WorldWideScience

Sample records for alameda-contra costa transit

  1. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  2. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  3. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  4. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  5. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  6. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989–2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  7. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  8. Analysis of the transitional dynamics and duration of unemployment in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Castro Vincenzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that explain the duration of unemployment spells and the transitional dynamics between the state of employment, unemployment and inactivity in Costa Rican labor market, using the Continuous Employment Survey for the period between the first quarter of 2012 and the third quarter of 2013. This research focuses mainly on supply-side factors and uses binominal and multinomial logit models in order to determine which variables determine that some people are more likely to be unemployed, Markov matrixes to estimate a series of transitional probabilities for different states in the labor market, and a survival model to characterize the duration of the unemployment spells. We conclude that women are more likely to be unemployed than men, and have smaller probabilities of changing from unemployed to employed. Also, the duration of their unemployment spells is longer. Furthermore, a higher academic level decreases the probabilities for an individual of being unemployed, but increases the duration of the unemployment spell. A correlation between the performance of the economic activity and the probabilities of becoming employed and of becoming inactive is observed.

  9. Exploratory Water Budget Analysis of A Transitional Premontane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica Through Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Buckwalter, E. H.; Moore, G. W.; Burns, J. N.; Dennis, A. R.; Dodge, O.; Guffin, E. C.; Morris, E. R.; Oien, R. P.; Orozco, G.; Peterson, A.; Teale, N. G.; Shibley, N. C.; Tourtellotte, N.; Houser, C.; Brooks, S. D.; Brumbelow, J. K.; Cahill, A. T.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Gonzalez, E.; Hallmark, C. T.; McInnes, K. J.; Miller, G. R.; Morgan, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Roark, E.; Delgado, A.; Ackerson, J. P.; Arnott, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of transitional premontane cloud forests is not well understood. This problem is being addressed by a NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) study at the Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research & Education in Costa Rica. Exploratory analysis of the water budget within a 20-ha watershed was used to connect three faculty-mentored research areas in ecohydrology, climate, and soil sciences and highlight the roles of 12 undergraduate researchers from 12 different universities. The water budget model is Q = Pn - E - T + ΔG + ΔS where Q = runoff, Pn = net precipitation, E = evaporation, T = transpiration, and ΔG and ΔS are change in groundwater soil water storage, respectively. Additionally, Pn = Pg - I = Tf + Sf + D, where Pg = gross precipitation, I/ΔI = canopy interception or storage, Tf = throughfall, Sf = stemflow, and D = canopy drip. The following terms were well understood Pg (satellite = 34-mm and tower = 38.1-mm) and Q from a recently constructed v-notch weir. We moderately understand Tf + D (30.9-mm from an array of forest rain gages), ΔI (7.2-mm) related to Sf, and T (10.4-mm measured with sapflow sensors). We found that soils were clay loam to silty loam textured Andisols on saprolitic tuft with a mean potential ΔS of 398 mm H2O under laboratory conditions, but in the field the following terms are almost completely unknown and require further field studies including E, ΔG, and ΔS. Recent installation of piezometers will address ΔG. Temporal scaling of measurements to a 1-week period was a challenge as well as the construction, deployment and calibration of instruments. However, this exploration allowed us to determine measurement uncertainties in the water budget, e.g., E, and to set future areas of research to address these uncertainties.

  10. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results for all counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  11. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  12. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  13. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent. PMID:12177991

  14. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  15. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe petrográfica y genéticamente, una serie de hallazgos de peperitas como ejemplos de coexistencia espacial y temporal del magmatismo con la sedimentación en Costa Rica. Los casos se presentan en complejos ígneos básicos (ofiolitas variando desde mezclas incompletas (megabloques de radiolaritas con diabasas en el Complejo de Nicoya hasta mezclas completas en varios grados de calizas pelágicas del Maastrictiano-Paleoceno (Formación Golfito o del Paleoceno con basaltos (Subcomplejo Quepos o Formación Tulín para dar peperitas brechoides y bulbosas. Dentro del arco Oligo-Mioceno, se tienen ejemplos a lo largo de la cordillera de Talamanca y sus estribaciones, así como en las llanuras de Sarapiquí, representados por peperitas brechoides, fluidales y bulbosas en cuerpos de lava latiandesíticos (Formación Pacacua o chimeneas peperíticas brechoides en ignimbritas (Miembro Mata de Limón, o posibles peperitas brechoides en los depósitos de flujos de lava del prospecto minero de Crucitas (Formación Cureña, o simples posibles peperitas brechoides en flujos de lava andesíticas (Formación Pacacua en Talamanca, o como brechas hidroclásticas con fragmentos de composición dacítica de Carbonal en Guanacaste, justamente entre las playas Cabuyal y Naranjo. Todas ellas serían los equivalentes proximales del vulcanismo explosivo, efusivo y subvolcánico (domos endógenos y criptodomos y su concomitancia con la sedimentación fluvial. En el Cuaternario, un ejemplo se da en la base de la Formación Tiribí al contacto con el lacustre de Palmares. Se incluyen en el presente trabajo, además, casos posibles o potenciales. Se espera que la descripción e interpretación de este tipo de rocas ayude a su identificación en otras regiones de Costa Rica y Centroamérica en general, así como una fuente potencial para la prospección de metales valiosos.This paper describes petrographically and genetically, a number of

  16. Mario Costa tarantino napoletano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular and the aristocr......Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular...... and the aristocratic tradition. Romanza, opera, operetta, popular folk songs. He became famous thankfully to this last one, when the easy listening music industry was starting its productions. This is the first published biography on the artist and is based on original documents and sources....

  17. Costa Rica : Financial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) summarizes the joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) report for Costa Rica, completed in August 2002, whose diagnosis and assessment, are based on information available as of end-2001. Costa Rica has a record of substantial output growth, with low macroeconomic volatility, but short term prospects rema...

  18. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Presentación (en español) Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  19. Costa Chica de Guerrero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ángel Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Guerrero se encuentra entre los de mayor marginalidad de la republica mexicana. De acuerdo a índices nacionales e internacionales la mayoría de sus municipios se encuentran en condiciones de Alta y Muy Alta marginalidad. Estas condiciones de pobreza inciden en los resultados electorales. Avance de una investigación más amplia es este estudio que se ocupa de la Costa Chica, –una de las regiones del estado de Guerrero–, la cual se caracteriza por una evidente relación de pobreza y votación favorable al Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI.

  20. San Jose, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  1. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  2. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo; Vladimir Putvinsky; Giovanna Mainieri-Breedy

    2006-01-01

    El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 ca...

  3. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  4. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  5. Hydrogen Technology and Energy Curriculum (HyTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagle, Barbara

    2013-02-28

    The Lawrence Hall of Science of the University of California, Berkeley has collaborated with scientists and engineers, a local transit agency, school districts, and a commercial curriculum publisher to develop, field-test nationally, and publish a two-week curriculum module on hydrogen and fuel cells for high school science. Key partners in this project are the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) of Humboldt State University, the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), FilmSight Productions, Lab-Aids, Inc., and 32 teachers and 2,370 students in field-test classrooms in California, Connecticut, Ohio, New York, South Carolina, and Washington. Field-test teachers received two to three days of professional development before teaching the curriculum and providing feedback used for revision of the curriculum. The curriculum, titled Investigating Alternative Energy: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells and published by Lab-Aids, Inc., includes a teachers guide (with lesson plans, resources, and student handout pages), two interactive computer animations, a video, a website, and a laboratory materials kit. The project has been disseminated to over 950 teachers through awareness workshops at state, regional, and national science teacher conferences.

  6. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  7. Historia doble de la Costa

    OpenAIRE

    Fals Borda, Orlando

    2002-01-01

    En esta segunda parte de la Historia doble de la Costa, Orlando Fals Borda prosigue el análisis histórico y social iniciado en el primer tomo: Mompox y Loba. Utilizando el método de cotejar el examen científico de la realidad con el punto de vista del pueblo y de ligar la actualidad con el pasado, el autor esclarece el sentido de la violencia en Colombia, representada en la simbología popular por la mariapalito o mantis, ese insecto de apariencia piadosa pero de acción certeramente cruel. E...

  8. Gobierno Corporativo en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se analizan las prácticas de conducción empresarial en Costa Rica. En primer lugar, se calculan las medidas de conducción empresarial constitutivas empleando datos específicos de 87 compañías costarricenses, y se analizan sus efectos en su desempeño; aquí, la media de la conducción empresarial constitutiva de compañías cotizadas en bolsa es igual a 56. 14. En segundo lugar, se presentan nuevos elementos de juicio sobre las medidas const...

  9. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lizzie M. Castillo S; Ana Teresa Alvarado G; María Isabel Sánchez V

    2006-01-01

    En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de det...

  10. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape. PMID:21082485

  11. Single mothers and poverty in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T H; Oviedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing average real family incomes in Costa Rica in the late 1990s and early 2000s, poverty rates did not fall. In this paper, we argue that during this period economic growth in Costa Rica did not translate into reduced poverty because of changes in family structure and in the labor market, and that these changes had an important gender dimension. Specifically, an increase in the proportion of Costa Rican households headed by single mothers led to an increase in the number of wom...

  12. Pleural mesothelioma in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mesothelioma is a neoplasia originated in the serous membranes that drape the cellomic cavities and there cover the visceras that they contain, whose development has related to the exhibition to the asbestos. The present study describes the characteristics of the cases of mesothelioma pleural diagnosed in 3 adults hospitals in Costa Rica. 29 cases of pleural mesothelioma were found between 1972 and 2002 after reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costa Rican social security health system. The incidence rate in 2002 was 1 case per 2 million; there were 15 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty cases presented with pleural effusion being dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever and weight loss the most frequent symptoms. The disease was detected in all the cases because of an abnormal chest X-ray. The method used to obtain tissue for histological diagnosis was thoracotomy for 15 cases, pleural biopsy in 8, thoracoscopy in 4 and autopsy in 2. The histological diagnosis in 16 cases was fibrous mesothelioma, 10 malignant and 6 benign, 11 were epithelial (all malignant) and 2 were malignant mixed mesothelioma. The treatment in all the benign cases was surgical resection and none recurred. Two of the malignant lesions were resected, 1 had an extrapleural pneumonectomy along with pericardial and diaphragmatic resection, but the survival was not better than the rest of the malignant cases, with an average survival rate for all of them of only 6 months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy showed no additional benefit. (author)

  13. Costos de Transacciones en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge; Rodríguez, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we carry out the first formal estimation of the social cost of transactions in Costa Rica. The estimation considers transactions in cash and cards, covers the 2008- 2011 years and is based on the methodology applied by Bergman, Guibourg and Segendorf (2007) for Sweden, with adaptations specific for Costa Rica. We estimate that the social cost of transactions has remained relatively stable as a share of GDP during the years included. We assess that the importance of costs s...

  14. Costs of transactions in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge; Rodríguez, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we carry out the first formal estimation of the social cost of transactions in Costa Rica. The estimation considers transactions in cash and cards, covers the 2008- 2011 years and is based on the methodology applied by Bergman, Guibourg and Segendorf (2007) for Sweden, with adaptations specific for Costa Rica. We estimate that the social cost of transactions has remained relatively stable as a share of GDP during the years included. We assess that the importance of costs stemmin...

  15. Costa Rica : Competitiveness Diagnostic and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica is a clear success story. The country enjoys the highest standard of living in Central America and one of the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Not surprisingly, poverty levels are among the lowest in LAC. Indeed in 2004, Costa Rica had the second lowest poverty headcount in LAC with just nine percent of households below the US$2 poverty line. This report is a co...

  16. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits tha...

  17. Geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C. L.; Lavín, M. F.; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.

    2008-05-01

    The geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America is described from CTD observations collected in two surveys: (a) The Wet Cruise in September-October 1993, and the Jet Cruise in February-March 1994. Poleward coastal flow was present on both occasions, but the transition from flow around the dome to the poleward Costa Rica Coastal Current flow was quite tortuous because of the presence of mesoscale eddies. In particular, a warm anticyclonic eddy was found off the Gulf of Fonseca during both cruises, at an almost identical position and with similar dimensions (150 m deep, 250 km in diameter) and surface speed (0.5 m s -1). In the Gulf of Panama, poleward flow was also observed, weaker in February-March 1994 than in September-October 1993, when it penetrated to 600 m depth and transported 8.5 Sv. In September-October 1993, the current between the dome and the coast was mostly ˜100 m deep and weak (˜0.15 m s -1), although in its southern side it was deeper (˜450 m) and faster at 0.3 m s -1. The poleward transport between the dome and the coast was ˜7 Sv. In February-March 1994 the Costa Rica Dome was a closed ring adjacent to the continental shelf, ˜500 km in diameter, at least 400 m deep, had geostrophic surface speeds ˜0.25 m s -1, and subsurface maximum speed (0.15-0.20 m s -1) at ˜180 m depth; the associated uplift of the isotherms was ˜150 m. The flow in the south part of the dome splits into two branches, the weakest one going around the dome and the strongest one continuing east and turning south before reaching the Gulf of Panama.

  18. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  19. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  20. Kryptolebias, a substitute name for Cryptolebias Costa, 2004 and Kryptolebiatinae, a substitute name for Cryptolebiatinae Costa, 2004 (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Kryptolebias, new name, is proposed to replace Cryptolebias Costa, 2004, preoccupied by Cryptolebias Gaudant, 1978, a monotypic genus of European fossil fish. As a consequence, Kryptolebiatinae is erected, substituting Cryptolebiatinae Costa.Kryptolebias, nome novo, é proposto em substituição à Cryptolebias Costa, 2004, preocupado por Cryptolebias Gaudant, 1978, um gênero monotípico de peixe fossil europeu. Em consequência, Kryptolebiatinae é proposto, em substituição à Cryptolebiatinae Costa.

  1. Kryptolebias, a substitute name for Cryptolebias Costa, 2004 and Kryptolebiatinae, a substitute name for Cryptolebiatinae Costa, 2004 (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson J. E. M. Costa

    2004-01-01

    Kryptolebias, new name, is proposed to replace Cryptolebias Costa, 2004, preoccupied by Cryptolebias Gaudant, 1978, a monotypic genus of European fossil fish. As a consequence, Kryptolebiatinae is erected, substituting Cryptolebiatinae Costa.Kryptolebias, nome novo, é proposto em substituição à Cryptolebias Costa, 2004, preocupado por Cryptolebias Gaudant, 1978, um gênero monotípico de peixe fossil europeu. Em consequência, Kryptolebiatinae é proposto, em substituição à Cryptolebiatinae Costa...

  2. Monitoraggio del relitto della nave Costa Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Toppi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In seguito al disastro della Costa Concordia, le autorità locali e la Protezione Civile, che guidarono le operazioni di salvataggio, contattano il topografo Mauro Alessandroni e gli conferiscono l’incarico di monitorare gli eventuali movimenti della nave, per garantire l’incolumità delle squadre di soccorso durante la ricerca di superstiti intrappolati nel relitto.Costa Concordia wreck monitoringIn the aftermath of the Costa Concordia disaster, local authoritiesand the Civil Protection, leading the rescue operation,contacted the surveyor Mauro Alessandroni to monitor anymovement of the ship, to ensure the safety of teams assistanceduring the search for survivors trapped in the wreck.

  3. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  4. Agrochemical residues in rivers sediments, Poas, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphorus and organochlorine agrochemical residues distribution in sediments of 3 rivers located in an ornamental plant production area were analyzed in Poas canton, Alajuela, Costa Rica. The study comprised 8 months in order to assure 3 seasonal episodes: dry, transitional, and rainy seasons. Sediments were taken in 10 sampling stations along the rivers and characterized by a determination of their organic matter and texture. In 7 out of 10 sampling stations pesticide residues were detected in at least 1 of 4 samplings, but quantified only in 4 stations. Agrochemical residues evaluated included 21 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides; however, we found residues of only 3 organochlorine pesticides, due their high persistence in the sediment. Residues corresponded to PCNB (80-800 μg.kg-1), Endosulfan-β (40-50 μg.kg-1), and Endosulfan-α (90 μg.kg-1). Chlorothalonil was detected in only one sample. (author)

  5. Violent Reform: Costa Rica, Central America's Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Shelly

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to Costa Rica's peaceful status in a region of violent political conflict. Describes the country's political and educational systems, stating that its democratic government allows the country to withstand many problems typical of the region and that its high level of education allows it to maintain the highest per…

  6. Metates and Hallucinogens in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jones

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Metates are grinding stones on which corn and other substances are ground with hand-held stones called manos. A clue that grinding stones were associated with mushroom rituals is, for example, provided by a tripod metate from NW Costa Rica belonging to the period of the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

  7. Conferences on electronic waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management system of electronic waste is a project organized and financed by the bilateral agreement Costa Rica - Holanda, it is integrated by governmental and non-governmental enterprises. It was divided in two phases, first performed in 2003 which provided a diagnosis on the management of electronic resources, based on the diagnosis a propose of strategy for recycling was made. The second phase is given in 2005 with the implementation and realization of the project including two pilots plans located one at the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica and another in the community of Escazu, at the end some recommendations were given to strengthen the system. The electronic waste were divided in white line, gray and brown line; those with pollutants such as phosphorus, chromium, cadmium, barium, lead, beryllium, mercury are toxic and have different effects on human health. The project in Costa Rica has taken as examples several recycling plants in different countries, among them one installed in Belgica. As an outstanding figure of the diagnosis made it was determined that Costa Rica has no legal support regarding the handling of such materials. It has been accumulated in 2007 more than 24 260 tonnes and is growing rapidly year after year. Within the achieved progress in the implementation of the project are: the creation of a legal support, the organization of the compliance unit of the project, the valuation of environmental costs and the increase of enterprises offering the service of primary treatment

  8. Costa Rica - An Army-less Nation Facing External Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Dall, Nana; Hammer Holm, Lasse; Kaas-Claesson, Kristina; McCay Martinez, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to explain how Costa Rica deal with external threats. Having abolished their military in 1948, the small state of Costa Rica situated in the conflict-ridden region of Central America, is internationally portrayed as an inspirational nation upholding peace and high morality. This has raised questions in regards to how Costa Rica upholds security in the event of threat. The project applies the International Relations theories of neo-liberalism and neo-realism to two cases: the...

  9. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: the phyla Sipuncula and Echiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, H K

    2001-12-01

    Fourteen species of Sipuncula belonging to 9 genera have been reported from Costa Rican waters, mostly from the Pacific coast. Three of these species are new records for Costa Rica (Phascolion strombus (Montagu 1804), Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) muelleri Diesing 1851, and Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) gracilis schnehageni (W. Fisher 1946)). One species of Echiura, Thalassema steinbecki Fisher 1946, in the order Echiuroinea, has been reported from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:15264522

  10. A Note on Lutra longicaudis in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald S.M.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available During a very brief visit to Costa Rica at the end of March 1991, we took the opportunity to see if we could find signs of Lutra longicaudis. Spraints were used to survey for otters. In Costa Rica logging continues but there is an excellent system of national parks where otter populations might be maintained. A full field survey is urgently required combined with awareness programmes in the parks, and Costa Rica is small enough for this to be practical.

  11. Planning for tourism in Costa Smeralda

    OpenAIRE

    Cappai, Alesandra

    2012-01-01

    Studying tourism planning means understanding and assuming that tourism is not just a flux of tourists who move without leaving a trace, but a motor that physically transforms the territory due to the need to build infrastructure and tourist accommodation like hotels, second homes, attractions etc, which have contributed to major changes in previously untouched territories. Among them, the Costa Smeralda resort represents the most iconic and best known tourist destination of Sardinia. In...

  12. Biovisualizador: Visualizando los anfibios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Hernández Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Biovisualizador es una novedosa herramienta con una interfaz tridimensional, orientada al público en general, para presentar información sobre especies de Costa Rica mediante el uso de árboles de conos. El Biovisualizador es producto de investigaciones llevadas a cabo conjuntamente en el (ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y en el (INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, dentro del marco de la cátedra UNESCO en Bioinformática, en el tema específico de diseño de interfaces tridimensionales para visualización científica. En este artículo se describe la herramienta en función de una aplicación particular que consiste en un ambiente tridimensional interactivo para visualizar y hacer informes sobre todos los anfibios de Costa Rica.

  13. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  14. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  15. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas; Monserrat Sagot Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El r...

  16. Litispendencia internacional y costas del proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FRANCISCO CARRILLO POZO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on costs of proceedings in cases of international lis pendens can not be an automatic result of the application of the rule that costs follow the event, but must take into account the regulatory environment in which it arises, because there are so many rules on lis pendens as disciplines on international jurisdiction. La condena en costas en los casos de litispendencia internacional no puede ser resultado automático del criterio del vencimiento, sino que debe tener en cuenta el ámbito normativo en el que se plantea, porque existen tantas reglas sobre litispendencia como disciplinas sobre competencia judicial internacional.

  17. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gaby Dolz; Leyda Ábrego; Luis E Romero; Liliana Campos-Calderón; Laura Bouza-Mora; Ana E Jiménez-Rocha

    2013-01-01

    La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Vete...

  18. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime García

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades in...

  19. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Dolz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Veterinaria. A continuación se brinda una revisión sobre los hallazgos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas en el país para determinar la presencia y distribución de Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Costa Rica. Ehrlichia canis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el país y es la especie predominante en perros y garrapatas (Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adicionalmente, se ha detectado, aunque en menor porcentaje, la presencia de Anaplasma platys y Anaplsma phagocytophilum en perros y sus garrapatas. También se ha determinado la presencia de A. phagocytophilum en un venado cola blanca, y de E. canis en humanos donadores de bancos de sangre mediante técnica serológica y molecular.

  20. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  1. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  2. First report of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobos, William; Hollis, David; Godoy, Carolina; Rivera, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    In November 2003, the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) was found for the first time in Costa Rica, in Alajuela, Heredia and San Jose provinces. Figure 1 shows an adult female and nymphal instars of Asiatic citrus psyllid.

  3. Manual of Inorganic Accustomed to Fertilizers of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual of inorganic solid fertilizers of Costa Rica presents as first the description of some nutritious characteristics of the main ones, such as functions, content, forms, symptoms of deficiency among others. Some of the chemical physical characteristics of the included materials were used as prime materials. There is also in the Manual a listing of the main sources fertilizers used in Costa Rica, as well as the main processes of production of fertilizers, while they are considered several listings with the products that the different commercial houses have to disposition of the publish. Finally a summary of the imports of fertilizers is made in Costa Rica during the years 1998, 1999 and 2000, to finish with the general listing of all the products fertilizers registered in Costa Rica, under the order N-P2O5-K2O. (Author)

  4. The 2008 Trade Fairs of China in Costa Rica Opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 Trade Fairs of the People's Republic of China in Costa Rica, host-ed by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, opened grandly on September 11 local time in San Jose International Confer-ence Center.

  5. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  6. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  7. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  8. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El riesgo de muerte es parte de la vivencia cotidiana de muchas mujeres, 58% han sentido peligro de morir en manos de su agresor, 47% han pensado suicidarse, 48% ha tenido que dejar su hogar por miedo de morir. En el presente estudio se detectan 44 homicidios de mujeres (Femicidio, que no aparecen en los anuarios del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, haciendo del subregistro de agresiones otra forma de hacer violencia contra las mujeres.For many women and young girls, the family circle is the most violent and harmful enviroment to be in. Contrasting more than 70000 women died in their own homes to the 57685 american soldiers who died in Vietnan during the war, we realize this is a big issue. In Costa Rica, land of peace, from all the women to go to CEFEMINA for help, 15% were harmed with gums, 31 % with knifes, 24% with others objects. The risk of dying is part of the daily life of many women, 58% have felt the danger of dying in the hands of their aggressor, 47% consider suicide, 48% have lo leave their homes from fear of dying. In this study we detect 44 cases of homicide of women (Femicide which were not inciuded in the yearbook of the Organismo de lnvestigacion Judicial, thus, making this subregistry, another way to make violence against women.

  9. Costa Rica Five Years after CAFTA-DR

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler-Geib, Friederike; Sanchez, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    For Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic-Central America-free trade agreement (CAFTA-DR) has been more than a trade agreement. Costa Rica has used trade liberalization and promotion of international trade as a core development strategy for decades. CAFTA-DR consolidated benefits that had previously been unilaterally extended under the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) into a multilateral FTA, providing a much more stable environment for trade relationships. Beyond just being a trade agreement, C...

  10. Program of payments for forest environmental services in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Malavasi, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) implemented in Costa Rica is an alternative approach to halt environmental degradation derived from deforestation in low income nations. In this system, land owners are contracted for the ecological services they produce when they adopt land uses and forest management activities that do not affect negatively the environment and maintain people's life quality. The Costa Rican program of environmental services aims to protect primary forest...

  11. Accidentes de tránsito fatales en Costa Rica en el 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes de tránsito en Costa Rica contribuyen significativamente con la tercera causa de muerte en el país en los últimos años: las causas externas, por ello resulta importante conocer el panorama más reciente de las fatalidades causadas por estos eventos. En el presente trabajo se analizarán desde el punto de vista médico legal los accidentes de tránsito fatales, cuyas víctimas fallecieron en el año 2007. Para ello se revisaron todas las autopsias efectuadas (un total de 3003 en el Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica para ese año. Se obtuvo que una cuarta parte de las mismas se originaron en accidentes de tránsito, lo cual generó una tasa de mortalidad de 16,58 por 100000 habitantes, considerada alta a nivel mundial. El perfil predominante de las víctimas fue: ser de género masculino, en edad económicamente productiva, con accidentes fatales de predominio en la noche, los fines de semana, en las provincias costeras, con fallecimiento en el sitio del hecho por trauma cráneo cervical en ocupantes de automotores o peatones, de los cuales un porcentaje significativo estaba bajo los efectos del alcohol y muy pocos bajo los efectos de otras drogas de abuso. Se insiste en la prevención como la herramienta fundamental para evitarlos.Traffic accidents in Costa Rica have been a contributing cause of death (the third cause of death over the last years; that ’s why its is a mayor issue to know the panorama of the latest fatalities caused by this events. In this article, it will be analyzed from the legal medicine point of view, the fatal transit accidents during the year 2007. For these reason all autopsies (a total of 3003 occurred during that year which were made by the Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica were reviewed. From these revision, it was obtained that one forth of these autopsies were transit accidents, which means that the mortality rate was 16,58 per 100000 habitants, that is consider high over the

  12. Florecimientos de dinoflagelados nocivos en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribelle Vargas Montero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1979 se han reportado florecimientos de especies de microalgas nocivas (FAN en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, reconociéndose hasta el 2005 al menos 13 taxa de dinoflagelados. En años recientes estos fenómenos se han intensificado tanto espacial como temporalmente, produciéndose discoloraciones casi ininterrumpidas que se extienden por toda la costa produciendo mortalidad de peces y fetidez en el agua. Tales FAN masivos se iniciaron con Pyrodinium bahamense en el 2000, quien perduró por más de un año y en el cual se observaron morfotipos correspondientes a las dos variedades de la especie, coexistiendo junto a Gymnodinium catenatum y ocasionando serios casos de Intoxicación Paralizante por Consumo de Mariscos (IPM. Posteriormente, de septiembre del 2003 hasta junio del 2004, Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides produjo discoloraciones en toda la costa Pacífica, seguidas por manchas extensas de Akasiwo sanguinea y Gymnodinium instriatum. El evento más reciente se observó en junio del 2005 cuando Alexandrium monilatum produjo extensas discoloraciones con cadenas formadas por más de 100 células. Los FAN de dinoflagelados ahora son comunes en las costas de Costa Rica, posiblemente como resultado de las condiciones ambientales actuales que favorecen la proliferación masiva de especies invasivas (agresivas, las cuales incluso pueden afectar otros sitios del Pacífico americano como es el caso de P. bahamense var. compressum que puede desplazarse hasta México, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico centroamericano a través de la Corriente Costera de Costa Rica y la Corriente Occidental Mexicana.Since 1979 has been reported harmful microalgae blooms (HAB on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, it was identified until 2005 at least 13 taxa of dinoflagellates. In recent years these phenomena have intensified both spatially and temporarily, discolorations occur almost uninterrupted; they are distributed for months and which extend along the

  13. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste trabajo utiliza datos de las Encuestas Comparativas de Fecundidad de América Latina, así como de la Encuesta Mundial de Fecundidad para estudiar las tendencias y diferenciales en el espaciamiento de los nacimientos entre las mujeres alguna vez casadas en Costa Rica durante el período 1945-1974. Una buena parte de la atención se pone en el ritmo de la fecundidad en las etapas umbral, temprana y tardía de la disminución de la fecundidad que este país experimentó durante los años sesenta y principios de los setenta. Los resultados muestran bastante similitud en el tempo de la reproducción en los diferentes niveles paridez y áreas geográficas. Sin embargo, un análisis de las variables del entorno que afectan espaciamiento de los nacimientos muestra diferencias entre las zonas urbanas y rurales. Por último, se postula que el reciente estancamiento en las tasas de período puede ser una consecuencia de los cambios en el tempo de construcción de la familia, con mujeres de baja paridez que postergan los nacimientos, lo que contrarresta las tendencias de descenso que generan las mujeres de mayor paridez quienes aún pueden estar restringiendo su reproducción.ABSTRACTThis paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birthspacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas.However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of

  14. Lista Provisional de los peces de las aguas continentales de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Alpirez O.

    2016-01-01

    A revised and amplified list of species of Costa Rican continental water fishes is presented. Some species are included for the first time in the Costa Rican freshwater ichthyofauna and others are not described yet to the species level. Some specimens of species mentioned here are deposited in the Museum of Zoology at the National University, Heredia, Costa Rica and others are in the Zoology Museum at the University of Costa Rica.

  15. MOVING MULTI TARGET DETECTION USING COSTAS SIGNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANMADHARAO.G,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, radar is used in a wide variety of applications including defense, air traffic control, meteorology, and even mapping. Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR involves the nterpretation of a signal to determine characteristics of targets. With the unavoidable presence of various types of interference, signalprocessing is naturally an important part of any radar system. In this paper, we used a series of 8 bit costas sequence [2], each pulse having a length of 5 microseconds. The interpulse period was 200 microseconds and the radar return receive window started 20 icroseconds after pulse transmission and ended 170 microseconds later. The radar system sampling rate and carrier frequency were 10MHz (2x over sampling and 5GHz respectively. The noise was Gaussian and had a standard deviation of 2 relative to the signal amplitude. With these parameters detectable targets lay in between 3.7 km to 29.0 km away, and moved with a speed under 53 m/s.

  16. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  17. Assessment of mammography in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of national mammographic equipment was conducted, due to the increasing incidence of breast cancer in Costa Rican women. From June 2002 to October 2003, 2 of the 3 global indicators of image quality were evaluated, (mean glandular dose and phantom image) in 26 mammography machines facilitated by radiologists in charge of the same. The mean glandular dose found was 1.75 ± 0.60 mGy with a range of 0.8 a 2.56. Regarding quality image, 73% of the evaluated equipment was able to see 4 or more fibers, 53% saw 3 or more groups of microcalcifications and 82% saw 3 or more mass groups. All mean glandular doses were below the international reference dose value of 3 mGy. However, the analysis of phantom images showed that only 54% of all the equipment had a total score (sum of mass groups, fibers and microcalcifications) superior or equal to 10, as expected. A correct diagnosis that could eventually save the patient's life is the main objective of a mammogram; the factors that are degrading the images must be found and it might be necessary to increase the doses to achieve this. This study demonstrates the urgent necessity to introduce permanent quality control programs that will provide excellent images with the lowest internationally recommended doses.(author)

  18. Personality Traits Change in Adulthood: Reply to Costa and McCrae (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Walton, Kate E.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure…

  19. The Costa Concordia last cruise: The first application of high frequency monitoring based on COSMO-SkyMed constellation for wreck removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Andrea; Raspini, Federico; Bianchini, Silvia; Tarchi, Dario; Vespe, Michele; Moretti, Sandro; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-02-01

    The Italian vessel Costa Concordia wrecked on January 13th 2012 offshore the Giglio Island (Tuscany, Italy), with the loss of 32 lives. Salvage operation of the vessel started immediately after the wreck. This operation was the largest and most expensive maritime salvage ever attempted on a wrecked ship and it ended in July 2014 when the Costa Concordia was removed from the Giglio Island, and dragged in the port of Genoa where it was dismantled. The refloating and removal phases of the Costa Concordia were monitored, in the period between 14th and 27th of July, exploiting SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images acquired by the X-band COSMO-SkyMed satellite constellation in crisis mode. The main targets of the monitoring system were: (i) the detection of possible spill of pollutant material from the vessel and (ii) to exclude that oil slicks, illegally produced by other vessels, could be improperly linked to the naval convoy during its transit along the route between the Giglio Island and the port of Genoa. Results point out that the adopted monitoring system, through the use of the COSMO-SkyMed constellation, can be profitably employed to monitor emergency phases related to single ship or naval convoy over wide areas and with a suitable temporal coverage. Furthermore, the refloating and removal phases of the Costa Concordia were a success because no pollution was produced during the operations.

  20. Gesprekken in Genua. Giovanni Costa over het Twaalfjarig Bestand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees Reijner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In early-modern Europe, historiography was often deployed as a political means for addressing internal issues. An example of such a history text written with a local agenda in mind is the tract Ragionamento sopra la triegua de' Paesi Bassi by Giovanni Costa, which was published in 1610 in Genoa. Taking the actual case of the Twelve Years' Truce during the period of the Dutch Revolt, Costa discusses in fact the internal affairs of Genoa, a Ligurian city-state functioning as satellite state of the Spanish Habsburg Empire. This article is centered on the question of why Costa opted for such an abstract and remote topic for this politico-economic backdrop, and also addresses the matter of his intended readership.

  1. Costa Rica's Chain of laterally collapsed volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, E.; Fernandez, E.

    2007-05-01

    From the NW extreme to the SW end of Costa Rica's volcanic backbone, a number of laterally collapsed volcanoes can be observed. Due to several factors, attention has been given to active volcanoes disregarding the importance of collapsed features in terms of assessing volcanic hazards for future generations around inhabited volcanoes. In several cases the typical horseshoe shape amphitheater-like depression can be easily observed. In other cases due to erosion, vegetation, topography, seismic activity or drastic weather such characteristics are not easily recognized. In the order mentioned above appear: Orosi-Cacao, Miravalles, Platanar, Congo, Von Frantzius, Cacho Negro and Turrialba volcanoes. Due to limited studies on these structures it is unknown if sector collapse occurred in one or several phases. Furthermore, in the few studied cases no evidence has been found to relate collapses to actual eruptive episodes. Detailed studies on the deposits and materials composing dome-like shapes will shed light on unsolved questions about petrological and chemical composition. Volume, form and distance traveled by deposits are part of the questions surrounding most of these collapsed volcanoes. Although most of these mentioned structures are extinct, at least Irazú volcano (active volcano) has faced partial lateral collapses recently. It did presented strombolian activity in the early 60s. Collapse scars show on the NW flank show important mass removal in historic and prehistoric times. Moreover, in 1994 a minor hydrothermal explosion provoked the weakening of a deeply altered wall that holds a crater lake (150m diameter, 2.6x106 ). A poster will depict images of the collapsed volcanoes named above with mayor descriptive characteristics. It will also focus on the importance of deeper studies to assess the collapse potential of Irazú volcano with related consequences. Finally, this initiative will invite researchers interested in such topic to join future studies in

  2. Maps of ultraviolet radiation in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has contributed relatively little energy to the solar spectrum; but is important, because it is biologically active. The software Surfer 8 has created maps designed of the territory of Costa Rica to assess the maximum levels of solar UV radiation on a horizontal plane. The data were used in creating the maps, were predicted at local noon in eighty-three locations scattered across the country, with a spectral atmospheric model which is physically established. The model has used as input data: the date and time, the location identified by latitude, longitude and height of land above sea level, the value of the vertical column ozone, surface albedo and atmospheric turbidity parameters. The estimate differs by 3% of the measurements made in situ, which agrees with the experimental data. The model has used the data estimation of UV radiation, clear sky conditions, which is the condition where you get the maximum energy possible in each locality. This is of fundamental importance when assessing the adverse effects on human health, leads the maximum intensity in this important solar spectrum band. A larger increase of 23% has presented in the UV radiation with altitude obtaining the hills and mountains the highest rates and places located at sea level and the lowest cost, the indices. The annual variation analysis has revealed an increase greater than 27% from the month of lowest UV radiation (December) and the month of greatest UV radiation (April). The issue is of particular interest because of the increasing number of people moving at different times of the year, altitudes over 2000 m altitude, in activities relating to tourism and employment. These individuals are significant increases in levels of UV solar radiation under conditions of clear skies. (author)

  3. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  4. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Héctor Hugo; Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2005-01-01

    La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a ...

  5. Engineering of the Stellarator of Costa Rica: SCR-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J.; Vargas, V. I.; Otarola, C.; Piedra, C.; Jimenez, W.; Esquivel, L.; Esquivel, R.; Sanchez, K.; Gonzalez, J.; Asenjo, J.; Fonseca, L.

    2015-03-01

    This Paper aims at briefly describing the challenge of the design and construction of the Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1) [1]. The SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma (Ro=0.238 m, =0.059 m, Ro/a>4.0, expected plasma volume ≈ 0.016 m3, 10 mm thickness 6061-T6 aluminum vacuum vessel) developed by the Plasma Laboratory for Fusion Energy and Applications of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR).

  6. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  7. Estudio de la estacionalidad del dengue en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica (1999-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Wong- McClure; Marilys Suárez- Pérez; Xiomara Badilla- Vargas

    2007-01-01

    El virus del dengue constituye la causa más común de enfermedades por arbovirus en el mundo. El estudio analiza el comportamiento estacional del dengue en la región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre 1999 y 2004. Materiales y métodos: La información fue tomada del Ministerio de Salud de Costa Rica y del Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. Para el análisis de la estacionalidad de dengue se utilizaron el número de casos de esta enfermedad para la estimación de pr...

  8. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic education in…

  9. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO activists,…

  10. 76 FR 67379 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ..., sanitation, and traceability from place of production through the packing and export facility and to the port... that measures beyond standard port-of-entry inspection are required to mitigate the risks posed by... Costa Rica would not be allowed to be imported into Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and U.S. territories....

  11. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  12. Tetrodotoxin: Occurrence in atelopid frogs of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Brown, G B; Mosher, F A

    1975-07-11

    The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, which has previously been found in puffer fish of the order Tetraordontiformes, a goby (Gobius criniger), and the California newt (Taricha torosa), has now been identified in the skins of frogs of the genus Atelopus from Costa Rica. PMID:1138374

  13. 77 FR 37997 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... difficult to inspect and treat. On November 1, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 67379-67384... / Tuesday, June 26, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD54 Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica AGENCY:...

  14. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces. PMID:9246370

  15. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with MultilureRM Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San Carlos

  16. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  17. Importance of orographic precipitation to the water resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, Andrew J.; Rhodes, Amy L.; Newell, Silvia E.

    2007-10-01

    Monteverde, Costa Rica harbors montane forests that exemplify the delicate balances among climate, hydrology, habitat, and development. Most of the annual precipitation to this region arrives during the wet season, but the importance of orographic precipitation during the dry and transitional seasons should not be underestimated. Development associated with ecotourism has put significant stress on water resources, and recent work has shown evidence that changes in regional land-cover and global climate may lead to reduced precipitation and cloud cover and a subsequent decline in endemic species. Precipitation samples collected from 2003 to 2005 reveal a seasonal signal in stable isotope composition, as measured by δ 18O and δ 2H, that is heaviest during the dry and transitional seasons. Attenuated versions of this signal propagate through to stream samples and provide a means of determining the importance of precipitation delivered by the trade winds during the dry and transitional seasons to water resources for the region. Results from six catchments on the leeward slope indicate that topography exerts a strong control on the importance of orographic precipitation to stream baseflow. The contributions are greatest in those catchments that are close to the Brillante Gap in the Continental Divide. Differences in the temporal variation of precipitation and streamflow isotope compositions provide insight to the hydrologic pathways that move water to the streams.

  18. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  19. Health without wealth? Costa Rica's health system under economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L M

    1987-01-01

    The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The

  20. New data about the Costa Rican aphid fauna (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Mejías, D.; Pérez Hidalgo, N.; W. Villalobos; Hanson, P

    2012-01-01

    Aphids were collected from 39 locations throughout Costa Rica, representing a wide altitudinal range, and from both crops and native plants. In total, 48 species of aphids were identified, associated with 62 families and 111 species of plants, many of these representing new host plant records. Aphis nasturtii Kaltenbach, 1843 is reported here for the first time in Central America and Trichosiphonaphis (Xenomyzus) polygoni (van der Goot, 1917) for the ...

  1. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes; María Begoña Orgaz-Baz; Mariana De Lima-Silva; Manuel Arturo Fallas-Vargas; José Antonio García-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; diffe...

  2. Design of a leading indicator for Costa Rican economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Chaverri Morales; Diana Van Patten Rivera

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish) was selected as the reference variable.  A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and f...

  3. Contract Agriculture Lessons from Experiences in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriboga, Manuel; Charnay, Romain; Chehab, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Contract farming or contract agriculture is a practice by which agro-industrial processors, exporters, domestic suppliers to supermarkets and other interested actors contract primary production with producers. The factors that have encouraged contract farming in Costa Rica can be grouped in three major areas: 1) interest of the contractors to guarantee supply of the products under specific quality standards required by mass distribution systems or by importers; 2) avoiding problems related to...

  4. Heat exposure and health outcomes in Costa Rican sugarcane harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background The remarkably efficient mechanisms of the human body to maintain its core temperature of 37°C can be inadequate when harsh climatic conditions and excessive muscle movement lead to heat stress, dehydration and potential heat illness, ranging from minor symptoms such as fatigue to a potentially fatal heat stroke. Agricultural workers in the tropics are at high risk, which is expected to increase with climate change. Sugarcane harvesting in Costa Rica is largely done by cutting the ...

  5. Availability, distribution, quality and perspectives of water in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Costa Rica is a privileged country due to its rich water availability; nonetheless, the water accessibility in terms of potable quality has become more and more scarce. Such situation implies a great challenge to guarantee its current and future supply to meet water´s increasing demands for its many purposes, considering the existing disparities among the country´s geographical regions and its different users. The current paper seeks to explore this dynamics and its future perspectives under ...

  6. Epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    A case-control study of cervical cancer was conducted in Costa Rica, Co- lombia, Mexico and Panama from 1986 to 1987, to determine risk factors operating in these traditionally high-incidence areas. The study included 759 cases and 1,430 hospital and community controls, and accomplished more than 95% participation rates for both types of participants. The ma- jor risk factors identified were: detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 or 18, increasing number of livebi...

  7. FARMER PARTICIPATION IN REFORESTATION INCENTIVE PROGRAMS IN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Schelhas, John W.; Lee, David R.; Thacher, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation programs are a common policy response among developing country governments in the tropics attempting to deal with environmental and economic problems caused by widespread deforestation. The objective of this paper is to examine participation by small-and medium-sized farms in two reforestation programs undertaken in recent years by one country, Costa Rica, which has been at the forefront of developing country environmental protection efforts. Analysis of a survey of 243 program ...

  8. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  9. Situation in the radiation protection field in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the radiation protection infrastructure in Costa Rica and makes reference to the existing legal framework. The national inventory of significant radiation sources and structure of the Ministry of Health as the national regulatory authority for radiation safety is illustrated; information is also provided on the radiation monitoring equipment available, on programme activities related to the control of radiation sources by authorization and inspection, and on technical support services. (author)

  10. Uropodina mites (Acari collected in Costa Rica, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontschán, J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper six Uropodina species are presented from Costa Rica. Two of them, Oplitis pecki Hirschmann, 1991 and Uroobovella faceta Hiramatsu & Hirschmann, 1978 are already known, however the other four species; Rotundabaloghia unisetosa, Trigonuropoda caudosetosa, Brasiluropoda costaricana and Cyllibula forroi spp. nov. proved to be new to science. Oplitis peckisimilis Hirschmann, 1991 and O. ellipsioides Hirschmann, 1991 are synonymized with O. pecki.

  11. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores. PMID:26967127

  12. Cross-Correlation Properties of Costas Arrays and Their Images under Horizontal and Vertical Flips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Drakakis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cross-correlation of a Costas array with its image under a horizontal and/or a vertical flip. We propose and prove several bounds on the maximal cross-correlation and on its value at the origin, for both general Costas arrays and for algebraically constructed ones.

  13. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Weerd, van J.H.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher

  14. Mesoscale primary production and bio-optical variability off Antofagasta (23-24º S during the transition to El Niño 1997-1998 Variabilidad de la producción primaria y bio-óptica a mesoescala frente a las costas de Antofagasta (23-24º S durante la transición a El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEMITA PIZARRO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of primary production (PP, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and the photosynthetic parameters were studied off Antofagasta, Chile (23-24ºS, 70-72º W during austral summer and winter. Between cruises (January and July 1997, significant changes occurred in the water column, including higher temperatures in the euphotic zone (Zeu deepening of thermocline below Zeu, an increase of oxygen concentration and the intrusion of Subtropical Waters with potential limitation of nutrients. These strong physical anomalies due to the transition period of El Niño 1997-1998 appeared in this study area during March 1997. During the July cruise, the El Niño event 1997-1998 was in the middle of its development (IOS-2. The hypothesis that chlorophyll-a concentrations and primary production differ significantly in the coastal areas in the Antofagasta region due to year-round coastal upwelling was tested in this study. Photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-E experiments were performed daily, using simulated in situ incubations with samples collected within the Zeu. Also in vitro incubations were done at several selected stations. For results analyses, stations were pooled in coastal and oceanic sites according to distance from the narrow shelf and differential influence of local upwelling. Integrated Chl-a values during both cruises were significantly higher at the coastal stations, and since between cruises no differences were found, a mean value of 44 mg Chl-a m-2 can be reported for the coastal area. Daily PP values were significantly different in space and time (P Durante el verano e invierno austral, se estudió la variabilidad espacial de la producción primaria (PP, clorofila-a (Cl-a y los parámetros fotosintéticos en las costas de Antofagasta, Chile (23-24º S, 70-72º O. Entre ambos cruceros (enero y julio 1997 hubo cambios significativos en la columna de agua, los que incluyeron aumento de la temperatura en la zona eufótica (Zeu, profundizaci

  15. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes. PMID:21790961

  16. CRUZAMIENTO NATURAL EN FRIJOL COMÚN EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    N\\u00E9stor Felipe Chaves-Barrantes; Rodolfo Araya-Villalobos; Daniel G. Debouck

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue estimar el porcentaje de alogamia entre dos variedades de frijol común en Fraijanes y Alajuela, localidades del Valle Central de Costa Rica. La parcela experimental consistió en tres bloques de diez lomillos de 15 m de largo espaciados 0,8 m. En el bloque central se ubicó la variedad de grano color negro, UCR 55 en Fraijanes y Guaymí en Alajuela, y en los laterales la variedad de grano color blanco PAN 68. Los ensayos se llevaron a cabo del 2002 al 2003 e...

  17. Brecha digital en los docentes de secundaria de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Cordero, Felisa

    2009-01-01

    En la construcción de una sociedad de la información y el conocimiento, democrática e incluyente, Costa Rica enfrenta un importante desafío de cara a las asimetrías existentes con respecto a la conectividad, acceso y uso de las tecnologías de información y comunicación. En esta, como en otras materias, el país arroja importantes1 brechas, que se expresan tanto en su entorno global como internamente entre zonas geográficas y segmentos de población. El concepto de brecha digital ha sido ampl...

  18. Bryophytes of Cocos Island, Costa Rica: diversity, biogeography and ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Dauphin

    1999-01-01

    A total of 98 liverwort species (43 genera, 10 families), 54 moss species (33 genera, 17 families) and one species of hornwort have been reported for Cocos Island (5°32’N, 87°04’W), Costa Rica. Over 60% of the bryophytes have a Neotropical or Pantropical distribution, about 10% are Caribbean, and less than 5% are endemic or subendemic. In comparison to the Galapagos Archipelago, Cocos Island harbors a more typical tropical bryoflora with foliose hepatics (e. g. Lejeuneaceae, Lepidoziaceae) co...

  19. Monitoreo del manglar de Gandoca, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C Fonseca E; Jorge Cortés; Priscilla Zamora

    2007-01-01

    El manglar de Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribe de Costa Rica, se ha monitoreado desde 1999. La especie dominante es el mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle. El pico de productividad y producción de flores a lo largo de los años se dio en julio. La productividad del manglar disminuyó desde el 2001 y la temperatura del agua aparentemente aumentó. La biomasa (14 kg/m²) y densidad (9 árboles por 100 m²) en Gandoca son relativamente bajas comparados con otras manglar...

  20. Availability, distribution, quality and perspectives of water in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Valverde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica is a privileged country due to its rich water availability; nonetheless, the water accessibility in terms of potable quality has become more and more scarce. Such situation implies a great challenge to guarantee its current and future supply to meet water´s increasing demands for its many purposes, considering the existing disparities among the country´s geographical regions and its different users. The current paper seeks to explore this dynamics and its future perspectives under the predicted climate change scenarios.

  1. Social perception on conservation strategies in the Costa Brava, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Roca Bosch, Elisabet; Villares Junyent, Míriam; Fernández, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This communication presents the results of a research carried out in the protected area of Aiguamolls de l’Empordà , in the heart of Costa Brava, Spain, where a proposal to extend the perimeter of the protected area in order to guarantee the connectivity function of the territory has created a local but severe social conflict. Our main objective is to explore public perceptions of this intervention in order to deepen in the main causes of such social rejection. The research has collecte...

  2. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

    OpenAIRE

    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-01-01

    La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG) con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuici...

  3. Procesos electorales en la Costa Chica de Guerrero

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ángel Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    El estado de Guerrero se encuentra entre los de mayor marginalidad de la republica mexicana. De acuerdo a índices nacionales e internacionales la mayoría de sus municipios se encuentran en condiciones de Alta y Muy Alta marginalidad. Estas condiciones de pobreza inciden en los resultados electorales. Avance de una investigación más amplia es este estudio que se ocupa de la Costa Chica, una de las regiones del estado de Guerrero, la cual se caracteriza por una evidente relación ...

  4. Migration, cultural management and social inclusion in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Mora, Freddy Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    La Gestión Cultural constituye una disciplina en pleno proceso de expansión, capaz de generar un liderazgo en el desarrollo de estrategias creativas para el fomento del diálogo intercultural y del desarrollo humano. En Costa Rica, las técnicas de la Gestión Cultural han sido esenciales para desarrollar las estrategias de integración social de migrantes, refugiados y nacionales, liderado por el Ministerio de Gobernación y Policía. El artículo explora la experiencia desarrollada sob...

  5. Hydrogeochemical and Isotopic Characterization of the Hydrogeological Model of the Parrita Aquifer, Central Pacific of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined study of hydrology, hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes has been carried out by SENARA in the Parrita River basin, Costa Rica's Pacific coast, with the assistance of the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Project RLA/8/041. This region presents a high water demand due to agricultural activities and tourism. Deuterium and oxygen-18, in conjunction with the major ions, were used to assess the overall hydrological functioning of the basin, including the relationships between different water bodies. Preliminary results indicate that groundwater is recent, the transit time of water in the aquifer is very fast and that there is a strong hydraulic connection between surface waters and the aquifer. This information has been incorporated into the first version of the vulnerability map of the Parrita aquifer, which is being used as a land management tool by local authorities. (author)

  6. Comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena (PNMB, en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica, mediante tres transectos por sitio, de 10 m de largo cada uno y paralelos a la costa, utilizando una cuadrícula de 1 m2. Se encontró un total de 15 especies de corales (11 hermatípicas y 4 ahermatípicas, las que sumadas a informes previos para el parque hacen un total de 18 especies. El coral Porites lobata presentó la mayor cobertura coralina (36.5 ± 3.7% y fue el único presente en todos los sitios. Las otras especies de coral presentaron bajas coberturas (<10% y sólo fueron observadas en pocos sitios. El porcentaje de coral muerto fue de 1.8 ± 0.6% y el porcentaje de blanqueamiento (0.7 ± 0.2% está dado por P. lobata en un solo sitio. El PNMB y la Isla del Caño poseen el mayor número de especies de coral (18 especies de la región sur de Costa Rica; sin embargo, difieren en su composición. La baja diversidad y la baja cobertura coralina de varios sitios del parque se atribuyen al impacto del fenómeno de El Niño en los últimos años, a la sedimentación y a la dilución de las aguas en época de lluvias. Se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un monitoreo a largo plazo sobre estos ecosistemas y determinar futuras estrategias de manejo y conservación.

  7. Horizontal principal stress orientation in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) transect from borehole breakouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverno, A.; Saito, S.; Vannucchi, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) drilled the Pacific margin of the Middle America Trench just north of where the Cocos Ridge enters the subduction zone, resulting in basal erosion of the upper plate. Here we report the orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax) from borehole breakouts detected by logging-while-drilling and wireline downhole measurements. All SHmax directions were estimated in the sediment cover of the margin, above the deeper rocks of the deformed margin wedge. We observe three overall SHmax orientations: NNE-SSW (25° azimuth) in the deepest interval drilled at the upper slope Site U1379; ENE-WSW (82°) in the rest of Site U1379 and in Site U1413, also drilled in the upper slope; and NNW-SSE (157°) in the mid-slope Site U1378. Our preferred interpretation is that the deepest interval of Site U1379 records the stress conditions in the underlying margin wedge, as SHmax is parallel to the direction of the Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence and of the compressional axes of plate boundary fault earthquakes. The variable SHmax directions observed elsewhere are likely due to the effect of a network of normal faults that subdivide the sediment cover into a number of independently deforming blocks. In addition, the observed SHmax directions may be influenced by the subducting Cocos Ridge, which acts as an indenter causing oblique deformation, and by the transition to seismogenic subduction along the plate boundary fault.

  8. Costa Rica: una decisión estratégica en tiempos inciertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE VARGAS CULLELL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 estuvo marcado por el conflicto sobre la ratificación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica, Estados Unidos y República Dominicana (CAFTA por sus siglas en inglés. El CAFTA fue aprobado por estrecho margen mediante referendum en octubre, luego de un período de polarización de las fuerzas políticas y sociales. El proceso reflejó la fragilidad del sistema de partidos políticos y las dificultades del gobierno y las fuerzas opositoras para lograr acuerdos políticos en otros ámbitos de la política pública.The conflict over the ratification of the Central American, United States and Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA dominated Costa Rican politics in 2007. CAFTA was approved by a narrow margin in a national referendum held in October, after a fractious and polarized campaign. The process reflected the transitional and fragile nature of the party system, and the difficulty to achieve consensus faced both by the government and the opposition.

  9. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel. PMID:12848237

  10. Enamel lesions in development, classification in Costa Rican families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamel lesions in development were identified and classified in patients of Llano Grande de Cartago, examined at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A guide is provided over the topic. 15 children and 2 Costa Rican adults were selected. Clinical examinations, radiographs and clinical photographs were used as data collection method. Dental defects of the enamel were classified according to the possible genetic causes and without genetic causes. Imperfect Amelogenesis (IA) was diagnosed in 10 of patients. Hypoplastic IA was determined in 3 siblings with autosomal recessive inheritance, for 16% of the total sample. Hypomineralized IA was identified in an adult and two of his sons, with autosomal dominant inheritance. The remaining 4 cases of IA have been sporadic. Lesions of dental fluorosis were determined in the Horowitz index in 4 individuals, from 2 unrelated families. Other defects unspecified of the enamel or hypoplasias were found in 3 individuals. Enamel lesions in development should be classified with precision, for the purpose to inform to patients affected about their condition, origin, prognosis and appropriate treatment. The basis are established to implement reliability in the construction of family genealogy, identification and classification of enamel lesions, as well as the probabilities of future generations to express the lesions in the enamel of temporary or permanent dentition

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in the soils and atmosphere of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Jantunen, Liisa M M; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    A survey of the contamination of the physical environment of Costa Rica with banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) relied on sampling air and soil at 23 stations acrossthe country in 2004. Average annual air concentrations, determined with XAD-based passive samplers, and surface soil concentrations were generally low when compared to values reported for North and Central America, which is consistent with relatively low historical domestic use and little atmospheric inflow from neighboring countries. Statistical analysis and concentration maps reveal three types of spatial distribution: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and p,p'-DDD had a relatively uniform distribution across the country; other DDT-related species were greatly elevated over the national average at Manuel Antonio, a National Park on the Pacific coast; and dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane-related species had higher concentrations in Costa Rica's populated Central Valley. An altitudinal transect of stations in the Central Valley shows declining air-soil concentration ratios with elevation for lindane, likely driven by atmospheric inversions and soil organic carbon content. Enantiomeric composition of chiral OCPs in air and soil was close to racemic, with slight depletion of (-)-alpha-HCH, (-)-cis-chlordane, and (+)-trans-chlordane. Estimated air-soil fugacity fractions are highly uncertain but indicate equilibrium conditions for most OCPs, net volatilization of lindane at some sites, and net deposition for p,p'-DDE. The study demonstrates an approach for quickly evaluating the spatial distribution of OCPs in an understudied area, identifying regionally important contaminants and areas of elevated concentrations. PMID:17593709

  12. La maestra Alda Costa: un mártir antifascista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cagnolati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Un sector interesante al que aplicar nuevas categorías de la investigación histórica y social es, sin duda, el de la educación de las mujeres. Maestras, educadoras, pedagogas fueron revolucionarias en diversas épocas de la historia dedicando su existencia a la difusión de conocimientos que pudiesen ser aprovechados por otras mujeres. Para ello fundaron escuelas, escribieron libros y publicaron periódicos. En este sentido las maestras socialistas italianas fueron pioneras al difundir palabras claves como derechos, democracia e igualdad de sueldo. Una figura muy importante fue la maestra antifascista Alda Costa (1876-1944, que luchó contra el militarismo italiano antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial y asumió encargos de gran relevancia en el Partido Socialista. Además fue amiga de Giacomo Matteotti, asesinado por los fascistas en Roma en junio de 1925. Alda Costa fue encarcelada, por su oposición al régimen, y los sufrimientos padecidos precipitaron su muerte.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from the coffee industry in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensen, A.

    1998-04-01

    Within the framework of a Joint implementation project ECN and the University of Heredia, department of chemistry (Laboratorio de Quimica de la Atmosfera LAQUAT) performed measurements to assess the emission of greenhouse gasses from the wastewater treatment facilities used by the coffee industry in Costa Rica. Wastewater from the coffee industry caused severe water pollution in the rivers of Costa Rica. In order to abate this problem wastewater treatment is now compulsory. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) levels of the wastewater that is released into the river systems, must be below 1.5 kg COD per fanega (1 fanega is about 400 kg of coffee berries). Waste water can be treated using anaerobic lagoons. In these lagoons microbial activity will degrade the organic material and methane and carbon dioxide will be formed. These gasses escape to the atmosphere and contribute to the greenhouse effect. Within the joint implementation program, the Dutch government provided the extra money to install anaerobic reactor systems that replace the lagoons. In the reactor the methane that is formed is trapped and used for heating. The net effect is that methane emissions are converted to carbon dioxide emissions. This has a positive impact on the net emission levels since 1 kg of methane as effective as 21 kg of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse forcing. In order to estimate the real emission reduction obtained by the joint implementation program, measurements were carried out at a lagoon in San Isidro at the beneficio EI General, which is operated by Volcafe

  14. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators. PMID:12294361

  15. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Glen; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-03-01

    Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65% of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa). In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero) Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Carara) it was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%), oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Rio Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed delta-endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3

  16. Mapping Depth to Bedrock in a Tropical Pre-Montane Wet Forest in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oien, R. P.; Burns, J. N.; Arnott, R.; Ackerson, J. P.; Morgan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Accounting for all components of the water balance in a watershed includes an estimate of soil water storage, which in turn depends on the depth to bedrock. The soils in this transitional tropical forest contain large amounts of amorphous material from the saprolitic tuff thus classifying the soils as Andisols. Measuring the depth to bedrock in tropical montane environments is complicated by aspect, elevation, slope, landslides, slumping and other mass wasting events. As part of a larger study, Texas A& M Costa Rica REU aimed to close the water budget for a tropical pre-montane forest, the focus of this study is to generate a map of the depth to saprolitic tuff and topographical information for the purpose of estimating the volume of soil water storage in the Howler Monkey Watershed at Texas A&M University Soltis Center for Research and Education, San Isidro de Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica. A map of the depth to saprolitic tuff was created using 101 hand- augured holes (over 2.63 ha) spatially distributed throughout the watershed. Saprolitic tuff was defined as being 50% of the sample and containing grittiness and cobble sized chunks. To characterize the soils throughout the watershed, soil horizons at three sites were described and 22 cores for particle size. The cores consisted of over 40-55% clay classifying them as clayey or clayey loam. The samples also ranged from 50-73% water content. A map showing the slopes within the watershed also shows the relationship of soil depth above the bedrock within the watershed. The slopes across the watershed vary from 12-65 degrees but only have a 24% correlation with the depth to saprolitic tuff. Results suggest that the depth of the saprolitic tuff is quite sensitive to small scale topographic variability. Soil with such high water content becomes an integral part of the water budget since a significant portion of the water is maintained within the soil. Depth to bedrock provides necessary data to estimate the total volume

  17. Importance of Dry-Season Precipitation to the Water Resources of Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, A. J.; Rhodes, A. L.

    2005-12-01

    Monteverde, Costa Rica harbors montane forests that exemplify the delicate balances among climate, hydrology, habitat, and development. Most of the annual precipitation to this region arrives during the wet season, but the importance of orographic precipitation during the dry and transitional seasons should not be underestimated. Changes in regional land-cover and global climate may lead to reduced precipitation and cloud cover and a subsequent decline in endemic species, and a boom in ecotourism has put stress on water resources. A recent attempt to withdraw water from a local stream led to a standoff between conservationists and business developers, and there is a clear need for hydrologic data and understanding in support of policy. Through signals observed in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and streamflow, we seek to understand how precipitation from the drier seasons propagates through the hydrologic cycle. In precipitation, δ18O and δ2H are heaviest during the dry and transitional seasons and light during the rainy season, consistent with the condensation mechanisms and degree of rainout typical of these periods. The signal in d-excess indicates a contribution of recycled water to precipitation in Monteverde from late in the rainy season through the dry season. Attenuated versions of these seasonal signals propagate through to the stream samples and provide a means of determining the importance of dry-season precipitation to water resources for the region. Results from six catchments on the leeward slope indicate that the Brillante Gap in the continental divide exerts strong control on the input of orographic precipitation to the region. Disparities in the temporal signals of precipitation and streamflow isotopes indicate non-linear behavior in the hydrologic processes that move water through these catchments.

  18. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuicios sobre las víctimas en la sociedad. Se explora el hecho de que la información sobre este fenómeno en Costa Rica es escasa y el abordaje psicológico lo es aún más. La investigación tiene sus bases en la metodología cualitativa descriptiva; se propone un diseño fenomenológico que parte de la teoría humanista del Análisis Transaccional de Berne (1976 para efectuar estudio múltiple de casos. La muestra estuvo constituida por un grupo de cinco mujeres, que se encontraron en proceso de restauración en la ONG bajo las categorías de análisis “Trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial nacional” (dentro de Costa Rica, “Avasallamientos” y “Desarrollo personal”. Los resultados identificaron avasallamientos, a los que fueron sometidas las mujeres de esta muestra, antes, durante y después de ser captadas en la trata. Asimismo, se analiza cómo el desarrollo de las mujeres víctimas de trata en este estudio se ve obstaculizado por dichos avasallamientos y cómo algunas lograron obtener el crecimiento personal a pesar de lo sucedido.

  19. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  20. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  1. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

  2. Evolution of industrial sector electricity demand in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note is a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the efficiency of electricity utilization in the Costa Rican industrial sector and the competitive pressures generated by the implementation of economic reforms, in particular, the progressive liberalization of international trade, in the years since the debt and economic crisis of the early 1980s. The steady, year-by-year, reduction in the rate of import tariff protection, with only temporary interruptions and reverses, has been the most consistently implemented component of the macroeconomic, trade, and financial sector reforms upon which this country has embarked over the past two decades. The note sheds some light on the nature of the general policy environment that is conductive to an efficient utilization of energy in the productive sectors and to the success of national energy efficiency promotion programs in this and other parts of the world. (Author)

  3. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363

  4. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  5. Authigenic Carbonates off Costa Rica Margin: Archives for Dewatering History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X.; Suess, E.; Sahling, H.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Scholten, J.; Bock, B.

    2003-04-01

    Authigenic carbonates in a variety of types and shapes characterize mud diapirs and slump scarps, the major sites of fluid venting off Costa Rica margin. A regional distribution pattern of mineral and isotope compositions exists based on 76 samples analyzed so far: The Jaco Scarp, which represents a deep plow mark left by a subducted seamount, is characterized by nodules, fluid conduit concretions and chemoherms. The dominant mineral is (proto-)dolomite, except for chemoherms which are composed of aragonite. The dolomites have δ13C and δ18O compositions in the range of -40.5 to -28.3 ppm PDB and 8.1 to 6.5 ppm PDB, respectively, while those of chemoherm are lighter (δ13C = -46.0 to -51.0 ppm PDB and δ18O = 4.8 to 5.0 ppm PDB). On the mud diapirs off northern Costa Rica, the carbonates are mainly massive micrites which are dominated by calcite (MgCO_3 = 2--10 mol-%), their δ13C and δ18O are in the range of -27.4 to -53.0 ppm PDB and 5.4 to 6.3 ppm PDB, respectively. On the mud diapirs off southern Costa Rica, aragonite dominates the chemoherms (δ13C = -40.6 to -49.2 ppm PDB, δ18O = 4.4 to 6.4 ppm PDB) and high Mg-calcite dominates the seepage-associated crusts (δ13C = -51.9 to -52.7 ppm PDB; δ18O = 4.9 to 4.8 ppm PDB), while chimneys and fluid conduit concretions are composed of calcite with relatively low Mg content (δ13C = -32.4 to -41.5 ppm PDB; δ18O = 6.4 to 5.7 ppm PDB). The calcite precipitated inside chimneys is more depleted in 13C and has higher Mg-contents than the outer chimney walls, while the concretions are enriched in 13C and depleted in Mg-contents inside compared to outside layers. These trends indicate their sequences of growth. The gas hydrate-associated carbonates are unusually heavy isotopically (δ13C = -18.6 to -29.8 ppm PDB, δ18O = 6.0 to 6.8 ppm PDB) indicating a thermal origin of the methane-C as well as 18O enriched precipitating solutions. This agrees well with the C-isotope ratio of methane recovered from gas hydrates and Cl

  6. SEX DETERMINATION IN DACTYLOPIUS COCCUS COSTA (HEMIPTERA: DACTYLOPIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The coccids have different sex-determining mechanisms, including the heterochromatinization haplodiploidy of chromosomes of paternal origin, characteristic of the family Dactylopiidae. The heterochromatinization in coccids seems to be a mechanism by which part of a chromosome, the entire chromosome, or several chromosomes will become genetically inactive during development of the individual. In the first division immediately after fertilization, the chromosomes of embryos appear euchromatic (E; shortly after the blastocyst stage, almost half of the chromosomes become heterochromatic (H in embryos that are destined to be male, while in the female all the chromosomic set remain euchromatic. The objective of this study is to determine the heterochromatinization process in the sex determination of Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1935 embryos. The method used to identify chromosomes has been the conventional 2% lacto-acetic orcein protocol. In D. coccus it was observed that during embryogenesis, heterochromatinization occurs in the set of chromosomes from paternal origin, while those of maternal origin remain euchromatic.

  7. Olfactory communication among Costa Rican squirrel monkeys: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S

    1992-01-01

    Behaviors with a possible role in olfactory communication among troop members were investigated as part of a field study on the reproductive and foraging ecology of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. All age classes engaged in the olfaction-related behaviors. Apart from olfactory investigation of female genitals by males during the mating season, no other potential olfaction-related behavior (urine wash, branch investigation, rump, chest, back rub and sneeze) exceeded 1% of mean behavioral samples. Assessment of reproduction condition appears to be the primary function of such olfactory investigation of the female genital region. The primary function of urine washing is suggested to be the general communication of reproductive status, possibly facilitating reproductive synchrony. Sneezing, rump, back and chest rubbing do not appear to deposit substances active in olfactory communication. PMID:1306175

  8. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  9. Recuperar, reviver e reanimar a poesia de Emiliano da Costa

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Sara Raquel Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Dar a conhecer a ignota poesia de Emiliano da Costa, contribuir para a sua revalorização e impedir o seu esquecimento são os derradeiros propósitos deste estudo. Numa primeira fase realça-se o cunho regional e universal de Emiliano e, uma vez justificada a importância da sua revalorização no panorama literário português, imagina-se um projeto fundamentado numa exposição museológica. Emiliano distingue-se como um dos mais admiráveis poetas algarvios e, por essa razão, é imper...

  10. Design of a leading indicator for Costa Rican economic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish was selected as the reference variable.  A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and fiscal sector variables. The real sector information was disaggregated into three levels, which included the classification of data at an industrial level using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC with two digits, information from the agricultural sector based on the Central Product Classification (CPC and information from the manufacturing sector.  A leading indicator was developed for each level of aggregation, resulting in average leads of 7 to 12 months compared to the reference variable.

  11. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Karen R.; Green, D.E.; Papendick, R.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, the amphibian fauna of Las Tablas, Costa Rica, began to decline, and by 1998 approximately 50% of the species formerly present could no longer be found. Three years later, at the Reserva Forestal Fortuna, in western Panama, a site approximately 75 km east southeast of Las Tablas, KRL encountered a mass die-off of amphibians and a subsequent decline in abundance and species richness. The epidemiological features of the anuran population declines and die-offs at both sites were similar, suggesting a similar cause. Herein we document the presence of the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in dead and dying wild frogs collected at Las Tablas just prior to population declines of several anuran species.

  12. Recent surface marine sediments of Cocos Island in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey A. SIBAJA-CORDERO; Jess S. TRONCOSO; Eddy GMEZ-RAMREZ

    2014-01-01

    Subtidal sediments of Isla del Coco (Cocos Island), Costa Rica were described in their grain size, sorting, organic matter, and carbonates from 27 dredge samples (3-75 m), collected in April 2010. The organic matter range between 1.37-3.31% and carbonates presented a mean of 74±17%. The sorting was moderately or poorly. The grain size ranged between 0.1-1.1mm. The pattern is that sediment change from inner to mouth of bays. Carbonates and gravel fractions increased offshore and organic matter have high values inner the bays. Input of vegetal debris and mud was from the rivers of this island covered with rain and cloud forest.

  13. Inflation persistence on Services and Regulated Goods in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León Murillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present document studies the degree of inflation persistence and price stickiness across different categories in the Costa Rican Consumer Price index (CPI, using disaggregate and aggregate data, with a particular focus in the regulated and services prices. We adopt two approaches: The parametric approach is based in an autoregressive process with constant mean, and the structural approach is based on the estimation of the New Keynesian Hybrid Phillips Curve. We use different econometric techniques, as univariate and multivariate time series, and panel data methods. The evidence suggests that changes in prices and services regulated items have higher degrees of persistence in addition to presenting rigidities in the adjustment pattern. Also it was found that using disaggregate data the degree of inflation persistence is lower than the inflation persistence estimation of univariate models with aggregate data, and this tend to reduce excluding the regulated and services products prices.

  14. Transition Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  15. Melioidosis en Costa Rica: Reporte del primer caso

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    Alfredo Messino Julio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis es una enfennedad infecciosa causada por la Burkholderia pseudomallef. Esta enfermedad es endémica en áreas tropicales de Asia y Australia y ha habido reportes aislados en Centro y Sur América. Aquí nosotros informamos del primer caso probado de melioidosis en Costa Rica, correspondiendo a un paciente sin historia de viajes a lugares endémicos. El paciente consultó por una bronconeumonía de adquisición comunitaria y sepsis. El hecho que el aislamiento bacteriano sea tan inusual en nuestro país implicó un retraso subsecuente en el inicio del tratamiento antibiótico específico en este caso, lo cual pudo influir en la evolución tan tórpida del paciente. Esto nos plantea el interrogante de si esta enfermedad debe ser incluida en el diagnóstico diferencial de sepsis de adquisición comunitaria en nuestro país.Melioidosis in an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. This disease is endemie in areas of tropical Asia and Australia; there have been isolated reports of the disease in Central and South America. Here we report the first documented case of Melioidosis in Costa Rica in a patient without a history of traveling lo endemic areas. The patient was seen at the hospital because of sepsis and a community acquired bronchopneumonia. Due lo the rareness of this bacterial isolation in our country the corroboration of the diagnosis was delayed and subsequently the specific antibiotics were started 5 days later after the admission, this could have influenced the torpid evolution the patient had. This case should alert us and points lo the need of including this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of community acquired sepsis in our country.

  16. Las fiebres manchadas y su importancia en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Hun-Opfer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Manchada de la Montañas Rocosas es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas y causada por una bacteria intracelular obligatoria, la Rickettsia rickettsii. Es una enfermedad sistémica, de moderada a severa, producida por la infección del endotelio vascular de pequeños vasos de la mayoría de órganos y tejidos. Es la más letal de las infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas y desde su descubrimiento, hace cerca de 100 años, todavía se presenta, aunque esporádicamente, de forma persistente, y a pesar de que se cuenta con antibióticos efectivos, la mortalidad sigue siendo de mas del 10% y los pacientes requieren terapia intensiva durante la infección si esta no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo. En tiempo recientemente se han descrito otras especies de garrapatas que pueden transmitir rickettsias a humanos así como nuevas especies de rickettsias que pueden producir cuadros de fiebres manchadas y aunque se ha dilucidado parte de sus mecanismos patogénicos, persisten muchas dudas respecto a su virulencia. Desde 1975 se han reportado brotes de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica y el agente etiológico causal, la Rickettsia rickettsii, fue aislada e identificada en la mayoría de los casos en el Laboratorio de Virología de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

  17. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author)

  18. Four new species of Symmerista Hübner, 1816 (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Isidro Chacón; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs

    2014-01-01

    The genus Symmerista Hübner (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) is reviewed for Costa Rica, based on 49 wild-caught specimens. Four species are newly described: Symmerista luisdiegogomezi Chacón, Symmerista inbioi Chacón, Symmerista minaei Chacón and Symmerista aura Chacón. All are from the cloud forests of the Talamanca moutain range, southern Costa Rica. Photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and barcodes are also provided. The species Symmerista tlot...

  19. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  20. Role of bacterial and genetic factors in gastric cancer in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio A Con; Hiroaki Takeuchi; Gil R Con-Chin; Vicky G Con-Chin; Nobufumi Yasuda; Reinaldo Con-Wong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate several risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) in Costa Rican regions with contrasting GC incidence rate (GCIR). METHODS: According to GCIR, 191 Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)-positive patients were classified into groups A (high GCIR, n = 101) and B (low GCIR, n = 90). Human DNA obtained from biopsy specimens was used in the determination of polymorphisms of the genes coding for interleukin (IL)-1o play a major role in GCIR variability in Costa Rica.

  1. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro; Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller

    2011-01-01

    Austin (1992) reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775) to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987) for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  2. Seasonal wetlands in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua: environmental characterisation and conservation state.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasa, Mahmood; Armengol Díaz, Javier; Bonilla, Fabián; Mesquita Joanes, Francesc; Piculo, Rubén; Rojo García-Morato, Carmen; Rueda, Ricardo; Monrós González, Juan S.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal wetlands in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua: environmental characterisation and conservation status On the Pacific coast of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, rainfall patterns and clay-rich soils allow the development of extensive wetlands. These environments constitute unique habitats for the maintenance of aquatic biodiversity and provide significant ecological services to the surrounding seasonal dry forest. Despite these benefits, wetlands have been severely reduced in the ...

  3. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Sills; Evan Mercer; Frederick Cubbage; Jessica Haynes

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individu...

  4. Historia oral en Costa Rica. Génesis y estado actual

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Rafael Quezada Camacho

    1990-01-01

    The author follows the technique of oral history in Costa Rica in great detail. Written history being the first of the social disciplines in Costa Rica, its practice has consistently been arch-conservative. However, at the request of researchers educated abroad, oral history has begun to be practiced with great interest. The first sources to be used in oral history are "peasant" and "popular" life, a significant fact, initiating a search and claim for "identity". This has...

  5. WHEN DO COSTA RICA NATIONAL BANKS RESPOND TO RESERVE REQUIREMENT CHANGES?

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance Jalbert; Jonathan Stewart; Mercedes Jalbert

    2012-01-01

    The process of changing reserve requirements in Costa Rica is a three step process. First the central bank makes the decision to change reserve requirements. Several days to several weeks later, the change is announced in the official newspaper. The actual reserve requirement change takes place from several weeks to several months later. Previous studies have limited their analysis to an examination of the decision and the announcement dates. The research shows that Costa Rica national banks ...

  6. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in ...

  7. Redescription of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella faxoni from Costa Rica (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalellidae

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    Exequiel R. González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyalella faxoni Stebbing, 1903 from Costa Rica is redescribed. The species was previously in the synonymy of Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858. The morphological differences between these two species are discussedLa especie Hyalella faxoni Stebbing, 1903 de Costa Rica es redescrita. Esta especie estaba previamente en la sinonimia de Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858. Se discuten en este trabajo las diferencias morfológicas entre las dos especies

  8. Redescription of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella faxoni from Costa Rica (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Exequiel R. González; Les Watling

    2002-01-01

    Hyalella faxoni Stebbing, 1903 from Costa Rica is redescribed. The species was previously in the synonymy of Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858). The morphological differences between these two species are discussedLa especie Hyalella faxoni Stebbing, 1903 de Costa Rica es redescrita. Esta especie estaba previamente en la sinonimia de Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858). Se discuten en este trabajo las diferencias morfológicas entre las dos especies

  9. AN EXCEPTIONAL PUBLIC COMPANY WITHIN A SOCIAL DEMOCRACY IN CRISIS: THE COSTA RICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Chavez; Alberto Cortés Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the economic policy of energy in Costa Rica and of the exceptional role which the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) – the company responsible for the provision of energy and telecommunications – has historically held in shaping the national identity. The basic assumption is that the institutional profile of the ICE, as well as its evolution and impact on development have been shaped by very specific political, social and economic conditions which a...

  10. La infertilidad en Costa Rica debe abordarse como un problema de salud pública Infertility in Costa Rica must be tackled as a public health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ferrero Aymerich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la infertilidad afecta a una de cada cuatro parejas en los países en desarrollo, en Costa Rica su incidencia se estima alrededor del 10% entre las parejas en edad fértil. En momentos en que la tasa de fecundidad en Costa Rica ha caído por debajo de su tasa de reemplazo, la infertilidad debe abordarse como un problema de salud pública prioritario. Por lo tanto, la Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica, en vez del inútil debate que ha sostenido por la aprobación de una técnica en particular como es la fecundación in vitro, debe enfocarse en aprobar una legislación sanitaria comprensiva que tome en cuenta el enfoque poblacional y establezca la creación de un Sistema Integrado de Atención de la Infertilidad. Este Sistema debe impulsar el abordaje interdisciplinario y la atención expedita y debe ofrecer terapias costo-efectivas que garanticen su sostenibilidad.Infertility affects one out of four couples in developing countries according to the World Health Organization, while its incidence in Costa Rica is estimated to be 10% in couples in reproductive - age. While the fertility rate in Costa Rica has fallen under the replacement rate, infertility must be approached as a public health priority. Therefore, instead of having the pointless discussion about approving a particular technique such as In vitro fertilization, the Costa Rican Legislative Assembly should focus on approving comprehensive health legislation. This legislation should be based on a population health approach and establish the creation of an Integrated System to Assist Fertility Problems. This System must thrust an interdisciplinary approach and prompt attention. It should also offer cost - effective therapies that guarantee its sustainability.

  11. Estudio de la estacionalidad del dengue en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica (1999-2004

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    Roy Wong- McClure

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus del dengue constituye la causa más común de enfermedades por arbovirus en el mundo. El estudio analiza el comportamiento estacional del dengue en la región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre 1999 y 2004. Materiales y métodos: La información fue tomada del Ministerio de Salud de Costa Rica y del Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. Para el análisis de la estacionalidad de dengue se utilizaron el número de casos de esta enfermedad para la estimación de promedios móviles y las características de los brotes epidémicos. Se definió como brote epidémico un total de 20 ó más casos de dengue por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Durante el período analizado se observó un incremento en el número de casos de dengue por año. Al observar la distribución de los casos incidentes del dengue cada año se resaltó un patrón anual estacional. Los brotes del dengue se presentaron al menos una vez al año, entre las semanas epidemiológicas 18-29 (abril-julio, que coincidían con la estación lluviosa. Discusión: Se evidencia que en la región Pacífico Central, el dengue es una enfermedad predecible en cuanto a su comportamiento estacional, por lo que se recomienda intensificar las medidas de prevención para combatirla, así como preparar los servicios para la atención de pacientes, en las semanas epidemiológica previas a las de mayor promedio en el número de casos, según el patrón estacional.Aim: This study analyzed the Dengue’s seasonal behaviour in the Central Pacific Region of Costa Rica, during the period from 1999 to 2004. It is known that the dengue virus is the most common cause of arbovirus diseases in the world. Material and methods: We got the data from the Costa Rican Ministry of Health and the National Meteorological Institute. From this data, moving averages were calculated to evaluate its seasonal behaviour and the features of the outbreaks. In this study an outbreak of dengue

  12. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Freer; Maribel Vargas-Montero

    2003-01-01

    Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN) se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas...

  13. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    N. Homedes; A. Ugalde

    2002-01-01

    El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el model...

  14. Prácticas y comportamientos sexuales de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica (Practices and sexual behaviors of students at the University of Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis León-Alán; Cristina Garita-Garita; Marilyn Quesada-Cambronero; Lizeth Taylor-Castillo; Pilar Salas-Chaves

    2011-01-01

    El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar las prácticas sexuales de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica para adquirir la infección por VIH con el fin de promover una vida sexual sana y el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida. Se realizó una encuesta auto-administrada y anónima en la población estudiantil, durante el ciclo lectivo del año 2008 en las diferentes sedes que tiene la Universidad de Costa Rica en todo el país.Al final del trabajo de campo se logró recolectar un total de 4...

  15. Comparative cytogenetics of two of the smallest Amazonian fishes: Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996 and Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965 is comprized of five valid species (F. pygmaeus Myers et Carvalho, 1955, F. zonatus, F. simplex, F. obscurus Costa, 1996, and F. palikur Costa et Le Bail, 1999, which are endemic to the Amazon region. These fishes are the smallest known South American vertebrates and among the smallest know vertebrates on Earth. All species but the type F. pygmaeus have been described in late 1990’s, and much remains unknown about the biology, taxonomy and systematics of this group of fishes. The aims of the present study were to establish the diploid and haploid number of F. zonatus and F. simplex, and to find species-specific markers for the discrimination of taxa. The diploid number for both species was 48 chromosomes, with no sex chromosome heteromorphism. Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited the karyotypic formula 4m+8sm+22st+14a and FN=82, and F. simplex exhibited 4m+16sm+18st+10a and FN=86. The determination of the total mean length of the chromosomes and their grouping into five size classes demonstrated different chromosome composition of the two species. This difference was further supported by the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The meiotic analysis revealed 24 bivalents in both species, but F. zonatus exhibited chromosomes with late pairing of the telomeric portions in the pachytene. These data reveal that cytogenetic characterization is useful and important for the discrimination of these species. Our study further indicates that this method could be employed in the analysis of other species of small fishes that are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological traits or are morphologically cryptic.

  16. Rabies in Costa Rica: Documentation of the Surveillance Program and the Endemic Situation from 1985 to 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hutter, Sabine E.; Brugger, Katharina; Sancho Vargas, Victor Hugo; González, Rocío; Aguilar, Olga; León, Bernal; Tichy, Alexander; Firth, Clair L.; Rubel, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle ...

  17. Prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in healthy personnel from an academic institution of an urban area in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa-Gamboa T; Abarca-Soto G; Jiménez-Montero JG

    2015-01-01

    Tatiana Gamboa-Gamboa,1 Gabriel Abarca-Soto,2 José G Jiménez-Montero3,4 1Department of Research and Nutrition, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas, San José, Costa Rica; 2Department of Research, School of Medicine, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas, San José, Costa Rica; 3Department of Postgraduate Studies, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas, San José, Costa Rica; 4Department of Endocrinology, Hospital CIMA, San José, Costa Rica Objective...

  18. 35 years of electron microscopy in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscopy has celebrated in 2009 the XXXV anniversary in Costa Rica. The history of the electron microscopy was initiated with the donation of a microscope by Japan and the establishment of the Unidad de Microscopia Electronica (UME), which later, has been consolidated as the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas (CIEMic) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR). This center has realized its own research and has gave support to different units of the UCR, state universities and the private sector. Currently, the CIEMic has had two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and two scanning electron microscopes (SEM), besides of optical microscopy equipment, including a laser confocal microscope. The two fundamental types of electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) have generated different images. While the first has had a resolution that has allowed to analyze virus, usually their images have been flat; however, with some special techniques can obtain three-dimensional images. The image in the TEM is generated by electrons that have passed through the sample, and to interact with its atoms have changed its energy and trajectory. This, at the end, has impacted on a photosensitive screen that has become in flashes, whose intensity has depended on its energy and form the image. Meanwhile, in the MER, the image has been normal type, although with less resolution. The electrons in the MER are focused on a small area of the sample in which have interacted with the atoms of this, and has generated a a series of signals, including the most used were the secondary electrons and characteristic X-rays. In both cases, an electron from beam has generated in the filament a collision against an electron of the sample and has given part of its energy to the degree of release of its atom and issued out of the sample; this has been called secondary electrons. X-rays have been generated when an electron of the same atom that has lost the secondary electron, but in an

  19. Human-induced geomorphology: Modeling slope failure in Dominical, Costa Rica using Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J.

    Unchecked human development has ravaged the region between Dominical and Uvita, Costa Rica. Much of the development transition has been driven by tourism and further foreign direct investment in residential, service and commercial enterprises. The resulting land-use/land-cover change has removed traditional forest cover in exchange for impervious surfaces, physical structures, and bare ground which is no longer mechanically supported by woody vegetation. Combined with a tropical climate, deeply weathered soils and lithography which are prone to erosion, land cover change has led to an increase in slope failure occurrences. Given the remoteness of the Dominical-Uvita region, its rate of growth and the lack of monitoring, new techniques for monitoring land use and slope failure susceptibility are needed. Two new indices are presented here that employ a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and widely available Landsat imagery to assist in this endeavor. The first index, or Vegetation Influenced Landslide Index (VILI), incorporates slope derived from a DEM and Lu et al.'s (2007) Surface Cover Index to quantify vegetative cover as a means of mechanical stabilization in landslide prone areas. The second index, or Slope Multiplier Index (SMI), uses individual Landsat data bands and basic Landsat band ratios as environmental proxies to replicate soil, vegetative and hydrologic properties. Both models achieve accuracy over 70% and rival results from more complicated published literature. The accuracy of the indices was assessed with the creation of a landslide inventory developed from field observations occurring in December 2007 and November 2008. The creation of these indices represents an efficient and accurate way of determining landslide susceptibility zonation in data poor areas where environmental protection practitioners may be overextended, under-trained or both.

  20. The declining effect of sibling size on children's education in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Costa Rica experienced a dramatic fertility decline in the 1960s and 1970s. The same period saw substantial improvement in children's educational attainment in Costa Rica. This correlation is consistent with household-level quantity-quality tradeoffs, but prior research on quantity-quality tradeoff magnitudes is mixed, and little research has estimated quantity-quality tradeoff behaviors in Latin America. Objective: This study explores one dimension of the potential demographic dividend from the fertility decline: the extent to which it was accompanied by quantity-quality tradeoffs leading to higher educational attainment. Specifically, we provide the first estimate of quantity-quality tradeoffs in Costa Rica, analyzing the increase in secondary school attendance among Costa Rican children as the number of siblings decreases. Furthermore, we advance the literature by exploring how that tradeoff has changed over time. Methods: We use 1984 and 2000 Costa Rican census data as well as survey data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES. To address endogenous family size, the analysis uses an instrumental variable strategy based on the gender of the first two children to identify the causal relationship between number of siblings and children's education. Results: We find that, among our earlier cohorts, having fewer siblings is associated with a significantly higher probability of having attended at least one year of secondary school, particularly among girls. The effect is stronger after we account for the endogeneity of number of children born by the mother. For birth cohorts after 1980 this relationship largely disappears. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a declining quantity-quality (Q-Q tradeoff in Costa Rica. This result suggests one potential explanation for the heterogeneous findings in prior studies elsewhere, but more work will be required to understand why such tradeoffs might vary

  1. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Costa Rican propolis: a multivariate analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propolis is produced by Apis mellifera bees from resins of plants that are found around the apiary. The chemical composition is highly variable and Costa Rica has reported without studies of characterization to define the types of propolis in the country. 119 samples were collected from beekeeping areas of the country. The spectrum of 1H-NMR and its antioxidant activity against DPPH radical were measured. The spectra have been divided into 243 blocks of 0,04 ppm and processed with the Minitab software for multivariate analysis. 99 of the samples collected were used for construction of models for the valuation of the predictive ability of the model have been used coefficients of determination (R2) of prediction by the software and the remaining 20 samples. The existence of three types of propolis with chemically different metabolomes were determined by principal component analysis (PCA). A prediction model was constructed by analysis of partial least squares (PLS). The prediction model has allowed to classify a propolis according to the level of antioxidant activity (AAO), high (type I and II) or low (type III) from the spectrum of 1H-NMR. The R2 has been 0.88 and R2 prediction of 0, 718 for new samples. The nconiferyl benzoate of group I and nemorosone of the group II as two discriminated antioxidants among the groups I and II were isolated and high concentration levels of these compounds have been differentiated with respect to type III. This has allowed the construction of a linear discriminant model with a success rate of 100% for the samples used for formulation and 92,9 for the prediction of different samples. The classification systems could be applied to the standardization of the quality of propolis from Costa Rica for future medicinal or cosmetic applications that take advantage of its antioxidant properties. Also, the methylated derivative has isolated and identified of the nconiferyl benzoate thereof propolis than was obtained his counterpart

  3. Percepción de la biotecnología en estudiantes universitarios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo una encuesta para estudiar la percepción y el grado de conocimiento sobre biotecnología y organismos modificados genéticamente (OMGs, en una muestra de estudiantes (n=750 de tres universidades públicas de Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR, Universidad Nacional (UNA e Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR. Se encontró que un 88% mostraron un conocimiento satisfactorio de la biotecnología moderna, y que un 79% expresaron una posición favorable y una buena aceptación de esa tecnología. Además, los estudiantes encuestados aceptarían ciertos riesgos asociados a la biotecnología, siempre y cuando, ésta mejore la capacidad competitiva de Costa Rica. El área de estudio de los estudiantes entrevistados parece estar relacionada con el grado de aceptación debido a que los estudiantes de disciplinas sociales mostraron una mayor percepción negativa hacia los productos biotecnológicos y OMGs, si se compara con la percepción expresada por los estudiantes encuestados de disciplinas de ciencias naturales y de áreas tecnológicas.Perception about biotechnology in university students in Costa Rica. A survey was carried out to determine the perception and knowledge about biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs in a sample (n = 750 of university students from three public universities in Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional and Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. The study revealed that 88% of the students showed a satisfactory level of knowledge about modern biotechnology and 79% of them reported a favorable opinion and good acceptance of this technology. Students would accept some risks associated to biotechnology if it represents an improvement to the competitiveness of Costa Rica. Some differences were detected in the opinions from students of the three universities that can be associated to the area of study. Students from social disciplines showed a higher percentage of

  4. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival. PMID:27547321

  5. Modelo de sostenibilidad para Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes de Costa Rica

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    Susan Chen Mok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo de trabajo que permitirá dar sostenibilidad a los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes (CECI, con el fin de continuar con los procesos de apropiación de la tecnología por parte de las comunidades en donde se ubican, y por lo tanto disminuir la brecha digital. Antes de presentar el modelo, se ofrecen los antecedentes conceptuales que fundamentan el proyecto de CECI. Para la creación del modelo, en el 2014 se realizó un diagnóstico del funcionamiento y administración de algunos CECI existentes en el Cantón Central de Puntarenas, que se encuentran en un radio máximo de 12 km de la Sede de Pacífico de la Universidad de Costa Rica, y se indagó sobre los actores locales que podrían intervenir. Se considera que el modelo es replicable para todos los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes existentes en todo el país, con la diferencia de las necesidades propias de cada comunidad en donde estos se encuentran.

  6. Referéndum en Costa Rica: la primera experiencia

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    Max Alberto Esquivel Faerron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los distintos mecanismos de democracia directa regulados en el ordenamiento jurídico costarricense, profundizando en el instituto del referéndum. Se centra en analizar, con apoyo en datos estadísticos, la primera experiencia de la aplicación del referéndum en Costa Rica, relativo a la aprobación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos. Como parte de este estudio, el autor desarrolla, desde el punto de vista doctrinario y de derecho comparado, temas medulares del referéndum que fueron motivo de amplia discusión, tales como: el carácter excepcional de este instituto -contra poniéndolo con el listado de las solicitudes de recolección de firmas presentadas ante el Tribunal-, la fiscalización del proceso, la posición del Poder Ejecutivo a favor de una de las tesis en contienda, el financiamiento de las campañas propagandísticas, la información ciudadana sobre el tema de la consulta y la participación de los medios de comunicación.

  7. Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyses movement patterns, habitat preferences, activity schedules, and dispersion of troop members in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in relation to seasonal changes in food abundance in a Costa Rican tropical wet forest. Secondary forest was the preferred habitat and use of primary forest and late successional forest was limited primarily to seasons when food availability was low. Range area differed between seasons, varying from 79 to 110 ha, and totaling 176 ha over 11 months. The number of hectares used, hourly rate of group movement, and proportion of time spent foraging each season were all negatively related to relative food abundance. There was a tendency to spend less time in foraging activities in the middle of the day and to spend more time exclusively in travel at dawn and dusk. In all seasons dispersion was least when the troop was travelling and it was generally greatest during seasons of low food abundance. Measures of the allocation of time by the troop to food-related activities and the extent of troop dispersion each season were consistent with estimates based on behavior sampling of individuals. PMID:3504420

  8. Trace metals in coastal sediments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moin Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe> Zn> Cu> Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 μg / g, respectively) and lower in Moin Bay (3.4% and 52 μg / g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 μg / g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 μg / g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moin Bay (6.4 μg / g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 μg / g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moin Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition. (Author)

  9. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y hepatitis; y la forma crónica, caracterizada por artritis, periostitis, encefalomielitis crónica y polirradiculopatía, entre otras manifestaciones. En Costa Rica se desconocen notificaciones de pacientes con esta patología, por lo que se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta que tras un viaje al Estado de La Florida en los Estados Unidos, presentó cuadro clínico y serológico compatible con la forma leve de la enfermedad de Lyme. Se discuten los hallazgos y se alerta sobre la posibilidad de diagnosticar esta zoonosis, dado el auge del turismo ecológico en estos días.

  10. de La Ciénega, costa sur de Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. W. Gerritsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy día la producción agroindustrial de alimentos es una actividad que está causando gran impacto tanto en los recursos naturales como en las culturas y los tejidos sociales; mientras que el modo campesino, opuesto al agroindustrial, propone una agricultura justa con base en las prácticas y experiencias campesinas generando así alternativas sustentables de producción.En este artículo se analizan cuatro estudios de caso de agricultores en el ejido de La Ciénega en la costa sur de Jalisco, los cuales se ubican en estos dos sistemas de producción. Los resultados exponen las técnicas de producción y estrategias campesinas que se desarrollan, así como la relación de los sistemas de producción ante las políticas agropecuarias. Terminamos resaltando la importancia de las prácticas y experiencias endógenas para el fortalecimiento de un desarrollo rural sustentable

  11. Newton da Costa e a Filosofia da Quase-Verdade

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    Décio Krause

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to introduce the three issues of Principia which will appear in a sequel honoring Newton da Costa’s 80th birthday. Instead of presenting the papers one by one, as it is common in presentations such as this one, we have left the papers speak by themselves, and instead we have preferred to present to the Brazilian readers, specialty to our students, some aspects of Newton da Costa’s conception of science and of the scientific activity, grounded on the concept of quasi-truth, which he contributed to develop in a rigorous way. Da Costa is known as one of the founding fathers of paraconsistent logic, but his contributions go also to the foundations of physics, theoretical computation, model theory, algebraic logic, lattice theory, applications of non-classical logics to law and technology, etc. But perhaps his main contribution was to provide a basis for the birth of a school of logic in our country (Brazil, serving as teacher and inspiring new researchers for generations. It is a pleasure to have had so enthusiastic acceptation from the editors of Principia to organize these volumes. I would like to thank the contributors and the editors of Principia, specially Prof. Cezar Mortari for his help in organizing the issue.

  12. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Chinchilla [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  13. Las fiebres manchadas y su importancia en Costa Rica Spotted fever and their importance in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Hun-Opfer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Manchada de la Montañas Rocosas es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas y causada por una bacteria intracelular obligatoria, la Rickettsia rickettsii. Es una enfermedad sistémica, de moderada a severa, producida por la infección del endotelio vascular de pequeños vasos de la mayoría de órganos y tejidos. Es la más letal de las infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas y desde su descubrimiento, hace cerca de 100 años, todavía se presenta, aunque esporádicamente, de forma persistente, y a pesar de que se cuenta con antibióticos efectivos, la mortalidad sigue siendo de mas del 10% y los pacientes requieren terapia intensiva durante la infección si esta no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo. En tiempo recientemente se han descrito otras especies de garrapatas que pueden transmitir rickettsias a humanos así como nuevas especies de rickettsias que pueden producir cuadros de fiebres manchadas y aunque se ha dilucidado parte de sus mecanismos patogénicos, persisten muchas dudas respecto a su virulencia. Desde 1975 se han reportado brotes de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica y el agente etiológico causal, la Rickettsia rickettsii, fue aislada e identificada en la mayoría de los casos en el Laboratorio de Virología de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica.Rocky Mountain Spotted fever is a tick vector disease caused by an obligated intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii. It is a severe systemic illness caused by the infection of endothelial cells of small vessels of most organs and tissues of the human body. It is the most lethal tick-born disease and since its discovery more than 100 years ago it still appears sporadically, but persistently. Although there is treatment with effective antibiotics, mortality rates are near 10% and infected patients require intensive care when the illness is misdiagnosed and there is a delay in treatment. Other species of ticks and new species of rickettsia have been

  14. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme en Costa Rica Lyme disease in Costa Rica, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y hepatitis; y la forma crónica, caracterizada por artritis, periostitis, encefalomielitis crónica y polirradiculopatía, entre otras manifestaciones. En Costa Rica se desconocen notificaciones de pacientes con esta patología, por lo que se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta que tras un viaje al Estado de La Florida en los Estados Unidos, presentó cuadro clínico y serológico compatible con la forma leve de la enfermedad de Lyme. Se discuten los hallazgos y se alerta sobre la posibilidad de diagnosticar esta zoonosis, dado el auge del turismo ecológico en estos días.Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a zoonosis transmitted by the Ixodes ticks and caused by a spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. It has been reported mostly in North America, Europe and Asia and is clinically characterized by a presentation on 3 stages, starting with erythema migrans that begins around the tick bite. Disseminated infection with fever, migratory arthritis, lymphadenopathy, neurological alterations and hepatitis and the chronic phase characterized by arthritis, periostitis, chronic encephalomielitis, polyradiculopathy amongst other manifestations. In Costa Rica, we know of no reports of patients with this disease, so we herein present the case of an woman who, after a trip to the state of Florida, presented clinical and serological alterations compatible with the mild form of Lyme disease. The findings are discussed and also we alert to the possibility of diagnosing

  15. Estudio de la estacionalidad del dengue en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica (1999-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Wong- McClure

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus del dengue constituye la causa más común de enfermedades por arbovirus en el mundo. El estudio analiza el comportamiento estacional del dengue en la región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre 1999 y 2004. Materiales y métodos: La información fue tomada del Ministerio de Salud de Costa Rica y del Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. Para el análisis de la estacionalidad de dengue se utilizaron el número de casos de esta enfermedad para la estimación de promedios móviles y las características de los brotes epidémicos. Se definió como brote epidémico un total de 20 ó más casos de dengue por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Durante el período analizado se observó un incremento en el número de casos de dengue por año. Al observar la distribución de los casos incidentes del dengue cada año se resaltó un patrón anual estacional. Los brotes del dengue se presentaron al menos una vez al año, entre las semanas epidemiológicas 18-29 (abril-julio, que coincidían con la estación lluviosa. Discusión: Se evidencia que en la región Pacífico Central, el dengue es una enfermedad predecible en cuanto a su comportamiento estacional, por lo que se recomienda intensificar las medidas de prevención para combatirla, así como preparar los servicios para la atención de pacientes, en las semanas epidemiológica previas a las de mayor promedio en el número de casos, según el patrón estacional.

  16. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Morera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pueda satisfacer la demanda creciente de alimentos y otros productos agrícolas; evitando el acelerado proceso de degradación que sufren nuestros suelos y bosques. El proceso de agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica y otros países de la región, presenta un incremento en la demanda de tierras y recursos naturales; lo cual suscita competencias y agudos conflictos sociales, económicos y ecológicos. Costa Rica debe plantearse una estrategia de desarrollo sostenible que contemple los efectos asociados del crecimiento demográfico, la seguridad alimentaria, la protección de la biodiversidad, la regeneración de los ecosistemas, el desarrollo de tecnologías amigables con el ambiente, la regulación sobre el acceso a los recursos naturales y la formación de capital humano

  17. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  18. Constructions of Difference and Deficit, a Case Study: Nicaraguan Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling of the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican…

  19. Algunos aspectos relacionados con la imposición de costas en el proceso civil en el derecho comparado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valiño Arcos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Introducción: sus precedentes en derecho romano. Presupuestos para su imposición en el derecho italiano. Exámen de la condena en costas en el derecho alemán y austríaco. Referencia a la condena en costas en derecho español

  20. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles, Costa Rica.

  1. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. PMID:24252963

  2. Nuevas especies de Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de Costa Rica

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    Luis F. de Armas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen tres especies nuevas de esquizómidos de Costa Rica que pertenecen al género Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995: una de la Estación Biológica La Selva, provincia Heredia; las otras dos, de la Estación Biológica Las Cruces, Coto Brus, provincia Puntarenas. Con estos nuevos aportes, se elevan a 16 los miembros del género y a nueve las especies de esquizómidos formalmente descritas de este país centroamericano.Three new species of Costa Rican schizomids belonging to the genus Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, are described from Biological Station La Selva, Heredia province, and Biological Station Las Cruces, Coto Brus, Puntarenas province. Those additions raise to 16 the known nominal species of this genus and to nine the schizomid species recognized from Costa Rica.

  3. Invalidez por dor nas costas entre segurados da Previdência Social do Brasil

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    Ney Meziat Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as aposentadorias por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios e dos Anuários Estatísticos da Previdência Social em 2007. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez foi calculada segundo as variáveis idade e sexo, nos estados. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. RESULTADOS: A dor nas costas idiopática foi a primeira causa de invalidez entre as aposentadorias previdenciárias e acidentárias. A maioria dos beneficiários residia em área urbana e era comerciário. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez no Brasil foi de 29,96 por 100.000 contribuintes. Esse valor foi mais elevado entre os homens e entre as pessoas mais velhas. Rondônia exibiu taxa quatro vezes superior ao esperado (RT = 4,05 e a segunda maior taxa, referente à Bahia, foi de aproximadamente duas vezes o esperado (RT = 2,07. Os comerciários foram responsáveis por 96,9% dos dias perdidos por invalidez. CONCLUSÕES: A dor nas costas foi uma importante causa de invalidez em 2007, sobretudo entre comerciários, com grandes diferenças entre os estados.

  4. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Wang

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  5. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  6. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-01-01

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed. PMID:25136727

  7. Genetic diversity in cattle of eight regions in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Cordero-Solórzano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the extent of inter-regional genetic diversity present in the cattle of Costa Rica. 1498 DNA samples were collected (year 2013 from eight different regions within the country. Allelic frequencies and major population genetic parameters were determined for eighteen microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance was also carried out and genetic distances were calculated between cattle from different regions. At the national level, a high allelic diversity was found, with an average of 14.6±1.01 observed alleles and 5.6+0.37 effective alleles per marker. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosities were 0.76±0.01 and 0.81±01, respectively. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC and Coefficient of Inbreeding (FIS were 0.79±0.06 and 0.06±0.004, respectively. At the regional level, Ho ranged between 0.73±0.02 in the South Central region to 0.78±0.01 in the North Huetar region. The dendrogram showed three clearly distinct groups, Metropolitan Central and West Central regions in one group, Caribbean Huetar, South Central, Central Pacific and Chorotega regions in a second group; and North Huetar and Brunca regions in a third intermediate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation (RST were significant between regions from different groups and non-significant for regions within the same group. Genetic differences between regions are related to differential proliferation of breed groups based on their adaptability to the agro-ecological conditions and production systems prevailing in each region.

  8. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.

  9. SME´s semi-formality rate in Costa Rica: a clusters approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes Bonilla, Lizette; Bermúdez Mesén, Ligia; Bermúdez Vargas, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    [ENG] The MSME Observatory has been studying MSMEs in Costa Rica. Its findings show that for every formal enterprise, there are 2.4 semi-formal ones. The latter refers to those enterprises that have already started the formalization process with the corresponding municipality but that still do not have all the formalization requirements. Owing to the importance of the semi-formal sector in the economic activity of Costa Rica, this study analyzed this business park and the role of municipal ma...

  10. SME´s semi-formality rate in Costa Rica: a clusters approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla; Ligia Bermúdez Mesén; Katherine Bermúdez Vargas

    2016-01-01

    The MSME Observatory has been studying MSMEs in Costa Rica. Its findings show that for every formal enterprise, there are 2.4 semi-formal ones. The latter refers to those enterprises that have already started the formalization process with the corresponding municipality but that still do not have all the formalization requirements.Owing to the importance of the semi-formal sector in the economic activity of Costa Rica, this study analyzed this business park and the role of municipal managemen...

  11. Costa Rican soils contain highly insecticidal granulovirus strains against Phthorimaea operculella and Tecia solanivora

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Bonilla, Y.; Lopez-Ferber, M.; P. Caballero; Léry, Xavier; Munoz, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize novel Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) strains from Costa Rican soils. Three novel strains, named PhopGV-CR3, PhopGV-CR4 and PhopGV-CR5, were isolated from three locations in Costa Rica, Alvarado, Zarcero and Abangares, respectively, by means of soaking potato tubers with diluted soil samples. An additional strain, PhopGV-CR2, was identified from diseased larvae from a Tecia solanivora laboratory culture. Restriction fragment l...

  12. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  13. Cyberl@b: a platform for learning english in Costa Rican public high schools

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada Pacheco, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper covers the design and development of a noncommercial software for learning and practicing English called CyberL@b. It was developed at the School of Modern Languages at the University of Costa Rica. Its target population focuses on 7th, 8th and 9th graders at six public high schools in diverse urban and rural settings in Costa Rica.CyberL@b uses interactive media resources designed to engage student in learning English within authentic contexts.Cyberlab was designed to cr...

  14. Advice drainage plan Farm 70 : Salamá, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzema, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een second opinion van een drainage plan dat is opgesteld voor de teak plantage Farm 70, in Costa Rica. Het rapport beschrijft de mogelijkheden om het risico op hoge grondwaterstanden in deze teak (Tectona grandis) te verminderenThis report presents a “second” opinion of the drainage plan for the teak plantation Farm 70, in Costa Rica. The Dutch Foundation Terra Vitalis has requested this second opinion on the drainage plan prepared by the BARCA Company for Farm 70, Puntaren...

  15. DETERMINATION OF MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF COSTA RICAN FIRST DIVISION FOOTBALL PLAYERS DURING 2008 PRESEASON

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Salas-Cabrera; Braulio Sánchez-Ureña

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory profile (VO2max) of Costa Rican first division football players during preseason and compare VO2max by players’ positions. Methodology: A total of 9 Costa Rican first division football teams were evaluated in this study for a total sample of 219 professional players ages 20-36 with an average age of 24.64 ± 4.35 years, average body weight of 73.34 kg ± 7.34, and a fat percentage of 9.78 % ± 3.64. In order to evaluate the VO2max ...

  16. Contribución al estudio de las cubetas supralitorales (Tossa, Costa Brava)

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi CATALAN; Ballesteros, Enric

    1984-01-01

    CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ROCK POOLS AT TOSSA, COSTA BRAVA (SPAlN). Physic~l, chemic~l and biological conditions were studied during une rainy day (21-4-1981) in ten rock pools from Tossa (Costa Brava). The srrong changes of the water conductivity (80,000 to 2,500pS. cmi ) in a short time show the osmotic regulation capacity that the organisms living there must have. Composition and concentration of neuston, plankton and benthos are also given from other visits to the po...

  17. Los primeros pasos hacia las enseñanza especial en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Vargas, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio con base en fuentes documentales del Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica, que permitió conocer distintos factores que intervinieron en el surgimiento de la Enseñanza Especial en Costa Rica en el lapso 1880-1940, así como los diferentes actores que participaron en ese proceso. Además, a partir de expedientes disponibles de los estudiantes de la Escuela de Enseñanza Especial, se caracterizó a un segmento de esa población mediante algunas variables: ed...

  18. Los primeros pasos hacia la enseñanza especial en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de Campos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio con base en fuentes documentales del Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica, que permitió conocer distintos factores que intervinieron en el surgimiento de la Enseñanza Especial en Costa Rica en el lapso 1880-1940, así como los diferentes actores que participaron en ese proceso. Además, a partir de expedientes disponibles de los estudiantes de la Escuela de Enseñanza Especial, se caracterizó a un segmento de esa población mediante algunas variables: edad, fecha y mot...

  19. Remesas Sur-Sur: Importancia del Corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio, procura brindar un poco de luz en el campo del impacto de los flujos de remesas en América Latina, al estudiar la importancia relativa del corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua (sur-sur) mediante el análisis de los resultados de una encuesta estadísticamente representativa a una muestra de hogares nicaragüenses receptores de remesas desde Costa Rica, comisionada por los autores durante el primer semestre del año 2009, así como contrastar estos resultados con aquellos de la litera...

  20. Ethnic background and CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in Costa Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Jiménez-Arce, Gerardo; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Barrantes, Ramiro; Llerena, Adrián

    2014-12-01

    CYP2D6 differences have already been demonstrated within Latin American populations by the CEIBA.FP Consortium of the Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics (RIBEF, as per the acronym in Spanish). However, within the population of Costa Rica, no research has been conducted until now, even though this population has a trihybrid component ancestry that represents an interesting condition. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine the frequency of Ultra-rapid Metabolizers (UMs) and Poor Metabolizers (PMs) in a Costa Rican population, as well as to determine whether there are differences in the CYP2D6-predicted phenotype frequencies among three Costa Rican groups with different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, these frequencies of PMs and UMs obtained were compared with Ibero-American populations published data. Finally, we also aimed to describe allele frequencies among different Costa Rican ethnic groups. This research has been undertaken within the framework of the RIBEF CEIBA Consortium studies on Latin American populations. A total of 385 individuals were included in the study: 139 mestizos, 197 Amerindians, and 49 Afro-Caribbeans. CYP2D6 genotypes were determined by XL-PCR and Real-Time PCR. The CYP2D6 variant alleles *2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *10, "17, *29, *35 and *41 were also determined. For the entire Costa Rican population, the frequency of PMs and UMs was 6% and 6.5%, respectively. The percentage of UMs in the mestizo population was higher than in the Amerindian population. CYP2D6 UMs vary from 3.6% to 10.1% and PMs from 1.4% to 10.2% among three Costa Rican groups. The highest frequencies of UMs (10.1%) and PMs (10.2%) were found in the mestizo and Amerindian populations, respectively. In conclusion, the frequencies of UMs and PMs for CYP2D6 varied widely across the mestizo, Amerindian and Afro-Caribbean Costa Rican populations. Future research in this population should be oriented to identify new CYP2D6 variants through sequencing methods, as well as

  1. Auto-reporte de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Chinnock; Miriam León Solís

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición auto reportados en diferentes comunidades de Costa Rica entre 1994 y 2012. Métodos: se analiza datos recolectados entre 1994 y 2012 por estudiantes de la Escuela de Nutrición, Universidad de Costa Rica. Las familias encuestadas fueron seleccionadas por muestra probabilística de tipo aleatorio simple y por medio de entrevistas a las madres u otro adulto de la familia, se recolectó datos sobre 12 problemas de sal...

  2. Costa Rica During the Global Recession: Fiscal Stimulus with Tight Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Antonio Cordero

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that, in spite of a reasonably sized fiscal stimulus package, Costa Rica’s economy continues on a downward path, partly because fiscal policy is being offset by a tightening of monetary policy. The paper notes that the International Monetary Fund has insisted that Costa Rica’s monetary policy remain tight due to worries over inflation targets and a perceived risk of a balance of payments crisis. However, the author notes that the IMF could help prevent a balance of payments c...

  3. Costa Rica; 2007 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    The Costa Rican economy has grown at rapid rates in the last three years, underpinned by a robust world expansion, sound economic policies, and strong business and consumer confidence. Economic policies have been well oriented. The fiscal position has substantially improved. The exchange rate level and policies are consistent with the maintenance of external stability. IMF staff supports the neutral policy stance envisaged in the 2008 central government budget and plans for a substantive tax ...

  4. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  5. Prevalencia de lepra en Costa Rica, de 1998-2003 Prevalence of leprosy in Costa Rica between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azálea Espinoza Aguirre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de prevalencia de lepra durante el período 1998 al año 2003, con el objetivo de caracterizar la distribución de esta enfermedad en el país. Los casos fueron pacientes con un diagnostico de lepra o enfermedad de Hansen confirmado por un médico, que estuviera consultando en los establecimientos de salud de la Caja Costarricense Seguro Social (CCSS durante el período de estudio y pacientes que abandonaron el tratamiento sin curarse. Se excluyeron los casos curados, fallecidos y extranjeros no residentes en el país. Mediante búsqueda activa en la CCSS se identificaron los expedientes de los pacientes de 1998 al 2003 y los reportes de laboratorio de biopsia de piel y linfa cutánea confirmados por lepra. Del Ministerio de Salud (MS se obtuvieron los casos notificados y del Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos los datos de población. Se elaboró un formulario que incluyó variables clínicas, epidemiológicas, de laboratorio y socioeconómicas. El análisis se realizó según provincia, cantón, grupos de edad y sexo. Se calculó la tasa de prevalencia, de detección de casos y porcentajes. Se identificaron, 114 expedientes en los servicios de salud pero sólo 89 casos, que representaron una prevalencia de 0,3 casos por diez mil habitantes. La enfermedad afectó a los mayores de 15 años, y a los hombres un 65% (58. Puntarenas presentó la prevalencia por provincia más alta: 0,6x10.000 habitantes (23. Todos recibieron medicamentos para el tipo lepromatoso y en el Hospital San Juan de Dios se atendieron el 60% de ellos. El 28% reingresó a los servicios. Desde 1998, el MS no había realizado investigaciones epidemiológicas de los casos, ni seguimiento a sus contactos. El personal de los servicios de salud no cuenta con protocolos, ni normas de tratamiento clínico. Costa Rica eliminó la lepra como problema de salud pública (menos de 1 caso por diez mil habitantes desde 1995. Se recomendó iniciar

  6. Passagens para o Estado-nação: a tese de Costa Pinto Passages to the nation-state: the Costa Pinto's thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute uma pesquisa clássica da tradição sociológica brasileira: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, de Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. O objetivo principal é evidenciar e analisar sua significação teórica mais ampla para o entendimento da formação do Estado-nação no Brasil. Mostra como Lutas de famílias no Brasil contribui para desestabilizar a oposição dualista com que a relação entre público e privado vinha sendo interpretada no pensamento social brasileiro.The article discusses a classical research of Brazilian sociological tradition: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, by Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. The main objective is to demonstrate and analyze their theoretical meaning for understanding the formation of the Nation-state in Brazil. It shows how Costa Pinto's research contributes to destabilize the dualistic opposition between public and private on the Brazilian social thought.

  7. Ecoturismo y desarrollo rural en el Parque Nacional La Cangreja, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz González, E.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Breitling, J.; Camino, de R.

    2005-01-01

    El ecoturismo se viene perfilando como un elemento conciliador entre las estrategias de conservación de la naturaleza y el desarrollo rural comunitario. Costa Rica, por su parte, emerge en la esfera latinoamericana y mundial como un líder en esta faceta de la industria turística, particularmente deb

  8. Predicción de oleaje para puertos y costas en condiciones de Mestral

    OpenAIRE

    Pagola Arrue, Jokin

    2013-01-01

    Mejora de la prediccion de oleaje en la costa catalana en condiciones de Mestral. Propuesta de mejora de los metodos actuales, separando el espectro de energia en sea y swell y calculando la componente sea del oleaje mediante formulas. Utilizacion de este nuevo metotdo en el Puerto de Tarragona.

  9. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry of Costa Rica represents 7.5% of GNP, 21% of total exports earning and of that contribution the food and beverages subsector represents 28%. The purpose of this research was to indentify, potential elements and obstacles in young university culinary arts students in Costa Rica, largest culinary arts students. The study was conducted among culinary arts students at the Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, the interviews conducted were 237 the entire enrollment of the culinary arts school. The findings indicate that .Absence of tradition, culture among the young students and need of family and peers supports appear to be relevant and a source of need by the group. Lack of general business and entrepreneurship training is recognize by both groups a weakness and as a need. Coaching and support for women entrepreneurs is very relevant in both theadministrative and technical aspects of the young students of culinary arts The consideration of this information is important if we are to create with culinary arts training , the new breed of professional chefs entrepreneurs needs for the industry expansion in the years to come in Costa Rica and the region

  10. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  11. Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborío, Guiselle Guzman; Clara, Alexey; Garcia, Antonio; Quesada, Fabio; Palekar, Rakhee; Minaya, Percy; Cervantes, Marvin; Lopez, Mariel; Lara, Jenny; Jara, Jorge; Blanco, Natalia; Bresee, Joseph; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Data needed to guide influenza vaccine policies are lacking in tropical countries. We multiplied the number of severe acute respiratory infections by the proportion testing positive for influenza. There were ≈6,699 influenza hospitalizations and 803 deaths in Costa Rica during 2009-2012, supporting continuation of a national influenza vaccine program. PMID:24750897

  12. Influenza-associated Hospitalizations and Deaths, Costa Rica, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborío, Guiselle Guzman; Clara, Alexey; Garcia, Antonio; Quesada, Fabio; Palekar, Rakhee; Minaya, Percy; Cervantes, Marvin; Lopez, Mariel; Lara, Jenny; Jara, Jorge; Blanco, Natalia; Bresee, Joseph; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Data needed to guide influenza vaccine policies are lacking in tropical countries. We multiplied the number of severe acute respiratory infections by the proportion testing positive for influenza. There were ≈6,699 influenza hospitalizations and 803 deaths in Costa Rica during 2009–2012, supporting continuation of a national influenza vaccine program. PMID:24750897

  13. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary Autom

  14. Contribución al conocimiento de la fauna marina de la costa vasca II

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirrezabalaga, F.; Altuna, A.; A. BORJA; Feliu, J; Garcia Carrascosa, A. M.; Romero, A; San Vicente, C.; Torres-Gómez de Cadiz, J. A.; Uriz, María Jesús; Ibáñez, M.

    1984-01-01

    [EN]Contribution to the knowledge of the Renthic Marine Fauna in the Rasque Coast. II. The presence of 260 species of invertebrates in the Rasque Coast and data about them are apported.[ES]Se señala la presencia de 260 especies de invertebrados en la costa vasca indicando algunas características de las mismas.

  15. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  16. South-South Remittances: Importance of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    Report commissioned by MIF and produced by consultant Ricardo Monge-González: First Study on Remittance senders and recipients from Costa Rica to Nicaragua. It includes size of remittances and economic assesment on the impact on the Economy and poverty reduction of Nicaragua .

  17. A Qualitative and Quantitative Structural Landscape Analysis Case Study in Monteverde, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Wyser, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Forest fragmentation translates a geographical isolation process and has been shown to influence the abundance, the movements and persistence of many species. The structure of the highly fragmented forests of Monteverde, Costa Rica, may exercise a relevant influence on the species richness and individual abundance of many forest-dwelling understory bird species.

  18. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  19. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  20. El Turismo de vuelos de bajo coste en el aeropuerto Girona-Costa Brava

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Garcia, Esther; Prats Planagumà, Lluís; Barceló Rado, María Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The number of tourists arriving to Catalonia and Girona airport by low-cost airline has increased dramatically in recent years. Knowledge of the characteristics of low cost tourism is vital for better management of tourist destinations. In this paper we show which are the characteristics of tourists that come to Catalonia with low cost air carriers, through Girona-Costa Brava airpor

  1. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  2. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration. PMID:12298296

  3. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  4. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... the interim rule issued on July 29, 2009 (74 FR 37650) to a final rule without change. The interim... amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 74 FR 37650 on July 29, 2009, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY:...

  5. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of fres

  6. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Sychra, O.; Calderón, V. Á.; Rodríguez, B. C.; Prudencio, C.; Martins, T. F.; Labruna, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 478-482. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia * Ticks * Birds * Ixodes * Amblyomma * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  7. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departme

  8. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  9. Mantle source beneath Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica): a geochemical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Piazza, A.; Rizzo, A. L.; Barberi, F.; Carapezza, M. L.; Sortino, F.; De Astis, G.; Romano, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we analysed rocks and noble gas composition of fluid inclusions (FIs) hosted in olivine crystals contained in a suite of eruptive products of the last 10ka of activity of Turrialba volcano, Cordillera Central, Costa Rica. The suite of analyzed rocks display a calc-alkaline affinity, ranging in composition from basaltic-andesite to dacite. Trace element patterns indicate a typical behavior of subduction-related magmas and also the clear contribution of an OIB-like signature at source. A group of andesites displays also adakite-like geochemical features, as evidenced by their constant depletion in HFSE elements. Sr isotope (0.703593 - 0.703678) and Nd isotope ratios (0.512960 - 0.512968) suggest that Turrialba magmas belong to one of the less contaminated mantle source of Central America. The 3He/4He ratio of fluid inclusions from the most mafic eruptive products (basaltic-andesites) varies from 7.86 to 8.07 Ra, while that from andesite lavas varies from 7.03 to 7.18 Ra. In order to understand the mantle source feeding Turrialba volcano, we performed a geochemical investigation on fumarolic gases of summit craters. The He isotope composition of dry gases of Turrialba volcano is characterized by extremely high R/Ra values (7.08-7.96 Ra). The highest 3He/4He ratios were measured at both West and Central Craters (7.93-7.96 Ra and 7.78-7.88 Ra, respectively), and are the highest values of the entire Central America. Despite the observed variability, the 3He/4He ratio of fumarolic gases and FIs from Turrialba volcano is well in the range of arc related volcanism (~7-8 Ra; Hilton et al., 2002), and represents the signature of a mantle wedge in which the contamination by crustal fluids is small to negligible. In addition the occurrence of recent adakite-like magmatism suggests the presence of an abnormal heating of the subducting lithosphere under Turrialba volcano, allowing even old or cold oceanic crust to melt.

  10. procedentes de las costas de Galicia (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carbonell Martín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se han analizado las concentraciones de dos metales pesados (Hg y Pb en el tejido hepático de dos especies de aves marinas (cormorán moñudo, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, y alcatraz, Morus bassanus, empleando para ello animales aparecidos muertos o moribundos a lo largo de la costa de Galicia. Los ejemplares considerados fueron divididos en dos grupos en función de si habían sido afectados o no por la marea negra causada por el vertido del “Prestige” en noviembre de 2002, a fin de determinar si dicho vertido había afectado al contenido metálico de estas especies. Tras la digestión de las muestras por vía húmeda, el contenido de ambos metales fue determinado por medio de voltamperometría de redisolución anódica (Pb y de un analizador directo de mercurio (DMA (Hg. Considerando la diferencia interespecífica para el Hg total, las concentraciones en cormorán moñudo (media: 4,2-7,6 ppm fueron siempre mayores que en alcatraz (media: 1,6-1,8 ppm, con un valor máximo superior a 20 ppm (peso húmedo, correspondiente a un animal afectado por la marea negra. Con respecto al Pb, el resultado fue contrario, con niveles ligeramente superiores en los alcatraces con respecto a los cormoranes moñudos, pero en ningún caso superándose el nivel de 0,01 ppm (peso húmedo. Al considerar los dos grupos establecidos (afectados o no por el accidente del “Prestige”, se pudo evidenciar que el vertido de crudo no afectó de una manera estadísticamente significativa a los niveles de ambos contaminantes metálicos en el tejido hepático de los animales considerados.

  11. The Costa Maya:  Evolution of a Touristic Landscape La Costa Maya : évolution d'un paysage touristique La Costa Maya : evolución de un paisaje turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La Costa Maya est une région côtière du sud du Quintana Roo (Mexique, proche de l'îlet Ambergris au Bélize. Contrairement à la côte caribéenne du Mexique qui a souffert du développement du tourisme de masse à Cancun et le long de la Riviera Maya, la Costa Maya s'est orientée vers un développement durable avec notamment une faible densité de construction et le développement de l'écotourisme.Le développement s'est concentré autour de Puerto Costa Maya où un terminal de croisière a été construit en 2001. La station balnéaire (balneario de Majahual est devenue dépendante des 10-12 bateaux de touristes qui débarquaient chaque semaine. En dépit d'importants plans de développement, les plages reculées de la Costa Maya accueillaient tout au plus des écotouristes aisés et du tourisme lié à la plongée sous-marine.Le cyclone Dean, de catégorie 5, a dévasté le paysage en août 2007 et le rétablissement économique n'a pu être entamé que fin 2008, après la réouverture du terminal de croisière et la reconstruction de Majahual. Fin 2009, le trafic de croisière n'a pas retrouvé son niveau d'avant Dean et la récession mondiale couplée avec la grippe porcine et les violences liées à la drogue ont fait diminuer le tourisme en provenance des Etats-Unis. On ignore à quel niveau les nouvelles infrastructures tels l'aéroport international de Tulum qui propose un itinéraire de Chetumal à la plage et le nouveau complexe hôtelier à Xahuayxel, stimuleront la Costa Maya mexicaine créant peut-être une autoroute côtière reliée à San Pedro au Bélize.The Costa Maya is a vernacular coastal region of southeastern Quintana Roo (Mexico and adjacent Ambergris Cay, Belize.  As Mexico’s Caribbean coast suffered many growth pains associated with mass tourism development in Cancun and along the Riviera Maya, the Costa Maya by contrast was projected for more sustainable development including low-density housing and

  12. Determinantes de la utilización de servicios de salud en Costa Rica Determinants of health care utilization in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Morera Salas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una primera aproximación a los determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas en Costa Rica. Método: Los datos proceden de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud para Costa Rica 2006. En el análisis econométrico se utilizó un modelo binomial negativo estándar ligado al enfoque de producción de salud de Grossman y un modelo en dos partes congruente con el enfoque agente-principal. Resultados: Los factores determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas fueron el nivel educativo, el estado de salud percibida, el número de enfermedades crónicas declaradas y la región de residencia. Conclusiones: El hecho de que las variables de necesidad de salud expliquen de forma significativa la probabilidad de contacto con las consultas médicas y que, además, no se registren diferencias significativas de utilización entre quintiles de ingreso y situación de seguro, es un resultado esperable y deseable en un sistema público solidario y casi universal como el costarricense. No se obtienen resultados concluyentes de la influencia del médico en la frecuencia de utilización de las consultas que postula el modelo de agente-principal.Objective: To analyze the determinants of health care utilization (visits to the doctor in Costa Rica using an econometric approach. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Survey of Health for Costa Rica 2006. We modeled the Grossman approach to the demand for health services by using a standard negative binomial regression, and used a hurdle model for the principal-agent specification. Results: The factors determining healthcare utilization were level of education, self-assessed health, number of declared chronic diseases and geographic region of residence. Conclusion: The number of outpatient visits to the doctor depends on the proxies for medical need, but we found no multivariate association between the use of outpatient visits and income or insurance status. This result suggests that

  13. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Granados Zúñiga

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunolog��a, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 1994 la "Ley de Bienestar de los Animales", pero sin embargo esta Ley deja sin definir importantes aspectos técnicos y de control del uso de los animales de experimentación. Debería de existir un manual de referencia, aprobado por una Autoridad Nacional competente, sobre el manejo y uso de animales de laboratorio y, principalmente, cursos sobre ética y técnica del uso de este reactivo biológico dirigido a los investigadores. La legislación sobre el uso de animales de laboratorio en algunos países como los Estdos Unidos, Inglaterra, Canadá, Suecia, Colombia, Australia y Alemania son más estrictas. Sin embargo en Costa Rica desde 1992 se presentó un proyecto de Ley que pretendía regular los derechos de los animales proclamados en la Declaración Universal de los derechos del animal, pero en la actualidad se encuentra archivado. Sin embargo en 1993 fue publicado en la Gaceta No 242 del 20 de diciembre de 1993 el proyecto "Ley de Bienestar y Etiología de los Animales", que no tiene ningún antecedente directo en realción al uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica pero desarrolla el marco jurídico de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Animal, proclamada por las Ligas Nacionales afiliadas a la ONU y aun no suscrita por Costa Rica.Laboratory animals are used like analogs to the human diseases, just as much in gnotobiology, dental investigation, embriology and teratology, oncology, gerontology, cardiovascular

  14. Aproximación al conocimiento de las comunidades algales de la zona infralitoral superior en la costa catalana

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Enric; Pérez, Marta; Zabala, Mikel

    1984-01-01

    Se presentan una serie de inventarios de la zona infralitoral superior realizados a lo largo de toda la costa catalana precisando las localidades de recolección y sus características. Los inventarios se agrupan en una serie de tablas las cuales se comentan en función de su composición florística. Finalmente, se hace una división de la costa catalana atendiendo a las distintas comunidades encontradas y se valora su distribución en relación a las características de la costa...

  15. Aproximación al conocimiento de las comunidades algales de la zona infralitoral superior de la costa catalana

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros i Sagarra, Enric, 1958-; Pérez Vallmitjana, Marta; Zabala i Limousin, Mikel

    1984-01-01

    Se presentan una serie de inventarios de la zona infralitoral superior realizados a lo largo de toda la costa catalana precisando las localidades de recolección y sus características. Los inventarios se agrupan en una serie de tablas las cuales se comentan en función de su composición florística. Finalmente, se hace una división de la costa catalana atendiendo a las distintas comunidades encontradas y se valora su distribución en relación a las características de la costa y a los posibles foc...

  16. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Freer

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas y sus toxinas para tomar las medidas adecuadas de control y prevención. Métodos: Se realizaron muestreos de agua en varios sectores de la costa pacífica de nuestro país, con el objetivo de detectar las especies de microalgas potencialmente tóxicas y nocivas, y se interrogó a los pescadores locales. La identificación de las especies se realizó morfológicamente mediante microscopía de luz y electrónica de rastreo. Los hallazgos se compararon con la bibliografía y se propuso el potencial tóxico de estas microalgas, así como los métodos de análisis toxicológico, y la sintomatología de los afectados. Resultados: Observamos en Costa Rica un aumento en número de especies de microalgas productoras de FAN. Se reportaron las especies tóxicas productoras de FAN descritas por varios autores y las encontradas en este estudio. En algunas muestras de floraciones algales hemos encontrado bacterias grandes intracelulares, de forma bacilar, principalmente dentro del dinoflagelado Prorocentrum micans. Esta relación podría estar asociada a la toxigenicidad del alga. Hemos descrito la presencia de 26 dinoflagelados, 8 diatomeas y 1 cianobacteria tóxica en las FAN de las costas del Océano Pacífico costarricense. Conclusión: Se piensa que el aumento en la contaminación de las zonas costeras y el transporte de especies por medio de navíos pueden ser la causa de la aparición de estas microalgas. Estas son capaces de producir: intoxicaci

  17. The Tobosi Fault: Source of the 2011-2012 Tobosi Earthquake Swarm in Central Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M. C.; Linkimer, L.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Rojas, W.

    2014-12-01

    The Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) is a ~100 km broad zone of deformation that marks the boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the Panama Microplate. From December 2011 to February 2012 an earthquake swarm took place on a portion of the CCRDB, near the town of Tobosi, in the Cartago province. In this study, we use data recorded by the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) to relocate 22 of these earthquakes and calculate focal mechanisms. Additionally, we analyze the Tectonic Geomorphology of the region. Our results show a transtension structure near the town of Tobosi, which comprises at least three faults, named: the Tobosi, Tablon, and Alumbre faults. This structure is located only 5 km south of the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4). The earthquake locations analyzed are aligned with the Tobosi Fault. The events varied in moment magnitude between 2.4 and 3.9 Mw and depths of 1 and 8 km. The largest events were felt mainly in the town of Tobosi and as far as San Jose, the capital city of Costa Rica. We found that the Tobosi fault is an active left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component and is the source of the Tobosi earthquake swarm. The study of active faults in Central Costa Rica is significant as it may greatly improve seismic hazards assessment for this region where most of the population and the main economic activities are concentrated.

  18. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  19. INFLACIÓN E INCERTIDUMBRE INFLACIONARIA: EVIDENCIA PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Solera Ramírez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se estima una medida de la incertidumbre inflacionaria. Un modelo de inflación señala incertidumbre cuando los errores de pronóstico son heteroscedásticos. Por medio de la especificación de una ecuación GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity, para la varianza del término de error de un modelo de inflación, es posible estimar una proxy de incertidumbre inflacionaria. La estimación simultánea del modelo de inflación y de la ecuación GARCH, produce un nuevo modelo de inflación en el cual los errores de pronóstico son homocedásticos. Existe consenso en la literatura económica en que hay una correlación positiva entre incertidumbre inflacionaria y la magnitud de la tasa de inflación, lo cual, como lo señaló Friedman (1977, representa uno de los costos asociados con la persistencia inflacionaria. Esto es porque tal incertidumbre dificulta la toma de decisiones óptimas por parte de los agentes económicos.La evidencia empírica, para el periodo 1954:01-2002:08, apoya la hipótesis de que para el caso de Costa Rica mientras mayor es la inflación mayor es la incertidumbre respecto a esta variable. En los últimos siete años (1997-2002 la incertidumbre presenta la variación media más baja de todo el periodo. Además, se identifica un efecto asimétrico de la inflación sobre la incertidumbre inflacionaria, es decir, la incertidumbre inflacionaria tiende a incrementarse más para el siguiente periodo cuando la inflación pronosticada está por debajo de la inflación actual, que cuando la inflación pronosticada está por arriba de la tasa observada de inflación. Estos resultados tienen una clara implicación para la política monetaria. Para minimizar la dificultad que la inflación causa en la toma óptima de decisiones de los agentes económicos es necesario perseguir no solamente un nivel bajo de inflación sino que también sea estable.AbstractThis paper estimates a measure of

  20. Transition joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transition joint is disclosed for joining together tubular pieces formed respectively from a low alloy or carbon steel and a high temperature alloy composition having substantially different characteristics such as coefficient of thermal expansion, the transition joint including a plurality of tubular parts interconnected with each other by means of friction weld joints formed at an angle of 900 to the axis of the transition joint, the tubular parts at opposite ends of the transition joint being selected to facilitate in situ welding to the low alloy or carbon steel and high temperature alloy respectively. This friction welded transition joint can be used whenever different tubular pieces need to be joined together so that the joint can withstand high temperatures, for instance in heat exchangers and the such like. (Auth.)

  1. Especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae para Costa Rica y Panamá: lectotipificación de la sect. Densiflori Benth New species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae from Costa Rica and Panama: lectotypification of sect. Densiflori Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sousa S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus y L. monteviridis, dos endémicas de Costa Rica, una de Panamá y la otra habita en ambos países. De las especies nuevas, tres pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., a la cual se le lectotipifica aquí, y se elaboró una clave de esta sección para Costa Rica y Panamá.Four new species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus and L. monteviridis, are described and illustrated; two are endemic to Costa Rica, one to Panama and one is found in both countries. Of these new species, three belong to sect. Densiflori Benth., which is herein lectotypified; a key to the section for Costa Rica and Panama is provided.

  2. Costa Rica; Request for Stand-By Arrangement: Staff Report; Staff Supplement and Statement; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the request from Costa Rica for a Stand-By Arrangement (SBA). The program seeks to enable an orderly adjustment of the Costa Rican economy to an adverse external environment, while mitigating its adverse effects on growth and household incomes. To strengthen the external position, the authorities have tightened monetary conditions and increased exchange rate flexibility. Fiscal policy will be geared toward mitigating the impact of the adjustment on domestic activity and t...

  3. Determination of human cytomegalovirus genetic diversity in different patient populations in Costa Rica Determinación de la diversidad genética del citomegalovirus humano en diferentes poblaciones de pacientes en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ahumada-Ruiz; Lizeth Taylor-Castillo; Kirsten Visoná; Luftig, Ronald B.; Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2004-01-01

    Seroprevalence of HCMV in Costa Rica is greater than 95% in adults; primary infections occur early in life and is the most frequent congenital infection in newborns. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variability and genotypes of HCMV gB gene in Costa Rica. Samples were collected from alcoholics, pregnant women, blood donors, AIDS patients, hematology-oncology (HO) children and HCMV isolates from neonates with cytomegalic inclusion disease. A semi-nested PCR system was...

  4. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica Primeiro relato de acariasis por Caparinia tripilis em ouriços Africanos, (Atelerix albiventris), na Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Moreira; Adriana Troyo; Olger Calderón-Arguedas

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete ...

  5. Wetting transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a liquid droplet is put onto a surface, two situations distinguishable by the contact angle may result. If the contact angle is zero, the droplet spreads across the surface, a situation referred to as complete wetting. On the other hand, if the contact angle is between 0 deg. and 180 deg., the droplet does not spread, a situation called partial wetting. A wetting transition is a surface phase transition from partial wetting to complete wetting. We review the key experimental findings on this transition, together with simple theoretical models that account for the experiments. The wetting transition is generally first order (discontinuous), implying a discontinuity in the first derivative of the surface free energy. In this case, if one measures the thickness of the adsorbed film beside the droplet, at the wetting transition a discontinuous jump in film thickness occurs from a microscopically thin to a thick film. We show that this can lead to the observation of metastable surface states and an accompanying hysteresis. The observed hysteresis poses, in turn, a number of questions concerning the nucleation of wetting films that we also consider here. In addition, we consider the equilibrium wetting film thickness that results from a competition between the long-range van der Waals forces and gravity. Finally, the first-order character of the wetting transition can lead to a similar transition even when the phase that does the wetting is not (yet) stable in the bulk. For such prewetting transitions, a discontinuous thin-to-thick film transition occurs off bulk coexistence. We show that, for the large variety of systems for which prewetting transitions have been observed, the behaviour is surprisingly uniform, and can be mapped onto a simple generic phase diagram. The second part of the review deals with the exceptions to the first-order nature of the wetting transition. Two different types of continuous or critical wetting transition have been reported, for which

  6. Aspectos médico legales del suicidio en Costa Rica: Epidemiología del suicidio en Costa Rica, del 2000 al 2004 Medical legal aspects of suicide in Costa Rica: Epidemiology of suicide in Costa Rica. Epidemiology of suicide in Costa Rica, from 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Gerardo Castro Trejos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata del análisis de la estadística del Anuario Policial del 2004 (departamento de planificación, sección estadística, con respecto a los casos de suicidio ocurridos en Costa Rica durante los años 2000 al 2004. La prevalencia de casos muestra una media de 251,8 casos por año. El mayor porcentaje de casos que se produjo en la población, lo cometieron individuos de nacionalidad costarricense, con un 88% del total. Predominó el sexo masculino con 1242 casos (86.9%. El femenino con 186 casos (13%. El rango de edad en que se presentó el mayor número de casos se dio entre los 20-24 años con 208 casos (14.5%. La mayor incidencia de casos fue en el 2003 con un total de 329 casos (23%. La modalidad más frecuente de suicidio fue la suspensión con 516 casos (36.1%; seguido de envenenamiento con 483 casos (33.8%; la tercera en importancia fue muerte por proyectil por arma de fuego con 321 casos (22.4%.It is about a statistical analysis from the Policial Yearbook 2004, (Planification Department, statistics section, about the suicide cases that happened in Costa Rica during the years 2000 to 2004. The prevalence of cases shows an average of 251,8 cases per year. The highest percentage of cases that happened in the population was committed by Costa Rican, with an 88% of the total. Men had a higher prevalence, with 1.242 cases (86.9%, than women, with 186 cases (13%. The age with the highest percentage was between 20 and 24 years of age, with 208 cases (14,5%. The highest incidence was in 2003 with 329 cases (23%. The most frequent modality of death was hanging with 516 cases (36,1%, followed by poisoning with 483 cases (33,8%, the third in importance was death by firearm projectile with 321 cases 22,4%.

  7. Los servicios para adultos en las bibliotecas públicas de Costa Rica, Panamá y Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Freiband, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the role of the National Libraries, the schools of Library and Information Science and the professional associations in the development and improvement in the services of public libraries in Costa Rica, Panama and Nicaragua.

  8. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder

  9. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o

  10. LA DOLARIZACIÓN PARCIAL EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Méndez Quesada

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina la magnitud, la evolución y explora las causas de la creciente preferencia hacia activos financieros en moneda extranjera como depósito de valor (sustitución de activos y en algún grado como medio de pago (sustitución monetaria en una economía de inflación moderada, sin antecedentes cercanos de crisis ni experiencias de confiscación de depósitos como es Costa Rica.La magnitud de la sustitución por parte del dólar estadounidense de las funciones que desempeña tradicionalmente la moneda local se aproxima a través de varios indicadores basados en razones de depósitos en moneda extranjera con respecto a sus similares en moneda local con frecuencia mensual de 1990 al 2002. Además, se identifican los factores que explican la demanda relativa de los depósitos bancarios según su grado de liquidez y se buscan evidencias de irreversibilidad del proceso (histéresis mediante variables de tipo “ratchet”.Como factores explicativos del fenómeno, se plantean la probable influencia de elementos institucionales y de los estímulos económicos derivados de la globalización de la economía y de los diferenciales de rendimientos financieros. Pero se sostiene también que las políticas monetaria y cambiaria han tenido efectos en el nivel de dolarización alcanzado por la economía costarricense; por una parte, la política deencajes llevada a cabo desde 1996 favoreció la constitución de depósitos en moneda extranjera (y la intermediación de esos fondos ha debido generar la expansión secundaria de esos recursos y, por otra, el ajuste cambiario siempre alcista bajo el régimen de minidevaluaciones ha estimulado la sustitución de activos.Se concluye en general que la dolarización de depósitos bancarios ha alcanzado niveles muy elevados (50% del total y la significancia de la variable “ratchet” da indicios de que el proceso es de difícil reversión por lo que es de esperar que se mantenga en el futuro la

  11. The Formalisation Paradox and the Interrelation between Irregular Nicaraguan Migration and Informal Wage Employment in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    For decades Nicaraguans have migrated to Costa Rica seeking life improvement. A large part of this migration is constituted outside the law, which makes it irregular. Due to their legal status, irregular Nicaraguan migrants are more likely to work in Costa Rica’s informal economy, where lack of social protection and vulnerability of exploitation are common situations. In order to grant social protection and proper labour standards to these irregular migrant workers, formalising informal wage ...

  12. Representations of Race, Entanglements of Power: Whiteness, Garveyism, and Redemptive Geographies in Costa Rica, 1921-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Leeds, Asia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the making of race and the politics of belonging in Costa Rica between 1921 and 1950, during a period of shifting racial borders and entangled terrains of power. While the idea of "racial democracy" and official discourses of mestizaje (racial mixing) predominate in Latin America, Costa Rica has been long held as a unique country in Central America with an exceptional social geography characterized by "whiteness" and homogeneity. Employed in the United Fruit Compa...

  13. ¿Una vivienda social incluyente en Liberia? El caso de una ciudad intermedia en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de la Espriella, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an empirical study, which analyzes the characteristics of those social housing projects implemented in the medium-sized city of Liberia, in Costa Rica, and their relationship to the territorial distribution of inequality and urban poverty. The dynamic economic growth of the province of Guanacaste and in particular of its capital, the city of Liberia, is widely recognized in Costa Rica. Unfortunately, this growth is accompanied by a process of socio-economic polarization....

  14. A History of Non-Violence: Insecurity and the Normative Power of the Imagined in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Crime, violence, and insecurity are among the most important social topics in contemporary Costa Rica. These three issues play a central role in the media, politics, and everyday life, and the impression has emerged that security has changed for the worse and that society is now threatened permanently. However, crime statistics do not support this perception. The paper thus asks why violence and crime generate such huge fear in society. The thesis is that the Costa Rican nation...

  15. Oswaldo Costa, Antropofagia, y la crítica caníbal de la modernidad colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Oswaldo Costa was a key member of the Brazilian modernist Antropofagia (Anthropophagy) movement of the late 1920s, yet he has been largely forgotten by critics and marginalized from national cultural history. Costa articulated —as no other member of the movement did, including his famous leader Oswald de Andrade— an Antropofagia intellectually engaged in what we call a cannibal critique of colonial modernity and Occidentalism. Costa’s Antropofagia cannibalized the historical archive, reading ...

  16. Do integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) linked to ecotourism limit the prospects for human development in rural Costa Rica?

    OpenAIRE

    Norddal, Ann-Elin

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective in this Master Thesis is to assess the impact of ecotourism as Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs) implemented by international and national environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) on the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica. By examining these projects in relation to the overruling policy of the environmental NGOs and their funders, this study aims to find out if ecotourism ICDPs limit the prospects for human development in rural Costa Rica. This...

  17. El turismo en la Atlántida norte. Estudio del Partido de la Costa. (Provincia de Buenos Aires - Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    ANNESSI, GUSTAVO JAVIER

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Summary This doctoral thesis analyses the tourism system of La Costa District, which is located in the northeast of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina); in general terms, it studies the diffe-rent components and its multiple relations with the physical and natural environment as well as the living conditions of its population. In the last decades, one of the fastest demographic growth has taken place in La Costa District; this is also associated to its popularity as a holiday...

  18. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  19. Exploring the Notion That Subduction Erosion Has Removed or Submerged Costa Rica's Early Tertiary Arc Massifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2007-05-01

    Arc igneous rocks of Paleocene, Eocene, and Oligocene age are widely exposed in the southern, coastal region of Panama (Lissinna et al., EGU abstract, 2006). These rocks intrude or overlie mafic basement rock of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) of Late Cretaceous age that extends to the east to underlie the Caribbean Basin and form the Caribbean plate. Immediately west of Panama, in coastal Costa Rica, exposures of CLIP basement are not intruded or overlain by arc magmatic rocks of early Tertiary age. EXPLANATIONS: Potentially, the early Tertiary subduction zone that dipped beneath the Pacific margin of Panama did not extend to the west, thus no arc magmatism occurred where Costa Rica presently exists. Alternatively, the subduction zone bordering the Pacific edge of the CLIP extended below Costa Rica but former exposures of early Tertiary arc magmatic rocks piled there have been erosionally removed or buried beneath Miocene and younger arc massifs of interior mountain belts. EXPLORING A SUBDUCTION EROSION EXPLANATION Onshore and offshore evidence documents that subduction erosion thins and truncates the submerged rock framework of the Middle and South America forearc. The eroded (removed) material is transported toward and into the mantle within the subduction channel separating the upper plate of the forearc and lower plate of the subducting oceanic crust. The long-term (greater than 10 Myr) rate of truncation (i. e., migration of the trench toward a fixed, onshore reference) averages 2 to 3 km/Myr. Because of the subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge beneath Costa Rica, during at least the past 4 to 5 Myr the rate of truncation at this margin has been much higher. It is proposed that during the past 50 Myr subduction erosion has truncated the Costa Rica forearc by at least 100 km and either obliterated or deeply submerged arc massifs of early Tertiary age. Their exposed presence to the east in neighboring Panama reflects the circumstance that since

  20. La población con discapacidad en los censos del siglo XX en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn este trabajo se logró conocer los criterios de clasificación empleados para definir a la población con discapacidad en los registros censales del siglo XX en Costa Rica y, por consiguiente, una aproximación a las formulaciones conceptuales para referirse al grupo en estudio. Además, se caracterizó a ese segmento poblacional a partir de diferentes variables: sexo, edad, estado civil y distribución geográfica. También se abordaron otros aspectos como fueron: alfabetismo, nivel de educación, ocupación, jefatura de hogar y vivienda. Entre los hallazgos más destacables se encuentra la permanencia, en los registros censales del siglo XX, de un concepto de discapacidad basado en la deficiencia, lo que definió los criterios de clasificación para esa población en esas fuentes. Asimismo se constató, por una parte, la asociación entre discapacidad e inequidad en esa centuria y, por la otra, la fragilidad de los vínculos de parentesco en ese grupo poblacional con respecto al conjunto de hogares de Costa Rica a fines de ese siglo. Las fuentes empleadas en esta investigación fueron los censos de población de Costa Rica del siglo XX. En el procedimiento con los datos, se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo de distribución de frecuencias. ABSTRACTThis research discloses the classification criteria used to define the population with disability in the twentieth century census records in Costa Rica and therefore gives an approximation of the conceptual formulations needed to refer to the examined group. Additionally, a segment of the population has been characterized by sex, age, marital status and geographical distribution. Other aspects like literacy rate, education level, occupation, head of household and housing were also dealt with. The disability concept based on deficiency, which defined the classification criteria for the population in those data sources, is among the most significant findings of this research. Furthermore

  1. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Freer

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas y sus toxinas para tomar las medidas adecuadas de control y prevención. Métodos: Se realizaron muestreos de agua en varios sectores de la costa pacífica de nuestro país, con el objetivo de detectar las especies de microalgas potencialmente tóxicas y nocivas, y se interrogó a los pescadores locales. La identificación de las especies se realizó morfológicamente mediante microscopía de luz y electrónica de rastreo. Los hallazgos se compararon con la bibliografía y se propuso el potencial tóxico de estas microalgas, así como los métodos de análisis toxicológico, y la sintomatología de los afectados. Resultados: Observamos en Costa Rica un aumento en número de especies de microalgas productoras de FAN. Se reportaron las especies tóxicas productoras de FAN descritas por varios autores y las encontradas en este estudio. En algunas muestras de floraciones algales hemos encontrado bacterias grandes intracelulares, de forma bacilar, principalmente dentro del dinoflagelado Prorocentrum micans. Esta relación podría estar asociada a la toxigenicidad del alga. Hemos descrito la presencia de 26 dinoflagelados, 8 diatomeas y 1 cianobacteria tóxica en las FAN de las costas del Océano Pacífico costarricense. Conclusión: Se piensa que el aumento en la contaminación de las zonas costeras y el transporte de especies por medio de navíos pueden ser la causa de la aparición de estas microalgas. Estas son capaces de producir: intoxicaci

  2. Estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico, area metropolitana de Costa Rica Nutritional status of classical ballet dancers, metropolitan area of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Madrigal Rojas; Ana Rocío González Urrutia

    2008-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico de las tres academias más importantes de ballet localizadas en el Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Se trabajó con 24 bailarinas adultas (18 a 30 años) de niveles avanzados de ballet. Se registró el consumo de alimentos durante tres días. Se tomaron medidas de talla, peso y pliegues cutáneos. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre para análisis bioquímicos. Se evaluó además la densidad...

  3. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae) from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae) de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Sara I. Montemayor; Allan González-Herrera; Keylor Villalobos

    2011-01-01

    A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado). A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de ...

  4. Inversión extranjera directa, movilidad laboral y derrames de conocimiento en Costa Rica Foreign direct investment, labor mobility and knowledge spillovers in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge González; Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla; Juan Antonio Rodríguez Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo busca determinar la existencia e importancia de los derrames de conocimiento asociados con la movilidad laboral desde las multinacionales (MNCS) que operan bajo el régimen de zonas francas (ZF) en Costa Rica; es decir, el impacto de tales derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de las empresas locales que contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Se observó que, de un total de 41 149 empleados de MNCS que dejaron de laborar para estas empresas entre el 2001 y el 2007, un tercio se tras...

  5. SME´s semi-formality rate in Costa Rica: a clusters approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The MSME Observatory has been studying MSMEs in Costa Rica. Its findings show that for every formal enterprise, there are 2.4 semi-formal ones. The latter refers to those enterprises that have already started the formalization process with the corresponding municipality but that still do not have all the formalization requirements.Owing to the importance of the semi-formal sector in the economic activity of Costa Rica, this study analyzed this business park and the role of municipal management concerning MSMEs, calculated the correlation among semi-formality, competitiveness, and development, and finally, proposed a cluster design to deal with the state of affairs. It should be noted that this type of analysis has never been undertaken in the country.

  6. Arsenic determination in water supplies for human consumption of the province of Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific knowledge about hydroarsenicism must be disclosed in Latin America. The presence of arsenic has been detected in waters of Costa Rica that have been used for human consumption, in areas of risk; specifically in the province of Cartago, in the cantons of Oreamuno, Central, Paraiso and Alvarado. A quantification of reduced form trivalent arsenic was performed with the methodology of the 7062 Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, through volatile metal hydride generation by flame atomic absorption. The analyzed samples have determined that maintaining the maximum extent permitted by current legislation Costa Rican, 10μg/L. Research areas have corresponded to areas of high risk for its volcanic nature. The vast water supply of the cantons under study, with areas of relative protection circling recharge areas of springs, has caused the population to consume water source underground, but surface direct influence, less influence of volcanic rocks that are found at greater depths. (author)

  7. Electric load management in developing countries: Costa Rica leads the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy planners in developing countries have traditionally sought to meet their nations' growing electricity demands by adding more generation and transmission capacity. But as the foreign investment situation became critical in the 1980s, private investment and system efficiency improvement programmes began to garner interest. One of the most promising system efficiency improvement options is load management, which uses a variety of techniques to utilize the electricity system's existing capacity more efficiently. However, to date, only three countries have seriously considered implementing large load management programmes: Pakistan, Peru and Costa Rica. This paper describes a 1987-89 load control demonstration programme in Costa Rica, sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID), in which participating industries were able to reduce their peak demand by 14%. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  8. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homedes N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.

  9. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  10. [Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

    2011-03-01

    Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889). PMID:21516641

  11. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  12. [Sighting of Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin, in Culebra Bay, Costa Rica, 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sáenz, Karina; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Parallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000) observations were made (from an inflatable boat), on the presence of dolphins along a transect (-8 km long) on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km2), Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids), as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:17465137

  13. AN EXCEPTIONAL PUBLIC COMPANY WITHIN A SOCIAL DEMOCRACY IN CRISIS: THE COSTA RICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the economic policy of energy in Costa Rica and of the exceptional role which the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE – the company responsible for the provision of energy and telecommunications – has historically held in shaping the national identity. The basic assumption is that the institutional profile of the ICE, as well as its evolution and impact on development have been shaped by very specific political, social and economic conditions which are difficult to replicate in other developing countries in the South. It is specifically argued that, since its foundation in 1949, ICE has become one of the cornerstones of a peculiar kind of welfare state and of a solidarity model for development which is listed among the most advanced in the world in terms of social progress.

  14. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Content-based instruction in an English oral communication course at the University of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Herrero, Annabelle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo que se ofrece consiste en una comparación etnográfica sobre propuestas educativas no formales, entre el Museo de los Niños de Costa Rica y seis museos o centros de ciencia españoles ubicados en lo que se conoce como la nueva museología. Se detallan los aspectos de la nueva museología española que pueden enriquecer la práctica del museo costarricense. The following article consists in an ethnographic comparison about non-formal educational proposals. This comparison is carried out between Museo de los Niños and other six museums or Science Centers located in Spain which are known as New Museology. Certain aspects in which the New Spanish Museology enriches the practice in Costa Rican museum are detailed.

  16. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presentan las acciones realizadas dentro del Proyecto Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Aseguramiento de la calidad: políticas públicas y gestión universitaria financiado con fondos de la Unión Europea y coordinado, de manera general, por el Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, CINDA. Participan 16 universidades latinoamericanas y 7 universidades europeas, y el objetivo general del proyecto es mejorar la gestión de la calidad de la Educación Superior, tanto a nivel de los sistemas nacionales como de las instituciones de Educación Superior, y contribuir con la generación de conocimiento y confianzas mutuas acerca de la calidad de la Educación Superior entre los países latinoamericanos y europeos. Como parte de las actividades desarrolladas se llevaron a cabo estudios en 7 países (5 de Latinoamérica y 2 de Europa para evaluar el impacto de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad implementados en las universidades. En Costa Rica, el proyecto ha sido coordinado y ejecutado por la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 2009 hasta la fecha. El estudio se realizó en dos universidades estatales y dos privadas, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizaron 26 entrevistas presenciales y 8 sesiones de grupo a las diferentes poblaciones definidas en el estudio, además, se realizaron un total de 652 encuestas a estudiantes activos y a personas egresadas. Los principales resultados obtenidos en Costa Rica se resumen en este artículo, de acuerdo con los niveles y dimensiones de calidad que fueron definidos en el marco referencial del proyecto.Abstract: The article presents actions carried out in Costa Rica, in the frame of the project Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Quality assurance: public policies and management in universities. This project is funded by the European Commission and its general coordination is in charge of the Inter-university Center for Development (CINDA, in

  17. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  18. La pedagogía intercultural en los territorios indígenas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Morales Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 3 de mayo de 2007 • Aprobado 30 de mayo de 2007   Resumen. Se plantea en este artículo la necesidad de construir en forma conjunta estrategias de pedagogías interculturales, con el fin de revitalizar las lenguas y culturas indígenas de Costa Rica. Este proyecto se lleva a cabo por parte de la División de Educación Rural del Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE con docentes itinerantes de lengua y cultura en la comunidad de Suretka, Talamanca.     Abstract. The article comments about the necessity of building intercultural pedagologic strategies jointly, in order to revitalize mother tongues and cultures of Costa Rican indigenous. This proposal is part of the project carry out by the Education Rural Department, which works with culture and mother tongue teachers in the community of Suretka, Talamanca.

  19. Teachers of Language and Culture: A Thoughtful Look and Review of the Costa Rican Indigenous Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Guevara-Víquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay is part of the products from the Reconstruction of Knowledge project –attached to the Division of Rural Education of the National University of Costa Rica. This work seeks to create a thoughtful look regarding the existing indigenous education model in Costa Rica in general– and particularly in Talamanca. A methodology based on collaborative action research with indigenous teachers in the region of Talamanca Bribri and Talamanca Cabécar was used as a starting point. This methodology combined focus group discussions and individual interviews with a qualitative approach that allowed generating a series of critical impressions about the education system where they work. All this will lead to a summary of insights and specific recommendations that would strengthen the educational system for the indigenous population of Talamanca and would allow moving towards a true model of Intercultural Bilingual Education.

  20. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  1. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini: A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    John Brown; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs

    2013-01-01

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Área de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Clemens, 1860, Amorbimorpha Kruse, 2011, Coelostathma Clemens, 1860, Lambertiodes Diakonoff, 1959, Paramorbia Powell & Lambert, 1986, Rhynchophyllus Meyrick, 1932, Sparganopseustis P...

  2. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marsh; Alexander Wild; James Whitfield

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  3. Dinamica dell’intrusione salina nella costa ravennate: aspetti idrogeochimici ed evoluzione attesa

    OpenAIRE

    Resmi, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Nell’ambito del progetto multidisciplinare “Coastal Salt Water Intrusion”, che si propone di indagare “l’Intrusione salina nella costa ravennate con i conseguenti impatti territoriali-ambientali, connessi al previsto innalzamento del livello marino per cause climatiche e di subsidenza”, si inserisce il presente studio con l’obiettivo di fornire una caratterizzazione idrogeochimica delle acque di falda e superficiali e un modello geochimico generale sui processi di salinizzazione o desalinizza...

  4. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ, KADIR; CALZADA, JOSÉ E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H.; GOTTDENKER, NICOLE L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica a...

  5. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

  6. Understanding key drivers controlling daily stable isotope variations in precipitation of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Welsh, Kristin; Birkel, Christian; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Corrales-Salazar, Jose; Boll, Jan; Brooks, Erin; Roupsard, Olivier; Katchan, Irina; Arce-Mesén, Rafael; Soulsby, Chris; Araguás-Araguás, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives direct moisture inputs from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The relatively narrow, but high relief Central American land bridge is characterized by unique mountainous and lowland microclimates. However, only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition in this tropical region. Therefore, the main scope of this study is to identify the key drivers controlling variations in meteoric waters of Costa Rica using stable isotopes based on daily sample collection for the year 2013. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ d18O up to -0.9‰ d18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ d18O). HYSPLIT back air mass trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of two main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the Colombian Low Level Jet as well as localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that Lifted Condensation Level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to enhance catchment and groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management.

  7. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, D.; J.J. Romero-Zuñiga; Dolz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora...

  8. Consequences of Environmental Service Payments for Forest Retention and Recruitment in a Costa Rican Biological Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Hollenhorst, Steven J.; Kathleen L. Kavanagh; Celia A. Harvey; Bryan Finegan; Sesnie, Steven E.; Schedlbauer, Jessica L.; Morse, Wayde C; Dietmar Stoian; J. D. Wulfhorst

    2009-01-01

    Compensation to landowners for forest-derived environmental services has gained international recognition as a mechanism to combat forest loss and fragmentation. This approach is widely promoted, although there is little evidence demonstrating that environmental service payments encourage forest stewardship and conservation. Costa Rica provides a unique case study in which a 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited forest conversion to other land uses. We exam...

  9. Anonymity, Reciprocity, and Conformity: Evidence from Voluntary Contributions to a National Park in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alpizar, Francisco; Carlson, Fredrik; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of anonymity, reciprocity, and conformity for voluntary contributions, based on a natural field experiment conducted at a national park in Costa Rica. Contributions made in public in front of the solicitor were 25 percent higher than contributions made in private. Giving subjects a small gift before requesting a contribution increased the likelihood of a positive contribution. At the same time, however, the conditional contribution decreased. The total effect of givin...

  10. PCB concentrations in intertidal sipunculan (Phylum Sipuncula) marine worms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimens of the sipunculans Phascolosoma perlucens, Antillesoma antillarum, and Sipunculus nudus, were collected for PCB analysis in three coastal embayments of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in October 2005. After collection the worms were kept in cool sea water and transferred to the laboratory for freeze drying. Half of the specimens of S. nudus were purified in filtered sea water for 72 h before freeze drying. The whole worm sample was ground, using a mortar and pestle prior to being extracted with dichloromethane solvent. The extract was cleaned using a florisil column and analyzed using a 6890 Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Recovery efficiencies averaged between 72 and 80 %. Data are not corrected for blank or recovery efficiencies. Concentration data were calculated based on comparison with standards for Arochlor 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254 (Supelco, Inc.). No worm samples were identified with six of more chlorine atoms. However, the higher chlorinated congeners were identified in the standards. Therefore, the lack of chlorination in the worms was not an analytical artifact. The sum of identifiable PCBs ranged from a barely discernible 0.01 ng/g dry wt in an A. antillarum sample from Bahia de Culebra to 67.71 ng/g dry wt in a P. perlucens sample obtained near the Rio Rincon in the inner Golfo Dulce. S. nudus worm samples from the Cocorocas sand flat in the Golfo de Nicoya had relatively high concentrations of PCBs whether they were purified or not. The samples from Costa Rica are low in PCBs, especially compared to the marine sediment samples measured previously in Costa Rica. This was the first attempt to identify and quantify the presence of PCBs in any marine organisms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. (author)

  11. HYPERTENSION IN PERSONNEL FROM UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA IN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Arce Espinoza; Julián Monge-Nájera

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Arterial Hypertension (AHT) has increased worldwide and preventive measures are insufficient since only one third of the population is being treated. AHT is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In this article is presented the first study on hypertension levels of personnel of a Distance Education university based on the analysis of all medical consultations in the Costa Rican State University for Distance Education (Universidad Estatal a Distancia-UN...

  12. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: Increasing efficiency through spatial differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wünscher, T.; Engel, S.; Wunder, Sven

    2006-01-01

    Payments for Environmental Services (PES) have become a widely acknowledged and increasingly popular market based instrument to conserve forests and their environmental services. Costa Rica was the first developing country to have implemented a nationwide PES program. Besides legal and formal requirements which have to be met by any program applicant, the forest sites are selected from a pool of applications on the basis of predefined program areas. Sites inside these program areas qualify fo...

  13. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gómez-Delgado; Roupsard, O.; Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; A Pérez; M. Van Oijen; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J.M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning ...

  14. Water chemistry and soil radon survey at the Poas volcano (Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, J.L.; M. Monnin; Fernandez, E.; J. Barquero; N. Segovia

    2005-01-01

    Radon-in-soil monitoring at the Poas volcano (Costa Rica) has been performed together with water chemistry from the hot crater lake since 1981 and 1983 respectively. The results are discussed as a function of the eruptive evolution of the volcano over a 13 years period (1981-1994). It is shown that no definitely clear precursory radon signals have been recorded. On the contrary, ionic species concentrations are likely to be considered good precursors, together with the tem...

  15. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  16. A preliminary market research about tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Costa Rica (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon van Anrooy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to July 1995, a market trial was conducted in Costa Rica with the fresh water fish species. Colossoma macropomum, commonly named “tambaqui”. About 1200 fish with an average weight of 800g were obtained from the fish culture station of the Universidad Nacional near La Rita, Guápiles. About 20 fish were delivered each Monday initially to three and later to each of four fishdealers in Limón, Guápiles, San José and Heredia. The shopkeepers purchased the fish at a price of $1.40/kg, covering all production and transport costs, and sold it for $1.97/kg. The motivations of the consumers for purchasing the fish were: curiosity, low price, good taste and recommendations by the shopkeepers. Most of the participants appreciated the taste, meat texture, freshness, colour and appearance very much. Some repondents criticized the amount of intramuscular spines in the fish. Eighty nine percent of the consumers intended to purchase more of the fish and 38% preferred this fish species above all other species. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of gender, householdsize or income level on the responses of the costumers. Chinese costumers were the only group discernible in the survey. Almost all participants thought tambaqui could get a good market position in Costa Rica. This trial shows that the price can be increased a little without losing much customers, but promotion would be necessary to get the product more known among the Costa Rican Population. The production of tambaqui could meet part of the demand for low priced fish in Costa Rica.

  17. Management curriculum: the experience of the Degree of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Guzman Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the results of the third objective of the research entitled Analysis Curriculum of the Bachelor ofNursing at the University of Costa Rica. This objective is in the structure of the curriculum management plan inquestion. Participated in this process all teachers in the School of Nursing, teaching service, fifth year of a degree,graduates and employers in 2011-2012. We developed a mixed approach, with a parallel design. For data collection techniques were used oral and document...

  18. Serological Detection of Viral Infections in Captive Wild Cats from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Kinndle Blanco; Roberto Peña; Carmen Hernández; Mauricio Jiménez; Luis Nazario Araya; Juan José Romero; Gaby Dolz

    2011-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), four jaguaroundis (Herpailurus yaguaroundi), one oncilla (Leopardus tigrina), and one jaguar (Panthera onca) were obtained between January 2001 and August 2002 from the Profelis Centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of Costa Rica. Forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and p27 antigen of feline leu...

  19. Malformaciones en ejemplares de sapo corredor (Epidalea calamita de la costa vasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garin, I., San Sebastián, O., Bandrés, A., Rubio, X.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la costa se encuentran las poblaciones de sapo corredor (Epidalea calamita más amenazadas de la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco. En el seguimiento realizado en 2006 se ha localizado dos individuos con malformaciones, uno de los cuales presentaba signos típicos de focomelia y el otro de ectromelia de tibia-peroné.

  20. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gómez-Delgado; Roupsard, O.; Moussa, R.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; J. M. Bonnefond; Pérez, A.; Oijen, M. van; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Voltz, M.; Imbach, P.; Harmand, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment of Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffe...

  1. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gómez-Delgado; Roupsard, O.; Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; Oijen, M. van; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J.M.; Voltz, M.; J. M. Bonnefond; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coff...

  2. Sustainable Service-Learning Projects in the Tropics: A Costa Rica Maymester

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    International service-learning projects extend textbook knowledge into practical, real-world applications while giving students an opportunity to engage in a different culture. In May 2012, a group of Purdue students from various majors in the College of Agriculture, led by a student leader and faculty member, traveled to Costa Rica to complete several service-learning projects. These projects included: (1) the construction and installation of water filtration systems, (2) creating an animal ...

  3. Effect of sewage discharge in Spisula subtruncata (da Costa 1778) populations

    OpenAIRE

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Yoana; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    Sewage discharge is a common source of pollution in coastal marine. Spisula subtruncata (da Costa, 1778) is a common filter feeding bivalve in the Castellon coast (north-western Mediterranean Sea). In the Spisula community of this area several municipal treatment plants dump treated water. We sampled in five locations affected by sewage dicharge. Van Veen grab samples were obtained for the study of the bivalve population and to characterize the sediment. The sewage dicharges studied affec...

  4. Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Variants, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Myocardial Infarction in the Costa Rica Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aslibekyan, S.; Jensen, M K; Campos, H.; Linkletter, C. D.; Loucks, E. B.; Ordovas, J. M.; Deka, R.; Rimm, E. B.; Baylin, A

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, rs174589, rs174627), intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in a matched population based case–control study of Costa Rican adults (n = 1756). Generalized...

  5. Biodiversity on the Rocks: Macrofauna Inhabiting Authigenic Carbonate at Costa Rica Methane Seeps

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Lisa A.; Mendoza, Guillermo F.; Grupe, Benjamin M.; Gonzalez, Jennifer P.; Jellison, Brittany; Rouse, Greg; Thurber, Andrew R.; Waren, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Carbonate communities: The activity of anaerobic methane oxidizing microbes facilitates precipitation of vast quantities of authigenic carbonate at methane seeps. Here we demonstrate the significant role of carbonate rocks in promoting diversity by providing unique habitat and food resources for macrofaunal assemblages at seeps on the Costa Rica margin (400–1850 m). The attendant fauna is surprisingly similar to that in rocky intertidal shores, with numerous grazing gastropods (limpets and sn...

  6. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:17182086

  7. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  8. Payments for environmental services: lessons from the Costa Rican PES programme

    OpenAIRE

    Ina, Porras

    2013-01-01

    The Payments for Environmental Services (PES) Programme is one of several instruments addressing conservation issues in Costa Rica. It pays private landowners directly for the positive effect their sustainable land management has on the environment. The Programme is part of a mix of instruments, which includes stricter laws on deforestation, zoning and conservation in protected areas. The product of learning by doing, PES has provided a fertile ground for policy and technological experiments,...

  9. Geochemistry of the mantle source and magma feeding system beneath Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Di Piazza, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Rizzo, A. l.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia; Barberi, F.; Università Roma Tre; Carapezza, M. L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; De Astis, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Romano, C.; Università Roma Tre; Sortino, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Palermo, Palermo, Italia

    2015-01-01

    Turrialba volcano lies in the southern sector of the Central American Volcanic Front (CAVF) in Costa Rica. The geochemistry of major and trace elements, and Sr and Nd isotopes of a selected suite of volcanic rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to dacite and belonging to the last 10 ka of activity of Turrialba volcano is described, together with the He-, Ne-, and Ar-isotope compositions of fluid inclusions hosted in olivine and pyroxene crystals. Most of the variabi...

  10. El multilingüismo y la identidad de los afro-limonenses de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Herzfeld

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century, a mostly Afro-Jamaican linguistic minority settled down on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, a Spanish-speaking country. They went there to work for Minor C. Keith, an enterprising U.S. engineer who had been commissioned by the Costa Rica government to build a railroad that would join an eastern port to the Central Valley capital, San Jose. Later, to help finance that enterprise, he founded the United Fruit Company and the Jamaican workers remained in the Province of Limon to plant bananas. Their English-based Limonese Creole language has remained extant in spite of many government attempts to eradicate it, most likely because it acts, among other elements, as an identity marker for its people. But, will it survive globalization? And if so, for how long?.//En el siglo XIX un grupo compuesto en su mayoría por afro-jamaiquinos se estableció en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica, un país de habla hispana. Dicha comunidad debía trabajar para Minor C. Keith un ingeniero estadounidense que había sido comisionado por el gobierno costarricense para construir un ferrocarril que uniese un puerto del este con la capital del Valle Central, San José. Para financiar su empresa Keith fundó la United Fruit Company y los trabajadores jamaiquinos permanecieron en la provincia de Limón para plantar bananos. El lenguaje creole de los empleados, basado en el inglés, sobrevivió, a pesar de los esfuerzos del gobierno por erradicarlo, principalmente porque actúa, entre otros elementos, como una marca de identidad para quienes lo hablan. Pero ¿sobrevivirá a la globalización? Y si es así, ¿por cuánto tiempo?

  11. Los manglares de Costa Rica: el Pacífico norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Zamora-Trejos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica tiene bosques de manglar en las costas Caribe y Pacífica. El 99% de los manglares del país se encuentran en la costa Pacífica. En este trabajo recopilamos la información disponible sobre los manglares del Pacífico norte de Costa Rica, desde la frontera con Nicaragua hasta la Reserva Absoluta de Cabo Blanco, en la punta sur de la Península de Nicoya. La ubicación de los manglares y cualquier información disponible para cada manglar es resumida. El clima de esta región es seco con estaciones de lluvia y sequía muy bien definidas. Los manglares del norte son relativamente pequeños en extensión y tamaño de árboles, y de baja diversidad comparados con los del Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Las principales especies de mangle son: Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora racemosa a lo largo de los bordes de los canales, seguido por Avicennia germinans, y más tierra adentro Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa y Conocarpus erectus. En el manglar de Potrero Grande se informa de una población saludable de la especie de Pelliciera rhizophorae, especies muy poco abundante. Reconocemos 38 comunidades de manglares en el Pacífico norte de Costa Rica basado en el Inventario Nacional de Humedales, artículos publicados, observaciones de campo, tesis, informes técnicos y los mapas 1: 50 000 del Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Se pudo encontrar información relativamente detallada pero fragmentada de únicamente cinco manglares (los descritos en esta publicación, de 14 solamente hay listas preliminares e incompletas de plantas y en algunos casos de animales, de nueve manglares más hay información todavía más limitada, y de otros nueve se conoce solamente su ubicación, que en algunos casos se comprobó que era incorrecta. Trabajos de mapeo detallado, caracterización de la vegetación y la fauna, estudios fisiológicos, análisis de procesos biogeoquímicos, evaluaciones económicas, y determinación del estado de salud de los manglares

  12. Origin of the springs of Costa Verde beach in Lima Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...

  13. Project of Carbon Capture in Small and Medium Farms in the Brunca Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol, allows the non Annex 1 countries to receive projects that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development in developing countries. The CDM, since its inception, has issued credits equivalent to 1.434.737.562 tons of CO2, distributed across 7.450 projects around the world, from 15 different sectors. Sectors 14 that allow forestry projects (such as reforestation and afforestation have registered 53 projects to date; 19 of which are in Latin America. Nevertheless, the contribution of this sector currently represents less than 1% of CDM Certificates of Emissions Reduction (CERs issued. In September 2013, through their National Forestry Financing Fund (FONAFIFO, Costa Rica registered their first CDM project with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, after having complied with all the project cycle processes. The project, known as "Carbon Sequestration in Small and Medium Farms, Brunca Region, Costa Rica" was a project executed by FONAFIFO under their Environmental Services Payment Program. This project was developed in Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica in partnership with the Cooperative Corporation CoopeAgri RL. The total goal of the project is to reduce the greenhouse gas emission by 176,050 ton of CO2-e, in a period of 20 years and commercialize the CERs in the regulated carbon market.

  14. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing. PMID:18507290

  15. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christopher; Nemeth, Nicole; Marineros, Leonel

    2006-09-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. PMID:18491633

  16. Costa Rica después del TLC: ¿LA CALMA QUE SIGUE A LA TEMPESTAD? Costa Rica after CAFTA: The Calm that Follows the Storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDOVICO FEOLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La resolución del conflicto político alrededor de la ratificación del Tratado de Libre Comercio con los Estados Unidos, Centroamérica, y la República Dominicana (DR-CAFTA representó una importante oportunidad política para Costa Rica en el 2008. No obstante, el gobierno no logró aprovechar la coyuntura para avanzar en problemas de fondo más allá de la Agenda de Implementation del Tratado. Su incapacidad de establecer un espacio de encuentro con la oposición, aunada a la debilidad de su mandato y a los obstáculos estructurales del sistema político, coartaron la posibilidad de construir consensos. En suma, la ausencia de una conducción estratégica hizo del año una oportunidad perdida para alcanzar logros políticos sustantivos.The end of the political conflict surrounding the ratification of the Dominican Republic and Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA presented significant political opportunities for Costa Rica in 2008. But the government was unable to seize the initiative and establish a constructive political dialogue. Coupled with the structural limitations of the political system and its weak political mandate, this hindered its ability to advance in hey areas beyond CAFTA. In all, the absence of a strategic vision made theyear a lost opportunity for substantive political progress.

  17. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Montemayor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado. A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. de Costa Rica, cuya planta huésped es Persea americana P. Mill., siendo ésta la segunda especie del género conocida del país y la tercera cuya planta huésped es P. americana (aguacate. Se describen tanto el adulto como el estadio ninfal V; se agrega una clave modificada de Froeschner para las especies, y se ilustran ejemplares en el campo, el quinto estadio ninfal, adulto y los principales caracteres.

  18. Postlarval settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae, at the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica Asentamiento postlarval en la langosta espinosa, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobster fishery (Panulirus argus forms an important part of the fishing activities along the Caribbean coast of Central America. The present study provides information regarding the seasonal abundance and distribution of postlarval P. argus in Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. During the study period (March 2004-February 2005, a total of 1907 pueruli were obtained from GuSi collectors. Postlarvae were present during all months, with a pronounced peak in January-February 2005 (CPUE of 21.82 and 22.18, pueruli/collector/month, respectively, and minor peaks in May and October 2004. The abundance of postlarval P. argus in the study area was comparable to locations which support important lobster fisheries, e.g. Mexico. A majority of the postlarvae (1027 ind. was collected during the first quarter moon, the remaining pueruli (880 ind. during new moon; these results are in general agreement with similar findings for P. argus in the Caribbean area. Based upon our results, we recommend introducing a local or regional monitoring program, studying spiny lobster migration and distribution patterns, and evaluate the introduction of artificial shelters for P. argus.Las capturas de langosta (Panulirus argus son de gran importancia en la actividad pesquera a lo largo de las costas del Caribe de Centroamérica. El presente estudio proporciona información relevante de la abundancia temporal y la distribución de postlarvas de P. argus en el Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. Durante el periodo de estudio (Marzo 2004-Febrero 2005, un total de 1907 puérulos fueron obtenidos del colector GuSi. Las postlarvas fueron colectadas durante todos los meses, con máximos en enero-febrero 2005 (CPUE de 21.82 y 22.18, puérulos/colector/mes, respectivamente, y mínimos en mayo y octubre de 2004. La abundancia de postlarvas de P. argus en el estudio es comparada con áreas que soportan importantes pesquerías, p. ej. México. La mayoría de las postlarvas (1027 ind

  19. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H

    2016-02-01

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States' poor health performance. The United States' underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica's lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica's overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension. PMID:26729886

  20. Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Costa Rica, Part 2. Genera Megalochus gen. nov. and Stethantyx Townes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Broad, Gavin R

    2013-01-01

    Two Costa Rican genera, Megalochus gen. nov. and Stethantyx Townes, are revised. These genera comprise a distinctive generic group that we refer to as the Stethantyx genus-group, veins Rs+2r and Rs angled more than 90 degrees, vein 2rs-m and abscissa of M between 2rs-m and 2m-cu not or very weakly thickened, hind wing with vein cul&cu-a (nervellus) more or less vertical, and prepectal carina with upper end not reaching anterior margin of mesopleuron, continuing above and backwards to the subtegular ridge. Both genera include medium sized to large species with body length 4.0 to 15.0 mm. Megalochus comprises only the type species, M. grandis sp. nov., occurring in Costa Rica, Ecuador and southern Brazil. It is the largest representative of the subfamily, with a body length of 10.5 to 15.0 mm. Megalochus differs from Stethantyx, besides the larger body size, by the slenderer first metasomal segment, which is round in cross-section and lacking glymmae, propodeum and metapleuron with coarse rugae, and shortened antennae with strongly transverse flagellomeres. Stethantyx is the dominant, most species-rich genus in the Costa Rican tersilochine fauna and probably in the Neotropical region. Twenty two species of this genus were discovered in Costa Rica, all are new: S. alajuela sp. nov., S. altamira sp. nov., S. aprica sp. nov., S. cacaoensis sp. nov., S. cartagoa sp. nov., S. cecilia sp. nov., S. curvator sp. nov., S. guanacasteca sp. nov., S. heredia sp. nov., S. limona sp. nov., S. mesoscutator sp. nov., S. niger sp. nov., S. nigrofemorata sp. nov., S. notaulator sp. nov., S. orosia sp. nov., S. osa sp. nov., S. propodeator sp. nov., S. pseudoorosia sp. nov., S. pseudoosa sp. nov., S. puntarenasa sp. nov., S. sanjosea sp. nov. and S. tenoriosa sp. nov. A key for distinguishing the genera Megalochus and Stethantyx, and a key to 22 Costa Rican species of Stethantyx are provided. PMID:26185846

  1. Transitional Shelter

    OpenAIRE

    Shiozaki, Yoshimitsu; TANAKA, Yasuo; Hokugo, Akihiko; Bettencourt, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Transitional shelter can play a crucial role in housing reconstruction following a mega disaster. Reconstruction of permanent housing cannot move forward until a number of complex issues are settled, such as relocation planning and removal of debris. Even after plans are agreed on and reconstruction begins, it may take several years for permanent housing to be completed. In this context, a...

  2. Soil Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes in a Costa Rican Premontane Wet Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, L. A.; Schade, G. W.; Pfohl, A.

    2011-12-01

    A significant amount of the global terrestrial biomass is found in tropical forests, and soil respiration is a vital part of its carbon cycling. However, data on soil trace gas flux rates in the tropics are sparse, especially from previously disturbed regions. To expand the database on carbon cycling in the tropics, this study examined soil flux rate and its variability for CO2 and CH4 in a secondary premontane wet forest south of Arenal Volcano in Costa Rica. Data were collected over a six-week period in June and July 2011 during the transition from dry to wet season. Trace gas sampling was performed at three sub-canopy sites of different elevations. The soil is of volcanic origin with a low bulk density, likely an Andisol. An average KCl pH of 4.8 indicates exchangeable aluminum is present, and a NaF pH>11 indicates the soil is dominated by short-range order minerals. Ten-inch diameter PVC rings were used as static flux chambers without soil collars. To find soil CO2 efflux rates, a battery-powered LICOR 840A CO2-H2O Gas Analyzer was used to take measurements in the field, logging CO2 concentration every ten seconds. Additionally, six, 10-mL Nylon syringes were filled with gas samples at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 minutes after closing the chambers. These samples were analyzed the same day with a SRI 8610 Gas Chromatograph for concentrations of CO2 and CH4. The average CO2 efflux calculated was 1.7±0.8E-2 g/m2/min, and did not differ between the applied analytical methods. Soil respiration depended strongly on soil moisture, with decreasing efflux rates at higher water-filled pore space values. An annual soil respiration rate of 8.5E3 g/m2/yr was estimated by applying the observed relationship between soil moisture and CO2 efflux to annual soil moisture measurements. The relatively high respiration rates could be caused by the high soil moisture and low soil bulk density, providing optimal conditions for microbial respiration. Several diurnal sampling periods at

  3. Proliferaciones algales nocivas de cianobacterias (Oscillatoriaceae y dinoflagelados (Gymnodiniaceae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribelle Vargas-Montero

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, la costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica ha experimentado un aumento en magnitud y frecuencia de proliferaciones algales nocivas (PAN. La falta de datos con respecto a la dinámica de estos eventos en el área, y las especies de microalgas que los producen, son temas de mucho interés. Las PAN han producido impactos negativos en los recursos pesqueros y en la salud humana en Costa Rica. En mayo de 2002, una PAN se observó frente a las playas a lo largo del Pacífico central; además, se observó un gran número y diversidad de peces muertos. Las muestras de agua fueron recolectadas usando una red de fitoplancton y se fijaron para ser procesadas posteriormente con microscopía electrónica. Asimismo, se tomó un litro de muestra de la superficie para su posterior conteo celular. En la PAN observada, los organismos dominantes fueron la cianobacteria Trichodesmiun erythraeum, rodeada por altas concentraciones de bacterias Gram -, y el dinoflagelado Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides. T. erythraeum, es una de las principales cianobacterias fijadoras de N2 atmosférico en aguas marinas, y se ha asociado con los eventos PAN en diversas partes del mundo, produciendo síntomas como dermatitis por contacto con la brisa marina y otras afecciones. C. cf. polykrikoides es un dinoflagelado asociado con mortalidad de peces; aunque el tipo de toxinas asociadas aún es desconocido. En un periódico nacional se reportaron 17 casos de intoxicación en humanos durante este mismo periodo de PAN, los afectados presentaron desórdenes respiratorios e irritación en los ojos. Éste es el primer informe en Costa Rica dónde se observaron cianobacterias y dinoflagelados juntos produciendo PAN. Este tipo de fenómenos debe analizarse y debe documentarse, para habilitar una comprensión en la dinámica y los factores asociados con el aumento de estos eventos en el Pacífico costarricenseRecently, the Pacific coast of Costa Rica has experienced an increase in both

  4. Nicaragüenses en Costa Rica y Estados Unidos: datos de etnoencuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Centroamérica el único país con un comportamiento claramente bipolar en el destino de la emigración es Nicaragua. La migración de este país tiene a Costa Rica como principal destino y los Estados Unidos de América como el segundo. Este comportamiento no ha sido estático, aunque si muestra un patrón inverso. De mediados del siglo XIX a finales del decenio de 1970 con el triunfo sandinista (1979, Costa Rica era el principal destino. En la década de los años 80, con la denominada guerra de los contras, se presenta aumento de la emigración y se varía el destino y ocupa los Estados Unidos el primer lugar. Una vez que cesa el conflicto armado y los sandinistas dejan el gobierno, nuevamente Costa Rica se presenta como el principal destino, esta vez con aumento respecto del comportamiento histórico (Vargas; 1999, 2003. Pese a la magnitud de esta migración y las repercusiones para Costa Rica, son pocos los estudios que tienen por objeto analizarla en forma sistemática. Un importante esfuerzo lo han realizado Jimmy Rosales y otros, al estudiar los "nicaragüenses en el exterior" (Rosales: 2001 con datos del censo nicaragüense de 1995. Estudios más puntuales, con trabajo de campo en algunas comunidades fronterizas con Costa Rica, los han realizado investigadores de FLACSO-Costa Rica (Morales; 1997, 2000 (Morales y Castro, 2002. Recientemente, con el empleo de datos de etnoencuestas (para 5 comunidades en Nicaragua y otros países, se han desarrollado algunos trabajos para temas específicos. Fussell (2003 ha revisado las evidencias para la teoría de la causación acumulativa que brinda esta migración; Riosmena (2003 ha estudiado las posibilidades de retorno, y Hickes y Massey (2003, han estudiado las relaciones con el conflicto armado y político en Nicaragua y el destino de los migrantes. En este trabajo se analizan las características demográficas básicas de los migrantes, así como las corrientes migratorias con una mirada

  5. Incidencia de diabetes tipo 2 en un área urbano marginal de Costa Rica Type 2 diabetes in a peripheral-urban area in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Laclé-Murray

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: La "diabetes mellitus" tipo 2 se considera actualmente como una pandemia que afecta tanto a países desarrollados como en vías de desarrollo, por lo cual es necesario conocer su prevalencia,incidencia y factores asociados para planificar estrategias para su prevención. En Costa Rica se dispone de una estimación de su prevalencia en el área metropolitana (7-8%,pero no se tiene dato alguno de su incidencia.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la prevalencia de personas en riesgo de desarrollar diabetes en una comunidad urbano marginal,sus factores de riesgo y la incidencia de diabetes en esa población. Materiales y métodos: De las 7039 personas de 20 años y más con expediente activo en 4 EBAIS del área 3 de Desamparados en el año 2000,4228 tenían al menos un criterio de riesgo para desarrollar diabetes según los criterios de la Asociación Americana de Diabetes del 2000. Esta cohorte fue seguida durante 4 años para determinar la tasa de incidencia de desarrollar diabetes. Resultados: La prevalencia de personas en riesgo fue del 60.1%;sus factores de riesgo más prevalentes fueron:la dislipidemia (67.3%,el índice de masa corporal 27 (60,8%,edad 45 años (41,8%,familiares con DM (34.9%e hipertensión arterial (19.7%.La incidencia acumulada de diabetes fue de 4.77%con un promedio anual de 1.19%.La tasa de incidencia fue de 1.62 por 100 personas-año (IC95%:1.38-1.86.La tasa de incidencia por 100 personas-año según sexo fue de 1.5 para las mujeres y de 1.93 para hombres,sin diferencia significativa por sexo. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio han permitido disponer de la primera estimación de la Incidencia de Diabetes tipo 2 en una población de riesgo en Costa Rica.La incidencia estimada fue de 1.62%;por lo tanto podemos esperar 16 diabéticos nuevos por año por cada 1000 personas en riesgo sin presentar diferencias por sexo.Este indicador permitirá al área de Salud estudiada

  6. [Humanitarian transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Jean-François; Troit, Virginie

    2016-02-01

    In two centuries, modern humanitarian action has experienced several fractures often linked to crises. Although its professionalism and intervention force remain indisputable, it faces, since the 2000s, a new context that limits its ability to act and confronts it with new dilemmas, even though it must deal with needs for aid of unprecedented scale. These difficulties reveal a humanitarian transition period that was not anticipated. This transition period reflects the change from a dominant paradigm of North-South solidarity of Western origin to a much more complex model. This article provides a summary of the current mutations that are dominated by the States' assertion of sovereignty. Among the possible solutions, it argues for an ethical approach and a better integration of the research carried out in the Global South, prerequisites for building a true partnership and placing the victims at the heart of the operations which involve them. PMID:26936180

  7. Upper Crustal Seismic Structure and Velocity Variations from the Costa Rica Rift to Hole 504B from Multichannel Seismic Reflection and Sonobuoy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, J. S.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    We present observations from a combined multichannel seismic reflection and sonobuoy refraction survey of the shallow seismic structure of the Costa Rica Rift crust as a function of age, bathymetry, and sedimentation from the rift axis to DSDP/ODP Hole 504B in the Panama Basin. The MCS data were acquired with a 4-km-long, 160 channel hydrophone streamer on two separate segments of leg EW9416 of the R/V Maurice Ewing in 1994, which we call here the northern and Hole 504B MCS survey segments. The northern MCS survey segment covers a ~215-km-long, ~30 km-wide swath from the Costa Rica Rift axis to 5.0 Ma-old crust, located 30.5 km northwest of Hole 504B. It consists of eight ridge-parallel, east-west trending MCS profiles, two ~20 km-long cross-axis profiles and one 214-km-long ridge-perpendicular line that extends from 10.3 km north of the ridge axis to 203 km south of the ridge axis. Upper-crustal velocity constraints are provided by 1-D ray tracing of reflected and refracted waves recorded by 11 sonobuoys with good signal to noise ratios at shot-receiver distances of up 5.3 km to 14.8 km. The Hole 504B segment of the MCS survey covers a 25 km by 25 km area centered around the drill site and consists of six MCS profiles, five north-south lines and one east-west line. Of the six MCS Hole 504B segment profiles, we focus exclusively on the two north-south and east-west oriented profiles that cross DSDP/ODP Hole 504B and allow us to tie seismic observations with physical properties measured at the drill site. Sonobuoy velocities reveal an increase in layer 2A velocities from as low as 3.1 km/s at the ridge axis to 4.6 km/s at 5.3 My-old crust. Velocities at the base of the transition zone to the top of layer 2B range from 5.07 km/s the ridge axis to 6.1 km/s at 5.3 My-old crust, which are very close to transition zone velocities of ~5.3-6.2 km/s found at Hole 504B by Detrick et al. (1998) from tomographic inversion of ocean bottom seismometer data.

  8. El Santo Niño de Cebú entre costa y costa: de Filipinas a Nueva España (1565-1787)

    OpenAIRE

    Machuca, Paulina; Calvo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Este texto analiza la devoción al Santo Niño de Cebú en una región conocida como la costa chica de Guerrero (Mexico), durante el último tercio del siglo XVIII. Se trata de una práctica religiosa que surgió en Filipinas en el siglo XVI y que llegó a la Nueva España a través del Galeón de Manila. En ambos casos, el proceso de evangelización por parte de la Monarquía hispánica dejó su impronta, al establecer los elementos de la religión católica entre las poblaciones de Asia y América. Sin embar...

  9. Back to the green jewel. After a period of using fossil fuels, Costa Rica is returning to renewable energy sources; Zurueck zum gruenen Juwel. Nach einem Ausflug zu den fossilen Brennstoffen kehrt Costa Rica zurueck zu den erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosworth, Melissa

    2010-07-15

    For more than two decades now, Costa Rica has been a Mecca for eco-tourists. Deep rainforests, empty beeches and an incredible variety of species have made the country into one of the forerunners of sustainability. This picture was marred by the fact that fossil fuels were getting more attention by the government recently. Now, however, Costa Rica is returning to renewable energy sources which had already supplied 100 percent of the country's total power. The government is even considering reimbursement tariffs for solar power. (orig.)

  10. Higher Education in Costa Rica: Ranking and decolonization? Educación superior en Costa Rica: ¿“Rankización” y descolonización?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizia D’ Antoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay contrasts the decolonization proposal of the being and of knowledge with the imaginary in the public university and in “the quality assurance policies”, its purposes, and relation to production methods. The author states that developing distrust towards all forms of colonization of knowledge represent a “quality improvement” in higher education. The main findings refer to the need of discussing the risks within the “improvement” and homogenization processes in higher education having, as a relevant and inherent aspect, an epistemological detachment task as a decolonization key from the public university in Costa Rica.Recibido 09 de abril de 2013 • Corregido 07 de julio de 2013 • Aceptado 31 de julio de 2013En este ensayo me propongo oponer la propuesta descolonizadora del ser y del conocimiento con el imaginario en la universidad pública y en las “políticas de garantía de calidad”, sus propósitos y relación con el modo de producción. Planteo que desarrollar desconfianza hacia todas las modalidades colonizadoras en el conocimiento, por sí mismo “mejora la calidad” de la educación superior. Las principales conclusiones se refieren a la necesidad de discutir los riesgos de los procesos de “mejora” y de equiparación en la educación superior, indicando como relacionada y pertinente una tarea de desprendimiento epistemológico en clave descolonizadora de la universidad pública en Costa Rica.

  11. MERCADO LABORAL, EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR Y FORMACIÓN DOCENTE EN COSTA RICA (LABOR MARKET, HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Zúñiga Luis Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo se analiza la relación que existe entre la educación superior, la dinámica del mercado laboral, y la formación de docentes, en un nuevo contexto histórico-social caracterizado por la liberalización de la economía, y el avance de una concepción mercantil de la educación en Costa Rica. Se describe la relación que existe entre la desregulación de la oferta de educación superior, sobre todo privada, y la consecuente saturación de profesionales en el mercado laboral. Se analiza con especial interés la situación de los profesionales de la educación en este contexto, sobre todo, las condiciones laborales que enfrenta este sector educativo, como consecuencia de la aplicación de la lógica de mercado.Abstract: This essay analyzes the relationship between higher education, labor market dynamics, and teacher training in a new historical and social context characterized by the liberalization of the economy, and advancing of a merchant conception of the education practice in Costa Rica. It describes the relationship between deregulation of the supply of higher education, especially private, and the resulting saturation of professional manpower in the labor market. It is analyzed with special interest, the status of the professionals of education in this context, especially the working conditions faced by this sector of the working class as a result of the application of market logic in the educational field.

  12. Actitudes del profesorado de chile y costa rica hacia la inclusión educativa Chilean and Costa Rican teacher's attitudes towards inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sanhueza Henríquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio analiza las actitudes de profesores de Chile (N = 92 y Costa Rica (N = 126 hacia la educación inclusiva. Para ello, plantea como objetivos: a. identificar las medidas que favorecen la educación inclusiva en ambos colectivos de profesorado; b. conocer los recursos y apoyos con que cuenta el profesorado para favorecer la educación inclusiva; y c. valorar los principios de la educación inclusiva que subyacen a sus prácticas docentes. Adoptamos un enfoque cuantitativo a través de un diseño descriptivo de tipo encuesta. Los resultados indican que, en general, los profesores participantes presentan una actitud positiva hacia la inclusión, incorporando diferentes medidas para atender las necesidades educativas especiales del alumnado. Los recursos materiales y el tiempo continúan siendo percibidos por el profesorado como una limitante para el desarrollo de prácticas inclusivas.This study analyses the attitude of teachers from Chile (N = 92 and Costa Rica (N = 126 towards inclusive education. For that purpose, it establishes the following objectives: a. identify those measures facilitating inclusive education with both teachers groups; b. get to know the resources teacher count on to make inclusive education possible; and c. value the principles of inclusive education underlying their teaching practice. We adopted a quantitative approach through a descriptive design consisting of a survey. Results show that in general teachers of this study have a positive attitude towards the inclusion of different measures to attend the students Special Educative Needs. Resources and time continue to be perceived by teachers as restraining the development of inclusive practices.

  13. Uso de tecnologías digitales en la educación matemática en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison De Faria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un breve recorrido sobre investigaciones, políticas y uso de tecnologías digitales en Costa Rica, y se describe las formas con que los docentes de matemática de la enseñanza media costarricense utilizan las computadoras y calculadoras en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de las matemáticas. Los datos analizados fueron recolectados mediante un cuestionario aplicado a docentes de matemática de enseñanza media durante el año 2000 por el proyecto de investigación  “La enseñanza de las matemáticas en Costa Rica”, desarrollado por investigadores del Centro de Investigaciones Matemáticas y Meta-Matemáticas de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

  14. Costa Rica’s implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control. PMID:26879509

  15. Cryptic species within cryptic moths: new species of Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; J. Bolling Sullivan; Hajibabaei,  Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Based on almost 1,700 recently reared and wild-collected specimens, the genus Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaelinae) in Costa Rica is reviewed. Eight species are recorded of which seven are newly described: Dunama jessiehillae Chacón, Dunama jessiebarronae Chacón, Dunama janewaldronae Chacón, Dunama jessiebancroftae Chacón, Dunama janecoxae Chacón, Dunama biosise Chacón, Dunama indereci Chacón. Dunama angulinea Schaus is redescribed and associated with its correct genitalia. Dunama tuna (Schaus), previously listed as ocurring in Costa Rica, is restricted to Colombia. Most species are described through their distinctive CO1 barcodes, genitalia and life histories. Dunama adults and caterpillars, their foodplants, and their parasites in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica are described where known. Many life history stages are illustrated. PMID:23730176

  16. A Practical Application of Statistical Gap Analysis in National Park Management in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Juan Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available If the tourism growth predicted materialized as tourism for Costa Rica protected areas would see major increases. A study conducted in Volcan Poas National Park and Volcan Turrialba National Park two of Costa Rica leading volcanic crater parks was undertaken to make available to national parks and protected areas managers, a procedure, that could be use: to measure using an adapted form of the expectations disconfirmation theory the satisfaction of visitors to Costa Rica national parks, and to evaluate if the results could be used for establishing the areas of the park infrastructure, services and recreational options that needed improvement and management decisions to enhance visitor's satisfaction. The sample included 1414 surveys The findings indicates that the procedure adapted base on the expectations-disconfirmation model was proven helpful in: a getting the information to help “zero in”, the man-agement decisions in the short and medium term and for the development of the Tourist Management Plans that is to say being developed in the 2 sites, b guiding park managers in the resource allocation process, under the conditions of scarcity that are so common in developing countries, c facilitating regular monitoring of the conditions, with a simple and quick methodology that can be used for “day to day” decisions and more sophisticated statistical analysis d identifying the areas in the management of protected areas that need further analysis and in that way is contributing to the development of the long term socio-economic research programs in national parks, e the “real” importance of the information and education activities in national parks, combination of activities that seems to be critical to enhance “consumer satisfaction” among the visitors to national parks everywhere and particularly as a means of understanding whether visitors needs and expectations are met, whether they receive what they should and as a context for

  17. Mitos que manejan padres y madres acerca del autismo en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Pizarro, Hannia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este estudio pretende identificar los principales mitos y creencias que sostienen los padres y madres acerca del autismo en Costa Rica.La confusión no se da solo en padres y familiares de personas con autismo, sino también en profesionales que trabajan directa o indirectamente con esta población. Una posible causa de los errores respecto a esta discapacidad, es el manejo de una limitada información que da origen a una serie de mitos y valoraciones erróneas de lo que es el autismo como síndrome, y lo que las personas que lo presentan son en realidad.Lo anterior ha generado una cantidad de creencias, sin fundamento, acerca de su origen, evolución, tratamiento y “curas mágicas”, que pueden y tienen efectos nocivos en el organismo y en la psicología de las personas que lo padecen, y producen en sus padres más confusión y frustración.Abstract: It is supposed that confusion, about what autism is and which is it etiology, treatment and prognosis, is share by parents and also by professionals that work with Costa Rican autistic children.A probable source of confusion is a lack of information on this disorder, which leads to create myths and believes based on irrational ideas about what autism is as a syndrome and, the particular behavioral characteristics of people carrying on this syndrome.The basic goal of this study is to identify the myths and believes that, Costa Rican parents, hold about the different aspects of autism and the people that carry this syndrome and, based on the collected information to create means to bring appropriate information on those areas it is needed.

  18. The annual cycle and biological effects of the Costa Rica Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.

    2002-02-01

    The Costa Rica Dome is similar to other tropical thermocline domes in several respects: it is part of an east-west thermocline ridge associated with the equatorial circulation, surface currents flow cyclonically around it, and its seasonal evolution is affected by large-scale wind patterns. The Costa Rica Dome is unique because it is also forced by a coastal wind jet. Monthly climatological fields of thermocline depth and physical forcing variables (wind stress curl and surface current divergence) were analyzed to examine the structure and seasonal evolution of the dome. The annual cycle of the dome can be explained by wind forcing in four stages: (1) coastal shoaling of the thermocline off the Gulf of Papagayo during February-April, forced by Ekman pumping on the equatorward side of the Papagayo wind jet; (2) separation from the coast during May-June when the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) moves north to the countercurrent thermocline ridge, the wind jet stops, and the North Equatorial Countercurrent extends toward the coast on the equatorward flank of the ridge; (3) countercurrent thermocline ridging during July-November, when the dome expands to the west as the countercurrent thermocline ridge shoals beneath a band of cyclonic wind stress curl on the poleward side of the ITCZ; and (4) deepening during December-January when the ITCZ moves south and strong trade winds blow over the dome. Coastal eddies may be involved in the coastal shoaling observed during February-March. A seasonally predictable, strong, and shallow thermocline makes the Costa Rica Dome a distinct biological habitat where phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass are higher than in surrounding tropical waters. The physical structure and biological productivity of the dome affect the distribution and feeding of whales and dolphins, probably through forage availability.

  19. Diferenciación craneofuncional entre amerindios de planicie y costa pacífica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Amerindos prehispánicos sudamericanos de costa pacífica se diferencian, por su conformación craneofacial, de las poblaciones de la planicie oriental, que son heterogéneas entre sí y con respecto a las transandinas. Estas últimas se comportan como perteneciendo a un único substrato, que se extiende por la franja costera, desde Tierra del Fuego hasta el Zulia Venezolano, conformando un Cordón Costero Sudpacífico (CCS. Esto ha sido corroborado por la genética, la ecología y la arqueología. La explicación más plausible hasta ahora es un efecto diferencial de flujo y deriva génica a ambos lados de la cordillera. El reciente hallazgo del mismo efecto en Centro y Norteamérica permite enlazar todo el continente hasta la costa oeste de California, en una línea continua que se corta en San Luis Obispo. Al mismo tiempo, las poblaciones de Florida y Nebraska se comportan como las de la planicie sudamericana. Se concluye que, sin desechar los mecanismos genéticos mencionados, un efecto tan extenso que sobrepasa los 14Mil kilómetros de extensión, debe ser explicado por un efecto general, tal como un proceso migratorio. Esta idea halla sustento en el modelo teórico de poblamiento temprano americano propuesto por Dixon en 2001, según el cual las migraciones americanas siguieron un trayecto Norte-Sur, aprovechando ecotonos tales como la cadena de valles situada entre los cordones montañosos y la costa pacífica. americana.

  20. The professional practice and imaging specialist from the deontological perspective in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vision of how to address the challenges facing, daily, the professional person imaging specialist has been raised with the use of new and emerging technologies. Issues to consider conflicts, ethical and moral dilemmas that may affect the way patient care, besides his family; and also, working relationship with colleagues and the institution in which he serves. This professional requires of development and training that will enable him to assess with sufficient objectivity, ethical-moral and conflicting situations to take decisions more convenient, from a critical and reflective practice. A rule of professional practice in diagnostic and therapy imaging has been missing in Costa Rica. Consequently, the need for a study, both theoretical and practical, which take into account ethical and moral guidelines, professional and regulatory was presented, with the objective to establish a possible course to comprehensive consolidation of the professional. The imaging specialist has a great responsibility in his practice, with society and with the patient attending the services in which he works. Different data collection techniques were used, to develop a proposal for guidelines for a possible rules of conduct for the professional person imaging specialist in Costa Rica; in this, have addressed the appropriate deontological topics for future implementation taking into account the professional profile, the academic level, professional practice and the requirements of society. This research has made evident the need and importance of establishing such guidelines as main result. A proposed improvement to the practice of professional person imaging specialist in diagnosis and therapy in Costa Rica is exposed from the qualitative data analysis. (author)

  1. Effect of hydrothermal circulation on slab dehydration for the subduction zone of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Juan Carlos; Currie, Claire A.; Harris, Robert N.; He, Jiangheng

    2016-06-01

    Dehydration of subducting oceanic plates is associated with mantle wedge melting, arc volcanism, intraslab earthquakes through dehydration embrittlement, and the flux of water into the mantle. In this study, we present two-dimensional thermal models of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone to investigate dehydration reactions within the subducting Cocos plate. Seismic and geochemical observations indicate that the mantle wedge below Nicaragua is more hydrated than that below Costa Rica. These trends have been hypothesized to be due to a variation in either the thermal state or the hydration state of the subducting slab. Despite only small variations in plate age along strike, heat flow measurements near the deformation front reveal significantly lower heat flow offshore Nicaragua than offshore Costa Rica. These measurements are interpreted to reflect an along-strike change in the efficiency of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. We parameterize thermal models in terms of efficient and inefficient hydrothermal circulation and explore their impact on slab temperature in the context of dehydration models. Relative to models without fluid flow, efficient hydrothermal circulation reduces slab temperature by as much at 60 °C to depths of ∼75 km and increases the predicted depth of eclogitization by ∼15 km. Inefficient hydrothermal circulation has a commensurately smaller influence on slab temperatures and the depth of eclogitization. For both regions, the change in eclogitization depth better fits the observed intraslab crustal seismicity, but there is not a strong contrast in the slab thermal structure or location of the main dehydration reactions. Consistent with other studies, these results suggest that observed along-strike differences in mantle wedge hydration may be better explained by a northwestward increase in the hydration state of the Cocos plate before it is subducted.

  2. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  3. QA Programme of the TLD laboratory of the University of Costa Rica: IEC 61066 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thermoluminescence Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of the University of Costa Rica provides dose measurements for around 90% of occupational radiation workers in the country. The assessment of doses to workers routinely exposed to external sources of radiation constitutes an integral part of any radiation protection programme and helps national authorities to ensure acceptably safe and satisfactory radiological conditions in workplaces. Harshaw Readers Model 4000 and 4500, dosimeter holders Type 8814 with TLD-100 in 0110 cards and loose TLD-100 chips are used to monitor personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). In order to provide a reliable measurement of the operational quantities, a study was undertaken to verify the fulfillment of international requirements in our system (Model 4500 with cards) against the Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring CEI IEC 61066 (1991 -2012). The type tests performed were nine in total: batch homogeneity, reproducibility, linearity, detection threshold, effect of climate conditions on reader, effect of light exposure on dosimeters, isotropy, transient voltage and dropping on dosimeters. A Cesium-137 source was used to irradiate the dosimeters and all procedures follow the indications given on the standard. Results showed that all IEC criteria were met by our Laboratory. Acceptable uncertainties were also studied under the ICRP recommendations; the analysis of the Trumpet Curve was done with satisfactory results (for doses above 0.5 mSv; quotient of measure to real dose less than 3%). For purposes of accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) and performance testing this work is very relevant since the University of Costa Rica wants to establish a solid individual monitoring programme for external radiation exposure that will provide users, registrants, licensees and regulatory bodies with information that can be used for the optimization of protection and dose limitation of Costa Rican workers

  4. La atención a la diversidad: experiencia del Proyecto UNA Educación de Calidad, de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica / Attention to Diversity: the Experience of UNA Quality Education Project, from the National University of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Fontana Hernández

    2010-12-01

    constante reconstrucción de las estrategias utilizadas, al tener, como aspectos esenciales, el empleo de equipo tecnológico y programas de computación especializados. Estos les permitirán a los estudiantes acceder a la información y a la comunicación; la asesoría y la capacitación de los académicos y del personal administrativo; el establecimiento de estrategias de apoyo colaborativo entre los miembros de la comunidad universitaria, así como, la búsqueda de cooperación en el ámbito nacional e internacional para el desarrollo de nueva iniciativas.

     

    Abstract. In the last years, the educational Costa Rican system has experienced significant changes, due to the legal framework, so much in the national and international levels, since the promulgation of the Law 7600 Equality of Opportunities for the Persons with Disability in Costa Rica (Costa Rica, Asamblea Legislativa,1996 to the proposal of the Law 8661 Convention on the Human rights of the Persons with Disability (Costa Rica. Asamblea Legislativa, 2008.

    Due to the temporary space in which the UNA Quality Education Project emerged in 1998 and the context in which the Educational National System was immersed, particularly at the university level, the pedagogic offer reveals a transition between the rehabilitative model and the social model specifically, within each of these, the respective educational approach that includes procedures of integration and inclusive education.

    From this perspective, experiences and strategies implemented at the UNA Quality Education Project are presented in order to provide support and follow-up in their vocational training to a group of students who present educational needs at the National University. Thus, it is pretended to make effective their rights to access a high quality education according to their personal and social characteristics, promoting their social and work insertion.

    Challenges imposed by attention to diversity

  5. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  6. Determinantes y diferencias de salud entre las regiones de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Salas, Melvin; Aparicio Llanos, Amada; Barber Pérez, Patricia; Xirinachs Salazar, Yanira; Hernández-Villafuerte, Karla; Vargas Brenes, Juan Rafael

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del documento es estudiar los determinantes de salud autopercibida entre regiones geográficas en Costa Rica. Se utiliza la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 (ENSA 2006) para estimar las relaciones entre las diversas variables de carácter socioeconómico y el estado de salud autoprecibido mediante un modelo probit ordenado. Los resultados muestran que después de ajustar por edad, sexo, variables socioeconómicos, de necesidad de salud y estilos de vida, existen diferencias de salud en...

  7. Los medios de comunicación durante La Guerra Civil de Costa de Marfil

    OpenAIRE

    Adhepeau, Julien Laurent Michel

    2014-01-01

    La desconocida y poca mediatizada guerra civil de Costa de Marfil ha sido un escenario interesante para el análisis del comportamiento de los medios en periodo de crisis. La presencia de una multitud de medios locales e internacionales cubriendo la guerra fomentó una serie de noticias tan diversas así como diferentes influidas por determinados intereses políticos e ideológicos. Esa guerra desveló la implicación de los medios en la construcción de la opinión pública local e inte...

  8. La financiación de los partidos políticos en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2009-01-01

    El fenómeno del financiamiento estatal a los partidos políticos en Costa Rica, se produce mediante una enmienda a la Constitución en 1956, así como el reembolso -por parte del Estado- de aquellos gastos susceptibles de ser legalmente justificados y que se originan de la participación de los partidos políticos en los procesos electorales para la elección de miembros del Poder Ejecutivo y Legislativo. Esta contribución estatal del artículo 96 de la Constitución Política aplica, únicamente, a lo...

  9. Matemáticas y nuevas tecnologías en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    De Faria, Edison

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica es un país que apuesta al desarrollo tecnológico como una vía alternativa para el desarrollo social, económico y educativo y se encuentra ubicada entre los países latinoamericanos líderes potenciales de adelanto tecnológico. A partir 1980 se llevaron a cabo importantes investigaciones y programas relacionados con el uso de calculadoras y de computadoras en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje en todos los ámbitos educativos costarricenses. En este artículo describiremos algunas ex...

  10. Algas marinas bentónicas de la Isla Gorgona, costa pacífica colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Murillo Muñoz; Enrique Javier Peña Salamanca

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta el listado de las algas marinas bénticas del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona, el inventario corresponde a la flora algal asociada a los diferentes ambientes marinos de la isla, a saber: arrecifes coralinos y fondos blandos. El monitoreo de las comunidades de algas se llevó a cabo entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizó una estimación de abundancia y cobertura para lo cual se establecieron transeptos paralelos a la línea de costa y se evaluó el porcentaje de cobertura...

  11. Estudio paleoetnobotánico en la Costa Pacífica Vallecaucana

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Picón Yuri

    1996-01-01

    As part of the INCIVA's Archaeological Research Program in the Valle del Cauca region of the Pacilic coast, this study seeks to contribute, from the anthropological and ecological perspective of paleoethnobotany, elements that will aid in the reconstruction of the nutritional base of the prehispanic populations settled in the alluvial valleys of the San Juan and Calimarivers.Inscrito dentro del Programa de Investigaciones Arqueológicas que adelanta el INCIVA en la Costa Pacífica Vallecaucana,...

  12. Fecundidad adolescente en el gran área metropolitana de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Chaves, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación es explorar algunos de los aspectos macrosociales que explican la fecundidad adolescente en el Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Entre los aspectos macrosociales, específicamente, se analiza el lugar de residencia de las adolescentes. La proporción de madres adolescentes entre 15 y 19 años se usa para medir la fecundidad. Esta información es tomada del Censo del 2000 y del Censo de 1984. Además, se usa un conjunto de coordenadas geográficas, para defini...

  13. Manejo de desechos en universidades. Estudio de caso: Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guillermo Romero Esquivel; Juan Carlos Salas Jiménez; Joaquín Jiménez Antillón

    2008-01-01

    Actualmente, las universidades desempeñan un papel preponderante en el manejo integral de los desechos sólidos que tanto estas como la sociedad generan, en tanto que se encargan de educar a la mayor parte de los futuros individuos involucrados en la toma de decisiones.Este artículo describe un caso de estudio acerca del manejo de desechos que realiza el Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR) mediante la actividad permanente “Manejo de Desechos Institucionales” (MADI), específicamente, en ...

  14. El registro biológico humano de la costa meridional de Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Suby, Jorge A.; Guichón, Ricardo Aníbal; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio

    2009-01-01

    La costa patagónica constituye un sector de riesgo para el registro arqueológico, asociado a factores naturales y antrópicos. Al mismo tiempo, la conservación de las colecciones bioarqueológicas, destacándose la pérdida de restos óseos e información asociada por escasez de recursos, desconocimiento o falta de atención especializada, representa escenarios de riesgo para el registro. Una de las áreas para las cuales no se dispone hasta el momento de información bioarqueológica es la región que ...

  15. Mejora del abastecimiento de agua a la comunidad rural de Sierpe, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    González Almarza, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto se localiza en una comunidad rural del Pacífico-Sur de Costa Rica, en la península de Osa, muy cerca del Parque Nacional de Corcovado. Sierpe es una comunidad de unos 1.100 habitantes que vive principalmente de los ingresos del turismo, la palma aceitera y las explotaciones forestales de Teca. Frente a esta realidad social, se presenta la necesidad de mantener los recursos naturales y las zonas de bosque tropical donde se localiza la captación del acueducto rural. El objetivo...

  16. La construcción del espacio litoral : el caso de la costa de Cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alonso, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    El litoral ha constituido a lo largo de la historia una importante fuente de recursos económicos además de un punto estratégico para la defensa del territorio. El comercio, la pesca o la industria de la sal han propiciado la formación de poblaciones y ciudades al borde del mar. La costa funcionó como un ámbito defensivo, peligroso e insalubre durante siglos donde el mar modulaba el frente costero sin grandes interacciones con un entorno prácticamente deshabitado. A mediados del siglo XIX, las...

  17. A preliminary market research about tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in Costa Rica (ESP)

    OpenAIRE

    Raymon van Anrooy; Jorge Günther; Jorge Boza; Nazira Gálvez

    2016-01-01

    From January to July 1995, a market trial was conducted in Costa Rica with the fresh water fish species. Colossoma macropomum, commonly named “tambaqui”. About 1200 fish with an average weight of 800g were obtained from the fish culture station of the Universidad Nacional near La Rita, Guápiles. About 20 fish were delivered each Monday initially to three and later to each of four fishdealers in Limón, Guápiles, San José and Heredia. The shopkeepers purchased the fish at a price of $1.40/kg, c...

  18. Incidencia de esclerosis lateral amiotrófica en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Rodríguez- Paniagua; Isaías Salas- Herrera; Mayra Cartín- Brenes

    2007-01-01

    Justificación y objetivo: Hasta el momento no se ha publicado un estudio que nos permita conocer cuál es la incidencia de ELA en nuestro país. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la incidencia de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica, y describir las características de los pacientes diagnosticados en nuestro país desde enero de 1998 a noviembre de 2001. Materiales y métodos: Utilizando diferentes fuentes de información se identificaron los casos de ELA en el periodo de 1998 al 2001. Se calculó...

  19. Instalaciones eléctricas en Manaboué, Costa de Marfil

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Batanás, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Este proyecto es la culminación de una idea creada en un viaje de ayuda humanitaria a Costa de Marfil por la asociaciación Adesci. Se basa en una serie de instalaciones eléctricas realizadas en un pueblo donde hay incorporado un equipo electrógeno de 53kW que da suministro energético al alumbrado público. Estas instalaciones son tres y se han catalogado como fase A,B y C, en las que el objetivo principal es poder dotar a una sociedad subdesarrollada las ventajas que nos proporciona la ener...

  20. Consideraciones para una evaluación docente en la Universidad de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Porras, Alicia; Calderón Laguna, María Lourdes

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un proyecto de investigación realizado en el 2002- 2003 por Alicia E. Vargas, Carolina Bolaños, José Miguel Gutiérrez, Lorena Kikut, María Lourdes Calderón y Miguel Ángel González, docentes investigadores del Centro de Evaluación Académica de la Universidad de Costa Rica. El objetivo principal fue identificar características del profesorado universitario y de su trabajo, como insumos para mejorar la evaluación docente que se realiza en esta Univ...

  1. Culture of Fear and Control in Costa Rica (I). Crime Statistics and Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Costa Rican talk of crime is fundamentally based on the assumption that crime rates have increased significantly in recent years and that there is today a vast and alarming amount of crime. On the basis of this assumption, fear of crime, the call for the “iron fist,” and drastic law enforcement actions are continually increasing. While crime statistics are the logical basis for the hypothesis on the far-reaching extent of delinquency, they are used in a problematic way in the talk of crim...

  2. Land use zones and land use patterns in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Huising, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale in the Guacimo-Rio Jiménez-Siquirres (GRS) area in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Therefore, the concept of "land use zones" is introduced. The land use zone (LUZ) plays a central role in the definition of an observational methodology as well for structuring dynamics in land use. Land use is described in terms of the land use pattern (LUP). The LUP denotes the farming systems and land utilization types (LUTs) ...

  3. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, unawareness and treatment among Costa Rican elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría-Ulloa Carolina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable information on the prevalence of hypertension is crucial in the development of health policies for prevention, control, and early diagnosis of this condition. This study describes the prevalence of hypertension among Costa Rican elderly, and identifies co-factors associated with its prevalence, unawareness and treatment. Methods The prevalence of hypertension is estimated for the Costa Rican elderly. Measurement error is assessed, and factors associated with high blood pressure are explored. Data for this study came from a nationally representative sample of about 2,800 individuals from CRELES (Costa Rica: Longevity and Healthy Aging Study. Two blood pressure measures were collected using digital monitors. Self reports of previous diagnosis, and medications taken were also recorded as part of the study. Results No evidence of information bias was found among interviewers, or over time. Hypertension prevalence in elderly Costa Ricans was found to be 65% (Males = 60%, Females = 69%. Twenty-five percent of the studied population did not report previous diagnoses of hypertension, but according to our measurement they had high blood pressure. The proportion of unaware men is higher than the proportion of unaware women (32% vs. 20%. The main factors associated with hypertension are: age, being overweight or obese, and family history of hypertension. For men, current smokers are 3 times more likely to be unaware of their condition than non smokers. Both men and women are less likely to be unaware of their condition if they have a family history of hypertension. Those women who are obese, diabetic, have suffered heart disease or stroke, or have been home visited by community health workers are less likely to be unaware of their hypertension. The odds of being treated are higher in educated individuals, those with a family history of hypertension, elderly with diabetes or those who have had heart disease. Conclusion Sex

  4. AFLATOXINAS EN MAÍZ: REPORTE DE CASO EN LA COSTA ATLÁNTICA COLOMBIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Espitia M. E.; Díaz G. J.; Acuña C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Las aflatoxinas son compuestos hepatotóxicos producidos por algunas cepas de hongos del género Aspergillus, principalmente A. flavus y A. parasiticus, que generalmente contaminan granos almacenados. Hasta ahora, la incidencia de aflatoxinas en Colombia se había reporta¬do como moderada (10-30%), con niveles promedio alrededor de los 20 µg/kg. En septiem¬bre del año 2001 se encontró una incidencia muy elevada (100%) y altos niveles de AFB1 (>100 µg/kg) en la costa atlántica colombiana, principalm...

  5. Primer caso de hemoglobina Köln (codon98 GTG>ATG en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Cartín

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La exposición a ciertos medicamentos puede provocar anemia hemolítica con presencia de cuerpos de Heinz en sangre periférica. Esta anemia puede presentarse por sobredosis de medicamentos, tanto en individuos sanos como en personas con deficiencias enzimáticas como la glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa, o en presencia de hemoglobinas inestables. Este reporte muestra un caso de anemia hemolítica con cuerpos de Heinz, debido a la presencia de una hemoglobina inestable, cuyos estudios moleculares y HPLC confirmaron el primer caso descrito de hemoglobina Köln (Val98Met en Costa Rica.

  6. Vulnerabilidad física de la costa catalana a diferentes agentes

    OpenAIRE

    Martí López, Marina

    2011-01-01

    El sistema costero es un sistema muy dinámico que experimenta continuos cambios geomorfológicos ligados a múltiples factores como el clima de oleaje, cambios en el nivel del mar o subsidencia. Constituye, además, una zona de especial atractivo para el establecimiento de la población y el desarrollo de diversas actividades humanas, ya sean económicas, industriales o de ocio. La costa de Cataluña, al noreste de España, es un ejemplo de la confluencia de sistemas sociales, económicos y natur...

  7. Determination of methane emissions in three hydroelectric dams in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Herrera; José F. Rojas; Susana Rodríguez; Antonieta Rojas; Víctor H. Beita

    2013-01-01

    The emission fluxes of methane (CH4) across air–water interface were measured in three hydroelectric dams in Costa Rica (Brasil, Nuestro Amo and Cote Lake) during three years cycle (2009-2011), using the floating static chamber technique. Samples were taken during one week, both day and night time, through four campaigns per year. For the methane flux determination the water surface was divided in a 4x4 grid equally spaced. During this period, CH4 fluxes showed average values that ranged from...

  8. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  9. Conceptos transversales de organización gubernativa en Costa Rica: su aporte al desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando Bolaños Garita

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo investigativo tiene como objetivo primario presentar el esquema político-administrativo que presenta Costa Rica en el nivel de organización y dirección públicas, mismo que tiene como basamento la Constitución Política, la Ley de Planificación Nacional y la Ley General de la Administración Pública, por lo que se ha procedido a realizar una conjunción y un análisis del marco referencial que circunda el tema, llegando a la conclusión de que las responsabilidades para ejercita...

  10. Prevalencia de diabetes mellitus auto-reportada en Costa Rica, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Marlene Roselló-Araya; Ana Gladys Aráuz-Hernández; Gioconda Padilla-Vargas; Ana Morice-Trejos

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus (DM) autoreportada en Costa Rica y su asociación con factores sociodemográficos. Métodos: En la encuesta Nacional de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples de 1998 se incluyó un módulo sobre DM. La población de estudio fueron los habitantes de todas las viviendas particulares, los dominios lo constituyeron las regiones de planificación definidas por el Ministerio de Planificación y Política Económica. En cada hogar se entrevistó a un informant...

  11. HIPERTENSIÓN EN EL PERSONAL DE LA UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA DE COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Arce Espinoza; Julián Monge-Nájera

    2009-01-01

    La prevalencia de la Hipertensión Arterial (HTA) se ha incrementado en todo el mundo y las acciones preventivas resultan insuficientes, ya que solamente un tercio total de esta población está controlada. La HTA es la primera causa de morbilidad y mortalidad mundial. En este artículo se presenta el primer estudio sobre los niveles de hipertensión en el personal de una universidad a distancia, mediante el análisis del total de consultas en la Universidad Estatal a Distancia de Costa Rica al 15...

  12. Content-based instruction in an English oral communication course at the University of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Herrero, Annabelle

    2005-01-01

    El artículo que se ofrece consiste en una comparación etnográfica sobre propuestas educativas no formales, entre el Museo de los Niños de Costa Rica y seis museos o centros de ciencia españoles ubicados en lo que se conoce como la nueva museología. Se detallan los aspectos de la nueva museología española que pueden enriquecer la práctica del museo costarricense. The following article consists in an ethnographic comparison about non-formal educational proposals. This comparison is carried out...

  13. Tourism, Volcanic Eruptions, and Information: Lessons for Crisis Management in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Juan Antonio; Ahearn, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Volcán Poás National Park, located in the central valley of Costa Rica, is the most visited and most economically important park in the country. Recently, a series of eruptions caused the park admin-istration to severely limit visitation for a period of approximately 3 weeks. This study examines the economic impact of this policy on the surrounding communities of Poasito and Fraijanes, which are reliant on tourists who stop in the towns on their way to or from the park. The social impact, as...

  14. Serpentinitas y cromititas de La Cabaña, Cordillera de la Costa, Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Barra; Osvaldo M Rabbia; Guillermo Alfaro; Hubert Miller; Christine Höfer; Stefan Kraus

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN Las serpentinitas del área de La Cabaña forman parte de la Serie Occidental del Basamento Metamórfico de la Cordillera de la Costa de la IX Región y corresponden a dunitas de grano grueso parcial a totalmente serpentinizadas. Contienen cromita como mineral accesorio, la que generalmente está alterada en grado variable a ferricromita. En cambio, las cromitas presentes en las cromititas de Centinela Bajo, preservan su composición original con un mínimo grado de alteración, lo que permit...

