WorldWideScience

Sample records for alameda-contra costa transit

  1. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  2. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  3. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Joaquin, and Solano Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Angelica; Maloney, Patricia

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Alameda,…

  4. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  5. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration that includes 13 advanced-d...

  6. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  7. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. These data and analyses help provide needed information to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2017 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2016 through July 2017. The primary results presented in the report are from five demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; AFCB Project at the University of California at Irvine; AFCB Project at Orange County Transportation Authority; and AFCB Project at Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

  8. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  9. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989-2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  10. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales.

  11. Analysis of the transitional dynamics and duration of unemployment in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Castro Vincenzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that explain the duration of unemployment spells and the transitional dynamics between the state of employment, unemployment and inactivity in Costa Rican labor market, using the Continuous Employment Survey for the period between the first quarter of 2012 and the third quarter of 2013. This research focuses mainly on supply-side factors and uses binominal and multinomial logit models in order to determine which variables determine that some people are more likely to be unemployed, Markov matrixes to estimate a series of transitional probabilities for different states in the labor market, and a survival model to characterize the duration of the unemployment spells. We conclude that women are more likely to be unemployed than men, and have smaller probabilities of changing from unemployed to employed. Also, the duration of their unemployment spells is longer. Furthermore, a higher academic level decreases the probabilities for an individual of being unemployed, but increases the duration of the unemployment spell. A correlation between the performance of the economic activity and the probabilities of becoming employed and of becoming inactive is observed.

  12. Exploratory Water Budget Analysis of A Transitional Premontane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica Through Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Buckwalter, E. H.; Moore, G. W.; Burns, J. N.; Dennis, A. R.; Dodge, O.; Guffin, E. C.; Morris, E. R.; Oien, R. P.; Orozco, G.; Peterson, A.; Teale, N. G.; Shibley, N. C.; Tourtellotte, N.; Houser, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Brumbelow, J. K.; Cahill, A. T.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Gonzalez, E.; Hallmark, C. T.; McInnes, K. J.; Miller, G. R.; Morgan, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Roark, E.; Delgado, A.; Ackerson, J. P.; Arnott, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of transitional premontane cloud forests is not well understood. This problem is being addressed by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) study at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research & Education in Costa Rica. Exploratory analysis of the water budget within a 20-ha watershed was used to connect three faculty-mentored research areas in ecohydrology, climate, and soil sciences and highlight the roles of 12 undergraduate researchers from 12 different universities. The water budget model is Q = Pn - E - T + ΔG + ΔS where Q = runoff, Pn = net precipitation, E = evaporation, T = transpiration, and ΔG and ΔS are change in groundwater soil water storage, respectively. Additionally, Pn = Pg - I = Tf + Sf + D, where Pg = gross precipitation, I/ΔI = canopy interception or storage, Tf = throughfall, Sf = stemflow, and D = canopy drip. The following terms were well understood Pg (satellite = 34-mm and tower = 38.1-mm) and Q from a recently constructed v-notch weir. We moderately understand Tf + D (30.9-mm from an array of forest rain gages), ΔI (7.2-mm) related to Sf, and T (10.4-mm measured with sapflow sensors). We found that soils were clay loam to silty loam textured Andisols on saprolitic tuft with a mean potential ΔS of 398 mm H2O under laboratory conditions, but in the field the following terms are almost completely unknown and require further field studies including E, ΔG, and ΔS. Recent installation of piezometers will address ΔG. Temporal scaling of measurements to a 1-week period was a challenge as well as the construction, deployment and calibration of instruments. However, this exploration allowed us to determine measurement uncertainties in the water budget, e.g., E, and to set future areas of research to address these uncertainties.

  13. 75 FR 20608 - Notice of Re-Designation of the Service Delivery Area for the Cowlitz Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... City (Public Law 88-358). \\5\\ Entire State of California, excluding counties of Alameda, Contra Costa..., Napa, San Benito, San Joaquin, San Luis Obispo, Santa Cruz, Solano, Stanislaus, and Ventura, is...

  14. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  15. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  16. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  17. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Sixth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published five previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2016 through December 2016.

  18. Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    politiques de la concurrence en Amérique centrale, financé par le CRDI (et qui englobait l'étude sur le Costa Rica susmentionnée), a permis de cerner ces manques et de déterminer quel genre de lois et d'autorités en matière de concurrence conviennent le mieux aux réalités politique, juridique et culturelle de chacun des ...

  19. 78 FR 9727 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., California; take (capture, handle, mark, tag, collect tissue, and release) the giant garter snake (Thamnophis..., handle, and release) the San Francisco garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) in conjunction with... activities throughout the range of each species in Alameda, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kings, Marin, Madera, Napa...

  20. Timber resource statistics for the central coast resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Central Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Ventura Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multi-resource inventory. The inventory...

  1. Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  2. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  3. Joaquim Da Costa Ribeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Professor Costa Ribeiro directed IAEA's Division of Exchange and Training from 15 February 1958 to 15 November 1959 - a period during which the Agency planned, initiated and established its operational programs, and it was largely due to his untiring effort and able handling that the training and fellowship program rapidly developed into one of the most important and fruitful of the Agency's activities

  4. Joaquim Da Costa Ribeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    Professor Costa Ribeiro directed IAEA's Division of Exchange and Training from 15 February 1958 to 15 November 1959 - a period during which the Agency planned, initiated and established its operational programs, and it was largely due to his untiring effort and able handling that the training and fellowship program rapidly developed into one of the most important and fruitful of the Agency's activities

  5. Nicolaou, Prof. Kyriacos Costa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2007 Honorary. Nicolaou, Prof. Kyriacos Costa. Date of birth: 1946. Address: Department of Chemistry & BRC, Rice University, 6100, Main Street, MS 602, Houston, TX 77005, U.S.A.. Contact: Residence: (+1-713) 348 8860. Fax: (+1-713) 348 8865. Email: kcn@rice.edu. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  6. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  7. Mario Costa tarantino napoletano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    and the aristocratic tradition. Romanza, opera, operetta, popular folk songs. He became famous thankfully to this last one, when the easy listening music industry was starting its productions. This is the first published biography on the artist and is based on original documents and sources.......Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular...

  8. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación (en español Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  9. Corporate Governance in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate governance practices in Costa Rica. First, it estimates corporate governance charter measures using firm-level data for 87 Costa Rican firms and studies their impact on the firms` performance; here, the mean of the corporate governance charters for the publicly traded firms is equal to 56. 14. Second, new evidence is presented on de jure and de facto corporate governance charter measures at the firm level and on their effect on the performance of the firm. The re...

  10. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  11. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  12. de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arellano Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio simultáneo de elementos ontológicos y metodológicos comprometidos con el conocimiento de la organización sociotécnica de la investigación científica universitaria. Se trata de la presentación de un análisis asistido informáticamente de bases de datos que genera mapas, de los que se pueden intelegir organización de relaciones heterogéneas de propiedades científico-técnicas y sociales contenidas en las fuentes de información, que son simultáneamente cuantitativas y cualitativas. Para ilustrar lo anterior, realizamos un estudio de caso analizando informáticamente las bases de datos de los proyectos de investigación en ciencias básicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica entre 1977 y 2005.

  13. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  14. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  15. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  16. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azofeifa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN. This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Un estudio de cinco años tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.

  17. African Journals Online: Costa Rica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  18. Hydrogen Technology and Energy Curriculum (HyTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, Barbara

    2013-02-28

    The Lawrence Hall of Science of the University of California, Berkeley has collaborated with scientists and engineers, a local transit agency, school districts, and a commercial curriculum publisher to develop, field-test nationally, and publish a two-week curriculum module on hydrogen and fuel cells for high school science. Key partners in this project are the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) of Humboldt State University, the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), FilmSight Productions, Lab-Aids, Inc., and 32 teachers and 2,370 students in field-test classrooms in California, Connecticut, Ohio, New York, South Carolina, and Washington. Field-test teachers received two to three days of professional development before teaching the curriculum and providing feedback used for revision of the curriculum. The curriculum, titled Investigating Alternative Energy: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells and published by Lab-Aids, Inc., includes a teachers guide (with lesson plans, resources, and student handout pages), two interactive computer animations, a video, a website, and a laboratory materials kit. The project has been disseminated to over 950 teachers through awareness workshops at state, regional, and national science teacher conferences.

  19. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  20. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  1. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  2. Effectiveness of the Costa Rican Central Bank forex intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Espinoza Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an empirical approach to assess the effectiveness of foreign exchange interventions following the criteria by K. Domínguez (1998 using a GARCH model based on the work by C. Broto (2012. Analyses are conducted to evaluate the FOREX rules of intervention followed by the BCCR, and the probability of occurrence of an intervention is estimated using a LOGIT model.  In addition, the paper attempts to analyze what happened to the exchange arrangements applied in Costa Rica as a result of the 2006 exchange rate flexibility and transition to inflation targets.

  3. Seven songs from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Sàenz, Michèle S. de

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1973, through the benificence of Professor Juan de Dios Trejos, music teacher from Cartago, Costa Rica, I had the pleasure of meeting doña Leticia de Céspedes. This tiny woman was in her nineties, with neatly cropped snow white hair and blue eyes. She received me in her humble home in Tres Ríos, a town located between San José and Cartago. Sra. de Céspedes had learned to read and transcribe music. She taught piano and guitar. She too, was interested in music whi...

  4. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  5. Pleural mesothelioma in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maineri-Hidalgo, Jose Alberto; Putvinsky, Vladimir; Mainieri-Breedy, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The mesothelioma is a neoplasia originated in the serous membranes that drape the cellomic cavities and there cover the visceras that they contain, whose development has related to the exhibition to the asbestos. The present study describes the characteristics of the cases of mesothelioma pleural diagnosed in 3 adults hospitals in Costa Rica. 29 cases of pleural mesothelioma were found between 1972 and 2002 after reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costa Rican social security health system. The incidence rate in 2002 was 1 case per 2 million; there were 15 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty cases presented with pleural effusion being dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever and weight loss the most frequent symptoms. The disease was detected in all the cases because of an abnormal chest X-ray. The method used to obtain tissue for histological diagnosis was thoracotomy for 15 cases, pleural biopsy in 8, thoracoscopy in 4 and autopsy in 2. The histological diagnosis in 16 cases was fibrous mesothelioma, 10 malignant and 6 benign, 11 were epithelial (all malignant) and 2 were malignant mixed mesothelioma. The treatment in all the benign cases was surgical resection and none recurred. Two of the malignant lesions were resected, 1 had an extrapleural pneumonectomy along with pericardial and diaphragmatic resection, but the survival was not better than the rest of the malignant cases, with an average survival rate for all of them of only 6 months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy showed no additional benefit. (author) [es

  6. The Internationalization of SMEs in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva Bonilla, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the internationalization process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Costa Rica. Its ultimate goal is to draw conclusions that might enable the various stakeholders in the process (businesses, government, support agencies, and academia) to make decisions based on better information. To do this we will review the current status of this business sector, compare the patterns of internationalization identified in the theory with those experienced by Costa Rican ...

  7. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits that...

  8. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  9. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Contreras; Henriette Raventós; Gloriana Rodríguez; Mauricio Leandro

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pat...

  10. de papa en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidy Montero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan importantes daños al cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L alrededor del mundo. Su efecto puede ser directo al disminuir el rendimiento o indirecto al infectar los tubérculos y causar agallas o protuberancias, que les confiere una apariencia verrugosa, que afecta su calidad y reduce su valor comercial. En Capellades y Llano Grande de Cartago, Costa Rica, fueron encontrados tubérculos de papa, de la variedad Floresta y del clon Bananito, con numerosas protuberancias en su superficie. De las protuberancias se extrajo hembras ovígeras de Meloidogyne spp. Estudios morfológicos (diseño perineal de las hembras y moleculares (PCR y PCRRFLP mostraron que las hembras extraídas de las protuberancias pertenecen a la especie M. incognita. Se recomienda estudiar las causas que promueven la infección de los tubérculos en ambas localidades, ya que cerca del 90% del área cultivada de papa en el país corresponde a la variedad Floresta. En adición, se debe prestar especial atención a las zonas semilleristas, ya que los tubérculos-semilla podrían servir como fuente de inóculo y contribuir a la diseminación del patógeno a otras áreas.

  11. Agrochemical residues in rivers sediments, Poas, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis, Federico; Valdez, Juan; Leon, Sandra; Coto, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    The organophosphorus and organochlorine agrochemical residues distribution in sediments of 3 rivers located in an ornamental plant production area were analyzed in Poas canton, Alajuela, Costa Rica. The study comprised 8 months in order to assure 3 seasonal episodes: dry, transitional, and rainy seasons. Sediments were taken in 10 sampling stations along the rivers and characterized by a determination of their organic matter and texture. In 7 out of 10 sampling stations pesticide residues were detected in at least 1 of 4 samplings, but quantified only in 4 stations. Agrochemical residues evaluated included 21 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides; however, we found residues of only 3 organochlorine pesticides, due their high persistence in the sediment. Residues corresponded to PCNB (80-800 μg.kg -1 ), Endosulfan-β (40-50 μg.kg -1 ), and Endosulfan-α (90 μg.kg -1 ). Chlorothalonil was detected in only one sample. (author) [es

  12. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  13. Conferences on electronic waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa Gutierrez, Floria

    2006-01-01

    The management system of electronic waste is a project organized and financed by the bilateral agreement Costa Rica - Holanda, it is integrated by governmental and non-governmental enterprises. It was divided in two phases, first performed in 2003 which provided a diagnosis on the management of electronic resources, based on the diagnosis a propose of strategy for recycling was made. The second phase is given in 2005 with the implementation and realization of the project including two pilots plans located one at the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica and another in the community of Escazu, at the end some recommendations were given to strengthen the system. The electronic waste were divided in white line, gray and brown line; those with pollutants such as phosphorus, chromium, cadmium, barium, lead, beryllium, mercury are toxic and have different effects on human health. The project in Costa Rica has taken as examples several recycling plants in different countries, among them one installed in Belgica. As an outstanding figure of the diagnosis made it was determined that Costa Rica has no legal support regarding the handling of such materials. It has been accumulated in 2007 more than 24 260 tonnes and is growing rapidly year after year. Within the achieved progress in the implementation of the project are: the creation of a legal support, the organization of the compliance unit of the project, the valuation of environmental costs and the increase of enterprises offering the service of primary treatment [es

  14. Da Costa on ontology: a naturalistic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mariano Nogueira Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Da Costa's conception of being modifies that of Quine to incorporate relativization to non-classical logics. A naturalistic view of this conception is discussed. This view tries to extend to logic some ideas of Maddy's naturalism concerning mathematics.

  15. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorden Anomura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vargas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de los cangrejos anomuros es uno de los mejor conocidos de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, pero muy poco conocidos de la costa Caribe. En esta recopilación, basada en la literatura y en las colecciones del Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, informamos de la presencia de 114 especies del Infraorden Anomura en Costa Rica, 20 especies del Caribe, 96 especies del Pacífico, y dos especies presentes en ambas costa. Veintinueve especies son informes nuevos para Costa Rica, 15 del Caribe (75% del total de especies informadas para esa costa y 14 del Pacífica (15% del total de esa costa. La distribución de diez especies es ampliada hasta Costa Rica, siete en el Caribe y tres en el Pacífico. Seis especies son informadas por primera vez para la Isla del Coco, donde además hay cuatro especies endémicas.Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura. The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts. Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific. The range of ten species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 461-488. Epub 2006 Jun 01.

  16. [USJ Herbarium of Costa Rica: history and contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos O

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 the Herbarium USJ of the University of Costa Rica became 80 years old and came up with 100 000 specimens of all the taxa that traditional botany studies. Data and figures on the history, the founders, and contributions of USJ to the knowledge of Costa Rican flora are summarized.

  17. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  18. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  19. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime García

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades in...

  20. Costa Rica: movimiento de mujeres y liderazgo

    OpenAIRE

    Torres García, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    En el estudio Costa Rica: movimiento de mujeres y liderazgo se evidencia cómo el movimiento feminista y amplio de mujeres utiliza formas singulares y creativas de liderazgo, en uno de los contextos sociales más igualitarios de la región y en una de las democracias más afianzadas, como lo es la costarricense. Se pone en evidencia el crecimiento de este movimiento y la relación que existe entre los logros legales y la visibilidad de la dimensión y de la persistencia de las diversas formas de vi...

  1. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  2. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  3. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, M., E-mail: mauisoiso@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (Costa Rica); Santos, F., E-mail: fsantosg@gmail.com [Departamento de Control de Calidad y Protección Radiológica, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  4. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  5. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  6. Forest Structure and Biomass Data, La Selva, Costa Rica: 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides field measurements of diameter, tree height, and crown dimensions for 1,513 trees in 30 plots at the La Selva Biological Station in Costa...

  7. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  8. Nomenclatural problems among Thysanoptera (Insecta of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Goldarazena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present data to argue that several recent papers on the Thysanoptera of Costa Rica are affected by unsatisfactory technical procedures, including failure to recognize intraspecific structural variation. Fourteen new synonyms are recognized for Costa Rica Thysanoptera, nine generic and five specific. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 961-968. Epub 2008 June 30.Presentamos datos para apoyar nuestro argumento de que varios artículos recientes sobre los Thysanoptera de Costa Rica se han visto afectados por procedimientos técnicos insatisfactorios, incluyendo el no reconocer la variación estructural intraespecífica. Presentamos nueve sinonimias en los tisanópteros de Costa Rica: nueve a nivel de género y cinco a nivel de especie.

  9. Manual of Inorganic Accustomed to Fertilizers of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Cabezas, E.; Murillo Soto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The manual of inorganic solid fertilizers of Costa Rica presents as first the description of some nutritious characteristics of the main ones, such as functions, content, forms, symptoms of deficiency among others. Some of the chemical physical characteristics of the included materials were used as prime materials. There is also in the Manual a listing of the main sources fertilizers used in Costa Rica, as well as the main processes of production of fertilizers, while they are considered several listings with the products that the different commercial houses have to disposition of the publish. Finally a summary of the imports of fertilizers is made in Costa Rica during the years 1998, 1999 and 2000, to finish with the general listing of all the products fertilizers registered in Costa Rica, under the order N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O. (Author) [es

  10. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  11. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  12. Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arias M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica es un análisis crítico del desarrollo agrícola de Costa Rica de los últimos 25 años. La diversificación agrícola que promovió Costa Rica en la década de los ochenta, permitió ampliar la oferta exportable y reducir la vulnerabilidad de la dependencia económica de productos tradicionales, como café y banano. Los retos de la economía global y el establecimiento de tratados comerciales con muchos países, hacen necesario que el país promueva en el sector agrícola la exportación con mayor valor agregado, para lo cual es necesario una modernización y reconversión productiva, ya que el modelo actual está agotado. Debemos mejorar sustancialmente los bienes y servicios que ofrecemos; para este propósito, algunos aspectos como la imagen de marca del país con tradición democrática, respeto a los derechos laborales, así como las buenas prácticas de manejo ambiental, deben publicitarse. Como una herramienta clave para la incorporación de mayor valor agregado a nuestra producción agrícola, debemos promover la inversión en investigación y desarrollo, que históricamente ha sido escasa (0,4% del PIB. En vista de que el Estado Costarricense ha demostrado una incapacidad crónica para impulsar la ciencia y la tecnología como una herramienta para nuestro desarrollo, se propone un estímulo a la inversión privada y el fortalecimiento de una alianza con el Estado y las universidades. Se analiza la conveniencia del fortalecimiento de la autosuficiencia alimentaria y de que las empresas pequeñas y medianas jueguen un papel más activo en la agro-exportación. Respecto a los tratados comerciales que se han venido negociando, se considera la conveniencia para el país, ya que son instrumentos para integrar nuestro quehacer económico a nivel mundial, y nuestro deber es el de luchar para que el sector agropecuario tenga oportunidad de subsistir competitivamente según esas nuevas reglas y

  13. Los insectos invasores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Se presenta una recopilación preliminar de los insectos introducidos en Costa Rica. Se estima que existen al menos 300 especies exóticas. Los medios más comunes de introducción son: suelo y hojarasca, desechos, madera, granos almacenados, plantas, vertebrados y otros insectos. Se nota la escasez de especies exóticas entre los insectos acuáticos y ciertos grupos de insectos fitófagos (Auchenorrhyncha, Heteroptera, Chrysomelidae). Los insectos introducidos pueden tener un impacto negativo o pos...

  14. Study of solar potential in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    A evaluation on the research of solar radiation in Costa Rica is performed to determine the potential as an energy source and learn how it is distributed spatially and temporally. The calculation and mapping of contours of the global solar radiation in the country are focused. Experimental values and predicted global solar radiation has been used in the contouring. The highest values were observed in the northern section of the Pacific slope and west of the Valle Central; the north and along the Caribbean coast have the lowest values. Quantitative data are not limited to the direct use of solar energy for power generation, also for other activities such as meteorological sciences, agriculture, irrigation and forest architecture. This information is important for specialists, teachers and professionals interested in harnessing solar energy. (author) [es

  15. La apertura comercial en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Bustos Alvarado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los diferentes modelos contemporáneos implementados en Costa Rica, cuyo objetivo ha sido el de generar un desarrollo hacia fuera, es decir, basado en un fuerte impulso a las exportaciones y a la búsqueda de nuevos mercados. Todas estas medidas tomadas por las distintas administraciones, unas con más convicción que otras, han desembocado en un proceso de apertura comercial que ha quedado plasmado en la negociación y firma de diferentes tratados de libre comercio con países y regiones, como una manera de ampliar el mercado y de esta forma acelerar el desarrollo económico del País.

  16. Uses of solar energy in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandwani, Shyam S. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Heredia, P.O. Box 728, 3000 Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2006-04-15

    Costa Rica, a small country with the population of 4 million, and without military and hence no military expenditure, promotes the use of renewable sources like Hydro, Mini hydro, Wind, Geothermal and Sun, mainly for electricity generation. Almost 90% of the electricity is produced from these renewable sources. Through different policies and some incentives, etc., private generation is also encouraged and there are some decentralized systems like solar water heaters, swimming pool heaters, cookers, dryers and stills and also photo voltaic panels. The last ones are mostly for the population where there is no electric grid. Depending on the province, 91-99.5% of the population is electrified. Government also encourages the use of energy saving devices specially at domestic and industrial sector. In addition to provide these data, some of the solar energy systems are mentioned. [Author].

  17. Escuela Normal de Costa Rica: Historia y legado

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Jiménez, Vivian; Ruiz-Badilla, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    On the centennial of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) of Costa Rica, this paper discusses its role and its legacy in teacher training. It is structured in three parts. Firstly, it presents a brief historical background of the origin and profile of normal schools in various parts of the world. Secondly, it describes the development of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) in Costa Rica, refers to various personalities and significant elements that have set the course and prestige of the institu...

  18. Report on the Application of Ionizing Radiations in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Araya, J.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents an analysis of the different public and private institutions, that in any form applies ionizing radiations. In total a sample of 387 was considered; it offers a great reliability, considering the size of Costa Rican market. Fundamentally the information was taken from the archives of the Atomic Energy Commision of Costa Rica; also from reports of labors and surveys carried out during 1991, tending to justify the Project ARCAL XVI: Industrial Applications of the Nuclear Technology. (author)

  19. Polio Crisis in Costa Rica: Lessons Learned and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioconda Vargas-Morúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital.  National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.

  20. Afro-Costa Rican women and delayed multiculturalism: constitutional reform of the (white republic of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela MUÑOZ MUÑOZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the reform of Article 1 of the Political Constitution of Costa Rica to acknowledge the multicultural and pluriethnic character of the nation, in terms of its protagonists and timing of approval. On the one hand, it suggests a relationship between racial formation processes and a constitutional multicultural delay. On the other, it recognizes the challenges and strategies of Afro-Costa Rican women to reframe this reform in terms of social justice.

  1. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chavarría-Soley

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG, while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B and one gene (CYP1B1 are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genético de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1A-GLC1F y dos genes (TIGR/MYOC y OPTN se conocen, hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparición de glaucomas primarios de ángulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG como de l tipo de adultos (COAG. Además, dos

  2. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Caribbean coastal plain of Costa Rica, with the Cordillera Central rising in the background and the Pacific Ocean in the distance. The prominent river in the center of the image is the Rio Sucio, which merges with the Rio Sarapiqui at the bottom of the image and eventually joins with Rio San Juan on the Nicaragua border.Like much of Central America, Costa Rica is generally cloud covered so very little satellite imagery is available. The ability of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements will allow generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. These data were used to generate the image.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using elevation data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices

  3. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Contreras

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.

  4. Call for a change in research funding priorities: the example of mental health in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Javier; Raventós, Henriette; Rodríguez, Gloriana; Leandro, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 urges its Member States to strengthen leadership in mental health, ensure mental and social health interventions in community-based settings, promote mental health and strengthen information systems, and increase evidence and research for mental health. Although Costa Rica has strongly invested in public health and successfully reduced the burden of nutritional and infectious diseases, its transitional epidemiological pattern, population growth, and immigration from unstable neighboring countries has shifted the burden to chronic disorders. Although policies for chronic disorders have been in place for several decades, mental disorders have not been included. Recently, as the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica developed a Mental Health Policy for 2013-2020, it became evident that the country needs epidemiological data to prioritize evidence-based intervention areas. This article stresses the importance of conducting local epidemiological studies on mental health, and calls for changes in research funding priorities by public and private national and international funding agencies in order to follow the WHO Mental Health Action Plan.

  5. REDD+ IN COSTA RICA, WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED?: Indigenous Peoples Human Rights within REDD+

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Mejia, Monica Judith

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses the development of REDD+ in Costa Rica. It sets out to analyse what the obligations of Costa Rica are under International Human Rights Law with regard to Indigenous Peoples at the moment of implementing REDD+; what laws should be changed before implementing REDD+ whether Costa Rica wants to fulfil its international obligations towards Indigenous Peoples; what impact the Payment for Environmental Services programme has had on Indigenous Peoples; and how the Costa Rican gov...

  6. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  7. Assessment of mammography in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation of national mammographic equipment was conducted, due to the increasing incidence of breast cancer in Costa Rican women. From June 2002 to October 2003, 2 of the 3 global indicators of image quality were evaluated, (mean glandular dose and phantom image) in 26 mammography machines facilitated by radiologists in charge of the same. The mean glandular dose found was 1.75 ± 0.60 mGy with a range of 0.8 a 2.56. Regarding quality image, 73% of the evaluated equipment was able to see 4 or more fibers, 53% saw 3 or more groups of microcalcifications and 82% saw 3 or more mass groups. All mean glandular doses were below the international reference dose value of 3 mGy. However, the analysis of phantom images showed that only 54% of all the equipment had a total score (sum of mass groups, fibers and microcalcifications) superior or equal to 10, as expected. A correct diagnosis that could eventually save the patient's life is the main objective of a mammogram; the factors that are degrading the images must be found and it might be necessary to increase the doses to achieve this. This study demonstrates the urgent necessity to introduce permanent quality control programs that will provide excellent images with the lowest internationally recommended doses.(author) [es

  8. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  9. Corrugated megathrust revealed offshore from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared; Silver, Eli A.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Brothers, Daniel; Bangs, Nathan L.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Wood, Ruby; Okamato, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Exhumed faults are rough, often exhibiting topographic corrugations oriented in the direction of slip; such features are fundamental to mechanical processes that drive earthquakes and fault evolution. However, our understanding of corrugation genesis remains limited due to a lack of in situ observations at depth, especially at subducting plate boundaries. Here we present three-dimensional seismic reflection data of the Costa Rica subduction zone that image a shallow megathrust fault characterized by corrugated, and chaotic and weakly corrugated topographies. The corrugated surfaces extend from near the trench to several kilometres down-dip, exhibit high reflection amplitudes (consistent with high fluid content/pressure) and trend 11–18° oblique to subduction, suggesting 15 to 25 mm yr−1 of trench-parallel slip partitioning across the plate boundary. The corrugations form along portions of the megathrust with greater cumulative slip and may act as fluid conduits. In contrast, weakly corrugated areas occur adjacent to active plate bending faults where the megathrust has migrated up-section, forming a nascent fault surface. The variations in megathrust roughness imaged here suggest that abandonment and then reestablishment of the megathrust up-section transiently increases fault roughness. Analogous corrugations may exist along significant portions of subduction megathrusts globally.

  10. WEEE Resource Management System in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Abarca-Guerrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica followed different steps in order to organise and implement a waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE management system. This paper summarises the challenges, successes, and limitations of its implementation. Two phases were needed to set up the system. The first phase created a baseline followed by the designing of a strategy. The second phase promoted a Decree for WEEE management that prohibits discarding WEEE together with household waste, as well as the creation of a National Executive Committee with representatives of importers, consumers, and government, which will establish the quotes and treatment fees, and so on. Another outcome was the development of a strategy for the implementation of WEEE management for the country, the promotion of population awareness about their responsibility for WEEE management, and an example set up for other Latin American countries. This paper draws conclusions from the regulation and notes the required consistency with the existing national waste legislation in order to reduce approval times. Additionally, the importance of the participation of stakeholders representing different electric and electronic equipment (EEE sectors with the purpose of obtaining consensus on agreements is highlighted.

  11. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  12. bajo el bosque en Costa Rica. 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ocampo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La ipecacuana o raicilla, hierba nativa de América, es la única planta medicinal del trópico húmedo de Costa Rica cultivada bajo el bosque. Es cultivada en la región Huetar Norte, limítrofe con Nicaragua; la raíz seca de ipecacuana se ha comercializado en Costa Rica como materia prima para la industria farmacéutica internacional desde principios del siglo XX. De acuerdo con las estadísticas oficiales, las exportaciones de raicilla desde Costa Rica en los últimos 20 años han significado un promedio de 64 t año-1. Este trabajo resume actividades relacionadas con la descripción y cultivo de la planta, así como algunos de los aspectos agroecológicos de su cultivo.

  13. Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artibano Micali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.

  14. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  15. Maps of ultraviolet radiation in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has contributed relatively little energy to the solar spectrum; but is important, because it is biologically active. The software Surfer 8 has created maps designed of the territory of Costa Rica to assess the maximum levels of solar UV radiation on a horizontal plane. The data were used in creating the maps, were predicted at local noon in eighty-three locations scattered across the country, with a spectral atmospheric model which is physically established. The model has used as input data: the date and time, the location identified by latitude, longitude and height of land above sea level, the value of the vertical column ozone, surface albedo and atmospheric turbidity parameters. The estimate differs by 3% of the measurements made in situ, which agrees with the experimental data. The model has used the data estimation of UV radiation, clear sky conditions, which is the condition where you get the maximum energy possible in each locality. This is of fundamental importance when assessing the adverse effects on human health, leads the maximum intensity in this important solar spectrum band. A larger increase of 23% has presented in the UV radiation with altitude obtaining the hills and mountains the highest rates and places located at sea level and the lowest cost, the indices. The annual variation analysis has revealed an increase greater than 27% from the month of lowest UV radiation (December) and the month of greatest UV radiation (April). The issue is of particular interest because of the increasing number of people moving at different times of the year, altitudes over 2000 m altitude, in activities relating to tourism and employment. These individuals are significant increases in levels of UV solar radiation under conditions of clear skies. (author) [es

  16. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in adult Costa Rican population

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Sánchez, Oscar; Holst Schumacher, Ileana; Boza Oreamuno, Sandra; Barrantes Santamaría, Mauro; Chinchilla Monge, Ricardo; Alvarado Ulate, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. La disfunción tiroidea subclínica es un desorden común que puede representar la etapa temprana de una franca enfermedad tiroidea. Objetivo. Conocer la prevalencia de disfunción tiroidea subclínica en una población de adultos costarricenses. Diseño. Investigación de tipo transversal y descriptiva. Lugar. Área urbana de Costa Rica. Participantes. Adultos costarricenses de un área urbana de Costa Rica. Intervenciones. A 297 individuos de ambos géneros con edades entre 30 y 87 años ...

  17. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. Buddleja filibracteolata se diferencia por sus hojas sesiles, láminas foliares amplexicaules y por sus inflorescencias espiciformes con numerosas y conspicuas brácteas filiformes.

  18. Agrotourism and Agro-Ecotourism in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbado Morales, Félix

    2010-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible. 2010 Agrotourism is a form of tourism that encourages visitors to experience rural culture as a tourist attraction. The term “agro-ecotourism” was used for the first time in Costa Rica in 1994, and it is generally used as synonym of agrotourism. Nonetheless, not all cases of agrotourism display sufficient concern for the environment to be considered agro-ecotourism. The aim of the ...

  19. Mentored and inspired by Mimo: a tribute to Erminio Costa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Floyd E

    2011-06-01

    Throughout his long productive scientific career, Erminio Costa demonstrated several scholarly traits that illustrate a pattern for paths of successful achievement that should guide young scientists. Not only did he seek excellent training, he got and gave good mentoring. That guidance allowed him to ask important questions and to develop the methods necessary to obtain definitive answers by pursuing those questions in depth. Without question, he blazed trails in neuropharmacology that have been an inspiration to many others and me. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.

  20. ¿QUIEN CREA MIPYMES EN COSTA RICA? (¿Who are the SME creators in Costa Rica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características más relevantes de los emprendedores que crearos sus propias empresas en Costa Rica, así como el entorno en el cual lo hicieron. Esto a partir de los datos emanados del segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses efectuado por el Observatorio de Mipymes durante el año 2011. ABSTRACT This paper presents the most relevant characteristics of the entrepreneurs that created companies in Costa Rica and the country’s entrepreneurial environment. This analysis was done using data from the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies made by the SME Observatory during 2011.

  1. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  2. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  3. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging,…

  4. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.

  5. The genera of Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wills Flowers

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Keys in Spanish and English are given for the genera of Chrysomelinae known from Costa Rica. For each genus, a list of species compiled from collections in the University of Costa Rica, the National Biodiversity Institute, and the entomological literature is presented. The genus Planagetes Chevrolat 1843 is recorded for the first time from Central America, and the genus Leptinotarsa Stål 1858 is synonymized with Stilodes Chevrolat 1843Se presenta claves en español y inglés para los géneros de Chrysomelinae conocidas de Costa Rica. Para cada género, se presenta una lista de especies compiladas de las colecciones de la Universidad de Costa Rica, el Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, y la literatura entomológica. El género Planagetes Chevrolat 1843 está registrado por primera vez de América Central, y el género Leptinotarsa Stål 1858 está sinonomizado con Stilodes Chevrolat 1843

  6. Education in Costa Rica. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    As Costa Rica's economy has developed in recent decades, the education system that helped propel the country to upper middle-income status now needs reform to respond to rising expectations and changing demands for skills. New challenges are emerging: economic growth has recently slowed, inequality is widening and productivity growth is weak. How…

  7. Environmental indicators and bio monitoring: Costa Rica experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hidalgo, K.

    2012-01-01

    An experience carried out on rice, watermelon and melon crops were applied in Costa Rica. In sediment and water samples using bio monitoring techniques were found pesticides and pollution levels.The water bodies, sediments and ecological quality was determined by the BMWP- CR Index technique.

  8. Economic incentives for improving mango quality in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic

  9. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho V, H [Universidad de Costa Rica Escuela de Biologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with Multilure{sup RM} Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San

  10. in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, ubicado en el valle central de Costa Rica, es el parque más importante y que recibe más visitantes en el país. Entre el 24 de Marzo y el 10 de Abril del 2006, hubo una serie de erupciones que, la administración del parque prohibiera primero y restringiera después el acceso del número de visitantes al PNVP por tres semanas. El estudio examina el impacto de tales restricciones en las comunidades de Poasito y Fraijanes, las comunidades ubicadas en la entrada del parque, las cuales dependen económicamente de los gastos de los turistas que visitan el parque para sobrevivir. El estudio examina además el impacto social, de la falta información durante este tiempo en la opinión de las comunidades y los negocios sobre la gestión del desastre por parte de la administración del parque. Se encontró que para mejorar los planes para el manejo de esta clase de desastres, el parque y la comunidad deben mejorar la comunicación entre ambos, y la participación y coordinación de actividades. Para disminuir los riesgos de desastres físicos y económicos, la comunidad tiene que organizarse para pedir y obtener más información sobre las crisis generada por futuras erupciones y diversificar el tipo de turismo de que depende. La administración del Parque Nacional Volcán Poás debería iniciar actividades que ayuden el mejoramiento de la capacidad de participar de las comunidades en las actividades que el parque realiza en épocas de crisis, también debería incluir las necesidades informativas de la comunidad y de los negocios en su plan de gestión de desastres.

  11. Monitoreo del manglar de Gandoca, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Fonseca E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El manglar de Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribe de Costa Rica, se ha monitoreado desde 1999. La especie dominante es el mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle. El pico de productividad y producción de flores a lo largo de los años se dio en julio. La productividad del manglar disminuyó desde el 2001 y la temperatura del agua aparentemente aumentó. La biomasa (14 kg/m² y densidad (9 árboles por 100 m² en Gandoca son relativamente bajas comparados con otras manglares dentro del Programa CARICOMP, mientras que la productividad encontrada para julio en Costa Rica (4 g/m²/día es intermedia, similar a lo que se encontró en la mayoría de los sitios CARICOMP.Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m² and density (9 trees/10 m² in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m²/day was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 23-31. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  12. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  13. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  14. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.Con 51 100km2 de área terrestre y 589 000km² de aguas jurisdiccionales, Costa Rica es considerado uno de los países con mayor biodiversidad. Posee aproximadamente 3.5% de las especies marinas del mundo. En las últimas cuatro décadas, Costa Rica ha dedicado un esfuerzo significativo para la creación de Áreas Protegidas (AP, principalmente terrestres. Aquí presentamos un diagnóstico de la situación actual de las Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMP en Costa Rica, a través de un análisis histórico, su distribución, cobertura y categorías de manejo. Costa Rica posee 166 áreas protegidas que cubren 50% de la l

  15. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  16. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  17. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.L.; Trocki, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica

  18. Cáncer de piel en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Antillón, Orlando; de la Cruz Martínez, Rafael; Sierra Ramos, Rafaela

    1986-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1986 Se describe la incidencia del cáncer de la piel por sexo, edad y localización de todos los casos notificados en el Registro Nacional de Tumores de Costa Rica, en el periodo 1979-1980. El cáncer de piel presentó el 7,6 % del total de cánceres reportados en 1979 y el 14,5% en 1980. Después del cáncer gástrico, el cáncer de piel fue el más frecuente en 1980. Las provincias de San José, Alajuela y Her...

  19. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-07-06

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. 3rd congress on applied synthetic biology in Europe (Costa da Caparica, Portugal, February 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Miguel

    2017-03-25

    The third meeting organised by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) on advances in Applied Synthetic Biotechnology in Europe (ASBE) was held in Costa da Caparica, Portugal, in February 2016. Abundant novel applications in synthetic biology were described in the six sessions of the meeting, which was divided into technology and tools for synthetic biology (I, II and III), bionanoscience, biosynthetic pathways and enzyme synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering and chemical manufacturing. The meeting presented numerous methods for the development of novel synthetic strains, synthetic biological tools and synthetic biology applications. With the aid of synthetic biology, production costs of chemicals, metabolites and food products are expected to decrease, by generating sustainable biochemical production of such resources. Also, such synthetic biological advances could be applied for medical purposes, as in pharmaceuticals and for biosensors. Recurrent, linked themes throughout the meeting were the shortage of resources, the world's transition into a bioeconomy, and how synthetic biology is helping tackle these issues through cutting-edge technologies. While there are still limitations in synthetic biology research, innovation is propelling the development of technology, the standardisation of synthetic biological tools and the use of suitable host organisms. These developments are laying a foundation to providing a future where cutting-edge research could generate potential solutions to society's pressing issues, thus incentivising a transition into a bioeconomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    García, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    More than hundred plant species reported to have some kind of pesticide effect in Costa Rica are cited. The current situation of supply and demand of these products is presented, emphasizing the principal limitations for the development at commercial level, as well as the potential that the country possesses based on its extraordinary biodiversity. A listing of the institutions related to this matter is given. Finally, additional considerations are made about the toxicity of theses products a...

  2. Chondrichthyan Diversity, Conservation Status, and Management Challenges in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espinoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding key aspects of the biology and ecology of chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimeras, as well as the range of threats affecting their populations is crucial given the rapid rate at which some species are declining. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP, the lack of knowledge, unreliable (or non-existent landing statistics, and limited enforcement of existing fisheries regulations has hindered management and conservation efforts for chondrichthyan species. This review evaluated our current understanding of Costa Rican chondrichthyans and their conservation status. Specifically, we (1 provide an updated checklist on the species richness, habitat use, and distribution patterns, (2 summarize the most relevant chondrichthyan studies (scientific publications, theses, and official technical reports, (3 identify knowledge gaps, (4 discuss fisheries-related threats, and (5 highlight the management challenges and research needs to effectively protect their populations. A total of 99 chondrichthyan species are formally recorded in Costa Rican waters, from which 15% are threatened with extinction and 41% are “Data Deficient” based on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. A total of 121 studies were published between 1891 and 2017; 82% in the Pacific (24% from Isla del Coco and only 18% from the Caribbean Sea. These results highlight the need to redirect research efforts on specific taxonomic groups and geographic regions (i.e., Caribbean. Based on our review, improving the quality and quantity of fisheries landing statistics, as well as determining the degree of overlap between chondrichthyans and Costa Rican fisheries remains a priority. We proposed an adaptive management framework for chondrichthyan fisheries in data-poor countries where management goals/targets are clearly defined. This framework could strengthen the conservation of chondrichthyan populations in Costa Rica and the region.

  3. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  4. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    OpenAIRE

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ram?rez-Fern?ndez, Jos? D.; Fuchs, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird comm...

  5. Situation in the radiation protection field in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Jimenez, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the radiation protection infrastructure in Costa Rica and makes reference to the existing legal framework. The national inventory of significant radiation sources and structure of the Ministry of Health as the national regulatory authority for radiation safety is illustrated; information is also provided on the radiation monitoring equipment available, on programme activities related to the control of radiation sources by authorization and inspection, and on technical support services. (author)

  6. Comunidades y territorio en la costa del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Burgos, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Se propone una definición teórica de la comunidad territorial sustentada en el concepto de identificación y la teoría del desarrollo rural territorial con el objeto de analizar las principales cadenas productivas que surcan la costa centro sur del Ecuador. Además se estudia a los principales movimientos agrarios que caracterizan un territorio que es sobre todo agrario y rural.

  7. Mesoscale primary production and bio-optical variability off Antofagasta (23-24º S during the transition to El Niño 1997-1998 Variabilidad de la producción primaria y bio-óptica a mesoescala frente a las costas de Antofagasta (23-24º S durante la transición a El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEMITA PIZARRO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of primary production (PP, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and the photosynthetic parameters were studied off Antofagasta, Chile (23-24ºS, 70-72º W during austral summer and winter. Between cruises (January and July 1997, significant changes occurred in the water column, including higher temperatures in the euphotic zone (Zeu deepening of thermocline below Zeu, an increase of oxygen concentration and the intrusion of Subtropical Waters with potential limitation of nutrients. These strong physical anomalies due to the transition period of El Niño 1997-1998 appeared in this study area during March 1997. During the July cruise, the El Niño event 1997-1998 was in the middle of its development (IOS-2. The hypothesis that chlorophyll-a concentrations and primary production differ significantly in the coastal areas in the Antofagasta region due to year-round coastal upwelling was tested in this study. Photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-E experiments were performed daily, using simulated in situ incubations with samples collected within the Zeu. Also in vitro incubations were done at several selected stations. For results analyses, stations were pooled in coastal and oceanic sites according to distance from the narrow shelf and differential influence of local upwelling. Integrated Chl-a values during both cruises were significantly higher at the coastal stations, and since between cruises no differences were found, a mean value of 44 mg Chl-a m-2 can be reported for the coastal area. Daily PP values were significantly different in space and time (P Durante el verano e invierno austral, se estudió la variabilidad espacial de la producción primaria (PP, clorofila-a (Cl-a y los parámetros fotosintéticos en las costas de Antofagasta, Chile (23-24º S, 70-72º O. Entre ambos cruceros (enero y julio 1997 hubo cambios significativos en la columna de agua, los que incluyeron aumento de la temperatura en la zona eufótica (Zeu, profundizaci

  8. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  9. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores.

  10. The seismogenic zone in the Central Costa Rican Pacific margin: high-quality hypocentres from an amphibious network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ivonne G.; Husen, Stephan; Flueh, Ernst R.

    2014-10-01

    Transition from subduction of normal to thickened oceanic crust occurs in the central portion of the Costa Rican margin, where large interplate earthquakes ( M ~ 7) and abundant interseismic seismicity have been associated with subduction of bathymetric highs. We relocated ~1,300 earthquakes recorded for 6 months by a combined on- and offshore seismological network using probabilistic earthquake relocation in a 3D P-wave velocity model. Most of the seismicity originated at the seismogenic zone of the plate boundary, appearing as an 18° dipping, planar cluster from 15 to 25-30 km depth, beneath the continental shelf. Several reverse focal mechanisms were resolved within the cluster. The upper limit of this interseismic interplate seismicity seems to be controlled primarily by the overlying-plate thickness and coherency, which in turn is governed by the erosional processes and fluid release and escape at temperatures lower than ~100 to 120 °C along the plate boundary. The downdip limit of the stick-slip behaviour collocates with relative low temperatures of ~150 to 200 °C, suggesting that it is controlled by serpentinization of the mantle wedge. The distribution of the interseismic interplate seismicity is locally modified by the presence of subducted seamounts at different depths. Unlike in northern Costa Rica, rupture of large earthquakes in the last two decades seems to coincide with the area defined by the interseismic interplate seismicity.

  11. Aging in the Americas: Disability-free Life Expectancy Among Adults Aged 65 and Older in the United States, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F

    2018-01-11

    To estimate and compare disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and current age patterns of disability onset and recovery from disability between the United States and countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Disability is measured using the activities of daily living scale. Data come from longitudinal surveys of older adult populations in Costa Rica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Age patterns of transitions in and out of disability are modeled with a discrete-time logistic hazard model, and a microsimulation approach is used to estimate DFLE. Overall life expectancy for women aged 65 is 20.11 years in Costa Rica, 19.2 years in Mexico, 20.4 years in Puerto Rico, and 20.5 years in the United States. For men, these figures are 19.0 years in Costa Rica, 18.4 years in Mexico, 18.1 years in Puerto Rico, and 18.1 years in the United States. Proportion of remaining life spent free of disability for women at age 65 is comparable between Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States, with Costa Rica trailing slightly. Male estimates of DFLE are similar across the four populations. Though the older adult population of Latin America and the Caribbean lived many years exposed to poor epidemiological and public health conditions, their functional health in later life is comparable with the older adult population of the United States. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Attention to Diversity: the Experience of UNA Quality Education Project, from the National University of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana-Hernández, Angélica

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, the educational Costa Rican system has experienced significant changes, due to the legal framework, so much in the national and international levels, since the promulgation of the Law 7600 Equality of Opportunities for the Persons with Disability in Costa Rica (Costa Rica, Asamblea Legislativa,1996) to the proposal of the Law 8661 Convention on the Human rights of the Persons with Disability (Costa Rica. Asamblea Legislativa, 2008). Due to the temporary space in whic...

  13. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  14. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  15. Inventario de las macroalgas dulceacuícolas y marinas de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Bernecker Lucking, Andrea; Morales Zurcher, María

    2011-01-01

    Contiene un listado sobre los diferentes grupos de algas, sobre todo las macro algas de agua dulce y marinas para aumentar la lista de especies de algas de Costa Rica. Universidad de Costa Rica UCR::Docencia::Ciencias Básicas::Facultad de Ciencias::Escuela de Biología

  16. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  17. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  18. Financial Law (By: Lecturer PhD Cosmin Flavius Costas)

    OpenAIRE

    Bostan, Ionel

    2018-01-01

    Through these lines we will stop on a specialty written by a young university student, an exponent of the Superior Law School in Cluj-Napoca. This is the book entitled Drept Financiar [Financial Law], published by Lecturer PhD Cosmin Flavius Costas. On the volume entitled Financial Law, which was published at the end of the year 2016 (ISBN:978-606-673-816-3, Pages: 396) we mention here a radiography "made from four perspectives - national finances, local finance, social security finances and ...

  19. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  20. Costa Rica – “Bogate Wybrzeże” = Costa Rica – „Rich Coast”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Napierala

    2016-02-01

    Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy   Słowa kluczowe: turystyka, Kostaryka, parki narodowe. Key words: tourism, Costa Rica, national parks.   Streszczenie Materiał stanowi dokument z obserwacji autora z pobytu w Kostaryce. Pobyt miał miejsce na przełomie 2015 i 2016 roku i był okazją do zwiedzenia miejsc ciekawych w klimacie podrównikowym. Podróżowanie to odwieczne ludzkie marzenie. Treścią wielu wyjazdów staje się odkrywanie nieznanego, szukanie odmienności w klimacie, florze i faunie, kulturze i zwyczajach ludzi. Można tu spotkać wiele gatunków zwierząt jak: małpy, krokodyle, liczne odmiany barwnych papug, kolibrów, tukany, ciekawe gatunki jaszczurek, węży, bogato ubarwione żaby, żółwie czy legwany. Ciekawe są także chrząszcze i wiele gatunków motyli. Kostaryka zostanie w pamięci miejscem fantastycznych krajobrazów, wakacyjny fenomenem.   Abstract The material is a document from the observation of the author's stay in Costa Rica. Visit took place at the turn of 2015 and 2016 years and was an opportunity to visit interesting places in equatorial climates. Travelling to the eternal human dream. The content of many trips becomes discovering the unknown, looking for differences in climate, flora and fauna, culture and customs of people. You can meet many animal species as .: monkeys, crocodiles, numerous varieties of colorful parrots, hummingbirds, toucans, interesting species of lizards, snakes, richly colored frogs, turtles and iguanas. Interesting are also many species of beetles and butterflies. Costa Rica is in the memory of the place fantastic landscapes, house phenomenon.

  1. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  2. Status and conservation of coral reefs in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos E; Fonseca, Ana C; Alvarado, Juan José

    2010-05-01

    Costa Rica has coral communities and reefs on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch reefs, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has coral communities, reefs and isolated coral colonies. Coral reefs have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific reefs) and by El Niño warming events (both coasts). Monitoring is being carried out at three sites on each coast. Both coasts suffered significant reductions in live coral cover in the 1980's, but coral cover is now increasing in most sites. The government of Costa Rica is aware of the importance of coral reefs and marine environments in general, and in recent years decrees have been implemented (or are in the process of approval) to protect them, but limited resources endanger their proper management and conservation, including proper outreach to reef users and the general public.

  3. Essential oil of Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from aerial parts of the Costa Rican herb Lepechinia schiedeana (Schlecht Vatke (Lamiaceae collected in El Empalme, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Fifty-one components were identified corresponding ca. 93% of the oil. The major components were -pinene (26.6%, cis -pinocamphone (25.1%, -3-carene (6.1%, trans -pinocamphone (4.0%, camphor (3.8% and -caryophyllene (3.7%.Se estudiaron los constituyentes del aceite esencial de las partes aéreas de Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae mediante el uso de cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se caracterizaron 51 compuestos (que representan ca. del 93% del aceite. El aceite se caracteriza por la presencia de gran cantidad de hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45.9% y de monoterpenos oxigenados (39.7%. Los componentes mayoritarios fueron -pineno (26.6%, cis -pinocanfona (25.1%, -3-careno (6.1%, trans -pinocanfona (4.0%, alcanfor (3.8% y -cariofileno (3.7%.

  4. Costa Rica Rainfall in Future Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Rodriguez, R. A., Sr.; Amador, J. A.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of intraseasonal and annual cycles of meteorological variables, using projections of climate change, are nowadays extremely important to improve regional socio-economic planning for countries. This is particularly true in Costa Rica, as Central America has been identified as a climate change hot spot. Today many of the economic activities in the region, especially those related to agriculture, tourism and hydroelectric power generation are linked to the seasonal cycle of precipitation. Changes in rainfall (mm/day) and in the diurnal temperature range (°C) for the periods 1950-2005 and 2006-2100 were investigated using the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) constructed using the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5) data. Differences between the multi-model ensembles of the two prospective scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and the retrospective baseline scenario were computed. This study highlights Costa Rica as an inflexion point of the climate change in the region and also suggests future drying conditions.

  5. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone.

  6. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; differences by gender are also analyzed. Based on an ex post facto design, a standardized instrument was used to measure five types of aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal-emotional, physical, sexual, relational and threats in a sample of 468 adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica. Results show that most participants had committed or suffered aggressions in dating relationships, especially verbal-emotional or both verbal-emotional and sexual abuse, but the mean frequency of reported aggression was low; some significant intersex differences were also found. Results obtained indicate that adolescents have difficulties to deal with conflicts in their romantic relationship; thus this problem needs to be addressed holistically in order to increase the impact of prevention programs for youth.

  7. Phytomedicinal potential of tropical cloudforest plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Setzer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62%, showed marked bioactivity in one or more bioassays. These results underscore the phytomedicinal potential of Neotropical cloud forestsSe realizó un análisis farmacológico de plantas de Monteverde, Costa Rica, que incluye 165 especies representantes de 61 familias. Se probó in-vitro la actividad bactericida y fungicida, así como la actividad citotóxica y anti-herpes de extractos crudos de plantas. De estos, 123 extractos exhibieron una notable citotoxicidad, 62 mostraron actividad antibacterial, 4 presentaron actividad antihongos, y 8 mostraron una promisoria actividad antiviral. Así, de las 101 especies de plantas examinadas en este trabajo, 62% presentaron una marcada actividad biológica en uno o más de los bioensayos. Estos resultados subrayan el potencial fitomédico de los bosques nubosos Neotropicales

  8. Enamel lesions in development, classification in Costa Rican families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Enamel lesions in development were identified and classified in patients of Llano Grande de Cartago, examined at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A guide is provided over the topic. 15 children and 2 Costa Rican adults were selected. Clinical examinations, radiographs and clinical photographs were used as data collection method. Dental defects of the enamel were classified according to the possible genetic causes and without genetic causes. Imperfect Amelogenesis (IA) was diagnosed in 10 of patients. Hypoplastic IA was determined in 3 siblings with autosomal recessive inheritance, for 16% of the total sample. Hypomineralized IA was identified in an adult and two of his sons, with autosomal dominant inheritance. The remaining 4 cases of IA have been sporadic. Lesions of dental fluorosis were determined in the Horowitz index in 4 individuals, from 2 unrelated families. Other defects unspecified of the enamel or hypoplasias were found in 3 individuals. Enamel lesions in development should be classified with precision, for the purpose to inform to patients affected about their condition, origin, prognosis and appropriate treatment. The basis are established to implement reliability in the construction of family genealogy, identification and classification of enamel lesions, as well as the probabilities of future generations to express the lesions in the enamel of temporary or permanent dentition [es

  9. Radioactivity levels in three regions of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Salazar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment of the first radioactivity levels of natural radiation was carried out during the period 1991 to 1994 in three different regions of Costa Rica. The radionuclides studied belong to different soil types related to each selected region. Utilizing low level counting techniques the specific activity of the natural radioactive chains 238 U daughters, 232 Th and the element 40 K were measured for a total of 120 samples during this period. The amount of 137 Cs, a fall out radionuclide, was also studied. The average national values in Bq.kg -1 measured for 238 U were 11.66 for 214 Bi, 34.42 for 226 Ra and 10.73 for 232 Pb, for 232 Th daughters were 4.08 for 208 Tl, 9.65 for 212 Bi and 7.62 for 228 Ac. The specific activity value for 40 K was 95.14 Bq.kg -1 and for 137 Cs was 2.38 Bq.kg -1 . It is found that Costa Rica is not highly natural radioactive country and that the values for 137 Cs are well below international reported values [es

  10. [Unnecessary premature and avoidable mortality in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca Castro, Fernando; Ortún Rubio, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    With the intention of establishing economic inequities, the article analyzes the variations of the Unnecessarily Premature and Sanitarily Avoidable Mortality (MIPSE) of each of the 81 cantons of Costa Rica during 2000-2005. It is important to identify those inequities, to establish policies and strategies trying to mitigate them. It applies the MIPSE classification proposed by members of the Information and Studies Service, of the Catalunya's Sanitary Resources Headquarter, Spain. By an Indicator of Socioeconomic Development (IDSE) of a University of Costa Rica economist's team, it organised each canton in groups of quintiles (I for the richest, V for the poorest), previous people standardization. We found as a major causes of mortality MIPSE in the country: Heart Isquemic Disease (19,55% MIPSE causes), Traffic Accidents with Motor Vehicles (11,60%), Brain Vascular Disease (6,95%), Perinatal (6,92%) and Suicide (5,14%). The VIH infection - AIDS mortality, the Best Cancer in Women, Uterus Cancer, Skin Cancer and Hepatic Disease Secondary to Alcohol Consumption, affects more the cantons with better financial conditions and the Prostate Benign Hyperplasia mortality, Mothers mortality related with Pregnancy, Childbirth or Puerperal Stage and the Abdominal Hernia mortality, affects more to those with worst economic level. Two MIPSE groups were identified with similar inequality: Leukaemia and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease.

  11. La maestra Alda Costa: un mártir antifascista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cagnolati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Un sector interesante al que aplicar nuevas categorías de la investigación histórica y social es, sin duda, el de la educación de las mujeres. Maestras, educadoras, pedagogas fueron revolucionarias en diversas épocas de la historia dedicando su existencia a la difusión de conocimientos que pudiesen ser aprovechados por otras mujeres. Para ello fundaron escuelas, escribieron libros y publicaron periódicos. En este sentido las maestras socialistas italianas fueron pioneras al difundir palabras claves como derechos, democracia e igualdad de sueldo. Una figura muy importante fue la maestra antifascista Alda Costa (1876-1944, que luchó contra el militarismo italiano antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial y asumió encargos de gran relevancia en el Partido Socialista. Además fue amiga de Giacomo Matteotti, asesinado por los fascistas en Roma en junio de 1925. Alda Costa fue encarcelada, por su oposición al régimen, y los sufrimientos padecidos precipitaron su muerte.

  12. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José; Moreno, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  13. Costa Rica Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:: A bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country’s scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with “Costa Rica” in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications. Articles (79% were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%. Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%, followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%. The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484 with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican

  14. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  15. Mujeres esclavas en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII: Estrategias frente a la esclavitud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Acuña León

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La esclavitud formaba parte de la vida cotidiana en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII. De ahí nuestro interés en visibilizar a la mujer esclava en dicha sociedad. Por tanto en este trabajo se indicará porqué razones y por cuales rutas llegaron estas mujeres a la provincia de Costa Rica y se analizaran los mecanismos de acción y negociación utilizados por estas mujeres esclavas para enfrentar y sobrevivir la maquinaria esclavista. Esto significa el examinar y analizar sus experiencias, sus respuestas y actitudes ante la esclavitud, en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII.

  16. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  17. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  18. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  19. Del Horizonte Medio al Horizonte Tardío en la Costa Sur Central: el caso del valle de Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available DE L’HORIZON MOYEN A L’HORIZON RECENT SUR LA COTE CENTRALE : LE CAS DE LA VALLEE DE ASIA. La vallée de Asia, située à quelque 100 km au sud de Lima, a joué un rôle important durant l’Horizon moyen. En effet, les contextes funéraires de la Huaca Malena et les textiles élaborés qui en sont issus, suggèrent d’étroites relations avec Huari, Pachacamac, et les côtes centrale et nord. L’étude des textiles nous permet de voir que la transition de l’Horizon moyen à la période Intermédiaire récent se marque par une croissance des relations avec la côte centrale. Selon les données ethnohistoriques, la vallée de Asia était durant la période Intermédiaire récent habitée par les Coyallo, qui versaient tribut à Pachacamac. À l’Horizon récent, les Incas construisirent d’importants centres administratifs dans la vallée, et durant cette période le matériel céramique montre de fortes relations avec les styles des vallées voisines au nord, comme Mala, Chilca, et la côte aux alentours de Lima. El valle de Asia, situado a 100 kilómetros al sur de Lima, jugó un rol de importancia durante el Horizonte Medio. En efecto, los contextos funerarios de Huaca Malena, así como los finos textiles que los acompañan indican una fuerte relación con Wari, Pachacamac, la Costa Central y la Costa Norte. De acuerdo con la evidencia textil, el tránsito del Horizonte Medio al periodo Intermedio Tardío incrementó las relaciones con la costa central. Para el periodo Intermedio Tardío, de acuerdo a la información etnohistórica, el valle estuvo habitado por los coayllo, quienes tributaban a Pachacamac. Durante el Horizonte Tardío, los incas construyen importantes centros administrativos en el valle, y la cerámica durante este periodo se relacionó fuertemente con los estilos propios de los vecinos valles norteños de Mala, Chilca y la costa de Lima. FROM THE MIDDLE HORIZON TO THE LATE HORIZON ON THE SOUTH CENTRAL COAST: THE CASE OF THE

  20. New serovars of Leptospira isolated from patients in Costa Rica: implications for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de los Angeles Valverde, Maria; Goris, M. G. A.; González, V.; Anchia, M. E.; Díaz, P.; Ahmed, A.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira strains JICH 05 and INCIENSA 04 were isolated from hospitalized leptospirosis patients in the province of Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The isolates produced agglutination titres notably against members of serogroups Pyrogenes and Tarassovi, respectively, but appeared serologically unique in

  1. NEW SPECIES OF AGRILUS FROM NICARAGUA AND COSTA RICA (COLEOPTERA, BUPRESTIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Curletti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of the genus Agrilus Curtis, 1825 from Costa Rica and Nicaragua are described: A. barriesi n. sp., A. maesi n. sp., A. ursus n. sp., A. tyrannus n. sp. and A. pumilio n. sp.

  2. Development of domestic hot water systems in Costa Rica from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana-Moreno, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A software tool is developed to implement the solar domestic hot water systems (DHW) in Costa Rica and to replace the electric water heating equipment. A database with information from the solar radiation is elaborated for different locations in Costa Rica. A manual of design DHW solar systems is realized for the country. An DHW solar system is designed for the type of average building the of country. A software is implemented to calculate the parameters and dimensions necessary for the solar installation of DHW, using the F-Chart method; in addition, the information of the mentioned database is included. A financial analysis is elaborated of the DHW solar systems in Costa Rica. The strategies are proposed for the implementation of DHW solar systems in Costa Rica [es

  3. CASE STUDY: Costa Rica — Consumer Choice at the Corner Store ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-17

    Dec 17, 2010 ... But people in Costa Rica noticed when a competition authority ruling forced ... on such issues as the defendants' price, marketing, and sales policies. ... the CPC lumped non-alcoholic carbonated beverages with canned and ...

  4. Enseñanza del Derecho Electoral en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La ponencia pretende revisar cuál ha sido el tratamiento académico que los estudios electorales (en general y el derecho electoral (en particular han recibido en Costa Rica, así como profundizar en la importancia de la enseñanza del derecho electoral en nuestro país. Mediante un repaso a la reconocida autonomía del derecho electoral, así como los abordajes que su estudio ha tenido en los contextos universitario y profesional, la ponencia concluye que el plan de estudios de la carrera de licenciatura en Derecho debe contemplar al menos un curso de Derecho Electoral, sea mediante uno específico en la materia (preferiblemente, o bien, mediante el reconocimiento expreso de la enseñanza del derecho electoral como parte medular e integral del curso de Derecho Constitucional (en su defecto.

  5. Design of a leading indicator for Costa Rican economic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish was selected as the reference variable.  A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and fiscal sector variables. The real sector information was disaggregated into three levels, which included the classification of data at an industrial level using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC with two digits, information from the agricultural sector based on the Central Product Classification (CPC and information from the manufacturing sector.  A leading indicator was developed for each level of aggregation, resulting in average leads of 7 to 12 months compared to the reference variable.

  6. Forecasting Costa Rican Quarterly Growth with Mixed-frequency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rodríguez Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the utility of mixed-frequency models to forecast the quarterly growth rate of Costa Rican real GDP: we estimate bridge and MiDaS models with several lag lengths using information of the IMAE and compute forecasts (horizons of 0-4 quarters which are compared between themselves, with those of ARIMA models and with those resulting from forecast combinations. Combining the most accurate forecasts is most useful when forecasting in real time, whereas MiDaS forecasts are the best-performing overall: as the forecasting horizon increases, their precisionis affected relatively little; their success rates in predicting the direction of changes in the growth rate are stable, and several forecastsremain unbiased. In particular, forecasts computed from simple MiDaS with 9 and 12 lags are unbiased at all horizons and information sets assessed, and show the highest number of significant differences in forecasting ability in comparison with all other models.

  7. Transformación productiva y desigualdad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arias Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica termina la primera década del siglo XXI sin haber sido capaz de superar las limitaciones estructurales e institucionales que le impiden transitar con paso firme hacia mayores y crecientes niveles de desarrollo económico y bienestar social. Las últimas tres décadas se han caracterizado por un proceso en el cual el modelo de desarrollo ha puesto particular énfasis en la estabilización macroeconómica y en una estrategia de crecimiento económico basada en el sector externo de la economía. Los resultados de la reforma económica y la estrategia de desarrollo, impulsadas desde la década de los 1980s, han sido insuficientes para retomar el camino de la transformación productiva con equidad.

  8. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  9. Evolution of industrial sector electricity demand in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    This note is a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the efficiency of electricity utilization in the Costa Rican industrial sector and the competitive pressures generated by the implementation of economic reforms, in particular, the progressive liberalization of international trade, in the years since the debt and economic crisis of the early 1980s. The steady, year-by-year, reduction in the rate of import tariff protection, with only temporary interruptions and reverses, has been the most consistently implemented component of the macroeconomic, trade, and financial sector reforms upon which this country has embarked over the past two decades. The note sheds some light on the nature of the general policy environment that is conductive to an efficient utilization of energy in the productive sectors and to the success of national energy efficiency promotion programs in this and other parts of the world. (Author)

  10. Comparison Of Development: Ireland, South Korea, Finland And Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The article compares the development followed by Finland, South Korea and Ireland and compares in some ways with which Costa Rica has had. The initial situation starts in the 1960s, the policies pursued by each country in the context of their models and then, sets the current situation of these countries. Finally, define some lessons learned by the nations, the result of the achievements and challenges of development. El artículo compara, en ciertos aspectos, el desarrollo que ha tenido Fi...

  11. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  12. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  13. MORTALIDAD INNECESARIAMENTE PREMATURA Y SANITARIAMENTE EVITABLE EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Llorca Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Para desarrollar políticas y estrategias orientadas a mitigarlas es fundamental identificar las desigualdades. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las variaciones de la Mortalidad Innecesariamente Prematura y Sanitariamente Evitable (MIPSE para cada uno de los 81 cantones de Costa Rica durante el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se aplicó la clasificación MIPSE propuesta por miembros del Servicio de Información y Estudios de la Dirección General de Recursos Sanitarios de Catalunya. Mediante el empleo de el Indicador de Desarrollo Socioeconómico (IDSE establecido por economistas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, previa estandarización de la población, se ordenaron los cantones en grupos por quintiles (I el más rico, Vel más pobre. Resultados: Se encontraron como causas principales de mortalidad MIPSE la enfermedad isquémica del corazón (19,55% causas MIPSE, accidentes de tránsito con vehículos a motor (11,60%, enfermedades cerebrovasculares (6,95%, perinatal (6,92% y suicidios (5,14%. Conclusión: La mortalidad por HIVy el Sida, el cáncer de mamá en mujeres, cáncer de cuerpo de útero, cáncer de piel y por hepatitis secundaria al consumo de alcohol, afectan más a los cantones con mayores ingresos. La mortalidad por hiperplasia benigna de próstata, la materna asociada al embarazo, parto o puerperio y la hernia abdominal afectan más a los de menor nivel económico. Se identificaron dos grupos de MIPSE con desigualdad equidistribuida: leucemia y enfermedades cardiovasculares congénitas.

  14. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  15. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10m depth at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park, increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m2/d and biomass (822.8±391.84 g/m2 compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge, surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14kg/m2 and density (9.0±0.58 trees/100m2 in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4g/m2/d was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 1-22. Epub 2010 October 01.

  16. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  17. [The importance of genealogy applied to genetic research in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O

    2004-09-01

    The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.

  18. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, J. Francisco; González, José

    2007-01-01

    Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. B...

  19. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Diaz, L.

    1998-01-01

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author) [es

  20. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  1. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Capariniaspp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete l...

  2. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Andrés; Troyo,Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas,Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete ...

  3. THE DETERMINATION OF THE COSTA RICA COLON/USD EXCHANGE RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare four major exchange rate models for the Costa Rica Colon. We examine exchange rate data for the Costa Rica/U.S. dollar relationship from 1981-2007 and find that monetary models have a higher explanatory ability whereas the Mundell-Fleming model performs better in forecasting exchange rates than other models. The coefficient of the interest rate differential in the uncovered interest parity model has a wrong sign.

  4. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  5. Comparative cytogenetics of two of the smallest Amazonian fishes: Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996 and Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965 is comprized of five valid species (F. pygmaeus Myers et Carvalho, 1955, F. zonatus, F. simplex, F. obscurus Costa, 1996, and F. palikur Costa et Le Bail, 1999, which are endemic to the Amazon region. These fishes are the smallest known South American vertebrates and among the smallest know vertebrates on Earth. All species but the type F. pygmaeus have been described in late 1990’s, and much remains unknown about the biology, taxonomy and systematics of this group of fishes. The aims of the present study were to establish the diploid and haploid number of F. zonatus and F. simplex, and to find species-specific markers for the discrimination of taxa. The diploid number for both species was 48 chromosomes, with no sex chromosome heteromorphism. Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited the karyotypic formula 4m+8sm+22st+14a and FN=82, and F. simplex exhibited 4m+16sm+18st+10a and FN=86. The determination of the total mean length of the chromosomes and their grouping into five size classes demonstrated different chromosome composition of the two species. This difference was further supported by the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The meiotic analysis revealed 24 bivalents in both species, but F. zonatus exhibited chromosomes with late pairing of the telomeric portions in the pachytene. These data reveal that cytogenetic characterization is useful and important for the discrimination of these species. Our study further indicates that this method could be employed in the analysis of other species of small fishes that are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological traits or are morphologically cryptic.

  6. Human-induced geomorphology: Modeling slope failure in Dominical, Costa Rica using Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J.

    Unchecked human development has ravaged the region between Dominical and Uvita, Costa Rica. Much of the development transition has been driven by tourism and further foreign direct investment in residential, service and commercial enterprises. The resulting land-use/land-cover change has removed traditional forest cover in exchange for impervious surfaces, physical structures, and bare ground which is no longer mechanically supported by woody vegetation. Combined with a tropical climate, deeply weathered soils and lithography which are prone to erosion, land cover change has led to an increase in slope failure occurrences. Given the remoteness of the Dominical-Uvita region, its rate of growth and the lack of monitoring, new techniques for monitoring land use and slope failure susceptibility are needed. Two new indices are presented here that employ a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and widely available Landsat imagery to assist in this endeavor. The first index, or Vegetation Influenced Landslide Index (VILI), incorporates slope derived from a DEM and Lu et al.'s (2007) Surface Cover Index to quantify vegetative cover as a means of mechanical stabilization in landslide prone areas. The second index, or Slope Multiplier Index (SMI), uses individual Landsat data bands and basic Landsat band ratios as environmental proxies to replicate soil, vegetative and hydrologic properties. Both models achieve accuracy over 70% and rival results from more complicated published literature. The accuracy of the indices was assessed with the creation of a landslide inventory developed from field observations occurring in December 2007 and November 2008. The creation of these indices represents an efficient and accurate way of determining landslide susceptibility zonation in data poor areas where environmental protection practitioners may be overextended, under-trained or both.

  7. Spatial variation in basic chemistry of streams draining a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, C.M.; Triska, F.J.; Browder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial variability in selected chemical, physical and biological parameters was examined in waters draining relatively pristine tropical forests spanning elevations from 35 to 2600 meters above sea level in a volcanic landscape on Costa Rica's Caribbean slope. Waters were sampled within three different vegetative life zones and two transition zones. Water temperatures ranged from 24-25 ??C in streams draining lower elevations (35-250 m) in tropical wet forest, to 10 ??C in a crater lake at 2600 m in montane forest. Ambient phosphorus levels (60-300 ??g SRP L-1; 66-405 ??g TP L-1) were high at sites within six pristine drainages at elevations between 35-350 m, while other undisturbed streams within and above this range in elevation were low (typically <30.0 ??g SRP L-1). High ambient phosphorus levels within a given stream were not diagnostic of riparian swamp forest. Phosphorus levels (but not nitrate) were highly correlated with conductivity, Cl, Na, Ca, Mg and SO4. Results indicate two major stream types: 1) phosphorus-poor streams characterized by low levels of dissolved solids reflecting local weathering processes; and 2) phosphorus-rich streams characterized by relatively high Cl, SO4, Na, Mg, Ca and other dissolved solids, reflecting dissolution of basaltic rock at distant sources and/or input of volcanic brines. Phosphorus-poor streams were located within the entire elevation range, while phosphorus-rich streams were predominately located at the terminus of Pleistocene lava flows at low elevations. Results indicate that deep groundwater inputs, rich in phosphorus and other dissolved solids, surface from basaltic aquifers at breaks in landform along faults and/or where the foothills of the central mountain range merge with the coastal plain. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. Early Stages of Morpho amathonte (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Morphinae and its Variation on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Pacific Coast of Costa Rica shows some local variations in its four Morpho species. The goal of this article is to compare the life cycle of M. amathonte from different areas in Costa Rica and South America. The immature stages were found on Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. and then photographed and described so as to illustrate its morphology and behavior. It is clear, that M. amathonte from the South Pacific side of Costa Rica comes from one isolated population and demonstrates a cryptic nature between the two forms present in Costa Rica.

  9. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10m depth at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park, increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m2/d and biomass (822.8±391.84 g/m2 compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge, surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14kg/m2 and density (9.0±0.58 trees/100m2 in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4g/m2/d was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 1-22. Epub 2010 October 01.Los arrecifes coralinos, pastos marinos y manglares de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica han sido monitoreados desde 1999 siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP. La cobertura de coral vivo en el arrecife de Meager Shoal (7 a 10m de

  10. Familial Breast Cancer in Costa Rica: An Initial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramírez Monge

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem because of its high rates of incidence and associated mortality. By 2000, more than 6.2 million people died from this illness worldwide. Among all types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the most studied. Each year, one million new cases are diagnosed around the world. We can classify breast cancer into two main kinds: sporadic cases and those which are a product of inherited genetic alterations. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases are the result of inherited mutations, or alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Like other countries, Costa Rica possesses high rates of incidence and mortality for breast cancer. According to the "Registro Nacional de Tumores" (National Office of Tumor Records, in 2000 breast cancer had the highest rate of incidence and in 2002 it had the highest rate of mortality in comparison to other types of cancer. For this reason and the generalized lack of knowledge in the field we conducted an epidemiological research on breast cancer patients from Hospital San Juan de Dios, San José, Costa Rica, to find families with a history of breast cancer, and to determine the occurrence of familial cases within the population studied. So far, we have found 23 families, within which we discovered very informative cases that have rendered the identification of a pattern of inheritance. These findings allow us to announce that in Costa Rica there are several cases of inherited breast cancer and that we need more research is needed to improve the prevention, control, and treatment of this disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 531-536. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El cáncer es un problema a nivel mundial porque posee altas tasas de incidencia y mortalidad. Para el año 2000 más de 6.2 millones de personas murieron a causa de esta enfermedad. El cáncer de mama es uno de los tipos de cáncer más estudiados en el mundo por las mismas razones. Cada año, se diagnostican más de un mill

  11. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Arrieta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65%of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita, and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa. In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Cararait was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%,oval (20%, bipyramidal (3%, bipyramidal and cubic (1%, bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5% and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%. Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Río Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed ä -endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with

  12. Transit transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...

  13. 35 years of electron microscopy in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Chavarria, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopy has celebrated in 2009 the XXXV anniversary in Costa Rica. The history of the electron microscopy was initiated with the donation of a microscope by Japan and the establishment of the Unidad de Microscopia Electronica (UME), which later, has been consolidated as the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas (CIEMic) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR). This center has realized its own research and has gave support to different units of the UCR, state universities and the private sector. Currently, the CIEMic has had two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and two scanning electron microscopes (SEM), besides of optical microscopy equipment, including a laser confocal microscope. The two fundamental types of electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) have generated different images. While the first has had a resolution that has allowed to analyze virus, usually their images have been flat; however, with some special techniques can obtain three-dimensional images. The image in the TEM is generated by electrons that have passed through the sample, and to interact with its atoms have changed its energy and trajectory. This, at the end, has impacted on a photosensitive screen that has become in flashes, whose intensity has depended on its energy and form the image. Meanwhile, in the MER, the image has been normal type, although with less resolution. The electrons in the MER are focused on a small area of the sample in which have interacted with the atoms of this, and has generated a a series of signals, including the most used were the secondary electrons and characteristic X-rays. In both cases, an electron from beam has generated in the filament a collision against an electron of the sample and has given part of its energy to the degree of release of its atom and issued out of the sample; this has been called secondary electrons. X-rays have been generated when an electron of the same atom that has lost the secondary electron, but in an

  14. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat

  15. The declining effect of sibling size on children's education in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Costa Rica experienced a dramatic fertility decline in the 1960s and 1970s. The same period saw substantial improvement in children's educational attainment in Costa Rica. This correlation is consistent with household-level quantity-quality tradeoffs, but prior research on quantity-quality tradeoff magnitudes is mixed, and little research has estimated quantity-quality tradeoff behaviors in Latin America. Objective: This study explores one dimension of the potential demographic dividend from the fertility decline: the extent to which it was accompanied by quantity-quality tradeoffs leading to higher educational attainment. Specifically, we provide the first estimate of quantity-quality tradeoffs in Costa Rica, analyzing the increase in secondary school attendance among Costa Rican children as the number of siblings decreases. Furthermore, we advance the literature by exploring how that tradeoff has changed over time. Methods: We use 1984 and 2000 Costa Rican census data as well as survey data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES. To address endogenous family size, the analysis uses an instrumental variable strategy based on the gender of the first two children to identify the causal relationship between number of siblings and children's education. Results: We find that, among our earlier cohorts, having fewer siblings is associated with a significantly higher probability of having attended at least one year of secondary school, particularly among girls. The effect is stronger after we account for the endogeneity of number of children born by the mother. For birth cohorts after 1980 this relationship largely disappears. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a declining quantity-quality (Q-Q tradeoff in Costa Rica. This result suggests one potential explanation for the heterogeneous findings in prior studies elsewhere, but more work will be required to understand why such tradeoffs might vary

  16. Aves marinas de las costas e islas colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available La lista de aves marinas que presento en este artículo se refiere en su mayor parte a especies que varios autores (véase Obras citadas han señalado en las costas e islas marítimas de Colombia o en las aguas extraterritoriales del Mar Caribe y del Océano Pacífico inmediatamente próximas a este país. Los ejemplares examinados que menciono fuera de tales referencias pertenecen casi todos a la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales y se señalan con las siglas ICN. Unos pocos son del museo de historia natural del Colegio Biffi, en Barranquilla, a cuyo custodio, el Hermano Hildeberto María, doy las gracias por haberme permitido examinarlos. Los que señalo con las palabras Exped. Askoy, seguidas de un numero (de la serie del American Museum of Natural History, forman parte de una interesante colección que nos envió en 1942 el doctor Robert Cushman Murphy, actual Director del Departamento de Aves del American Museum of Natural History, Nueva York. Estos fueron obtenidos por la expedición oceanográfica que, bajo la dirección del doctor Murphy, realizaron en la goleta "Askoy" varios miembros de aquel museo, acompañados por el Comandante Eduardo Fallon, de la Marina Colombiana, en aguas del Pacifico desde Panamá hasta el Ecuador. La Expedición de la "Askoy", que duró de febrero a mayo de 1941, exploró varias bahías y ensenadas en el litoral del Chocó y del Departamento del Valle, así como las islas de Gorgona y Gorgonilla al norte de la costa de Nariño, y el peñón inhabitado de Malpelo, posesión oceánica colombiana situada a unos 500 kilómetros al occidente de Buenaventura, en la latitud de 3° 59' 07" N. y la longitud de 81° 34' 27" W. de Greenwich, según posición determinada por Murphy (1936, I, p. 319, fig. 49 .

  17. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  18. Antioxidant activity of Costa Rican propolis: a multivariate analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umana Rojas, Eduardo; Solado, Godofredo; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is produced by Apis mellifera bees from resins of plants that are found around the apiary. The chemical composition is highly variable and Costa Rica has reported without studies of characterization to define the types of propolis in the country. 119 samples were collected from beekeeping areas of the country. The spectrum of 1 H-NMR and its antioxidant activity against DPPH radical were measured. The spectra have been divided into 243 blocks of 0,04 ppm and processed with the Minitab software for multivariate analysis. 99 of the samples collected were used for construction of models for the valuation of the predictive ability of the model have been used coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of prediction by the software and the remaining 20 samples. The existence of three types of propolis with chemically different metabolomes were determined by principal component analysis (PCA). A prediction model was constructed by analysis of partial least squares (PLS). The prediction model has allowed to classify a propolis according to the level of antioxidant activity (AAO), high (type I and II) or low (type III) from the spectrum of 1 H-NMR. The R 2 has been 0.88 and R 2 prediction of 0, 718 for new samples. The nconiferyl benzoate of group I and nemorosone of the group II as two discriminated antioxidants among the groups I and II were isolated and high concentration levels of these compounds have been differentiated with respect to type III. This has allowed the construction of a linear discriminant model with a success rate of 100% for the samples used for formulation and 92,9 for the prediction of different samples. The classification systems could be applied to the standardization of the quality of propolis from Costa Rica for future medicinal or cosmetic applications that take advantage of its antioxidant properties. Also, the methylated derivative has isolated and identified of the nconiferyl benzoate thereof propolis than was obtained his counterpart

  19. VIABILIDAD DEL SEGURO DE DEPÓSITOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Durán V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es estimar si el establecimiento del seguro de depósitos explícito en Costa Rica es viable o no, así como, exponer las principales características de dicho sistema de protección.Adicionalmente, se considera oportuno iniciar el debate sobre un tema que ha sido postergado y que debería ser de interés en el ámbito financiero nacional. Por tanto, es necesario animar la discusión de este tema en foros bancarios para ir generando ideas alternativas y conclusiones que contribuyan con el fortalecimiento y desarrollo del sistema financiero y no esperar hasta que la crisis sistémica (peligro latente de contagio sobre el resto del sistema se muestre a la vuelta de la esquina.El riesgo de las crisis sistémicas ha llevado a muchos países a estudiar e implementar sistemas de seguro de depósitos (SSD, con el interés de minimizar el efecto dominó o contagio que podría generar una corrida de fondos bancarios, dada una situación de desconfianza en los depositantes por la pérdida de sus recursos, producto de la quiebra de un banco.En Costa Rica, el establecimiento del seguro de depósitos explícito debe formar parte de la agenda de estudio de las Reformas del Sistema Financiero, puesto que el SSD junto con la función de prestamista de última instancia y la supervisión prudencial conforman los cimientos de seguridad básica de un sistema financiero moderno e inmerso en la globalización.Por su parte, los resultados de la estimación del seguro de depósitos para nuestro país, mostraron que la implementación es viable desde el punto de vista financiero, según criterio de expertos. Además, el impacto estimado sobre el margen financiero se considera insignificante para los participantes en el sistema bancario. Por tanto, se estaría rompiendo con el mito de que el seguro de los depósitos vendría a ser un impuesto adicional importante, sino más bien un beneficio, en el sentido de la mayor confianza y

  20. CADENA DEL CAFÉ DE LOS SANTOS, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Carranza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La operación de las actividades económicas y su competitividad, analizadas desde una perspectiva de cadenas globales de mercancías, dependen del funcionamiento de los mercados de crédito, tanto nacionales como internacionales. La operación normal de los negocios requiere crédito para fortalecer sus recursos propios y hacer las compras de materia prima, insumos, pago de salarios e inversión. En todos los casos, el crédito puede ser utilizado para mejorar el diseño de productos, impulsar el acceso a nuevos mercados y aumentar la competitividad. A los productores de la región de Los Santos en Costa Rica se les reconoce por innovadores, y al café de la zona por ser un café de altura y de gran calidad. El artículo explora las necesidades de financiamiento de productores, beneficiadores y exportadores de café de Los Santos, sus fuentes de financiamiento y el uso dado a los recursos obtenidos. Entre las necesidades orientadas al mejoramiento de la competitividad se encontraron la renovación de cafetales entre los productores, el mantenimiento de proyectos y tecnología entre los beneficios y la generación de microbeneficios y búsqueda de nichos de mercado entre los exportadores. Abstract From a global commodity chains perspective, economic activities and their competitiveness depend upon the functioning of credit markets, both international and domestic. Current businesses operations require credit to enhance their own resources in order to buy raw material and inputs, pay wages and make investment. Credit may also be used to improve product design, enter new markets and boost competitiveness as a result. High altitude grown coffee from Los Santos, Costa Rica is widely known for its quality, and their growers as innovative. This paper addresses credit needs of coffee growers, processors and exporters in Los Santos, the credit sources they have access to, and the kind of uses the credit is given. Improving competitiveness uses

  1. Geology of Tapanti quadrangle (1:50 000), Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojo, Dennis; Denyer, Percy; Gazel, Esteban; Alvarado, Guillermo E.

    2017-01-01

    A geologic map scale 1:50 000, stratigraphic and structural of the 509 km 2 of the Tapanti quadrangle is presented. The Tapanti quadrant is located in the central region of Costa Rica and belongs to the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB). The CCRDB was a consequence of the interaction of the Cocos Ridge and the Western edge of the Panama microplate. Petrographic, geochemistry and paleontological analyzes were performed by selecting samples collected in the more than 100 field visits, with more than 300 outcrops raised. The geological information was compiled in a Geographical Information System. Lambert North coordinate system was employed. Aerial and topographic photographs from the TERRA Project 1997 and Digital Elevation Model were used. 18 rock samples were analyzed petrographically to discard altered samples. Rock samples were screened. The gravels or grains obtained were washed with deionized water in an ultrasonic stack. Gravel with signs of alteration were discarded by stereoscopic microscope. The powder obtained from the spraying of 25 mg of gravel each sample was melted and combined with Lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) and poured into glass discs. The discs were analyzed to determine concentrations of major elements and traced through of X-Ray Fluorescence in a Bruker S4 Pioner, and by a mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) in a Micromass Platform ICP-MS, respectively. The oldest rocks mapped in this work are Miocene in age and they belongs to Pacacua, Pena Negra and Coris formations, than form the western edge of the Candelaria basin. Three igneous events were distinguished. First, the Miocene volcanic arc, which is represented by the rocks of La Cruz Formation and the clasts of Pacacua Formation. Another period of igneous activity was recorded in Grifo Alto and Doan formations and the Tapanti Intrusive, with an age range of 0.6-0.03 Ma. From a geochemical point of view a change in the composition of magmatism was remarkable between 10 to 6 Ma, expressed

  2. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  3. ACTIVIDADES RECREATIVAS Y SUS BENEFICIOS PARA PERSONAS NICARAGÜENSES RESIDENTES EN COSTA RICA (RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND THEIR BENEFITS FOR NICARAGUANS WHO LIVE IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Salas Carmen Grace

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Costa Rica se ha convertido en un país multicultural. Muchas personas han migrado a él en busca de mejores condiciones de vida. La mayoría de estas personas son nicaragüenses, quienes conforman alrededor de tres cuartas partes del grupo total inmigrante en el país. En el año 2007, se realizó un proyecto de investigación en la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes de la Universidad de Costa Rica que tuvo la finalidad de estudiar cómo se recreaba esta población antes y, especialmente, después de la inmigración a Costa Rica. La investigación fue cualitativa, fenomenológica, e incluyó 13 personas nicaragüenses residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información que se presenta en este artículo fue recolectada mediante entrevistas y observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa. Los datos fueron analizados en forma individual y se triangularon. Los resultados generales indican que: (1 la población investigada realizaba once tipos de actividades recreativas en Nicaragua, entre semana y fines de semana, antes de venir a Costa Rica; (2 esa misma población participaba en diez categorías de actividades recreativas en Costa Rica, entre semana y fines de semana, y (3 ese grupo percibió siete beneficios que le ofrecía la recreación.Abstract:Costa Rica has become a multicultural country. Many people immigrated to it looking for a better lifestyle. Most of these people are Nicaraguans, who are three quarters of the total amount of immigrants in Costa Rica. In 2007, the School of Physical Education and Sports at the University of Costa Rica conducted a research to study how this Nicaraguans recreated before and after they immigrated to Costa Rica. The research conducted was qualitative, phenomenological, and included 13 Nicaraguans, who lived in the Metropolitan Area. This article is the first of several papers that will report the result of the research. The information of this article was collected with

  4. Percepción de la biotecnología en estudiantes universitarios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo una encuesta para estudiar la percepción y el grado de conocimiento sobre biotecnología y organismos modificados genéticamente (OMGs, en una muestra de estudiantes (n=750 de tres universidades públicas de Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR, Universidad Nacional (UNA e Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR. Se encontró que un 88% mostraron un conocimiento satisfactorio de la biotecnología moderna, y que un 79% expresaron una posición favorable y una buena aceptación de esa tecnología. Además, los estudiantes encuestados aceptarían ciertos riesgos asociados a la biotecnología, siempre y cuando, ésta mejore la capacidad competitiva de Costa Rica. El área de estudio de los estudiantes entrevistados parece estar relacionada con el grado de aceptación debido a que los estudiantes de disciplinas sociales mostraron una mayor percepción negativa hacia los productos biotecnológicos y OMGs, si se compara con la percepción expresada por los estudiantes encuestados de disciplinas de ciencias naturales y de áreas tecnológicas.Perception about biotechnology in university students in Costa Rica. A survey was carried out to determine the perception and knowledge about biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs in a sample (n = 750 of university students from three public universities in Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional and Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. The study revealed that 88% of the students showed a satisfactory level of knowledge about modern biotechnology and 79% of them reported a favorable opinion and good acceptance of this technology. Students would accept some risks associated to biotechnology if it represents an improvement to the competitiveness of Costa Rica. Some differences were detected in the opinions from students of the three universities that can be associated to the area of study. Students from social disciplines showed a higher percentage of

  5. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7% revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11 of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans.

  6. Perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el año 2003 se predijo que existiría un pequeño incremento en la cantidad de lluvia que caería en Costa Rica. El presente estudio analiza el comportamiento meteorológico durante el primer semestre del año, sobre las causas del aumento en patrón lluvioso y el pronóstico para el resto de los meses. Se muestra un mapa centroamericano sobre la probabilidad de que ocurran lluvias por debajo de lo normal, normales o arriba de lo normal, generado en el Foro Climático Centroamericano, así como una tabla comparativa entre la cantidad de tormentas tropicales, huracanes y ciclones del año 2002, el primer semestre 2003 y un promedio histórico (1950-2000. Como último punto se analiza la probabilidad del desarrollo del fenómeno de La Niña y la evolución del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, según las proyecciones de doce modelos climáticos de distintos centros climáticos especializados

  7. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  8. Assessment of medical occupational radiation doses in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Acuna, M.

    2011-01-01

    Participation of the Univ. of Costa Rica (UCR) in activities in an IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/066 through training, equipment and expert missions, has enabled to setting up of a national personal monitoring laboratory. Since 2007, the UCR has been in charge of monitoring around 1800 medical radiation workers of the Social Security System. Individual external doses are measured with thermoluminescent dosemeter using a Harshaw 6600 Plus reader. The service has accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Distribution of monitored medical personnel is as follows: 83 % in diagnostic radiology, 6 % in nuclear medicine and 6 % in radiotherapy. Preliminary values for the 75 percentile of annual H p (10) in mSv are: radiology 0.37; interventional radiology 0.41; radiotherapy 0.53 and nuclear medicine 1.55. The service provided by the UCR in a steady and reliable way can help to implement actions to limit the doses received by the medical workers and optimise their radiation protection programs. (authors)

  9. Trace metals in coastal sediments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Cespedes, J.; Acuna Gonzalez, J.; Vargas Zamora, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moin Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe> Zn> Cu> Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 μg / g, respectively) and lower in Moin Bay (3.4% and 52 μg / g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 μg / g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 μg / g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moin Bay (6.4 μg / g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 μg / g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moin Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition. (Author) [es

  10. Assessment of medical occupational radiation doses in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P; Acuña, M

    2011-09-01

    Participation of the University of Costa Rica (UCR) in activities in an IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/066 through training, equipment and expert missions, has enabled to setting up of a national personal monitoring laboratory. Since 2007, the UCR has been in charge of monitoring around 1800 medical radiation workers of the Social Security System. Individual external doses are measured with thermoluminescent dosemeter using a Harshaw 6600 Plus reader. The service has accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Distribution of monitored medical personnel is as follows: 83 % in diagnostic radiology, 6 % in nuclear medicine and 6 % in radiotherapy. Preliminary values for the 75 percentile of annual H(p)(10) in mSv are: radiology 0.37; interventional radiology 0.41; radiotherapy 0.53 and nuclear medicine 1.55. The service provided by the UCR in a steady and reliable way can help to implement actions to limit the doses received by the medical workers and optimise their radiation protection programs.

  11. Chlamydia abortus in Dairy Farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fonseca Salazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia abortus in specialized dairy farms. A total of 608 blood samples were collected during 2012 from 24 dairy farms located in the Northern regions of the provinces of Alajuela (15 and Heredia (9, and surveys were carried out to determine management practices in these farms. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against C. abortus (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.7%. Only one serum yielded positive results (S/P 62 %, two sera weak positive results (S/P 51% and 52%, respectively, while the remaining sera (n=605 were negative in ELISA. Six months later, 22 animals that showed S/P values >22% in ELISA were analyzed again, yielding all negative results. Blood, milk, conjunctival and vulvar swabs from these animals were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, and only one vulvar swab tested positive for Chlamydia spp. The analysis of the management practices and results obtained with ELISA and PCR lead us to conclude that C. abortus is not significantly present (<0.5% in dairy farms in the Northern regions of the provinces of Heredia and Alajuela in Costa Rica.

  12. Newton da Costa e a Filosofia da Quase-Verdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Krause

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to introduce the three issues of Principia which will appear in a sequel honoring Newton da Costa’s 80th birthday. Instead of presenting the papers one by one, as it is common in presentations such as this one, we have left the papers speak by themselves, and instead we have preferred to present to the Brazilian readers, specialty to our students, some aspects of Newton da Costa’s conception of science and of the scientific activity, grounded on the concept of quasi-truth, which he contributed to develop in a rigorous way. Da Costa is known as one of the founding fathers of paraconsistent logic, but his contributions go also to the foundations of physics, theoretical computation, model theory, algebraic logic, lattice theory, applications of non-classical logics to law and technology, etc. But perhaps his main contribution was to provide a basis for the birth of a school of logic in our country (Brazil, serving as teacher and inspiring new researchers for generations. It is a pleasure to have had so enthusiastic acceptation from the editors of Principia to organize these volumes. I would like to thank the contributors and the editors of Principia, specially Prof. Cezar Mortari for his help in organizing the issue.

  13. Volcanic gas impacts on vegetation at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, R.; Jenkins, M.; Pushnik, J.; Houpis, J. L.; Brown, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Turrialba volcano is an active composite stratovolcano that is located approximately 40 km east of San Jose, Costa Rica. Seismic activity and degassing have increased since 2005, and gas compositions reflect further increased activity since 2007 peaking in January 2010 with a phreatic eruption. Gas fumes dispersed by trade winds toward the west, northwest, and southwest flanks of Turrialba volcano have caused significant vegetation kill zones, in areas important to local agriculture, including dairy pastures and potato fields, wildlife and human populations. In addition to extensive vegetative degradation is the potential for soil and water contamination and soil erosion. Summit fumarole temperatures have been measured over 200 degrees C and gas emissions are dominated by SO2; gas and vapor plumes reach up to 2 km (fumaroles and gases are measured regularly by OVSICORI-UNA). A recent network of passive air sampling, monitoring of water temperatures of hydrothermal systems, and soil pH measurements coupled with measurement of the physiological status of surrounding plants using gas exchange and fluorescence measurements to: (1) identify physiological correlations between leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of plants under long term stress induced by the volcanic gas emissions, and (2) use measurements in tandem with remotely sensed reflectance-derived fluorescence ratio indices to track natural photo inhibition caused by volcanic gas emissions, for use in monitoring plant stress and photosynthetic function. Results may prove helpful in developing potential land management strategies to maintain the biological health of the area.

  14. Seroprevalence of viral infections in domestic cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kinndle; Prendas, Jorge; Cortes, Rocío; Jimenez, Carlos; Dolz, Gaby

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of domestic cats from Costa Rica's greater metropolitan area was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline parvovirus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and antigens of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Blood samples were collected from at least 96 cats from June 1998 to December 2001; data related to the individual cats and household variables were obtained using a questionnaire. Antibodies against FHV-1 were found in 71.9% of the cats sampled, but only 25.0% of them had a history of previous vaccination. The prevalence of FPV was 92.8%, and all positive cats showed protective antibodies titres; however, only 16.5% of them were previously vaccinated. Antigens of FeLV were detected in 16.7% of the sampled cats; 11 (64.7%) of the 17 positive cats were older than 1 year at the time of testing. No differences were found between the percentage of seropositive males and females. Antibodies against FIV were detected in 8.8% of the samples tested; 8 (88.8%) of the seropositive cats were older than 1 year of age, and a greater proportion of seropositive males (66.6%) was found.

  15. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival.

  16. Referéndum en Costa Rica: la primera experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Alberto Esquivel Faerron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los distintos mecanismos de democracia directa regulados en el ordenamiento jurídico costarricense, profundizando en el instituto del referéndum. Se centra en analizar, con apoyo en datos estadísticos, la primera experiencia de la aplicación del referéndum en Costa Rica, relativo a la aprobación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos. Como parte de este estudio, el autor desarrolla, desde el punto de vista doctrinario y de derecho comparado, temas medulares del referéndum que fueron motivo de amplia discusión, tales como: el carácter excepcional de este instituto -contra poniéndolo con el listado de las solicitudes de recolección de firmas presentadas ante el Tribunal-, la fiscalización del proceso, la posición del Poder Ejecutivo a favor de una de las tesis en contienda, el financiamiento de las campañas propagandísticas, la información ciudadana sobre el tema de la consulta y la participación de los medios de comunicación.

  17. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla, Henry [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  18. Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa e o ensino secundário brasileiro - Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa and secondary education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysa Spitz Alcoforado de Abreu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo apresenta a circulação do intelectual paranaense Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa nas discussões sobre os rumos da educação brasileira, em particular, sobre o ensino secundário, nas décadas de1920 e 1930, destacando as conexões e deslocamentos tecidos numa rede de relações, ou seja, suas vinculações com intelectuais de outros estados, em particular com os intelectuais paulistas e cariocas. Esse estudo constatou que a relação entre Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa e pessoas pertencentes ao grupo católico deu-se mais por questões políticas, do que por vias religiosas. Pelo que se apreende do estudo de sua sociabilidade, pode-se dizer que conservou, em seu círculo de amizades, católicos, protestantes e pessoas de crenças diversas, desde que essas não se opusessem, diante de circunstâncias de tomada de decisão e partido, aos seus interesses políticos. Palavras-chave: Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa; intelectuais da educação; ensino secundário.   LYSIMACO FERREIRA DA COSTA AND SECONDARYEDUCATION IN BRAZIL Abstract This article presents the insertion of Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa in the discussions concerning the direction of Brazilian education. He was an intellectual born in the state of Paraná. The period of the analysis ranges from 1920 and 1930 and its focus is the discussion of the secondary school. It emphasizes the ties and connections established in Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa’s network of relationships, his associations with intellectuals of other states, mainly from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Through the data obtained in this study, it is possible to say that the affiliation between Lysimaco Ferreira da Costa and the Catholic group took place primarily due to political reasons rather than religious grounds. According to the study of his sociability, he maintained in his circle of friends both Catholics, Protestants and people of several beliefs, as long as they did not oppose to his political interests

  19. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  20. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  1. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Most parts of Costa Rica, except for the Quaternary volcanic belt, have neither been studied or mapped in detail. Concerning past exploration limited uranium exploration took place in the late 1960's but details are lacking. No additional information is available. A bibliography of Costa Rican geology (Dengo, 19t>2a) and the metallogenic map of Central America (1CAITI, 1970) do not report any uranium occurrences. Data on current exploration activities for uranium are lacking. Mining is essentially regulated by a 1953 code and a 1964 supplement, but the production and use of radioactive materials are controlled by the Costa Rican Atomic Energy Commission. New raining and petroleum laws reportedly are being considered. Mining rights are available with few restrictions to foreign nationals and corporations. Costa Rica contains no rocks older than Cretaceous. The Mesozoic continental clastic sequences of Honduras and northern Nicaragua do not extend this far south. The massive intrusions of acidic granites and syenites in the Talamanca ranges are probably older than the oldest formations now seen adjacent to them and could not have contributed to their mineralization except through weathering. There may be a faint possibility for uranium deposition in lodes and fracture zones within the granitic rocks, but no such deposits have been reported. Insofar as the sediments are concerned, only the shallow water faces of the marine sediments of the Caribbean coastal region offer the remotest possibilities. The uranium potential of Costa Rica is estimated, at less than 1,000 tonnes

  3. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Morera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pueda satisfacer la demanda creciente de alimentos y otros productos agrícolas; evitando el acelerado proceso de degradación que sufren nuestros suelos y bosques. El proceso de agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica y otros países de la región, presenta un incremento en la demanda de tierras y recursos naturales; lo cual suscita competencias y agudos conflictos sociales, económicos y ecológicos. Costa Rica debe plantearse una estrategia de desarrollo sostenible que contemple los efectos asociados del crecimiento demográfico, la seguridad alimentaria, la protección de la biodiversidad, la regeneración de los ecosistemas, el desarrollo de tecnologías amigables con el ambiente, la regulación sobre el acceso a los recursos naturales y la formación de capital humano

  4. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  5. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that

  6. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... 9000-AL23 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and... United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES... interim rule. The interim rule added Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru to the definition of ``Free Trade...

  7. A Cross-Country Comparison of Virtual Discussion Board Use in United States and Costa Rican Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Kari; Saxon, Terrill F.; Trumble, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the use of virtual discussion boards in various educational settings in the United States and Costa Rica. Participants included professors of education, in-service and pre-service teachers in the United States and Costa Rica where a survey was used that included demographic, knowledge, attitude, and…

  8. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.E.; Meijer, S.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  9. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America.

  10. Invalidez por dor nas costas entre segurados da Previdência Social do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Meziat Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as aposentadorias por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios e dos Anuários Estatísticos da Previdência Social em 2007. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez foi calculada segundo as variáveis idade e sexo, nos estados. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. RESULTADOS: A dor nas costas idiopática foi a primeira causa de invalidez entre as aposentadorias previdenciárias e acidentárias. A maioria dos beneficiários residia em área urbana e era comerciário. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez no Brasil foi de 29,96 por 100.000 contribuintes. Esse valor foi mais elevado entre os homens e entre as pessoas mais velhas. Rondônia exibiu taxa quatro vezes superior ao esperado (RT = 4,05 e a segunda maior taxa, referente à Bahia, foi de aproximadamente duas vezes o esperado (RT = 2,07. Os comerciários foram responsáveis por 96,9% dos dias perdidos por invalidez. CONCLUSÕES: A dor nas costas foi uma importante causa de invalidez em 2007, sobretudo entre comerciários, com grandes diferenças entre os estados.

  11. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Jose, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, in the right center of the image (gray area). Rising behind it are the volcanoes Irazu, 3402 meters high (11,161 feet) and Turrialba, 3330 meters high (10,925 feet.)Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and is located in the Irazu Volcano National Park, established in 1955. There have been at least 23 eruptions of Irazu since 1723, the most recent during 1963 to 1965. This activity sent tephra and secondary mudflows into cultivated areas, caused at least 40 deaths, and destroyed 400 houses and some factories.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  12. Metales traza en sedimentos costeros de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo García-Céspedes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la concentración de hierro, plomo, cobre y zinc, en sedimentos de cuatro ecosistemas costeros de Costa Rica, por espectroscopia de absorción atómica, con llama o con horno de grafito. En el Pacífico se escogieron Bahía Culebra (Golfo de Papagayo, el Golfo de Nicoya y la bahía de Golfito (Golfo Dulce y en el Caribe la bahía de Moín. Las muestras fueron recolectadas entre los años 2000 y 2002, y los valores promedio de las concentraciones de los elementos, en todos los ecosistemas, siguieron una misma tendencia: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No se encontró ningún tipo de patrón temporal de distribución de los metales en ninguno de los ecosistemas. Las concentraciones medias de hierro y de cobre fueron mayores en la bahía de Golfito (5.8% y 87 µg / g, respectivamente y menores en la bahía de Moín (3.4% y 52 µg / g. respectivamente. La concentración media de zinc fue mayor también en la bahía de Golfito (96 µg / g, pero menor en Bahía Culebra (66 µg / g. La concentración de plomo fue mayor en la bahía de Moín (6.4 µg / g y menor en Bahía Culebra (3.0 µg / g. La concentración de plomo fue alta en el Caribe y en la bahía de Golfito; los valores de concentración promedio obtenidos para el hierro, el plomo, el cobre y el zinc, fueron máximos en la bahía de Golfito, comparados con los otros ecosistemas. Con base en los datos obtenidos, se concluyó que la Bahía Culebra fue la zona más limpia; la bahía de Golfito la más contaminada y en un lugar intermedio la bahía de Moín y el Golfo de NicoyaMarine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf, Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf, were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal

  13. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bonilla

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica’s Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA. Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1 with a seasonal component of the Yt = lambda a t + gamma S12 + a t typeEn este trabajo, se analizaron los datos de desembarque de tiburón de la flota pesquera artesanal en el Pacífico costarricense entre 1988 y 1997. Los datos provienen de un sistema de facturas administrado por el Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca (INCOPESCA. En el Pacífico, la pesca de tiburón en el período de estudio representó aproximadamente el 20% del volumen total de pesca a nivel nacional. De acuerdo con los datos del sistema de facturas, la región del Pacífico Norte fue la más productiva, reportando un 58% de los desembarques de tiburón a nivel nacional. En esta región, la pesca de tiburón en la zona del Golfo de Papagayo reportó 91% y 53% de los

  14. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ana Maria; Herrera-Murillo, Franklin; Chaves-Barrantes, Nestor; Hernandez-Diaz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations was observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish), with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim has exercised good control (S population), and from another farm where clethodim has showed a deficient control (R population). Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0,5X, 1,0X, 1,5X and 2,0X), being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control has been satisfactory (S), and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R). Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim. (author) [es

  15. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberyan, Kurt A; Horn, Sally P; Umaña, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2, but low in dissolved O2; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic). The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1), Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.

  16. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  17. Genetic diversity in cattle from eight regions in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero-Solorzano, Juan Miguel; Leon-Rodriguez, Bernal; Chacon-Gonzalez, Idania; Vargas-Leiton, Bernardo; Martinez-Pichardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The degree of inter-regional genetic diversity is explored in cattle of Costa Rica. 1498 DNA samples were collected of eight different regions of the country during the year 2013. Allelic frequencies and major population genetic parameters are calculated for eighteen microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance is performed. The genetic distances between cattle of different regions are calculated. A high degree of diversity, with an average number of 14,6±1,01 alleles observed and 5,6+0,37 effective alleles per marker is observed at the national level. The heterozygosity observed (Ho) has been 0,76±0,01 and the expected (He) 0,81±0,01. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and inbreeding index (F_I_S) have been of 0,79±0,06 and 0,06±0,004, respectively. At the regional level, HO has varied from 0,73 ± 0,02 in the Central Sur region to 0,78 ±0,01 in the Huetar Norte region. Three clearly differentiated groups are shown by the dendrogram , with the Central Metropolitana and Central Occidental regions in a group: Huetar Caribe, Central Sur, Pacifico Central and Chorotega in a second group; and Huetar Norte and Brunca in a third intermediate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation R_S_T have been significant between regions of different groups and among regions of the same group have remained without being significant. Genetic differences between regions are related with differentiated proliferation of racial types according to their adaptability to the agroecological conditions and production systems prevailing in each region. (author) [es

  18. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.

  19. Measuring Gases Using Drones at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, J.; Alan, A., Jr.; Corrales, E.; D'Arcy, F.; de Moor, M. J.; Diaz, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We are currently developing a series of drones and associated instrumentation to study Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. This volcano has shown increasing activity during the last 20 years, and the volcano is currently in a state of heightened unrest as exemplified by recent explosive activity in May-August 2016. The eruptive activity has made the summit area inaccessible to normal gas monitoring activities, prompting development of new techniques to measure gas compositions. We have been using two drones, a DJI Spreading Wings S1000 octocopter and a Turbo Ace Matrix-i quadcopter, to airlift a series of instruments to measure volcanic gases in the plume of the volcano. These instruments comprise optical and electrochemical sensors to measure CO2, SO2, and H2S concentrations which are considered the most significant species to help forecast explosive eruptions and determine the relative proportions of magmatic and hydrothermal components in the volcanic gas. Additionally, cameras and sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and GPS location are included in the package to provide meteorological and geo-referenced information to complement the concentration data and provide a better picture of the volcano from a remote location. The integrated payloads weigh 1-2 kg, which can typically be flown by the drones in 10-20 minutes at altitudes of 2000-4000 meters. Preliminary tests at Turrialba in May 2016 have been very encouraging, and we are in the process of refining both the drones and the instrumentation packages for future flights. Our broader goals are to map gases in detail with the drones in order to make flux measurements of each species, and to apply this approach at other volcanoes.

  20. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  1. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  2. Estrategia para Aumentar la Capacidad de Desarrollo de la Empresa Del Monte en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Guerrero, Evike

    2004-01-01

    Tesis de maestría -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Posgrado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas. Maestría Profesional en Administración y Dirección de Empresas con énfasis en Gerencia, 2004 El objetivo general del trabajo es analizar en profundidad la situación comercial de Del Monte en Costa Rica, identificando con exactitud las causas y focos de problema que han generado el decrecimiento en las ventas y participación de la marca. Posteriormente, se diseñará un plan estratégico que pe...

  3. Cyberl@b: a platform for learning english in Costa Rican public high schools

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Quesada Pacheco

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper covers the design and development of a noncommercial software for learning and practicing English called CyberL@b. It was developed at the School of Modern Languages at the University of Costa Rica. Its target population focuses on 7th, 8th and 9th graders at six public high schools in diverse urban and rural settings in Costa Rica.CyberL@b uses interactive media resources designed to engage student in learning English within authentic contexts.Cyberlab was designed to cr...

  4. Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Nishida; Ichiro Nakamura; Carlos O Morales

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO), a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the vall...

  5. COSTA RICAN MEAT VALUE CHAIN DESCRIPTION: PRICE TRANSMISSION AS A TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rodríguez Lizano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Price transmission analysis is an increasing research topic, especially for price taking countries such as Costa Rica. We describe the beef supply chain and provide a numerical implementation of Vector Error Correction Model (VECM of price transmission for the meat market in order to observe the relationship between import prices of meat and their effects on national retail prices. To restore equilibrium, retail prices correct 8% of the error term monthly. Since the meat imports market of Costa Rica is complex, the analysis of others business partners as Nicaragua should be included in order to compare the influence of these in local retail prices

  6. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  7. Culture of Fear and Control in Costa Rica (II). Talk of Crime and Social Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that a formerly explicitly nonviolent nation has been transformed into a battleground for social violence—that is, on the belief that an alarming “crime wave” is occurring today while there was no crime at all in the past. On the basis of this assumption, the fear of crime and the call for zero tolerance and drastic law enforcement actions have been increasing. In this paper I discuss the Costa Rican talk of crime from a h...

  8. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads de Costa Rica, the NASA Airborne Science and Earth Surface & Interior Programs, the Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil de Costa Rica, and FH Düsseldorf for their support.

  9. Passagens para o Estado-nação: a tese de Costa Pinto Passages to the nation-state: the Costa Pinto's thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute uma pesquisa clássica da tradição sociológica brasileira: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, de Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. O objetivo principal é evidenciar e analisar sua significação teórica mais ampla para o entendimento da formação do Estado-nação no Brasil. Mostra como Lutas de famílias no Brasil contribui para desestabilizar a oposição dualista com que a relação entre público e privado vinha sendo interpretada no pensamento social brasileiro.The article discusses a classical research of Brazilian sociological tradition: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, by Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. The main objective is to demonstrate and analyze their theoretical meaning for understanding the formation of the Nation-state in Brazil. It shows how Costa Pinto's research contributes to destabilize the dualistic opposition between public and private on the Brazilian social thought.

  10. Demand management by means of substitution energetics in home cooking: Costa Rica's metropolitan area; Gerenciamento da demanda mediante substituicao energetica na coccao residencial: regiao metropolitana da Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Alfonso Herrera

    1996-07-01

    The electric power system management in Costa Rica is analyzed. The possibility of substitution of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) for electric power, in home cooking, are identified as one of the most important program in order to reduce increasing load peak and energy requirements in electric power system of Costa Rica. The sustain ability of the substitution program stands on the current process of electric power supply. The primary power sources used in generating electric power in rush hours are oil-based; this process is less efficient than directly using LPG for home cooking. Large scale substitution with LPG in home cooking will reduce increasing electric power demand in peak hours, reducing subsidized electricity sales, with better use of combustibles presently imported, improving the country commercial balance and preventing or postponing electric power system expansion investments. Three different perspectives have been considered in evaluating economical effectiveness in substituting power sources: user, utility and society perspectives. Due to subsidized electric power prices, residential users do not enough interest in substituting of LPG for power source; unless LPG cookers are also subsidized. However, positive results for the distribution utility are enough in order to offer these kind of incentives. Explicit treatment of these kind of programs, including the efficiency increment as an available resource for electric power utilities in Costa Rica, will avoid the implantation of most of combustion plants now planned in current National Electric Power Plant expansion program. (author)

  11. Outdoor and indoor dose assessment using environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Costa Rica lies at the intersection of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in Central America. It has mountain ranges with many active volcanoes along its territory. Its soils are predominantly of volcanic origin. Natural radiation measurements utilising environmental CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters were used for the first time in Costa Rica by the Dosimetry Section of the Atomic, Nuclear and Molecular Sciences Research Center of the University of Costa Rica. Seven hundred outdoor measurements were obtained in a 3.5-year period at eight different sites throughout the country. One hundred and seventy-four indoor readings were also collected at four sites for a 2-year period. Population-weighted averages give 82 nGy h -1 for outdoors and 130 nGy h -1 for indoors. The values lie on the upper range of worldwide reported values due to reported soil characteristics rich in uranium and potassium. A preliminary population-weighted value of 0.74 mSv/year for the effective dose is calculated for natural terrestrial gamma radiation in Costa Rica

  12. Blood parasites (Haemoproteus and microfilariae) in birds from the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benedikt, V.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Čapek, Miroslav; Havlíček, M.; Literák, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 197-204 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Blood parasites * microfilariae * birds * Costa Rica * Haemoproteus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.070, year: 2009

  13. Lecto- and Paralectotype Designations and Redescription of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaynara S. Martins; Felipe F. F. Moreira; Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2016-01-01

    The lecto- and a paralectotype of Arachnocoris alboannulatus Costa Lima, 1927 are designated to enhance nomenclatural stability. A redescription based on the type material from Rio de Janeiro deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil, is presented. Specimens are illustrated and measured in detail for the first time.

  14. The monitoring and control systems in cooperatives: application to the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alonso Hernández Vargas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Rican government through the Cooperative Development Institute encourages, promotes, finances, reports and supports the cooperative movement at all levels, promoting the requisite conditions and the essential elements to a greater and more effective participation of the population in the development of economic and social activity.

  15. Forest Conservation in Costa Rica: when nonuse benefits are uncertain but rising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Soest, van D.P.; Kooten, van G.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic dynamic programming is used to investigate optimal holding of primary tropical forest in humid Costa Rica when future nonuse benefits of forest conservation are uncertain and increasing. The quasi-option value of maintaining primary forests is included as a component of investment in

  16. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  17. Learning from Others: Service-Learning in Costa Rica and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David D.; Eiserman, William D.

    1997-01-01

    An exploration of the roles service learning plays in universities in Indonesia and Costa Rica invites policymakers in the United States to re-examine university service, research, and teaching responsibilities. Increased faculty involvement is a key to expanding service learning as part of the university agenda. (SLD)

  18. Management commitments and primary care: another lesson from Costa Rica for the world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soors, Werner; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Maintained dedication to primary care has fostered a public health delivery system with exceptional outcomes in Costa Rica. For more than a decade, management commitments have been part of Costa Rican health reform. We assessed the effect of the Costa Rican management commitments on access and quality of care and on compliance with their intended objectives. We constructed seven hypotheses on opinions of primary care providers. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, we tested these hypotheses and interpreted the research findings. Management commitments consume an excessive proportion of consultation time, inflate recordkeeping, reduce comprehensiveness in primary care consultations, and induce a disproportionate consumption of hospital emergency services. Their formulation relies on norms in need of optimization, their control on unreliable sources. They also affect professionalism. In Costa Rica, management commitments negatively affect access and quality of care and pose a threat to the public service delivery system. The failures of this pay-for-performance-like initiative in an otherwise well-performing health system cast doubts on the appropriateness of pay-for-performance for health systems strengthening in less advanced environments.

  19. Protoptila (Trichoptera) of Costa Rica and a Review of the Central American Fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahnik, R. J.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    Protoptila is the most diverse of the genera in the subfamily Protoptilinae of the family Glossosomatidae, currently with 80 species, but many more from the Neotropics awaiting description. Fourteen species occur in the United States, only one of which is also known to occur in Mexico. This compares to 38 species and one subspecies (or about half of the total for the genus) currently known from Central America, mostly described in papers by Mosely and Flint. Although the majority of these, or some 27 species, occur in Mexico, this probably more closely reflects the historical intensity of collecting rather than the real diversity by region. In Costa Rica, 11 species are currently known, 8 of which are restricted in distribution to Costa Rica, or Costa Rica and Panama, and only 3 with distributions extending to Mexico. We are describing an additional 8 species from Costa Rica, bringing to 19 the number of species now known from the country. This represents an incredible diversity for such a small country and also a very high level of implied endemism, even considering the likelihood that some of the species will be found to have wider distributions.

  20. Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from Honey Produced by Costa Rican Stingless Bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora Fallas, L.G.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance created the need for innovations in topical treatments for wound healing. This thesis comprises a series of investigations that allowed Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys to pass from being a highly regarded traditional medicine to becoming a novel candidate for wound

  1. An insight into the antibiofilm properties of Costa Rican stingless bee honeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora, L.G.; Beukelman, C.J.; Berg, van den A.J.J.; Aerts, P.C.; Quarles van Ufford, H.C.; Nijland, R.; Arias, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: There is an increasing search for antibiofilm agents that either have specific activity against biofilms or may act in synergy with antimicrobials. Our objective is to examine the the antibiofilm properties of stingless bee honeys. Method: Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were

  2. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of

  3. Wood anatomy of Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae) from Southern Pacific, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Moya Roque; Manuel Morales Salazar; Michael C. Wiemann; Luis Poveda Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Pleodendron costaricense N. Zamora, Hammel & R. Aguilar (Canellaceae) is an endemic species from the southern Pacific region of Costa Rica. It is rare and is considered to be a living fossil. The wood of P. costaricense has high density (0.92 Kg/cm3, air dry) with little distinction between heartwood and sapwood. The growth rings are marked...

  4. Bioeconomic modeling to support management and breeding of dairy cows in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas Leitón, B.

    2000-01-01

    During the past decades, genetic improvement of dairy cattle in Costa Rica has depended upon massive importation of germplasm from temperate countries. This may not be an optimal alternative if genetic x environment interactions are significant or production goals differ among countries. The purpose

  5. Breeding seasons, molt patterns, and gender and age criteria for selected northeastern Costa Rican resident landbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Peter Pyle; C. John. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Detailed accounts of molt and breeding cycles remain elusive for the majority of resident tropical bird species. We used data derived from a museum review and 12 years of banding data to infer breeding seasonality, molt patterns, and age and gender criteria for 27 common landbird species in northeastern Costa Rica. Prealternate molts appear to be rare, only occurring...

  6. Eliminating War By Eliminating Warriors: A Case Study in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    religious authority of the Spanish Crown and was able to exert pressure on all aspects of Spanish governance. The church encouraged a much weaker...such a cash cow in shipping, Costa Rica has managed to diversify its economy from commodities into tourism and most recently into personal computing

  7. Partial power, partial knowledge: accounting for the dis-integration of a Costa Rican cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah R. McCandless; Marla R. Emery

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the writings of Foucault, we argue that the multiple-service cooperative at the core of a Costa Rican highland municipality failed due to an incomplete transformation from sovereign to governmental regimes at the regional scale. The cooperative challenged sovereign power, held by the local patron and private biological reserves, with a governance model based...

  8. Appraisal of the Epidemiology of Neospora caninum Infection in Costa Rican Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero Zúñiga, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica, milk production has increased gradually during the twentieth century, in which the activity developed from a non-technical to a technical activity. Together with the evolution of the dairy sector, the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases

  9. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry of Costa Rica represents 7.5% of GNP, 21% of total exports earning and of that contribution the food and beverages subsector represents 28%. The purpose of this research was to indentify, potential elements and obstacles in young university culinary arts students in Costa Rica, largest culinary arts students. The study was conducted among culinary arts students at the Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, the interviews conducted were 237 the entire enrollment of the culinary arts school. The findings indicate that .Absence of tradition, culture among the young students and need of family and peers supports appear to be relevant and a source of need by the group. Lack of general business and entrepreneurship training is recognize by both groups a weakness and as a need. Coaching and support for women entrepreneurs is very relevant in both theadministrative and technical aspects of the young students of culinary arts The consideration of this information is important if we are to create with culinary arts training , the new breed of professional chefs entrepreneurs needs for the industry expansion in the years to come in Costa Rica and the region

  10. A complete genome screen for genes predisposing to severe bipolar disorder in two Costa Rican pedigrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInnes, LA; Escamilla, MA; Service, SK; Reus, [No Value; Leon, P; Silva, S; Rojas, E; Spesny, M; Baharloo, S; Blankenship, K; Peterson, A; Tyler, D; Shimayoshi, N; Tobey, C; Batki, S; Vinogradov, S; Meza, L; Gallegos, A; Fournier, E; Smith, LB; Barondes, SH; Sandkuijl, LA; Freimer, NB

    1996-01-01

    Bipolar mood disorder (BP) is a debilitating syndrome characterized by episodes of mania and depression. We designed a multistage study to detect all major loci predisposing to severe BP (termed BP-I) in two pedigrees drawn from the Central Valley of Costa Rica, where the population is largely

  11. Register and Forms of Address in Costa Rica: Sociolinguistic Realities and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.; LeLoup, Jean W.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings of sociolinguistic research investigating the use of second-person singular pronouns in Costa Rica. The study was carried out onsite and involved 132 interviewees from all seven provinces of the country. These subjects reacted to scenarios in which they had to choose their preferred pronoun of use…

  12. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  13. Paraquat Exposure of Knapsack Spray Operators on Banana Plantations in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wendel de Joode BN, [No Value; De Graaf IA, [No Value; Wesseling, B; Kromhout, S.B.; de Graaf, Inge

    1996-01-01

    A study of occupational exposure to paraquat was performed among 11 knapsack spray operators at banana plantations in Costa Rica. External and internal exposures were quantified and determinants of exposure identified by measurements, observations, and interviews. Dermal exposure was measured with

  14. Peace Education: Perspectives from Costa Rica and Japan. Peace Education Miniprints No. 62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Abelardo; Ito, Takehiko

    This publication explores the views of two present members of the International Peace Research Association: Abelardo Brenes and Takehiko Ito. Brenes and Ito answer 13 questions related to peace education issues in their individual interviews. Abelardo Brenes is a professor at the University of Costa Rica and a consultant to the University for…

  15. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  16. A new isidiate species of Arthonia (Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Umaña-Tenorio, Loengrin

    2004-01-01

    The new corticolous species Arthonia isidiata is described from the Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica. A. isidiata is characterized by minute, cylindrical to coralloid isidia produced on the thallus surface. The species currently is known only from the type locality in Corcovado National Park, where it occurs abundantly in the coastal rainforest around Sirena Biological Station.

  17. Taavet võidab Koljati targalt tegutsedes / Costas Markides ; interv. Endrik Randoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Markides, Costas

    2007-01-01

    London Business Schooli professor Costas Markides vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema raamatus "Fast Second" esitatud väidet, mille kohaselt esimesena uuele turule tulnud ettevõttest saab harva pikas perspektiivis turuliider, kuid samas on edukad just teisena turule sisenevad ettevõtted

  18. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in northeastern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Matthew D. Johnson; C. John Ralph; R. Mark Brigham

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover...

  19. Diet of some spring migrant landbirds on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Spring dietary patterns of migrants in tropical latitudes are largely unknown. Here I present diet data derived from an analysis of fecal samples for six migrant landbird species during spring migration along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. High levels of insectivory were detected for all six species captured. The nature of the data presented is discussed in light...

  20. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  1. A Preliminary Study of Riparian Songbirds in Costa Rica, with Emphasis on Wintering Louisiana Waterthrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Master; Robert S. Mulvihill; Robert C. Leberman; Julio Sanchez; Ernesto Carmen

    2005-01-01

    We made preliminary observations on the winter distribution, ecology and behavior of Louisiana Waterthrushes (Seiurus motacilla) in Costa Rica during January 1999 and 2000. We visited 24 headwater streams in three of the four principal mountain ranges in the country (Cordilleras Tilarán, Central, and the Talamanca) and confirmed the...

  2. Educational Leadership for Social Justice in Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricia; Slater, Charles L.; Lopez Gorosave, Gema; Cerdas, Victoria; Torres, Nancy; Antunez, Serafin; Briceno, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school leaders to provide social justice in three contexts: Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study was conducted under the interpretative tradition characterized by a search for an understanding of the social world from the point of view of a…

  3. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Sychra, O.; Calderón, V. Á.; Rodríguez, B. C.; Prudencio, C.; Martins, T. F.; Labruna, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 478-482 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia * Ticks * Birds * Ixodes * Amblyomma * Costa Rica Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  4. Ecoturismo y desarrollo rural en el Parque Nacional La Cangreja, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz González, E.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Breitling, J.; Camino, de R.

    2005-01-01

    El ecoturismo se viene perfilando como un elemento conciliador entre las estrategias de conservación de la naturaleza y el desarrollo rural comunitario. Costa Rica, por su parte, emerge en la esfera latinoamericana y mundial como un líder en esta faceta de la industria turística, particularmente

  5. Análisis de la desigualdad socioeconómica en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arias Ramírez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the causes that explain the increasing levels of socioeconomic inequality in a country is crucial for the design and implementation of public policies and institutional arrangements capable to promote virtuous cycles between economic growth, social equality and democracy. This article provides an analysis of the different dimensions of socioeconomic inequality in Costa Rica for the last 15 years

  6. Effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Breda, van S.; Vargas, B.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive parameters in dairy cows. Cows (n = 2743) from 94 farms located in the most important dairy areas in Costa Rica were used in the study. The size of the herds ranged from 32 to 379 females (mean =

  7. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary

  8. Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Joenje, M.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Deforestation rates in developing countries are often regarded as excessive, despite the lack of a satisfactory economic benchmark to evaluate this claim. This paper provides such a benchmark for a particular region in Costa Rica. The monetary value of the various functions performed by tropical

  9. Le ultime tecnologie hanno aiutato i primi soccorsi alla Costa Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Faccioli

    2012-04-01

    Thanks to the Geomatics, the Costa Concordia operations are conducted in conditions of extreme security to protect both the lives of rescue workers and the delicate environment.All technologies involved (Lidar, Multibeam, GNSS, INS, ecc…, while having a primary role in real life, have always worked quietly behind the scenes.

  10. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  11. Carbon Neutral by 2021: The Past and Present of Costa Rica’s Unusual Political Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Flagg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has pledged to become the first nation to become carbon neutral. This event raises the important question of how to understand this contemporary form of climate politics, given that Costa Rica has made an almost negligible contribution to the problem of global climate change. To understand this pledge, a case study spanning about 200 years situates the pledge within the country’s unique historical profile. An analysis of interview data, archival research, and secondary data reveals that the pledge is the latest instance in Costa Rica’s unusual political tradition. This political tradition dates back to the area’s experience as a Spanish colony and as a newly independent nation. Several events, including the abolition of the army, the work on green development, and being awarded a Nobel Peace Prize were all foundational in forming Costa Rica’s tradition as a place that leads by example and stands for peace and protection of nature. The carbon neutral pledge extends the political tradition that has been established through these earlier events. This case highlights the importance of understanding contemporary environmental politics through an analysis of long-term, historical data.

  12. San Jerónimo de Moravia, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinar en forma sostenible el patrimonio histórico cultural, el desarrollo turístico y la calidad ambiental es sin duda alguna el reto que enfrentan muchas comunidades latinoamericanas que en años recientes han hecho toda clase de esfuerzos por atraer turistas. El estudio aquí reportado analizó las condiciones socio-económicas de tres comunidades vecinas al Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo (PNBC, en Costa Rica, identificó los problemas ambientales de los residentes de las mismas que se podrían agravar por causa del desarrollo turístico y determinó cómo y bajo qué condiciones los habitantes de la zona querían que se realizara el desarrollo turístico de las comunidades. Se entrevistaron 123 de un total de un total de 155 casas en las tres comunidades, y se utilizó una combinación de componentes principales y análisis factorial para analizar los datos. Los resultados indican que los vecinos entrevistados desean que el desarrollo turístico sea hecho sosteniblemente, y que además, se planifique, se establezcan requisitos claros, que la comunidad sea periódicamente informada, que sus lideres comunales participen activamente en el proceso, se establezcan programas para ayudar al desarrollo de micro-empresas eco-turísticas, y que se les brinde asistencia técnica y capacite en el desarrollo de proyectos eco-turísticos. Los problemas eventuales asociados a la calidad ambiental que habría que prestarles atención preferente son: ruido y tráfico excesivo, manejo de aguas negras y deforestación. El desarrollo turístico sostenible relacionado con el primer componente implicaría que este es un requisito básico de la calidad ambiental, la conservación y el uso sostenible del patrimonio histórico.

  13. The Costa Maya:  Evolution of a Touristic Landscape La Costa Maya : évolution d'un paysage touristique La Costa Maya : evolución de un paisaje turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La Costa Maya est une région côtière du sud du Quintana Roo (Mexique, proche de l'îlet Ambergris au Bélize. Contrairement à la côte caribéenne du Mexique qui a souffert du développement du tourisme de masse à Cancun et le long de la Riviera Maya, la Costa Maya s'est orientée vers un développement durable avec notamment une faible densité de construction et le développement de l'écotourisme.Le développement s'est concentré autour de Puerto Costa Maya où un terminal de croisière a été construit en 2001. La station balnéaire (balneario de Majahual est devenue dépendante des 10-12 bateaux de touristes qui débarquaient chaque semaine. En dépit d'importants plans de développement, les plages reculées de la Costa Maya accueillaient tout au plus des écotouristes aisés et du tourisme lié à la plongée sous-marine.Le cyclone Dean, de catégorie 5, a dévasté le paysage en août 2007 et le rétablissement économique n'a pu être entamé que fin 2008, après la réouverture du terminal de croisière et la reconstruction de Majahual. Fin 2009, le trafic de croisière n'a pas retrouvé son niveau d'avant Dean et la récession mondiale couplée avec la grippe porcine et les violences liées à la drogue ont fait diminuer le tourisme en provenance des Etats-Unis. On ignore à quel niveau les nouvelles infrastructures tels l'aéroport international de Tulum qui propose un itinéraire de Chetumal à la plage et le nouveau complexe hôtelier à Xahuayxel, stimuleront la Costa Maya mexicaine créant peut-être une autoroute côtière reliée à San Pedro au Bélize.The Costa Maya is a vernacular coastal region of southeastern Quintana Roo (Mexico and adjacent Ambergris Cay, Belize.  As Mexico’s Caribbean coast suffered many growth pains associated with mass tourism development in Cancun and along the Riviera Maya, the Costa Maya by contrast was projected for more sustainable development including low-density housing and

  14. The costa of trichomonads: A complex macromolecular cytoskeleton structure made of uncommon proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Rosa, Ivone; Caruso, Marjolly Brigido; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Gonzaga, Luiz; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene

    2017-06-01

    The costa is a prominent striated fibre that is found in protozoa of the Trichomonadidae family that present an undulating membrane. It is composed primarily of proteins that have not yet been explored. In this study, we used cell fractionation to obtain a highly enriched costa fraction whose structure and composition was further analysed by electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples revealed that the costa, which is a periodic structure with alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent bands, displays three distinct regions, named the head, neck and body. Fourier transform analysis showed that the electron-lucent bands present sub-bands with a regular pattern. An analysis of the costa fraction via one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 54 hypothetical proteins. Fourteen of those proteins were considered to be major components of the fraction. The costa of T. foetus is a complex and organised cytoskeleton structure made of a large number of proteins which is assembled into filamentous structures. Some of these proteins exhibit uncharacterised domains and no function related according to gene ontology, suggesting that the costa structure may be formed by a new class of proteins that differ from those previously described in other organisms. Seven of these proteins contain prefoldin domains displaying coiled-coil regions. This propriety is shared with proteins of the striated fibres of other protozoan as well as in intermediate filaments. Our observations suggest the presence of a new class of the cytoskeleton filaments in T. foetus. We believe that our data could auxiliate in determining the specific locations of these proteins in the distinct regions that compose the costa, as well as to define the functional roles of each component. Therefore, our study will help in the better understanding of the

  15. Determinantes de la utilización de servicios de salud en Costa Rica Determinants of health care utilization in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Morera Salas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una primera aproximación a los determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas en Costa Rica. Método: Los datos proceden de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud para Costa Rica 2006. En el análisis econométrico se utilizó un modelo binomial negativo estándar ligado al enfoque de producción de salud de Grossman y un modelo en dos partes congruente con el enfoque agente-principal. Resultados: Los factores determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas fueron el nivel educativo, el estado de salud percibida, el número de enfermedades crónicas declaradas y la región de residencia. Conclusiones: El hecho de que las variables de necesidad de salud expliquen de forma significativa la probabilidad de contacto con las consultas médicas y que, además, no se registren diferencias significativas de utilización entre quintiles de ingreso y situación de seguro, es un resultado esperable y deseable en un sistema público solidario y casi universal como el costarricense. No se obtienen resultados concluyentes de la influencia del médico en la frecuencia de utilización de las consultas que postula el modelo de agente-principal.Objective: To analyze the determinants of health care utilization (visits to the doctor in Costa Rica using an econometric approach. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Survey of Health for Costa Rica 2006. We modeled the Grossman approach to the demand for health services by using a standard negative binomial regression, and used a hurdle model for the principal-agent specification. Results: The factors determining healthcare utilization were level of education, self-assessed health, number of declared chronic diseases and geographic region of residence. Conclusion: The number of outpatient visits to the doctor depends on the proxies for medical need, but we found no multivariate association between the use of outpatient visits and income or insurance status. This result suggests that

  16. Pura Vida: Teacher Experiences in a Science Education Study Abroad Course in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Stephanie Rae

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of classroom teachers who participated in a science-focused study abroad during their time as a preservice teacher and to explore how they are using their study abroad experiences in science curriculum planning and in classroom instruction. This study is guided by two research questions: 1) what are the study abroad experiences that have influenced classroom teachers; and, 2) how do classroom teachers incorporate study abroad experiences into science curriculum planning and instruction in the classroom? Participants were two in-service science teachers from schools located in the Southwestern United States. The participants were enrolled in the course, Environmental Science and Multicultural Experience for K-8 Teachers offered through the Department of Educational Leadership, Curriculum and Instruction during their time as preservice teachers. The course included a two-week study abroad component in Costa Rica. Participants spent their mornings observing a monolingual, Spanish-speaking elementary classroom followed by a faculty-led multicultural seminar. Afternoons during the study abroad experience were dedicated to field science activities such as quantifying plant and animal biodiversity, constructing elevation profiles, determining nutrient storage in soil, and calculating river velocity. Throughout the course students participated in science-focused excursions. A cross case study design was used to answer the two research questions guiding this dissertation study. Data collection included participant-created concept maps of the science experiences during the study abroad experience, in-depth interviews detailing the study abroad experience and classroom instruction, and participant reflective journal entries. Cross-caseanalysis was employed to explore the uniqueness of each participant's experience and commonalities between the cases. Trustworthiness was established by utilizing multiple sources of data

  17. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  18. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  19. El diagnóstico prenatal de defectos cromosómicos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Castro Volio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una breve reseña histórica del diagnóstico prenatal citogenético en Costa Rica. Se realiza únicamente en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud de la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 1984. Sirve a los hospitales de la seguridad social y a la medicina privada. Trabajamos con muestras de líquido amniótico y de sangre fetal enviadas por los perinatólogos, provenientes de embarazos de alto riesgo, ya sea por presentar alteraciones en el ultrasonograma, marcadores sonográficos de aneuploidía o edad materna avanzada, entre otras indicaciones menos frecuentes. El diagnóstico se realiza en el segundo y en el tercer trimestre de gestación. Como la interrupción del embarazo no es permitida, el personal médico y la familia se prepara con tiempo para recibir de la mejor manera al neonato afectado. En los casos de cariotipo normal, esta información alivia la preocupación de los padres.Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomic defects in Costa Rica. This is an historical overview of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in Costa Rica. It started in 1984 at the Institute for Health Research of the University of Costa Rica. This is the only fetal cytogenetic diagnosis facility in the country and serves social security as well as private patients. Perinatologists send amniotic fluid and fetal blood samples from high risk pregnancies, mainly due to abnormal ultrasound assessment, sonographic markers of aneuploidy and advanced maternal age. Second and third trimester diagnosis allows the development of coping strategies for the families of affected fetuses, since pregnancy interruption is not permitted. Normal fetal cytogenetic results provide reassurance to the parents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 545-549. Epub 2004 Dic 15.

  20. Educational gradients in psychotropic medication use among older adults in Costa Rica and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Dow, William H; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The relationship of education, psychiatric diagnoses, and use of psychotropic medication has been explored in the United States, but little is known about this relationship in poorer countries, despite the high burden of mental illness in these countries. This study estimated educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic drug use in the United States and Costa Rica, a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Analyses were conducted by using data of older adults (≥60) from the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=4,788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (N=2,827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of education level (low, medium, or high) and urban residence on the rates of self-reported mental health diagnoses, screening diagnosis, and psychotropic medication use with and without an associated psychiatric diagnosis. Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the United States (12%) than in Costa Rica (20%), possibly reflecting differences in survey wording. In both countries, the odds of having depression were significantly lower among persons with high education. In Costa Rica, use of psychotropic medication among persons with self-reported diagnoses increased by education level. The educational gradients in medication use were different in the United States and Costa Rica, and stigma and access to care in these countries may play an important role in these differences, although type of insurance did not affect educational gradients in the United States. These analyses increase the evidence of the role of education in use of the health care system.

  1. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  2. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  3. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F González-Maya

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26% of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5% in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  4. [Attitude of primary care professionals to gender violence. A comparative study between Catalonia and Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Loría, Kattia; Gutiérrez Rosado, Teresa; Alvarado, Ricardo; Fernández Sánchez, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Describe the relationship between the attitude towards violence against women (VAW) of professionals of the health of primary care with variables such professional satisfaction, workload, orientation of professional practice, knowledge, training and use of network in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Cross-exploratory and comparative study. Primary care in Barcelona and nearby counties and the Greater Metropolitan Area (GAM) of Costa Rica. 235 primary health professionals of Medicine, Nursing, Psychology and Social Work. Questionnaire with eight sections about attitudes, professional satisfaction, and orientation of professional practice, workload, knowledge, training and use of network. Three types of analysis were carried out: a descriptive one by country; a bivariate analysis; and a multivariable linear regression model. Primary Health Professionals attitudes towards VAW health were similar in both contexts (Catalonia: 3.90 IC 95% 3.84-3.96; Costa Rica: 4.03 IC 95% 3.94-4.13). The variables associated with attitudes towards VAW were: Use of network resources (B=0.20, 95% CI -0.14-0.25, P=<.001), Training (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.17, P=<0.001), and country, Costa Rica (B=0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.25, P=<0.001). There was no interaction between the country and the other variables, suggesting that the association between the variables and the attitude is similar in both countries. The results suggest that increased use of network resources and training are related to a positive attitude towards VWA in primary health professionals, both in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. INFLACIÓN E INCERTIDUMBRE INFLACIONARIA: EVIDENCIA PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Solera Ramírez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se estima una medida de la incertidumbre inflacionaria. Un modelo de inflación señala incertidumbre cuando los errores de pronóstico son heteroscedásticos. Por medio de la especificación de una ecuación GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity, para la varianza del término de error de un modelo de inflación, es posible estimar una proxy de incertidumbre inflacionaria. La estimación simultánea del modelo de inflación y de la ecuación GARCH, produce un nuevo modelo de inflación en el cual los errores de pronóstico son homocedásticos. Existe consenso en la literatura económica en que hay una correlación positiva entre incertidumbre inflacionaria y la magnitud de la tasa de inflación, lo cual, como lo señaló Friedman (1977, representa uno de los costos asociados con la persistencia inflacionaria. Esto es porque tal incertidumbre dificulta la toma de decisiones óptimas por parte de los agentes económicos.La evidencia empírica, para el periodo 1954:01-2002:08, apoya la hipótesis de que para el caso de Costa Rica mientras mayor es la inflación mayor es la incertidumbre respecto a esta variable. En los últimos siete años (1997-2002 la incertidumbre presenta la variación media más baja de todo el periodo. Además, se identifica un efecto asimétrico de la inflación sobre la incertidumbre inflacionaria, es decir, la incertidumbre inflacionaria tiende a incrementarse más para el siguiente periodo cuando la inflación pronosticada está por debajo de la inflación actual, que cuando la inflación pronosticada está por arriba de la tasa observada de inflación. Estos resultados tienen una clara implicación para la política monetaria. Para minimizar la dificultad que la inflación causa en la toma óptima de decisiones de los agentes económicos es necesario perseguir no solamente un nivel bajo de inflación sino que también sea estable.AbstractThis paper estimates a measure of

  6. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt A. Haberyan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2 , but low in dissolved O2 ; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic. The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1, Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.Se visitaron 51 lagos en Costa Rica como parte de un sondeo de lagos más amplio, con el fin de documentar sus carácteristicas físicas y químicas y las relaciones entre estas carácteristicas y el modo

  7. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  8. A trajetória profissional de Flora Costa Marques: ex-aluna da Escola de Enfermagem Aurora de Afonso Costa (1950-1983 La trayectoria profesional de Flora Costa Marques: ex-alumna de la Escuela de Enfermería Aurora de Afonso Costa (1950-1983 The professional trajectory of Flora Costa Marques: former student of the Aurora de Afonso Costa School of Nursing (1950-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenith Rosa Silvino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de cunho histórico social descreve a trajetória de Flora Costa Marques, uma ex-aluna da antiga Escola de Enfermagem do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, atual Escola de Enfermagem Aurora de Afonso Costa, na Saúde Pública do município de Niterói, destacando as contribuições da Escola à formação de enfermeiras para atuação no campo da saúde pública. O recorte temporal é de 1950, ano de formatura da segunda turma do curso de graduação em enfermagem da referida escola, a 1983, ano da aposentadoria da enfermeira. Utilizamos o método história de vida e como técnica de coleta a entrevista aberta. Ao analisarmos a trajetória da enfermeira, observamos que as atividades desenvolvidas na época remetem aos Programas atuais: Programa Saúde da Família, Programa Médico da Família e Programa Agentes Comunitários de Saúde. Assim, as contribuições da Escola, com ênfase na área da saúde pública, consolidaram-se através do preparo de enfermeiras que lidam com as mais variadas adversidades no campo da saúde.La investigación de enfoque histórico y social describe la trayectoria de Flora Costa Marques, una ex-alumna de la antigua Escuela de Enfermería del Estado de Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, actual Escuela de Enfermería Aurora de Afonso Costa, en la Salud Pública del municipio de Niteroi, destacando las contribuciones de la Escuela a la formación de enfermeras para actuación en el campo de la salud pública. El tiempo va desde 1950, año de la licenciatura de la segunda turma del curso de graduación de enfermeros de la referida escuela, hasta 1983, año de la jubilación de la enfermera. Utilizamos el método historia de vida y como técnica de colecta la entrevista abierta. Al analizar la trayectoria de la enfermera, se ha observado que las actividades a la época remiten a los Programas actuales: Programa Salud de la Familia, Programa Médico de Familia y Programa Agentes Comunitarios de Salud. Así, las contribuciones

  9. Energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)

  10. Some effects of temperature and starvation on the bivalve @iDonax vittatus@@ (da Costa) in experimental laboratory populations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansell, A.D.; Sivadas, P.

    The effect of temperature on the body weight and composition, and on respiration, filtration and NH, excretion of the bivalve Donax uittatus (da Costa) has been investigated in laboratory-maintained populations under conditions of starvation In all...

  11. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica dataset was created using an automated...

  12. Individual foraging, activity level and longevity in the stingless bee Melipona beecheii in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Tóth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or

  13. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  14. Heavy metal and selenium levels in endangered wood storks Mycteria americana from nesting colonies in Florida and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Rodgers, J A; Gochfeld, M

    1993-05-01

    Colonially-nesting birds often nest in coastal areas, along rivers, or near other bodies of water that also are potentially polluted from industrial, agricultural or urban development. The levels of heavy metals and selenium were examined in the feathers of young wood storks Mycteria americana nesting in Northeastern Florida and from adult and young storks nesting on the Tempisque River on the west coast of Costa Rica. There were no significant yearly differences among the chicks from Costa Rica. Concentration of mercury, cadmium, and lead were significantly higher in the chicks from Florida compared to those from Costa Rica. Adult wood storks at Costa Rica had significantly higher levels of lead, cadmium, selenium, and manganese than young from the same colony.

  15. LA DOLARIZACIÓN PARCIAL EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Méndez Quesada

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina la magnitud, la evolución y explora las causas de la creciente preferencia hacia activos financieros en moneda extranjera como depósito de valor (sustitución de activos y en algún grado como medio de pago (sustitución monetaria en una economía de inflación moderada, sin antecedentes cercanos de crisis ni experiencias de confiscación de depósitos como es Costa Rica.La magnitud de la sustitución por parte del dólar estadounidense de las funciones que desempeña tradicionalmente la moneda local se aproxima a través de varios indicadores basados en razones de depósitos en moneda extranjera con respecto a sus similares en moneda local con frecuencia mensual de 1990 al 2002. Además, se identifican los factores que explican la demanda relativa de los depósitos bancarios según su grado de liquidez y se buscan evidencias de irreversibilidad del proceso (histéresis mediante variables de tipo “ratchet”.Como factores explicativos del fenómeno, se plantean la probable influencia de elementos institucionales y de los estímulos económicos derivados de la globalización de la economía y de los diferenciales de rendimientos financieros. Pero se sostiene también que las políticas monetaria y cambiaria han tenido efectos en el nivel de dolarización alcanzado por la economía costarricense; por una parte, la política deencajes llevada a cabo desde 1996 favoreció la constitución de depósitos en moneda extranjera (y la intermediación de esos fondos ha debido generar la expansión secundaria de esos recursos y, por otra, el ajuste cambiario siempre alcista bajo el régimen de minidevaluaciones ha estimulado la sustitución de activos.Se concluye en general que la dolarización de depósitos bancarios ha alcanzado niveles muy elevados (50% del total y la significancia de la variable “ratchet” da indicios de que el proceso es de difícil reversión por lo que es de esperar que se mantenga en el futuro la

  16. Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Lopez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854 fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum, and Vismia constituted 85% of all plants found in fecal samples. Feeding niche breadth differed significantly among the six most common species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata, Dermanura sp., and Glossophaga commissarisi. All species, except for Dermanura sp., showed a diet dominated by one or two plant species. This suggests a pattern of resource partitioning at a generic level, in which Carollia consumed mainly Piper, Artibeus consumed Ficus and Cecropia, and Glossophaga consumed Vismia. Cluster analysis revealed higher values of food niche overlap in congeneric species than among species of different genera. Results show that if food is a limiting factor, mechanisms other than trophic selection must reduce interspecific interference or competition for food in this frugivorous bat guild. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 301-313. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos los hábitos alimentarios de 15 especies de murciélagos frugívoros en la Estación Biológica La Selva. Se analizó 854 muestras de heces y 169 muestras de restos de frutos y semillas en comederos. Durante ocho meses de estudio, se identificó 47 especies de frutos, que fueron consumidos por los murciélagos. Cinco géneros de plantas (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum y Vismia constituyeron el 85% de los hallazgos en las muestras de heces y los comederos. La amplitud de nicho trófico difirió significativamente entre las seis especies de murciélagos frugívoros más frecuentemente capturados (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata

  17. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.Myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome are two genetically determined relatively common disabilities. Both are examples of a new type of mutation mechanism called unstable or dynamic mutations, triple repeats expansions or DNA amplification. Fragile X syndrome is recognized as the main cause of hereditary mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy is considered the most common muscular dystrophy of adults. This is a prospective non randomized study of clinically affected people, in order to confirm the diagnosis with

  18. Basidiomicetes de Costa Rica: nuevas especies de Exobasidium (Exobasidiaceae y registros de Cryptobasidiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis D. Gómez P

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen seis nuevas especies (Exobasidiales, Exobasidiaceae: Exobasidium aequatorianum parásito de Vaccinium crenatum (Don Sleumer en los Andes ecuatorianos; Exobasidium jamaicense como parásito de Lyonia jamaicensis (Sw.D.Don de Jamaica, Exobasidium disterigmicola como parásito de Disterigma huboldtii (Klz. Nied., de Costa Rica y que forma distrofias del tipo escoba de bruja, Exobasidium sphyrospermii de Costa Rica, como parásito de Sphyrospermum cordifolium Bentham, Exobasidium poasanum, de Costa Rica y que forma gigantescas pseudoagallas en hojas y yemas de Cavendishia bracteata (R. & P. ex St.-Hil. Hoer., Exobasidium pernettyae, de Costa Rica y parásito foliar de Pernettya prostrata (Cav. DC. Es muy posible que esas especies de parásitos se extiendan en todo el ámbito geografico de las plantas que parasitan, como lo demuestra el hallazgo de Exobasidium escalloniae Gómez & Kisimova, descrito de Costa Rica, en Escallonia myrtilloides var. patens, en Ecuador de donde tambien se registra Exobasidium vaccinii (Fkl. Wor. Como parásito de las especies costarricenses de Arctostaphylos y Comarostaphylos, se registra, describe e lustra la especie Exobasidium arctostaphyli Hark., descrita de la coasta occidental de los E.E.U.U. lo que constituye un nuevo registro neotropical. La exploración en búsqueda de criptobasidiáceas eleva el número de Cryptobasidiales registrados en Costa Rica a tres: Clinoconidium bullatum Sydow, originalmente descrito de las inmediaciones de Grecia, Alajuela, ahora se conoce también de Monteverde, Puntarenas, como parásito de Cinnamomum spp., Clinoconidium farinosum (P.Henn. Pat., de la misma localidad y como parásito de Ocotea monteverdensis Burger. En la Cordillera de Talamanca, se localizó una población de Aiouea costaricensis (Mez Kosterm., con numerosas agallas foliares y caulinares causadas por Drepanoconis larviformis (Speg. Speg. Con excepción de C. bullatum, todos son nuevos registros

  19. Patrones diferenciales de mortalidad entre inmigrantes nicaragüenses y residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring, Andrew A.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  20. La población con discapacidad en los censos del siglo XX en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Vargas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se logró conocer los criterios de clasificación empleados para definir a la población con discapacidad en los registros censales del siglo XX en Costa Rica y, por consiguiente, una aproximación a las formulaciones conceptuales para referirse al grupo en estudio. Además, se caracterizó a ese segmento poblacional a partir de diferentes variables: sexo, edad, estado civil y distribución geográfica. También se abordaron otros aspectos como fueron: alfabetismo, nivel de educación, ocupación, jefatura de hogar y vivienda. Entre los hallazgos más destacables se encuentra la permanencia, en los registros censales del siglo XX, de un concepto de discapacidad basado en la deficiencia, lo que definió los criterios de clasificación para esa población en esas fuentes. Asimismo se constató, por una parte, la asociación entre discapacidad e inequidad en esa centuria y, por la otra, la fragilidad de los vínculos de parentesco en ese grupo poblacional con respecto al conjunto de hogares de Costa Rica a fines de ese siglo. Las fuentes empleadas en esta investigación fueron los censos de población de Costa Rica del siglo XX. En el procedimiento con los datos, se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo de distribución de frecuencias.This research discloses the classification criteria used to define the population with disability in the twentieth century census records in Costa Rica and therefore gives an approximation of the conceptual formulations needed to refer to the examined group. Additionally, a segment of the population has been characterized by sex, age, marital status and geographical distribution. Other aspects like literacy rate, education level, occupation, head of household and housing were also dealt with. The disability concept based on deficiency, which defined the classification criteria for the population in those data sources, is among the most significant findings of this research. Furthermore, it was found

  1. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 919-926. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Entre 1993-97, observamos el comportamiento de alimentación de la lapa roja (Ara macao en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica. La lapa roja se alimentó de semillas, frutas, hojas, flores y corteza de 43 especies de plantas. Varias partes de las plantas comidas por las lapas contienen compuestos secundarios tóxicos al ser humano, y especies adicionales incluidas en la dieta son exóticas; introducidas por razones agrícolas, forestales o estéticas. Especies de árboles importantes como alimento de la lapa roja incluyen: Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, y Hura crepitans; también son criticas para la población de la lapa roja debido a proveen cavidades para anidaci

  2. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  3. Avances en la reducción del consumo de sal y sodio en Costa Rica Advances in reducing salt and sodium intake in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Blanco-Metzler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describen los avances logrados en Costa Rica -así como los desafíos y limitaciones- en la reducción del consumo de sal. El establecimiento del Plan Nacional para la Reducción del Consumo de Sal/sodio en la Población de Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 se complementó con programas y proyectos multisectoriales específicos dirigidos a: 1 conocer la ingesta de sodio y el contenido de sal o sodio en los alimentos de mayor consumo; identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos del consumidor respecto a la sal/sodio, su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricio-nal; evaluar la relación costo-efectividad de las medidas dirigidas a reducir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial; 2 implementar estrategias para disminuir el contenido de sal/sodio en los alimentos procesados y los preparados en casa; 3 promover cambios de conducta en la población para reducir el consumo de sal en la alimentación; y 4 monitorear y evaluar las acciones dirigidas a reducir el consumo de sal o sodio en la población. Para alcanzar las metas propuestas se debe lograr una exitosa coordinación interinstitucional con los actores estratégicos, negociar compromisos con la industria alimentaria y los servicios de alimentación, y mejorar la regulación de los nutrientes críticos asociados con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, en los alimentos. Se espera que a partir de los avances logrados durante la ejecución del Plan Nacional, Costa Rica logre alcanzar la meta internacional de reducción del consumo de sal.This article describes the progress-as well as the challenges and limitations-in reducing salt intake in Costa Rica. The National Plan to Reduce Public Consumption of Salt/Sodium in Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 was complemented with multisectoral programs and projects specifically designed to: 1 determine sodium intake and the salt/sodium content of the most widely consumed foods; identify the consumer knowledge, attitudes

  4. Caracterización del uso de medicamentos en personas adultas mayores, Costa Rica 2007 Characterization of medication use in the eldery, Costa Rica 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guillermo Jiménez Herrera; Xinia Fernández Rojas

    2008-01-01

    El proceso de utilización de medicamentos es complejo y las personas adultas mayores tienden a tener un mayor número de entidades patológicas y de medicamentos que complica el uso racional, adecuado y seguro de los medicamentos. Se caracterizó la utilización de medicamentos y se identificaron algunos factores asociados que le determinan en la persona adulta mayor mediante las bases de datos del estudio Costa Rica Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CRELES) en su primera ronda. U...

  5. Costa Rica as a source of emigrants: a reading from a political economy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gatica López

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Available data shows an increase in international migration departing from Costa Rica, mainly to the United States. Based on the data obtained from two surveys conducted with potential emigrants and families with members living abroad, this paper is aimed at understanding their reasons for emigrating. In addition, some socio-economic impacts in four suburbs with high rates of emigration are identified. From a political economy approach, the most appropriate framework to better understand these emigration cases is discussed.  Moreover, the transformation of the employment and productive matrix followed by Costa Rica during the last three decades, as well as the country’s form of insertion into the international economy are two structural factors strongly linked to the emigration of the subjects studied in this paper.

  6. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  7. SME´s semi-formality rate in Costa Rica: a clusters approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The MSME Observatory has been studying MSMEs in Costa Rica. Its findings show that for every formal enterprise, there are 2.4 semi-formal ones. The latter refers to those enterprises that have already started the formalization process with the corresponding municipality but that still do not have all the formalization requirements.Owing to the importance of the semi-formal sector in the economic activity of Costa Rica, this study analyzed this business park and the role of municipal management concerning MSMEs, calculated the correlation among semi-formality, competitiveness, and development, and finally, proposed a cluster design to deal with the state of affairs. It should be noted that this type of analysis has never been undertaken in the country.

  8. Teachers of Language and Culture: A Thoughtful Look and Review of the Costa Rican Indigenous Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Guevara-Víquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay is part of the products from the Reconstruction of Knowledge project –attached to the Division of Rural Education of the National University of Costa Rica. This work seeks to create a thoughtful look regarding the existing indigenous education model in Costa Rica in general– and particularly in Talamanca. A methodology based on collaborative action research with indigenous teachers in the region of Talamanca Bribri and Talamanca Cabécar was used as a starting point. This methodology combined focus group discussions and individual interviews with a qualitative approach that allowed generating a series of critical impressions about the education system where they work. All this will lead to a summary of insights and specific recommendations that would strengthen the educational system for the indigenous population of Talamanca and would allow moving towards a true model of Intercultural Bilingual Education.

  9. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  10. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G

    2003-04-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere.

  11. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Granados Zúñiga; Liliana Pazos Sanou

    1998-01-01

    Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunología, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 19...

  12. Helminths of hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examination of a stranded hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata from Pacific coast of Costa Rica revealed the presence of a rich digenean fauna including Carettacola stunkardi (Spirorchiidae, Enodiotrema reductum (Plagiorchiidae, Cricocephalus albus, Adenogaster serialis, Epi-bathra crassa, Pleurogonius lobatus, P. trigonocephalus, P. linearis, and Pyelosomum posterorchis (Pronocephalidae. All helminths except C. albus and P. lobatus represent new geographical records for Costa Rica. Carettacola stunkardi is reported for first time in an Eastern Pacific hawksbill turtle and its pathological changes are here described. Histologically, nodular lesions on the serosal surface of intestine revealed a mixed infiltrate of heterophils, lymphocytes, and histiocytes within necrotic debris. Granulomas with spirorchiid eggs were observed in the mucosa, sub-mucosa and muscular layers of stomach and intestine, gallbladder and liver.

  13. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  14. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. I - Biphase Costas loop with passive arm filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    Unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) is an attractive means for transmitting two digital data streams which in general have different average powers, data rates, and data formats. Previous analyses of the tracking performance of Costas loop demodulators of unbalanced QPSK have accounted only for the filtering effect produced by the loop's two arm filters on the equivalent additive noise perturbing the loop. When the bandwidth of these filters is selected on the basis of the order of the data rate, as is typical of optimum Costas loop design, the filtering degradations of the data modulations themselves and the cross-modulation noise produced by their multiplication in the loop often cannot be neglected. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate these additional filtering effects into the analysis. Many of the results obtained herein are in the form of closed-form expressions which can easily be evaluated numerically for design and performance prediction purposes.

  15. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  16. New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae from Costa Rica and Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte H. Jordal

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Scolytodes (tribe Ctenophorini are described as new to science: S. concavus and S. circumsetosus (from Ficus branches, La Selva, S. montanus (Monteverde, S. nudifrons (Las Cruces near San Vito, and S. triangulus (fogging sample, La Selva, all from Costa Rica, and S. ungulatus (Cerro Punta and S. punctifrons (from Astronium graveolens, Canal Zone, both from Panama. New distributional and host plant data are given for the following species: S. amoenus (Ficus branch, La Selva, and the first record south of Mexico, S. immanis (Cerro de La Muerte, S. impressus (Xylopia branch, Peninsula de Osa, S. ochromae (Ochroma branch, La Selva, S. piceus (fogging sample, La Selva, the first low altitude record, and S. swieteniae (fogging sample, La Selva and Braulio Carrillo, the first exact locality data, all from Costa Rica, and S. nanellus (Barro Colorado Island from Panama.

  17. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  18. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  19. Empirical findings on socioeconomic determinants of fertility differentials in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, M J; Geithman, D T

    1986-01-01

    "This paper seeks to (1) identify socioeconomic variables that are expected to generate fertility differentials; (2) hypothesize the direction and magnitude of the effect of each variable by reference to a demand-for-children model; and (3) test empirically the model using evidence from Costa Rica. The estimates are obtained from a ten-percent systematic random sample of all Costa Rican individual-family households. There are 15,924 families in the sample...." The authors specifically seek "to capture the effects of changing relative prices and available income and time constraints on parental preferences for children. Least-squares estimates show statistically significant relationships between household fertility and opportunity cost of time, parental education, occurrence of an extended family, medical care, household sanitation, economic sector of employment, and household stock of nonhuman capital." excerpt

  20. Arsenic determination in water supplies for human consumption of the province of Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero-Campos, Virginia; Quesada-Kimsey, Jaime; Ledezma-Espinoza, Aura; Sandoval-Mora, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific knowledge about hydroarsenicism must be disclosed in Latin America. The presence of arsenic has been detected in waters of Costa Rica that have been used for human consumption, in areas of risk; specifically in the province of Cartago, in the cantons of Oreamuno, Central, Paraiso and Alvarado. A quantification of reduced form trivalent arsenic was performed with the methodology of the 7062 Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, through volatile metal hydride generation by flame atomic absorption. The analyzed samples have determined that maintaining the maximum extent permitted by current legislation Costa Rican, 10μg/L. Research areas have corresponded to areas of high risk for its volcanic nature. The vast water supply of the cantons under study, with areas of relative protection circling recharge areas of springs, has caused the population to consume water source underground, but surface direct influence, less influence of volcanic rocks that are found at greater depths. (author) [es

  1. Breadwinning women: Economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to Costa Rican households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Salazar Mayorga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to the household income, in comparison to the income their partners generate, in Costa Rica.  From a perspective of gender roles, human capital theory and female labor participation, this paper examines what variables influence the probability of contribution.  Based on data by the 2014 National Household Survey, this study found that 51% percent of married or cohabiting women do not generate any income, which shows there is an unequal economic relationship in half of Costa Rican households and the males assume the breadwinning role.  Household chores and the number of children reduce the probability of economic contribution.  On the other hand, women with more years of schooling have a higher probability to contribute equally to the couple’s total income.

  2. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presentan las acciones realizadas dentro del Proyecto Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Aseguramiento de la calidad: políticas públicas y gestión universitaria financiado con fondos de la Unión Europea y coordinado, de manera general, por el Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, CINDA. Participan 16 universidades latinoamericanas y 7 universidades europeas, y el objetivo general del proyecto es mejorar la gestión de la calidad de la Educación Superior, tanto a nivel de los sistemas nacionales como de las instituciones de Educación Superior, y contribuir con la generación de conocimiento y confianzas mutuas acerca de la calidad de la Educación Superior entre los países latinoamericanos y europeos. Como parte de las actividades desarrolladas se llevaron a cabo estudios en 7 países (5 de Latinoamérica y 2 de Europa para evaluar el impacto de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad implementados en las universidades. En Costa Rica, el proyecto ha sido coordinado y ejecutado por la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 2009 hasta la fecha. El estudio se realizó en dos universidades estatales y dos privadas, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizaron 26 entrevistas presenciales y 8 sesiones de grupo a las diferentes poblaciones definidas en el estudio, además, se realizaron un total de 652 encuestas a estudiantes activos y a personas egresadas. Los principales resultados obtenidos en Costa Rica se resumen en este artículo, de acuerdo con los niveles y dimensiones de calidad que fueron definidos en el marco referencial del proyecto.Abstract: The article presents actions carried out in Costa Rica, in the frame of the project Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Quality assurance: public policies and management in universities. This project is funded by the European Commission and its general coordination is in charge of the Inter-university Center for Development (CINDA, in

  3. Mapas de inundación por tsunamis en Playas del Coco y Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Sauma, Natalia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación presenta algunos de los resultados obtenidos por el proyecto "Mapa de inundación por tsunamis para Costa Rica, primera fase, Puntarenas y Playas del Coco". Muestra los resultados obtenidos con respecto a simulaciones realizadas. Explica información del ambiente tectónico de la zona. Finalmente, expone algunas de las acciones de reducción del riesgo de inundación por tsunami y mitigación This investigation includes some of the results obtained in the project "Flood Map by Tsunamis in Costa Rica, First Stage: Puntarenas and Playas del Coco." It shows the results obtained as a result of simulations. It explains information about the tectonic environment of the zone. Finally, it exposes some of actions to reduce tsunami flood risk and mitigation

  4. Diccionario histórico-toponímico de la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Eduardo Díaz Bolaños

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron de distintas fuentes documentales los nombres de setenta y seis topónimos correspondientes a los principales accidentes topográficos del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Estos se pueden agrupar en cuatro grupos principales, como son aquellos pertenecientes a las visitas de navegantes británicos, la vida republicana en Costa Rica y aquellos de la flora y fauna, tanto terrestre como marina. La metodología empleada ha permitido identificar setenta y uno de estos topónimos. Conceptualmente, el dinamismo del abordaje metodológico y la divulgación de sus resultados sugieren tener implícito un proceso de retroalimentación.

  5. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  6. Turmoil at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica): Degassing and eruptive processes inferred from high-frequency gas monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, J. Maarten; Aiuppa, A.; Avard, G.; Wehrmann, H.; Dunbar, N.; Muller, C.; Tamburello, G.; Giudice, G.; Liuzzo, M.; Moretti, R.; Conde, V.; Galle, B.

    2016-08-01

    Eruptive activity at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) has escalated significantly since 2014, causing airport and school closures in the capital city of San José. Whether or not new magma is involved in the current unrest seems probable but remains a matter of debate as ash deposits are dominated by hydrothermal material. Here we use high-frequency gas monitoring to track the behavior of the volcano between 2014 and 2015 and to decipher magmatic versus hydrothermal contributions to the eruptions. Pulses of deeply derived CO2-rich gas (CO2/Stotal > 4.5) precede explosive activity, providing a clear precursor to eruptive periods that occurs up to 2 weeks before eruptions, which are accompanied by shallowly derived sulfur-rich magmatic gas emissions. Degassing modeling suggests that the deep magmatic reservoir is 8-10 km deep, whereas the shallow magmatic gas source is at 3-5 km. Two cycles of degassing and eruption are observed, each attributed to pulses of magma ascending through the deep reservoir to shallow crustal levels. The magmatic degassing signals were overprinted by a fluid contribution from the shallow hydrothermal system, modifying the gas compositions, contributing volatiles to the emissions, and reflecting complex processes of scrubbing, displacement, and volatilization. H2S/SO2 varies over 2 orders of magnitude through the monitoring period and demonstrates that the first eruptive episode involved hydrothermal gases, whereas the second did not. Massive degassing (>3000 T/d SO2 and H2S/SO2 > 1) followed, suggesting boiling off of the hydrothermal system. The gas emissions show a remarkable shift to purely magmatic composition (H2S/SO2 < 0.05) during the second eruptive period, reflecting the depletion of the hydrothermal system or the establishment of high-temperature conduits bypassing remnant hydrothermal reservoirs, and the transition from phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptive activity.

  7. Análisis de la relación comercial entre la República de Colombia y la República de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Escobar, Juán Sebastián; Bermudez Monroy, María Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Dadas las relaciones de cooperación internacional que presentan las Repúblicas de Colombia y Costa Rica, que se evidencia en los fuertes vínculos comerciales existentes entre las dos naciones, Proexport por medio de su oficina comercial en Costa Rica, ha mantenido al tanto la situación en la que se desenvuelve la alianza comercial entre Colombia y Costa Rica. Él último de estos informes, demuestra la potencialidad de Costa Rica como un mercado para los bienes colombianos y una posibilidad par...

  8. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  9. Hemidactylus frenatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae): call frequency, movement and condition of tail in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Caty Frenkel

    2006-01-01

    Call frequency and movements of the gecko Hemidactylus frenatus were studied in Punta Morales, Costa Rica from April 1999 through May 2000. Call activity of H. frenatus was positively related to air temperature at night and throughout the year. Higher activity was at dusk, dawn, and during the hottest months. Call frequency was related with gecko abundance per month, although not during the night. More males and females had a regenerated tail compared to juveniles, the last ones could have it...

  10. Inmigrantes nicaragüenses residentes en Costa Rica: barreras para recrearse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Salas, Carmen Grace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo es estudiar cómo se recrea la población migrante nicaragüense en Costa Rica. El estudio incluyó 13 personas residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información se recolectó por medio de entrevistas individuales, observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa y una entrevista grupal. Los datos de cada técnica se analizaron por aparte y luego se triangularon. Para efectos de este artículo, se toman en cuenta los resultados obtenidos en relación con (1 las barreras intrapersonales, las interpersonales y las estructurales; (2 las estrategias cognitivas y de comportamiento asociadas con la negociación para contrarrestar las barreras anteriores y participar en actividades recreativas en Costa Rica y (3 algunas de las barreras experimentadas por la población estudiada, las cuales causaron otras que limitaron la participación en distintas actividades recreativas.Abstract: This article presents the results of a qualitative research study aimed at knowing how the Nicaraguan migrant population recreates in Costa Rica. The study included 13 people living in the Metropolitan Area. The information was collected through interviews, observations of participation in a recreational activity and a group interview. The data were analyzed for each separate technique, and then triangulated. For purposes of this article, the results taken into account were the ones obtained in relation to (1 the intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural constraints; (2 the cognitive and behavioral strategies associated with the negotiation to counteract the previous barriers and to participate in recreational activities in Costa Rica; and (3 some of the barriers experienced by the population in this study which caused other constraints that limited its participation in various recreational activities.

  11. A census of mammal populations in Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Timock; Christopher Vaughan

    2002-01-01

    Population sizes of six mammal species were estimated using the King method during the late dry season (March) of 1996 in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica. The white-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus), coati (Nasua narica) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) with 148, 46, and 8 sighted individuals, respectively, demonstrated the largest populations in the refuge. The Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), tamandua anteater (Tamandua mexicana), and varie...

  12. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria del turismo de Costa Rica representa 7,5% de PNB, 21% de las exportaciones totales y de esa contribución el subsector de alimento y bebidas representa 28%. El propósito de esta investigación fue el de identifi car, elementos y obstáculos potenciales en jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias de universidades en Costa Rica. El estudio fue realizado entre estudiantes de artes culinarias en de la Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, las entrevistas realizadas fueron 237 todos los matriculados en artes culinarias. Ausencia de tradición, la falta de cultura empresarial entre los jóvenes estudiantes y la necesidad de apoyos de la familia y amigos parecen ser pertinente y una necesidad sentida por el grupo. La falta de instrucción general en negocio y la falta de iniciativa empresarial se reconoce por ambos grupos como una debilidad y necesidad. El "coaching" y el apoyo para mujeres empresarios es muy pertinente, en especial en los aspectos administrativos y técnicos en los jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias. La información generada por este estudio es importante si en verdad queremos entrenar con los programas en artes artes culinarias , la nueva casta de chef/empresarios necesarios para la expansión de la industria de la gastronomía en los próximos años para Costa Rica y la región.

  13. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Paul; Wild, Alexander; Whitfield, James

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  14. Elecciones: entre gamonalismo y civismo. El caso de Tumaco en la costa Pacífica

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo nace de un estudio de caso sobre las elecciones, el sistema de partidos y la cultura política en el municipio de Tumaco, en la costa Pacífica nariñense 1 En él se analizan las elecciones populares de alcaldes y las reformas en el marco de la nueva Constitución  de  1991.

  15. International Field Research with Undergraduate Students: Investigating Active Tectonics of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Gardner, T. W.; Protti, M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past eight years, 18 undergraduate students from 12 U.S. and Costa Rican universities and colleges have participated in field research projects investigating coastal tectonics on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. These projects have been organized around two different models: 1) a month-long "field camp" with 10 students and 5 project faculty (Keck Geology Consortium Project, 1998), and 2) several two-week field projects with 1-3 students and one faculty advisor (Cal Poly Pomona University and Trinity University). Under the direction of the authors, each of these projects has been carefully designed to provide a new piece to a larger research puzzle. The Nicoya Peninsula lies along Costa Rica's northern Pacific coast inboard of the Middle America Trench where the Cocos and Caribbean plates converge at 10 cm/yr. In 1950, the peninsula was shaken by a ~M 7.7 subduction earthquake that produced widespread damage and 0.5-1.0 m of coseismic coastal uplift. With a large slip deficit since 1950, the Nicoya Peninsula is viewed as a high-potential seismic gap. Field study of uplifted Quaternary marine terraces along the Nicoya coastline provides undergraduate students with a unique opportunity to examine rapid forearc deformation related to large subduction earthquakes. The field research conducted by each of these students provides the basis for a senior thesis at their home institution. In most cases, the students have focused their individual work on separate, but adjacent field areas. Collectively, each of these projects has generated significant data that contribute toward of an ongoing investigation of fore arc tectonics and subduction cycle earthquakes along the Costa Rican Pacific margin.

  16. Fundaciones para turbinas eólicas costa afuera Foundations for offshore wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alberto Villalobos Jara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el comienzo y la evolución de la hoy en día creciente mundialmente industria de la energía eólica costa afuera. Como un caso particular, se describe la actual política de energías renovables en el Reino Unido. Se explican las características de las cargas ambientales existentes costa afuera, tipos de suelos del fondo marino y las fundaciones que se utilizan comúnmente. El tipo de estructura y régimen de carga establecen nuevas condiciones desde el punto de vista de la Ingeniería Civil. Se presentan las cámaras a succión como una fundación alternativa para turbinas de viento costa afuera. Las cámaras a succión son actualmente una alternativa aceptada en vez de usar pilotes en aplicaciones para la industria del petróleo y el gas. Sin embargo, este no es el caso todavía en aplicaciones para aerogeneradores costa afuera.This paper describes the beginning and evolution of the now worldwide growing offshore wind energy industry. In particular, the current renewable energy policy in the UK is described. The characteristics of the environmental loads offshore, type of seabed soils and foundations commonly adopted are explained. The type of structure and loading regime establish new conditions from a Civil Engineering point of view. Suction caissons are introduced as an alternative foundation for offshore wind turbines. Suction caissons are currently an accepted alternative to pile foundations in applications for the oil and gas industry. However, this is not yet the case in applications for offshore wind turbines.

  17. Correlacion entre metodos de analisis de Zn disponible en cuatro ordenes de suelos de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy Molina; Elemer Bornemisza

    2001-01-01

    Se realizo una comparación entre métodos analisis del Zn disponible en 4 ordenes de sue- Analytilos de Costa Rica (Ultisoles, Vertisoles, Andisoles Inceptisoles, 25 de c/u), utilizando las siguientes soluciones extractoras: Olsen Modificado, Meh- lich 3, Morgan Modificado, DTPA y HC1. Las cantidades de Zn extrafdas dependieron de la natu- raleza qufmica de la solucion extractora. El HCl presento los contenidos mas altos de Zn en los chasuelos, excepto en Vertisoles....

  18. Does Eco-Certification Have Environmental Benefits? Organic Coffee in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Allen; Naranjo, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-certification of coffee, timber and other high-value agricultural commodities is increasingly widespread. In principle, it can improve commodity producers’ environmental performance, even in countries where state regulation is weak. However, evidence needed to evaluate this hypothesis is virtually nonexistent. To help fill this gap, we use detailed farm-level data to analyze the environmental impacts of organic coffee certification in central Costa Rica. We use propensity score matching t...

  19. Prácticas y comportamientos sexuales de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Salas-Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar las prácticas sexuales de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica para adquirir la infección por VIH, con el fin de promover una vida sexual sana y el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida. Se realizó una encuesta auto-administrada y anónima en la población estudiantil, durante el ciclo lectivo del año 2008 en las diferentes sedes que tiene la Universidad de Costa Rica en todo el país. Al final del trabajo de campo se logró recolectar un total de 497 cuestionarios. La distribución por sexo y edad representó en forma adecuada a la población estudiantil de la Universidad de Costa Rica donde no se dan grandes diferencias. La mayoría de los estudiantes son del área de Ciencias Sociales. El 86% de los estudiantes indicó haber tenido relaciones sexuales y el promedio de edad de inicio de las relaciones sexuales en ambos sexos, fue de 18 años. Un mayor porcentaje de las mujeres (43% respecto a los hombres (38,7% tuvieron la última relación sexual en menos de una semana. La monogamia y el uso de preservativo fueron considerados por la mayoría de los estudiantes como prácticas de sexo seguro. Al consultar a los encuestados donde habían recibido charlas, cursos sobre sexualidad o educación sexual, el sistema educativo fue la principal fuente de información sobre el tema. Esta información lleva a formular una serie de recomendaciones como la necesidad de ejecutar jornadas informativas para los estudiantes en especial las mujeres a través de los medios de comunicación de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

  20. On Branchiostoma californiense (Cephalochordata) from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, José A; Dean, Harlan K

    2010-01-01

    The cephalochordates are represented by the lancelets, of which species of the genus Branchiostoma are the best known. In recent years, these organisms have been the center of activity of studies focusing on the phylogenetic relationships of the chordates. In 1980, a survey of the benthos at 48 stations in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, yielded 265 specimens of the lancelet Branchiostoma californiense. A total of 48 specimens was also collected at an intertidal flat ...

  1. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Vaughan; Nicole Nemeth; Leonel Marineros

    2006-01-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds to...

  2. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  3. In vitro culture of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt. (Orange Phenotype) from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón-Cerdas, Randall; Flores-Mora, Dora María; Alvarado-Marchena, Luis; Schmidt-Durán, Alexander; Alvarado-Ulloa, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Tamarillo or tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea), is a fruit plant of commercial importance in countries such as Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, where it is consumed as a fresh or processed fruit. Traditionally, it is grown through seeds or plant cuttings, leading to problems regarding heterogeneity and quality of the planting material. In this research, an in vitro micropropagation protocol was developed for a domestic tree tomato, from Costa Rica, and of the orange phenotype; which has ...

  4. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845; Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893. This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  5. Biochemical and biological characterization of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Prezotto-Neto, Jos�� P; Kimura, Louise F; Alves, Andr�� F; Guti��rrez, Jos�� Mar��a; Otero, Rafael; Su��rez, Ana M; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites inflicted by the arboreal viperid snake Bothriechis schlegelii in humans are characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymosis at the site of the bite, rarely with blisters, local necrosis, or defibrination. Herein, a comparative study of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia (BsCo) and Costa Rica (BsCR) was carried out in order to compare their main activities and to verify the efficacy of Bothrops antivenom produced in Brazil to neutralize them. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE and z...

  6. Sex Worker Political Development in Costa Rica: from Informal Solidarities to Formal Organizing

    OpenAIRE

    Koné, Mzilikazi

    2014-01-01

    While many accounts of sex workers presume they lack agency, this project studies how people framed as powerless assert positions of power through social interactions, friendships, and organizing. I examine sex workers' politics and power from the perspective of a subset of female Costa Rican sex workers. I engage specifically with sex workers who organize, in order to theorize everyday experiences of politics, including solidarity building and acts of accommodation or resistance vis-à-vis st...

  7. [Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Costa Rica: epidemiologic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1991-01-01

    On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.

  8. Feather mites of the subfamily Proctophyllodinae (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4297, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-105 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Proctophyllodidae * systematics * new species * fauna * host associations * Passeriformes * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  9. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Elecciones: entre gamonalismo y civismo. El caso de Tumaco en la costa Pacífica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Helfrich-Bernal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nace de un estudio de caso sobre las elecciones, el sistema de partidos y la cultura política en el municipio de Tumaco en la Costa Pacífica nariñense. En él se analizan las elecciónes populares de alcaldes y las reformas en el marco de la nueva Constitución de 1991.

  11. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  12. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. A preliminary market research about tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Costa Rica (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon van Anrooy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to July 1995, a market trial was conducted in Costa Rica with the fresh water fish species. Colossoma macropomum, commonly named “tambaqui”. About 1200 fish with an average weight of 800g were obtained from the fish culture station of the Universidad Nacional near La Rita, Guápiles. About 20 fish were delivered each Monday initially to three and later to each of four fishdealers in Limón, Guápiles, San José and Heredia. The shopkeepers purchased the fish at a price of $1.40/kg, covering all production and transport costs, and sold it for $1.97/kg. The motivations of the consumers for purchasing the fish were: curiosity, low price, good taste and recommendations by the shopkeepers. Most of the participants appreciated the taste, meat texture, freshness, colour and appearance very much. Some repondents criticized the amount of intramuscular spines in the fish. Eighty nine percent of the consumers intended to purchase more of the fish and 38% preferred this fish species above all other species. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of gender, householdsize or income level on the responses of the costumers. Chinese costumers were the only group discernible in the survey. Almost all participants thought tambaqui could get a good market position in Costa Rica. This trial shows that the price can be increased a little without losing much customers, but promotion would be necessary to get the product more known among the Costa Rican Population. The production of tambaqui could meet part of the demand for low priced fish in Costa Rica.

  14. Análisis de la conducta en costa rica y Guatemala: presente y futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Villalobos Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe el desarrollo reciente del análisis de la conducta en Costa Rica yGuatemala, luego se realizan una serie de comentarios sobre la necesidad de construir, adaptarimplementar un análisis de la conducta centroamericano, involucrado en los problemassociales reales y macro de la región como estrategia de mantenimiento y difusión del mismo.

  15. PCB concentrations in intertidal sipunculan (Phylum Sipuncula) marine worms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spongberg, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Specimens of the sipunculans Phascolosoma perlucens, Antillesoma antillarum, and Sipunculus nudus, were collected for PCB analysis in three coastal embayments of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in October 2005. After collection the worms were kept in cool sea water and transferred to the laboratory for freeze drying. Half of the specimens of S. nudus were purified in filtered sea water for 72 h before freeze drying. The whole worm sample was ground, using a mortar and pestle prior to being extracted with dichloromethane solvent. The extract was cleaned using a florisil column and analyzed using a 6890 Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Recovery efficiencies averaged between 72 and 80 %. Data are not corrected for blank or recovery efficiencies. Concentration data were calculated based on comparison with standards for Arochlor 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254 (Supelco, Inc.). No worm samples were identified with six of more chlorine atoms. However, the higher chlorinated congeners were identified in the standards. Therefore, the lack of chlorination in the worms was not an analytical artifact. The sum of identifiable PCBs ranged from a barely discernible 0.01 ng/g dry wt in an A. antillarum sample from Bahia de Culebra to 67.71 ng/g dry wt in a P. perlucens sample obtained near the Rio Rincon in the inner Golfo Dulce. S. nudus worm samples from the Cocorocas sand flat in the Golfo de Nicoya had relatively high concentrations of PCBs whether they were purified or not. The samples from Costa Rica are low in PCBs, especially compared to the marine sediment samples measured previously in Costa Rica. This was the first attempt to identify and quantify the presence of PCBs in any marine organisms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. (author) [es

  16. Ética, cinema e documentário - Poéticas de Pedro Costa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Melo Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no specific documentary ethics but ethics film covers it, without ignoring the rules of conduct recommended in the documentary. In the films of Pedro Costa the border is crossed between documentary and fiction, especially in its central diptych, according to an ethics and the technology determines its aesthetics. Making movies is ethical and political.

  17. Diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad de Huntington en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Cerdas, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Tesis (magíster scientiae en biología con énfasis en genética y biología molecular)--Universidad de Costa Rica. Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, 2005. UCR::Investigación::Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado::Ciencias Básicas::Maestría Académica en Biología con énfasis en Genética y Biología Molecular

  18. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Decapoda (Penaeoidea, Sergestoidea, Caridea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Palinura del Pacífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vargas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Pacífico de Costa Rica se ha encontrado 117 especies de camarones y langostas. Estas se ubican en el Suborden Dendrobranchiata (Penaeoidea, 25 spp.; Sergestoidea, 1 sp.; y en el Suborden Pleocyemata (Caridea, 73 spp.; Astacidea, 1 sp; Thalassinidea, 13 spp. y Palinura, 4 spp.. Veintisiete especies (23% son nuevos infomes para Costa Rica. Cinco informes representan ampliaciones de ámbito, tres de importancia: Pontonia simplex (Holthuis, 1951 se extiende la distribución desde la bahía Tenacatitán, México hasta bahía Culebra, Guanacaste; Veleronia serratifrons (Holthuis, 1951 se amplia la distribución al norte desde La Libertad, Ecuador hasta Sámara, Guanacaste y Axiopsis serratifrons (A. Milne Edwards, 1873 también al norte desde la isla Gorgona, Colombia hasta bahía Culebra, Guanacaste. Nueve especies fueron descritas con material recolectado en Costa Rica y dos son endémicas. 43% de las especies de camarones del Pacífico este se encuentran en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. El total de especies indicado aquí es probablemente una subestimación de la diversidad de estos grupos en el Pacífico de Costa Rica.A total of 117 species of shrimp and lobster are known from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. They belong to the Suborders Dendrobranchiata, Superfamily Penaeoidea (26 species and Pleocyemata, Infraorder Caridea (73, Astacidea (one, Thalassinidea (13, and Palinura (four species. Twenty seven species (23% are reported for the first time for Costa Rica. The distribution range of five species is extended, three of which are significant: Pontonia simplex (Holthuis, 1951 from Tenacatitán Bay, México to Culebra Bay, Guanacaste; Veleronia serratifrons (Holthuis, 1951 from La Libertad, Ecuador to Sámara, Guanacaste and Axiopsis serratifrons (A. Milne Edwards, 1873 from Gorgona Island, Colombia to Culebra Bay, Guanacaste. Nine species, two of which are endemic, were described based on specimens collected in Costa Rica. Forty

  19. A new vanilla species from Costa Rica closely related to V. planifolia (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Azofeifa-Bolaños

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new vanilla species growing in sympatry with Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews (Orchidaceae in the province of Limón, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The morphology of the reproductive and vegetative organs observed on vines cultivated under shade-house, the nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer and plastid (matK nucleotide sequences, as well as the contents of aromatic compounds measured in ripe fruits, show that this species is close to but distinct from V. planifolia. The name V. sotoarenasii M.Pignal, Azofeifa-Bolaños & Grisoni sp. nov. is proposed for this new Vanilla species endemic in Costa Rica. It is especially distinguished from V. planifolia by a reduction of about 30% of the size of the fruits and flowers, by a divergence of ITS sequences for at least two species-conserved nucleotides compared to seven other species of the V. planifolia group, and by the presence of anisic compounds and low content of phenolic compounds (including vanillin in the fruits. These results confirmed the extension of the area of distribution of V. planifolia southward to Costa Rica, where a recent speciation process occurred. Because of its particular agronomic and aromatic properties, V. sotoarenasii sp. nov. could represent a valuable biological resource for the vanilla industry.

  20. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  1. The influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Valverde-Cerros, Oscar; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Qualitative, descriptive research was used in this study. Adolescents and parents were recruited from socioeconomically diverse populations in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Subjects were 92 adolescents (14 to 17 years old) and 48 parents. Focus group data were transcribed and entered into the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti version 5.0. Analyses were grounded on the social cognitive theory. Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) Costa Rican adolescents associate the consumption of moderate quantities of healthy foods with femininity and male homosexuality. (2) The consumption of hearty portions of nonhealthy foods was associated with masculinity and male heterosexuality. (3) There is an emerging view that it is acceptable for heterosexual male adolescents to take care of their bodies through healthy eating. (4) Body care among female adolescents is an element of femininity and body image. (5) Parents reinforce their daughters' persistent concern with weight control because they perceive it as feminine behavior. Health promoters should be aware of the existing and changing food stereotypes around gender as an avenue for the promotion of healthy eating.

  2. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  3. The effect of jitter on the performance of space coherent optical communication system with Costas loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Yifeng; Wang, Jinfang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xun; Li, Mi

    2018-01-01

    Numerous communication techniques and optical devices successfully applied in space optical communication system indicates a good portability of it. With this good portability, typical coherent demodulation technique of Costas loop can be easily adopted in space optical communication system. As one of the components of pointing error, the effect of jitter plays an important role in the communication quality of such system. Here, we obtain the probability density functions (PDF) of different jitter degrees and explain their essential effect on the bit error rate (BER) space optical communication system. Also, under the effect of jitter, we research the bit error rate of space coherent optical communication system using Costas loop with different system parameters of transmission power, divergence angle, receiving diameter, avalanche photodiode (APD) gain, and phase deviation caused by Costas loop. Through a numerical simulation of this kind of communication system, we demonstrate the relationship between the BER and these system parameters, and some corresponding methods of system optimization are presented to enhance the communication quality.

  4. Los manglares de Costa Rica: el Pacífico norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Zamora-Trejos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica tiene bosques de manglar en las costas Caribe y Pacífica. El 99% de los manglares del país se encuentran en la costa Pacífica. En este trabajo recopilamos la información disponible sobre los manglares del Pacífico norte de Costa Rica, desde la frontera con Nicaragua hasta la Reserva Absoluta de Cabo Blanco, en la punta sur de la Península de Nicoya. La ubicación de los manglares y cualquier información disponible para cada manglar es resumida. El clima de esta región es seco con estaciones de lluvia y sequía muy bien definidas. Los manglares del norte son relativamente pequeños en extensión y tamaño de árboles, y de baja diversidad comparados con los del Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Las principales especies de mangle son: Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora racemosa a lo largo de los bordes de los canales, seguido por Avicennia germinans, y más tierra adentro Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa y Conocarpus erectus. En el manglar de Potrero Grande se informa de una población saludable de la especie de Pelliciera rhizophorae, especies muy poco abundante. Reconocemos 38 comunidades de manglares en el Pacífico norte de Costa Rica basado en el Inventario Nacional de Humedales, artículos publicados, observaciones de campo, tesis, informes técnicos y los mapas 1: 50 000 del Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Se pudo encontrar información relativamente detallada pero fragmentada de únicamente cinco manglares (los descritos en esta publicación, de 14 solamente hay listas preliminares e incompletas de plantas y en algunos casos de animales, de nueve manglares más hay información todavía más limitada, y de otros nueve se conoce solamente su ubicación, que en algunos casos se comprobó que era incorrecta. Trabajos de mapeo detallado, caracterización de la vegetación y la fauna, estudios fisiológicos, análisis de procesos biogeoquímicos, evaluaciones económicas, y determinación del estado de salud de los manglares

  5. John Chalmers DaCosta (1863-1933): restoration of the old operating table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Madalyn G; Berger, Adam C; Schwartz, Gordon F; Yeo, Charles J; Cowan, Scott W

    2013-03-01

    John Chalmers DaCosta was an influential chairman and the first Samuel D. Gross Professor of Surgery at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. He was well known throughout the field as a skilled surgeon, passionate speaker, and exceptional writer. In addition to countless accomplishments during his career, DaCosta was deeply dedicated to the preservation and commemoration of surgical history. This ideology was exemplified when he set out on a mission to recover the old wooden operating table used by many of his iconic mentors including Samuel D. Gross, Joseph Pancoast, and William W. Keen. This table was originally used for surgical demonstrations and anatomy lessons in a lecture room of the Ely Building and later in the great amphitheater of the Jefferson Sansom Street Hospital. It was found forgotten in the basement of the College Building and was promptly refurbished, donned with dedicatory plaques, and returned to its honored position in the medical college. Dr. DaCosta also contributed a detailed article recalling the history of the table and the notable leaders in surgery who taught and practiced on its surface. The old table currently stands proudly in the entranceway of the Department of Surgery where it will remain as a cherished symbol of the early beginnings of surgical practice and education.

  6. The Neutral State: A Genealogy of Ecosystem Service Payments in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Lansing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the case of Costa Rica, this paper examines how ′carbon′ became an identifiable problem for that state. We trace how, during the 1980s, rationalities of financialisation and security arose in this country that allowed for Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES to emerge as an economic and political mechanism. Our central thesis is: this period initiated a government project of securing a viable future for the nation′s resources by linking them to global financial markets and international trade. This project of achieving resource security through economic circulation introduced new financial logics into forest management, as well as new modes of calculating the value and extent of the forest. These ways of framing resources found expression in the nation′s PES programme that is now central to the state′s goal of achieving carbon neutrality. Today, Costa Rica′s carbon flows are becoming territorialised as part of the nation′s atmosphere, biomass, people, and economy. This paper shows how carbon′s territorialisation did not begin with a concern for the climate, nor did it occur through diffusion of global climate policy to Costa Rica. Instead, carbon′s rise can be traced to locally specific ways of coping with the problem of resource security.

  7. Meeting educational needs in Costa Rica: The role of the distance teaching Universidad Estatal a Distancia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Greville; Borden, George A.

    1983-12-01

    In 1977 the government of Costa Rica established a new university, the Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED), and charged it with using distance teaching methods to meet the needs of new target groups as well as to alleviate some of the pressure of student demand on the existing three state-funded campus-based universities. This paper examines UNED's impact in relation to three categories of need: (1) student demand for university places; (2) demand from persons who had been previously disadvantaged in one way or another and hence unable to enter a university; and (3) demands generated by the needs of society for trained manpower. The paper evaluates UNED's success or failure in meeting these needs, in so far as it can be measured, and considers evidence based on the views of UNED's students regarding the success of the University in meeting their individual requirements. Throughout, the paper relates UNED's role within the higher education system in Costa Rica to those of the campus-based universities. In spite of the problems of teaching part-time students in a society in which leisure time is at a premium, the authors believe that UNED is to a large degree achieving its objectives by meeting previously unfulfilled needs at the higher education level in Costa Rica.

  8. Long-term association of economic inequality and mortality in adult Costa Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies, mostly in developed economies, there is limited consensus on the health effects of inequality. Recently a related literature has examined the relationship between relative deprivation and health as a mechanism to explain the economic inequality and health relationship. This study evaluates the relationship between mortality and economic inequality, as measured by area-level Gini coefficients, as well as the relationship between mortality and relative deprivation, in the context of a middle-income country, Costa Rica. We followed a nationally representative prospective cohort of approximately 16,000 individuals aged 30 and over who were randomly selected from the 1984 census. These individuals were then linked to the Costa Rican National Death Registry until Dec. 31, 2007. Hazard models were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for two indicators: canton-level income inequality and relative deprivation based on asset ownership. Results indicate that there was an unexpectedly negative association between canton income inequality and mortality, but the relationship is not robust to the inclusion of canton fixed-effects. In contrast, we find a positive association between relative deprivation and mortality, which is robust to the inclusion of canton fixed-effects. Taken together, these results suggest that deprivation relative to those higher in a hierarchy is more detrimental to health than the overall dispersion of the hierarchy itself, within the Costa Rican context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The 2017 México Tsunami Record, Numerical Modeling and Threat Assessment in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    An M w 8.2 earthquake and tsunami occurred offshore the Pacific coast of México on 2017-09-08, at 04:49 UTC. Costa Rican tide gauges have registered a total of 21 local, regional and far-field tsunamis. The Quepos gauge registered 12 tsunamis between 1960 and 2014 before it was relocated inside a harbor by late 2014, where it registered two more tsunamis. This paper analyzes the 2017 México tsunami as recorded by the Quepos gauge. It took 2 h for the tsunami to arrive to Quepos, with a first peak height of 9.35 cm and a maximum amplitude of 18.8 cm occurring about 6 h later. As a decision support tool, this tsunami was modeled for Quepos in real time using ComMIT (Community Model Interface for Tsunami) with the finer grid having a resolution of 1 arcsec ( 30 m). However, the model did not replicate the tsunami record well, probably due to the lack of a finer and more accurate bathymetry. In 2014, the National Tsunami Monitoring System of Costa Rica (SINAMOT) was created, acting as a national tsunami warning center. The occurrence of the 2017 México tsunami raised concerns about warning dissemination mechanisms for most coastal communities in Costa Rica, due to its short travel time.

  10. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing.

  11. Project of Carbon Capture in Small and Medium Farms in the Brunca Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol, allows the non Annex 1 countries to receive projects that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development in developing countries. The CDM, since its inception, has issued credits equivalent to 1.434.737.562 tons of CO2, distributed across 7.450 projects around the world, from 15 different sectors. Sectors 14 that allow forestry projects (such as reforestation and afforestation have registered 53 projects to date; 19 of which are in Latin America. Nevertheless, the contribution of this sector currently represents less than 1% of CDM Certificates of Emissions Reduction (CERs issued. In September 2013, through their National Forestry Financing Fund (FONAFIFO, Costa Rica registered their first CDM project with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, after having complied with all the project cycle processes. The project, known as "Carbon Sequestration in Small and Medium Farms, Brunca Region, Costa Rica" was a project executed by FONAFIFO under their Environmental Services Payment Program. This project was developed in Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica in partnership with the Cooperative Corporation CoopeAgri RL. The total goal of the project is to reduce the greenhouse gas emission by 176,050 ton of CO2-e, in a period of 20 years and commercialize the CERs in the regulated carbon market.

  12. Zeolites of the Valle Central of Costa Rica and its outskirts; Zeolitas del Valle Central de Costa Rica y sus alrededores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeledon, Luis Alonso [Moravia, San Jose, (Costa Rica)

    2004-12-15

    19 different species of zeolites have been found in 25 outcrops in the Valle Central of Costa Rica and in the Siquirres region. All the zeolites are secondary minerals and crystallized in little veins and vesicles of the basalts and pyroclastics rocks of the La Cruz and Grifo Alto formations, belonging to the Aguacate Group and the alkaline igneous rocks of Guayacan. The most frequent species of zeolites are stibnite, chabasite, laumontite, mesolite/mordenite, thomsonite, and analcime. Natrolite only was found near to Siquirres. (Author) [Spanish] Se describen 19 especies diferentes de zeolitas procedentes de 25 afloramientos en los alrededores del Valle Central de Costa Rica y en la region de Siquirres. Todas las zeolitas descritas son de origen secundario y se presentan en vetillas y vesiculas de los basaltos y rocas piroclasticas de las formaciones La Cruz y Grifo Alto del Grupo Aguacate y en las rocas igneas alcalinas de Guayacan. Las especies mas frecuentes son estilbita, chabasita, laumontita, mesolita/modernita, thomsonita y analcima. La natrolita solo se encontro en los alrededores de Siquirres. (Autor)

  13. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Montemayor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado. A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. de Costa Rica, cuya planta huésped es Persea americana P. Mill., siendo ésta la segunda especie del género conocida del país y la tercera cuya planta huésped es P. americana (aguacate. Se describen tanto el adulto como el estadio ninfal V; se agrega una clave modificada de Froeschner para las especies, y se ilustran ejemplares en el campo, el quinto estadio ninfal, adulto y los principales caracteres.

  14. Dengue in Costa Rica: the gap in local scientific research Dengue en Costa Rica: la brecha en la investigación científica local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Troyo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El dengue es una enfermedad de gran importancia a escala mundial. Los esfuerzos para su control en la mayoría de las regiones del mundo no han logrado detener el aumento en su incidencia, y se fomenta la investigación científica para contribuir a desarrollar nuevos enfoques de control basados en la evidencia científica o a mejorar los existentes. Enfermedad recientemente reemergente en Costa Rica, el dengue se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud en ese país. A pesar de esta crítica situación, se dispone de pocas publicaciones científicas sobre dengue en Costa Rica. En una búsqueda realizada en la base de datos PubMed se encontraron solo 11 artículos, mientras que en varias bases de datos bibliográficas centradas en Costa Rica y otros países de América Latina se hallaron 19 artículos más. Además, se encontraron 10 tesis relacionadas con el dengue realizadas en universidades costarricenses. Por lo tanto, son pocos los artículos científicos originales publicados sobre este tema en revistas científicas arbitradas, especialmente en aspectos vinculados con la epidemiología, la salud pública y la idoneidad y eficacia de las intervenciones en marcha. Esta brecha en las investigaciones puede deberse a diversos factores, como el contexto histórico y político, insuficientes recursos financieros y humanos, deficiencias en la colaboración entre las instituciones y dificultades para disponer de los datos. Costa Rica puede aprender de la experiencia de otros países de la Región de las Américas (como Cuba y Trinidad y Tobago, donde se ha investigado mucho más sobre dengue. Las investigaciones de esos dos países han aportado evidencias cruciales para el desarrollo de estrategias locales y generales dirigidas al control y la prevención del dengue. En dependencia del contexto local, algunos métodos de control pueden ser más eficaces que otros, por lo que las acciones basadas en la evidencia deben adaptarse para las

  15. Soil Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes in a Costa Rican Premontane Wet Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, L. A.; Schade, G. W.; Pfohl, A.

    2011-12-01

    A significant amount of the global terrestrial biomass is found in tropical forests, and soil respiration is a vital part of its carbon cycling. However, data on soil trace gas flux rates in the tropics are sparse, especially from previously disturbed regions. To expand the database on carbon cycling in the tropics, this study examined soil flux rate and its variability for CO2 and CH4 in a secondary premontane wet forest south of Arenal Volcano in Costa Rica. Data were collected over a six-week period in June and July 2011 during the transition from dry to wet season. Trace gas sampling was performed at three sub-canopy sites of different elevations. The soil is of volcanic origin with a low bulk density, likely an Andisol. An average KCl pH of 4.8 indicates exchangeable aluminum is present, and a NaF pH>11 indicates the soil is dominated by short-range order minerals. Ten-inch diameter PVC rings were used as static flux chambers without soil collars. To find soil CO2 efflux rates, a battery-powered LICOR 840A CO2-H2O Gas Analyzer was used to take measurements in the field, logging CO2 concentration every ten seconds. Additionally, six, 10-mL Nylon syringes were filled with gas samples at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 minutes after closing the chambers. These samples were analyzed the same day with a SRI 8610 Gas Chromatograph for concentrations of CO2 and CH4. The average CO2 efflux calculated was 1.7±0.8E-2 g/m2/min, and did not differ between the applied analytical methods. Soil respiration depended strongly on soil moisture, with decreasing efflux rates at higher water-filled pore space values. An annual soil respiration rate of 8.5E3 g/m2/yr was estimated by applying the observed relationship between soil moisture and CO2 efflux to annual soil moisture measurements. The relatively high respiration rates could be caused by the high soil moisture and low soil bulk density, providing optimal conditions for microbial respiration. Several diurnal sampling periods at

  16. Nicaragüenses en Costa Rica y Estados Unidos: datos de etnoencuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vargas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Centroamérica el único país con un comportamiento claramente bipolar en el destino de la emigración es Nicaragua. La migración de este país tiene a Costa Rica como principal destino y los Estados Unidos de América como el segundo. Este comportamiento no ha sido estático, aunque si muestra un patrón inverso. De mediados del siglo XIX a finales del decenio de 1970 con el triunfo sandinista (1979, Costa Rica era el principal destino. En la década de los años 80, con la denominada guerra de los contras, se presenta aumento de la emigración y se varía el destino y ocupa los Estados Unidos el primer lugar. Una vez que cesa el conflicto armado y los sandinistas dejan el gobierno, nuevamente Costa Rica se presenta como el principal destino, esta vez con aumento respecto del comportamiento histórico (Vargas; 1999, 2003. Pese a la magnitud de esta migración y las repercusiones para Costa Rica, son pocos los estudios que tienen por objeto analizarla en forma sistemática. Un importante esfuerzo lo han realizado Jimmy Rosales y otros, al estudiar los "nicaragüenses en el exterior" (Rosales: 2001 con datos del censo nicaragüense de 1995. Estudios más puntuales, con trabajo de campo en algunas comunidades fronterizas con Costa Rica, los han realizado investigadores de FLACSO-Costa Rica (Morales; 1997, 2000 (Morales y Castro, 2002 Recientemente, con el empleo de datos de etnoencuestas (para 5 comunidades en Nicaragua y otros países, se han desarrollado algunos trabajos para temas específicos. Fussell (2003 ha revisado las evidencias para la teoría de la causación acumulativa que brinda esta migración; Riosmena (2003 ha estudiado las posibilidades de retorno, y Hickes y Massey (2003, han estudiado las relaciones con el conflicto armado y político en Nicaragua y el destino de los migrantes. En este trabajo se analizan las características demográficas básicas de los migrantes, así como las corrientes migratorias con una mirada

  17. Proliferaciones algales nocivas de cianobacterias (Oscillatoriaceae y dinoflagelados (Gymnodiniaceae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribelle Vargas-Montero

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, la costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica ha experimentado un aumento en magnitud y frecuencia de proliferaciones algales nocivas (PAN. La falta de datos con respecto a la dinámica de estos eventos en el área, y las especies de microalgas que los producen, son temas de mucho interés. Las PAN han producido impactos negativos en los recursos pesqueros y en la salud humana en Costa Rica. En mayo de 2002, una PAN se observó frente a las playas a lo largo del Pacífico central; además, se observó un gran número y diversidad de peces muertos. Las muestras de agua fueron recolectadas usando una red de fitoplancton y se fijaron para ser procesadas posteriormente con microscopía electrónica. Asimismo, se tomó un litro de muestra de la superficie para su posterior conteo celular. En la PAN observada, los organismos dominantes fueron la cianobacteria Trichodesmiun erythraeum, rodeada por altas concentraciones de bacterias Gram -, y el dinoflagelado Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides. T. erythraeum, es una de las principales cianobacterias fijadoras de N2 atmosférico en aguas marinas, y se ha asociado con los eventos PAN en diversas partes del mundo, produciendo síntomas como dermatitis por contacto con la brisa marina y otras afecciones. C. cf. polykrikoides es un dinoflagelado asociado con mortalidad de peces; aunque el tipo de toxinas asociadas aún es desconocido. En un periódico nacional se reportaron 17 casos de intoxicación en humanos durante este mismo periodo de PAN, los afectados presentaron desórdenes respiratorios e irritación en los ojos. Éste es el primer informe en Costa Rica dónde se observaron cianobacterias y dinoflagelados juntos produciendo PAN. Este tipo de fenómenos debe analizarse y debe documentarse, para habilitar una comprensión en la dinámica y los factores asociados con el aumento de estos eventos en el Pacífico costarricenseRecently, the Pacific coast of Costa Rica has experienced an increase in both

  18. Nicaragüenses en Costa Rica y Estados Unidos: datos de etnoencuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Centroamérica el único país con un comportamiento claramente bipolar en el destino de la emigración es Nicaragua. La migración de este país tiene a Costa Rica como principal destino y los Estados Unidos de América como el segundo. Este comportamiento no ha sido estático, aunque si muestra un patrón inverso. De mediados del siglo XIX a finales del decenio de 1970 con el triunfo sandinista (1979, Costa Rica era el principal destino. En la década de los años 80, con la denominada guerra de los contras, se presenta aumento de la emigración y se varía el destino y ocupa los Estados Unidos el primer lugar. Una vez que cesa el conflicto armado y los sandinistas dejan el gobierno, nuevamente Costa Rica se presenta como el principal destino, esta vez con aumento respecto del comportamiento histórico (Vargas; 1999, 2003. Pese a la magnitud de esta migración y las repercusiones para Costa Rica, son pocos los estudios que tienen por objeto analizarla en forma sistemática. Un importante esfuerzo lo han realizado Jimmy Rosales y otros, al estudiar los "nicaragüenses en el exterior" (Rosales: 2001 con datos del censo nicaragüense de 1995. Estudios más puntuales, con trabajo de campo en algunas comunidades fronterizas con Costa Rica, los han realizado investigadores de FLACSO-Costa Rica (Morales; 1997, 2000 (Morales y Castro, 2002. Recientemente, con el empleo de datos de etnoencuestas (para 5 comunidades en Nicaragua y otros países, se han desarrollado algunos trabajos para temas específicos. Fussell (2003 ha revisado las evidencias para la teoría de la causación acumulativa que brinda esta migración; Riosmena (2003 ha estudiado las posibilidades de retorno, y Hickes y Massey (2003, han estudiado las relaciones con el conflicto armado y político en Nicaragua y el destino de los migrantes. En este trabajo se analizan las características demográficas básicas de los migrantes, así como las corrientes migratorias con una mirada

  19. Estado actual de la biotecnología en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio del estado de la biotecnología en Costa Rica como parte del proyecto "SIMBIOSIS: Programa Cooperativo para la Construcción de Indicadores en Biotecnología adaptados a los países de América Latina y el Caribe, para motivar la aplicación y transferencia de tecnologías industriales". El estudio se enfocó en dos ítemes: "investigadores" y "proyectos de investigación", desarrollados en Costa Rica entre 1998 y 2002. Se construyó una base de datos a partir de la cual se obtuvieron indicadores para los investigadores, relacionados con aspectos como género, edad, desempeño como docentes, número de proyectos, funciones, grado académico, área de especialidad y número de publicaciones. Los indicadores determinados para los proyectos de investigación se vinculan con los temas de: especialidades, sector socioecónomico de aplicación, duración y número de investigadores por proyecto. Entre las principales conclusiones obtenidas a nivel nacional cabe mencionar la alta participación de las mujeres en esta área de investigación (54%; la baja participación de recursos humanos jóvenes como investigadores (13% menores de 30 años, y que la mayoría de los investigadores, con altos grados académicos, tienen 4 o más proyectos a su cargo (42%. Con relación a las especialidades de los proyectos, la mayoría se clasifican en la categoría Bio-Agro (39% mientras que en Acuicultura sólo se encontró un 1% del total. Los sectores de aplicación con el mayor número de proyectos son: Agropecuario (37% y Salud Humana (35%. Se discuten las principales fortalezas y limitaciones para el desarrollo de la biotecnología en Costa Rica, para contribuir a una mejor definición de políticas de desarrollo científico y tecnológico del país.Current estate of biotechnology in Costa Rica. Astudy was carried out on the construction of indicators in biotechnology in Costa Rica as part of the project "SYMBIOSIS, Cooperative Program for

  20. Geochronological synthesis of magmatism, metamorphism and metallogeny of Costa Rica, Central America; Sintesis geocronologica del magmatismo, metamorfismo y metalogenia de Costa Rica, America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E., E-mail: galvarado@ice.go.cr [Inst. Costarricense de Electricidad, Apdo. 10032, 1000 San Jose (Costa Rica); Univ. de Costa Rica, Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas, Apdo. 35-2060 (Costa Rica); Gans, Phillipe B [Univ. of California, Dept. of Geological Science, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    A comprehensive compilation of 651 (since 1968) radiometric ages determinations (415 {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar, 211 K/Ar, 5 U/Th, 4 Rb/Sr, 2 U/Pb, and 13 fission track thermochronology ages using zircon) have provided a complete picture of the igneous stratigraphy of Costa Rica, and information about the age of the major metamorphic and metallogenic events in the region. Igneous rocks of Late Jurassic to Middle Eocene age ({approx} 160 to {approx} 41 Ma), mainly accreted ophiolites. The actual subduction zone was established, represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of basic to felsic composition, at the beginning of Campanian time ({approx} 71 Ma). However, voluminous subalkaline, primary volcanic rocks have appeared only after {approx} 29 Ma. Intrusive to hypabyssal granitic to gabboic plutons, stocks, equivalent dykes and sills, are widely exposed in the Talamanca range ({approx} 12,4 - 7,8 Ma), hills of Escazu ({approx} 6,0 - 5,9 Ma), and Fila Costena ({approx} 18,3 - 16,8 and {approx} 14,8 - 11,1 Ma), Tapanti-Montes del Aguacate-Carpintera ({approx} 4,2 - 2,2 Ma) and Guacimal ({approx} 6,4 - 5,2 Ma). Arc rocks between 29 and 11 Ma (called Photo-Volcanic Front) are known in the San Carlos plains and in southern Costa Rica. The location and age of the igneous rocks have indicated that there was a 20 degrees counterclockwise rotation of the arc (termed as Proto-Volcanic Front) between 15 and 8 Ma, with a pole of rotation that has centered on southern Costa Rica. This rotation is attributed to deformation in the overriding plate (shortening in the south coeval with extension in the NW), accompanied by trench retreat in the south. At {approx} 3,45 Ma, arc-related volcanism has shut off in southern part of the region, but local acid-adakite volcanism has persisted in the Talamanca range (4,2 - 0,95 Ma) due to the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The Paleo-Volcanic Front is represented by arc-related rocks (8 - 3,5 Ma) along the length of Costa Rica, parallel to but in

  1. New records of benthic marine algae and Cyanobacteria for Costa Rica, and a comparison with other Central American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernecker, Andrea; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of an intensive sampling program carried out from 2000 to 2007 along both coasts of Costa Rica, Central America. The presence of 44 species of benthic marine algae is reported for the first time for Costa Rica. Most of the new records are Rhodophyta (27 spp.), followed by Chlorophyta (15 spp.), and Heterokontophyta, Phaeophycea (2 spp.). Overall, the currently known marine flora of Costa Rica is comprised of 446 benthic marine algae and 24 Cyanobacteria. This species number is an under estimation, and will increase when species of benthic marine algae from taxonomic groups where only limited information is available (e.g., microfilamentous benthic marine algae, Cyanobacteria) are included. The Caribbean coast harbors considerably more benthic marine algae (318 spp.) than the Pacific coast (190 spp.); such a trend has been observed in all neighboring countries. Compared to other Central American countries, Costa Rica has the highest number of reported benthic marine algae; however, Panama may have a similarly high diversity after unpublished results from a Rhodophyta survey (Wysor, unpublished) are included. Sixty-two species have been found along both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica; we discuss this result in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus.

  2. “Uncovering the Kink Celebrating my Black Identity: Perceptions on Afro-Costa Ricans Natural Hair”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hutchinson Miller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is no secret the racism within the Costa Rican society especially against people of African descent. While this racism is manifested in mostly overt ways it is nonetheless present, and continues to affect people of African descent in a myriad of ways including how they feel about their natural hair. From a very early age Afro-Costa Rican children learn to look down on their natural kink reinforced verbally and through images designed for them to hide, and dislike what is naturally theirs. As a result many embraced synthetic, and other ethnic group’s natural hair, preferring to pay any amount of money besides undergoing significant hair, and scalp ill-treatment all with the objective of hiding the natural kink. The main objective of this paper is to make visible the perceptions of Afro-Costa Ricans natural hair by both Afro, and mestizo ethnic groups, and enquire about some of the effects on people of African descent in Costa Rica. The exploratory research collected data from four focus groups of teenage mestizos, 20th century newspaper, one workshop, and questionnaires filled only by Afro-Costa Ricans.

  3. The distribution of nutrients, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a in the upper Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, a tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Palter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available in the Gulf of Nicoya on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica, nutrient rich equatorial subsurface water (ESW is upwelled in much of the lower gulf. These offshore waters are often regarded as the major source of nutrients to the gulf. However, for most of the year, the ESW has little influence on the nutrient content of the upper gulf, which has a distinct character from the lower gulf. The upper gulf, extending 40 km north of the restriction between Puntarenas Peninsula and San Lucas island, is bordered primarily by mangrove swamps, is less than 20 m deep, and is less saline than the lower gulf. We surveyed the upper gulf for dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, silicate, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll in November 2000, January and July 2001. All nutrients are more concentrated in the upper gulf during the rainy and transitional seasons than the dry season, significantly so for phosphate and silicate. Throughout the year, nutrients tend to be much more concentrated in the less saline water of the upper gulf. This trend indicates that discharge from the Tempisque River predominantly controls spatial and temporal nutrient variability in the upper gulf. However, nutrient rich ESW, upwelled offshore and mixed to form a mid-temperature intermediate water, may enter the inner gulf to provide an important secondary source of nutrients during the dry season. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 427-436. Epub 2007 June, 29.Las aguas subsuperficiales ecuatoriales (ESW que entran por la parte externa del Golfo de Nicoya de Costa Rica, se consideran una fuente importante de nutrientes para el estuario. Sin embargo, durante la mayoría del año las ESW tiene una influencia pequeña en la parte interna del golfo, que es oceanográfica y biológicamente diferente de la parte externa. La parte interna está ubicada desde la península de Puntarenas hasta la boca del Río Tempisque, 40 km al norte; es un área que se caracteriza por un importante aporte de agua dulce

  4. Abundancia relativa de Amblyomma spp. (Acari: Ixodidae en bovinos (Bos taurus y B. indicus de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alvarez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio describe la abundancia de garrapatas del género Amblyomma encontradas sobre bovino a través de muestreos mensuales llevados a cabo en diez fincas pertenecientes a ocho zonas ecológicas (ZE de Costa Rica. Durante la visita se recolectaban garrapatas >4 mm del lado derecho de los bovinos. El estudio recopiló información meteorológica para algunas de las fincas ubicadas en el ensayo, mostrando que la variable que más fluctúa es la de precipitación. La principal especie de Amblyomma encontrada fue A. cajennense. La presencia de ninfas del género Amblyomma se localizan solo en los meses de enero a mayo, coincidente con la época de menor humedad en la zona de estacionalidad de lluvias, por lo que es esperable solo una generación por año. En el trabajo de laboratorio se mantienen ninfas de Amblyomma a las cuales se les mide el tiempo de muda y de sobrevivencia bajo condiciones controladas, sin encontrar mayores diferencias entre sexo. Los períodos de sobrevivencia muestran la imposibilidad de efectuar un manejo de potreros con el fin de controlar a las especies de este género. La presencia de adultos del género Amblyomma es a lo largo del año sin presentar una preferencia particular por alguna época. El estudio dividió las zonas de estudio en régimen lluvioso estacional y régimen sin patrón de estacionalidad. La mayor presencia de adultos de Amblyomma se da precisamente en el de estacionalidad, o de influencia Pacífico. Se reporta la presencia de A. maculatum solo en la ZE correspondiente al Bosque húmedo Tropical transición a premontano. Igualmente, se informa de la presencia de Ixodes boliviensis en la ZE denominada Bosque muy húmedo Montano bajo.The research describe the big amount of ticks of the Amblyomma genus, found on bovines through monthly samplings carried out in ten farms in eight ecological zones (EZ of Costa Rica. Ticks larger than 4 mm were picked up from the right side of the animals during the visit

  5. Evolución de la radiología como especialidad médica en Costa Rica durante el siglo XX: 1904-1980

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos de Céspedes Vargas

    2000-01-01

    El autor, como testigo y protagonista, relata la evolución de la Radiología como especialidad médica en Costa Rica durante el pasado siglo XX, de 1904 a 1980.The author, as witness and protagonist, tells us about the evolution of Medical Radiological Specialty in Costa Rica, during the XXth century, from 1904 to 1980.

  6. Apendicularias (Urochordata y quetognatos (Chaetognatha del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Appendicularians (Urochordata and chaetognaths (Chaetognatha of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Castellanos-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las apendicularias y quetognatos son miembros importantes del zooplancton pero poco estudiados en Costa Rica y no del todo en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacífico tropical este. Se recolectaron muestras epipelágicas de zooplancton de la zona oceánica (0-50m de la Isla del Coco, en noviembre de 2001 y sobre parches arrecifales en 2009. Se analizó la composición de especies de apendicularias y quetognatos presentes en 31 muestras. Nueve especies de apendicularias, y ocho especies de quetognatos fueron identificadas. Oikopleura longicauda fue la más abundante en el área estudiada (217organismos, representando el 65.56% del número total de apendicularias, seguida por Oikopleura rufescens, con 35 (10.57%. Todas las especies de apendicularias encontradas en este estudio son comunes en las aguas cálidas de los océanos, seis especies se registran aquí por primera vez en aguas de la Isla del Coco y dos son nuevos registros para Costa Rica. Entre los quetognatos, Flaccisagitta enflata fue la especie más común (85 ejemplares, representando el 50.6% del número total registrada en este estudio, seguida por Serratosagitta pacifica con 38 organismos (20.62%. Zonosagitta bedoti estuvó representada por un solo espécimen. Estas especies también se han registrado en las aguas tropicales del Pacífico oriental, pero seis especies son nuevos registros para Isla del Coco. Los datos sobre la distribución y morfología de las especies registradas se presentan junto con las claves para la identificación de los taxones en el área estudiada.Appendicularians and chaetognaths are important members of the zooplancton but little studied in Costa Rica and not at all at Isla del Coco Nacional Park, eastern tropical Pacific. Epipelagic (0-50m zooplankton samples from the oceanic area off Isla del Coco, were collected in November 2001, and over patch reefs in 2009. We analized the species composition of appendicularians and chaetognaths present in 31

  7. Back to the green jewel. After a period of using fossil fuels, Costa Rica is returning to renewable energy sources; Zurueck zum gruenen Juwel. Nach einem Ausflug zu den fossilen Brennstoffen kehrt Costa Rica zurueck zu den erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosworth, Melissa

    2010-07-15

    For more than two decades now, Costa Rica has been a Mecca for eco-tourists. Deep rainforests, empty beeches and an incredible variety of species have made the country into one of the forerunners of sustainability. This picture was marred by the fact that fossil fuels were getting more attention by the government recently. Now, however, Costa Rica is returning to renewable energy sources which had already supplied 100 percent of the country's total power. The government is even considering reimbursement tariffs for solar power. (orig.)

  8. Cryptic species within cryptic moths: new species of Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; J. Bolling Sullivan; Hajibabaei,  Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Based on almost 1,700 recently reared and wild-collected specimens, the genus Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaelinae) in Costa Rica is reviewed. Eight species are recorded of which seven are newly described: Dunama jessiehillae Chacón, Dunama jessiebarronae Chacón, Dunama janewaldronae Chacón, Dunama jessiebancroftae Chacón, Dunama janecoxae Chacón, Dunama biosise Chacón, Dunama indereci Chacón. Dunama angulinea Schaus is redescribed and associated with its correct genitalia. Dunama tuna (Schaus), previously listed as ocurring in Costa Rica, is restricted to Colombia. Most species are described through their distinctive CO1 barcodes, genitalia and life histories. Dunama adults and caterpillars, their foodplants, and their parasites in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica are described where known. Many life history stages are illustrated. PMID:23730176

  9. Costa Rica’s Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Crosbie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods. Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results. Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion. Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control.

  10. Size and distribution of Pandarus satyrus (Copepoda: Pandaridae on the blue shark Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 specimens of Pandarus satyrus, a cosmopolitan ectoparasitic copepod, were taken from fishery catches of blue sharks (Prionace glauca in the Eastern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens were found in the dorsal surface of pectoral fins (8-30 per shark. Longer specimens were most abundant.Un total de 80 especímenes de Pandarus satyrus, un copépodo ectoparásito cosmopolita, fueron tomados de tiburones azules (Prionace glauca capturados en la costa del Pacífico Oriental de Costa Rica. Todos los especímenes fueron encontrados en la superficie dorsal de las aletas pectorales (entre 8 y 30 por tiburón. Los parásitos más grandes son los más abundantes.

  11. MERCADO LABORAL, EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR Y FORMACIÓN DOCENTE EN COSTA RICA (LABOR MARKET, HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Zúñiga Luis Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo se analiza la relación que existe entre la educación superior, la dinámica del mercado laboral, y la formación de docentes, en un nuevo contexto histórico-social caracterizado por la liberalización de la economía, y el avance de una concepción mercantil de la educación en Costa Rica. Se describe la relación que existe entre la desregulación de la oferta de educación superior, sobre todo privada, y la consecuente saturación de profesionales en el mercado laboral. Se analiza con especial interés la situación de los profesionales de la educación en este contexto, sobre todo, las condiciones laborales que enfrenta este sector educativo, como consecuencia de la aplicación de la lógica de mercado.Abstract: This essay analyzes the relationship between higher education, labor market dynamics, and teacher training in a new historical and social context characterized by the liberalization of the economy, and advancing of a merchant conception of the education practice in Costa Rica. It describes the relationship between deregulation of the supply of higher education, especially private, and the resulting saturation of professional manpower in the labor market. It is analyzed with special interest, the status of the professionals of education in this context, especially the working conditions faced by this sector of the working class as a result of the application of market logic in the educational field.

  12. Actitudes del profesorado de chile y costa rica hacia la inclusión educativa Chilean and Costa Rican teacher's attitudes towards inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sanhueza Henríquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio analiza las actitudes de profesores de Chile (N = 92 y Costa Rica (N = 126 hacia la educación inclusiva. Para ello, plantea como objetivos: a. identificar las medidas que favorecen la educación inclusiva en ambos colectivos de profesorado; b. conocer los recursos y apoyos con que cuenta el profesorado para favorecer la educación inclusiva; y c. valorar los principios de la educación inclusiva que subyacen a sus prácticas docentes. Adoptamos un enfoque cuantitativo a través de un diseño descriptivo de tipo encuesta. Los resultados indican que, en general, los profesores participantes presentan una actitud positiva hacia la inclusión, incorporando diferentes medidas para atender las necesidades educativas especiales del alumnado. Los recursos materiales y el tiempo continúan siendo percibidos por el profesorado como una limitante para el desarrollo de prácticas inclusivas.This study analyses the attitude of teachers from Chile (N = 92 and Costa Rica (N = 126 towards inclusive education. For that purpose, it establishes the following objectives: a. identify those measures facilitating inclusive education with both teachers groups; b. get to know the resources teacher count on to make inclusive education possible; and c. value the principles of inclusive education underlying their teaching practice. We adopted a quantitative approach through a descriptive design consisting of a survey. Results show that in general teachers of this study have a positive attitude towards the inclusion of different measures to attend the students Special Educative Needs. Resources and time continue to be perceived by teachers as restraining the development of inclusive practices.

  13. Standard metrics and methods for conducting Avian/wind energy interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States); Davis, H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Kendall, W. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The awareness of the problem of avian fatalities at large scale wind energy developments first emerged in the late 1980`s at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA) in Central California. Observations of dead raptors at the Altamont Pass WRA triggered concern on the part of regulatory agencies, environmental/conservation groups, resource agencies, and wind and electric utility industries. This led the California Energy Commission staff, along with the planning departments of Alameda, Contra Costa, and Solano counties, to commission a study of bird mortality at the Altamont Pass WRA. In addition to the Altamont Pass WRA, other studies and observations have established that windplants kill birds. Depending upon the specific factors, this may or may not be a serious problem. The current level of scrutiny and caution exhibited during the permitting of a new windplant development in the United States results in costly delays and studies. This is occurring during a highly competitive period for electrical production companies in the USA. Clarification of the bird fatality issue is needed to bring it into perspective. This means standardizing metrics, defining terms, and recommending methods to be used in addressing or studying wind energy/bird interactions.

  14. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  15. Map-based repowering and reorganization of a wind resource area to minimize burrowing owl and other bird fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S. [Research Ecologist, 3108 Finch Street, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Neher, L. [Gis Specialist, Neher Consulting, 7241 34th Street, North Highlands, CA 95660 (United States); Bell, D. A. [East Bay Regional Park District, 2950 Peralta Oaks Court, Oakland, CA 94605-0381 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 x 10 m{sup 2} grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California's 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard. (author)

  16. La población con discapacidad en los censos del siglo XX en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se logró conocer los criterios de clasificación empleados para definir a la población con discapacidad en los registros censales del siglo XX en Costa Rica y, por consiguiente, una aproximación a las formulaciones conceptuales para referirse al grupo en estudio. Además, se caracterizó a ese segmento poblacional a partir de diferentes variables: sexo, edad, estado civil y distribución geográfica. También se abordaron otros aspectos como fueron: alfabetismo, nivel de educación, ocupación, jefatura de hogar y vivienda. Entre los hallazgos más destacables se encuentra la permanencia, en los registros censales del siglo XX, de un concepto de discapacidad basado en la deficiencia, lo que definió los criterios de clasificación para esa población en esas fuentes. Asimismo se constató, por una parte, la asociación entre discapacidad e inequidad en esa centuria y, por la otra, la fragilidad de los vínculos de parentesco en ese grupo poblacional con respecto al conjunto de hogares de Costa Rica a fines de ese siglo. Las fuentes empleadas en esta investigación fueron los censos de población de Costa Rica del siglo XX. En el procedimiento con los datos, se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo de distribución de frecuencias.

  17. A Practical Application of Statistical Gap Analysis in National Park Management in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Juan Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available If the tourism growth predicted materialized as tourism for Costa Rica protected areas would see major increases. A study conducted in Volcan Poas National Park and Volcan Turrialba National Park two of Costa Rica leading volcanic crater parks was undertaken to make available to national parks and protected areas managers, a procedure, that could be use: to measure using an adapted form of the expectations disconfirmation theory the satisfaction of visitors to Costa Rica national parks, and to evaluate if the results could be used for establishing the areas of the park infrastructure, services and recreational options that needed improvement and management decisions to enhance visitor's satisfaction. The sample included 1414 surveys The findings indicates that the procedure adapted base on the expectations-disconfirmation model was proven helpful in: a getting the information to help “zero in”, the man-agement decisions in the short and medium term and for the development of the Tourist Management Plans that is to say being developed in the 2 sites, b guiding park managers in the resource allocation process, under the conditions of scarcity that are so common in developing countries, c facilitating regular monitoring of the conditions, with a simple and quick methodology that can be used for “day to day” decisions and more sophisticated statistical analysis d identifying the areas in the management of protected areas that need further analysis and in that way is contributing to the development of the long term socio-economic research programs in national parks, e the “real” importance of the information and education activities in national parks, combination of activities that seems to be critical to enhance “consumer satisfaction” among the visitors to national parks everywhere and particularly as a means of understanding whether visitors needs and expectations are met, whether they receive what they should and as a context for

  18. Establishment and operation of a biorepository for molecular epidemiologic studies in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Bernal; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Jiménez, Silvia; Shea, Katheryn; González, Paula; Porras, Carolina; Fallas, Greivin; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia

    2010-04-01

    The Proyecto Epidemiológico Guanacaste (PEG) has conducted several large studies related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in Guanacaste, Costa Rica in a long-standing collaboration with the U.S. National Cancer Institute. To improve molecular epidemiology efforts and save costs, we have gradually transferred technology to Costa Rica, culminating in state-of-the-art laboratories and a biorepository to support a phase III clinical trial investigating the efficacy of HPV 16/18 vaccine. Here, we describe the rationale and lessons learned in transferring molecular epidemiologic and biorepository technology to a developing country. At the outset of the PEG in the early 1990s, we shipped all specimens to repositories and laboratories in the United States, which created multiple problems. Since then, by intensive personal interactions between experts from the United States and Costa Rica, we have successfully transferred liquid-based cytology, HPV DNA testing and serology, chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, PCR-safe tissue processing, and viable cryopreservation. To accommodate the vaccine trial, a state-of-the-art repository opened in mid-2004. Approximately 15,000 to 50,000 samples are housed in the repository on any given day, and >500,000 specimens have been shipped, many using a custom-made dry shipper that permits exporting >20,000 specimens at a time. Quality control of shipments received by the NCI biorepository has revealed an error rate of storage of frozen specimens returned from the United States. Using Internet-based specimen tracking software has proven to be efficient even across borders. For long-standing collaborations, it makes sense to transfer the molecular epidemiology expertise toward the source of specimens. The successes of the PEG molecular epidemiology laboratories and biorepository prove that the physical and informatics infrastructures of a modern biorepository can be transferred to a resource-limited and weather

  19. Wellness Centres on Costa Crociere Cruises: Body, Space, and Representation from an Anthropological and Linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Albano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many tourist services are connected to the care of the body. The tourist industry proposes different vacation opportunities where the body is the main focus of the experience. This kind of tourism implies specific services that show a particular universe of representation and particular languages. In this context, cruise tourism is an interesting case to analyze because a part of its services gives a central role to the body which, on-board, organizes and is organized within dedicated spaces and times. Cruise ships provide spaces for the wellness of the passengers such as swimming pools, gyms, spas or beauty centres. The analysis proposed in this work is based, on one hand, on a recent anthropological fieldwork on a Costa Crociere cruise in the Mediterranean Sea. On cruises people use a limited space, the ship, in different ways. This use also reflects a particular conception of the body, built through an interaction of different systems of representation. So, the ship can become a space for social aggregation or separation. On the other hand, this study considers different textual advertisements from the Costa Web site where the company presents specific services for the body to future passengers . This paper analyzes them using a joint approach: both semiotic and linguistic. Through texts and pictures Costa Crociere creates a “synthesis” of the wellness spaces which prefiguresthe behaviour of the passengers on the cruise. More particularly, in order to analyze advertisements, a cognitive linguistics approach is suitable to show the authors’ linguistic choices and the paratextual elements used to promote the cruise. .

  20. Mitos que manejan padres y madres acerca del autismo en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Pizarro, Hannia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este estudio pretende identificar los principales mitos y creencias que sostienen los padres y madres acerca del autismo en Costa Rica.La confusión no se da solo en padres y familiares de personas con autismo, sino también en profesionales que trabajan directa o indirectamente con esta población. Una posible causa de los errores respecto a esta discapacidad, es el manejo de una limitada información que da origen a una serie de mitos y valoraciones erróneas de lo que es el autismo como síndrome, y lo que las personas que lo presentan son en realidad.Lo anterior ha generado una cantidad de creencias, sin fundamento, acerca de su origen, evolución, tratamiento y “curas mágicas”, que pueden y tienen efectos nocivos en el organismo y en la psicología de las personas que lo padecen, y producen en sus padres más confusión y frustración.Abstract: It is supposed that confusion, about what autism is and which is it etiology, treatment and prognosis, is share by parents and also by professionals that work with Costa Rican autistic children.A probable source of confusion is a lack of information on this disorder, which leads to create myths and believes based on irrational ideas about what autism is as a syndrome and, the particular behavioral characteristics of people carrying on this syndrome.The basic goal of this study is to identify the myths and believes that, Costa Rican parents, hold about the different aspects of autism and the people that carry this syndrome and, based on the collected information to create means to bring appropriate information on those areas it is needed.

  1. Seismic and Geodetic Monitoring of the Nicoya, Costa Rica, Seismic Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.; Schwartz, S.; Dixon, T.; Kato, T.; Kaneda, Y.; Simila, G.; Sampson, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicoya segment of the Middle America Trench has been recognized as a mature seismic gap with potential to generate a large earthquake in the near future (it ruptured with large earthquakes in 1853, 1900 and 1950). Low level of background seismicity and fast crustal deformation of the forearc are indicatives of strong coupling along the plate interface. Given its high seismic potential, the available data and especially the fact that the Nicoya peninsula extends over large part of the rupture area, this gap was selected as one of the two sites for a MARGINS-SEIZE experiment. With the goal of documenting the evolution of loading and stress release along this seismic gap, an international effort involving several institutions from Costa Rica, the United States and Japan is being carried out for over a decade in the region. This effort involves the installation of temporary and permanent seismic and geodetic networks. The seismic network includes short period, broad band and strong motion instruments. The seismic monitoring has provided valuable information on the geometry and characteristics of the plate interface. The geodetic network includes temporary and permanent GPS stations as well as surface and borehole tiltmeters. The geodetic networks have helped quantify the extend and degree of coupling. A continuously recording, three- station GPS network on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, recorded what we believe is the first slow slip event observed along the plate interface of the Costa Rica subduction zone. We will present results from these monitoring networks. Collaborative international efforts are focused on expanding these seismic and geodetic networks to provide improved resolution of future creep events, to enhanced understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Nicoya subduction segment of the Middle American Trench and possibly capture the next large earthquake and its potential precursor deformation.

  2. The professional practice and imaging specialist from the deontological perspective in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Vega, Albert; Alvarado Garcia, Danny; Amen Montero, Omar; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Jonnathan; Jimenez Alpizar, Ana Carolina; Solano Arguello, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    A vision of how to address the challenges facing, daily, the professional person imaging specialist has been raised with the use of new and emerging technologies. Issues to consider conflicts, ethical and moral dilemmas that may affect the way patient care, besides his family; and also, working relationship with colleagues and the institution in which he serves. This professional requires of development and training that will enable him to assess with sufficient objectivity, ethical-moral and conflicting situations to take decisions more convenient, from a critical and reflective practice. A rule of professional practice in diagnostic and therapy imaging has been missing in Costa Rica. Consequently, the need for a study, both theoretical and practical, which take into account ethical and moral guidelines, professional and regulatory was presented, with the objective to establish a possible course to comprehensive consolidation of the professional. The imaging specialist has a great responsibility in his practice, with society and with the patient attending the services in which he works. Different data collection techniques were used, to develop a proposal for guidelines for a possible rules of conduct for the professional person imaging specialist in Costa Rica; in this, have addressed the appropriate deontological topics for future implementation taking into account the professional profile, the academic level, professional practice and the requirements of society. This research has made evident the need and importance of establishing such guidelines as main result. A proposed improvement to the practice of professional person imaging specialist in diagnosis and therapy in Costa Rica is exposed from the qualitative data analysis. (author) [es

  3. Forest Protection and Reforestation in Costa Rica: Evaluation of a Clean Development Mechanism Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subak

    2000-09-01

    / Costa Rica has recently established a program that provides funds for reforestation and forest protection on private lands, partly through the sale of carbon certificates to industrialized countries. Countries purchasing these carbon offsets hope one day to receive credit against their own commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Costa Rica has used the proceeds of the sale of carbon offsets to Norway to help finance this forest incentive program, called the Private Forestry Project, which pays thousands of participants to reforest or protect forest on their lands. The Private Forestry Project is accompanied by a monitoring program conducted by Costa Rican forest engineers that seeks to determine net carbon storage accomplished on these lands each year. The Private Forestry Project, which is officially registered as an Activity Implemented Jointly, is a possible model for bundled projects funded by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also serves as an interesting example for the CDM because it was designed by a developing country host-not by an industrialized country investor. Accordingly, it reflects the particular "sustainable development" objectives of the host country or at least the host planners. Early experience in implementing the Private Forestry Project is evaluated in light of the main objectives of the CDM and its precursor-Activities Implemented Jointly. It is concluded that the project appears to meet the criteria of global cost-effectiveness and financing from non-ODA sources. The sustainable development implications of the project are specific to the region and would not necessarily match the ideals of all investing and developing countries. The project may be seen to achieve additional greenhouse gas abatement when compared against some (although not all) baselines.

  4. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  5. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  6. Results from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test: 3 Years at MiraCosta College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbaugh French, Rica

    2007-12-01

    The Astronomy Diagnostic Test 2.0 (ADT) was administered to 26 sections of ASTR 101 at MiraCosta College (MCC) from fall 2004 through summer 2007. MiraCosta is a two-year community college located in Oceanside, CA, USA (roughly 40 miles north of San Diego) with an enrollment of approximately 11,000 students. ASTR 101 is MiraCosta's introductory astronomy survey course for non-science majors and has no math prerequisite. Class sizes ranged from 10 to 38 students. Comparison with the ADT National Project results indicates similar pre- and post-course averages: 31.8% (MCC) vs. 32.4% (National) for pre-course tests and 49.3% (MCC) vs. 47.3% (National) for post-course tests. The sample sizes are 709 and 530 students for the pre- and post-tests, respectively. The normalized gain for the entire data set is 0.256 and the effect size (ES) is 1.04, meaning that approximately 85% of the post-test scores are above the average of the pre-test scores. Previous studies have shown the ADT to be a reliable indicator of pre-course misconceptions while post-course scores are useful for comparing modes of instruction and assessing student learning on a limited number of concepts. Additional analyses of the MCC data probe for trends with variables such as gender, class size, and implementation of materials designed for a more "learner-centered” approach (such as Lecture Tutorials, Ranking Tasks, and Think-Pair-Share questions), as well as gains for a particular subset of concepts.

  7. Sex Education Approaches at Costa Rican Public Universities: An Exploratory Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to show the panorama and scope of the current existing sex education practices carried out by the Costa Rican public universities. It analyzes different initiatives, its theoretical approaches that guide the actions, their purposes and other relevant aspects. The analysis includes secondary information as well as the point of view of students and university staff, as inputs for decision-making aimed at improving the overall education of young people. The findings take part of an exploratory research based on qualitative and quantitative methodologies based on gender and constructionism perspective. The information was gathered via the application of a questionnaire to a specific uneven stratified cluster groups, composed by 766 enrolled undergraduate students since first semester 2011 at Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. The statistical margin of error was 1.5% and the confidence level of 95%. In addition, two focus groups with students and depth interviews with 16 persons were made. Data were tabulated with CSPRO software and analyzed using R software.  The findings suggest that Costa Rican universities recognize the importance of sex education as an essential part of overall development of students. Most of the initiatives are institutionalized; however, the lack of guidelines or policies on the subject, in most institutions, affects quality, consolidation and expansion of services. The need to strengthen and expand training activities on sexuality was identified as well. The students have a high opinion about the services offered, but few of them use these services, because they are perceived as less accessible and friendly. This paper concludes that it is a priority to maintain and strengthen existing initiatives on sexual education, so that they can effectively satisfy the needs of youth, with timely interventions and quality to enjoy a healthy and safe sexuality free from violence.

  8. QA Programme of the TLD laboratory of the University of Costa Rica: IEC 61066 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Porras Chaverria, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    The Thermoluminescence Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of the University of Costa Rica provides dose measurements for around 90% of occupational radiation workers in the country. The assessment of doses to workers routinely exposed to external sources of radiation constitutes an integral part of any radiation protection programme and helps national authorities to ensure acceptably safe and satisfactory radiological conditions in workplaces. Harshaw Readers Model 4000 and 4500, dosimeter holders Type 8814 with TLD-100 in 0110 cards and loose TLD-100 chips are used to monitor personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). In order to provide a reliable measurement of the operational quantities, a study was undertaken to verify the fulfillment of international requirements in our system (Model 4500 with cards) against the Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring CEI IEC 61066 (1991 -2012). The type tests performed were nine in total: batch homogeneity, reproducibility, linearity, detection threshold, effect of climate conditions on reader, effect of light exposure on dosimeters, isotropy, transient voltage and dropping on dosimeters. A Cesium-137 source was used to irradiate the dosimeters and all procedures follow the indications given on the standard. Results showed that all IEC criteria were met by our Laboratory. Acceptable uncertainties were also studied under the ICRP recommendations; the analysis of the Trumpet Curve was done with satisfactory results (for doses above 0.5 mSv; quotient of measure to real dose less than 3%). For purposes of accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) and performance testing this work is very relevant since the University of Costa Rica wants to establish a solid individual monitoring programme for external radiation exposure that will provide users, registrants, licensees and regulatory bodies with information that can be used for the optimization of protection and dose limitation of Costa Rican workers

  9. Fitoprotección y Comercio Agrícola en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Valladares, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Dos iniciativas futuras imponen a Costa Rica la necesidad de una revisión y redireccionamiento de su estrategia de inserción en los mercados internacionales: la manifestación de las intenciones de los Estados Unidos de establecer un tratado de libre comercio con Centroamérica y de la Comunidad Económica Europea de habilitar un acuerdo de asociación comercial con Centroamérica. Ambas iniciativas implicarán el establecimiento de mayores posibilidades comerciales y plantean importantes oportunid...

  10. Chemical analyses for selected wells in San Joaquin County and part of Contra Costa County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeter, Gail L.

    1980-01-01

    The study area of this report includes the eastern valley area of Contra Costa County and all of San Joaquin County, an area of approximately 1,600 square miles in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. Between December 1977 and December 1978, 1,489 wells were selectively canvassed. During May and June in 1978 and 1979, water samples were collected for chemical analysis from 321 of these wells. Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made, and individual constituents were analyzed. This report is the fourth in a series of baseline data reports on wells in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. (USGS)

  11. El plano secuencia: Pedro Costa y la trilogía de Fontainhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieguer, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] Desde la aparición del plano secuencia en forma expresiva con Citizen Kane, tal recurso se convirtió en sinónimo de modernidad cinematográfica. Ni tanto ni tan poco, el uso del plano secuencia, generalmente visible, se lo comprendió como maniera formal y toque de virtuosismo. Con el director portugués Pedro Costa, es posible entender de qué manera la crítica y teoría fílmica sobredimensionan criterios esté-ticos ante lo políticamente correcto. Con la realización de la trilogía sobre Fontainhas, Costa se ha convertido en uno de los directores excéntricos más relevantes de los últimos quince años. El recurrente uso del plano secuencia fílmico y su persuasión política a través de las imágenes discurre sobre las condiciones de producción y recepción del cine contemporáneo, poniendo énfasis en llevar a la luz del día del escenario audiovisual los sectores excluidos de su Lisboa, iniciando un periplo que comienza en Fontainhas. [en] Since the sequence shot expressively appeared with Citizen Kane, this resource became synonymous with cinematic modernity. Neither that much nor that little, the use of the sequence shot, usually visible, is understood as formal manieraand a touch of virtuosity. With the Portuguese director Pedro Costa it is possible to understand how film criticism and theory favor aesthetic criteria rather than what is politically correct. With the production of the trilogy about Fontainhas, Costa has become one of the most important marginal directors in the last fifteen years. The recurrent use of the film sequence shot and his political persuasion through images run on the conditions of production and reception of contemporary cinema, with a clear intention to bring into the light of audiovisual stage the excluded areas of Lisbon, starting a long journey that begins in Fontainhas.

  12. Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nishida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO, a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the valley. Butterflies are one of the best bio-indicators of a habitat’s health, because they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and are tightly linked to the local flora. A description of the RELO’s physical features and its history is also presented with illustrations. Approximately 432 species of ca. 334 genera in 113 families of plants were identified. However, only 57 % of them represent species native to the Premontane Moist Forest of the region; the rest are either exotic or species introduced mostly from lowland. More than 200 species of butterflies in six families, including Hesperiidae, have been recorded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 31-67. Epub 2009 November 30.Por ser el área más poblada del país, el valle Central de Costa Rica perdió su hábitat natural; lo poco que queda ha sido alterado en grados variados. Sin embargo, se han realizado algunos estudios para evaluar la necesidad de conservación en esta área. Se presentan inventarios preliminares de plantas, mariposas y polillas diurnas de la Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO; una pequeña reserva de bosque húmedo premontano en del campus de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en la parte urbanizada del valle. Las mariposas diurnas son uno de los mejores bio-indicadores de la salud del hábitat, porque son muy sensibles a los cambios del ambiente y están estrechamente ligadas a la flora local. Se presenta también una descripción de los caracteres físicos y la

  13. An insight into the antibiofilm properties of Costa Rican stingless bee honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, L G; Beukelman, C J; van den Berg, A J J; Aerts, P C; Quarles van Ufford, H C; Nijland, R; Arias, M L

    2017-04-02

    There is an increasing search for antibiofilm agents that either have specific activity against biofilms or may act in synergy with antimicrobials. Our objective is to examine the the antibiofilm properties of stingless bee honeys. Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were examined along with Medihoney as a reference. All honeys were submitted to a screening composed of minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm destruction microplate-based assays against a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming strain. Dialysis led to the isolation of an antibiofilm fraction in Tetragonisca angustula honeys. The honey antibiofilm fraction was evaluated for protease activity and for any synergistic effect with antibiotics on a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The active fraction was then separated through activity guided isolation techniques involving SDS-PAGEs, anion exchange and size exclusion fast protein liquid chromatographies. The fractions obtained and the isolated antibiofilm constituents were tested for amylase and DNase activity. A total of 57 Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were studied in this research. The honeys studied belonged to the Tetragonisca angustula (n=36) and Melipona beecheii (n=21) species. Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys can inhibit the planktonic growth, biofilm formation, and are capable of destroying a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The antibiofilm effect was observed in the protein fraction of Tetragonisca angustula honeys. The biofilm destruction proteins allowed ampicillin and vancomycin to recover their antimicrobial activity over a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The antibiofilm proteins are of bee origin, and their activity was not due to serine, cysteine or metalloproteases. There were 2 proteins causing the antibiofilm action; these were named the Tetragonisca angustula biofilm destruction factors (TABDFs). TABDF-1 is a monomeric protein of approximately 50kDa that is responsible of the amylase activity

  14. Joaquín Costa: una pasión de poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Navarra Ordoño

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Joaquín Costa has often been presented as a victim of his extraordinarily hostilecircumstances: a humble origin, a degenerative disease, academic rejection and political betrayals. Fromhis memories (2011 and other recent editions and studies we have access not only to the suffering writerbut also to the young person who sighs for being Minister, reaching a universal reputation and reformingpolitical life. The final aim of the work is to describe Costa’s ideology, which differs in his privateformulation from his public expression.

  15. Communists and Advertisement. The Experience of Costa Rica in the 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Molina Jiménez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we identify the main characteristics of the advertising included in the Vanguardia magazine (1941-1942 and the Combate (1944 and Tinchera (1946 newspapers, all of them publications linked with the Communist Party in Costa Rica. It also considers the specific details of the individuals, institutions and companies that published advertisements in these media. Finally, we analyze to what extent some of the contents of those advertisements were related to broader discourses which took place in the 1940s (economic nationalism and defense of democracy, while others promoted values, beliefs, worldviews and lifestyles different from the culture the Communists were trying to spread.

  16. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Chaves, P.; Villalobos Castro, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  17. Calculating spectral direct solar irradiance, diffuse and global in Heredia, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    A spectral model under conditions of clear skies has described the flow of solar irradiation and is verified experimentally in Heredia, Costa Rica. A description of the model is presented by comparing its results with experimental measurements. The model has calculated the spectral flows of the global solar irradiation, direct and diffuse incident on a horizontal surface. Necessary input data include latitude, altitude, surface albedo as characteristics of a locality, and atmospheric characteristics: turbidity, precipitable water vapor, total ozone content and the optical thickness of a particular subject. The results show satisfactory values. (author) [es

  18. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo en personas adultas mayores en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos Calvo, Isabel; Madrigal Leer, Fabián; Abarca Gómez, Leandra

    2014-01-01

    El riesgo nutricional es la potencialidad de desarrollar desnutrición por déficit de alimentación, debido a diversos factores. La prevalencia del riesgo nutricional en adultos mayores utilizando la Valoración Nutricional Mínima (MNA®) en Europa y Estados Unidos es de un 15 % y 20 %. El estudio SABE-México, determinó un 31,8 %. Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de riesgo nutricional y sus principales factores asociados en los adultos mayores que asisten a un primer nivel de atención en Costa Ri...

  19. [Effects of traditional cooking on antinutritional factors of the black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, A R; Calzada, C; Cooke, R

    1991-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors, alfa amylase inhibitors and hemagglutinins were determined in black beans (P. vulgaris) produced in Costa Rica. The effect of the traditional cooking on such antinutritional factors was also studied. The antinutritional factors were analyzed spectrophotometrically in the raw beans, as well as after several cooking periods of time. The results showed that alfa-amylase inhibitors were the most thermoresistant. After 30 min of cooking time there was a 33% of activity left from the initial activity of the raw beans. Approximately 80% of the antitryptic activity was destroyed at 9 min of cooking time. After 10 min of cooking time, only 1% of hemagglutinin activity was present.

  20. K40 y Cs137 in bananas exported from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L. G.; Mora, P.; Badilla, M.

    1999-01-01

    Using low level gamma spectroscopy, the specific activity of K 4 0 and Cs 1 37 in banana samples is quantified during the period 1996-1998. The bananas were supplied by the export companies that operate in Costa Rica. The calculated derived intervention level (DIL) for Cs 1 37 was 4000 times greater than the specific activity measured in the fruit due to worldwide nuclear events. This result permits its free commercialization. Banana is an excellent source of potassium, since it was determined that each kg of the fruit has 3.8 g of this element. (Author) [es

  1. Assessment of possible strategies to reduce mobile sources emissions in Costa Rica, 2010-2015 projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera-Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the possible strategies to reduce the emissions from mobile sources in Costa Rica were evaluated for the 2010-2015 period. The total emissions were estimated using emission factors obtained from Mobile 6 model and activity data like fuel and vehicle type distribution. This study found that 50% substitution of public transport vehicles was the most effective measure to lower the anual rate increase for NOx and Total Organic Gases (TOG. Both around 14,3% and 11,7% anually, respectively.

  2. Identificación del agente causal de la antracnosis de Sansevieria spp. en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-León, Gerardo; Chavarría-Pérez, Lourdes; Araya-Quesada, Julio; Gómez-Alpízar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Sansevieria spp. (Agavaceae) es una ornamental de follaje originaria de África y Asia. S. trifasciata (St) es la especie con mayor número de cultivares en el mercado de exportación de Costa Rica a Estados Unidos y Holanda. Muestras foliares de S. trifasciata var. “Hahnii” con lesiones circulares y acuosas (algunas alargadas y secas), fueron analizadas. El patógeno recuperado fue identificado como Colletotrichum sansevieriae Nakamura (CsN) mediante pruebas de patogenicidad, morfología y técnic...

  3. Plantas vasculares como agentes modificadores de ecosistemas en la costa patagónica

    OpenAIRE

    Sueiro, María Cruz

    2012-01-01

    En las costas de Patagonia, aquellos ambientes costeros que poseen la fisonomía típica de un intermareal rocoso pero están dominados por el tipo de plantas vasculares que dominan y caracterizan las marismas de sustratos blandos se han designado recientemente como marismas rocosas. Spartina densiflora, la especie vegetal dominante en la mayoria de las marismas rocosas relevadas, es considerada un organismo bioingeniero gracias a su capacidad de modificar, mantener, y/o crear hábitats. En este ...

  4. Capital social y su vínculo con la pobreza en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo explora algunas de las relaciones teóricas y empíricas entre el capital social y la pobreza en Costa Rica. Se define "capital social" como el valor de las relaciones sociales mediadas por "normas de reciprocidad". Se usan datos de la encuesta de Opinión Pública de América Latina (2004) y del Censo de Población y Vivienda (2000). Se comprobó que la pobreza disminuye, conforme aumenta el capital social. Los estratos bajos y altos participan más en organizaciones formales e informa...

  5. Reformas financieras en Costa Rica para una banca competitiva y sólida

    OpenAIRE

    Arce Monge, Jorge Alexander

    2013-01-01

    El principal objetivo del presente ensayo es describir y recomendar posibles reformas al sistema financiero de Costa Rica a partir de la situación regulatoria actual, tomando como ejemplo la experiencia Española y de otras economías desarrolladas; con el propósito de incentivar: la competencia, eficiencia y supervisión eficaz de los actores financieros nacionales, sin esperar y evitando crisis sistémicas. Muchos proyectos y estudios que recomiendan las reformas financieras está...

  6. Activity of volcanoes of Costa Rica during the period 2012-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar, Yemerit; Mora, Mauricio M.; Mora Amador, Raul; Gonzalez, Gino; Ramirez, Carlos J.; Taylor, Waldo

    2014-01-01

    A synthesis of results and observations of two years of surveillance is presented of the active volcanoes of Costa Rica (Volcan Rincon de la Vieja, Arenal, Poas, Barva, Irazu, Turrialba). The results have enriched the database of the National Seismologic Network, which has four decades of experience in the area and the implementation of technologies. The volcanic activity presented in 2012 is relatively normal with slight signs of seismic activity and phreatic. An increase is presented after the earthquake Samara (Mw = 7.6). The temperature rise manifested mainly in the fumaroles, some changes in crater lake, phreatic activity and volcanic seismicity. The conditions were maintained throughout the period of this study [es

  7. Social perception and environmental behavior of communities close to a tropical urban river in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ureña Santos, Claudio; Barrientos, Zaidett

    2017-01-01

    Urban green areas are important to keep balance in the cities, but few studies consider people`s perception of these areas. We evaluated and compared the environmental perception of two urban communities in San José, Costa Rica. The analyzed communities are separated by the Ocloro River; one has a low socioeconomic status and the other a medium-high level. We conducted surveys in 40 homes located less than 150 m from the river, and local government employees in charge of natural resources man...

  8. Síndrome del decaimiento lento de la teca (SDLT) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Aguilar, Dagoberto; Mata, Rafael; Herrera, Wilberth; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio

    2012-01-01

    La teca (Tectona grandis L.f.), es una de las especies preferidas en la reforestación de las zonas tropicales, debido a sus excelentes rendimiento y el alto valor de su madera. En Centroamérica se informa de aproximadamente 76000 ha plantadas con dicha especie. Se denomina como el “Síndrome del decaimiento lento de la teca (SDLT)”, a la mortalidad de grupos de árboles (de 7 años en adelante), que se ha presentado en las regiones más húmedas de Costa Rica donde se planta la especie.

  9. Water chemistry and soil radon survey at the Poas volcano (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Seidel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Radon-in-soil monitoring at the Poas volcano (Costa Rica has been performed together with water chemistry from the hot crater lake since 1981 and 1983 respectively. The results are discussed as a function of the eruptive evolution of the volcano over a 13 years period (1981-1994. It is shown that no definitely clear precursory radon signals have been recorded. On the contrary, ionic species concentrations are likely to be considered good precursors, together with the temperature variations of the crater lake water.

  10. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  11. La transparencia presupuestaria en Costa Rica en el período 2003-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Rodríguez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Este articulo analiza los principales resultados del estudio sobre la transparencia de los presupuestos públicos de Costa Rica y una evolución de los principales atributos que la conforman, en el periodo 2003-2009, como un elemento relevante, dentro de la nueva concepción de la Gestión Pública. La visión moderna de incorporar a la ciudadanía como un actor más dentro del proceso de las políticas públicas, nos obliga a desarrollar nuevos modelos presupuestarios, para lograr una administración p...

  12. Macromorfometría de juveniles de Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidaeen Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Merchán

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se midieron 31 ejemplares de tortuga africana de espolones Geochelone sulcata para la realización de un estudio biométrico. Se consideraron 26 medidas morfológicas para cada individuo. Las tortugas tenían una edad de entre 5 y 34 meses, y ninguna había alcanzado la madurez sexual. Todas ellas habían nacido en cautiverio en La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica, donde son una especie introducida. La longitud recta del espaldar fue de 83.1 mm, la anchura recta del espaldar de 68.3 mm y la altura máxima media de 46.2 mm. Todas las medidas estaban correlacionadas entre sí, salvo la longitud de la cola y la distancia cloacal. El mayor coeficiente de alometría positiva correspondió a la variable Peso. El mayor coeficiente de alometría negativa correspondió a la anchura a nivel de los escudos gulares. Todas las variables se agruparon en dos componentes principales, la longitud de la cola y la distancia cloacal en el Factor 2 y el resto en el Factor 1. La falta de correlación de las medidas de la cola así como su inclusión en un factor aparte al resto de la muestra podría responder a un proceso incipiente de diferenciación sexualGross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae in Costa Rica. The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had the highest positive allometry coefficient. All the variables were joined in two Principal Components; tail length and cloacal distance in Factor 2 and the rest of them in Factor 1. Lack of correlation among tail measures and the other

  13. Reproducción de Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae en Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Calvo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A group of Annona cherimolia (Mill:Annonaceae trees was studied in Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica (June 1991-August 1992 to record egg-laying sites of the butterfly Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae. Used fruits often dehydrated and fell before maturity. Eggs are laid in fruits independently of fruit ontologic state and of height above ground. Tree parts less frequently used to lay eggs are flower primordia, leaves and stems, but the larvae move to fruits when food reserves are depleted. Pupation occurs outside the fruit. Pupae emit sound, possible for defence.

  14. Cerrando espacios, abriendo brechas. Urbanizaciones cerradas en San Rafael de Escazú, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alvarado Alcázar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia el fenómeno de las urbanizaciones cerradas en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú, Costa Rica. La tesis central es que las urbanizaciones cerradas producen cambios en la urbanidad mediante la introducción de transformaciones socio-espaciales manifiestas en la materialidad de las urbanizaciones cerradas, las funciones de estas y el tipo de relaciones sociales que sus residentes mantienen entre sí y con su entorno cercano. El artículo cierra sugiriendo explorar la noción de “urbanidad privada” como una forma de entender la producción de espacio promovida desde los intereses privados expresados en la construcción de conjuntos inmobiliarios cerrados, de los cuales las urbanizaciones cerradas son una de sus manifestaciones más visibles. Los resultados presentados en este ensayo, son producto de la investigación titulada “Urbanizaciones cerradas en Costa Rica: transformaciones socio-espaciales en la urbanidad y segregación socio-residencial en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú (1990-2012”. This paper examines the phenomenon of gated communities in Costa Rica, specifically in the district of San Rafael, Escazú. The central thesis is that gated communities to changes in urbanity by introducing socio-spatial transformations evident in the materiality of gated communities, the functions of these communities and the type of social relations that its residents have with one another and with their immediate environment. The article suggests exploring the notion of “private urbanity” as a way to understand the production of space promoted by private interests and expressed in the construction of closed real estate developments, most visibly manifested by gated communities.. The results presented are the product of research entitled “Urbanizaciones cerradas en Costa Rica: transformaciones socio-espaciales en la urbanidad y segregación socio- residencial en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú (1990

  15. Conocimiento de estudiantes de la universidad de costa rica sobre el virus de papiloma humano, durante el II ciclo lectivo del año 2006, Costa Rica Knowledge among students of the university of Costa Rica regarding the human papilloma virus during the second semester of the 2006 academic year, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Luis G Jiménez Herrera

    2007-01-01

    El virus del papiloma humano, se relaciona con cáncer cervical, anal y de pene. Dada la incidencia de algunas de esas enfermedades y de sus consecuencias, es que éste es un tema de actualidad y que debe de abordarse desde diversas perspectivas. Este trabajo exploró el conocimiento de estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica con respecto a este tema, durante el II semestre del 2006. Se realizó una entrevista personalizada utilizando preguntas claves sobre el tema y luego se creó un índice d...

  16. Fundamentos del tipo de cambio real en Costa Rica (2001-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Hernández, Raúl; Rodríguez Ramos, Nancy; Martínez Arias, Emil

    2017-01-01

    El documento está orientado a profesionales de ciencias sociales con el objetivo de orientarles en la comprensión del comportamiento del Índice de Tipo de Cambio Real de Costa Rica (ITCER) en relación con sus fundamentos. Se utiliza el modelo teórico behavioral equilibrium exchange rate (BEER) para identificar y analizar los efectos en estas variables sobre el ITCER. Los seis indicadores analizados fueron: términos de intercambio, absorción fiscal, IED, tasa de interés real doméstica y produc...

  17. Preliminary study of the contamination by Radon Gas in dwelling enclosures in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L.G.; Jimenez, R.; Gallardo, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The use of Solid State Nuclear Track detectors (SSNTD), LR-115 type II-Quick, is one of the convenient technique to assess the average radiation levels of alpha activities in the environment. This technique has been used to assess the Radon concentration in some areas of San Jose, Costa Rica. Exposed SSNTD films are chemically etched in an alkaline solution and the density of alpha tracks are given as concentration (pCi/L) of Radon. The only known health effect associated with exposure to elevated levels of Radon is an increased risk of developing lung cancer. (authors). 10 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Metabolismo socio-natural y conflictos ambientales en Costa Rica y El Salvador 1992-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Cartagena Cruz, Rafael Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    La investigación, realizada en Costa Rica y El Salvador, se interroga por la relación entre dinámicas ambientales y conflictividad social. Las dinámicas ambientales han sido analizadas mediante el concepto de metabolismo socio-natural, es decir, como resultado del nexo físico de una sociedad y su entorno. Tres elementos que definen el metabolismo socio-natural en una sociedad dada son las formas de ocupación del espacio, las actividades económicas desarrolladas y los desechos y emisiones que ...

  19. Zeolites of the Valle Central of Costa Rica and its outskirts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeledon, Luis Alonso

    2004-01-01

    19 different species of zeolites have been found in 25 outcrops in the Valle Central of Costa Rica and in the Siquirres region. All the zeolites are secondary minerals and crystallized in little veins and vesicles of the basalts and pyroclastics rocks of the La Cruz and Grifo Alto formations, belonging to the Aguacate Group and the alkaline igneous rocks of Guayacan. The most frequent species of zeolites are stibnite, chabasite, laumontite, mesolite/mordenite, thomsonite, and analcime. Natrolite only was found near to Siquirres. (Author) [es

  20. Insights into the illegal trade of feline derivatives in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Rebecca Kelly, Ph.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has given the illegal trade of feline derivatives in Mexico as well as Central and South America little attention. The purpose of this article is to: 1 Begin a dialogue among human dimensions of wildlife scholars about the economic and cultural values of feline derivatives throughout Mexico, Central and South America; 2 Present the range of economic values that emerged in my interview and participant observation data from Costa Rica; 3 Offer an explanation of how sociological concepts influence the buying and selling of dead jaguars (Panthera onca, pumas (Puma concolor, and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in Costa Rica. The principal results are: 1 The sociological concepts of social status and masculine identity interlace with and motivate the illegal trade; 2 The value of feline parts in Costa Rica ranges from $25 to $5000; 3 This value differs by culture and geographic residency of the seller (urban versus rural and diverged from values discovered in other countries; 4 The men who adorn their homes with illegal trophies are not necessarily the poachers. The value of jaguar skin has been recorded for as little as $100 in a 1983 study conducted in Belize and for as high as $600 in a study done in Venezuela in approximately 2011. Because of cultural differences, Cabécar sell a feline skin for as little as $25 and up to $400 if it includes teeth and nails, but Ticos, who are non-indigenous Costa Ricans, sell the skins from $500-$5000. Non-indigenous, wealthy urban men indicate prestige by the display of feline parts. My findings align with existing research that jaguar skins are sold to people in larger cities and that adornment of feline derivatives is a masculine tradition that can be linked with Amerindian cultures and ancient times. Historically jaguars have been associated with elitist symbolism and evidence in this study suggests this continues in today's culture as a sign of social status. Results suggest that money alone does not

  1. Comparative analysis of aging policy reforms in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Esteban; Berho, Maureen; Roqué, Mónica; Amaro, Juan Sebastián; Morales, Fernando; Rivera, Emiliana; Gutiérrez Robledo, Luis Miguel F; López, Elizabeth Caro; Canals, Bernardita; Kornfeld, Rosa

    2018-04-16

    This investigation uses case studies and comparative analysis to review and analyze aging policy in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and uncovers similarities and relevant trends in the substance of historical and current aging policy across countries. Initial charity-based approaches to poverty and illness have been gradually replaced by a rights-based approach considering broader notions of well-being, and recent reforms emphasize the need for national, intersectoral, evidence-based policy. The results of this study have implications for understanding aging policy in Latin America from a welfare regime and policymakers' perspective, identifying priorities for intervention, and informing policy reforms in developing countries worldwide.

  2. [Intellectual property rights in Costa Rica in the light of the Biodiversity Convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, R; Cabrera, J A

    1996-04-01

    This report analyzes intellectual property rights and acquisition of biological samples in light of the Biological Diversity Convention, with emphasis on Costa Rica. It examines the legal framework which exists for the protection of biological resources in this country, especially evaluating the law regarding protection of biota, which was approved in 1992. This includes information regarding access to genetic resources, and regulation for the aforementioned law. It examines the Biological Diversity Convention which was signed at the Rio Summit in 1992, whose objectives and goals, above all, emphasize the subject of distribution of benefits to be derived from the utilization of biological resources.

  3. Culture of Fear and Control in Costa Rica (I). Crime Statistics and Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that crime rates have increased significantly in recent years and that there is today a vast and alarming amount of crime. On the basis of this assumption, fear of crime, the call for the “iron fist,” and drastic law enforcement actions are continually increasing. While crime statistics are the logical basis for the hypothesis on the far-reaching extent of delinquency, they are used in a problematic way in the talk of crim...

  4. El discurso sobre la criminalidad en las noticias televisivas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Vergara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze crime discourses broadcasted in television news texts and its relation with the perception of “disproportion” that many Costa Ricans have on this subject. To do so, we use several concepts from the field of linguistics such discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis, as well as social and psychological theories. The results show that the characteristics of television news discourses —as well as discourses elaborated by other sources—can cause fear among the population, and, consequently, play an important role in creating a feeling of insecurity.

  5. The culture of fear and control in Costa Rica (I): Crime statistics and law enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that crime rates have increased significantly in recent years and that there is today a vast and alarming amount of crime. On the basis of this assumption, fear of crime, the call for the 'iron fist', and drastic law enforcement actions are continually increasing. While crime statistics are the logical basis for the hypothesis on the far-reaching extent of delinquency, they are used in a problematic way in the talk of crim...

  6. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M. Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  7. Hemoglobinas anormales en la población neonatal de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abarca

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se han analizado un total de 70 943 muestras de sangre total en papel filtro S&S 903 de neonatos de Costa Rica (octubre 2005 a Octubre 2006 con el fin de detectar variantes de hemoglobina mediante la técnica de isoelectroenfoque. Se detectaron 891 casos con alguna variante para una frecuencia de 1/79. Se clasifican 5 casos homocigotos para hemoglobina S (anemia drepanocítica o anemia falciforme y un caso doble heterocigoto para SC. En este estudio se demuestra que las variantes fenotípicas de hemoglobina S como la C, se encuentran distribuidas por todo el país con algunas diferencias locales, razón por la cual es importante que la prevención de nuevos casos se realicé a través de nuestro Programa Nacional de Tamizaje de Hemoglobinas junto con un Programa Nacional interdisciplinario de Educación para el portador del rasgo (AS/AC como, para el enfermo y su familia; al igual que la instauración de programas dirigidos a médicos generales y enfermeras en todas las regiones de salud del país, para asegurar consejo genético a portadores y enfermos, y a la vez, mejorar los sistemas de tratamiento a los pacientes para reducir la morbi -mortalidad.Abnormal haemoglobins in the newborn human population of Costa Rica. Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary autosomic recessive diseases. A total of 70 943 samples of whole blood collected by heel prick in filter paper (S&S 903 from throughout Costa Rica (October 2005-October 2006 were analyzed to detect variants of hemoglobin by the iso-electric focusing technique. Eight hundred ninety one cases presented some variant, for a frecuency of 1/79. Five cases are homozygous for hemoglobin S (sickle cell disease and one shows the double heterozygous genotype SC. in this study the S and C variants of hemoglobin, although with some local differences, are widespread all over the country. Thus, the prevention of new cases is important through the testing of hemoglobin in the Costa Rican National Newborn Screening

  8. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  9. Cría comercial del caracol en Costa Rica. Estudio de factibilidad y estrategia de mercadeo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Gómez, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Administración de Empresas) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Administración de Empresas, 1998. Costa Rica es un país con una diversidad de microclimas muy variados que permite desarrollar actividades muy diversas, principalmente en el área de la agroindustria. La región del Valle Central presenta condiciones muy favorables para criar el caracol de tierra para consumo humano conocido como escargot. Esta investigación analiza la factibilidad...

  10. LA CERÁMICA CERRO LOS HORNOS, PRESENCIA INKA EN LA COSTA DE TACNA, SUR DEL PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Vela Velarde, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Se estudia el sitio Cerro Los Hornos, ubicado en la costa de Tacna, sur del Perú. Presenta cerámica con filiación Inka Imperial o Cuzco Policromo, pero de fabricación local; esta presencia cultural es consecuencia del proceso de expansión Inka a la costa sur del Perú, la cual establece relaciones con la sociedad local The place studied is Cerro Los Hornos located in the coast of Tacna, south of Peru, presents ceramic with filiation Inka Imperial or Cuzco Policromo, but of local production;...

  11. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  12. Aspectos psicosociales en torno a las personas afectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1989-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1989 Este trabajo describe aspectos psicosociales que resaltan de la interacción entre los proveedores de atencion en salud (el personal de salud) y las personas afectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia human (HIV). La discusión se basa en las experiencias del autor obtenidas mediante el seguimiento de una falange de casi 1000 hombres homosexuales o bisexuales en Costa Rica, así como de la intera...

  13. Macroinfauna en playas arenosas de la costa del Norte Grande de Chile sometidas a diferentes presiones antrópicas

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña, Emilio O; Jaramillo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Las playas arenosas urbanas son afectadas por limpieza artificial y recreación, lo que resulta en perturbación de los sedimentos y la macroinfauna. Durante octubre 2012, se muestrearon 3 playas urbanas y 4 no urbanas a lo largo de la costa del norte de Chile (ca., 20-21°S), para evaluar la estructura comunitaria de la macroinfauna intermareal. Se replicaron 4 transectos perpendiculares a la línea de costa extendidos entre el intermareal superior y el nivel de la marea baja, para recolectar mu...

  14. Sacerdotisas, Curanderas, Parteras y Guerreras: Mujeres de élite en la costa norte del Perú Antiguo

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Escudero, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Los hallazgos arqueológicos en la costa norte peruana durante las últimas décadas han permitido constatar que el género femenino tuvo un peso muy importante en las estructuras regionales de poder. Se ha descubierto que las mujeres ocuparon cargos especiales en el mundo político-religioso, lo cual significa una importante contribución al actual análisis de la sociedad prehispánica en la costa norte del Perú. Este artículo analiza cuatro de estos cargos ocupados por mujeres de élite y argumenta...

  15. Pampered sons, (wo)manly men, or do-nothing machos? Costa Rican men coming of age under neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannon, Susan E; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how young men in Costa Rica negotiate ideas of manhood under neoliberalism. We draw on interview data involving 23 men, ages 15–35, residing in one Costa Rican city. Comparing men across three different class locations, we find diverse "markers of manhood." Our data suggest an emerging globally dominant masculine ideal among an elite class of men, a declining locally dominant masculine ideal among working-class men, and a cynical, possibly counter-cultural masculine ideal among poor men. We conclude that masculinities are not only fluid, but tied to changing economic circumstances and class structures.

  16. La genética humana en Costa Rica situación actual y sus perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Barrantes Mesén, Ramiro

    1985-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1985 Se analiza la situación de la genética humana en Costa Rica mediante un estudio de la literatura científica publicada entre 1964 y 1984. Se muestra que a partir de 1976 se ha incrementado el número de publicaciones en este campo, destacando las investigaciones sobre hemoglobinas anormales, la estructura genética de varias poblaciones y la caracterización de algunas enfermedades hereditarias. Se co...

  17. Actividad contra Leishmania sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) de plantas en una Reserva Biológica de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona; Idalia Valerio-Campos; Ronald Sánchez-Porras; Vanessa Bagnarello-Madrigal; Laura Martínez-Esquivel; Antonieta González-Paniagua; Javier Alpizar-Cordero; Maribel Cordero-Villalobos; Daniela Rodríguez-Chaves

    2014-01-01

    La leishmaniosis es una enfermedad muy importante para el ser humano pero su tratamiento es bastante difícil. Por esta razón muchos investigadores han venido buscando plantas que contengan componentes químicos activos contra esta parasitosis. En Costa Rica no se tienen estudios al respecto y por eso el objetivo de este estudio fue la búsqueda de componentes activos contra Leishmania sp. en plantas de Costa Rica; 67 especies de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB) fueron selecci...

  18. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  19. The Culture of Fear and Control in Costa Rica (II): The Talk of Crime and Social Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Huhn

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that a formerly explicitly nonviolent nation has been transformed into a battleground for social violence - that is, on the belief that an alarming 'crime wave' is occurring today while there was no crime at all in the past. On the basis of this assumption, the fear of crime and the call for zero tolerance and drastic law enforcement actions have been increasing. In this paper I discuss the Costa Rican talk of crime from a...

  20. Evaluating Complex Magma Mixing via Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA in the Papagayo Tuff, Northern Costa Rica: Processes that Form Continental Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Alvarado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, research has revealed the importance of magma mixing as a trigger for volcanic eruptions, as well as its role in creating the diversity of magma compositions in arcs. Sensitive isotopic and microchemical techniques can reveal subtle evidence of magma mixing in igneous rocks, but more robust statistical techniques for bulk chemical data can help evaluate complex mixing relationships. Polytopic vector analysis (PVA is a multivariate technique that can be used to evaluate suites of samples that are produced by mixing of two or more magma batches. The Papagayo Tuff of the Miocene-Pleistocene Bagaces Formation in northern Costa Rica is associated with a segment of the Central American Volcanic Arc. While this segment of the arc is located on oceanic plateau, recent (<8 Ma ignimbrites bear the chemical signatures of upper continental crust, marking the transition from oceanic to continental crust. The Papagayo Tuff contains banded pumice fragments consistent with one or more episodes of mixing/mingling to produce a single volcanic deposit. The PVA solution for the sample set is consistent with observations from bulk chemistry, microchemistry and petrographic data from the rocks. However, without PVA, the unequivocal identification of the three end-member solution would not have been possible.

  1. Taxonomía y distribución del género Leptoscelis en Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Leptoscelis in Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el género Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini para Costa Rica y se describe una especie nueva, L. conspicuus. Se discuten sus relaciones con L. quadrisignatus (Distant y L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin es sinonimizada con L. quadrisignatus. Se cita por primera vez L. tricolor para Costa Rica. El trabajo incluye nuevos datos de distribución para el género, ilustraciones de las especies y de los parámeros y una clave para la identificación de las especies costarricenses.The genus Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini from Costa Rica is revised. One new species, L. conspicuus, is described and compared with L. quadrisignatus (Distant and L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin is synonymized with L. quadrisignatus. Leptoscelis tricolor is recorded for the first time from Costa Rica. New distribution records are presented. Habitus illustrations and drawings of parameres are provided. A key to the known Costarican species is presented.

  2. La política pública en gestión del riesgo en Costa Rica y el abordaje desde la Escuela de Administración Pública de la Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Redondo, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La gestión del riesgo cobra particular importancia en un país como Costa Rica, al tener una alta propensión a la ocurrencia de eventos de origen natural y, además, con grandes retos de desarrollo. El país debe hacer un análisis integral de este tema e ir consolidando una política publica que permita establecer y articular un curso de acción coherente con las necesidades. La Escuela de Administración Publica de la Universidad de Costa Rica como centro de pensamiento está desarrollando un proyecto de investigación que apoya y promueve una gestión más prospectiva del riesgo en el país The disaster risk management is particularly important in a country like Costa Rica, to have a high propensity for the occurrence of natural events and also with development challenges. The country must make a comprehensive analysis of the issues and public policy to consolidate in order to establish and articulate a course of action consistent with the needs. The School of Public Administration at the University of Costa Rica as a center of thought is developing a research project that supports and promotes a more prospective risk management in the country

  3. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  4. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  5. Algas marinas bentónicas de la Isla Gorgona, costa pacífica colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Murillo Muñoz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el listado de las algas marinas bénticas del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona, el inventario corresponde a la flora algal asociada a los diferentes ambientes marinos de la isla, a saber: arrecifes coralinos y fondos blandos. El monitoreo de las comunidades de algas se llevó a cabo entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizó una estimación de abundancia y cobertura para lo cual se establecieron transeptos paralelos a la línea de costa y se evaluó el porcentaje de cobertura en cuadrantes de 0.25m². Se reportó un total de 43 especies para los dos ambientes estudiados (coralino y fondos blandos, 24 Rhodophyta, 12 Clorophyta, 6 Ochrophyta y una Cyanobacteria. El grupo más representativo fue el perteneciente a la clase Rhodophyceae, que correspondió al 55.8% de la flora inventariada. Los resultados de nuevos registros en la isla ratifican su importancia fitogeográfica, por cuanto la composición florística insular contribuye significativamente a la biodiversidad de la costa pacífica colombiana, destacándose la presencia de arrecifes coralinos como los principales ambientes marinos para el desarrollo de la flora algal de la región.

  6. Lo banal como patrimonio de la Costa del Sol. Torremolinos (1959 -1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E. García-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerar patrimonialmente la cultura del ocio en la Costa del Sol supone reconocer como ‘otro’ patrimonio los productos culturales generados por el turismo de ‘sol y playa’ en la Costa del Sol en los años 60 y 70, tratando como caso paradigmático de estudio la localidad malagueña de Torremolinos. Desde una concepción patrimonial alejada de parámetros tradicionales, reconocemos a esta localidad por objetos, lugares, edificios, espacios, ambientes y escenarios considerados banales, pero que proponemos como nuevos ‘monumentos’. De esta manera hacemos posible una lectura de la ciudad a través de distintos archivos de producciones humanas –artísticas, cinematográficas, arquitectónicas, literarias, etc. -; una especie de análisis estratigráfico que nos permite recomponer una identidad patrimonial incomprendida en su momento, a través de las diferentes capas de producciones culturales de estas dos décadas de intensa actividad turística.

  7. Pesticides in surface waters in areas influenced by banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Banana production in Costa Rica is highly dependent on pesticide use. However, only a few studies have been undertaken regarding the presence and environmental impact of the agrochemical substances used in the banana culture on the aquatic ecosystem of the Atlantic Region of Costa Rica. This study was, therefore, undertaken in Rio Suerte Basin that drains into the 'Nature Conservation Area' of Tortuguero in the Atlantic lowlands of the country from June 1993 to December 1994. In order to investigate further the occurrence of pesticides in the water bodies located near the possible sources especially during worst-case situations, water samples were analysed following pesticide applications during 1995-1997. Pesticide residues were determined by GC equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD). The study targeted 11 of the 21 pesticides used in banana production, the others were not analyzed. The most frequently found compounds during the 1993-94 survey were the fungicide propiconazole and the nematocide cadusafos. Maximum concentrations measured after the pesticide applications were found in the main drainage canal and these were 2.1 ug/L carbofuran, 1.2 ug/L terbufos and 0.48 ug/L cadusafos. The peak concentration found shortly after the aerial application of the fungicide propiconazole was 13 ug/L in the creek leaving the banana plantation. (author)

  8. INMIGRANTES NICARAGÜENSES EN COSTA RICA: BARRERAS Y ESTRATEGIAS DE NEGOCIACIÓN PARA RECREARSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Grace Salazar Salas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo es estudiar cómo se recrea la población migrante nicaragüense en Costa Rica. El estudio incluyó 13 personas residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información se recolectó por medio de entrevistas individuales, observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa y una entrevista grupal. Los datos de cada técnica se analizaron por aparte y luego se triangularon. Para efectos de este artículo, se toman en cuenta los resultados obtenidos en relación con (1 las barreras intrapersonales, las interpersonales y las estructurales; (2 las estrategias cognitivas y de comportamiento asociadas con la negociación para contrarrestar las barreras anteriores y participar en actividades recreativas en Costa Rica y (3 algunas de las barreras experimentadas por la población estudiada causaron otras que limitaron la participación en distintas actividades recreativas.

  9. Instituto Meteorológico Nacional: perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenta los resultados del primer informe realizado por el Instituto Meteorológico Nacional con respecto al comportamiento climático del año 2004 en Costa Rica. Su realización estuvo basada en investigaciones, modelos y bases de datos de diferentes instituciones y organizaciones, tanto nacionales como internacionales. El informe incluye información referente al comportamiento de diferentes fenómenos hidrometeorológico: las lluvias, los huracanes y el Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, así como su afectación en el país. Además, se presenta una referencia histórica de las temporadas de huracanes consideradas análogas con el 2004 It presents the results of the first report developed by the National Meteorological Institute in relation with the climate behavior in Costa Rica during the year 2004. Its development was based on investigations, models and data basis from different institutions and organizations, national as well as international. The report includes information about the behavior of different hydrometeorological phenomena: rain, hurricanes and El Niño/South Oscilation (ENOS, as well as how they affected the country. It also includes a historical reference of the hurricanes season considered analogous to 2004

  10. Evaluation of methods for available Zn in four soil orders in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, E.; Bornemisza, E.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical methods for available Zn determination were evaluated on four soil orders in Costa Rica (Ultisols, Vertisols, Inceptisols and Andisols) with 25 samples for each; using the following extract solutions : Modified Olsen, Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan , DTPA and HCI. The Zn levels obtained depended on the chemical characteristics of the extracting solutions. The highest levels were obtained with HCI, except for the Vertisols. The solutions with EDTA (Modified Olsen and Mehlich 3), extracted intermediate levels of Zn, while the method using DTPA (Modified Morgan and DTPA) gave the lowest Zn values . In most of the cases, significant values of correlation were obtained between the 5 extraction methods; so for individual soil orders, or comparing all 100 soils. The highest correlation coefficients for extractable Zn were found for the Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan and DTPA. The correlations were consistent for the 4 orders, which indicate that they are adaptable to different soils, a useful characteristic for these methods. The Modified Olsen was the most efficient extractor in slightly acis soils (Vertisols and Inceptisols). The HCI extracted very high Zn levels, which are probably not related to plant available forms. It is concluded that the Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan and DTPA solutions are probably adequate for available Zn determination and might present an alternative to substitute the generally used Modified Olsen solution in Costa Rica. (Author) [es

  11. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Sills

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individuals said that they were seeking better product differentiation and marketing than has been achieved under the organic and Fairtrade systems. Many suggested that more direct recognition of individual growers and the unique value of their cocoa throughout the production chain would be more helpful than certification for small companies in the cocoa supply chain. These findings suggest new marketing techniques that convey an integration of meaning into the cocoa and chocolate supply chain as a differentiation strategy. This involves integration of the story of producers’ commitment and dedication; shared producer and consumer values of social and environmental responsibility; and personal relationships between producers and consumers. This marketing approach could enhance the ability of smaller companies to successfully vie with their larger competitors and to produce cocoa in a more environmentally and socially acceptable manner.

  12. Higher survival drives the success of nitrogen-fixing trees through succession in Costa Rican rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Duncan N L; Chazdon, Robin L

    2016-02-01

    Trees capable of symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation ('N fixers') are abundant in many tropical forests. In temperate forests, it is well known that N fixers specialize in early-successional niches, but in tropical forests, successional trends of N-fixing species are poorly understood. We used a long-term census study (1997-2013) of regenerating lowland wet tropical forests in Costa Rica to document successional patterns of N fixers vs non-fixers, and used an individual-based model to determine the demographic drivers of these trends. N fixers increased in relative basal area during succession. In the youngest forests, N fixers grew 2.5 times faster, recruited at a similar rate and were 15 times less likely to die as non-fixers. As succession proceeded, the growth and survival disparities decreased, whereas N fixer recruitment decreased relative to non-fixers. According to our individual-based model, high survival was the dominant driver of the increase in basal area of N fixers. Our data suggest that N fixers are successful throughout secondary succession in tropical rainforests of north-east Costa Rica, and that attempts to understand this success should focus on tree survival. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Mayorga, Marcela; Fuchs, Eric J.; Hernández, Eduardo J.; Herrera, Franklin; Hernández, Jesús; Moreira, Ileana; Arnáez, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the genetic diversity of 50 Jatropha curcas samples from the Costa Rican germplasm bank using 18 EST-SSR, one G-SSR and nrDNA-ITS markers. We also evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among samples using nuclear ribosomal ITS markers. Non-toxicity was evaluated using G-SSRs and SCARs markers. A Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree and a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree were constructed using SSR markers and ITS sequences, respectively. Heterozygosity was moderate (He = 0.346), but considerable compared to worldwide values for J. curcas. The PIC (PIC = 0.274) and inbreeding coefficient (f =  − 0.102) were both low. Clustering was not related to the geographical origin of accessions. International accessions clustered independently of collection sites, suggesting a lack of genetic structure, probably due to the wide distribution of this crop and ample gene flow. Molecular markers identified only one non-toxic accession (JCCR-24) from Mexico. This work is part of a countrywide effort to characterize the genetic diversity of the Jatropha curcas germplasm bank in Costa Rica. PMID:28289556

  14. DETERMINATION OF MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF COSTA RICAN FIRST DIVISION FOOTBALL PLAYERS DURING 2008 PRESEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas-Cabrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory profile (VO2max of Costa Rican first division football players during preseason and compare VO2max by players’ positions. Methodology: A total of 9 Costa Rican first division football teams were evaluated in this study for a total sample of 219 professional players ages 20-36 with an average age of 24.64 ± 4.35 years, average body weight of 73.34 kg ± 7.34, and a fat percentage of 9.78 % ± 3.64. In order to evaluate the VO2max of players, the treadmill protocol was used as recommended by Wilmore and Costill (2007. This was a maximal test. Results: an average VO2max of 57.71 ml/kg/min ± 8.8 was found; however, no statistically significant differences were found (p = .752 between positions. Conclusion: there were no differences in VO2max by positions.

  15. Education Exclusion and Dropping out in Public Schools of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Jiménez-Asenjo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings obtained from a study conducted in 2009: “Exclusión educativa y abandono (deserción escolar en la enseñanza secundaria en Costa Rica” [Education Exclusion and Dropping out in Costa Rica], focused on the students from the 7th to the 11th grades of the General Basic Education. For this research, fieldwork was carried out in 22 institutions, in different educational regions of the country. Interviews were conducted with the school principals and counselors in each of the institutions visited. Focal groups were organized with students and parents in order to –as naturalism and qualitative focus suggest –understand the meaning of education exclusion and dropping out from the point of view of the different agents involved– principals, counselors, students, parents. A relevant conceptual aspect included in this study is the analysis of the problems related to dropping out and exclusion, generally, in a nonjudgmental way, to characterize this phenomenon.

  16. Major issues in the design and construction of the stellarator of Costa Rica: SCR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, J; Vargas, V I; Villegas, L F; Barillas, L; Monge, J I; Rivas, L

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at briefly describing the design and construction issues of the stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). The SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma developed by the Plasma Physics Group of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (ITCR). The SCR-1 is based on the small Spanish Stellarator UST 1 (Ultra Small Torus 1), created by Eng. Vicente Queral. These mains issues consist of the size of the Stellarator, closeness between coils, coupling of ECH to the vacuum chamber and the device for support. The size has become a problem because the vacuum chamber does not allow a lot of space to attach diagnosis devices, the heating system, the vacuum system and the very same support of the chamber. As a result of this lack of space, the Stellarator's coils are placed very close to each other; this means that two of the coils around of the vacuum chamber clash and cannot be placed as designed. The issue regarding the coupling of the ECH (electron cyclotron radio-frequency) to the vacuum chamber comprises the fact that the wave guide with rectangular shape does not match the CF port with circular shape on the vacuum chamber. In addition, the device for supporting the Stellarator has presented a challenge because of its size and the placement of the coils; in other words, there is not enough space between the ports and coils in the Stellarator to place appropriately the device for support.

  17. Corpses and Capital: Narratives of Gendered Violence in Two Costa Rican Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barbas Rhoden

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a region prone to violence and political corruption, Costa Rica has been touted as an ecological paradise, a stable democracy, and an egalitarian society. However, Costa Rican fiction from the late twentieth century contests this idyllic image and presents instead a world of intrigue, violence, and criminality. El año del laberinto (2000 by Tatiana Lobo and Cruz de olvido (1999 by Carlos Cortés are two novels that serve as an excellent introduction to developments in postwar fiction and scholarship from Central America. In my analysis, I first situate the novels in the context of Central American cultural and political developments in recent decades and then consider the linking of narrative, gender, and violence in the novels. My study centers on the authors' use of crime to challenge national myths and to deconstruct narratives that have been instrumental in constructing cherished national identities. Of particular importance is the depiction of gendered bodies and the violence practiced upon them, as well as the politics surrounding bodies and violence in national narratives and in the authors' contemporary stories.

  18. Dynamics of QoI Sensitivity in Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Costa Rica During 2000 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil, A F; Heaney, S P; Stanger, C; Shaw, M W

    2007-11-01

    ABSTRACT From 1997 onward, the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin was widely used in the main banana-production zone in Costa Rica against Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis causing black Sigatoka of banana. By 2000, isolates of M. fijiensis with resistance to the quinolene oxidase inhibitor fungicides were common on some farms in the area. The cause was a single point mutation from glycine to alanine in the fungal target protein, cytochrome b gene. An amplification refractory mutation system Scorpion quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed and used to determine the frequency of G143A allele in samples of M. fijiensis. Two hierarchical surveys of spatial variability, in 2001 and 2002, found no significant variation in frequency on spatial scales <10 m. This allowed the frequency of G143A alleles on a farm to be estimated efficiently by averaging single samples taken at two fixed locations. The frequency of G143A allele in bulk samples from 11 farms throughout Costa Rica was determined at 2-month intervals. There was no direct relationship between the number of spray applications and the frequency of G143A on individual farms. Instead, the frequency converged toward regional averages, presumably due to the large-scale mixing of ascospores dispersed by wind. Using trap plants in an area remote from the main producing area, immigration of resistant ascospores was detected as far as 6 km away both with and against the prevailing wind.

  19. Coopeprocesadora de infusiones naturales de la zona del caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Jiménez Quesada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La Coopeprocesadora de infusiones naturales de la zona del Caribe de Costa Rica es un proyecto académico ideado para la dinamización y desarrollo de la comunidad de Siquirres. El proyecto busca rescatar el valor del medio natural como recurso clave para la creación de empleos a través de nuevas actividades industriales en la región. La arquitectura de la Coopeprocesadora consta de una piel inspirada en el origami y el rescate de elementos clave para el manejo bioclimático de los espacios. The Natural Infusion Processing Cooperative of the caribbean zone of Costa Rica is an academic project designed for the dynamization and development of the community of Siquirres. The project seeks to rescue the value of the natural environment as a key resource for job creation through new industrial activities in the region. The architecture of the processing cooperative consists of a skin inspired by origami and the rescue of key elements for the bioclimatic management of spaces.

  20. COMPORTAMIENTO ESTRATÉGICO EN BANCA: CASO DEL BANCO NACIONAL Y DEL BANCO DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Villalobos González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La competencia por clientes en el sector bancario costarricense se ha intensificado en los últimos meses, las campañas publicitarias la hacen evidente.Particularmente ha sido llamativo el enfrentamiento entre el Banco Nacional y el Banco de Costa Rica, pues son los dos bancos más grandes del país y que tienen la característica común de ser estatales.Siguiendo el enfoque del Nuevo Paradigma de Organización Industrial Empírico (NPOIE, y bajo un modelo de localización espacial de tipo Lancasteriano, se construye un vector de atributos para tres productos en ambos bancos, buscando identificar acciones y respuestas y calculando una distancia estratégica entre el mismo producto para las dos instituciones y para cada producto en un banco en dos momentos diferentes (1994 y 1999.Además se analiza brevemente el aspecto de localización geográfica como estrategia competitiva.Se hace evidente que estos bancos siguen estrategias competitivas diferentes; así mientras el Banco Nacional concentra buena parte de sus esfuerzos en innovaciones, cambios, mayor cobertura y en abarcar la mayor cantidad de productos que ofrece la banca universal (supermercado financiero, el Banco de Costa Rica podría decirse es más cauto y enfoca su estrategia en ofrecer mejores precios que su rival.