Woo, Hye-In; Chun, Mi-Ryung; Yang, Jeong-Soo; Lim, Shinn-Won; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Seon-Woo; Myung, Woo-Jae; Kim, Doh-Kwan; Lee, Soo-Youn
Amino acids are important body metabolites and seem to be helpful for understanding pathogenesis and predicting therapeutic response in major depressive disorder (MDD). We performed amino acid profiling to discover potential biomarkers in major depressive patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Amino acid profiling using aTRAQ™ kits for Amino Acid Analysis in Physiological Fluids on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system was performed on 158 specimens at baseline and at 6 weeks after the initiation of SSRI treatment for 68 patients with MDD and from 22 healthy controls. Baseline alpha-aminobutyric acid (ABA) discriminated the patients according to the therapeutic response. Plasma glutamic acid concentration and glutamine/glutamic acid ratio were different between before and after SSRI treatment only in the response group. Comparing patients with MDD with healthy controls, alterations of ten amino acids, including alanine, beta-alanine, beta-aminoisobutyric acid, cystathionine, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, homocystine, methionine, O-phospho-L-serine, and sarcosine, were observed in MDD. Metabolism of amino acids, including ABA and glutamic acid, has the potential to contribute to understandings of pathogenesis and predictions of therapeutic response in MDD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Barrado, E; Rodriguez, J A; Castrillejo, Y
Eight amino acids (ethanolamine, glycine, alanine, beta-aminobutyric acid, leucine, methionine, histidine and asparagine) were identified and quantified in Spanish wines by high performance liquid magneto-chromatography (HPLMC) with UV-V spectrophotometry. For this method, the amino acids are first complexed with mono(1,10-phenanthroline)-Cu(II) to confer them paramagnetic properties, and then separated by application of a low magnetic field intensity (5.5 mT) to the stationary phase contained in the chromatographic column. Principal components analysis of the results obtained grouped together the wine samples according to their denomination of origin: "Ribera del Duero", "Rueda" or "Rioja" (Spain). Through cluster analysis, a series of correlations was also observed among certain amino acids, and between these groupings and the type of wine. These clusters were found to reflect the role played by the amino acids as primary or secondary nutrients for the bacteria involved in alcoholic and malolactic fermentation.
Park, Junghoon; Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil
The anaerobic degradation of each amino acid that could be generated through the hydrolysis of sewage sludge was evaluated. Stickland reaction as an intermediate reaction between two kinds of amino acids was restricted in order to evaluate each amino acid. Changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), T-N, NH4(+)-N, biogas, and CH4 were analysed for the anaerobic digestion process. The initial nitrogen concentration of all amino acids is adjusted as 1000 mg/L. The degradation rate of the amino acids was determined based on the ammonia form of nitrogen, which is generated by the deamination of amino acids. Among all amino acids, such as alpha-alanine, beta-alanine, lysine, arginine, glycine, histidine, cysteine, methionine, and leucine, deamination rates of cysteine, leucine, and methionine were just 61.55%, 54.59%, and 46.61%, respectively, and they had low removal rates of organic matter and showed very low methane production rates of 13.55, 71.04, and 80.77 mL CH4/g CODin, respectively. Especially for cysteine, the methane content was maintained at approximately 7% during the experiment. If wastewater contains high levels of cysteine, leucine, and methionine and Stickland reaction is not prepared, these amino acids may reduce the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion.