wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncouyoux, M.; Jacquet-Francillon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Here are the tables and figures presented during the conference on the glass to confine high level radioactive wastes: definition, fabrication, storage and disposal. The composition of glasses are detailed, their properties and the vitrification proceeding. The behaviour of these glasses in front of water, irradiation and heat are shown. The characteristics of parcels are given according to the radiation protection rule, ALARA principle, the concept of multi-barriers and the geological stability

  4. Building arrangement and site layout design guides for on site low level radioactive waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, J.W.; Feehan, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many papers have been written by AE's and utilities describing their onsite storage facilities, why they are needed, NRC regulations, and disposal site requirements. This paper discusses a typical storage facility and address the design considerations and operational aspects that are generally overlooked when designing and siting a low level radioactive waste storage facility. Some topics to be addressed are: 1. Container flexibility; 2. Modular expansion capabilities; 3. DOT regulations; 4. Meterological requirements; 5. OSHA; 6. Fire protection; 7. Floods; 8. ALARA

  5. Dealing with unexpected events : efficient and safe solutions to emergent repair on NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekens Massazza, I.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Facilities are constantly challenged with unexpected events occurring on Primary Circuit components. A solution must be deployed quickly to minimize impact on the scheduled outage duration while guaranteeing safety, quality and ALARA standards. AREVA NP has demonstrated worldwide recognized capabilities and expertise through efficient management of various unexpected forced events through the time. Turnkey packaged solutions which are proposed are based on proven technics which can be quickly adapted and qualified to the specific problem, resulting in customers’ full satisfaction. (Author)

  6. Limiting values for radioactive materials in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiation protection: LNT (linear, no threshold) hypotheses, ALARA (a slow as reasonably achievable), limiting values. Using the example the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the differences in contamination development in different foodstuffs in Germany is demonstrated including recommended limiting values and the radiation exposures after 30 years due to consumption of contaminated food. The natural radioactivity is about 0.3 mSv/year.

  7. Solar Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  8. Former hotel and conference center to become Graduate Life Center

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Sally L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the next five weeks, Virginia Tech will take the initial steps to transform the former Donaldson Brown Hotel and Conference Center into an innovative, fully integrated Graduate Life Center encompassing academic, social, residential, and administrative functions.

  9. FFTF Work Control Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    A centralized Work Control Center (WCC) is responsible for assuring that maintenance and modification of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is performed in accordance with written procedures that ensure design integrity, personnel and public safety, and equipment and system availability for the computerized Master Information Data Acquisition System (MIDAS). Each maintenance task is logged into MIDAS from a Work Request from that has been reviewed and prioritized by the WCC. Thereafter, MIDAS is used to track schedule, manpower and material requirements; authorize field work; and close out the maintenance activity

  10. [Client centered psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, H V

    1979-01-01

    In the discussion concerning which psychotherapeutic methods should come under the auspices of the medical health system in West Germany, the question is raised regarding the client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers. Can it be considered a distinct psychotherapeutic method? A review of the scientific literature dealing with this method shows that it provides neither a theory of mental illness nor a theory of clinical application based on individual cases or specific neurotic disturbances, Therefore it should be categorized as a useful method of communication in the field of psychology and not as a therapeutic method for treating mental illness.

  11. LCA Center Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Frydendal, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark established an official centre for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy), three years ago. The aim of the centre is to promote and support the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other...... product-oriented environmental tools in companies, to ensure that the LCA efforts is based on a solid and scientific basis, and to maintain the well-established co-operation between all important actors in the LCA field in Denmark. A status is given on the achievements of LCA Center Denmark...

  12. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2005-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.

  13. Self-Access Centers: Maximizing Learners' Access to Center Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Tanner, Mark W.; Anderson, Neil J.

    2009-01-01

    Although some students have discovered how to use self-access centers effectively, the majority appear to be unaware of available resources. A website and database of materials were created to help students locate materials and use the Self-Access Study Center (SASC) at Brigham Young University's English Language Center (ELC) more effectively.…

  14. The information system on occupational exposure and related IAEA activities in the Europe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Agency's Occupational Radiation Protection Programme, within the Division of Radiation and Waste Safety, are to encourage the global harmonization and optimization of occupational radiation protection in situations of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation; and to have in place and ensure compliance with operational health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency on its premises and in occupational activities under its supervision or control. The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) forms an integral part of this programme and the purpose of this paper is to present the current status of ISOE and the IAEA activities in the Europe region in support of the ISOE. The ISOE prograrnme will continue to be a very important part of the IAEA Occupational Radiation Protection Prograrnme as will the related activities under the Technical Co-operation prograrnme. Realizing the need for information exchange and promotion of the application of the ALARA principle in industries other than nuclear power plants, the Agency has recently initiated the creation of regional ALARA Networks. These are seen as an effective way to foster good working practices and the development of an ALARA culture. Further information on the IAEA radiation protection prograrnme can be found in the Web page: www.iaea.orgtns/rasanet. (authors)

  15. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radiological Control performance indicator report: First quarter, calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, S.B.

    1995-07-01

    The INEL Radiological Control Performance Indicator Report is provided quarterly, inaccordance with Article 133 of the INEL Radiological Control Manual. Indicators are used as a measure of performance of the Radiological Control Program and as a motivation for improvement, not as a goal in themselves. These indicators should be used by management to assist in focusing priorities and attention and adherence to As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable (ALARA) practices. The ALARA Committees establish ALARA goals for the INEL based on forecasts and goals provided by each facility organizational manager or supervisor.Performance goals are realistic and measurable. Stringent goals are set at least annually to reflect expected workloads and improvement of radiological performance. Goals higher than previous goals may occasionally be set due to changes in work scope or mission. The INEL Radiological Control Performance Indicators consist of: Collective dose in person-rem; average worker dose, maximum dose to a worker, and maximum neutron dose to a worker;the number of skin and clothing contaminations, including the number of contaminated wounds and facial contaminations; the number of radioactive material intakes; the area of Contamination, High Contamination, and Airborne Radioactivity Areas in square feet; and airborne radioactivity events and spills

  16. Networking as an efficient, modern way of favouring stakeholders' involvement in implementing good radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, Ch.; Janssens, A.; Mrabit, K.; Ahier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of ICRP 22 and ICRP 26 in 1973 and 1977 respectively, the understanding and practical implementation of the concept of Optimisation of Radiation Protection known as ALARA ('as low as reasonably achievable') has developed considerably globally and particularly in Europe. In the 1990 ICRP 60 publication, ALARA was re-emphasised as the cornerstone of the radiological protection system. This is also an explicit requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (International BSS) and EC Directive laying down the Basic Safety Standards for radiological protection (EURATOM Directive 96/29), as well as of most of the national regulations. Throughout the 1980's and early 1990's ALARA was integrated into many organisations' radiation protection programmes, particularly in the nuclear industry and mainly for managing occupational exposure. One of the main lessons identified from that period was that it was not possible to implement good radiological protection by relying only on technical rules and procedures summarised in the three words: 'Time-Distance-Shielding'. A fourth word, 'Commitment', was to be added as no radiological protection programme would be successful without the commitment of all concerned stakeholders: regulatory bodies, managers, workers, etc. The scope of this presentation is, through different international feedback experiences, to demonstrate how networking is an efficient, modern way of fostering stakeholders involvement in implementing good radiological protection. (authors)

  17. Lessons learned at TMI: cleanup for respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, B.A.; Gee, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    The March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) presented GPU Nuclear with technical challenges unprecedented in the nuclear power industry. Among these challenges were a myriad of health physics problems that had to be solved to ensure a radiologically safe environment for workers performing cleanup activities. The application of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy has been a fundamental aspects in protecting cleanup workers. The unique conditions produced by the accident, however, have necessitated novel and innovative approaches in making this philosophy effective. The option to use respirators is based on which method will result in the lowest radiation dose to the worker. Inherent to this program has been the training of workers to overcome the perception that any internal contamination is of foremost concern and is orders of magnitude greater in biological effect than an identical external dose. It is, of course, the total dose (internal dose plus external dose) that must be minimized to implement a true ALARA philosophy. The need for considering the total radiation dose when making decisions to use respirators has been clear during the TMI-2 cleanup. Prescribing respirators is not always good for the ALARA concept

  18. The utility perspective on the transportation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Describing interface between the transportation system and the operating plants, the author thinks there are really three, interrelated dimensions to the interface; the technical; physical interface; the business (i.e. economic) interface; and the institutional interface. A principal mission of the Nuclear Transportation Group is to help assure that these interfaces are smoothly bridged and that the resources of the utility industry are brought to bear to achieve this result. The physical interface is the most readily understood. The analysis must also consider the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) radiation exposure evaluation of the waste system design and operation. ALARA evaluations of the waste system design and operation. ALARA evaluations must be done on a systems basis to ensure that the effects of particular designs that may be beneficial in some aspects of the system do not adversely impact nuclear power plant workers or operations. Regardless of one's political persuasion or technical training, the author doesn't think there is any question that spent fuel must be moved, sooner or later, somewhere. It's in the best interests of all that those shipments be made safely, and economically, with the proper attention to doing it right and not needlessly wasting resources, including money

  19. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report. Fourth quarter calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1995-03-01

    Detailed information pertaining to As Low As Reasonably Achievable/Contamination Control Improvement Project (ALARA/CCIP) activities are outlined. Improved commitment to the WHC ALARA/CCIP Program was experienced throughout FY 1994. During CY 1994, 17 of 19 sitewide ALARA performance goals were completed on or ahead of schedule. Estimated total exposure by facility for CY 1994 is listed in tables by organization code for each dosimeter frequency. Facilities/areas continue to utilize the capabilities of the RPR tracking system in conjunction with the present site management action-tracking system to manage deficiencies, trend performance, and develop improved preventive efforts. Detailed information pertaining to occupational injuries/illnesses are provided. The Industrial Safety and Hygiene programs are described which have generated several key initiatives that are believed responsible for improved safety performance. A breakdown of CY 1994 occupational injuries/illnesses by type, affected body group, cause, job type, age/gender, and facility is provided. The contributing experience of each WHC division/department in attaining this significant improvement is described along with tables charting specific trends. The Radiological Control Program is on schedule to meet all RL Site Management System milestones and program commitments.

  20. Experimental inventory verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, C.A.; Angerman, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) goals and Department of Energy (DOE) inventory requirements are frequently in conflict at facilities across the DOE complex. The authors wish, on one hand, to verify the presence of correct amounts of nuclear materials that are in storage or in process; yet on the other hand, we wish to achieve ALARA goals by keeping individual and collective exposures as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations permit. The Experimental Inventory Verification System (EIVSystem) is a computer-based, camera-driven system that utilizes image processing technology to detect change in vault areas. Currently in the test and evaluation phase at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this system guards personnel. The EIVSystem continually monitors the vault, providing proof of changed status for objects sorted within the vault. This paper reports that these data could provide the basis for reducing inventory requirements when no change has occurred, thus helping implement ALARA policy; the data will also help describe there target area of an inventory when change has been shown to occur

  1. Rapid guiding center calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.

    1995-04-01

    Premature loss of high energy particles, and in particular fusion alpha particles, is very deleterious in a fusion reactor. Because of this it is necessary to make long-time simulations, on the order of the alpha particle slowing down time, with a number of test particles sufficient to give predictions with reasonable statistical accuracy. Furthermore it is desirable to do this for a large number of equilibria with different characteristic magnetic field ripple, to best optimize engineering designs. In addition, modification of the particle distribution due to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes such as the saw tooth mode present in the plasma can be important, and this effect requires additional simulation. Thus the large number of necessary simulations means any increase of computing speed in guiding center codes is an important improvement in predictive capability. Previous guiding center codes using numerical equilibria such as ORBIT evaluated the local field strength and ripple magnitude using Lagrangian interpolation on a grid. Evaluation of these quantities four times per time step (using a fourth order Runge-Kutta routine) constitutes the major computational effort of the code. In the present work the authors represent the field quantities through an expansion in terms of pseudo-cartesian coordinates formed from the magnetic coordinates. The simplicity of the representation gives four important advantages over previous methods

  2. Phenomenological three center model

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Gherghescu, R A; Nagame, Y; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results on ternary fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf suggest the existence of a short-lived quasi-molecular state. We present a three-center phenomenological model able to explain such a state by producing a new minimum in the deformation energy at a separation distance very close to the touching point. The shape parametrization chosen by us allows to describe the essential geometry of the systems in terms of one independent coordinate, namely, the distance between the heavy fragment centers. The shell correction (also treated phenomenologically) only produces quantitative effects; qualitatively it is not essential for the new minimum. Half-lives of some quasi-molecular states which could be formed in sup 1 sup 0 B accompanied fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 6 Cm, sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 sup , sup 2 sup 5 sup 6 Fm, sup 2 sup 5 sup 6 sup , sup 2 sup 6 sup 0 No, and sup 2 sup 6 sup 2 Rf are roughly estimated. (authors)

  3. Patient-centered Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N

    2015-10-01

    Patient-centered care (ie, care organized around the patient) is a model in which health care providers partner with patients and families to identify and satisfy patients' needs and preferences. In this model, providers respect patients' values and preferences, address their emotional and social needs, and involve them and their families in decision making. Radiologists have traditionally been characterized as "doctor-to-doctor" consultants who are distanced from patients and work within a culture that does not value patient centeredness. As medicine becomes more patient driven and the trajectory of health care is toward increasing patient self-reliance, radiologists must change the perception that they are merely consultants and become more active participants in patient care by embracing greater patient interaction. The traditional business model for radiology practices, which devalues interaction between patients and radiologists, must be transformed into a patient-centered model in which radiologists are reintegrated into direct patient care and imaging processes are reorganized around patients' needs and preferences. Expanding radiology's core assets to include direct patient care may be the most effective deterrent to the threat of commoditization. As the assault on the growth of Medicare spending continues, with medical imaging as a highly visible target, radiologists must adapt to the changing landscape by focusing on their most important consumer: the patient. This may yield substantial benefits in the form of improved quality and patient safety, reduced costs, higher-value care, improved patient outcomes, and greater patient and provider satisfaction. © RSNA, 2015.

  4. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  5. Recombination luminescence from H centers and conversion of H centers into I centers in alkali iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzina, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    The study is aimed at the search for H-plus-electron centers of luminescence and the investigation of the conversion of H- into I centers by the luminescence of H-plus-electron centers in alkali iodide crystals. KI, RbI and NaI crystals were studied at 12 K. H and F centers were created by irradiation with ultraviolet light corresponding to the absorption band of anion excitons. Then the excitation of electron centers by red light irradiation was followed. The spectra of stimulated recombination luminescence were studied. The luminescence of H-plus- electron centers had been observed and the conclusion was made that this center was formed on immobile H centers. In case of stable H centers the optically stimulated conversion of H centers into I centers occurs. The assumption is advanced on the spontaneous annihilation of near placed unstable F, H centers which leads to the creation of H-plus-electron luminescence centers and to the spontaneous H-I-centers conversion [ru

  6. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Free Numbers Media Contact Locator Hospitals and Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan Centers Cemetery ... A-Z Health Topic Finder My Health e Vet Prescriptions Refills Schedule a VA Appointment Crisis Prevention ...

  7. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research ... Search Tips Modify Your Search How to Obtain Articles Alerts User Guide Purpose and Scope Find Assessment ...

  8. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's ... Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff ...

  9. Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC) is a 39,000-square-foot facility that doubles the warfare center's high-secured performance assessment capabilities. DMAC...

  10. Center for Beam Physics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the following information on the center for beam physics: Facilities; Organizational Chart; Roster; Profiles of Staff; Affiliates; Center Publications (1991--1993); and 1992 Summary of Activities

  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ...

  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research Quarterly Publications Search ...

  13. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research ...

  14. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ...

  15. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Locator Hospitals and Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional ... TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan ...

  16. Dialysis centers - what to expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys - dialysis centers; Dialysis - what to expect; Renal replacement therapy - dialysis centers; End-stage renal disease - dialysis ... to a tube that connects to the dialysis machine. Your blood will flow through the tube, into ...

  17. National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  18. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Business Congressional Affairs Jobs Benefits Booklet Data & Statistics VA Open Data VA App Store National Resource ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging ...

  19. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research Quarterly Publications Search Using the PILOTS Database What ...

  20. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Congressional Affairs Jobs Benefits Booklet Data & Statistics VA Open Data VA App Store National Resource Directory Grants ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ...

  1. VT Designated Growth Center Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Growth centers aim to align public infrastructure and private building investments with a local framework of policies and regulations to ensure that 20 years of...

  2. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Specific Providers VA Providers and Staff Disaster Responders Medical Doctors Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research ...

  3. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... enter to expand a main menu option (Health, Benefits, etc). 3. To enter and activate the submenu ... Contact Locator Hospitals and Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan Centers Cemetery Locations Search Enter ...

  4. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Form List of All Measures Treatment Treatment Overview Early Intervention Veterans Cultural Considerations Women Children Older Adults Working ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging ...

  5. National Center on Family Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children are ... raise awareness of the current state of child homelessness in the United States, documents the number of ...

  6. Center for Beam Physics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the following information on the center for beam physics: Facilities; Organizational Chart; Roster; Profiles of Staff; Affiliates; Center Publications (1991--1993); and 1992 Summary of Activities.

  7. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Prostate Disease Research is the only free-standing prostate cancer research center in the U.S. This 20,000 square foot state-of-the-art basic science...

  8. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD Screens Trauma Exposure Measures Assessment Request Form List of All Measures Treatment Treatment Overview Early Intervention ... and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s ...

  9. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Providers and Clergy Co-Occurring Conditions Continuing Education Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center ... Type List of Materials By Type Assessments Continuing Education Handouts Manuals Mobile Apps Publications Toolkits Videos Web ...

  10. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD Consultation For Specific Providers VA Providers and Staff Disaster Responders Medical Doctors Community Providers and Clergy ... Publications List of Center Publications Articles by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research Quarterly Publications Search ...

  12. Contact Center Manager Administration (CCMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — CCMA is the server that provides a browser-based tool for contact center administrators and supervisors. It is used to manage and configure contact center resources...

  13. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Question Toll Free Numbers Media Contact Locator Hospitals and Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional ... TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan ...

  14. Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...

  15. VT Designated Village Centers Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This community revitalization program helps maintain or evolve small to medium-sized historic centers with existing civic and commercial buildings. The designation...

  16. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2006-11-01

    Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to

  17. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2006-01-01

    Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to bring together

  18. Evaluate Data Center Network Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur

    Data centers are the foundation for numerous services that many people today take for granted. Use of these services grows exponentially, causing large organizations to continuously establish new, huge data centers to support the increasing demands. Data centers contain numerous servers connected...

  19. On chains of centered valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Chibloun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study chains of centered valuations of a domain A and chains of centered valuations of A [X1,…,Xn] corresponding to valuations of A. Finally, we make some applications to chains of valuations centered on the same ideal of A [X1,…,Xn] and extending the same valuation of A.

  20. Supernova Science Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Woosley

    2008-05-05

    The Supernova Science Center (SNSC) was founded in 2001 to carry out theoretical and computational research leading to a better understanding of supernovae and related transients. The SNSC, a four-institutional collaboration, included scientists from LANL, LLNL, the University of Arizona (UA), and the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC). Intitially, the SNSC was funded for three years of operation, but in 2004 an opportunity was provided to submit a renewal proposal for two years. That proposal was funded and subsequently, at UCSC, a one year no-cost extension was granted. The total operational time of the SNSC was thus July 15, 2001 - July 15, 2007. This document summarizes the research and findings of the SNSC and provides a cummulative publication list.

  1. Information Security Operations Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgievna Miloslavskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present information security (IS incidents have become not only more numerous and diverse but also more damaging and disruptive. Preventive controls based on the IS risk assessment results decrease the majority but not all the IS incidents. Therefore, an IS incident management system is necessary for rapidly detecting IS incidents, minimizing loss and destruction, mitigating the vulnerabilities that were exploited and restoring organization’s IT infrastructure (ITI, including its IT services. These systems can be implemented on the basis of a Security Operations Center (SOC. Based on the related works a survey of the existing SOCs, their mission and main functions is given. The SOCs’ classification as well as the key indicators of IS incidents in II are proposed. Some serious first-generation SOCs’ limitations are defined. This analysis leads to the main area of further research launched by the author.

  2. Citizen centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Mulder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today architecture has to design for rapidly changing futures, in a citizen-centered way. That is, architecture needs to embrace meaningful design. Societal challenges ask for a new paradigm in city-making, which combines top-down public management with bottom-up social innovation to reach meaningful design. The biggest challenge is indeed to embrace a new collaborative attitude, a participatory approach, and to have the proper infrastructure that supports this social fabric. Participatory design and transition management are future-oriented, address people and institutions. Only through understanding people in context and the corresponding dynamics, one is able to design for liveable and sustainable urban environments, embracing the human scale.

  3. Interactive design center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, Alan R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01

    Sandia's advanced computing resources provide researchers, engineers and analysts with the ability to develop and render highly detailed large-scale models and simulations. To take full advantage of these multi-million data point visualizations, display systems with comparable pixel counts are needed. The Interactive Design Center (IDC) is a second generation visualization theater designed to meet this need. The main display integrates twenty-seven projectors in a 9-wide by 3-high array with a total display resolution of more than 35 million pixels. Six individual SmartBoard displays offer interactive capabilities that include on-screen annotation and touch panel control of the facility's display systems. This report details the design, implementation and operation of this innovative facility.

  4. The Atomki accelerator center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, I.; Fülöp, Zs.; Biri, S.

    2017-06-01

    Particle accelerators are the driving forces of nuclear physics laboratories and MTA Atomki, the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is no exception. The Atomki Accelerator Center (AAC) incorporates several low-energy charged-particle accelerators, offering the possibility of choosing ions with various charge states, energies and beam intensities. Currently, the AAC has six main facilities: a cyclotron (K=20), two Van de Graaff accelerators (1 MV, 5 MV), an ECR ion source, an electromagnetic isotope separator and a 2 MV Tandetron installed in 2015. The accelerators, spanning a range of beam energies from 50 eV to 27 MeV, have been designed for a broad range of research projects and applications in various fields - mainly in nuclear and atomic physics, materials science, environmental research and archaeology. The structure of the laboratory with a short description of the most important topics, education and outreach activities are presented.

  5. Virtual Meteorological Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brinzila

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual meteorological center, computer based with Internet possibility transmission of the information is presented. Circumstance data is collected with logging field meteorological station. The station collects and automatically save data about the temperature in the air, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction, rain gauge, solar radiation and air quality. Also can perform sensors test, analyze historical data and evaluate statistical information. The novelty of the system is that it can publish data over the Internet using LabVIEW Web Server capabilities and deliver a video signal to the School TV network. Also the system performs redundant measurement of temperature and humidity and was improved using new sensors and an original signal conditioning module.

  6. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  7. RIKEN BNL Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samios, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    Since its inception in 1997, the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) has been a major force in the realms of Spin Physics, Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics, large scale Computing Physics and the training of a new generation of extremely talented physicists. This has been accomplished through the recruitment of an outstanding non-permanent staff of Fellows and Research associates in theory and experiment. RBRC is now a mature organization that has reached a steady level in the size of scientific and support staff while at the same time retaining its vibrant youth. A brief history of the scientific accomplishments and contributions of the RBRC physicists will be presented as well as a discussion of the unique RBRC management structure.

  8. Abramovo Counterterrorism Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Christopher M.; Ross, Larry; Kaldenbach, Karen Yvonne; Estigneev, Yuri; Murievav, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. government has been assisting the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) for many years with nuclear weapons transportation security (NWTS) through the provision of specialized guard escort railcars and cargo railcars with integrated physical security and communication systems, armored transport vehicles, and armored escort vehicles. As a natural continuation of the NWTS program, a partnership has been formed to construct a training center that will provide counterterrorism training to personnel in all branches of the RF MOD. The Abramovo Counterterrorism Training Center (ACTC) is a multinational, multiagency project with funding from Canada, RF and the U.S. Departments of Defense and Energy. ACTC will be a facility where MOD personnel can conduct basic through advanced training in various security measures to protect Category IA material against the threat of terrorist attack. The training will enhance defense-in-depth principles by integrating MOD guard force personnel into the overall physical protection systems and improving their overall response time and neutralization capabilities. The ACTC project includes infrastructure improvements, renovation of existing buildings, construction of new buildings, construction of new training facilities, and provision of training and other equipment. Classroom training will be conducted in a renovated training building. Basic and intermediate training will be conducted on three different security training areas where various obstacles and static training devices will be constructed. The central element of ACTC, where advanced training will be held, is the 'autodrome,' a 3 km road along which various terrorist events can be staged to challenge MOD personnel in realistic and dynamic nuclear weapons transportation scenarios. This paper will address the ACTC project elements and the vision for training development and integrating this training into actual nuclear weapons transportation operations.

  9. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  10. The ATOMKI Accelerator Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Kormany, Z.; Berzi, I.; Hunyadi, M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 a new division was established in our institute: the ATOMKI Accelerator Center (AAC). Before this time the facilities and staff of AAC belonged to other departments of the institute. The re-organization however, was necessary. It was understood that the translocation of all the accelerators into a centralized unit is advantageous in numerous fields. Here we just mention some of them. The submission of any instrumentation type proposal (EU or domestic) will be easier and has a higher chance to be supported. The organization and distribution of the beamtimes will be more equal and optimal. The usage of the maintenance and spare tools can became better and cheaper. The operating staff (cca. 20 person) can serve at more than one accelerator and the teams can help each other. The accelerator center actually became a fourth new basic unit of the institute besides the three traditional scientific divisions (see the Atomki homepage for the organization chart). The following six main facilities belong to the accelerator center: Cyclotron; VdG-5 accelerator; VdG-1 accelerator; ECR ion source; Isotope separator; Tandetron (under installation). In figure 1 the placements of these machines are shown in an artistic 3D map of the Atomki. The table 1 summarizes the main parameters of the accelerators. More detailed technical specification of the machines can be found in the new homepage of the center. In 2009 all the accelerators operated as scheduled, safely and without major breakdowns. After the experiences in the first months it can be concluded that the new center works well both for technical and human point of views. In the next sub-chapters the 2009 operation and development details of the individual accelerators are summarized. Cyclotron operation. The operation of the cyclotron in 2009 was concentrated to the usual 9 months; January, July and August were reserved for maintenance and holidays. The overall working time of the accelerator was 2009 hours; the time

  11. Space Operations Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) is a tool that provides an online learning environment where students can learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through a series of training modules. SOLC is also an effective media for NASA to showcase its contributions to the general public. SOLC is a Web-based environment with a learning platform for students to understand STEM through interactive modules in various engineering topics. SOLC is unique in its approach to develop learning materials to teach schoolaged students the basic concepts of space operations. SOLC utilizes the latest Web and software technologies to present this educational content in a fun and engaging way for all grade levels. SOLC uses animations, streaming video, cartoon characters, audio narration, interactive games and more to deliver educational concepts. The Web portal organizes all of these training modules in an easily accessible way for visitors worldwide. SOLC provides multiple training modules on various topics. At the time of this reporting, seven modules have been developed: Space Communication, Flight Dynamics, Information Processing, Mission Operations, Kids Zone 1, Kids Zone 2, and Save The Forest. For the first four modules, each contains three components: Flight Training, Flight License, and Fly It! Kids Zone 1 and 2 include a number of educational videos and games designed specifically for grades K-6. Save The Forest is a space operations mission with four simulations and activities to complete, optimized for new touch screen technology. The Kids Zone 1 module has recently been ported to Facebook to attract wider audience.

  12. Energy Efficiency Center - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obryk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Energy Efficiency Center (EEC) activities have been concentrated on Energy Efficiency Network (SEGE), education and training of energy auditors. EEC has started studies related to renewable fuels (bio fuel, wastes) and other topics related to environment protection. EEC has continued close collaboration with Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. It has been organized and conducted Seminar and Workshop on ''How to Reduce Energy and Water Cost in Higher Education Buildings'' for general and technical managers of the higher education institutions. This Seminar was proceeded by the working meeting on energy efficiency strategy in higher education at the Ministry of National Education. EEC has worked out proposal for activities of Cracow Regional Agency for Energy Efficiency and Environment and has made offer to provide services for this Agency in the field of training, education and consulting. The vast knowledge and experiences in the field of energy audits have been used by the members of EEC in lecturing at energy auditors courses authorized by the National Energy Efficiency Agency (KAPE). Altogether 20 lectures have been delivered. (author)

  13. 'Motor control center obsolescence'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A significant and growing problem within the global nuclear industry is the aging of motor control center (MCC) components. MCC's have a very important role in the safety and critical to generation requirements of a nuclear power plant. Although many OEM's MCC's such as ITE/Telemechanique, GE, Westinghouse, Cutler Hammer, Klockner Moeller, etc. have been used throughout the global nuclear industry, they all have one common aspect obsolescence. Obsolescence of various components within the MCC's such as molded case circuit breakers, starters, relays, heaters, contactors, etc. are impacting the reliability of the MCC to serve its intended function. The paper will discuss the options which the nuclear industry is faced with to increase the reliability of the MCC's while maintaining design control, qualification and meeting budget constraints. The options as listed below shall be discussed in detail with examples to enhance the readers understanding of the situation: 1) Component by component replacement: The hurdles associated with trying to find equivalent components to replace the obsolete components while still worki (mechanically and electrically) in the original cubicle will be presented. 2) Complete MCC cubicle with new internal components replacement: The process of supplying a replacement cubicle, with all new internal components and new door to replace the original cubicle will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of the advantages and dis-advantages of the two methods to bring the MCC to an as new condition with the overall goal of increasing reliability. (author)

  14. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget ... Management Services Veterans Service Organizations Office of Accountability & Whistleblower ...

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  16. Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research (CRSR) was established as a research organization to promote successful return to duty and community reintegration of...

  17. Center for Environmental Health Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary research objective of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) at the University of Montana is to advance knowledge of environmental impacts...

  18. Bistable amphoteric centers in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitina, A. G.; Zuev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that, at thermodynamic equilibrium, the release of charge carriers from the localized states of bistable amphoteric centers into quasi-free states depends on the degree of compensation. This brings about different functional dependences of the concentration of free charge carriers on temperature. It is found that, in uncompensated semiconductors, the concentration of free charge carriers follows the same dependence in the case of bistable amphoteric centers and bistable amphoteric U - centers, although the distributions of charge carriers over the charge states and configurations are different for these types of centers. The results can be used for interpreting various experimental data insufficiently explained in the context of the traditional approach

  19. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business Congressional Affairs Jobs Benefits Booklet Data & Statistics ...

  20. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Type List of Materials By Type Assessments Continuing Education Handouts Manuals Mobile Apps Publications Toolkits Videos Web Links Advanced Search About Us National Center ...

  1. Center for Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) was established as a collaborative intramural federal program involving the U.S. Department of Defense...

  2. Consolidated Copayment Processing Center (CCPC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Consolidated Copayment Processing Center (CCPC) database contains Veteran patient contact and billing information in order to support the printing and mailing of...

  3. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  4. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Organizations History Budget and Performance VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business ...

  5. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act ... Management Services Veterans Service Organizations Office of Accountability & Whistleblower ...

  6. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  7. Techbelt Energy Innovation Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, Hazel [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States); Nestic, Dave [TechBelt Energy Innovation Center, Warren, OH (United States); Hripko, Michael [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States); Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2017-06-30

    This project consisted of three main components 1) The primary goal of the project was to renovate and upgrade an existing commercial building to the highest possible environmentally sustainable level for the purpose of creating an energy incubator. This initiative was part of the Infrastructure Technologies Program, through which a sustainable energy demonstration facility was to be created and used as a research and community outreach base for sustainable energy product and process incubation; 2) In addition, fundamental energy related research on wind energy was performed; a shrouded wind turbine on the Youngstown State University campus was commissioned; and educational initiatives were implemented; and 3) The project also included an education and outreach component to inform and educate the public in sustainable energy production and career opportunities. Youngstown State University and the Tech Belt Energy Innovation Center (TBEIC) renovated a 37,000 square foot urban building which is now being used as a research and development hub for the region’s energy technology innovation industry. The building houses basic research facilities and business development in an incubator format. In addition, the TBEIC performs community outreach and education initiatives in advanced and sustainable energy. The building is linked to a back warehouse which will eventually be used as a build-out for energy laboratory facilities. The projects research component investigated shrouded wind turbines, and specifically the “Windcube” which was renamed the “Wind Sphere” during the course of the project. There was a specific focus on the development in the theory of shrouded wind turbines. The goal of this work was to increase the potential efficiency of wind turbines by improving the lift and drag characteristics. The work included computational modeling, scale models and full-sized design and construction of a test turbine. The full-sized turbine was built on the YSU

  8. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  9. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care » PTSD: National Center for PTSD » Public » Videos PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Prescribing for PTSD, Know Your Options . × What is PTSD? Right Click here to download "What is PTSD?" ( ...

  10. Communication Research in Urban Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Martin F., Jr.

    Because of the great density of people in cities, residents of urban centers have unique problems of human interaction and communication. Because of population density and the large number of information networks, communication research in urban settings should center on the ways in which residents cope with the variety of message inputs and, at…

  11. Spatial Distribution of Market Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Morshedul Islam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to find the location pattern, distribution and their sphere of influences of market centers in Rangpur City Corporation, Bangladesh. Rangpur is facing some problems like a traffic jam, noisy environment, population pressure etc due to the over population in full day long in the center of this city, all of the whole sale and retail sale markets are located in the middle. Location of Market is always influencing the daily life of the city population who are directly or indirectly connected with the market. If the market strategically distributed in an area they don’t face such kind of problems. Analysis or investigation shows that at about all of the market centers are located in the center of Rangpur and in the residential area of Rangpur. The maximum 67% market centers are found in the high-income residential area. Rangpur City Corporation, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and survey of Bangladesh provided the maps, reports and relevant documents of the study. The spatial dispersion pattern of market centers is clustered together at one place 0.33(Nearest Neighbor Index value, R found in the study area. Geographical Information System (GIS and other software also used to analyze the maps and diagrams. Investigation refers that, the market of Rangpur city have a clustered pattern and different levels of market centers found on the bases of centrality scores. By this centrality scores or levels, found the variation of influencing spheres of market centers in Rangpur City.

  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up or down through the submenu options to access/activate the submenu links. Locator Contact Search Contact Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Media Contact Locator Hospitals and Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan Centers Cemetery Locations ...

  13. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Section Home PTSD Overview PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ...

  14. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

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    Full Text Available ... Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » PTSD: National Center for PTSD » Public » Videos ... Employment Center Returning Service Members Vocational Rehabilitation & Employment Homeless ... Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. ...

  15. Allegheny County Kane Regional Center Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Total number of residents in each Kane Regional Center facility by race and gender. The Kane Regional Centers are skilled nursing and rehabilitation centers run by...

  16. Pengembangan Model Manajemen ICT Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkun Elmunsyah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pengembangan Model Manajemen ICT Center. Kemendiknas telah melakukan investasi  cukup besar berupa pembangunan Jejaring komputer pendidikan nasional yang disebut Jaringan Pendidikan Nasional (Jardiknas, pada sekolah menengah kejuruan (SMK di seluruh Indonesia yang dikenal dengan nama ICT center. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan model manajemen ICT center sesuai karakteristik SMK sehingga dapat memberikan kontribusi mutu pada SMK tersebut. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan atau Research and Development yang dikembangkan oleh Borg and Gall. Hasil secara keseluruhan penelitian menunjukkan berdasarkan uji coba keefektivan kinerja manajemen pada skala terbatas dan lebih luas menunjukkan bahwa model manajemen ICT center memenuhi kriteria sangat efektif. Kata-kata kunci: Jardiknas, SMK, model manajemen ICT center, kontribusi mutu

  17. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center, shown in this aerial view looking south, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast , and is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the bottom of the photo. Just above the roadway, from left can be seen the Shuttle/Gantry mockup; the Post Show Dome; the Astronaut Memorial; and to the far right, the Center for Space Education. Behind the Memorial are a cluster of buildings that include the Theater Complex, Cafeteria, Space Flight Exhibit Building, Souvenir Sales Building, Spaceport Central, and Ticket Pavilion. At the upper right are various rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program.

  18. Analog design centering and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Graeb, Helmut E

    2007-01-01

    Here is a compendium of fundamental problem formulations of analog design centering and sizing. It provides a differentiated knowledge about the many tasks of analog design centering and sizing. In particular, coverage formulates the worst-case problem. The book stands at the interface between process technology and design technology, detailing how the two are required to reach a solution. It presents a mathematically founded description based on numerical optimization and statistics. This volume will enable analog and mixed-signal designers to assess CAD solution methods that are presented to them as well as help developers of analog CAD tools to formulate and develop solution approaches for analog design centering and sizing.

  19. MIT Space Engineering Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Miller, David W.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at MIT, started in Jul. 1988, has completed two years of research. The Center is approaching the operational phase of its first testbed, is midway through the construction of a second testbed, and is in the design phase of a third. We presently have seven participating faculty, four participating staff members, ten graduate students, and numerous undergraduates. This report reviews the testbed programs, individual graduate research, other SERC activities not funded by the Center, interaction with non-MIT organizations, and SERC milestones. Published papers made possible by SERC funding are included at the end of the report.

  20. Emergency Operations Center ribbon cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Center Director Gene Goldman and special guests celebrate the opening of the site's new Emergency Operations Center on June 2. Participants included (l t r): Steven Cooper, deputy director of the National Weather Service Southern Region; Tom Luedtke, NASA associate administrator for institutions and management; Charles Scales, NASA associate deputy administrator; Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour; Gene Goldman, director of Stennis Space Center; Jack Forsythe, NASA assistant administrator for the Office of Security and Program Protection; Dr. Richard Williams, NASA chief health and medical officer; and Weldon Starks, president of Starks Contracting Company Inc. of Biloxi.

  1. Implementation of the RCM approach at EDF NPPs: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil-Chambardel, A.; Martin-Onraet, M.; Degrave, C.

    2001-01-01

    To ensure safest possible operation and to get best overall economic performance of its Nuclear Power Plants, 10 years ago Electricite de France launched a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) project to optimize the preventive maintenance programs. The principles underlying the RCM approach are based on common sense: failures must be prevented by preventive maintenance operations in all cases when the repercussions for the installation could be serious or critical in term of safety, availability or maintenance costs. The approach is a 3-phases process: 1. Evaluation of the functional consequences of failures 2. Evaluation of performances based on the analysis of experience feedback 3. Optimization of the preventive maintenance tasks The new preventive maintenance programs are presently almost completed and progressively implemented. Here and now, the implementation of the RCM approach allows to emphasize some benefits: 1. Same or increased level of safety 2. Same or increased level of plant availability 3. ALARA principles better taken into account 4. Cost control 5. Positive change in maintenance culture. Some new studies are in progress, such as the development of a 'Risk Based In Service Inspection' for passive components. (author)

  2. Demonstration of new handling equipment configurations for the overpacking of thorium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalovich, G.S.; Heisler, S.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A remote handling system has been designed for the removal and overpacking of thorium materials currently stored at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). The FMPC is the Department of Energy (DOE) designated interim storage location for thorium materials. The nature of thorium materials indicated that a system to reduce exposure, assure environmental protection, and provide positive identification of the materials be devised. The result of this was the development and implementation of a remote handling system utilizing existing technologies but integrating them into a system that had previously not been used. The equipment used involves: remote controlled cranes, conveyers, sensing equipment and overpacks; a computer based central control and processing system that also provides cross data correlation; a shielded handling unit with multiple articulation capability and an environmentally isolated work area; and significant shielding at the operators station while the operator works in an enclosed, but mobile environment. These measures were prompted by both As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations for the employees and protection for the environment. The overpacking is required due to the environmental deterioration that is occurring to both the building and containers resulting in the need for this operation to be initiated to assure the continued safe storage of these materials

  3. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory's ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report

  4. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th; Lecomte, J.F.; Delmont, D.; Boitel, S.; Le Fauconnier, J.P.; Sugier, A; Zerbib, J.C.; Barbey, P.

    1998-01-01

    Close ties exist between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Nuclear safety is made up of all the arrangements taken to prevent accidents occurring in nuclear facilities, these accidents would certainly involved a radiological aspect. Radiation protection is made up of all the arrangements taken to evaluate and reduce the impact of radiation on workers or population in normal situations or in case of accident. In the fifties the management of radiological hazards was based on the quest for minimal or even zero risk. This formulation could lead to call some activities in question whereas the benefits for the whole society were evident. Now a new attitude more aware of the real risks and of no wasting resources prevails. This attitude is based on the ALARA principle whose purpose is to maintain the exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable taking into account social and economic concerns. This document regroups articles illustrating different aspects of the radiation protection in nuclear facilities such as a research center, a waste vitrification workshop and a nuclear power plant. The surveillance of radiological impacts of nuclear sites on environment is examined, a point is made about the pending epidemiologic studies concerning La Hague complex. (A.C.)

  5. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Vulin, D.S.; Liang, H.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This is the fourth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology for nuclear power plants. The information is taken from a data base maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents information on 118 new or updated projects, covering a wide range of activities. Projects including steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvement in reactor materials, and inspection techniques, among others, are described in the research section of the report. The section on health physics technology includes some simple and very cost-effective projects to reduce radiation exposures. Included in this volume is a detailed description of how to access the BNL data bases which store this information. All project abstracts from this report, as well as many other useful documents, can be accessed, with permission, through our on-line system, ACE. A computer equipped with a modem, or a fax machine is all that is required to connect to ACE. Many features of ACE, including software, hardware, and communications specifics, are explained in this report.

  6. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report.

  7. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Vulin, D.S.; Liang, H.; Baum, J.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This is the fourth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology for nuclear power plants. The information is taken from a data base maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory's ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents information on 118 new or updated projects, covering a wide range of activities. Projects including steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvement in reactor materials, and inspection techniques, among others, are described in the research section of the report. The section on health physics technology includes some simple and very cost-effective projects to reduce radiation exposures. Included in this volume is a detailed description of how to access the BNL data bases which store this information. All project abstracts from this report, as well as many other useful documents, can be accessed, with permission, through our on-line system, ACE. A computer equipped with a modem, or a fax machine is all that is required to connect to ACE. Many features of ACE, including software, hardware, and communications specifics, are explained in this report.

  8. Evaluation of Some Dose Calibration for Measuring of 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroh; Erni-Juita; Hermawan-Candra

    2001-01-01

    99m Tc is a prime radionuclide in nuclear medicine because of worthwhile in many diagnoses. According to ALARA concept, the lowest risk should be considered in the use of radioactive materials especially for health. Center for development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmacy-BATAN, Serpong, serves several nuclear medicine departments supplying all their 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals on a daily basis. It was observed that there was very poor consistency between the assays as determined by P3KRBin and those determined in the various nuclear medicine, using Dose-Calibrator. Investigation has been done to correct measurements result of 99m Tc using several Dose-Calibrators in some hospitals in Java island and the correction factors were vary from 0.91 to 1.16. The same survey done by researcher in Canada using a mock 99m Tc ( 57 Co) and 99m Tc and the correction factors were between 0.74 and 1. Investigation of influences of various environmental conditions on the Calibrator function was also carried out. Influences factors obtained from the survey were vary from 1 to 1.19. (author)

  9. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities; Dossier: Radioprotection et installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechowski, J. [Direction Generale de la Sante, 75 - Paris (France); Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th [Centre d`Etude sur l`evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire (CEPN), 75 - Paris (France); Lecomte, J.F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Massuelle, M.H.; Hubert, Ph. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l`Homme et de la Dosimetrie (DPHD); Delmont, D. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France). Service de Protection contre les Rayonnements et de Surveillance de l`Environnement (SPRSE); Boitel, S.; Le Fauconnier, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France). Dept. de Support Technique et Administratif; Kalimbadjian, J. [Cogema la Hague, 50 (France). Service de Prevention et de Radioprotection; Laize, J. [Cogema la Hague, 50 (France). Groupe Radioprotection atelier T7; Blain, A. [Framatome, 69 - Lyon (France). Dept. Radioprotection Securite des Services Nucleaires; Cassou, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 13 - Marseille (France). Projet RGV; Jacq, V.; Champion, D. [Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75-Paris (France). Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires; Spira, A.; Bouton, O. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Paris-11 Univ. (France); Sugier, A [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Bishop, A.J. [Commission de Controle de l`Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France); Zerbib, J.C. [Conseil superieur de la Surete et de l`information Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France); Barbey, P. [Association pour le Controle de la Radioactivite dans l`Ouest, ACRO (France)

    1998-06-01

    Close ties exist between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Nuclear safety is made up of all the arrangements taken to prevent accidents occurring in nuclear facilities, these accidents would certainly involved a radiological aspect. Radiation protection is made up of all the arrangements taken to evaluate and reduce the impact of radiation on workers or population in normal situations or in case of accident. In the fifties the management of radiological hazards was based on the quest for minimal or even zero risk. This formulation could lead to call some activities in question whereas the benefits for the whole society were evident. Now a new attitude more aware of the real risks and of no wasting resources prevails. This attitude is based on the ALARA principle whose purpose is to maintain the exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable taking into account social and economic concerns. This document regroups articles illustrating different aspects of the radiation protection in nuclear facilities such as a research center, a waste vitrification workshop and a nuclear power plant. The surveillance of radiological impacts of nuclear sites on environment is examined, a point is made about the pending epidemiologic studies concerning La Hague complex. (A.C.) 20 refs.

  10. Supervisory selection and development yields payback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubino, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The selection and development of first line supervisors is a critical factor in a strategic effort to bring about organizational change, to improve performance and productivity and to enhance professionalism in the work force. Candidates for first line supervisory positions at Philadelphia Electric Company are no longer promoted purely on the basis of seniority. A Supervisory Selection Assessment Center permits candidates to demonstrate leadership potential. Successful candidates then attend an eight week Supervisory Development Academy, away from the work place. On successful completion of the Academy, the supervisor assembles his or her work team and, with training and leadership, shapes a performance based work team ready to plan, execute and assess its own work. Since this radically different program was initiated in September, 1989, results have been highly acclaimed by management. Contractor support has been sharply reduced, budgets have been met and reduced more work has been accomplished and fewer overtime hours have been needed. Workers attend training with no loss of team productivity. Each SDA graduate and his team sets goals to improve quality, increase productivity, increase efficiency, maintain ALARA, improve safety and effect cultural change while improving job satisfaction and morale

  11. National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search the CDC National Center for Health Statistics Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Survey of Family Growth Vital Records National Vital Statistics System National Death Index Vital Statistics Rapid Release ...

  12. Classification of Security Operation Centers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Security Operation Centers (SOCs) are a necessary service for organisations that want to address compliance and threat management. While there are frameworks in existence that addresses the technology aspects of these services, a holistic framework...

  13. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the following steps. 1. Please switch auto forms mode to off. 2. Hit enter to expand a ... Performance VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery ...

  14. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    , and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal...... invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks...... such a model: Multifunctional centers. Such a model reflects a long tradition of local centralization in rural areas, that is, a golden compromise between ruralization and urbanization. First, I argue that governments should actively invest in rural areas rather than practicing laissez-faire. Second, I trace...

  15. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Performance VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery ... to download "What is PTSD?" (30.5 MB) Close × PTSD Treatment: Know Your Options Right Click here ...

  16. Kennedy Space Center Design Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Perform simulations of ground operations leading up to launch at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base in CA since 1987. We use 3D Laser Scanning, Modeling and Simulations to verify that operations are feasible, efficient and safe.

  17. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Center Staff Clinician’s Trauma Update PTSD Research Quarterly Publications Search Using the PILOTS Database What is ... Advisory Boards History and Achievements Divisions and Staff Leadership Divisions Executive Behavioral Science Clinical Neurosciences Dissemination & Training ...

  18. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits ...

  19. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video Help Problems viewing videos in pop up windows? See our alternate video page. For information on ... Representation RESOURCES Careers at VA Employment Center Returning Service Members Vocational Rehabilitation & Employment Homeless Veterans Women Veterans ...

  20. CENTER FOR CYBER SECURITY STUDIES

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Center for Cyber Security Studies is to enhance the education of midshipmen in all areas of cyber warfare, to facilitate the sharing of expertise...