  15. Diversity and habitat differentiation of mosses and liverworts in the cloud forest of. Monteverde, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gradstein S. Rob; Griffin III Dana; Morales María Isabel; Nadkarni Nalini M.

    2001-01-01

    An inventory of the understory and canopy of 4 ha oflower montane cloud forest at Monteverde, Costa Rica, yielded 190 bryophyte species: 133 hepatics, 56 mosses and 1 homwort. Thick branches of the lower canopy were by far the richest habitat in terms of number of species (99), trunks from 1m upwards had 65 species, lianas, shrubs, saplings, or living leaves in the understory had about 36-46 species each, and 16 species were found on rotten logs. The figures are illustrative of the great dive...

  16. Vigilancia sanitaria del agua: un nuevo enfoque para municipalidades de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Valiente

    1999-01-01

    Los programas de vigilancia sanitaria constituyen el nuevo enfoque para complementar los programas de control de calidad del agua y consisten en la aplicación de una metodología que permite determinar el grado de riesgo para la salud que presentan los sistemas de agua para consumo humano. En el presente trabajo se presenta el desarrollo y adaptación de un Programa de Vigilancia Sanitaria para ser utilizado en Costa Rica. Este programa se basa principalmente en determinar el grado de riesgo pa...

  17. El manglar de Purruja, Golfito, Costa Rica: un modelo para su manejo

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Margarita Silva; Norma Natalia Carrillo

    2004-01-01

    El manglar de Purruja (Golfito, Costa Rica) tiene una extensión aproximada de 70 Ha. Una investigación socio-biológica del manglar sentó las bases para el diagnóstico del mismo y facilitó el establecimiento de metas para su manejo. La comunidad y el grupo local organizado fueron factores claves para establecer las metas y el plan de acción para el manejo de los recursos. El monitoreo constante y una red de instituciones gubernamentales y no-gubernamentales de trabajo fueron los otros componen...

  18. Reproductive activity of birds in a mangrove in Northwest Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Barrantes

    1998-01-01

    La riqueza avifaunística en los manglares es relativamente alta contrastando con su pobre diversidad florística. Durante 18 meses (julio 1986 a diciembre 1987) visité por ocho dias cada dos semanas un área de manglar de 200 hectáreas en Chomes, noroeste de Costa Rica. En estas visitas cuantifiqué la actividad reproductiva de las especies residentes de este manglar. El 55% de las 69 aves terrestres residentes se reproducen en el manglar. Probablemente el número de especies así como el número d...

  19. Estudio de los moluscos bivalvos perforadores de la madera Rhyzophora harrisonii (Mangle) en la costa ecuatoriana

    OpenAIRE

    CRUZ, M.; Torres, G.; Villamar, F.

    1987-01-01

    Se identifican 12 especies de moluscos bivalvos perforadores de la madera Rhyzophora harrisonii (Mangle) en la costa ecuatoriana, de las cuales 11 especies son primeros registros para el Ecuador, ampliándose de esta manera su distribución anterior. Se describen las principales características taxonómicas de cada género y especie encontrada, agregándose dibujos de las paletas que se usaron en la identificación. Los resultados se presentan en gráficos, figuras, histogramas, tablas y mapas de di...

  20. La globalización de los mercados inmobiliarios: su impacto sobre la Costa Blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando DÍAZ ORUETA; Lourés Seoane, María Luisa

    2007-01-01

    La costa mediterránea española experimenta en los últimos años un fuerte crecimiento urbano ligado, fundamentalmente, a los sectores turístico e inmobiliario. El proceso de globalización económica ha tenido un impacto muy importante sobre las inversiones inmobiliarias. De hecho, el hoy desinflado aumento en la producción de viviendas no podría ser entendido haciendo referencia únicamente a las inversiones españolas. Gentes del Reino Unido, Alemania y otros países europeos occidentales han adq...

  1. Las principales fallas de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Guerreo Castro; Luis Gómez Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Una de las tareas más importantes en la gestión del mantenimiento de los equipos de producción, y particularmente de los motores eléctricos, es identificar y prevenir las fallas para tomar acciones que eviten la incidencia de las mismas.Mediante una investigación de campo, con visitas a empresas de varios sectoresproductivos y talleres de reparación de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica, se logróobtener una clasificación y distribución porcentual de las fallas más comunes enlos motores trifásic...

  2. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  3. Calculating spectral direct solar irradiance, diffuse and global in Heredia, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectral model under conditions of clear skies has described the flow of solar irradiation and is verified experimentally in Heredia, Costa Rica. A description of the model is presented by comparing its results with experimental measurements. The model has calculated the spectral flows of the global solar irradiation, direct and diffuse incident on a horizontal surface. Necessary input data include latitude, altitude, surface albedo as characteristics of a locality, and atmospheric characteristics: turbidity, precipitable water vapor, total ozone content and the optical thickness of a particular subject. The results show satisfactory values. (author)

  4. ESTUDIO SEROLOGICO POR INMUNOFLUORESCENCIA DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    LILIANA REYES; Bonilla, A.; T. MOYA; MISAEL CHINCHILLA

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN Se estudiaron 1.043 sueros de pacientes provenientes de todo el territorio nacional por anticuerpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi utilizando la técnica de inmunofluorescencia. Se demostró un porcentaje de positividad general de 2,14%. La mayor positividad se encontró en la provincia de San José (2,4%) y la menor en Heredia (0,8%).SEROLOGICAL STUDY OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN COSTA RICA BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE One thousand and fourty three patients were studied for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies by...

  5. El suicidio en Costa Rica en el año 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Chaves Moreno; Édgar Madrigal Ramírez; Maikel Vargas Sanabria; Zarela Abarca Villalobos

    2008-01-01

    Si bien en Costa Rica la tasa de suicidios por 100000 habitantes históricamente se ha encontrado por debajo de 10 por 100 mil habitantes, lo cual es bajo comparado a otros países, existen múltiples factores de riesgo, tanto sociales (pobreza, desempleo, drogadicción) como psicológicos (depresión, duelo) que son significativamente frecuentes y podrían incrementar estas cifra. En el presente artículo se pretende brindar un panorama actualizado acerca del suicidio en nuestro país, para ello se r...

  6. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana. PMID:17354401

  7. Beyond Punishment: A Tax Compliance Experiment with Taxpayers in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Torgler

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Tax compliance experiments have been conducted with students and have focused on the effects of deterrence on tax compliance. However, important insights can be gained looking at alternative instruments. A main purpose of this paper is to conduct an experiment in Costa Rica not with students (exclusively but with taxpayers, holding traditional factors, such as the probability of penalty and the fine rate, constant and thus analysing to which extent other factors as fiscal exchange, moral suasion, and positive rewards systematically influence tax compliance.Our findings indicate that these factors increase ceteris paribus the compliance rate.

  8. [Phytogeography of dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Ulate, G

    2001-03-01

    The dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica is mapped. Plant community distribution is intimately related to the type of relief, soils and humidity. In the upper parts of the meseta, characterised by soils which are stony, sandy, and acidic, herbacious vegetation such as savanna and edaphic steppe is dominant. By contrast, woodland is found on the deep and organically rich soils of the valley floors. Within the herbaceous formations dwarf varieties of Byrsonima crassifolia (nance), Curatella americana (raspa guacal) and Quercus oleoides (encino) are found because of the acid and infertile soils. PMID:11795151

  9. Uso de las redes sociales en los hoteles de la costa española

    OpenAIRE

    Mellinas, Juan Pedro; Martínez María-Dolores, Soledad María; Bernal García, Juan Jesús

    2014-01-01

    La creciente importancia de las redes sociales, las ha convertido en un elemento clave para la promoción de todo tipo de productos y servicios, especialmente los turísticos. Se ha realizado un estudio sobre el nivel de uso de las principales redes sociales en los hoteles de costa española, que no pertenecen a grandes cadenas hoteleras. Se identifican a su vez los hoteles que realizan un uso inadecuado de Facebook y Twitter, mediante el seguimiento de tres errores evidentes de gestión de sus r...

  10. Assessment of possible strategies to reduce mobile sources emissions in Costa Rica, 2010-2015 projection

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Herrera-Murillo; José Félix Rojas-Marín; Susana Rodríguez-Román

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of the possible strategies to reduce the emissions from mobile sources in Costa Rica were evaluated for the 2010-2015 period. The total emissions were estimated using emission factors obtained from Mobile 6 model and activity data like fuel and vehicle type distribution. This study found that 50% substitution of public transport vehicles was the most effective measure to lower the anual rate increase for NOx and Total Organic Gases (TOG). Both around 14,3% and 11,7% anually, respe...

  11. Communists and Advertisement. The Experience of Costa Rica in the 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Molina Jiménez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we identify the main characteristics of the advertising included in the Vanguardia magazine (1941-1942 and the Combate (1944 and Tinchera (1946 newspapers, all of them publications linked with the Communist Party in Costa Rica. It also considers the specific details of the individuals, institutions and companies that published advertisements in these media. Finally, we analyze to what extent some of the contents of those advertisements were related to broader discourses which took place in the 1940s (economic nationalism and defense of democracy, while others promoted values, beliefs, worldviews and lifestyles different from the culture the Communists were trying to spread.

  12. Highly polymorphic DNA markers in an Africanized honey bee population in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Segura Jorge Arturo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two genetic markers (the mtDNA COI-COII intergenic region and the microsatellite A7 with high levels of variability in South African and European honey bees were analyzed in wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera from Costa Rica. Allelic or haplotypic frequencies revealed high levels of genetic variability at these loci in this population. Most of the alleles were African alleles, although some European-derived alleles were also present. Differences in the frequencies of African alleles between African and Africanized samples were minor, which could be explained by founder effects occurring during the introduction of African honey bee populations into South America.

  13. Zeolites of the Valle Central of Costa Rica and its outskirts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    19 different species of zeolites have been found in 25 outcrops in the Valle Central of Costa Rica and in the Siquirres region. All the zeolites are secondary minerals and crystallized in little veins and vesicles of the basalts and pyroclastics rocks of the La Cruz and Grifo Alto formations, belonging to the Aguacate Group and the alkaline igneous rocks of Guayacan. The most frequent species of zeolites are stibnite, chabasite, laumontite, mesolite/mordenite, thomsonite, and analcime. Natrolite only was found near to Siquirres. (Author)

  14. Valoración en medicina del trabajo Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Garro Vargas

    2010-01-01

    La valoración en Medicina del Trabajo dentro del Departamento de Medicina Legal de Costa Rica comprende casos de riesgos del trabajo (accidentes y enfermedades del trabajo), ordinarios riesgos de trabajo, proceso ordinario laboral, despidos de mujeres embarazadas, pensiones por invalidez y pensiones alimentarias. Para realizar dichas valoraciones el médico forense debe tener conocimiento de las definiciones de cada uno de ellos y de la legislación de nuestro país.Assessment in Occupational Me...

  15. Corophiidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda da costa brasileira Corophiidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda from Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Valério-Berardo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve genera and seventeen species of corophiid amphipods are reported from Brazilian coastal waters: Ampelisciphotis podophthalma J.L. Barnard, 1958, Aora spinicornis Afonso, 1976, Audulla chelifera Chevreux, 1901, Bemlos foresti (Mateus & Mateus, 1966, B. unicornis (Bynum & Fox, 1977, Cheiriphotis megacheles (Giles, 1885, Chevalia mexicana Pearse, 1913, Corophium acherusicum Costa, 1851, Gammaropsis (Gammaropsis atlantica Stebbing, 1888, G. (G.. thompsoni (Walker, 1898, G. (G. togoensis (Schellenberg, 1925, G. (Podoceropsis sophiae (Boeck, 1861, Globoso-lembos smithi (Holmes, 1905, Lembos hypacanthus (K.H. Barnard, 1916, Photis brevipes Shoemaker, 1942, P. longicaudata Bate & Westwood, 1862 e Pseudomegamphopus barnardi Myers, 1968. An identification key, diagnosis and latitutinal distribution of each species are provided.

  16. Situación del búfalo de agua en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rosales Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    La historia del búfalo de agua en Costa Rica no es nueva, este animal llegó en el año 1974, gracias a una importación que hizo Japdeva, con el objetivo de incorporar una nueva alternativa de producción animal para el Atlántico costarricense.En esa ocasión, se importó un hato compuesto por dieciocho hembras y dos machos de la raza bufalypso, raza reconocida desde 1963, la cual se formó en Trinidad y Tobago a partir del cruce indiscriminado de las razas Murrah, Jafarabadi, Nagpuri, Surti y Nili...

  17. CLIMA ORGANIZACIONAL Y DESEMPEÑO LABORAL DEL PERSONAL EMPRESA VIGILANTES ASOCIADOS COSTA ORIENTAL DEL LAGO

    OpenAIRE

    Niria Quintero; Nelly Africano; Elsis Faría

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo es el resultado de un diagnóstico del clima organizacional y el desempeño laboral del personal de la empresa Vigilantes Asociados de la Costa Oriental del Lago (VADECOL). La investigación es de tipo descriptivo cuantitativo en la modalidad de campo. La población fue de 82 trabajadores y la muestra de 45 trabajadores, se utilizó la técnica de muestreo probabilística donde todas las unidades de población tuvieron la misma probabilidad de ser seleccionados. Se aplicó ...

  18. Análisis del comportamiento de mercado de la pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Olman Quirós Madrigal

    2010-01-01

    La pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus) es una planta que pertenece a la familia de las cactaceae, que se puede consumir como fruta fresca o procesada como pulpa; sin embargo, en Costa Rica su uso no está muy difundido, por lo que el mercado meta es la población de origen nicaragüense residente en el país, quienes catalogan el producto como de consumo tradicional o masivo.Es por esto que resulta importante retomar el estudio de los componentes del mercado, en donde se destaca no sólo por ser una fru...

  19. Socio-Demographic Factors and Intergenesic Interval in Nicaraguan Immigrant Mothers in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate birth intervals are considered a positive factor in the health of mothers and their children. One of the objectives of this study is to compare the birth interval between Nicaraguan immigrant women and local mothers in Costa Rica. Birth intervals among Nicaraguan women are significantly shorter than the local ones (p 0.05. Nicaraguan women are 30% more likely to recur in the following pregnancy as compared with local women. The study of population minorities permits the preparation of public policies on international migration issues.

  20. Costa Blanca: Public Space And Perceived Image as Key to Tourism Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Navalón García, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Los destinos turísticos tradicionales del litoral español se enfrentan a profundas transformaciones debidas a varios factores, entre los que se encuentran cambios notables en el comportamiento de la demanda y un intenso crecimiento de la competencia a todos los niveles, que puede poner en duda la pervivencia del modelo de desarrollo de estas áreas maduras. Lejos de ser una excepción, la situación que se describe para la Costa Blanca es extrapolable a otros destinos turísticos en otras regione...

  1. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2012-01-01

    The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  2. Proyecto García: construcción de la ciudad de la costa

    OpenAIRE

    Secco Terra, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Se analiza el proceso de urbanización de la Ciudad de la Costa, complejo y creciente territorio metropolitano montevideano, que a la vez es la segunda ciudad más importante de Uruguay. Entendido siempre como un proceso espontáneo y sin planificación de formación del territorio, se sugiere una mirada al mismo como un proyecto de suelo global que se realiza en un siglo, donde la agrimensura y la forestación adquieren crucial importancia. El proyecto se inicia con la adquisició...

  3. Relationships between Plant Biodiversity and Soil Fertility in a Mature Tropical Forest, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeau, Martin B.; Sullivan, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to study relationships between plant biodiversity and soil chemical fertility in a mature tropical forest of Costa Rica. Soil samples were collected in nine sampling plots (5 m by 25 m) in order to identify P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al and total N contents, soil fertility index, CEC, pH, and C/N ratio. Furthermore, species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson’s species diversities, structural richness, and structural diversity were calculated for each plot. Simple linear regr...

  4. K40 y Cs137 in bananas exported from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using low level gamma spectroscopy, the specific activity of K40 and Cs137 in banana samples is quantified during the period 1996-1998. The bananas were supplied by the export companies that operate in Costa Rica. The calculated derived intervention level (DIL) for Cs137 was 4000 times greater than the specific activity measured in the fruit due to worldwide nuclear events. This result permits its free commercialization. Banana is an excellent source of potassium, since it was determined that each kg of the fruit has 3.8 g of this element. (Author)

  5. Evaluación del estado trófico de la Costa Sur de Tamaulipas.

    OpenAIRE

    Horak Romo, Karla Patricia

    2015-01-01

    La eutrofización es un fenómeno que ocurre en cuerpos de agua y resulta de la entrada masiva de nutrientes. La costa sur de Tamaulipas constituye un importante polo de desarrollo industrial, turístico y pesquero. No obstante, el potencial impacto de dichas actividades sobre esta zona costera ha sido poco estudiado y de aquí la necesidad de generar conocimiento local mediante un estudio de la variabilidad espacial y temporal de parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua marina utiliz...

  6. Historia e investigación de la leucemia en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Jiménez Bonilla

    2004-01-01

    Se hace inicialmente una revisión de la historia de la leucemia en el mundo, analizando sus principales causas etiológicas y las primeras formas de diagnóstico y tratamiento. Acontinuación se revisa la historia de la investigación de la leucemia en Costa Rica, puntualizando los diagnósticos iniciales en los hospitales, la llegada de los primeros hematólogos clínicos y de laboratorio, la creación de los laboratorios especializados en Hematología, la aplicación en nuestro país de los modernos t...

  7. Deforestation Impacts of Environmental Services Payments: Costa Rica’s PSA Program 2000–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Robalino, Juan; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofefia, G. Arturo; Alpizar, Francisco; Leon, Carlos; Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Costa Rica’s environmental services payments program (Pagos por Servicios Ambientales, or PSA) started in 1997 and was the true pioneer in this area. It is broadly cited and has led to numerous calls for emulating its approach in various ways. It has itself evolved over time, with acknowledged shifts in focus. To measure the impacts of changed implementation, following earlier work on the 1997–2000 payments (Sánchez-Azofeifa et al. 2007; Pfaff et al. 2007), we evaluated the impact of the PSA ...

  8. Marketing Plan of Rental Apartments in Costa Blanca for Scandinavians : Case: Zariko Enterprise SL

    OpenAIRE

    Kirssi, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a marketing plan of rental apartments in Costa Blanca for Swedish, Norwegian and Danish customers. The ordering party is Zariko Enterprise SL, which is a real estate agency operating in Torrevieja, Spain. The company is both selling and renting properties, but this thesis is focused only on the rentals. The objective of the thesis is to create a marketing plan which the company can put into practice. It will support the case company in finding more customers from the target cou...

  9. The change in the dynamics of Costa Rica’s electoral set up: a case of dealignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando SÁNCHEZ CAMPOS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the last two general elections (1998 and 2002 in Costa Rica, suggest that the country’s electoral dynamics have exited their apparent stability and entered a process of change. The present study evaluates the main signs of this change (rising levels of absenteeism, ticket-splitting, electoral volatility, and support for third parties, and defines it as an «electoral dealignment» process. Moreover, it argues that there is evidence to conclude that electoral dealignment in Costa Rica seems to be a result of a process of «partisan dealignment».

  10. Medusas (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) de una zona de afloramiento costero, Bahía Culebra, Pacífico, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Rodríguez-Sáenz; José A. Vargas-Zamora; Lourdes Segura-Puertas

    2012-01-01

    Las hidromedusas tienen un papel importante en redes tróficas marinas debido a sus hábitos alimenticios depredadores. Este es el primer estudio de este grupo del zooplancton gelatinoso en un area de afloramiento costero en América Central. Durante seis meses de 1999, se estudió la abundancia de hidromedusas en cuatro estaciones en Bahía Culebra, Golfo de Papagayo, costa Pacífica de Costa Rica (10º 37’N-85º40’W). Se identificó un total de 53 especies de las que 26 son registros nuevos para Cos...

  11. Indigenous peoples in Costa Rica and El Diquís hydroelectric project : indigenous identity, consultation and representation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaage, Kari

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the Brunca and the Teribe, two indigenous groups in Costa Rica, and their response to a proposed hydropower development on their territories. The Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) started the first attempt in order to extract the hydropower resources on the indigenous territory in 1970 with the Boruca – Cajón Project. However, this project stagnated and today the Proyecto Hidroelélectrico El Diquís (PHED) is the current alternative of the same project, ...

  12. Sacerdotisas, Curanderas, Parteras y Guerreras: Mujeres de élite en la costa norte del Perú Antiguo

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Alvarado Escudero

    2015-01-01

    Los hallazgos arqueológicos en la costa norte peruana durante las últimas décadas han permitido constatar que el género femenino tuvo un peso muy importante en las estructuras regionales de poder. Se ha descubierto que las mujeres ocuparon cargos especiales en el mundo político-religioso, lo cual significa una importante contribución al actual análisis de la sociedad prehispánica en la costa norte del Perú. Este artículo analiza cuatro de estos cargos ocupados por mujeres de élite y argumenta...

  13. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  14. Desarrollo de la especialidad en Psicología clínica en Costa Rica: perspectivas futuras

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto López-Core

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los antecedentes históricos, evolución y desarrollo de la Especialidad en Psicología Clínica en Costa Rica. En el año 1957, se inició el ejercicio de esta disciplina y a partir del año 1979 se consolidó el programa de estudios adscrito al Convenio Marco firmado entre la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) y la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS). Desde entonces, ha mantenido una acción ininterrumpida en la formación de especialistas. Los y las residentes en ...

  15. Especies de dinoflagelados atecados (Dinophyta) de la costa de Chiapas, sur del Pacífico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Ebodio Maciel-Baltazar; Hernández-Becerril, David U.

    2013-01-01

    Los dinoflagelados atecados han sido poco estudiados en las costas mexicanas, debido principalmente a su fragilidad, ya que se deforman por la acción de los fijadores fuertes o durante su captura con redes. Sin embargo, tanto su biodiversidad como su papel ecológico pueden ser muy importantes en el ambiente planctónico. Como parte del monitoreo en las costas de Chiapas, México, durante el 2009 se analizaron muestras recolectadas con red de 20 μm de malla, en arrastres verticales desde una pro...

  16. Cyberl@b kids: a technology- enhanced language learning resource for primary school children in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada Pacheco, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper makes an analysis of the literature that supports the creation and implementation of CyberL@bKids. CyberL@bKids is a digital platform designed for teaching and learning English according to the curriculum of the Ministry of Education in Costa Rica. It was created by researchers at the University of Costa Rica (UCR), in order to meet the needs of I and II Cycle of public education in the area of ​​English. The design and structure of this digital platform are student-cente...

  17. Formación permanente del docente de inglés: una experiencia exitosa en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Roxy; Mora, Yinnia

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo y análisis de los resultados de un proyecto de capacitación dirigido a los docentes de inglés en servicio del Ministerio de Educación Pública de Costa Rica (MEP). El proyecto fue coordinado y ejecutado del año 2008 al 2011, bajo la responsabilidad de una comisión representada por las cuatro universidades públicas de Costa Rica y un representante del Ministerio de Educación Pública. La implementación de la capacitación, como un proceso continuo, muestra la im...

  18. Los mamíferos marinos en la costa central de Oaxaca Marine mammals along the central coast of Oaxaca

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Meraz; Víctor Manuel Sánchez-Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer las especies de mamíferos marinos que se encuentran en la costa central de Oaxaca, se elaboró un listado comentando las características de los registros obtenidos. Se incluyeron las observaciones hechas a lo largo de 30 recorridos por mar, entre junio de 1999 y enero de 2004, realizadas entre las bahías de Huatulco y la playa de La Escobilla. Adicionalmente se incluyeron registros de animales varados, así como observaciones realizadas desde la costa. Se presentan c...

  19. El turismo rural de la región de Murcia y Costa Rica: un estudio comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Granados, Catalina María

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es establecer un análisis comparativo entre el Turismo Rural de Costa Rica y el de la Región de España con el propósito de dar a conocer las concordancias y discordancias entre las dos regiones. Dentro de los objetivos específicos se pueden enumerar los siguientes:El objetivo principal de este trabajo es establecer un análisis comparativo entre el Turismo Rural de Costa Rica y el de la Región de España con el propósito de dar a conocer las ...

  20. Las ciperáceas (Cyperaceae) de la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Gómez-Laurito

    2009-01-01

    La familia Cyperaceae es cosmopolita e incluye unos 115 géneros y 3600 especies. Costa Rica tiene 25 géneros y 210 especies. Aquí presento claves y descripciones para las 34 especies (10 géneros) que ocurren en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica. El género Cyperus está representado por 12 especies, seguido por Rhynchospora (6), Scleria (5), Calyptocarya (2), Eleocharis (2), Kyllinga (2), Mapania (2), Hypolytrum (1) y Lipocarpha (1). Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp & Kunth) Palla, ha sido col...

  1. La degradación del empleo asalariado en los albores del siglo XXI: Costa Rica y México

    OpenAIRE

    Minor MORA-SALAS; Orlandina de OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    El artículo analiza la precariedad laboral de la fuerza de trabajo asalariado en Costa Rica y México. Se constata que en México la precariedad laboral está más extendida y es más severa que en Costa Rica, lo cual es resultado de factores institucionales ligados a una mayor vocación distributiva del régimen social costarricense, a su mayor apego al cumplimiento de los derechos laborales individuales y a la presencia de un sistema de regulación de los mercados laborales de mayor cobertura. Pese...

  2. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable......What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration of...... including the perspective of structural changes (transition of socio-technical systems and social practices) and Design as metadesign; an reflexivity on contextual framework of the design practice (regimes/design spaces)....

  3. Changes in the general circulation and its influence on precipitation trends in Central America: Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenes Vargas, A. (Inst. Meteorologico Nacional, San Jose (Costa Rica). Dept. de Informacion); Saborio Trejos, V.F. (Univ. Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica). Escuela de Ciencias Geograficas)

    1994-02-01

    A trend analysis of 81 series of precipitation data from the last 30 years (1960-1990) is presented. These series are from meteorological stations distributed throughout Costa Rica on the leeward and windward sides, both of which are affected by the trade-wind regime. Analysis of these data shows that over 75% of Costa Rica has experienced a precipitation decrease during this period. Most of the areas affected by this trend are located along the leeward side of the mountain range which divides the country from north-west to south-east. However, on the windward side there has been a positive trend in precipitation, suggesting a strengthened trade-wind regime. An analysis of data on Atlantic hurricane trajectories since 1900 shows that the total number of hurricanes has increased, but there has been a reduction in the number crossing the Caribbean Basin. The passage of tropical cyclones in the Caribbean Basin accounts for around 70% of total precipitation in the Pacific region of Central America. These countries economies are highly dependent on agriculture, and on water resources for energy generation; thus changes in hurricane patterns and associated rainfall could have important economic consequences. 7 refs, 7 figs

  4. Natural radiation doses for cosmic and terrestrial components in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of external natural radiation, cosmic and terrestrial components, was carried out with in situ measurements using NaI scintillation counters while driving along the roads in Costa Rica for the period July 2003-July 2005. The geographical distribution of the terrestrial air-absorbed dose rates and the total effective dose rates (including cosmic) are represented on contour maps. Information on the population density of the country permitted the calculation of the per capita doses. The average effective dose for the total cosmic component was 46.88±18.06 nSv h-1 and the average air-absorbed dose for the terrestrial component was 29.52±14.46 nGy h-1. The average total effective dose rate (cosmic plus terrestrial components) was 0.60±0.18 mSv per year. The effective dose rate per capita was found to be 83.97 nSv h-1 which gives an annual dose of 0.74 mSv. Assuming the world average for the internal radiation component, the natural radiation dose for Costa Rica will be 2.29 mSv annually

  5. Algas marinas bentónicas de la Isla Gorgona, costa pacífica colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Murillo Muñoz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el listado de las algas marinas bénticas del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona, el inventario corresponde a la flora algal asociada a los diferentes ambientes marinos de la isla, a saber: arrecifes coralinos y fondos blandos. El monitoreo de las comunidades de algas se llevó a cabo entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizó una estimación de abundancia y cobertura para lo cual se establecieron transeptos paralelos a la línea de costa y se evaluó el porcentaje de cobertura en cuadrantes de 0.25m². Se reportó un total de 43 especies para los dos ambientes estudiados (coralino y fondos blandos, 24 Rhodophyta, 12 Clorophyta, 6 Ochrophyta y una Cyanobacteria. El grupo más representativo fue el perteneciente a la clase Rhodophyceae, que correspondió al 55.8% de la flora inventariada. Los resultados de nuevos registros en la isla ratifican su importancia fitogeográfica, por cuanto la composición florística insular contribuye significativamente a la biodiversidad de la costa pacífica colombiana, destacándose la presencia de arrecifes coralinos como los principales ambientes marinos para el desarrollo de la flora algal de la región.

  6. Analysis of the relevance of public policy for mental health care in Costa Rica1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martínez Esquivel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay seeks to answer the question what is the relevance of public policy in mental health care? Recently, the National Mental Health Policy was established in Costa Rica, but despite that was a step forward for the country, its real and effective implementation means a challenge. At present, health is seen as a historical process, affected by various social determinants that represent the possible reasons why people get sick. To address this reality, the Primary Health Care serve as one based on health promotion strategy in the implementation of public policies that direct the actions of the sector is one of its priority areas. From this perspective, mental health plays a major role in the welfare of the individual and the community. It is concluded that the development of a National Mental Health Policy represents a breakthrough for Costa Rica, but all health professionals should know and sensitize themselves and the public as to cater for the promotion of mental health and prevention of mental illness.

  7. Magnitud y Tendencia del Suicidio en los Cantones de Costa Rica: 1980 - 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Granados Bloise

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available En dos anteriores entregas de este estudio, la primera publicada en el número anterior de esta Revista (1 y la segunda en este mismo número, se analizó, para Costa Rica como un todo y por provincias, respectivamente, la magnitud, estructura por edad y sexo, y tendencia del suicidio en el período 1980-94. En esta tercera entrega se presentan los resultados por cantones. (2 (3 (4. En la totalidad de los quince años que abarca el período 1980-94, se registraron en Costa Rica 2.015 muertes por suicidio, siendo la tasa promedio anual de mortalidad por esa causa, para el país, de 4.8 defunciones por cada 100.000 habitantes. En orden de magnitud descendente, son cantones de la región de Los Santos, Provincia de San José, los que ocupan los tres primeros lugares: Dota (13.4, Tarrazú (12.1 y León Cortés (10.9; junto con Alvarado (10.4 en Cartago, sobrepasan los 10 suicidios promedio anual por cada 100.000 habitantes.

  8. El Pionero de la Médicina Legal en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos una semblanza del Dr. Alfonso Acosta Guzmán, médico costarricense formado en Alemania en los años veinte, quien fue el pionero de la Medicina Legal en Costa Rica y un profesional destacado en muchos otros campos de las ciencias médicas, con cualidades morales y éticas sobresalientes y con una visión a futuro y un espíritu de lucha inclaudicable que contribuyeron signicativamente a forjar la estructura de lo que actualmente es el Organismo de Investigación Judicial y principalmente su Departamento de Medicina Legal.In this paper we present a biography of Alfonso Acosta Guzmán, M.D. He was a costarican physician who studied in Germany at the beginning of the last century. He also was the pioneer of the Forensic Medicine in our country and was a recognized professional in many others fields of medical sciences. He had a lot of ethical qualities and was a visionary of the future of the Legal Medicine in our country. He fighted to build the structure of one of the most prestigious centers of Forensic Medicine in Latin America, the Costa Rican Department of Legal Medicine.

  9. Trasmisión de Toxoplasma gondii en Costa Rica: Un concepto actualizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Reyes-Lizano

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Los hallazgos más recientes en cuanto a la trasmisión del Toxoplasma gondii en Costa Rica nos indican que la ingestión de carne poco cocida, así como de algunos embutidos, en donde se ha encontrado el parásito en forma viable, son mecanismos de infección importante. Estos aspectos han hecho variar un poco la concepción anterior de que la ingestión de ooquistes del parásito era la principal, sino la única, vía de infección en nuestro país. Por ello se propone un nuevo ciclo de trasmisión para este parásito, comparándolo con el previamente establecido. Este nuevo patrón epidemiológico establece mayores posibilidades de infección con este parásito para los costarricenses.Recent findings relating to the Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Costa Rica, show us that raw bovine or pork meat sausage ingestion is very important as an infection mechanism route. Therefore the tradicional model where oocysts ingestion has been considered the principal or the only infection route, has changed. In fact a new tranmission model for this parasitosis where oocyst and cyst ingestion are possible is suggested.

  10. Pesticides in surface waters in areas influenced by banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana production in Costa Rica is highly dependent on pesticide use. However, only a few studies have been undertaken regarding the presence and environmental impact of the agrochemical substances used in the banana culture on the aquatic ecosystem of the Atlantic Region of Costa Rica. This study was, therefore, undertaken in Rio Suerte Basin that drains into the 'Nature Conservation Area' of Tortuguero in the Atlantic lowlands of the country from June 1993 to December 1994. In order to investigate further the occurrence of pesticides in the water bodies located near the possible sources especially during worst-case situations, water samples were analysed following pesticide applications during 1995-1997. Pesticide residues were determined by GC equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD). The study targeted 11 of the 21 pesticides used in banana production, the others were not analyzed. The most frequently found compounds during the 1993-94 survey were the fungicide propiconazole and the nematocide cadusafos. Maximum concentrations measured after the pesticide applications were found in the main drainage canal and these were 2.1 ug/L carbofuran, 1.2 ug/L terbufos and 0.48 ug/L cadusafos. The peak concentration found shortly after the aerial application of the fungicide propiconazole was 13 ug/L in the creek leaving the banana plantation. (author)

  11. Major issues in the design and construction of the stellarator of Costa Rica: SCR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at briefly describing the design and construction issues of the stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). The SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma developed by the Plasma Physics Group of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (ITCR). The SCR-1 is based on the small Spanish Stellarator UST1 (Ultra Small Torus 1), created by Eng. Vicente Queral. These mains issues consist of the size of the Stellarator, closeness between coils, coupling of ECH to the vacuum chamber and the device for support. The size has become a problem because the vacuum chamber does not allow a lot of space to attach diagnosis devices, the heating system, the vacuum system and the very same support of the chamber. As a result of this lack of space, the Stellarator's coils are placed very close to each other; this means that two of the coils around of the vacuum chamber clash and cannot be placed as designed. The issue regarding the coupling of the ECH (electron cyclotron radio-frequency) to the vacuum chamber comprises the fact that the wave guide with rectangular shape does not match the CF port with circular shape on the vacuum chamber. In addition, the device for supporting the Stellarator has presented a challenge because of its size and the placement of the coils; in other words, there is not enough space between the ports and coils in the Stellarator to place appropriately the device for support.

  12. HYPERTENSION IN PERSONNEL FROM UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Arce Espinoza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Arterial Hypertension (AHT has increased worldwide and preventive measures are insufficient since only one third of the population is being treated. AHT is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In this article is presented the first study on hypertension levels of personnel of a Distance Education university based on the analysis of all medical consultations in the Costa Rican State University for Distance Education (Universidad Estatal a Distancia-UNED as of December 15, 2007 (1,526 medical files. The population studied ranges from 20 to 70 years of age and is comprised of residents of the Greater Metropolitan Area (Costa Rica with varied socioeconomic and academic levels. The Statgraphics Centurion XV software and the chi-square test were used to analyze variables such as treatment administered, sex, age, and type of work. Only 45 patients knew that they suffered from hypertension prior to their consultation with the university medical service and 136 were treated with Enalapril and Hydrochlorothiazide. The number of hypertensive patients is higher among those who have worked at the institution for more than 20 years, especially in those holding higher positions. No marked differences were found between men and women. It is concluded that the existence of a university medical service has permitted faculty and staff to satisfactorily control their blood pressure.

  13. DETERMINATION OF MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF COSTA RICAN FIRST DIVISION FOOTBALL PLAYERS DURING 2008 PRESEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas-Cabrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory profile (VO2max of Costa Rican first division football players during preseason and compare VO2max by players’ positions. Methodology: A total of 9 Costa Rican first division football teams were evaluated in this study for a total sample of 219 professional players ages 20-36 with an average age of 24.64 ± 4.35 years, average body weight of 73.34 kg ± 7.34, and a fat percentage of 9.78 % ± 3.64. In order to evaluate the VO2max of players, the treadmill protocol was used as recommended by Wilmore and Costill (2007. This was a maximal test. Results: an average VO2max of 57.71 ml/kg/min ± 8.8 was found; however, no statistically significant differences were found (p = .752 between positions. Conclusion: there were no differences in VO2max by positions.

  14. DNA damage in female workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations at Limon, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide use in Costa Rica is very high and all year round. A high percentage of what is sprayed remains in the environment and in the living organisms around. This situation brings contamination and health problems to people in contact with them. The onset of adverse effects may be in the short or long term, and symptoms vary widely, from headaches to cancer. Much research in the area has been devoted to acute or chronic effects, and not until recently to the genotoxic effect of pesticides. This study evaluated the genotoxic effect of pesticide used in banana packing activities, using the comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) as the biological marker in lymphocytes. This was a cases-control double blind study of 30 exposed women from 15 banana farms and 28 women not occupationally exposed to pesticides from the same geographic area. Results show damage to single straded DNA after working from 5 to 15 years (R2=0.12). In Costa Rica we do not have an historical record of the kind of pesticides used in banana farms, the period of time and for how long were they used. This prevented further analysis concerning dose, frequency of exposure and use of new or old kind of pesticides in the farms in relation to DNA damage. The comet assay is of value in the genetic monitoring of pesticide exposed populations. (Author)

  15. Las principales fallas de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Guerreo Castro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tareas más importantes en la gestión del mantenimiento de los equipos de producción, y particularmente de los motores eléctricos, es identificar y prevenir las fallas para tomar acciones que eviten la incidencia de las mismas.Mediante una investigación de campo, con visitas a empresas de varios sectoresproductivos y talleres de reparación de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica, se logróobtener una clasificación y distribución porcentual de las fallas más comunes enlos motores trifásicos de inducción, en el rango de 2 a 50 HP.Esta investigación determinó que existen cuatro tipos de fallas más comunes enmotores eléctricos en Costa Rica; estas se concentran en dos sectores productivos.La investigación identificó aspectos relevantes por mejorar en cuanto a la orientación de la formación profesional universitaria y, en el modelo administrativo del mantenimiento de estos equipos, en lasindustrias.

  16. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Andrea V; Duncan, Colleen; Miles, Laura; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-12-29

    To estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in San Isidro de El General, Costa Rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. Each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for Giardia and Cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Giardia and Cryptosporidium IFA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification of specific DNA if possible. The seroprevalence rates for the vector-borne agents (Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) were estimated based on results from a commercially available ELISA. Enteric parasites were detected in samples from 75% of the dogs; Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis, Giardia, and Toxocara canis were detected. Of the cats, 67.5% harbored Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Ancylostoma tubaeforme, or Toxocara cati. Both Cryptosporidium spp. isolates that could be sequenced were Cryptosporidium parvum (one dog isolate and one cat isolate). Of the Giardia spp. isolates that were successfully sequenced, the 2 cat isolates were assemblage A and the 2 dog isolates were assemblage D. D. immitis antigen and E. canis antibodies were identified in 2.3% and 3.5% of the serum samples, respectively. The prevalence of enteric zoonotic parasites in San Isidro de El General in Costa Rica is high in companion animals and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. PMID:21846585

  17. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sheleby-Elías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88 and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29 were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33, Amazona autumnalis (24, Amazona ochrocephala (21, and Ara ararauna (8 being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4% birds using molecular detection (PCR. The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

  18. Monitoreo del arrecife coralino Meager Shoal, Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

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    Ana C Fonseca E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the Meager Shoal coral reef, Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The coral reefs at Cahuita National Park, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, specifically at the CARICOMP site Meager Shoal, have been monitored since 1999. Complete data sets from 2000 and 2004 have shown that live coral cover has increased less than 3 % (from 15 to 17 %, but non-coralline algae cover has increased much (63 to 74 % and coralline algae cover has decreased (17 to 5 % significantly. The proportion of affected colonies by diseases, injuries and bleaching decreased from 24 % in 2000 to 10 % in 2004, but the difference was not statistically significant. Densities of the urchin Diadema antillarum increased, and are probably help to maintain the macroalgae biomass low, while those of Echinometra viridis decreased significantly. The coral reef at Cahuita National Park continues to be impacted by chronic terrigenous sediments and does not show a significant recovery since the late 1970’s. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 755-763. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  19. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  20. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species. PMID:21516651

  1. Parameterization and quantification of recharge in crystalline fractured bedrocks in Galicia-Costa (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Raposo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of groundwater recharge in crystalline rocks presents great difficulties due to high heterogeneity. Traditionally these rocks have been considered with very low permeability, and their groundwater resources have been usually neglected, although they can have local importance when the bedrock presents a net of fractures well developed. Current European Water Framework Directive requires an efficient management of all groundwater resources, which begins with a proper knowledge of the aquifer and accurate recharge estimation. In this study, an assessment of groundwater resources in the Spanish hydrologic district of Galicia-Costa, with a geology mainly dominated by granitic and metasedimentaty rocks, was carried out. A water-balance modeling approach was used for estimating recharge rates in nine pilot catchments representatives of both geologic materials, and results were cross-validated with an independent technique as Chloride mass balance (CMB. A relation among groundwater recharge and total precipitation according to two different logistic curves was found for granites and metasedimentary rocks, which allows the parameterization of recharge by means of few hydrogeological parameters. Total groundwater resources in Galicia-Costa were estimated in 4427 Hm3 yr−1. An analysis of spatial and temporal variability of recharge was also carried out.

  2. Parameterization and quantification of recharge in crystalline fractured bedrocks in Galicia-Costa (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Raposo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying groundwater recharge in crystalline rocks presents great difficulties due to the high heterogeneity of the underground medium (mainly, due to heterogeneity in fracture network, which determines hydraulic parameters of the bedrock like hydraulic conductivity or effective porosity. Traditionally these rocks have been considered to have very low permeability, and their groundwater resources have usually been neglected; however, they can be of local importance when the bedrock presents a net of well-developed fractures. The current European Water Framework Directive requires an efficient management of all groundwater resources; this begins with a proper knowledge of the aquifer and accurate recharge estimation. In this study, an assessment of groundwater resources in the Spanish hydrologic district of Galicia-Costa, dominated by granitic and metasedimentary rocks, was carried out. A water-balance modeling approach was used for estimating recharge rates in nine pilot catchments representatives of both geologic materials. These results were cross-validated with an independent technique, i.e. the chloride mass balance (CMB. A relation among groundwater recharge and annual precipitation according to two different logistic curves was found for both granites and metasedimentary rocks, thus allowing the parameterization of recharge by means of only a few hydrogeological parameters. Total groundwater resources in Galicia-Costa were estimated to be 4427 hm3 yr−1. An analysis of spatial and temporal variability of recharge was also carried out.

  3. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Sills

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individuals said that they were seeking better product differentiation and marketing than has been achieved under the organic and Fairtrade systems. Many suggested that more direct recognition of individual growers and the unique value of their cocoa throughout the production chain would be more helpful than certification for small companies in the cocoa supply chain. These findings suggest new marketing techniques that convey an integration of meaning into the cocoa and chocolate supply chain as a differentiation strategy. This involves integration of the story of producers’ commitment and dedication; shared producer and consumer values of social and environmental responsibility; and personal relationships between producers and consumers. This marketing approach could enhance the ability of smaller companies to successfully vie with their larger competitors and to produce cocoa in a more environmentally and socially acceptable manner.

  4. A recent phase of accretion along the southern Costa Rican subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Nathan L.; McIntosh, Kirk D.; Silver, Eli A.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Ranero, César R.

    2016-06-01

    In 2011 we acquired a 3D seismic reflection volume across the Costa Rica margin NW of the Osa Peninsula to investigate the complex structure and the development of the seismogenic zone within the Costa Rican subduction zone in the vicinity of recent International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drilling. In contrast to previous interpretations, these newly acquired seismic images show that the margin wedge is composed of a layered fabric that is consistent with clastic sediments, similar to materials recovered from IODP drilling, that have been thrust and thickened into thrust-bounded folded sequences. These structures are consistent with a balanced sequence that has been frontally accreted in the context of an accretionary model. We interpret these sequences as sediment originally deposited on the subducting crust in a trench basin created by the southward migration of the Cocos-Nazca-Caribbean triple junction, and accreted during recent margin subduction that also accelerated with passage of the triple junction. The margin is composed of relatively rapidly accreted sediment that was added to the margin during a phase of accretion within the last ∼5 Ma that was probably preceded throughout the Neogene by periods of non-accretion or erosion.

  5. Instituto Meteorológico Nacional: perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenta los resultados del primer informe realizado por el Instituto Meteorológico Nacional con respecto al comportamiento climático del año 2004 en Costa Rica. Su realización estuvo basada en investigaciones, modelos y bases de datos de diferentes instituciones y organizaciones, tanto nacionales como internacionales. El informe incluye información referente al comportamiento de diferentes fenómenos hidrometeorológico: las lluvias, los huracanes y el Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, así como su afectación en el país. Además, se presenta una referencia histórica de las temporadas de huracanes consideradas análogas con el 2004 It presents the results of the first report developed by the National Meteorological Institute in relation with the climate behavior in Costa Rica during the year 2004. Its development was based on investigations, models and data basis from different institutions and organizations, national as well as international. The report includes information about the behavior of different hydrometeorological phenomena: rain, hurricanes and El Niño/South Oscilation (ENOS, as well as how they affected the country. It also includes a historical reference of the hurricanes season considered analogous to 2004

  6. Perceptions and Beliefs of Rural High School Coordinators in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Segura Castillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican rural settings include indigenous populations and groups in scattered areas that require considering issues such as language and culture, among others, to achieve an appropriate curriculum development. The National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC defines rurality based on the existence or lack of public services such as roads, communication, utilities, formation of the household, and participation in agricultural activities, among others. This research seeks to interpret the perceptions and beliefs of rural high school principals in Costa Rica, regarding technical and administrative conditions in compliance with the objectives for which the institutions were created. This is a longitudinal qualitative study, since data was taken from two workshops, one in 2010 with 49 rural high school coordinators and another one in 2012 with 205 participants including principals and teaching staff. Information was analyzed using an open-question questionnaire and a Venn diagram. Seventeen rural high schools were visited, and students, teachers, and parents from 45 rural high schools were interviewed during 2011 and 2012. It is concluded that there is still no real integration between the socio productive, personal and social areas with the academic area; therefore, teachers in the academic area should be trained in vocational aspects such as entrepreneurship, cooperativism, business management, as well as counsoling, physical education, arts, and music to trully meet the objectives for which rural high schools were created.

  7. Evaluation model for developing, implementing, and assessing conservation education programs: Examples from Belize and Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    1991-03-01

    Evaluation of conservation education programs can: (1) provide accountability in demonstrating a program's worth, (2) offer an opportunity for receiving feedback and improving programs, (3) further our understanding of the process of program development, and (4) promote conservation education by substantiating claims about its benefits. The Planning-Process-Product systems evaluation model provides feedback needed for making decisions about the development, implementation, and outcome of a program. Planning evaluation was useful in assessing the needs, goals, opportunities, and constraints of a number of programs in Costa Rica and Belize, such as a forestry education project and a zoo outreach program. It provided a basis for making planning decisions incorporating specific objectives, such as the reforestation of a region or a change in knowledge and attitudes in program participants. Process evaluation provided a Costa Rican sustainable development program with feedback during its implementation and enabled it to modify and improve its newsletter for local farmers and its ecology classes for school children. Product evaluation assessed project accomplishments, such as the 700,000 raised by the Children's Rainforest group and the 20 miles of riparian land under conservation management as part of the Belize Community Baboon Sanctuary project. Outcomes are compared with the programs original monetary or land management objectives to determine the success of the programs and to provide feedback for improvement.

  8. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  9. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture. (letter)

  10. Evaluation of methods for available Zn in four soil orders in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods for available Zn determination were evaluated on four soil orders in Costa Rica (Ultisols, Vertisols, Inceptisols and Andisols) with 25 samples for each; using the following extract solutions : Modified Olsen, Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan , DTPA and HCI. The Zn levels obtained depended on the chemical characteristics of the extracting solutions. The highest levels were obtained with HCI, except for the Vertisols. The solutions with EDTA (Modified Olsen and Mehlich 3), extracted intermediate levels of Zn, while the method using DTPA (Modified Morgan and DTPA) gave the lowest Zn values . In most of the cases, significant values of correlation were obtained between the 5 extraction methods; so for individual soil orders, or comparing all 100 soils. The highest correlation coefficients for extractable Zn were found for the Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan and DTPA. The correlations were consistent for the 4 orders, which indicate that they are adaptable to different soils, a useful characteristic for these methods. The Modified Olsen was the most efficient extractor in slightly acis soils (Vertisols and Inceptisols). The HCI extracted very high Zn levels, which are probably not related to plant available forms. It is concluded that the Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan and DTPA solutions are probably adequate for available Zn determination and might present an alternative to substitute the generally used Modified Olsen solution in Costa Rica. (Author)

  11. Geochronological synthesis of magmatism, metamorphism and metallogeny of Costa Rica, Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive compilation of 651 (since 1968) radiometric ages determinations (415 40Ar/39Ar, 211 K/Ar, 5 U/Th, 4 Rb/Sr, 2 U/Pb, and 13 fission track thermochronology ages using zircon) have provided a complete picture of the igneous stratigraphy of Costa Rica, and information about the age of the major metamorphic and metallogenic events in the region. Igneous rocks of Late Jurassic to Middle Eocene age (∼ 160 to ∼ 41 Ma), mainly accreted ophiolites. The actual subduction zone was established, represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of basic to felsic composition, at the beginning of Campanian time (∼ 71 Ma). However, voluminous subalkaline, primary volcanic rocks have appeared only after ∼ 29 Ma. Intrusive to hypabyssal granitic to gabboic plutons, stocks, equivalent dykes and sills, are widely exposed in the Talamanca range (∼ 12,4 - 7,8 Ma), hills of Escazu (∼ 6,0 - 5,9 Ma), and Fila Costena (∼ 18,3 - 16,8 and ∼ 14,8 - 11,1 Ma), Tapanti-Montes del Aguacate-Carpintera (∼ 4,2 - 2,2 Ma) and Guacimal (∼ 6,4 - 5,2 Ma). Arc rocks between 29 and 11 Ma (called Photo-Volcanic Front) are known in the San Carlos plains and in southern Costa Rica. The location and age of the igneous rocks have indicated that there was a 20 degrees counterclockwise rotation of the arc (termed as Proto-Volcanic Front) between 15 and 8 Ma, with a pole of rotation that has centered on southern Costa Rica. This rotation is attributed to deformation in the overriding plate (shortening in the south coeval with extension in the NW), accompanied by trench retreat in the south. At ∼ 3,45 Ma, arc-related volcanism has shut off in southern part of the region, but local acid-adakite volcanism has persisted in the Talamanca range (4,2 - 0,95 Ma) due to the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The Paleo-Volcanic Front is represented by arc-related rocks (8 - 3,5 Ma) along the length of Costa Rica, parallel to but in front of the modern arc. This activity was followed by the Monteverde

  12. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  13. Hipovitaminosis D en Costa Rica, reporte inicial: Estudio de casos y controles Hypovitaminosis D in Costa Rica: initial report on a case control study

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    Chih Hao Chen-Ku

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir, por primera vez en Costa Rica, las características clínicas de pacientes con hipovitaminosis D. Materiales y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, en donde se detectó, entre los reportes del Laboratorio de Hormonas del Hospital San Juan de Dios, a 17 pacientes con niveles de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25(OHVDen rangos subnormales (Objective: To describe for the first time in Costa Rica, the clinical characteristics of patients with Hypovitaminosis D. Materials and methods: Retrospective study, in which17 patients with subnormal levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D25 (OHVD (<75 nmol/L were identified amongst the reports from the Hormone Laboratory at the San Juan de Dios Hospital. Also, 15 controls with normal levels, and similar age and gender were identified. Results: There was no difference in age (52.76±20.88 years in cases vs. 46.33±12.50 in controls, gender (58.85% in cases vs. 80% in controls were females.In the group with Hypovitaminosis, mean levels of 25(OHVD(59.2±10.37 nmol/L were lower and those of PTH were higher (146.86±103.76 vs. 47.82±13.77 ng/ml in controls, p=0.004. There was no difference in calcium levels (8.98 cases vs. 9.38 mg/dl controls p=.352, phosphorus (4.09 cases vs. 2.99 mg/ dl controls p=.104 nor BMD at hip and lumbar spine. There were no differences in the prevalence of nephrotic syndrome, chronic liver failure, chronic renal disease and of sun block use between both groups. There were no hospitalized patients in either group. Subjects with hypovitaminosis on the cases group indicated an average of 0.6 hours of sun exposure per week, compared with 1.46 in the control group (p=0.297. In the cases group, we observed a higher prevalence of falls (23.5% vs. 6.7% p=0.039, fractures (17.6% vs. 0%, p=0.024, diabetes (17.6% vs. 6.7% p=0,158, fatigue (29.4% vs. 13.3% p=0.012, weakness (41.2% vs. 33% p=0.010, and use of inducers of cytochrome P450 pathway (29.3% vs. 0% p=0.009. Body weight was less in cases with

  14. Inversión extranjera directa, movilidad laboral y derrames de conocimiento en Costa Rica Foreign direct investment, labor mobility and knowledge spillovers in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Monge González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca determinar la existencia e importancia de los derrames de conocimiento asociados con la movilidad laboral desde las multinacionales (MNCS que operan bajo el régimen de zonas francas (ZF en Costa Rica; es decir, el impacto de tales derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de las empresas locales que contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Se observó que, de un total de 41 149 empleados de MNCS que dejaron de laborar para estas empresas entre el 2001 y el 2007, un tercio se trasladó a empresas locales (15 139. El impacto de los derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de empresas locales se midió en términos de tres variables: ventas, empleo y productividad media del trabajo; para esto se empleó un panel de empresas locales para el periodo que va del 2007 al 2009. Mediante el empleo de modelos econométricos sugeridos por la literatura en este campo, se encontró evidencia de que las empresas locales que han contratado ex empleados de MNCS obtienen un mejor desempeño en términos de crecimiento de sus ventas y empleo, que aquellas empresas locales que no contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Es decir, se obtuvo una clara evidencia de la externalidad positiva asociada con los derrames de conocimiento para Costa Rica, producto de la movilidad laboral desde las MNCS. No se encontró esta evidencia cuando el desempeño de las empresas locales se mide en términos de la productividad media del trabajador. Finalmente, los resultados señalan la importancia de llevar a cabo nuevas investigaciones sobre la capacidad de absorción de las empresas locales para potenciar más los impactos positivos de los derrames de conocimiento, así como respecto al impacto de tales derrames sobre la productividad total de los factores.This paper aims to determine the existence of knowledge spillovers associated to labor mobility from multinational companies (MNCS operating in Costa Rica. That is, the impact of such knowledge spillovers over the

  15. 'Around here I am the law!' Strengthening police officers' compliance with the rule of law in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkman, Q.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    At the end of the last decade many Latin American states initiated public security reform. This included police human rights strategies, which aim to improve police officers' compliance with human rights. Particular strategies emphasized the development of police legal expertise. In Costa Rica this

  16. Pitcairnia calcicola (Bromeliaceae), a New Species from the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jason R.; Morales, J. Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Pitcairnia calcicola is described as a narrow endemic of the low limestone hills in the tropical dry forest of central Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. It belongs to Pitcairnia subg. Pitcairnia, and appears to be most closely related to P. flagellaris L. B. Smith of Guatemala.

  17. Breast Self-Examination: Attitude and Knowledge of Female College Students from USA, Thailand, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy S.; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Ding, Kele; Fernandez, Xinia; Encarnacion, Haydee

    2002-01-01

    Examined attitudes and knowledge among U.S., Thai, Costa Rican, and Puerto Rican female college students regarding breast self-examination (BSE). Students completed surveys before and after watching an instructional video on BSE. BSE practice was low in all four countries. Students considered BSE a necessary part of individual healthy behaviors.…

  18. Sub-regional linear programming models in land use analysis: a case study of the Neguev settlement, Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, R.A.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Jansen, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with linear programming as a tool for land use analysis at the sub-regional level. A linear programming model of a case study area, the Neguev settlement in the Atlantic zone of Costa Rica, is presented. The matrix of the model includes five submatrices each encompassing a different

  19. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder units. The dominant cropping systems are based on maize (Zea mays L.), either as monocrop or intercropped with roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Continuous cropping, and unbalanced fertilizer management systems with...

  20. Soil organic matter chemistry in allophanic soils: a pyrolysis-GC/MS study of a Costa Rican Andosol catena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Peterse, F.; Almendros Martin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in allophanic soils is supposed to accumulate due to protection caused by binding to allophane, aluminium and iron. We investigated a catena of allophanic and non-allophanic soils in Costa Rica to determine the effect of such binding mechanisms on SOM chemistry. These soils

  1. Effects of synthetic fertilizer on coffee yields and ecosystem services: Soil glomalin and parasitoids in a Costa Rican coffee agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the relationships between synthetic fertilizer use, yield, and ecosystem services in a coffee agroecosystem in the Tarrazú region in the central highlands of Costa Rica. Working in nine farms ranging from 0.3 to 2.7ha in the CoopeTarrazú farmers' cooperative, we focused on two important ...

  2. Cruise tourism and community economic development in Central America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an economic approach to understanding the cruise tourism industry as a driver of economic development in Costa Rica. The objective is to describe the role and activities of the cruise ship industry and identify sources of economic benefit and cost such that more informed local policy decisions about the cruise ship tourism might be made. For example, our analysis indicates: the cruise tourism industry competes with the cargo shipping industry for port space at a significant cost to Costa Rican ports; the amount of money injected into the local economy per cruise tourist is substantially lower than for other types of tourism; Cruise ships purchase relatively few supplies in Costa Rica; Cruise ships generate a great deal of human waste, water and air pollution, which can create a serious health hazard, cleanup costs, and which are not commensurate with other types of tourism development available to Costa Rica; Decision makers may want to consider that investment in cruise tourism friendly ports may be less efficient from a national perspective than investment in infrastructure (e.g., airports to increase more profitable types of tourism; And leaders may want to consider the encouragement of smaller “pocket” cruises over the current cruise version of mass tourism. This approach should be applicable to communities wherever cruise tourism currently exists or is under consideration to be included in the portfolio of community economic activities

  3. First report of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in Costa Rica and detection of viruliferous whiteflies in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies are a complex that comprises multiple species and biotypes or races which are capable of affecting crops by phloem feeding, virus transmission and promotion of fungal colonization. The distribution of these pests is worldwide. In Costa Rica, a country located in the tropics, the most prob...

  4. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, van Cees J.; Montoya, Lorena; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction” a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  5. Understanding Social Justice Leadership: An International Exploration of the Perspectives of Two School Leaders in Costa Rica and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Charles; Potter, Ian; Torres, Nancy; Briceno, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article is an examination of two social justice leaders, one in Costa Rica and one in England. It is part of the International Study of Leadership Development Network, a multi-nation study of social justice and educational leadership. A brief discussion of the philosophy of social justice and an examination of the macro and micro context in…

  6. The use of solid phase extraction method for analysis of residues of pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different solid phase extraction devices were tested for the analysis of residues of eleven pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica. The analysis was performed by using gas chromatograph equipped with NPD and ECD detectors. In general low recoveries and high variation coefficients were found for chlorothalonil, imazalil, terbufos and thiabendazole. For the other pesticides recoveries ranged between 60 and over 100%. (author)

  7. Proyecto Costa Escondida: Interdisciplinary Research at the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, J.; Rissolo, D.; Beddows, P. A.; Goodman, B.; Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    At the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula - where the Caribbean meets the Gulf - lies the ancient Maya port site of Vista Alegre. The inhabitants of this site, much like the people living nearby today, were forced to contend with the challenging coastal environment of Laguna Holbox. The sediment-rich, low gradient of the north coast presents a contrasting landscape compared to the Caribbean coast, where water resources are of much larger magnitude and evident in the extensive systems of cenotes (sinkholes) and underground rivers that supported pre-Columbian sites along this eastern rocky sediment-poor coastline. For past inhabitants the north coast was a mosaic of low-lying, non-arable zones where access to potable water was a challenge for inhabitants well into the 20th century. By bringing together scholars from the fields of archaeology, coastal ecology, geoarchaeology, and hydrogeology, the Proyecto Costa Escondida is focusing on the dynamic relationship between the Maya and their coastal landscape over the past 3000 years. To date we have collected 12 manual push-cores from the shallow waters surrounding Vista Alegre, which have been analyzed at 1 cm resolution using standard methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI), δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb of bulk carbonate, granulometry, micropalentology, and AMS radiocarbon dating. In addition to have baseline comparative data, we have conducted near-shore and terrestrial coastal ecological surveys along with the mapping of coastal water salinity and temperatures in the dry and wet seasons. Overall, the chemical proxies, lithology, and paleosalinity model reconstructed to date reveal four onlapping parasequences representing an overall transgression of the coastline with strong seasonality of water chemistry that has been changing under the control of rising sea levels over the past 3000 years. The sedimentation rate and timing of the transition to marine is in reasonable agreement with local sea level curves meaning that the

  8. Transition time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 2013 is going to be an interesting year for the High Dilution research field. There is a tendency to revise basic concepts and common beliefs, while refining models and theories. The fundamental research team seems to be open to deeper discussions, aiming to reinforce some hypothesis and discharge others. In somehow, we are stuck in a vicious way of think, trying to manage and describe an informational phenomenon into a molecular framework. The challenge offered to those researchers involved with basic science is to figure out how to deal with such phenomenon, since previous theories and models have not shown to be matched! In the other hand, there is a tendency to explore the HD phenomenon in its technological branch. While basic research is important to describe how things work, the applied research has a more intense social and economic appeal. To develop technology based on HD means to give a different kind of visibility to the field, attracting sponsors, companies, entrepreneurs, always committed to the market regulatory laws. I am expecting for this year some important movements, both in the basic and applied research. Of course, it will be only a new beginning, as these changes require a lot of work, discussions and insights. But this transition time is very welcome!

  9. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  10. Standard metrics and methods for conducting Avian/wind energy interaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States); Davis, H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Kendall, W. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The awareness of the problem of avian fatalities at large scale wind energy developments first emerged in the late 1980`s at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA) in Central California. Observations of dead raptors at the Altamont Pass WRA triggered concern on the part of regulatory agencies, environmental/conservation groups, resource agencies, and wind and electric utility industries. This led the California Energy Commission staff, along with the planning departments of Alameda, Contra Costa, and Solano counties, to commission a study of bird mortality at the Altamont Pass WRA. In addition to the Altamont Pass WRA, other studies and observations have established that windplants kill birds. Depending upon the specific factors, this may or may not be a serious problem. The current level of scrutiny and caution exhibited during the permitting of a new windplant development in the United States results in costly delays and studies. This is occurring during a highly competitive period for electrical production companies in the USA. Clarification of the bird fatality issue is needed to bring it into perspective. This means standardizing metrics, defining terms, and recommending methods to be used in addressing or studying wind energy/bird interactions.

  11. Mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica, 1985-2006 Mortalidad por picaduras de himenópteros en Costa Rica, 1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Prado

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica during 1985-2006. METHODS: Records of deaths due to Hymenoptera stings in 1985-2006 were retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (National Statistics and Census Institute. Mortality rates were calculated on the basis of national population reports, as of 1 July of each year. Information for each case included age, gender, and the province in which the death occurred. In addition, reports of Hymenoptera sting accidents received by the Centro Nacional de Intoxicaciones (National Poison Center, CNI in 1995-2006 were obtained to assess exposure to these insects. RESULTS: Over the 22-year period analyzed, 52 fatalities due to Hymenoptera stings were recorded. Annual mortality rates varied from 0-1.73 per 1 million inhabitants, with a mean of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.93. The majority of deaths occurred in males (88.5%, representing a male to female ratio of 7.7:1. A predominance of fatalities was observed in the elderly (50 years of age and older, as well as in children less than 10 years of age. The province with the highest mortality rate was Guanacaste. The CNI documented 1 591 reports of Hymenoptera stings (mostly by bees in 1995-2006, resulting in an annual average of 133 cases, with only a slight predominance of males over females (1.4:1. CONCLUSIONS: Stings by Hymenoptera, mostly by bees, constitute a frequent occurrence in Costa Rica that can be life-threatening in a small proportion of cases, most often in males and the elderly. The annual number of fatalities fluctuated from 0-6, averaging 2.4 deaths per year. Awareness should be raised not only among the general population, but also among health care personnel that should consider this risk in the clinical management of patients stung by Hymenoptera.OBJETIVO: Analizar la mortalidad por picaduras de himenópteros en Costa Rica en el período de 1985 a 2006. MÉTODOS: Se obtuvieron los

  12. On Branchiostoma californiense (Cephalochordata from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Costa Rica

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    José A Vargas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The cephalochordates are represented by the lancelets, of which species of the genus Branchiostoma are the best known. In recent years, these organisms have been the center of activity of studies focusing on the phylogenetic relationships of the chordates. In 1980, a survey of the benthos at 48 stations in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, yielded 265 specimens of the lancelet Branchiostoma californiense. A total of 48 specimens was also collected at an intertidal flat in the mid upper estuary. Of the 48 subtidal stations, only eight had B. californiense, and these sites all had a sand fraction above 72%. The remaining stations ranged in their sand content from as low as 1% to as high as 92%, with an average of 25.9%, with 29 stations having a sand content lower than 72%. Lower salinities and muddy sediments may limit the distribution of the lancelet further upstream. This information is useful when changes over decades in the ecology of the estuary need to be evaluated against the background of local, regional, and global dynamics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1143-1148. Epub 2010 December 01.Los cefalocordados están representados por los anfioxos, de los que especies del género Branchiostoma son los más conocidos. En los últimos años, estos organismos han sido muy estudiados, principalmente sus relaciones filogenéticas. Durante 1980, realizamos un muestreo del bentos en 48 estaciones del Golfo de Nicoya, costa Pacífica de Costa Rica y reportamos 265 ejemplares del anfioxo, Branchiostoma californiense. También recolectamos un total de 48 individuos en una planicie fangosa de la zona entre mareas de la región superior media del estuario. De las 48 estaciones solamente en ocho encontramos especímenes de B. californiense y estos sitios tenían un porcentaje de arena superior al 72%. Las otras estaciones tenían un porcentaje de arena en un ámbito tan bajo como 1% y tan alto como 92%, con un promedio de 25.9%, 29

  13. Farmers, Markets and Contracts: Chain Integration of Smallholder Producers in Costa Rica

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    Ruerd Ruben

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming is frequently considered as an appropriate mechanism for integrating smallholders into dynamic markets. We discuss the rationale for the variety in contractual arrangements between small-scale producers and agro-processing firms in the Northern and Central region of Costa Rica. Different market configurations give rise to delivery conditions, ranging from spot market negotiations to verbal or written contracts. We analyse which types of farmers are typically engaged in each of these contractual arrangements, and what are the implications for their production and investment decisions. Main attention is given to the effects of institutional organization for equity, efficiency and sustainability. The analysis is based on detailed case studies for two non-traditional commodities (pepper and chayote. Results suggest that contracts provide an important insurance device for farmers meeting investment and information constraints, and offer incentive for more intensive input use. This suggests that contract farming may be a critical requirement enabling smallholders to enter into specialized markets.Resumen: Campesinos, mercados y contratos: La integración al mercado de los pequeños productores de Costa RicaFrecuentemente se considera a la agricultura de contrato como un mecanismo apropiado para fomentar la integración campesina en mercados dinámicos. Discutimos los fundamentos que explican la gran variedad en arreglos contractuales entre pequeños productores y empresas agroindustriales en la zona Norte y Central de Costa Rica. Diferentes configuraciones mercantiles inducen condiciones de suministro que varían entre negociaciones en el mercado mismo hasta contratos verbales y escritos. Aquí analizamos qué tipo de productores se relacionan normalmente en cada uno de estos arreglos contractuales, y cuáles son las implicaciones para sus decisiones de producción e inversión. Prestamos especial atención a los efectos de la

  14. El comercio internacional un instrumento para alcanzar el desarrollo de Costa Rica

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    Álvaro Martín Parada Gómez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El comercio internacional es un instrumento para la consecución del económico en los países subdesarrollados.  En Costa Rica las ventajas del libre comercio están asociadas a la generación de exportaciones, así como a la mayor producción y generación de nuevas oportunidades de empleo en comparación con las fuentes tradicionales.  No obstante, persisten desventajas asociadas al tamaño del país, la presencia de imperfecciones de mercado, las fuertes distorsiones causadas por la intervención estatal por la excesiva regulación, entre otras causas.  El propósito es explicar las ventajas y desventajas que tienen las empresas y los sectores productivos para competir en el comercio internacional y sugerir lineamientos estratégicos que fortalezcan la posición de las empresas en el mercado internacional.  Las dos principales interrogantes que orientan este trabajo son: ¿cuáles obstáculos enfrentan las empresas de países en desarrollo como Costa Rica para posicionarse exitosamente en los mercados internacionales?, y ¿cuál estrategia podría seguir Costa Rica para competir adecuadamente en esos mercados? La principal conclusión es que los tratados de libre comercio son instrumentos para la consecución del desarrollo económico y, por tanto, no es adecuado poner todos los esfuerzos en ellos como única fuente de superación de las múltiples necesidades sociales y económicas que experimentan las economías en desarrollo. Con seguridad, se requerirá formular políticas adicionales en el campo de la infraestructura, tecnología, salud, educación, entre otros, para posicionar mejor al país en los mercados internacionales.

  15. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, J B; van Weerd, J H; Huisman, E A; Verreth, J A J

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher amounts produced and, the potential use of these residues in fish feeds. In Costa Rica, during the 1993-1994 production season, major agricultural sectors (crop and livestock) generated a total amount of 3.15-3.25 million MT of residues (classified in by-products: used residues and wastes: not used residues). Some residues are treated to turn them into valuable items or to diminish their polluting effects (e.g., the so-called by-products). About 1.56-1.63 million MT of by-products were used for different purposes (e.g. fertilization, animal feeding, fuel, substrates in greenhouses). However, the remainder (1.59-1.62 million MT) was discharged into environment causing pollution. About 1.07-1.2 million MT wastes came from major crop systems (banana, coffee, sugarcane and oil palm) whereas the remainder came from animal production systems (porcine and poultry production, slaughtering). These data are further compared to residues estimates for the 2001-2002 production season coming from the biggest crops activities. Unfortunately, most of the studied wastes contain high levels of moisture and low levels of protein, and also contain variable amounts of antinutritional factors (e.g., polyphenols, tannins, caffeine), high fibre levels and some toxic substances and pesticides. All these reasons may limit the use of these agricultural wastes for animal feeding, especially in fish feeds. The potential use of the major vegetable and animal residues in fish feeds is discussed based on their nutritional composition, on their amount available over the year and on their pollution risks. Other constraints to use these wastes in fish feeds are the extra costs of drying and, in most cases

  16. Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases in Costa Rica: a feasibility study toward a national screening program

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    Catharina Wesseling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The integration of mental and neurologic services in healthcare is a global priority. The universal Social Security of Costa Rica aspires to develop national screening of neurodegenerative disorders among the elderly, as part of the non-communicable disease agenda. Objective: This study assessed the feasibility of routine screening for Parkinson's disease (PD and Alzheimer's disease (AD within the public healthcare system of Costa Rica. Design: The population (aged ≥65 in the catchment areas of two primary healthcare clinics was targeted for motor and cognitive screening during routine annual health check-ups. The screening followed a tiered three-step approach, with increasing specificity. Step 1 involved a two-symptom questionnaire (tremor-at-rest; balance and a spiral drawing test for motor assessment, as well as a three-word recall and animal category fluency test for cognitive assessment. Step 2 (for those failing Step 1 was a 10-item version of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Step 3 (for those failing Step 2 was a comprehensive neurologic exam with definitive diagnosis of PD, AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, other disorders, or subjects who were healthy. Screening parameters and disease prevalence were calculated. Results: Of the 401 screened subjects (80% of target population, 370 (92%, 163 (45%, and 81 (56% failed in Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3, respectively. Thirty-three, 20, and 35 patients were diagnosed with PD, AD, and MCI, respectively (7 were PD with MCI/AD; 90% were new cases. Step 1 sensitivities of motor and cognitive assessments regarding Step 2 were both 93%, and Step 2 sensitivities regarding definitive diagnosis 100 and 96%, respectively. Specificities for Step 1 motor and cognitive tests were low (23% and 29%, respectively and for Step 2 tests acceptable (76%, 94%. Based on international data, PD prevalence was 3.7 times higher than expected; AD prevalence

  17. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  18. Factores asociados a las Alteraciones del test de Papanicolaou Costa Rica, 2009

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    Leandra Abarca Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer cervicouterino es en el mundo y en Costa Rica una de las 3 primeras causas de cáncer en las mujeres. La detección temprana de lesiones premalignas o malignas mejora el pronóstico de las usuarias. Objetivo: Encontrar si hay factores asociados a las alteraciones de la citología vaginal en un área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Metodología: Estudio de casos y controles en usuarias de una área de salud urbana de Costa Rica durante 2009. Se definió caso como toda mujer residente de esa área que presentara una citología vaginal alterada, displasia leve, moderada, severa o carcinoma durante 2009. Los controles se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria simple, tomando como marco muestral el registro de mujeres que se habían realizado citologías vaginales durante el 2009 en esa área. La recolección de la información se hizo a través de un cuestionario. Se calcularon medidas de frecuencia, de tendencia central y dispersión, OR, IC 95 %. Resultados: Se incluyeron 62 casos y 137 controles. La edad promedio de los casos fue 43 años (DE±17. El ASCUS fue la lesión más frecuente 39 % (IC 95 %=22,43-51,93. Los factores asociados a la aparición de lesiones fueron tabaco (OR=2.35; IC 95 %=1,26-4,31, inicio de actividad sexual antes de 18 años (OR=2;I C 95 %=1,06-3,64 y haber tenido 3 o más compañeros sexuales (OR=2, 10;IC 95 % 1,11-3,97. Discusión: Se encontró similitud entre lo descrito en la literatura y lo hallado en este estudio. Se recomendó dar a conocer este estudio a las mujeres de esa área de salud, ya que los factores encontrados son modificables y además se planteó a la dirección del área realizar campañas de promoción y prevención que fomenten conductas sexuales sanas.

  19. Genetic diversity of Costa Rican populations of the rice planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Myriam; Quesada, Tania; Muñoz, Claudia; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is one of the main constraints of the rice production in the Neotropics. This planthopper produces severe damages as a phloem feeder, causes mechanical injury during oviposition and vectors the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV). The main objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of T. orizicolus populations from three rice growing regions of Costa Rica, using RAPDs. Individuals from Guanacaste, Parrita, San Carlos and Cali-Colombia, as outgroup, were analyzed using the random primers. Phenetic relationships revealed that the Costa Rican populations were clearly separated from Cali-Colombia, sharing less than 25% similarity. Costa Rican populations were divided into two main branches separated at 30% similarity. The first branch included Guanacaste and San Carlos and the second displayed Parrita. In relation to similarity indexes within groups, the Guanacaste cluster showed the highest (over 50%) and Cali-Colombia was the most diverse (28%). The correspondence analysis confirmed the clusters of the phenogram and showed close interactions between the Parrita and San Carlos populations. The genetic separation observed could be the result of the geographic isolation among populations, but it could also be explained by the infection with the rickettsia Wolbachia pipientis. This bacterium causes cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host, which results in non-viable progeny when infected males mate with non-infected females, or when insects hosting different strains of Wolbachia mate. Then, a search for Wolbachia in previously described populations of T orizicolus was initiated. The presence of the bacteria was analyzed by PCR with 16S rDNA-specific primers for Wolbachia. The PCR analyses revealed infections of 86% in the population of San Carlos, 96% in Guanacaste, 37% in Parrita and 100% in Cali-Colombia. Crosses between individuals of T. orizicolus from Parrita and Guanacaste were performed for testing

  20. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB