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Sample records for alam sampel air

  1. Penyisihan Fe dalam Air Tanah Menggunakan Zeolit Alam Banda Aceh Teraktivasi

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    Hasni Hasni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kajian ini membahas proses pemisahan logam besi dalam sampel air secara adsorpsi. Secara umum bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh perlakukan zeolit alam terhadap efisiensi penyisihan logam besi dalam sampel air baku. Proses adsorpsi menggunakan zeolit alam Banda Aceh dengan variasi ukuran partikel 40, 60, 80, dan 100 mesh.  Kadar besi (Fe dalam larutan sampel buatan adalah 1,25 mg/l agar mendekati kadar logam besi sesungguhnya. Kadar sampel asli air tanah dari Desa Alue Peunyareng Kabupaten Aceh Barat sebesar 1,1206 mg/l. Analisis kadar logam besi dilakukan dengan alat spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan adsorpsi maksimum diperoleh pada penyerapan dengan zeolit alam berukuran 100 mesh baik untuk sampel asli maupun sampel buatan. Aktivasi zeolit alam menaikkan kemampuan adsorpsi bahan penyerap hingga 154,72%. Kemampuan penyerapan yang dimiliki zeolit alam menurun hingga 92,25% manakala sampel yang diserap berupa air tanah karena sampel masih banyak mengandung bahan pengotor.

  2. Penurunan Kandungan Zat Kapur dalam Air Tanah dengan Menggunakan Media Zeolit Alam dan Karbon Aktif Menjadi Air Bersih

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    Gianina Qurrata Dinora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu syarat kimia yang harus dipenuhi dalam air bersih adalah kesadahan. Salah satu penyebab utama terjadinya kesadahan adalah kandungan Ca2+ (kesadahan kalsium atau biasanya disebut air kapur. Selain kandungan air kapur yang tinggi, penyebab air tanah tidak dapat langsung digunakan adalah kadungan besi dan mangan yang tinggi pula. Untuk itu, dibutuhkan unit filter skala rumah tangga yang dapat menjadi pengolahan alternatif untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air bersih. Penelitian ini  bertujuan untuk mendapatkan komposisi media filter yang efektif dan effisien untuk penyisihan kesadahan kalsium, Fe, dan Mn dalam air tanah dan mendapatkan waktu breakthrough. Media filter yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah media zeolit alam dan karbon aktif disusun secara stratifikasi dengan perbandingan ketinggian pada masing-masing reaktor filter. Media filter tersebut akan dialiri dengan tiga variasi konsentrasi kesdahan kalsium. Hasil dari penelitian ini, didapatkan komposisi media yang paling efektif dalam menurunkan kandungan kesadahan kalsium adalah komposisi III dengan perbandingan ketinggian media zeolit alam dan karbon aktif sebesar 30 cm : 60 cm. Pada variasi konsentrasi 1 mampu melakukan penyisihan sebesar 96,52%, konsentrasi 2 mampu melakukan penyisihan sampai 94,67%, dan konsentrasi 3 mampu melakukan penyisihan sebesar 90,22%

  3. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

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    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia�s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

  4. PROSPEKTIF LEMPUNG ALAM CENGAR SEBAGAI ADSORBEN POLUTAN ANORGANIK DI DALAM AIR: KAJIAN KINETIKA ADSORPSI KATION Co(II

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    Muhdarina Muhdarina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kemampuan lempung alam Cengar untuk melepaskan kation Co(II dari air limbah model telah diuji dengan proses adsorpsi. Lempung alam Cengar diimpregnasi dengan larutan garam ammonium 1 molar untuk meningkatkan kemampuan adsorpsinya. Kapasitas adsorpsi kation Co(II oleh lempung Cengar yang diimpregnasi meningkat di bawah pengaruh waktu kontak dan menurun dengan temperatur. Beberapa model kinetika yaitu order-pertama pseudo, order-kedua pseudo, model Elovich dan difusi intra-partikel telah digunakan untuk mengevaluasi kinetika dan mekanisme interaksi Co(II pada lempung Cengar. Mekanisme adsorpsi Co(II-lempung Cengar mengikuti kinetika order-kedua pseudo pada waktu perolehan adsorbat maksimum 120 menit. Dengan model Elovich didapatkan adsorben lempung Cengar memiliki permukaan yang heterogen. Energi aktivasi proses adsorpsi juga dievaluasi di bawah pengaruh temperatur dan didapatkan energi aktivasi yang negatif.

  5. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

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    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh; Siti Nur Afiqah Mohamed Musthafa; Noralizawati Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation) and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant). Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. T...

  6. Penurunan Kandungan Zat Kapur dalam Air Tanah dengan Menggunakan Media Zeolit Alam dan Karbon Aktif Menjadi Air Bersih

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    Gianina Qurrata Dinora; Alfan Purnomo

    2013-01-01

    Salah satu syarat kimia yang harus dipenuhi dalam air bersih adalah kesadahan. Salah satu penyebab utama terjadinya kesadahan adalah kandungan Ca2+ (kesadahan kalsium) atau biasanya disebut air kapur. Selain kandungan air kapur yang tinggi, penyebab air tanah tidak dapat langsung digunakan adalah kadungan besi dan mangan yang tinggi pula. Untuk itu, dibutuhkan unit filter skala rumah tangga yang dapat menjadi pengolahan alternatif untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air bersih. Penelitian ini  bertujuan...

  7. Penurunan Kandungan Zat Kapur dalam Air Tanah dengan Menggunakan Filter Media Zeolit Alam dan Pasir Aktif Menjadi Air Bersih

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    Qorry Nugrahayu; Alfan Purnomo

    2013-01-01

    Salah satu syarat yang harus terpenuhi dalam kualitas air minum dalam parameter kimia adalah kesadahan. Salah satu kesadahan adalah kesadahan kalsium atau yang lebih sering dikenal dengan air kapur. Pada umumnya air tanah atau air sumur mempunyai tingkat kesadahan yang tinggi. Masalah lain yang timbul dari air tanah adalah kandungan Fe dan Mn yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh komposisi media filter yang efektif dan efisien untuk mereduksi kesadahan Kalsium, Fe dan Mn dala...

  8. MANAJEMEN PEMELIHARAAN INDUK ABALON (Haliotis asinina HASIL TANGKAPAN DARI ALAM

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    Septyan Andriyanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan satu jenis kekerangan yang mempunyai nilai gizi yang cukup tinggi serta kelezatan rasanya. Usaha budidaya abalon memiliki nilai ekonomis yang tinggi, namun untuk produksinya sebagian masih mengandalkan hasil tangkapan dari alam. Dalam rangka menghasilkan induk dengan tingkat produksi yang tinggi diperlukan pengetahuan terkait manajemen pemeliharaan induk terutama yang berasal dari alam. Manajemen pemeliharaan induk yang sesuai prosedur meliputi pengumpulan induk, seleksi induk, penanganan induk, pengelolaan pakan dan penyakit, serta pengelolaan air media pemeliharaan. Apabila seluruh aspek tersebut dijalankan sesuai standar dan prosedur yang ditetapkan, diharapkan akan diperoleh induk dengan tingkat produksi yang tinggi serta benih yang berkualitas, sehingga produksi tidak selalu mengandalkan dari alam.

  9. Alam dalam Pandangan Abu Hamid al-Ghazali

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    Irwan Malik Marpaung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pernyataan bahwa alam ini muncul bersamaan dengan Zat Tuhan berimplikasi kepada adanya persaingan antara alam dengan Tuhan dalam eksistensinya. Benarkah Tuhan yang menciptakan alam? Jika benar, kapan Tuhan mulai menciptakannya? Dan mengapa Tuhan tidak menciptakannya pada waktu yang lain? Di antara para Filsuf Muslim pun terdapat ragam pendapat yang jika kita salah dalam memahaminya, akan menyebabkan seseorang mengingkari eksistensi Tuhan. Salah satu pendapat yang cukup menarik untuk dicermati adalah konsep alam menurut al-Ghazali. Ia merupakan salah satu filosof dan teolog Muslim yang terkenal yang dengan kedalaman ilmunya membuat ia digelar sebagai hujjah al-Islam. Makalah ini akan membahas konsepsi al-Ghazali tentang alam yang tersusun terutama dari kritik al-Ghazali terhadap argumentasi para filsuf berupa argumen Tarjih dan Murajjih, argumen Taqaddum Zamani, argumentasi al-Imkan, serta argumen materi. Melalui makalah sederhana ini akan dipaparkan pemikiran al-Ghazali mengenai alam, sekaligus membantah beberapa konsep para filosof barat dengan nas-nas yang otentik.

  10. SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS SUMBER DAYA ALAM INDONESIA BERBASIS WEB

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    Bambang Robi’in

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sistem informasi geografis merupakan teknologi untuk mengelola, menganalisis dan menyebarkan informasi geografis yang berkaitan dengan tata letak keruangan dan informasi-informasi yang terkait. Berkaitan dengan sumber daya alam, maka informasi geografis akan berisi mengenai lokasi suatu daerah, dan informasi mengenai sumber daya alam yang terkandung pada daerah tersebut. Perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi kapan saja pada alam berkaitan dengan penambahan atau pengurangan data akan dapat dilakukan secara uptodate tanpa harus membuat baru. Dalam membangun sistem informasi geografis sumber daya alam indonesia indonesia ini menggunakan mapserver sebagai server pemetaan dan script php sebagai bahasa pemrograman web dalam membangun halaman web. Penelitian dilakukan melalui empat tahap yaitu Persiapan, Perancangan, Implementasi, dan tahap Uji coba. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah Sistem informasi geografis yang menampilkan peta digital dapat disimpan dalam bentuk shape file yang dapat dibuat menggunakan salah satu perangkat lunak sistem nformasi berbasis desktop yaitu ArcView. Selain itu, Sistem infomasi geografis sumber daya alam dapat dijadikan sebagai salah satu sumber inforasi mengenai sebaran sumber daya alam indonesia yang dapat diakses oleh masyarakat luas baik dari dalam maupun luar negeri.

  11. AKTIVASI ZEOLIT ALAM SEBAGAI ADSORBEN PADA ALAT PENGERING BERSUHU RENDAH

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    Laeli Kurniasari

    2012-04-01

    penggunaan zeolit sebagai adsorben uap air. Proses pengeringan dengan menggunakan zeolit sebagai adsorben ini memungkinkan operasi pengeringan dilakukan pada suhu rendah sehingga sesuai untuk bahan yang tidak tahan panas. Zeolit alam merupakan salah satu alternatif bahan adsorben. Akan tetapi zeolit ini harus diaktivasi terlebih dahulu untuk mendapatkan zeolit dengan kemampuan adsorpsi yang tinggi. Proses aktivasi pada zeolit akan merubah rasio Si/Al zeolit, polaritas serta afinitas zeolit terhadap air dan meningkatkan pori-pori zeolit Adsorpsi zeolit alam dilakukan dengan dua cara yaitu dengan NaOH dan dengan panas. Pada aktivasi dengan NaOH, zeolit dicampur dengan NaOH 0,5-2N selama 2 jam pada suhu 60-900C. Sementara pada aktivasi fisis, zeolit dipanaskan pada 200-5000C selama 2-5 jam. Untuk mengetahui perubahan struktur pori zeolit maka dilakukan analisa SEM dan untuk mengetahui kemampuan adsorpsi zeolit maka dilakukan analisa daya adsorpsi zeolit terhadap uap air pada berbagai suhu dan berbagai kelembaban relatif. Hasil menujukkan bahwa pada aktivasi dengan NaOH diperoleh kondisi aktivasi terbaik adalah NaOH 1N pada pemanasan 700C dengan daya adsorpsi 0,171 gr uap air/gr adsorben. Sementara untuk aktivasi dengan panas, kondisi aktivasi terbaik adalah pemanasan 3000C selama 3 jam dengan daya adsorpsi 0,137 gr uap air/gr adsorben.

  12. PAKU ALAM V: SANG ARISTO-MODERNIS DARI TIMUR

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    Sudibyo Sudibyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recites Paku Alam V figures as an ambiguity subject and a cultural paradox. He lived in a kingdom economic crisis and a rapid flow of changes in politics, economy, laws, and lifestyle aspects which is caused by other colonial social elements. The analysis focuses on psychological, religious, and cultural aspects which form his personality. To achieve the goal, it uses post colonialism concerning in contact zone, textual studies and historical context. The textual studies are used to explain the role modernization in genealogy, consistence, and Paku Alam V mind revolution. The historical context is used to explain the historical background, especially related to zeitgeist, when Paku Alam V implemented his ideas.Keywords: aristocrat, paradox, text, context. Tulisan ini mengkaji sosok Paku Alam V sebagai subjek ambiguitas dan paradoks kebudayaan. Ia hidup di tengah krisis ekonomi kerajaan dan arus perubahan yang deras di bidang politik, ekonomi, hukum dan gaya hidup yang dihembuskan oleh kekuasaan dan elemen-elemen masyarakat kolonial lainnya. Analisis difokuskan pada aspek-aspek psikologis, religious, dan kultural yang membentuk pribadinya. Untuk mencapai tujuan itu, digunakan teori poskolonialisme tentang zona kontak dan kajian teks serta konteks sejarah. Kajian teks  digunakan untuk menjelaskan peran modernisasi dalam   genealogi, konsistensi, dan evolusi atau revolusi pemikiran P.A. V. Konteks sejarah digunakan untuk menjelaskan latar belakang sejarah, khususnya yang berkaitan dengan zeitgeist saat P.A. V mengimplementasikan gagasan-gagasannya. Kata kunci: aristrokat, modernis, paradoks, teks, konteks 

  13. DETEKSI DAN SPESIASI PARASIT MALARIA SAMPEL MONITORING PENGOBATAN DIHYDROARTEMISININ-PIPERAQUINE DI KALIMANTAN DAN SULAWESI: MIKROSKOPIS VS POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

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    Reni Herman

    2012-07-01

    . Sampel diambil pada hari 0, dibuat sediaan apus darah pada kaca benda dan sediaan tetes darah (Blood spot pada kertas saring. Terhadap sediaan apus darah dilakukan pemeriksaan mikroskopis, dan terhadap sediaan tetes darah dilakukan pemeriksaan PCR. Metode PCR yang digunakan adalah multiplex single round Polymerase Chain Reaction yang telah dimodifikasi, pemeriksaan masing-masing spesies dilakukan pada tabung yang berbeda untuk membedakan spesies P.falciparum atau P. Vivax. Target amplifikasi DNA adalah gen species-specific sequences pada small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA, 300 bp untuk P.falciparum dan P.vivax. P.falciparum dan P.vivax diidentifikasi pada 229 sampel berupa sediaan apus darah pada kaca benda dan blood spot. Hasil identifikasi dengan mikroskopis dan PCR, sampel positif 93,4% dan negatif 6,6% dengan  sensitifitas 99% dan spesifisitas 93,3%. Sensitifitas dan spesifisitas P.falciparum adalah 92% dan 99%, P.vivax 97% dan 94%, dihitung dengan PCR sebagai baku standar. Terdapat perbedaan hasil pemeriksaan terhadap 5 sampel, yaitu dengan pemeriksaan mikroskopis diidentifikasi sebagai P.vivax sementara pada pemeriksaan PCR sebagai P.falciparum. Pada penelitian ini, hasil identifikasi parasit dengan mikroskopis sama dengan hasil identifikasi dengan PCR, namun berbeda pada penentuan jenis parasit. Secara umum kemampuan tenaga mikroskopis pusat untuk menegakkan diagnosis malaria sudah sangat baik, namun untuk penentuan jenis Plasmodium masih memerlukan konfirmasi PCR.

  14. KAJIAN ADSORPSI HORMON PENGATUR TUMBUH ASAM GIBERELIN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN BENTONIT ALAM

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    Ula Nurul Fadlilah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan adsorpsi asam giberelin dengan menggunakan bentonit alam hasil purifikasi. Proses purifikasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan larutan H2O2. Bentonit alam hasil purifikasi dikarakterisasi dengan Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR dan X-Ray difraction (XRD. Jumlah asam giberelin yang teradsorpsi diukur dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer UV-vis. Proses adsorpsi dilakukan dengan sistem batch dan variasi pH larutan asam giberelin, variasi waktu adsorpsi, variasi kadar bentonit alam serta variasi konsentrasi asam giberelindilakukan untuk mengetahui kapasitas adsorpsi GA3. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bentonit alam dapat mengadsorpsi asam giberelin pada pH larutan asam giberelin optimum pada pH 3, waktu optimum adsorpsi pada 2 jam, kadar bentonit alam pada 1,5 gram dan konsentrasi optimum asam giberelin pada 70 ppm. Model isoterm adsorpsi GA3 mengikuti model isoterm Freundlich.

  15. OPTIMASI TEMPERATUR HIDRODESULFURISASI TIOFEN TERKATALISIS NI-MO/ZEOLIT ALAM

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    Harjito -

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan kajian mengenai pengaruh temperatur hidrodesulfurisasi terhadap produk hidrodesulfurisasi tiofen. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui temperatur optimum hidrodesulfurisasi tiofen dengan katalis Ni-Mo/zeolite alam. Variasi temperatur yang dilakukan adalah 3000C, 3500Cdan 4000C. Katalis Ni-Mo/Zeolit alam dipreparasi secara koimpregnasi. Proses hidrodesulfurisasi dilakukan dengan umpan campuran tiofen-n-heksan dengan komposisi 1:1. Sebagai gas pembawa digunakan gas hydrogen dengan laju alir 25 mL/menit. Hasil hidrodesulfurisasi didinginkan dan dianalisis dengan kromatografi gas. Hasil analisis menunjukkan terjadinya peningkatan jumlah produk dan komponen produk pada setiap kenaikan temperatur 500C. Namun demikian kenaikan jumlah produk pada kenaikan temperatur dari 3500C ke 4000C jika dibandingkan dengan kenaikan produk pada kenaikan temperatur dari 3000C ke 3500C tidak cukup signifikan. Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa temperatur hidrodesulfurisasi tiofen terkatalisis Ni-Mo/Zeolit alam adalah 3500C. The study on the effect of temperature on the product tiofen hydrodesulfurization by using Ni/Mo/natural tiofen-n-hexane. The study was done conducted to determine the optimum temperature of  hydrodesulfurization tiofen by using Ni-Mo/ natural zeolite catalyst and the temperature variation was 300oC, 350oC dan 400oC. The Ni-Mo/ natural Zeolit  catalysts were prepared by coimpregnation and hydrodesulfurization process was done by tiofen-n-hexane feed mixture with composition of 1:1, hydrogen gas was used as a carrier gas with a flow rate 25 ml/min. The result of  hydrodesulfurization was cooled and analyzed by gas chromatography  and it revealed an increasing number of products and product components at for each 50°C rising of temperature. However, the increasing of number of products on the temperature rise of  350°C to 400°C was not significant if compared to the increasing of product temperature that increased

  16. PEMANFAATAN ENERGI ALTERNATIF GAS ALAM TERKOMPRESI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR MESIN PENGGERAK KAPAL NELAYAN TRADISIONAL

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    Ari Wibawa Budi S; Reza Shah Alam

    2013-01-01

    Mesin Diesel adalah mesin yang paling banyak di gunakan oleh para nelayan tradisional untukopersional penangkapan ikan. Kenikan harga dan tidak stabilnya pasokan BBM akan meresahkanmasyarakat nelayan. Untuk itu harus ada upaya pemanfaatan energi alternatif yang bersumber selain dariBBM dan juga ramah lingkungan. Salah satu energi alternatif adalah energi gas alam (natural gas)diantaranya bahan bakar gas alam terkompresi atau Compressed Natural Gas. Penggunaan bahan CNGpada mesin kapal adalah ...

  17. Desain Pabrik ETHYLENE dari Gas Alam Di Teluk Bintuni Papua Barat

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    Randhi Ramdhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia adalah salah satu dari sedikit Negara dengan keanekaragaman sumber daya alam yang melimpah sebagai bahan baku utama industri petrokimia berupa minyak bumi, gas alam, batu bara dan biomassa. Ketersediaan bahan baku tersebut dapat mendorong perkembangan industri petrokimia yang merupakan penopang industri nasional dalam upaya pemenuhan kebutuhan manusia terhadap pangan, sandang, papan dan energi. Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara yang kaya akan sumber daya alam gas, sehingga sumberdaya alam tersebut merupakan penopang utama pembangunan di Indonesia. Berdasarkan data Departemen ESDM pada januari 2012, total cadangan gas alam Indonesia tercatat mencapai 150,70 Trillion Standard Cubic Feet (TSCF. Dari jumlah tersebut, sebanyak 103,35 TSCF merupakan gas alam terbukti, sementara 47.35 TSCF sisanya belum terbukti atau potensial. Memasuki era perdagangan, Indonesia dituntut untuk mampu bersaing dengan Negara lain dalam bidang industri. Inovasi yang berorientasi pada pengurangan ketergantungan kita pada produk luar negeri mampu untuk menambah devisa negara sangat diperlukan. Salah satu industri manufaktur strategis yang memiliki peranan penting dalam struktur industri nasional adalah industri petrokimia. Salah satu produk yang dihasilkan dari industri petrokimia adalah ethylene. Etena (Ethylene adalah senyawa kimia yang memiliki rumus C2H4 yang memiliki sifat-sifat : olefin paling ringan, tidak berwarna, tidak berbau, dan mudah terbakar. Adapun penggunaan etena dalam dunia industri cukup luas antara lain : sebagai bahan baku industri kimia ethylene oksida, polyethylene, ethylene benzene, PVC, dan ethylene glikol. Ethylene dapat diproduksi dari beberapa sumber yaitu naptha dan gas alam. Dimana beberapa pabrik yang memproduksi ethylene antara lain Siemens Oil dan Gas Industri yang memproduksi sekitar 800.000 ton/tahun, Toyo Engineering Corporation yang mendirikan pabrik di Jepang pada tahun 1966 memproduksi ethylene sebesar 200.000 ton

  18. KARAKTERISASI KATALIS Pt-Pd/ZEOLIT ALAM REGENERASI PADA REAKSI HIDRODENITROGENASI PIRIDIN

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    Dina Asnawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang Karakterisasi Katalis Pt-Pd/Zeolit Alam Regenerasi pada Reaksi Hidrodenitrogenasi Piridin. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari karakter katalis Pt-Pd/zeolit alam baru, bekas dan hasil regenerasi pada hidrodenitrogenisasi piridin. Katalis Pt-Pd/zeolit alam terdeaktivasi diregenerasi dengan cara dioksidasi dengan gas O2 pada temperatur 350oC selama 2 jam, dan direduksi dengan gas H2 pada temperatur 400oC selama 1 jam. Karakterisasi katalis baru (fresh, terdeaktivasi dan terregenerasi meliputi penentuan luas permukaan, volume pori dan rerata jejari pori dengan alat Gas Sorption Analyzer NOVA-1000 berdasarkan adsorpsi gas N2 serta penentuan keasaman dengan metode adsorpsi gas amoniak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa deaktivasi katalis menyebabkan penurunan luas permukaan spesifik, volume total pori dan keasaman katalis, sedangkan proses regenerasi pada katalis bekas dengan metode oksidasi dan reduksi meningkatkan luas permukaan spesifik, volume total pori, rerata jejari pori dan keasaman katalis.

  19. DETEKSI P.VIVAX SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM (SNP Y976F DARI SAMPEL MONITORING PENGOBATAN DIHIDROARTEMISININ-PIPERAKUIN DI KALIMANTAN DAN SULAWESI

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    Ervi Salwati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was a part of the activity of monitoring Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine (DHP treatment in subjects infected with P.falciparum and P.vivax in Kalimantan and Sulawesi. SNP Y976F had been proved as the mutation in pvmdr1 gene which was related to P. vivax resistance chloroquine in Papua. Data of spreading pvmdr1 SNP Y976F outside Papua is needed for using Dihidroartemisinin-Piperakuin policy in the treatment of vivax malaria in Indonesia. Detection of SNP Y976F was done against 95 day0-samples of subjects confirmed infected with P.vivax or mixed infection of P.vivax and P.falciparum by PCR. The results showed that 88 (93% of a total 95 samples were positive detected 976F mutant which were distributed in all sentinel sites of West Kalimantan (2of 3, Central Kalimantan (6 of 8, North Sulawesi (63 of 65, and Central Sulawesi (17 of 19.  In conclusion,  pvmdr1 SNP Y976F has been spreaded in all sentinel sites. Key words: P.vivax, pvmdr1, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Abstrak Penelitian ini merupakan bagian kegiatan dari monitoring pengobatan Dihidroartemisinin-Piperakuin (DHP pada subyek yang terinfeksi dengan P.vivax atau infeksi campuran P.falciparum dan P. vivax di Kalimantan dan Sulawesi. SNP Y976F merupakan mutasi pada gen pvmdr1 yang terbukti berhubungan dengan P. vivax resisten klorokuin di Papua. Dalam rangka kebijakan penggunaan Dihidroartemisinin-Piperakuin untuk pengobatan malaria vivaks di seluruh Indonesia, perlu data penyebaran parasit SNP Y976F pada gen pvmdr1 di luar Papua. Deteksi SNP Y976F dilakukan terhadap 95 sampel H0 subyek terinfeksi P. vivax atau infeksi campuran P.vivax dan P.falciparum yang telah dikonfirmasi dengan PCR. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa 88 dari 95 sampel (93%  terdeteksi positif galur mutan 976F yang tersebar di  Kalimantan Barat (2 dari 3, Kalimantan Tengah (6 dari 8, Sulawesi Utara (63 dari 65 dan Sulawesi Tengah (17 dari 19. Kesimpulannya bahwa P.vivax galur Y976F sudah tersebar di setiap

  20. Membaca Pertanda Zaman (Eksploitasi Alam oleh Manusia: Sebuah Interpretasi dalam Karya Seni Patung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Budhi Wantoro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membaca Pertanda Zaman (Eksploitasi Alam oleh Manusia: Sebuah Interpretasi dalamKarya Seni Patung mewakili bentuk-bentuk eksploitasi alam yang dilakukan olehmanusia adalah sebuah konsep penciptaan karya seni patung sebagai ungkapanpribadi penulis dalam menanggapi, merespons, dan merasakan fenomena eksploitasiyang kebablasan. Berdasarkan observasi, ide, dan sikap kreatif, penulis mencobamenafsirkan dan merepresentasikan gejala serta bentuk eksploitasi alam tersebutdalam bahasa patung yang kaya dengan unsur bentuk, ruang, dan volume. Konsepini, menjadikan alam sebagai objek eksploitasi yang direpresentasikan dalam bentukbatu alami yang sekaligus menjadi media penulis untuk membaca pertanda zaman.Selain itu, konsep etika lingkungan seperti Biosentrime dan konsep kejawen,yaitu Hamemayu Hayuning Bawana (bhs. Jawa yang menjadi jiwa agar kelahiranpatung tersebut menjadi simbol keseimbangan antara manusia dan alam. Dalamhal ini sebongkah batu sebagai metafora dari alam dipecah, diiris, dibor, dan digesersebagai sebuah simbol bentuk eksploitasi yang dilakukan manusia terhadap alam.Kontradiksi antara manusia berteknologi dengan alam, dimetaforakan dalam prosesberkarya, yaitu dengan menggunakan peralatan mekanik ataupun mesin. Alat tersebutsebagai ekses dari perlakukan manusia terhadap alam demi kepentingan dankelangsungan hidup manusia. Sikap penulis yang tetap menghargai alam ditranformasikandalam wujud karya dengan membiarkan karakter batu tetap terjaga alamiahnya.Hasil penciptaan karya seni patung ini, selain memunculkan nilai estetik danbermakna simbolis, juga memberikan corak baru dalam seni rupa khususnya senipatung, serta memberikan ciri khas jati diri penulis dalam penciptaan seni patung. Understanding the Sign of an Era: Nature Exploitation by Human Being- anInterpretation on the Works of Sculpture. Understanding the sign of an era throughthe art of sculpture is one of writer’s expressions in interpreting the form of natureexploitation by

  1. Supply Chain of Organic Salak Pondoh (Salacca zalacca var.pondoh in Pagar Alam City- South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herfiani Rizkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a continued research of sertification of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam. This aim of this study is to get informations about characteristic and condition of organik Salak var. pondoh supply chain in Pagar Alam City, South Sumatera. In year 2012, the Sertification organic agencies (LSO of West Sumatera have delivered organic sertification to about 5 ha land area of Salak var pondoh of Dempo’s farmer group. Since that time, the production of an organic Salak pondoh in Pagar Alam city increased every year, from 1.27ton per year in 2011 become 1.42 ton per year in 2013 for every 0.25 Ha of  land area. The price of organic salak var. Pondoh Pagar Alam ranged from IDR 5000 until IDR 12000 at level of farmer and from 10000 until IDR 15000 in level of consumers. The actor in Supply chain of organic Salak var.pondoh in Pagar Alam, covering : farmer,  group of farmer, distributor, and or outlet (a place of bussiness for retailing salak, and retailer/domestic consumers. The activities along the supply chain of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam covering : harvesting, collecting and shelters of harvest, cleaning, sortation, grading and distribution.

  2. AKTIVITAS HARIAN KERA EKOR PANJANG (Macaca fascicularis DI TAMAN WISATA ALAM SANGEH, KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Gede Wahyu Saputra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis telah dilakukan di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh, Kabupaten Badung, Bali dari bulan Oktober – Desember 2012. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perilaku harian kera ekor panjang (M.  fascicularis di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh. Penelitian perilaku harian kera dilakukan dengan metode Focal Animal Sampling. Data yang terkumpul dari berbagai jenis perilaku di analisa secara deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa frekuensi aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang didominasi oleh perilaku bergerak, kemudian berturut-turut diikuti oleh perilaku istirahat, makan, grooming, mendekap di dada, objek manipulasi, cuddling, agresif. sedangkan perilaku yang paling jarang dilakukan adalah kawin. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin individu dewasa, perilaku istirahat, makan, bergerak, agresif, objek manipulasi dan kawin didominasi oleh jantan sedangkan perilaku mendekap di dada, cuddling, dan grooming di dominasi oleh betina.

  3. Model Meksint Korefsi dengan Pendekatan Jelajah Alam Sekitar pada Pembelajaran Struktur Tubuh Hewan

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Alimah; Supriyanto -; Nur Rahayu Utami

    2014-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian adalah menghasilkan model meksint korefsi dengan pendekatan Jalajah Alam Sekitar pada pembelajaran Struktur Tubuh Hewan sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai salah satu alternatif kegiatan perkuliahan Struktur Tubuh Hewan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Research& Development dengan tahapan sebagai berikut: planning, design, dan development dengan 2 tahap evaluasi yaitu: uji alpha, uji betha, dan uji lapangan. Hasil uji alpha pada model pembelajaran meksi...

  4. Pemanfaatan Zeolit Alam Teraktivasi untuk Adsorpsi Logam Krom (Cr3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanti Emelda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pertukaran ion antara Cr3+ dan H+ menggunakan zeolit sebagai penukar ion adalah salah satu metode untuk memurnikan air dari ion kromium. Zeolit adalah senyawa aluminosilikat tetrahedral dengan struktur ikatan 3-dimesi, memiliki pori bagian dalam, dan luas permukaan yang tinggi, karena itu dapat digunakan sebagai adsorben. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh waktu kontak optimum, suhu, dan konsentrasi kromium terhadap kapasitas penyerapan. Tahap pertama adalah mencampur zeolit yang telah diaktifkan dengan larutan kromium (10 ppm kromium dalam tangki berpengaduk pada 25oC. Selanjutnya larutan diambil setiap 60 menit hingga konsentrasi residu larutan kromium konstan. Proses adsorpsi dilangsungkan pada suhu berbeda yaitu:  25, 30, 35, 40, 45, dan 50 oC. Untuk uji adsorpsi isotermal, pada suhu dengan hasil penyerapan terbaik divariasikan konsentrasi kromiumnya yaitu: 10, 20, 40, 60, dan 100 ppm. Dosis adsorben yang digunakan adalah 3 gram adsorbent/200 mL larutan krommium dengan kecepatan pengaduk 240 rpm. Larutan kromium dideteksi dengan menggunakan Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS atau Spektroskopi Serapan Atom. Waktu kontak optimum diperoleh 3 jam menggunakan zeolit yang diaktifkan dengan asam, diperoleh nilai adsorpsi optimum 99,275%. Proses adsorpsi berjalan secara eksoterm, memiliki ?Ho = -3.9574,6 J/mol dan ?So = -117.227 J/moloK. Model isotermal adsorpsi mengikuti isoterm Freundlich menurut persamaan Qe = 0,044463C1/2,5125, kapasitas penyerapan Kf = 0,044463 mmol/gram adsorben, dan intensitas adsorpsi n = 2,5125.

  5. PEMANFAATAN ENERGI ALTERNATIF GAS ALAM TERKOMPRESI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR MESIN PENGGERAK KAPAL NELAYAN TRADISIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Wibawa Budi S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesin Diesel adalah mesin yang paling banyak di gunakan oleh para nelayan tradisional untukopersional penangkapan ikan. Kenikan harga dan tidak stabilnya pasokan BBM akan meresahkanmasyarakat nelayan. Untuk itu harus ada upaya pemanfaatan energi alternatif yang bersumber selain dariBBM dan juga ramah lingkungan. Salah satu energi alternatif adalah energi gas alam (natural gasdiantaranya bahan bakar gas alam terkompresi atau Compressed Natural Gas. Penggunaan bahan CNGpada mesin kapal adalah dengan sistem bahan bakar ganda/Dual Fuel system yaitu system bahan bakaryang menggunakan 2 (dua jenis bahan bakar sekaligus di dalam bekerjanya motor penggerak yaitu BBGCNGdan BBM-Solar melalui penggunaan CNG Conversion kit. Setelah dilakukan pengujianPerbandingan konsumsi bahan bakar pada operasional kapal, Penggunaan solar sebanyak 10 liter dengannilai Rp. 45 ribu, setelah dilakukan konversi pengunaan BBM setara dengan penggunaan 2 liter solar dan6 liter CNG sehingga nelayan dapat menghemat sebanyak Rp. 16.500 dengan asumsi harga CNG yangberlaku saat ini sebesar Rp. 3.250 per liter. Jika semakin tinggi harga minyak solar dan harga CNG tetapatau mengalami penurunan maka efisiensi dan penghematan biaya operasional semakin besar. Penelitianini diharapkan mampu memberikan solusi penggunaan bahan bakar alternatif yang bisa mengurangi biayaopersional nelayan sehingga pendapatan dan kesejahteraan nelayan bisa meningkat

  6. Penentuan Kadar Kesadahan Total Dalam Air Baku Dan Air Bersih Dengan Titrasi Kompleksiometri Di PT Inalum Kuala Tanjung

    OpenAIRE

    Irmaliasari Banurea

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar kesadahan total air sungai Tanjung yang merupakan sumber air baku yang diolah menjadi air bersih di PT INALUM KUALA TANJUNG. Analisis air ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode titrasi kompleksiometri dengan menggunakan larutan EDTA dan indikator EBT. Air baku dari sungai dan air bersih yang dianalisa masing-masing 10 sampel dan pengolahan air sungai ini memberikan kadar kesadahan total seperti ditetapkan menurut KEP MENKES RI NO. 416/ MENKES/ PER/ IX/ 1990.

  7. Pembuatan Busa Poliuretan Alam Dari Isolasi Lignin Dengan Aditif Tawas Untuk Penjernihan Air

    OpenAIRE

    Syahidah, Zulfa Ummu

    2015-01-01

    This research purposed to learn the influence of the addition alum on foam polyurethane to flow time of the filtering brackish water. This research consists of some steps, are isolation of lignin from teak powder, synthesize of foam polyurethane-alum (50%-50%; 40%-60%; 30%-70%; 20%-80%; 10%-90%), characterization foam polyurethane-alum, analyze of permeability, and analyze parameter of brackish water include pH, turbidity, and total solid suspended (TSS). The brackish water before filtering u...

  8. Pemanfaatan Zeolit Alam Pahae Modifikasi sebagai Filter Uap Air pada Proses Elektrolisa

    OpenAIRE

    Zebua, Fynnisa

    2016-01-01

    The water vapour filter based on natural pahae zeolite has been succesfully manufactured by pouring the zeolit powder in 6 % H2SO4 solution and followed by heating it at 7000C, 8000C, and 9000C respectively. To improve the water vapour filter absorbility of zeolite, rind cocoa was used as filler. Whole to increase the chemical bonding between the matrik and filler, the clay was mixed with zeolite and rind cocoa. In this case, water vapour filtered come from an electrolysis process. The filter...

  9. Studi Pembuatan Pupuk Kalium Sulfat dari Abu Sekam Padi dan Gipsum Alam Menggunakan Reaktor Tangki Berpengaduk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Husin Ismayanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proses pembuatan pupuk kalium sulfat umumnya dibuat dari asam klorida dan bahan baku yang mengandung anion sulfat (SO4. Dalam penelitian ini, pembuatan pupuk kalium sulfat dari bahan baku batuan gipsum alam sebagai sumber sulfat dan abu sekam padi sebagai sumber kalium telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji kemungkinan pembuatan pupuk kalium sulfat dari gipsum alam dan abu sekam padi dan juga mengetahui pengaruh kecepatan pengadukan, temperatur operasi dan waktu proses terhadap persentase konversi kalium sulfat yang dihasilkan. Dalam penelitian ini juga dipelajari kinetika reaksi yang terjadi selama proses pembentukan kalium sulfat. Proses pembuatan pupuk kalium sulfat dilakukan dalam reaktor tangki berpengaduk. Varibel berubah dari penelitian ini adalah kecepatan putaran pengaduk, temperatur proses, dan waktu reaksi. Untuk menganalisis produk yang dihasilkan, metode yang digunakan mengacu pada Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI 02-2809-2005. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pupuk kalium sulfat dapat dihasilkan dari reaksi antara gipsum yang mengandung kalsium sulfat dan abu sekam padi yang mengandung kalium karbonat dengan konversi kalium dari endapan sebesar 99,87% dan konversi kalium dari filtrat sebanyak 18,22%. Nilai konversi sulfat dari endapan hanya sebesar 0,69% dan nilai konversi sulfat dari filtrat 0,26%.Dalam penelitian ini kondisi terbaikproses pembuatan pupuk kalium sulfat adalah pada waktu reaksi 80 menit, kecepatan putaran pengaduk 400 rpm dan temperatur operasi 90ºC. Hasil analisis juga menunjukkan bahwa produk pupuk kalium sulfat tidak mengandung asam bebas sebagai H2SO4 dan klorida (Cl, akan tetapi mengandung kalium dan sulfat. Nilai konstanta kecepatan reaksi (k yang didapat dalam penelitian ini adalah sebesar 0,00218 ppm-1 menit-1 dan nilai laju pengurangan reaktan (rA sebesar 8,129 x 10-5 ppm/menit.

  10. Identifikasi Bakteri Coliform pada Air Kobokan di Rumah Makan Kelurahan Andalas Kecamatan Padang Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervan Arditya Kusuma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Air kobokan merupakan media untuk cuci tangan yang banyak digunakan di rumah makan di  Kota Padang. Diare adalah penyakit yang ditularkan melalui air yang terkontaminasi oleh bakteri. Angka perkiraan kasus diare di Padang Timur merupakan yang tertinggi di Kota Padang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kualitas mikrobiologi air kobokan di rumah makan di Kelurahan Andalas Kecamatan Padang Timur. Sebanyak 21 sampel yang diambil dan dibagi sesuai dengan sumber airnya yaitu 12 sumber air PDAM dan 9 sumber air sumur bor. Penelitian ini dibagi dalam dua tahap, tahap pertama:  pengambilan sampel dan observasi faktor yang mempengaruhi kontaminasi. Kedua: uji bakteriologi dengan metode Most Propable Number (MPN yang meliputi uji penduga, uji konfirmasi dan uji lengkap.Seluruh sampel air kobokan mengandung bakteri coliform. Sebagian besar sampel tidak memenuhi syaratmikrobiologis sesuai dengan PERMENKES no 46 tahun 1990 dan hanya satu sampel yang berasal dari air PDAM memenuhi syarat mikrobiologis. Sampel yang berasal dari PDAM didapatkan 4 yang mengandung E.coli dan dari sumber sumur bor didapatkan 3 sampel mengandung E.coli dan lainnya mengandung bakteri lain seperti Klebsiella, Enterobacter dan Pseudomonas. Hal ini dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor seperti kebersihan wadah, lokasi rumah makan dan lokasi sumur bor.Kata kunci: air kobokan, most propable number (MPN. Abstract Water is the common use for hand washing in restaurant in Padang city. The research was conducted at restaurant in Andalas, East Padang. Diarrhea is a disease transmitted through water contaminated by bacteria.Morbidity of diarrhea in East Padang is the highest in Padang. The objective of this study was to identify microbiological quality of water for cleaning hand at Restaurant in Andalas sub-district, East Padang district. Total 21 sampels were taken and divided according to the water source is 12 by PDAM and 9 from dug well. This research implemented in two

  11. GAYA HIDUP DAN STATUS KESEHATAN SOPIR BUS SUMBER ALAM DI KABUPATEN PURWOREJO, JAWA TENGAH

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    Kartika Musbyarini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} The general objective of this research was to analyze the correlation between life style with health status of Sumber Alam’s Drivers in Purworejo District, Central Java. The research was conducted using cross sectional study design from July through August 2009 in PO Sumber Alam Purworejo District. Sample was chosen by simple random sampling which resulted 67 drivers. Almost all the samples (91% had smoking habit and all of the samples had no habit on alcohol drinking. More than half (58.2% had excersice habit. The physical activity levels in work day was higher than that in holiday  (p   Key words : life style, nutritional status, and health status

  12. Essential and toxic elements in foods of dietary intake from Shah Alam, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing concern all over the world on health-related problems due to the foods consumed by the people. One of the area is the human exposure to metals (essential as well as toxic) which can be studied using a various techniques. Variety of daily food samples collected from various food outlets in a different area were studied. The selected foods were collected from various restaurant and food stalls around Shah Alam, Selangor. The chosen sets, including breakfast, lunch and dinner, were blended together, dried, and analyzed for its elemental contents using neutron activation analysis (NAA technique. The results show a variation of elemental contents in relation to the type of foods studied. The Na ranges from 0.91 to 4.1%, K ranges from 1.65% to 3.35%, Ca ranges from 1.03 to 21.39 ppm, Zn ranges from 11.32 to 18.49 ppm, Co ranges from 0.10 to 0.19 ppm, Mn ranges from 0.12 to 0.55 ppm, Cr ranges from 0.52 to 1.06 ppm and As ranges from 0.25 to 0.92 ppm. (Author)

  13. Modelling of conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents in Seremban and Shah Alam, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, U R; Mackay, M G; Hills, B L

    1996-05-01

    Preliminary analysis of the short-term impact of a running headlights intervention revealed that there has been a significant drop in conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents in the pilot areas, Seremban and Shah Alam, Malaysia. This paper attempts to look in more detail at conspicuity-related accidents involving motorcycles. The aim of the analysis was to establish a statistical model to describe the relationship between the frequency of conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents and a range of explanatory variables so that new insights can be obtained into the effects of introducing a running headlight campaign and regulation. The exogenous variables in this analysis include the influence of time trends, changes in the recording and analysis system, the effect of fasting activities during Ramadhan and the "Balik Kampong" culture, a seasonal cultural-religious holiday activity unique to Malaysia. The model developed revealed that the running headlight intervention reduced the conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents by about 29%. It is concluded that the intervention has been successful in improving conspicuity-related motorcycle accidents in Malaysia. PMID:8799436

  14. Termodinamika Campuran Polipropilen/Karet Alam yang Ditambahkan Kompatibilizer Maleated Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahruddin Bahruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kajian terhadap aspek termodinamika suatu sistem campuran polimer-polimer diperlukan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai kemampuan pencampuran maksimal dan pemisahan fasa dari sistem campuran tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperkirakan kemampuan pencampuran sistem karet alam (natural rubber, NR dan polipropilen (PP yang ditambahkan kompatibilizer Maleated Polypropylene (MAPP, dimana fasa NR tervulkanisasi dinamik dalam matrik PP dengan cross-link agent sulfur. Estimasi kemampuan pencampuran didasarkan pada energi bebas pencampuran yang dihitung dengan persamaan Flory-Huggins. Entalpi pencampuran dan volume molar masing-masing dihitung dengan persamaan van Krevelen dan metode Group Contribution Volume (GCVol. Parameter kelarutan juga dihitung menggunakan metode van Krevelen. Energi bebas pencampuran dihitung pada komposisi NR antara 0 sampai dengan 100% dan suhu 30oC. Proses vulkanisasi fasa NR dianggap menghasilkan jumlah molekul yang berikatan silang sebanyak 1113 dan terjadi secara monosulfidik. Komposisi MAPP divariasikan antara 0 sampai 10% massa, sedangkan jumlah gugus anhydrate (MA dalam molekul MAPP berkisar antara 1 sampai 5% mol. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan MAPP pada sistem campuran NR/PP dengan fasa NR tervulkanisasi dinamik hanya dapat menurunkan nilai energi bebas pencampuran, namun tidak mengubah sifat ketidakmampuan campurnya. Kadar MA dalam MAPP relatif tidak mempengaruhi kemampuan pencampuran sistem campuran tersebut.

  15. MORFOLOGI DAN PROPERTI CAMPURAN KARET ALAM/POLYPROPYLENE YANG DIVULKANISASI DINAMIK DALAM INTERNAL MIXER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahruddin Bahruddin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Morfologi dan properti campuran (blend karet alam jenis SIR-20/polypropylene (NR/PP yang divulkanisasi dinamik dalam internal mixer telah dipelajari. Blend dibuat dengan rasio berat NR/PP 10/90, 20/80, 50/50, 60/40 dan 70/30 dan komposisi sulfur 3 dan 5 phr (per hundred rubber. Proses pencampuran dilakukan pada suhu 180 oC dan kecepatan rotor 60 rpm. Analisa morfologi menggunakan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope dan DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Properti mekanik yang diukur meliputi tensile strength, elongation at break, izod impact, tearing dan hardness, berdasarkan standar ASTM. Didapatkan bahwa peningkatan rasio NR/PP menghasilkan distribusi partikel NR yang makin merata dengan ukuran yang makin kecil. Morfologi blend menunjukkan sistem dua fasa dan vulkanisasi fasa NR terjadi secara parsial dalam matrik PP. Peningkatan rasio NR/PP dan komposisi sulfur dapat meningkatkan properti elongation at break, namun menurunkan properti tensile strength, izod impact, tearing dan hardness. Elongation at break tertinggi yang dapat diperoleh adalah 70% pada rasio blend NR/PP 70/30 dan komposisi sulfur 5 phr.

  16. INTEGRASI PASAR KARET ALAM SIT ASAP ANTARA PRODUSEN UTAMA DENGAN PASAR BERJANGKA DUNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Nurhidayati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this recearch is to detemine the integration between the main producers of ribbed smoked sheet/RSS and world commodity exchange. This research used vector autoregressionmodel (VAR with no consideration of cointegration based on the daily price data from January 2013 to December 2014. The results showed that not all market’s RSS integrated. But in the short term proved that the Singapore Commodity Exchange and Tokyo Commodity Exchange affect the market price formation in Indonesia and Thailand. Overall the response of each market is relatively small to price in the Singapore and Japan stock thus less strongly affect the prices established in each market. The results also show the price at the commodity exchange of Singapore and Japan became the source of the greatest affect in explaining the variability of prices in both stock markets.Keywords: RSS, market integration, VAR, market price, ribbedABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui integrasi antara pasar karet alam sit asap (ribbed smoked sheet/RSS produsen utama dengan pasar berjangka dunia. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah vector autoregression model (VAR dengan pertimbangan tidak adanya kointegrasi yang terjadi berdasarkan data harga harian periode Januari 2013 sampai Desember 2014. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa tidak semua pasar RSS terintegrasi. Namun dalam jangka pendek terbukti bahwa pasar berjangka Singapura dan Jepang memengaruhi pembentukan harga di pasar Indonesia dan Thailand. Secara keseluruhan respon masing-masing pasar relatif kecil terhadap guncangan harga di bursa Singapura dan Jepang sehingga kurang kuat memengaruhi harga yang terbentuk di masing-masing pasar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan harga di bursa Singapura dan Jepang menjadi sumber guncangan terbesar dalam menjelaskan variabilitas harga di kedua bursa tersebut. Kata kunci: RSS, integrasi pasar, VAR, harga di pasar, karet

  17. "The Tower in Red and Yellow": Using Children's Drawings in Formative Research for "Alam Simsim," an Educational Television Series for Egyptian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Alyaa; Cole, Charlotte; Fuld, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Provides examples from a study of six test segments of the television series "Alam Simsim," the Egyptian "Sesame Street," to illustrate how a systematic analysis of children's artwork can be used with other research tools to gain feedback from children. Shows how formative research is used to bring children into the production process and gives…

  18. Speech Rehabilitation For 10 Alaryngeal Patients Using Tracheoesophageal Puncture And Prosthesis Insertion In Amir Alam And Imam Khomeini Hospitals 2002-2003

    OpenAIRE

    M.T. Khorsi Ashtiani; Gh.A. Dashti Khavidaki S.H. Samimi Ardestani

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim: Total laryngectomy following laryngeal cancer has many sequelae , that loss of voice is the most important of them. Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) and prosthesis insertion has evolved into the most widely used and accepted technique for vocal rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: 10 patients that underwent TEP in Amir Alam and Imam Khomeini hospitals from Feb. 2002 through Nov. 2003; were included in this study. Prosthesis insertion in 4 patients is primary and in 6 pat...

  19. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  20. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  1. A study of subglottic stenosis in patients referred to Imam Khomeini and Amir Alam hospitals from 1371 to 1376

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmpa E

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The subglot stenosis can be congenital or acquired. The prevalence of this disorder is low but due to seriousness of the disease and lake of an effective treatment it is considered as major issue in otolaryngology. The most important cause of this disorder is trauma due to prolonged intubation of larynx. The aim of this study was to describe the etiologic, clinical manifestation and the therapeutic procedures in patients with subglot stenosis who referred to Imam Khomeini and Amir Alam Hospital during years 1371 through 1376. Sixty-two patients, 44 (71% men and 18 (29% women were investigated. The youngest patient was 1.5 years and the oldest was 76 years. The most frequent symptoms were striodor and shorthness of breath. The main etiologic factor was prolonged intubation in younger patients and neoplastic disorder in patients over 40 years. In 62% of subject intubation lasted more than 7 days and the resting less than 7 days. The most frequent endoscopic finding was granulated tissues. Ninety-one percent of subjects had trachestomy. In terms of treatment 44% had been given antibiotics. We conclude that care must be given to these patients to change the graft more frequently and to have antibiotic as a treatment regimen after trachestomy to reduce infection

  2. Pelayanan Tiket Domestik Dan Fasilitas Kemudahan Pada PT.Indonesia Air Asia Station Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Ridha Hafny S.

    2011-01-01

    Dengan di dukukung potensi sumber daya alam di Sumatera Utara banyak kita temukan objek – objek wisata. Wisatawan dari dalam maupun luar negeri dapat menikmati indahnya corak kebudayaan. Wisatawan dari dalam maupun luar negeri umumnya mengambil jarur singkat dengan menggunakan alat angkutan udara. Sebagai pelopor Low Cost Carrier, Indonesia AirAsia menjadi pilihan semua kalangan yang akan bepergian menggunakan transportasi udara. Walaupun beberapa pelayanan dikurangi akan tetapi tergant...

  3. HIDRORENGKAH METIL ESTER ASAM LEMAK (MEPO MENGGUNAKAN ZEOLIT ALAM TERAKTIVASI HYDROCRACKING OF FATTY ACID METIL ESTER (FAME USING ACTIVATED NATURAL ZEOLITE

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    Lina Mahardiani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalam upaya untuk menghasilkan rantai pendek hidrokarbon yang berasal dari minyak sawit, telah dilakukan hidrorengkah metil ester asam lemak (MEPO menggunakan katalis nikel yang diembankan pada zeolit alam aktif (NZA. Zeolit alam (NZ perlakuan asam dilanjutkan dengan kalsinasi selama 1 jam pada suhu 500 oC diperoleh katalis NZA. Impregnasi Ni menggunakan prekusor Ni(NO32.6H2O dilakukan dengan memvariasikan kandungan Ni sebesar 2,5 dan 8% dari berat NZA yang menghasilkan katalis Ni/NZA2, Ni/NZA5 dan Ni/NZA8. Hidrorengkah metil ester asam lemak dilakukan pada reaktor fixed-bed. Kondisi reaksi meliputi waktu retensi 30 menit, laju alir gas hidrogen 20 ml/min dan suhu reaksi 400, 450 dan 500 oC. Produk cair hasil reaksi hidrorengkah dianalisis menggunakan kromatografi gas (GC. Dari proses uji aktivitas katalis didapatkan persentase produk optimum pada jenis katalis Ni/NZA8, yaitu fraksi bensin 29,85% dan fraksi solar 18,03% pada temperatur 500 oC.

  4. KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT PADA AIR DAN SEDIMEN DI PERAIRAN SOCAH DAN KWANYAR KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

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    Wahyu Andy Nugraha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Logam berat sangat berbahaya bagi biota laut maupun trofik level diatasnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan logam berat di perairan Socah dan Kwanyar kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama 3 bulan. Pengambilan sampel air menggunakan botol sampel, sedangkan pengambilan sampel sedimen menggunakan grab sampler. Sampel kemudian dianalisa dengan spektrofotometer serapan atom (SSA. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kandungan logam berat Cd, Cu, Pb, dan Hg pada air di perairan Socah dan Kwanyar masih dibawah ambang batas baku mutu air laut, sedangkan kandungan logam berat di sedimen melebihi ambang batas baku mutu air laut untuk biota laut. Secara umum, kandungan logam berat di sedimen lebih tinggi dari pada kandungan logam berat di air. Kata Kunci : Logam berat, Pencemaran, Spektrophotometer  HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT IN KWANYAR AND SOCAH WATER, BANGKALANHeavy metals are very dangerous for marine life as well as the trophic level above. This study aims to determine the content of heavy metals in the waters Socah and Kwanyar Bangkalan. This study was conducted over 3 months. Water sampled using a sample bottle, while sediment samples was taken using a grab sampler. The sample was then analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Results showed that the content of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg in the water in the Socah and Kwanyar waters still below the seawater quality standard limits, whereas the heavy metal content in sediments exceeded the water quality standard for marine sea. In general, the content of heavy metals in sediment is higher than on the water.Keywords: Heavy metals, Pollution, AAS

  5. Alames turns 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Humberto Granda Ugalde

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Juan Cesar García pointed out four fundamental characteristics of social medicine, as it was developed in Europe during the 19th Century. These four characteristics can guide our actions in the American Continent of today: a political commitment to change, b health/illness as a social fact, c the importance of science in the construction of the discipline and d the responsibility of the State for health. In this paper I have tried to illustrate certain issues: 1 the historical roots and meaning of the term social medicine and b the delineation of its particular characteristics. I have also examined three simultaneous evolutions: c from a focus on health/illness to an emphasis on health practice, d from the insistence on establishing differences between disciplines to the search for unity in action, and e from the academic arena to other fields of practice. We have been creating our identity through social medicine as a transformative political program that fights for the right to health, built with the support of different viewpoints and via consensual methods. The potential for our further development lies in the expansion of transformative experiences in the field of collective health that enable the opening spaces and paths toward the fight for health as a right through the commitment and empowerment of the people.

  6. PENGEMBANGAN DESAIN KAPAL LNG DENGAN CARGO CONTAINMENT SYSTEM TIPE MEMBRAN BENTUK PRISMATIK SEBAGAI SOLUSI ALTERNATIF KEBUTUHAN ALAT TRANSPORTASI GAS ALAM CAIR DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribusi dengan menggunakan jaringan pipa memiliki beberapa kelemahan yaitu biaya investasi yang sangat tinggi dan bersifat tetap (Fixed Distribution System, sehingga apabila terjadi menurunnya kapasitas produksi LNG atau habisnya cadangan LNG, maka instalasi pipa menjadi sampah konstruksi yang memerlukan biaya pembongkaran instalasi. Berdasarkan kondisi ini penelitian difokuskan pada pengembangan desain hullform kapal LNG tipe membran prismatik dalam menunjang pengembangan desain kapal LNG yang sesuai dengan karakteristik potensi gas alam cair. Linear regression method, geosim procedure method dan cube root format method, digunakan untuk menentukan besarnya ukuran utama. Analisis hidrostatik, perhitungan hambatan, stabilitas dan olah gerak kapal dilakukan untuk mengetahui kinerja dari hullform yang telah dikembangkan. Berdasarkan hasil evaluasi dari kinerja hullform yang diusulkan, hullform bulbous bow memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik dibanding hullform non bulbous bow. Namun berdasarkan kriteria regulasi, kedua desain yang diusulkan layak dan aman untuk digunakan sebagai alternatif hullform pada kapal LNG tipe membran prismatik.

  7. Studi Kelayakan Pengolahan Air Laut Menjadi Air Bersih di Kawasan Wisata dan Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara (PPN Pantai Prigi, Trenggalek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agista Ayuningtyas Puspita Dwijayani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketersediaan air bersih diperlukan pula dalam bidang kepariwisataan. Salah satunya ialah kawasan wisata alam Pantai Prigi, Trenggalek. Namun kondisi air saat ini masih memiliki kandungan TDS (Total Dissolved Solid dan salinitas yang cukup tinggi sehingga dibutuhkan suatu teknologi untuk mengolah air asin menjadi air tawar agar memenuhi standar baku mutu air bersih. Salah satu teknologi yang dapat diterapkan untuk mengolah air asin atau payau menjadi air tawar adalah dengan sistem Reverse Osmosis (RO. Penentuan kapasitas SWRO ditentukan dengan memproyeksikan jumlah pengunjung kawasan wisata Pantai Prigi dan kebutuhan air kolam apung hingga tahun 2023. Hasil proyeksi diperoleh kebutuhan air sebesar 729,40 m3/hari pada penggunaan maksimum. Dengan desain SWRO yaitu menggunakan pretreatment rapid sand filter dan filter karbon aktif untuk meremoval kandungan TDS, kesadahan total, khlorida, sulfat, dan bilangan KMnO4 (zat organik. Biaya yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat sistem pengolahan air laut dengan SWRO sebesar Rp 5.077.307.500,00.Perencanaan sistem pengolahan air laut menjadi layak jika air reject dari SWRO sebesar 1463,28 m3/hari dimanfaatkan menjadi wisata kolam apung, garam, dan air nigari dengan investasi total sebesar Rp 7.326.095.500,00. Dengan analisa kelayakan secara ekonomi  menggunakan prinsip ekonomi teknik, pada alternatif ini diperoleh nilai NPV sebesar Rp 25.024.360.250,24 ; IRR sebesar 23,7% ; dan Payback periode pada tahun ke-3 dengan keuntungan yang diperoleh Rp 3.915.665.044,80 per tahun.

  8. Speech Rehabilitation For 10 Alaryngeal Patients Using Tracheoesophageal Puncture And Prosthesis Insertion In Amir Alam And Imam Khomeini Hospitals 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Khorsi Ashtiani

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Total laryngectomy following laryngeal cancer has many sequelae , that loss of voice is the most important of them. Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP and prosthesis insertion has evolved into the most widely used and accepted technique for vocal rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: 10 patients that underwent TEP in Amir Alam and Imam Khomeini hospitals from Feb. 2002 through Nov. 2003; were included in this study. Prosthesis insertion in 4 patients is primary and in 6 patients is secondary; and all patients are men. Results: The age of patients was between 50 to 70. 90% of patients had history of cigarette smoking and 10% of them had history of drinking alcohol. Salivary leakage was seen in 30% of patients that was improved with conservative management. Fluency of speech in 30% of patients and intelligibility of speech & voice quality in 40% of patients is good. Conclusion: We could conclude that TEP has less complication & better speech results of other vocal rehabilitation methods. Carefully selection of patients & size of prosthesis has important role in results of TEP.

  9. An Analysis of Environmental Dimensions Affected in Adoption of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles: A Study in Shah ALAM Industrial AREA, Selangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SironRusinah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the perceptions of respondents on environmental dimensions hat affected in adoption of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The study was conducted at Shah Alam industrial areas of Selangor, Malaysia, with the number of respondents are 120 respondents with various job positions that related with engineering and automobiles industry. The findings of the research shows that the dimensions of HFCV Internal Environmental total score of the items statement is 3.40 with the percentage of agreement in implementation is 3.72 percent, HFCV Environmental Information Systems shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.63 with the percentage of agreement on use to great extend is 42.5 percent, HFCV Cooperation with Customers shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.81 with the percentage of agreement on implementation is 44.2 percent. The findings on HFCV Eco Design shows that the total score of items statement is 4.02 with the percentage of agreement on implementation is 42.3 percent, HFCV Environmental Organizational Culture shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.37 with the percentage of agreement is 34.2 percent, HFCV Environmental Leadership shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.34 with the percentage of agreement is 48.2 percent. HFCV Proactive Green Innovation shows that the total score of items statement is 4.10 ahead of automobile got the highest mean score of 4.32 with the percentage of agreement is 41 percent. HFCV Environmental performance shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.87 with the percentage of agreement is 39 percent and the last environmental dimensions was HFCV Environmental Risks shows that the total score of the item statement is 4.00 with the percentage of agreement is 40 percent

  10. Drug dependence and psychotic symptoms: a retrospective study of adolescents who abuse drugs at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Alibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Substance Abuse Model (CIDI-SAM to assess dependence on substances including amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. Furthermore, we assessed the adolescents’ data on history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances. Our analysis shows that 10 to 79.6% of users of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates met DSM-III-R dependence criteria for each specific substance. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms associated with each specific substance ranged from users with no diagnosis to users with severe dependence as follows: amphetamines (3-100%, cannabis (7- 60.0%, cocaine (5-70.7%, and opiates (4- 88%. The risk of psychotic symptoms increased for respondents who abused (OR=7.2 or had mild (OR=8.1, moderate (OR=20.0, or severe dependence (OR=14.0 on cocaine when compared to those who were users with no diagnosis. A similar pattern was evident in cannabis, opiate, and amphetamine users. In conclusion, most adolescent drug users in Saudi Arabia who are dependent on illicit substances experience psychotic symptoms in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these substances. Psychotic symptoms increased with the severity of the disorders associated with use of all four substances. These findings underscore the importance of developing services to target this population; a population at risk of developing psychotic symptoms.

  11. PERANCANGAN DAN PEMBUATAB ALAT UKUR KADAR KROM DALAM AIR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PRINSIP SPEKTROSKOPI SERAPAN ATOM

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    Tin Yunis Mahfudloh, Mohammad Tirono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Air adalah bahan yang berperan penting dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia. Air steril dengan kandungan mineral yang cukup dan tidak terpolusi dapat berperan sebagai cairan yang menata keseimbangan tubuh. Apabila air yang dikosumsi manusia telah tercemar oleh sampah dan limbah industri yang mengandung zat-zat kimia/logam berat yang bersifat racun akan berbahaya Seperti kromium/krom dengan kode kimiawi Cr. Penelitian dilakukan untuk membuat alat ukur kadar krom dalam air dengan metode absorpsi dengan instrumen fotometri. Alat ukur kadar krom dalam air menggunakan prinsip spektroskopi serapan atom terdiri dari 2 sistem, yaitu sistem optik dan sistem elektronik. Sistem optik terdiri dari lampu halogen, filter cahaya dengan panjang gelombang 520.4, kuvet dan sensor photodioda. Sedangkan sistem elektronik terdiri dari ADC 0804, MCU AT89S51 dan LCD.  Prinsip keja alat ini adalah cahaya polikromatis yang dipancarkan oleh lampu halogen akan melewati filter sehingga cahaya polikromatis akan bersifat monokromatis. Cahaya akan melewati air dengan kadar krom 0% untuk mereset reagen dan pelarut kemudian dideteksi oleh sensor sehingga menghasilkan data I0. Setelah dideteksi air  akan bergeser ke atas dan sensor bergeser kebelakang untuk mendeteksi sampel yang mempunyai kadar krom tertentu dan menghasilkan data I1. Di dalam sampel ini terjadi penyerapan intensitas cahaya oleh atom krom. Kemudian data I0 dan I1 akan diolah oleh MCU AT89S51 dan ditampilkan pada LCD. Sampel yang digunakan adalah larutan H2O dengan K2Cr2O7 sebanyak 10 sampel dengan variasi kadar 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, dan 5%. Larutan krom diperoleh dengan cara mengencerkan 10gr K2Cr2O7 dalam 100ml H2O sehingga didapatkan K2Cr2O7 10% sebagai larutan stok, selanjutnya untuk mendapatkan K2Cr2O7 dengan kadar tertentu, maka diambil dari larutan stok kemudian diencerkan sampai volume 25 ml sesuai dengan rumus M1 V1 =M 2 V2 Hasil pegujian pada sistem elektronik menunjukkan

  12. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT FISIS MEMBRAN PADAT SILIKA (SiO2 UNTUK FILTRASI AIR LAUT MENJADI AIR TAWAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mufid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air laut merupakan salah satu sumber daya alam terbesar Indonesia, yang memiliki kandungan garam, partikel logam serta mikrobakteri. Teknologi alternatif diperlukan untuk mereduksi kadar garam, partikel logam serta mikrobakteri yang terkandung dalam air laut. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui mengetahui pengaruh variasi penambahan silika pada membran. Matriks yang digunakan adalah campuran PEG, PVA, Na2SiO3, HNO3, Aquades dan filler serbuk silika (SiO2 yang berasal dari limbah tempurung kelapa. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa dengan penambahan variasi silika 0 gram, 1 gram, 3 gram, 5 gram membuat membran berpori, dengan ukuran rata-rata pori-pori adalah 385.1 nm, 1.59 µm, 1.55 µm dan 375.6 nm. Dari hasil karakteristik sifat fisis membran (debit aliran, kerapatan serta porositas, penambahan variasi silika menjadikan membran lebih selektif. Filtrasi terbaik ditunjukkan membran dengan penambahan silika 5 gram dimana debit alir membran semakin menurun dengan nilai 0.058 (ml/menit, kerapatan membran semakin kecil 1.67 (gr/cm3 dengan porositas 6.67 % dan lebih baik dari penambahan silika 0 gram, 1 gram, 3 gram.

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  14. Uji Bakteriologis pada Minuman Air Tebu yang Dijual di Pinggiran Jalan Khatib Sulaiman Kota Padang

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    Dewi Oktavia Djasmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Higinitas penjual dan sanitasi lingkungan yang kurang bersih memungkinkan minuman tebu terkontaminasi oleh bakteri patogen. Lokasi penjualan minuman tebu pinggiran jalan yang terbanyak terletak di jalan Khatib Sulaiman kota Padang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan kualitas minuman tebu apakah sesuai dengan persyaratanmikrobiologi.  Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif dengan menggunakan metode indeks Most Probable Number (MPN di bagian Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas Padang. Sampel pada penelitian ini adalah seluruh penjual minuman tebu yang ada, yaitu sepuluh minuman tebu yang berasal dari lima pedagang. Sepuluh sampel terdiridari lima minuman tebu yang dicampur es dan lima minuman tebu yang tidak dicampur es. Pemeriksaan MPN yang telah dilakukan terdiri dari dua tes, yaitu: tes presumtif dan tes konfirmatif. Hasilnya adalah seluruh sampel positif mengandung bakteri Coliform dan E. coli. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah air tebu yang dijual di pinggiran jalan Khatib Sulaiman Padang belum memenuhi standar kelayakan konsumsi secara bakteriologis dan terdapat perbedaan indeks MPN antara minuman tebu yang dicampur es dengan yang tidak dicampur es.Kata kunci: tes MPN, air tebu, hygiene Abstract Pathogenic bacteria can contaminate the sugar cane juice by the less hygiene and environmental sanitation of the sellers. There are a lot of people selling sugar cane juice in Padang, mostly in Khatib Sulaiman. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of the sugar cane juice accordance to microbiological requirements. This descriptive study was using the most probable number (MPN index method and conducted in Microbiology Laboratory of Medical Faculty, Andalas University Padang.The sample in this study is all of sellers, which is ten cane juices fromfive sellers. Ten samples consists of five sugar cane water with ice and sugar cane water without ice MPN test was done by two tests, the presumptive test

  15. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  16. AIR SEBAGAI SUBYEK DALAM DESAIN ARSITEKTUR Kasus telaah: Istana Alhambra Granada

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    Esterlita Devi Hendrayani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Water has always been imperative for life, since the very beginning, the birth, growth, survival, to the death, water always play an important role. In whatever kind of form, water has the character and potency to increase the quality of human life or to destroy it. Water is well responsive against natural forces, such as storm, rain, lightning and thunder, it could change in a sudden from a still and calm condition to a new powerful force, which could evoke certain human emotion. With this character and potency, water contribute to the dynamic of the architecture which incorporates it, placed as subject to architectural composition, not merely as object to meet the physical human needs. Through analyzing the Alhambra palace which is known as the locus classicus of the use of water in architectural design, a reflection can be made, whether water has been placed as subject in an architectural composition or just as something routine. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Air adalah sesuatu yang tidak dapat dilepaskan dalam segala aspek kehidupan manusia, mulai dari awal kehidupan, kelahiran, pertumbuhan, perjuangan hidup hingga kematian. Dalam wujud apapun air mempunyai karakter dan potensi untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup manusia atau merusakkannya. Air begitu responsif terhadap kekuatan alam seperti, badai, hujan lebat, kilat dan petir; ia dapat dengan tiba-tiba berubah dari keadaan tenang menjadi kekuatan baru yang mampu membangkitkan emosi tertentu. Dengan mengenal karakter dan potensi inilah, maka air dapat menjadi komponen dinamis dalam arsitektur, dapat berperan sebagai subjek dalam desain komposisi arsitektural, bukan hanya semata-mata sebagai objek guna memenuhi kebutuhan fisik manusia saja. Air dapat menjadi urat nadi dalam komposisi arsitektur. Melalui telaah desain istana Alhambra, yang dikenal sebagai locus classicus bagi penggunaan air dalam desain arsitektur, maka kita dapat melakukan refleksi apakah telah menempatkan air sebagai subyek

  17. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    OpenAIRE

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, univ...

  18. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, universe has eternal feature (qadim as God as well, in the case of everything overflowed from qadim is also qadim. Al-Ghazali refuted this theory because it contradicted with al Qur’an’s thought which clearly explained that God created the entire universe. The universe should not qadim and it means that God existed in the first, and then created universe later as we know today. On the contrary, in the view of Muslim philosopher, the universe should be qadim because God created it from all eternity. For them, it is impossible that God existed by Himself without any creation before. God, according to them is impossible to be changed, so that is impossible as well if God changed from did not create yet before and then creates. Al-Ghazali persistently opposed the concept of eternity. Al Ghazali saw if this universe is qadim so it is impossible that universe created by God. The concept of qadim will led to the conclusion that universe born by itself, it was not created by God. This critique has been written by al-Ghazali in Tahafut al-Falasifah. This paper will present the concept of eternity which was discussed by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina and al Ghazali’s critique toward it as well.

  19. Malaria Pascabencana Alam di Kabupaten Nias Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Lambok

    2010-01-01

    South of Nias regency is an endemic malaria in North Sumatera, that Monthly Malaria Incidence (MoMI) was 124,24% in 2005. The rise of MoMI was depend on alteration of several factors as the result of tectonic quake followed by tsunami, in December 26th 2004 and continuation earth quake in March 2005. The alteration made better natural environment for growth and development of vectors, included malaria vectors. Live as refugee in evacuation area and decrease of purchasing power, influenced imm...

  20. VICARIOUS TRAUMA PADA RELAWAN BENCANA ALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Listyanti Widuri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the symptoms of vicarioustrauma and its impact in the lives of volunteers, the factors that causevicarious trauma and expectations for volunteers and government agencies.This study used qualitative research method based on phenomenology asit can reveal the meaning of an event. Based on the analysis result throughinterviews and observation, showed that volunteers who returned fromduty experience vicarious trauma as a result of interaction with multipletrauma victims. There are two main factors causing the occurrence ofvicarious trauma on volunteers are internal factors and external factors.Internal factors include the characteristics (personality and adversity thatare owned by volunteers and how they performance it. External factorsare type of victim, the social environment and work climate with all kindsof problems.

  1. Pengaruh Penambahan Glukosa Sebagai Co-substrate dalam Pengolahan Air Limbah Minyak Solar Menggunakan Sistem High Rate Alga Reactor (HRAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmisari Rakhma Putri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kandungan minyak dalam air limbah umumnya relatif sulit untuk diuraikan oleh mikroorganisme pada pengolahan air limbah secara biologis. Sistem alga dalam High Rate Alga Reactor (HRAR telah banyak dikembangkan dan digunakan sebagai pengolah air limbah domestik dan industri. Aplikasi sistem alga dalam HRAR ini dicoba untuk diaplikasikan dalam pengolahan air limbah mengandung minyak solar. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengkaji kemampuan HRAR dalam menurunkan kandungan minyak solar dengan penambahan glukosa sebagai co-substrate. Penambahan co-substrate diperkirakan dapat mendorong bakteri untuk memberikan suplai karbondioksida pada mikroalga. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan dua variabel penelitian yaitu konsentrasi minyak solar sebesar 381 ppm dan 830 ppm dalam air limbah dan konsentrasi co-substrate berupa gula sebesar 5 gram, 7 gram, dan 10 gram ke dalam 18 Liter air pada reaktor. Setiap dua hari sekali selama 14 hari akan diambil sampel untuk kemudian dilakukan analisis masing-masing parameter. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi tertinggi kinerja HRAR dalam menurunkan kandungan minyak solar adalah sebesar 84,27%. Efisiensi tertinggi ini didapatkan pada reaktor dengan variasi penambahan minyak solar 830 ppm dan co-substrate sebesar 10 gram ke dalam 18 Liter yang memiliki nilai COD 586,67 mg/L. Pada konsentrasi minyak solar sebesar 830 ppm, penambahan co-substrate memberikan pengaruh pada efisiensi penurunan kandungan minyak solar. Semakin besar penambahan co-substrate, semakin besar efisiensi penurunan kandungan minyak solar.

  2. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  4. STRATEGI PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM BERBASIS MASYARAKAT DI TAMAN WISATA ALAM PENELOKAN KABUPATEN BANGLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWAYAN GEDE BUDIANA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources of forests is one of the natural wealth that has a very strategic value. Although these natural resources belong to the category potential of renewable natural (renewable, the management of the natural wealth of this should really be done in a wise, prudent and professional. The purpose of this study to determine the public perception of forest management at Natural Tourism Park (1WA Penelokan and formulate a strategy of community-based naturalresource conservation in the 1WA Penelokan. Public perception of the spread of the questionnaire obtained by the method of purposive sampling. Further identification of internal and internal factors to formulate conservation strategies by u sing SWOT analysis. The results showed people's perception about the functioning of 1WA Penelokan stated that forests have many functions (multiple functions. Public perception of management policies that 1WA Penelokan community does not know the regulations related to forest management. Public Perception of Institutional Management in Penelokan 1WA stated that they are not part of forest management institutions. Public perceptions of the Rights and Obligations of Civil Society in the Management of 1WA Penelokan society have the perception that forests are publicly owned assets (common property. Community-based conservation strategy that is obtained by optimizing the management of natural resources Penelokan 1WA -based society, optimizing the ecological functions of 1WA Penelokan with community involvement, empowering communities to preserve 1WA Penelokan, optimize community participation in natural resource management 1WA Penelokan, improve education and socialization programs related institutions to the community, improve coordination among stakeholders in the management of 1WA Penelokan, improve the quality of the human resources about the function of 1WA Penelokan, socialize legislation to improve environmental quality, coordinate the relations between stakeholders to pressure changes in the function of forests, increase socialization and coordination to reduce damage forest environments, improve the quality of human resources management agencies in providing socialization and counseling, and optimize the role of stakeholders to suppress the loss of forest land.

  5. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  6. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  7. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  8. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  9. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  10. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  11. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  12. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  13. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  14. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  15. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  16. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  17. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  18. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  19. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  20. Morphological Analysis of Anopheles vagus Donitz, 1902 (Diptera : Culicidae in fresh water and brackish water habitats = Variasi Morfologi Anopheles vagus Donitz, 1902 (Diptera : Culicidae dari Habitat Air Tawar dan Air Payau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Alfiah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractAnopheles subpictus had habitat variation and showed genetic difference. So, the variation of habitat of An. vagus may support the hypothesa that An. vagus had genetic and morphology variation, same as An. subpictus.The aimed of this research was analyze morphology and chaetotaxy difference between An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water. The subject of the study was An. vagus collected from Kesongo Village, Tuntang Subdistrict, Semarang (fresh water and Jatimalang Village, Purwodadi Subdistrict, Purworejo (brackish water. Anopheles vagus were collected and individually reared. One sample in every batch was used to make larvae skin, pupae skin and adult specimen of An. vagus. The result showed that there were intra and inter population variation between An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water. The variations were on the size and number of hair branches and filaments. The conclution of this research were the morphology and chaetotaxy of female An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water showed no different. Intra and interpopulation An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water were caused by the difference of geography location (allopatric speciation.INDONESIANVariasi habitat terjadi pada An. subpictus, variasi habitat yang berbeda menunjukkan variasi genetik yang berbeda. Oleh karena itu variasi habitat An. vagus diduga akan bepengaruh terhadap variasi genetik dan morfologi. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis perbedaan morfologi dan kaetotaksi Anopheles vagus habitat air tawar dan air payau. Subyek penelitian adalah An. vagus habitat air tawar di Desa Kesongo, Kecamatan Tuntang, Kabupaten Semarang dan An. vagus habitat air payau di Desa Jatimalang, Kecamatan Purwodadi, Kabupaten Purworejo. Anopheles vagus yang diperoleh, di rearing secara individual. Tiap indukan diambil satu sampel keturunannya dan dibuat preparat skin larva, skin pupa dan nyamuk dewasa betina. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Anopheles vagus betina habitat air

  1. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  2. ALAM SEMESTA (LINGKUNGAN DAN KEHIDUPAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF BUDHISME NICHIREN DAISHONIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu Wilujeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Buddhism taught by Sidhartha Gautama in India about two thousand years B.C. has spread throughout the world. From India to Tibetan Buddhism evolved, China and into Japan. Buddhism in Japan has distinct characteristics compared to Buddhism elsewhere. In Japan, Buddhism is mixed with a strong Japanese spirituality. This paper is the result of a brief research on the book, as well as the Buddhists by means of dialogue. The general objective of this paper is to get a general idea of ​​the concept of Nichiren cosmology, particularly on the subject of the universe (environment and life. The specific objective of this paper is the growing awareness to be open to understand other religions. It takes an attitude to want to investigate a  religion without fanaticial attitude or prejudice. Key words: Nichiren Daishonin, Universe, Life

  3. Sistem Pengambilan Keputusan Penanganan Bencana Alam Gempa Bumi Di Indonesia

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    After Aceh's quake many earthquakes have struck Indonesia alternately and even other disasters have been a threat for every citizen in this country. Actually an everyday occurrence on earth and more than 3 million earthquakes occur every year, about 8,000 a day, or one every 11 seconds in Indonesia there are 5 to 30 quakes prediction everyday. Government's responsibility to protect the citizen has been done by making National body of disaster management. Preparing, saving and distribution logistic become National body of disaster management's responsibility to build information management. Many law's products have been produced as a government's responsibility to give secure life for the citizen. We can not prevent them totally, we have to learn to live with them and need to be prepared all the time, need to learn how to mitigate risk of losses in such events by managing crisis and emergencies correctly. After disaster happens respond must be rapidly and at an optimal level to save lives and help to victims. ...

  4. Khazana Warna Berdasarkan Hasana Alam dan Budaya Nusantara (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Purbasari Wahidiyat

    2011-03-01

    on character, nature, and imagery it evokes. This research will use quantitative and qualitative methods to describe the color names and color names of the new proposed based on the audience choice. Data collected will be used as a proposal of naming colors in Indonesian language that uses the unique natural and cultural riches of Indonesia itself.

  5. Perspektif Islam Tentang Resiprositas Hubungan Pelestarian Alam dan Kehidupan Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayat Wakhid Udin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within philosophical and spiritual spheres, Islam is perceived as to have strong legitimation to develop universal ecological ethics. Ecology, as a place where the harmony and unity between humans and cosmological aspects rest, should be an important matter of emphasis in the future. However, there have been ecological crises caused by the shifting nature of knowledge and technology from evolution into revolution ones. Employing descriptive-analytical method, this article seeks to scrutinize reciprocal relation between environmental preservation and social lives. Using Islam’s perspective on ecological aspect, the study also attempt to offer solution toward ecological problems faced by human nowadays. The study finds that there is a strong reciprocal relation between natural preservation and alleviation of such social problems as poverty. In addition, the study offers a solution what so-called ecological awareness to deal with ecological problems faced by human nowadays. The study would argue, moreover, that formulation of the ecological ethics promulgated by Islam through al-Qur’ân is a concept which puts strong emphasis on such noble values as respect and appreciation towards the nature. This is because Islam views the nature as an integral and pivotal part of human’s lives. Therefore, they should built a mutual-symbiotic relation in order to create what so-called ecological equilibrium.

  6. PEMBUATAN PUPUK FOSFAT DARI BATUAN FOSFAT ALAM SECARA ACIDULASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleh Setia Budi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate rock containing P2O5 can be used as raw material of phosphate fertilizer. Phosphate rock canbe found in many areas in Indonesia, but its P2O5-content is relative low. In this research, phosphate rockfrom Rembang (P2O5-content 11.37% is used as raw material for phosphate fertilizer production byacidulation process using phosphoric acid solution. Operation variables are phosphoric acid concentration(10, 20, 30, 40 %-vol, spraying model of phosphoric acid solution (one hole and many holes, andspraying position of phosphoric acid solution (end, centre, end & centre. The result shows that theincrease of phosphoric acid concentration is proportional to P2O5-content in phosphate fertilizer withhighest P2O5-content in the amount of 18.29%. One-hole spraying model and end-position spraying giveshighest phosphate fertilizer yield in amount of 169.5 grams.

  7. Modifikasi Aspal Dengan Menggunakan Karet Alam Siklik (Cyclic Natural Rubber)

    OpenAIRE

    Ritonga, Winsyahputra

    2015-01-01

    The research has been done about using of Cyclic Natural Rubber as asphalt modifier material. Besides addition CNR, acrylate acid and BPO are added to strengthen the forces of asphalt and CNR. Modified of asphalt designed by mixing asphalt, CNR, acrylate acid and BPO for further testing physical regulation of asphalt according to SNI. After met physical requlation of asphalt, modified asphalt mixed with aggregate and than Marshall testing. The result of physical regulation o...

  8. Pemanfaatan Lignin Kayu Kelapa Sawit Untuk Pembuatan Poliuretan Termoplastik Alam

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Nirmala Efri

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil wood lignin utilization for synthesis natural thermoplastic polyurethane has been performed. Lignin is one of the component in the palm oil wood. Lignin isolation with Klason method. Characterization result polyol from palm oil wood through FT-IR shows the wave number at absorption area 3448,72 cm-1 which is absorption O-H functional group. Synthesis natural thermoplastic polyurethane using isocyanate monomer such as toluene diisocyanate with polyol from palm oil wood lignin isolate...

  9. ANALISIS PENAWARAN EKSPOR KARET ALAM INDONESIA KE NEGARA CINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanti Novianti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to identified export supply growth of China’s natural rubber, analyzed factors of influenced export supply of Indonesian natural rubber to China, and also analyze the export growth strategic of Indonesian natural rubber. The description method is used to identified marketgrowth in Indonesian natural rubber. The second purposes answered by multiple linier regression with Ordinary Least Square (OLS. Export growth stategic have been analyzed by SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Based on The OLS result, variabel which make infuence for export supply of Indonesian natural rubber in China export price of Indonesian natural rubber to Chinain previous years, The world rice of synthetic rubber, GDP of China, lag export volume of Indonesian natural rubber to China. The growth strategic for increase Indonesian market in China are increase Indonesian natural rubber productivity. Increased productivity will come true by renew the planting ofrubber and to aplicating relationship between farmers and government plantage.

  10. ANALISIS PENAWARAN EKSPOR KARET ALAM INDONESIA KE NEGARA CINA

    OpenAIRE

    Tanti Novianti; Ella Hapsari Hendratno

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to identified export supply growth of China’s natural rubber, analyzed factors of influenced export supply of Indonesian natural rubber to China, and also analyze the export growth strategic of Indonesian natural rubber. The description method is used to identified marketgrowth in Indonesian natural rubber. The second purposes answered by multiple linier regression with Ordinary Least Square (OLS). Export growth stategic have been analyzed by SWOT analysis (S...

  11. PENJABARAN HUKUM ALAM MENURUT PIKIRAN ORANG JAWA BERDASARKAN PRANATA MANGSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Fidiyani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pranara mangsa is a local knowledge on the management of agricultural land for the Javanese people. This study aimed to determine the ability of Jawva to read the laws of nature and the existence of pranata mangsa on people Banyumas today. What is there in nature is a manifestation of God’s eternal law that by Him manifested in signs of nature. How to interpret the laws of nature by which Java is used as a benchmark in managing land called pranata mangsa.Pranata mangsa are dynamic institution, especially with the uncertain climate change. For farmers Banyumas, pranata mangsa remains a benchmark, but as the development of science and technology, pranata mangsa becoming obsolete. This is a threat to the existence of pranata mangsa as national heritage.

  12. Khazana Warna Berdasarkan Hasana Alam dan Budaya Nusantara (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Mita Purbasari Wahidiyat; R. A. Diah Resita I. K. Jakti

    2011-01-01

    Using colors for designing purpose is become an important part of designer, such as graphic designer, interior, product, least but not last for architect and artist. Like humans, color need to have a name to identify according to its character, psychology and emotional effect. This research applied the qualitative and quantitative method to give a brief description about colors name and propose new color naming which based on character, nature, and imagery it evokes. This research...

  13. Deteksi Keausan Alat pada Proses Pengeboran Sumber Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siana Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we applied change point detection methods for failures detection in the drilling process. We calculated the change points on three drilling parameters, i.e., the weight on bit, top drive torque and rate of penetration. Using the concept of reliability, we measured the time between change points as the time between failures. The minimum of mean time between change points from those three parameters is suggested to be the time for monitoring the drilling process.

  14. Vene riigiduuma juubel Peterburis kulges endiste alamate seltsis / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Vene Riigiduuma juubeli tähistamisel Peterburis Tauria palees viibis Eesti delegatsioon, kuhu kuulusid Riigikogu esimees Toomas Varek, Riigikogu liige Ela Tomson ja Eesti suursaadik Venemaal Marina Kaljurand. Eesti rahva nimel esines Toomas Varek. Reageeringutest Gruusia parlamendi spiikri Nino Burdzhanadze kõnele

  15. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  16. Airing It Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  17. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  18. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  19. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  20. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  1. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  3. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  4. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  5. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  6. Pola Pergerakan Harian dan Mikrohabitat Katak Pohon Bergaris (Polypedates leucomystax) di Taman Wisata Alam/Cagar Alam Sibolangit, Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Jordani Tirta

    2016-01-01

    Polypedates leucomystax is one tree frogs that inhabit the Park area Nature / Nature Reserves Sibolangit. This type of frog tolerance high life that are found in various habitats, but over time due to physical development at the site led to the decline of this type so that research on the pattern of movement of the Daily and microhabitat Tree Frog Striped (Polypedates leucomystax) in the Park Nature / Nature Reserves and articles, North Sumatra in December 2014 to April 2015. ...

  7. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  8. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  9. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  10. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  11. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  12. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  13. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  14. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  15. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  16. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  17. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  18. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华

    2007-01-01

    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  19. MENELUSURI JEJAK POPULASI MORFOLOGI PANGUR GIGI-GELIGI: KAJIAN PENDAHULUAN ATAS SAMPEL GIGI-GELIGI DARI BEBERAPA SITUS PURBAKALA DI JAWA, BALI, DAN NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toetik Koesbardiyati

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Filing is a form of dental mutilation which is often practiced as an initiation rite function, that is symbolization that one has already entered and adult culturally; and symbolization to remind and to commemorate the family members which have already passed away. Filing was found in almost all ethnic population in Indonesia in the past time; however, nowadays, it is not much done anymore because of several factors. Nevertheless, some ethnic populations still continue this tradition. The patterns of dental filing on those populations relate to the peopling history in the region. The research materials include dentition's of the adult human skulls of Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara Timur from some paleoanthropological-archaeological sites, as well as isolated permanent dental sample from modern Bali population. The methods used is visual comparative descriptive method. The variation of dental filing patterns include oclusal, labial and lingual grinding, extraction and the sharpening. This patterns relate to the cultural chronology continuity and the peopling of Australomelanesid and Mongolid populations in Indonesia region. This filing patterns may indicate the biological affinity.

  20. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  1. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  2. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  3. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  4. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  5. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  6. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  7. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  8. International Air Services

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 December 1997 the Treasurer referred international air services arrangements to the Industry Commission for inquiry and report within nine months. The Commission was asked to report on the arrangements for negotiating entitlements under air services agreements and the process of allocating capacity entitlements to Australian carriers.

  9. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  10. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  11. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  12. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  13. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  14. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...... this kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  15. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  16. Olefin metathesis in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  17. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  18. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  19. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  20. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  1. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  2. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  3. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  4. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  5. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  6. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  7. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  8. Upswing for hot air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie

    2010-07-01

    Optimism reigns in the air collector sector. The market is characterised by high growth rates and numerous new entrants: reason enough to present the sector on its own world map for the first time. (orig.)

  9. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  10. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  11. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  12. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  13. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  14. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  15. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  16. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  17. Air gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  18. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  19. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  20. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  1. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  2. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  3. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  4. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  5. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  6. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  7. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  8. The cold air machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagcl, Barls [TUV Rheinland Hong Kong Ltd., Emperor International Square, 10/F, 7 Wang Tai Road, Kowloon Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on the human behaviour in regards of air-conditioning usage in indoor environment. A mid-sized, carpet floored office (600 sqm) with 120 employees in Hong Kong was chosen as the experiment field due to two reasons. The first reason is that the office buildings in Hong Kong are the coldest office buildings worldwide. And the building where the office is located doesn't provide a central air-conditioning system, which means that the human behaviour is very crucial to save energy in such offices. The second reason is that the largest portion of electricity consumption in Hong Kong belongs to the air-conditioning systems in buildings (25% of total electricity consumption in Hong Kong). Development and usage of energy efficient technologies are no doubt very crucial in emission reduction and environmental protection. But, the best energy efficient equipment is not much worth and waste of money if the behaviour of the persons using that equipment does not change. In this study we searched for the reasons behind the persistent behaviour of wrongly using the air conditioning systems and making Hong Kong probably the city with the largest energy consumption for cooling per square meter.

  9. The cold air machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Bağcı

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the human behaviour in regards of air-conditioning usage in indoor environment. A mid-sized, carpet floored office (600 sqm with 120 employees in Hong Kong was chosen as the experiment field due to two reasons. The first reason is that the office buildings in Hong Kong are the coldest office buildings worldwide. And the building where the office is located doesn’t provide a central air-conditioning system, which means that the human behaviour is very crucial to save energy in such offices. The second reason is that the largest portion of electricity consumption in Hong Kong belongs to the air-conditioning systems in buildings (25% of total electricity consumption in Hong Kong. Development and usage of energy efficient technologies are no doubt very crucial in emission reduction and environmental protection. But, the best energy efficient equipment is not much worth and waste of money if the behaviour of the persons using that equipment does not change. In this study we searched for the reasons behind the persistent behaviour of wrongly using the air conditioning systems and making Hong Kong probably the city with the largest energy consumption for cooling per square meter.

  10. Images in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  11. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  12. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  13. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  14. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  15. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2010-01-01

    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  16. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  17. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  18. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  19. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  20. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  1. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  2. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  3. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  4. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  5. CISADANE RIVER WATER POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kumoro Palupi

    2012-01-01

    Sungai Cisadane berfungsi sebagai sumber air baku untuk sistem penyediaan air bersih wilayah Serpong dan Tangerang, Kabupaten Tangerang. Meskipun demikian, sungai Cisadane berfungsi pula sebagai tempat pembuangan limbah bagi rumah tangga dan industri yang berlokasi di sepanjang sungai tersebut. Untuk memperoleh gambaran mengenai tingkat pencemaran airnya, pada bulan September 1992 telah dilakukan pengambilan sampel air sungai Cisadane. Sampel air diambil di sebelah hulu intake instalasi pengo...

  6. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  7. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  8. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  9. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  10. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  11. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  12. Air Facility System (AFS) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Facility System (AFS) widget allows users to enter a specific location and retrieve facilities in the area of interest for stationary sources of air...

  13. State of the Air 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Social Media What's the State of Your Air ? Home > 2015 > States States State List FAQ Understanding ... Environment: Act Locally What You Can Do Healthy Air News Facebook Twitter Google Plus Instagram © American Lung ...

  14. Clearing the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    On November 8,seven Beijing residents,including a representative from a local environmental organization,were invited by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BMEPB)to visit its air-quality monitoring center,The visit was the first of a regular program of visits that will take 40 visitors to the center every Tuesday in hopes of giving them a betttr understanding of how airquality data are collected and analyzed.

  15. Urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  16. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  17. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  18. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  19. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  20. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  1. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  2. Shock-swallowing air sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J.; Sakamoto, G. M.; Webb, L. D.; Couch, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    An air-data probe allows air to flow through it so that supersonic and hypersonic shock waves form behind pressure measuring orifices and tube instead of directly on them. Measured pressures are close to those in free-flowing air and are used to determine mach numbers of flying aircraft.

  3. Dessecação da aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb com herbicida de contato, em presença ou não de assistência de ar junto à barra do pulverizador, em diferentes volumes de calda Black-oats (Avena strigosa Schreb control with contact burndown herbicide applied at different carrier volumes, with and without air assistance at sleeve boom sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Garcia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de aplicação dos produtos fitossanitários na agricultura pode ser aprimorada mediante a redução dos desperdícios. Com o objetivo de contribuir com tal avanço tecnológico, avaliou-se a eficácia de um herbicida com ação de contato, aplicado em pós-emergência com pulverizadores sem e com assistência de ar junto à barra, em diferentes volumes de calda. O experimento foi instalado no município de Ponta Grossa - PR, com a dessecação de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb implantada em sistema de plantio direto sob a palha. Empregou-se a mistura herbicida formulada (SC de dicloreto de paraquate (400 g ha-1 + diuron (200 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados (DBC, em esquema fatorial 2 (pulverizador sem e com assistência de ar x 5 (volumes de calda: 0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 L ha-1, com quatro repetições. A avaliação do efeito da dessecação se deu por meio da escala proposta pela Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM. A interação entre os fatores foi significativa, obtendo-se suficiência na dessecação a partir de 200 e 100 L ha-1, sem e com assistência de ar na barra, respectivamente.Agricultural pesticide application technology is largely improved by reduction of waste and losses. With such objective, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of a post-emergence contact herbicide applied with and without air-assisted sleeve boom in different spray volumes. The experiment was carried out in Ponta Grossa county, in a no-till black oats cover crop (Avena strigosa Schreb. The formulated mixture (SC of paraquat and diuron at 400 + 200 g a.i ha-1 was applied with a sleeve boom sprayer, with and without air-assistance and five spray volumes: 0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 L ha-1. Treatments were placed in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Herbicide efficacy was evaluated by the ALAM rating system. Efficacy

  4. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  5. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. Adobe AIR for Android -sovelluskehitys

    OpenAIRE

    Palovuori, Jani

    2011-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään sovelluskehitystä Android-laitteille Adoben AIR for Android -tekniikkaa hyväksi käyttäen. Tavoitteena on esitellä sovelluskehityksen periaatteita Adoben Flash-tekniikkaan pohjautuvan AIR for Android -teknologian kannalta. Työ on tehty Yleisradio Oy:n toimeksiantona ja toimii johdatuksena AIR-sovelluksen kehittämiseen AIR for Android -teknologialla. Työssä esitellään yleisesti rikkaat internet-sovellukset ja käydään tarkemmin läpi Adoben AIR-teknologia sek...

  7. AIR VELOCITY SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘本琛

    1992-01-01

    During the last twenty years there has been rapid progress in the use of automation in a wide range of industries,as well as in military, scientific application. However, the progress in the application of automatic control is often hindered by the lack of accurate, reliable measuring apparatus. An economic thermal couple air flow sensor with better linearity (accuracy is ±5% of full scale) has been successfully made at Trolex Ltd. Many other existing sensors fail in the application of industries because of non-linearity.

  8. Ag-Air Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  9. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V

    2008-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas et.al about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas et.al might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas et.al are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  10. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  11. Comparison of indoor air and outdoor air contaminant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Pykhova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Since most people spend their time indoors, there has been increased interest in air pollution concen-trations. Number of very small liquid and solid particles suspended in the air is depending on different factors. But how should be decreased particle number? The field of this work is particulate matter concentration in the indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were carried out in number concentration. The Indoor-Outdoor correlation was de-termined in order to investigate normative parti...

  12. Sights from the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, P.

    2009-04-01

    The first aerial shots were taken by aerostat balloon during the second half of the nineteen century for military purpose and subsequently utilized for civilian, archaeological and town planning uses (Roman Forum 1900, Pompei 1910, Venezia 1913, etc.). Sights from the air have given the most objective representation of the landscape and traces progressively left by human activities. After the First World War the use of airplanes for photogrammetric shots suitable to create cartography (territorial map making) has permitted to realize a good basic documentation; successively it has been increased by aerial reconnaissance during the Second World War. Aerial shots by RAF, USAF and Luftwaffe brought to the establishment of rich aerial photograph Archives, particularly in Europe, which have had a very low utilization for the historical restoration of landscape. From the fifties, aerial documentation becomes systematic for different scale analysis and territorial planning. The use of satellite imagery and multispectral bands integrates the historical and recent aerial photographs; the former is particularly helpful for cartography updating, for large scale environmental analysis, for study and research of territories with not available air photographs or lacking in aerial shots. The amount and density of archaeological buried evidences, unknown at the most, is very substantial in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean area; here air-photo interpretation is being applied at advanced levels, but not systematically, since several decades. Some archaeological research teams, working for the knowledge of territorial cultural heritage, utilize historical and recent aerial photographs intensively (aerial photographs previous the II WW, just before the intensive and extensive use of mechanical means to till the land, preserve a large amount of traces or cropmarks of buried evidences; recent shots taken on different conditions of climate and crops, allow to see and read important

  13. Air climate health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'France Nature Environnement Ile de France' publishes, on occasion of the COP 21, a special paper about the air pollution in the Paris region, greenhouse gases and their influence on the environment. This document has been written in close cooperation with professionals and civil associations. Elected representatives from local and regional authorities also speak about their experiences. The first part emphasizes the urgency to accelerate preventive and corrective measures since the air pollution, after slightly decreasing in the 2000's, remains stable. Our work is a science based analysis of essential parameters and details the impact of local pollution and greenhouse gases on the climate. It is based on the GIEC 2013 and 2015 reports, as well as the work of National meteorology in association with the Climate agency of Paris. The threshold of not exceeding an average temperature of +2 deg. C in 2100 is almost reached. If consumption of fossil energies does not heavily decline in the next 10 years, the earth's thermal machine will enter, for several centuries, into an uncontrollable cycle which could endanger life on earth with average temperatures exceeding 4 to 6 deg. C above the current level. The second part reveals the impact of air pollution on the health of the Paris region's population, especially on women who are the most affected by respiratory diseases: obstructive pulmonary bronchitis and asthma. Four departments are particularly affected: Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-d'Oise. Even though we do not have the formal causal proof between gas concentration and disease, analysis of similar situations worldwide eliminate any doubts about the reality of the relationship. The third part proposes solutions which can be implemented by local government, companies, but also civil associations and citizens in order to quickly decrease greenhouse gas production. Solutions range from energy sobriety to change in travel

  14. Air ions and aerosol science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, Hannes

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4-1.8 nm.

  15. Air ions and aerosol science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammet, H. [Department of Environmental Physics, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia (Estonia) 2400

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. The Cost of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

    2016-01-01

    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry...

  18. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  19. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  20. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  1. Photochemical air pollution syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamming, W.J.; MacBeth, W.C.; Chass, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    There are two distinct pollution problems in the Los Angeles Basin - one in winter, the other most frequently in summer and fall. In winter the concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black filterable aerosols are higher than in summer, but the secondary pollutants such as ozone and photochemical oxidants are not as high. The photochemical air pollution syndrome is due to a pattern set by previous smog attacks. This pattern is due to low wind speeds, low inversion heights, a trajectory to carry the pollution and sufficient sunlight to photodissociate the nitrogen dioxide formed and to form nitric oxide and atomic oxygen. The results are high levels of oxidant or ozone and large quantities of particles. 5 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

  2. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  3. metropolitana en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pírez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a description of some concrete processes that made up the transformations in the metropolitan configuration and functioning in Buenos Aires in the 1990s during the 20th Century. We are referring to components related to the impact of processes at the macro level (national and international pertaining to restructuring and globalisation. We aim to understand the “forces” that mediate between the global and the local arenas, identifying the actors and the relationships behind metropolitan changes as well as searching for the meaning that the city acquires and which is understood as “privatisation”. In the first section of the paper, this concept is made explicit.

  4. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  5. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  6. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  7. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  8. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  9. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  10. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  11. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  12. Airborne rotary air separator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  13. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  14. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  15. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  16. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  17. Improved Air-Treatment Canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed air-treatment canister integrates a heater-in-tube water evaporator into canister header. Improved design prevents water from condensing and contaminating chemicals that regenerate the air. Heater is evenly spiraled about the inlet header on the canister. Evaporator is brazed to the header.

  18. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.

    1988-06-01

    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  19. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  20. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  1. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  2. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  3. Airing Out Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  4. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: http://www.cern.ch/guides See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  5. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  6. Radioxenon spiked air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities. PMID:26318775

  7. Radioxenon spiked air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  8. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  9. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  10. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  11. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  12. Air conditioning and refrigeration engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreith, F. [ed.] [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (US)

    1999-12-01

    This book supplies the basics of design, from selecting the optimum system and equipment to preparing the drawings and specifications. It discusses the four phases of preparing a project: gathering information, developing alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and selling the best solution. In addition, the author breaks down the responsibilities of the engineer design documents, computer aided design, and government codes and standards. It provides you with an easy reference to all aspects of the topic. This resource addresses the most current areas of interest, such as computer aided design and drafting, desiccant air conditioning and energy conservation. It is a thorough and convenient guide to air conditioning and refrigeration engineering. Contents include: introduction; psychrometrics; air-conditioning processes and cycles; refrigerants and refrigeration cycles; outdoor design conditions and indoor design criteria; load calculations; air handling units and packaged units; refrigeration components and evaporative coolers; water systems; heating systems; refrigeration systems; thermal storage system; air system basics; absorption systems; air-conditioning systems and selection; and desiccant dehumidification and air-conditioning.

  13. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... pollutants. The maps show annual means of NO2, PM2.5 or PM10 for 2012. The user interface presents modelled air quality data on a map where the user can select map view, pan, zoom in and out, etc. It is also possible to get the air quality for a particular address by entering a specific address. Air quality...... is calculated with a model system consisting of a regional model (DEHM), an urban background model (UBM) and a street model (OSPM) with associated meteorology and emissions data etc. Recently updated input data has been used for the road network and traffic data based on the national traffic model (LTM) from...

  14. Air Force neutron dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 1000 Air Force personnel are monitored for neutron radiation resulting from various sources at more than thirty worldwide locations. Neutron radiation spanning several orders of magnitude in energy is encountered. The Air Force currently uses albedo thermoluminescent neutron dosimeters for personnel monitoring. The energy dependence of the albedo neutron dosimeter is a current problem and the development of site specific correction factors is ongoing. A summary of data on the energy dependence is presented as well as efforts to develop algorithms for the dosimeter. An overview of current Air Force neutron dosimetry users and needs is also presented

  15. Local air entrainment and detrainment

    OpenAIRE

    Kobus, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Air and water are usually well separated by gravity due to their extreme difference in specific weight. Whenever they are mixed, however, they give rise to a very complex two-phase flow situation. The hydraulic engineer is often faced with the problem of estimating the effects of entrained air upon the flow, because this may be essential for the safe operation of a hydraulic structure.The predominant mechanism in generating airwater mixtures is the inclusion of air at the surface of flowing w...

  16. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  17. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  18. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  19. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pookongchai Kritsada; Nakornrat Prasit; Sookananta Bongkoj; Buasri Panhathai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point...

  20. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  1. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  2. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  3. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  4. Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) is a national air quality monitoring network designed to provide data to assess trends in air quality, atmospheric...

  5. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  6. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  7. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates...

  8. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  9. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  10. In Brief: Air pollution app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

  11. Indoor plants as air cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H.; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been used decoratively indoors for centuries. For the last 25-30 years, their beneficial abilities to reduce the levels of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the indoor air have also been investigated. Previous studies have shown that VOCs are removed by the plant itself...... experiments is not directly transferrable to real life settings. The largest problem is the use of closed chambers where there is no air exchange. This also results in a declining VOC concentration over time. Due to this limitation, we constructed a new experimental system which among others can allow for air...... exchange and a constant VOC concentration. With the new system it was found that removal rates obtained in chambers with air exchange and constant VOC concentration were significantly higher than removal rates obtained in closed chambers. This means that removal rates obtained in closed chambers may...

  12. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  13. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  14. Air entrainment in hairy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, P.-T.; Alvarado, José; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by diving semiaquatic mammals, we investigate the mechanism of dynamic air entrainment in hairy surfaces submerged in liquid. Hairy surfaces are cast out of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer and plunged into a fluid bath at different velocities. Experimentally, we find that the amount of air entrained is greater than what is expected for smooth surfaces. Theoretically, we show that the hairy surface can be considered as a porous medium and we describe the air entrainment via a competition between the hydrostatic forcing and the viscous resistance in the pores. A phase diagram that includes data from our experiments and biological data from diving semiaquatic mammals is included to place the model system in a biological context and predict the regime for which the animal is protected by a plastron of air.

  15. Manual on indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues

  16. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  17. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  18. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  19. Air sea ratio reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberle, Jean

    2010-09-15

    Airfreight is the most expensive mode of transportation as well as the most impacting in terms of CO{sup 2} emissions. It is 7 times more expensive on average to ship by air than shipping by sea 1. Airfreight transportation mode emits 30 times more CO{sup 2} than sea freight mode 2. These elements provided a compelling platform to design a global logistics program to initiate a modal shift from air to sea freight without compromising service to customers.

  20. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  1. The Origin of Stratospheric Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    The domain-filling, forward trajectory calculation model developed by Schoeberl and Dessler [2011] is used to investigate the origin of air that enters the stratosphere, and the origin of the driest and wettest air parcels. We compare results from NASA's MERRA, NCEP's CFSR, and ECMWF's ERAi reanalyses in a non-convection simulation. The stratospheric air parcel origin is related to but distinct from the location of final dehydration zones. Final dehydration zones control stratospheric water vapor, but stratospheric air origin tells about the origin of non-water soluble constituents such as HCN or CO. The models broadly agree that stratospheric air parcel origins follow the ITCZ in winter with maxima over the tropical west Pacific and South America. The origins are more broadly dispersed in summer. Somewhat surprisingly, the seasonal cycle for the origins is small with most of the air parcels entering the stratosphere from 360K originate in non-DJF months. The origin of the wettest and driest parcels shows that the driest parcels (1-3 ppmv) originate in the tropical West Pacific while the wettest (6-10 ppmv) parcels originate in the East Pacific/ Central America.

  2. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  3. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  4. KERENTANAN KAWASAN TEPI AIR TERHADAP KENAIKAN PERMUKAAN AIR LAUT Kasus Kawasan Tepi Air Kota Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Suprijanto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though global warming are still debates whether it will or not be happened, the changes on climate will influence activities of human. Regarding global warming issue, one of the impact that is very interesting to be investigated is sea level rise. Sea level rise is predicted has very big impact since, in general, in coastal areas locate a lot of important activities for such city or country. On the context of Indonesian locality, most of big cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang, Makasar, etc. are located on the coastal area. Since a lot of important activities located on those cities, in general, sea level rise will influence the development processes of those cities. On the basis of the observation gathering in Surabaya City, the impact of sea level rise will influence not only the development of coastal area but also development of Surabaya City in general. The influence is because the area accommodates activities which are very important in city development both for present and future. The activities are port, industrial estate and location for new housing. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Terlepas dari ketidakpastian mengenai terjadi atau tidaknya pemanasan global, setiap perubahan iklim di bumi akan memberikan dampak terhadap kelangsungan hidup manusia. Salah satu kajian yang saat ini banyak dilakukan berkaitan dengan isu pemanasan global adalah mengenai kenaikan permukaan air laut. Pengkajian mengenai kenaikan permukaan air laut tersebut penting mengingat dampak yang akan ditimbulkannya dan dengan kenyataan secara umum kawasan tepi air memegang peranan penting dalam perkembangan suatu kota ataupun negara. Hal ditandai dengan banyaknya aktivitas yang berlokasi di kawasan tepi air. Kondisi geografis Indonesia dengan duapertiga bagian wilayahnya adalah perairan, menjadikan Indonesia memiliki garis pantai terpanjang di dunia. Hal tersebut menjadikan pula beberapa bagian wilayah di Indonesia merupakan kawasan pesisir atau tepi air

  5. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution...

  6. A mixed air/air and air/water heat pump system ensures the air-conditioning of a cinema; Un systeme mixte PAC air/air et air/eau climatise un cinema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-01

    This article presents the air conditioning system of a new cinema complex of Boulogne (92, France) which comprises a double-flux air processing plant and two heat pumps. Each heat pump has two independent refrigerating loops: one with a air condenser and the other with a water condenser. This system allows to limit the power of the loop and to reduce the size of the cooling tower and of the vertical ducts. This article describes the technical characteristics of the installation: thermodynamic units, smoke clearing, temperature control, air renewing. (J.S.)

  7. Unit for air decontamination; Unidad para descontaminacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E

    1991-02-15

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  8. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIA MATUS C.; RODRIGO LUCERO CH.

    2002-01-01

    Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la nor...

  9. Air Pollution and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eDrakaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  10. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  11. A method and device for cleaning air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments.......The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments....

  12. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  13. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criteria for determining when U.S. flag air carriers are unavailable. See 48 CFR 47.403-1, or USAID... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation...

  14. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  15. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  16. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  17. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C. 41703... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165...

  18. Sumatera Air Asia Training Center (Arsitektur Metafora)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, William

    2015-01-01

    Sumatera Air Asia Training Center as Air Asia training facility’s construction have a propose to train the Air Asia air craft crew who will be the employee of the Air Asia Airlines.Beside the main function;training facility for the Air Asia Crew; the other airline’s crew can be train by a cooperation with Air Asia.The aircraft crew that can be train in this facility is pilot initial, pilot type-rating, pilot recurrent, ATPL, Flight attendant initial and recurrent..This facility ha...

  19. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  20. Distributed Air Traffic Control Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Radovanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During initial training air traffic control students acquire theoretical knowledge in various fields including air traffic management, aircraft performance, air traffic control equipment and systems, navigation and others. This paper proposes a simulator and explains its use and features that allows students to gain a practical insight into their coursework in order to complement their training. The goal of the simulator is to realistically implement all the key functionalities needed to cover the topics that were presented in class. The simulator offers a user friendly, distributed, and multi-role environment that can be deployed on regular PCs. Moreover, this paper discusses and resolves some of the main conceptual and implementational issues that were faced during simulator development.

  1. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  2. Metal-air electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarbacher, R. I.; Fechter, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    An electrochemical cell for which fuel is prepared and introduced under artificial gravity forces. The active metal is deposited through the action of the field on an anode current collecting member, effecting good compaction and reduced cell internal impedance. A microprocessor provides control of the induced gravity, flow rates, temperature, and other variables-enabling the active metal to be controlled in its thickness as well as providing a predetermined separation from the cathode. Abrasion of the cathode and the possibility of shorting are avoided by the presence of outwardly directed radial forces. These forces are induced by rotation of the electrolyte, air cathode, anode collector and the active metal. The forces promote also the passage of moisture laden air through the air cathode elements. Reaction products produced within the cell volume are circulated to an outside container for separation and possible reuse.

  3. Air Showers and Geomagnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Cillis, A N

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the geomagnetic field on the development of air showers is studied. The well known International Geomagnetic Reference Field was included in the AIRES air shower simulation program as an auxiliary tool to allow calculating very accurate estimations of the geomagnetic field given the geographic coordinates, altitude above sea level and date of a given event. Our simulations indicate that the geomagnetic deflections alter significantly some shower observables like, for example, the lateral distribution of muons in the case of events with large zenith angles (larger than 75 degrees). On the other hand, such alterations seem not to be important for smaller zenith angles. Global observables like total numbers of particles or longitudinal development parameters do not present appreciable dependences on the geomagnetic deflections for all the cases that were studied.

  4. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  5. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Bergé, L; Skupin, S; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled with the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which is paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. The resulting unique feature of the picosecond filamentation regime is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for numerous applications.

  6. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  7. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  8. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  9. Pesticides in Air: New Challenges in Agricultural Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    As agricultural and urban communities have become more intertwined, and the average size of agricultural production operations have increased substantially, issues of air quality have emerged as an area of increasing regulatory pressure for farmers in many countries. The science of measuring emissi...

  10. Hot air in Kyoto, cold air in The Hague

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    , the EU must reconsider and acknowledge US claims for cheaper reduction options and the right to trade 'hot air.' This point is important. If the US does not participate, the increase in emissions will be much higher than the emission reduction following the EU supplementarity proposal. Udgivelsesdato...

  11. Hot air in Kyoto, cold air in The Hague

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Urs; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    -trading scheme, the EU must reconsider and acknowledge US claims for cheaper reduction options and the right to trade 'hot air.' This point is important. If the US does not participate, the increase in emissions will be much higher than the emission reduction following the EU supplementarity proposal....

  12. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...... of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat...

  13. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  14. Heat Recovery Ventilation for Housing: Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Robert J.; Miller, Barbara

    The air-to-air heat exchanger (a fan powered ventilation device that recovers heat from stale outgoing air) is explained in this six-part publication. Topic areas addressed are: (1) the nature of air-to-air heat exchangers and how they work; (2) choosing and sizing the system; (3) installation, control, and maintenance of the system; (4) heat…

  15. Performance evaluation of an air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air-sources integrated into a dwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Filliard, Bruno; Guiavarch, Alain; Peuportier, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped and implemented in the thermal simulation tool COMFIE, in order to compare the seasonal performance of a variable capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat recovery ventilation, earth-to-air heat exchanger) with the performance of a conventionally installed heat pump. The empirical model of the heat pump is presented in this paper, including full-load and part-load model...

  16. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  17. Isothermal air ingress validation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic's Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident. (author)

  18. Pariisi-kiri / Aire Allikmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikmets, Aire

    1997-01-01

    Fanny de Siversile pühendatud vastuvõtust College de France'i Sinises Salongis 27. märtsil 1997 ja temale pühendatud koguteosest 'Contacts de langues et de cultures dans l'aire Baltique' (koost. M. M. Jocelyne Fernendez ja Raimo Raag)

  19. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION UNIT CONVERSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is called vapor intrusion (VI). Volatile organic chemicals in contaminated soils or groundwater can emit vapors, which can migrate through subsurface soils and may enter the indoor air of overlying buil...

  20. Strong interactions in air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Dennis D. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstraße, München (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Straße, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-03-02

    We study the role new gauge interactions in extensions of the standard model play in air showers initiated by ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Hadron-hadron events remain dominated by quantum chromodynamics, while projectiles and/or targets from beyond the standard model permit us to see qualitative differences arising due to the new interactions.

  1. Air corona discharge chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have theoretically studied the initial chemical processing steps which occur in pulseless, negative, dc corona discharges in flowing air. A rate equation model is used because these discharges consist of a very small ionization zone near the pin with most of the pin-plane gap filled by a drift zone where both the electric field and the electron density are relatively uniform. The primary activated species are N2(A),O and O2(a1Δ). The predicted activated species density due to one discharge is 100 ppm per ms . mA cm2 assuming E/n=60 Td. In pure, dry air the final product due to these activated species is primarily O3. The NO /sub x/ production is about 0.5 ppm per mA. In moist air there is an additional production of about 1.5 ppm per mA of HO /sub x/ species. The predicted ozone formation reactions will be ''intercepted'' when impurities are present in the air. Impurities present at densities below about 0.1% will react primarily with the activated species rather than with electrons. Hence the predicted activated species density provides an estimate of the potential chemical processing performance of the discharge

  2. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever driven by a sewage-treatment plant and noticed a rotten-eggstink? Air-quality requirements force these plants touse devices called chemical scrubbers to eliminate malodorous hydrogen sulfide from the gases createdby bacteria in sewageslurry. The process works,but it's expensive and depends on filtering gasthrough toxic chemicalssuch as lye and bleach.

  3. Air lifted and propelled vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.E.; Johnson, R.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a vehicle which rides on air cushion and which is propelled by air, comprising: upper deck means, having a bottom edge which defines the periphery of an area; a thin, flexible sheet located below the upper deck means, extending beneath the bottom edge and secured beneath the bottom edge for defining a plenum that is defined by and closed off by the upper deck means and the sheet. The deck means is shaped within the area defined by its bottom edge for causing the plenum to always be an open space and the upper deck means is rigid enough to maintain that open condition of the plenum; the sheet being secured in a manner permitting the sheet to pillow when air is pressurized in the plenum; and the sheet being perforated below the upper deck means for permitting exit of air from the plenum at a controllable rate through the perforations; the sheet having a large plurality of the perforations dispersed over most of its area below the upper deck means; each of the perforations being a hole.

  4. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  5. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR FRESHENERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses research in which five air fresheners of two styles were analyzed for their constituent volatile organic compounds. Both styles were refills to be inserted into heated electric plug-in units; one refill released the fragrance from a gel pack insert and the oth...

  6. Cean air and clear responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the text of the address given by Commissioner Kenneth C. rogers, USNRC, at the 23rd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. Mr. Rogers reviews the regulatory approach to the subject, discussing the requirements of 10CFR20 and ALARA principles. A discussion of the talk follows the text

  7. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  8. Air-leakage control manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  9. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  10. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  11. Parametric design of air powered car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundar, T.M.; Kumar, B.P.; Suresh, R. [Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An air-powered car was described with particular reference to its thermodynamic properties. The car was based on an external combustion engine. Air suction occurred in a piston and cylinder assembly through an air vent, where it was then compressed to higher pressures. The compressed air then entered a multi-stage reciprocating single-acting air compressor where the air was further compressed. Power for the compressor was provided by a double-battery system and a relay circuit to trigger the battery connection. Compressed air was stored in a compressed air tank and controlled by valves. The valves were controlled by a contour profile of an overhead camshift. Design specifications were included for the cylinder and cylinder liner; the pistons; the connecting rod; crank; valve gear mechanism; and the compressor. Results of the thermodynamic analysis indicated that the air-powered car is technologically feasible. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser......The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile terminals mounted...

  13. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    are conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids...... is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling...... will take place in the air void, being feed from the capillary, but without pressure build-up in the capillary. If the capillary is not connected to an air void, ice formation will take place in the capillary pore, where it can generate substantial pressure. Like this, frost resistance depends...

  14. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  15. Indoor air problems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory disease and mortality due to indoor air pollution are amongst the greatest environmental threats to health in the developing countries of Asia. World-wide, acute respiratory infection is the cause of death of at least 5 million children under the age of 5 every year. The World Bank has claimed that smoke from biomass fuels resulted in an estimated 4 million deaths annually amongst infants and children. Most of these deaths occur in developing countries. Combustion in its various forms must head the list of pollution sources in Asia. Combustion of various fuels for domestic heating, lighting and cooking comprises the major source of internally generated pollutants and combustion in industrial plants, power generation and transportation is the major cause of externally generated pollutants. The products of pyrolysis and combustion include many compounds with well-known adverse health effects. These include gases such as CO, CO2, NOx and SO2, volatile organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroamines as well as respirable particulates of variable composition. The nature and magnitude of the health risks posed by these materials vary with season, climate, location housing, method of ventilation, culture and socio-economic status. The most important cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in Northern Asia is the domestic combustion of smoky coal. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is common in many Asian countries. Roads traffic exhaust pollution is worse in the major cities of South East Asia than almost anywhere else in the world and this externally generated air pollution forms the indoor air for the urban poor. Despite all these major problems there has been a tendency for international agencies to focus attention and resources on the more trivial problems of indoor air encountered in the affluent countries of the West. Regulatory agencies in Asia have been too frequently persuaded that their problems of indoor air pollution are

  16. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  17. Operating experiences with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers: hospitals, schools, nursing homes, swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Systems utilizing rotary air-to-air heat exchangers are discussed. Basic considerations of use (fresh air requirements, system configurations, cost considerations), typical system layout/design considerations, and operating observations by engineers, staff and maintenance personnel are described.

  18. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  19. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  20. Analisa Kadar Klorida Pada Air Minum Dan Air Sumur Dengan Metode Argentometri

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Novita Sani

    2015-01-01

    Air merupakan zat yang paling penting dalam kehidupan setelah udara. Sekitar tiga perempat bagian dari tubuh kita terdiri dari air dan tidak seseorang pun yang dapat bertahan hidup lebih dari 4-5 hari tanpa minum air. Air Sumur merupakan sumber utama persedian air bersih bagi penduduk yang tinggal didaerah perdesaan maupun diperkotaan Indonesia. Kadar klorida yang tinggi, misalnya pada air laut, yang diikuti oleh kadar kalsium dan magnesium yang juga kadarnya tinggi dapat meningkatkan sifat...

  1. AIR for Javascript Developers Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Hoyt, Kevin; Georgita, Dragos

    2009-01-01

    This book is the official guide to Adobe ® AIR[TM], written by members of the AIR team. With Adobe AIR, web developers can use technologies like HTML and JavaScript to build and deploy web applications to the desktop. Packed with examples, this book explains how AIR works and features recipes for performing common runtime tasks. Part of the Adobe Developer Library, this concise pocket guide explains: What Adobe AIR is, and the problems this runtime aims to solveHow to set up your development environmentThe HTML and JavaScript environments within AIRHow to create your first AIR application

  2. Tilted Micro Air Jet for Flow Control

    CERN Document Server

    Malapert, Julien; Zeggari, Rabah; Manceau, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interesting method to microfabricate a tilted micro air jet generator. We used the well-know deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technique in order to realize in a silicon substrate a double side etching. For aircraft and cars, micro air jets will take an important place for fluid control. Micro air jets are characterized by their speed, frequency and tilt. Usually, this micro air jets are produced by fluidic microsystems. We presented experimental results about micro tilted air jets. A comparison between finite element method simulation, theory and experimental results are performed to define the microsystem geometry leading a specific air jet angle.

  3. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  4. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  5. Power plant VII revisited - Air-air /Scirocco/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etievant, C.; Royer, D.

    A hybrid fossil fuel-solar central receiver power plant is described, noting principally a 'Scirocco' configuration for the receiver. The primary loop contains air which enters passages in the alveolar-configured walls of the boiler, which is semi-spherically shaped. The alveoles are located in the back of the cavity while the upper and lower surfaces are reflective. A heat flux of 24.4 MWth is delivered to the aperture by 668 heliostats, each having a 53 sq m surface. Air is heated to 660 C and then flows past flame tubes to attain temperatures near 900 C through use of a combustor before impinging on the turbine blades. It is noted that although only 1000 hr of functioning are currently available for the Scirocco configuration, it offers the chance to reduce the size of the boiler. Further studies to optimize the materials for the boiler are indicated.

  6. Power plant VII - Air-air /tube boiler/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, M.

    An attempt to design a solar thermal electric central receiver power plant in the multi-MW size with acceptable efficiencies using air in the power loop is described. The turbine and generator are placed in the tower to reduce heat losses in the superheated gas, and the depleted gas loop is coupled to a low temperature generator powered by boiling water. The receiver cavity is configured to retain a maximum amount of flux and has brick walls. Nickel alloys are indicated for the air tubes in the receiver, with Inconel 601, Incoloy 800, and Inconel 600 considered acceptable. The gas leaving the chamber will be at 950 C to power a high pressure turbine, followed by entrance into a heat exchanger to boil the water for the low-pressure turbine, and is then discharged. Thermodynamic efficiencies between 13.9-20.3 percent for a 4700 kW plant are considered feasible with the design.

  7. Laser-initiated ordnance for air-to-air missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpter, David R.

    1993-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Missile Systems Company (MDMSC) has developed a laser ignition subsystem (LIS) for air-to-air missile applications. The MDMSC subsystem is designed to activate batteries, unlock fins, and sequence propulsion system events. The subsystem includes Pyro Zirconium Pump (PZP) lasers, mechanical Safe & Arm, fiber-optic distribution system, and optically activated pyrotechnic devices (initiators, detonators, and thermal batteries). The LIS design has incorporated testability features for the laser modules, drive electronics, fiber-optics, and pyrotechnics. Several of the LIS have been fabricated and have supported thermal battery testing, integral rocket ramjet testing, and have been integrated into integral rocket ramjet flight test vehicles as part of the flight control subsystem.

  8. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  9. PENYERAPAN FORMALIN OLEH BEBERAPA JENIS BAHAN MAKANAN SERTA PENGHILANGANNYA MELALUI PERENDAMAN DALAM AIR PANAS (THE ADSORPTION OF FORMALDEHYDE BY SOME FOODSTUFFS AND ITS ELIMINATION BY SOAKING THEM IN HOT WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryana Purawisastra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Penggunaan formalin sebagai bahan pengawet makanan dilarang oleh Pemerintah, karena bahan ini bersifat toksik (racun. Namun, hasil survei mengindikasikan bahwa beberapa jenis bahan makanan di pasar tradisional masih mengandung formalin. Formalin bisa digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet makanan, karena formalin dapat mengikat protein membentuk ikatan methylene (-NCHOH. Protein pada ikatan methylene ini tahan terhadap kerusakan, baik yang disebabkan oleh aktivitas mikroorganisme maupun oksidasi, sehingga makanan tersebut terhindar dari kerusakan dan menjadi awet. Artikel ini menyajikan hasil pengujian penyerapan formalin oleh beberapa jenis bahan makanan yang mengandung protein, serta pengaruh proses perendaman dalam air panas terhadap kandungan formalinnya. Metodologi: Sampel bahan makanan direndam dalam larutan formalin 1 persen. Sementara pengaruh proses perendaman dalam air panas terhadap kandungan formalin dilakukan dengan merendam bahan makanan berformalin di dalam air panas. Selama waktu periodik perendaman, bahan makanan dianalisis kadar air, formalin dan proteinnya. Hasil: Penyerapan formalin tertinggi oleh bahan makanan terjadi pada tahu, kemudian daging ayam, dan yang terendah adalah mi basah pasar. Akan tetapi, ada perbedaan tingkat penyerapan formalin antar-tahu, serta antara daging dada dan paha ayam. Kadar formalin dalam bahan makanan bisa dikurangi melalui perendaman dalam air panas. Besar pengurangan tergantung dari tingginya kandungan formalin. Sebagai contoh, kadar formalin tahu adalah 0.7 mg per g, dan menjadi 0 pada perendaman dalam air panas selama 2 jam. Kesimpulan: Penyerapan formalin oleh bahan makanan, kadarnya berbeda tergantung dari reaktivitas protein untuk bereaksi dengan formalin. Perendaman bahan makanan berformalin dalam air panas dapat mengurangi kandungannya. Rekomendasi: Perendaman bahan makanan, dengan merendam dalam air panas di rumah tangga, merupakan salah satu usaha ibu-ibu rumah tangga

  10. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  11. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  12. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  13. Studi Korelasi Antara Bod Dengan Unsur Hara N, P Dan K Dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidup Simanjuntak

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang studi korelasi antara BOD dengan unsur hara N, P dan K dari Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit. Sampel Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa sawit berasal dari Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah PT. Nusantara II (Persero) unit Pengolahan Sawit Seberang Kabupaten Langkat. Sampel diambil dari kolam Anaerobik primer 1, kolam Anaerobik primer 2, kolam Anaerobik sekunder 1 dan kolam Anaerobik sekunder 2. BOD dianalisa dengan metode Winkler, N dengan metode Dekstruksi Kjehldahl...

  14. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  15. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wiblin, C.M. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  16. Eksport - lihtsam öelda kui teha / Priit Alamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alamäe, Priit

    2008-01-01

    Tihedast konkurentsist rahvusvahelisel IT-turul ja Eesti väikesest representatiivsusest. Vt. samas: Kuum küsimus: kas raskemad ajad majanduses toovad teie firmas kaasa koondamisi? Küsimusele vastavad Elisa juhatuse liige Andrus Hiiepuu, MicroLinki juhatuse esimees Enn Saar ja Starmani juhatuse esimees Peeter Kern

  17. KAJIAN POTENSI DAN DAYA DUKUNG TAMAN WISATA ALAM BUKIT KELAM UNTUK STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Purwanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that ecotourism can increase community welfare and natural resource sustainability. Ecoutourism development in Bukit Kelam natural tourism park (TWABK need to be based on the function and carrying capacity of the area, so that it must be discovered the object potential and tourism attraction. The study aimed to: (1 identify and analyze the object potential and natural tourism attraction in TWABK; (2 analyze carrying capacity of TWABK for ecotourism development, (3 identify and analyze the stakeholders of TWABK; and (4 formulate the strategies of ecotourism development in TWABK. Analysis guide of ADO-ODTWA Dirjen PHKA 2003 is used to analyze the object potential and natural tourism attraction. The criteria of Physical Carrying Capacity (PCC, Real Carrying Capacity (RCC and Efective Carrying Capacity (ECC is used to analyze the carrying capacity of TWABK. Stakeholder Grid is used to analyze the stakeholders and the ecotourism development strategies of TWABK which formulated by using SWOT analysis. Some objects in TWABK are feasible for ecotourism development, which are: bukit Kelam landscape, Kelam ring road, climbing transect, the hill peak, the foothills area, the hillside, spiritual tourism of Maria cave and agro tourism. The ECC of TWABK area for ecoutourism is 196 persons/day, with slope correction factor, soil erosion sensitivity, landsape potential, climate and wildlife disturbance (swallow birds spawn season. The stakeholders of TWABK is divided into four categories, which are: the key players (the ministry of forestry, the ministry of tourism and creative economy, the agency of cultural and tourism of Sintang district, the agency of forestry and plantation of Sintang district and the community,the context setters (the NGOs, the crowd (private sectors and the subjects (visitors, academics, and refill drinking water company. The ecotourism development strategy formulation of TWABK results 9 strategies, which are: area stabilization, management plan formulation, ecotourism development according to the potency and carrying capacity of the area, publication and promotion, protection of the area, management collaboration, environmental education and counseling, community development,and ecotourism impacts monitoring and evaluation. Keywords: carrying capacity, ecotourism, strategy

  18. Efektivitas karet alam termoplastik sebagai peningkat indeks viskositas minyak pelumas kendaraan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Puspitasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of rubber goods are highly needed to enhance natural rubber domestic consumption. One of the efforts is by using thermoplastic natural rubber that is synthesized from emulsion graft copolymerization of natural rubber latex with thermoplastic monomer as index viscosity improver of lubricating oil. The research aimed to study the effect of thermoplastic natural rubber (natural rubber–styrene copolymer addition, at various concentration, into base paraffinic lube oil (HVI 60 and HVI 650 on index viscosity value of lubricating oil. The result showed that emulsion graft copolymerization at composition ratio of natural rubber to styrene monomer 85:15, at 65oC for 7 hours, with addition of 1% ammonium peroxidisulfate as initiator and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant produced thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR, copoly NR-ST with grafting efficiency of 56,48%. The TPNR can be functioned properly as index viscosity improver at 5% concentration to base paraffinic lube oil either HVI 60 or HVI 650. The obtaining new lubricating oils could fulfill the index viscosity standard requirement refered to Decree of Directorat General of Oil and Gas No 85K/34/DDJM/1998, and could compete with the commercial lubricating oil type 20W-50, 10W-40, and 15W-40.

  19. LANSKAP EKOLOGI KESERASIAN DAN KEMENARIKAN KEPARIWISATAAN ALAM DI WILAYAH YOGYAKARA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad muhamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extent of landscape ecology and attractiveness of the natural environment in the tourism area in the region north of Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta northern region has objects and natural tourism attractions of the venture capital in its tourism development footprint. The compatibility and attractiveness level of the environment is one of the most important factors to determine the region’s level of potential environmental compatibility and attractiveness, so that the characteristics and the distribution pattern of the attractiveness and harmony of nature in the tourism region can be known. The results showed that the landscape level of ecological harmony and the attractiveness of the environment after the 2010 eruption had a significant amount of the index. The higher the quality of the natural (physical environment and social (human and socioeconomic culture is, the higher the level of harmony and attractiveness of the region. Landscape ecology establishes harmony between the social component (population and the natural environment (bio-physical, suchthat they form a potential tourist attraction at the site of nature tourism in the region north of Yogyakarta. 

  20. PEMBELAJARAN KEBENCANAAN ALAM DENGAN MODEL BERTUKAR PASANGAN BERVISI SETS UNTUK MENUMBUHKAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS SISWA

    OpenAIRE

    S. Masfuah; A. Rusilowati; Sarwi -

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui berpikir kritis dan sikap siswa terhadap bencana. Penelitian ini menggunakan metodeeksperimen dengan desain control group pre-test post-test. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah tes dan lembar observasi untukmengukur berpikir kritis siswa, serta angket untuk mengetahui sikap siswa terhadap bencana. Hasil analisis data penelitian denganteknik uji gain ternormalisasi. Dengan demikian, disimpulkan bahwa berpikir kritis dan sikap siswa terhadap bencana yang d...

  1. Perkembangan Pola Pemecahan Masalah Anak Usia Sekolah dalam Memecahkan Permasalahan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Juliyanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian yang mengungkap pola pemecahan masalah sudah banyak dilakukan, tetapi belum ada yang mengungkap perkembangan pola pemecahan masalah manusia, khususnya untuk pemecahan masalah dalam bidang fisika. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perkembangan pola pemecahan masalah pada anak usia sekolah. Data penelitian diperoleh melalui tes tertulis dan wawancara dengan mengajukan permasalahan yang berkaitan dengan fisika dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Jenis Penelitian ini adalah studi perkembangan dengan metode Cross-Sectional. Subyek penelitian ini berjumlah 25 orang anak usia sekolah kelas IV SD hingga kelas XII SMA, dengan mengambil tiga orang setiap tingkatan kelas kecuali kelas XII SMA yang hanya diambil satu orang. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan pada anak rentang kelas IV SD hingga XII SMA ditemukan empat pola pemecahan masalah, yaitu Intuitive Problem Solving, Primitive Problem Solving, Hipotetic Problem Solving, dan Expert Problem Solving. Pola-pola tersebut menunjukkan sebuah tahapan perkembangan pemecahan masalah pada anak usia sekolah. Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan memecahkan masalah berkembang seiring perkembangan manusia. ABSTRACTThere are many study to reveal pattern of problem solving, but there is no study that reveal the development of human problem solving, especially in physics problem solving. This study aims  at describing the development of problem solving pattern of school-age children. Data were obtained through a written test and interview by asking question related to daily physics problem. This study was study of the development that used the Cross-Sectional method. Subject of this study were 25 school-age children of fourth grade until twelfth grade. There were three students taken from each grade level except the twelfth grade which was only supports by onestudent. Results of this study showed that there were four patterns of problem solving of fourth grade until twelfth grade children, those were Intuitive Problem Solving, Primitive Problem Solving, Hipotetic Problem Solving,  and Expert Problem Solving. This patterns showed a stage of problem solving development of school-age children. It was concluded that problem solving ability grows during the development of human.

  2. IMPLEMENTASI PASAL 33 AYAT 3 UUD 1945 DALAM BERBAGAI PERUNDANG-UNDANGAN TENTANG SUMBERDAYA ALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjok Istri Putra Astiti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to : 1 determine the translation of Article 33, paragraph 3 of the 1945 Constitution in a variety of legislation on natural resources, 2 analyze the synchronization of several provisions in the legislation on the natural resources, espicially related to legal community participation and sanctions, and 3 analyze the implications of insynchroni- zation between the regulations of natural resource.               This research is a normative legal research is implemented using the statute approach. The main object of study is the primary legal materials in the form of legislation on natural resources.               The results showed that, in principle, the essence of Article 33 paragraph 3 of the 1945 Constitution, about the " earth , water , and space ,and the natural riches contained therein, shall be controlled by the state and used for the greatest welfare of the people . " has been translated into various statutory provisions of natural resources.There is synchronization between the various legislation, among other things : state control of natural resource management authorizes local governments, and the types of sanctions imposed against  violations to the various regulations, namely sanction of imprisonment, confinement and fine. However, there is not synchronization related to the delivery of state control of the rights to the indigenous people (legal communityand about magnitude of sanctions, there are countless monthly ,there are countless decades. Likewise, regarding the fine penalties, there is a very lightweight ( Rp 10,000 some are up to Rp 15.000.000.000,- The existence of the insynchronization may be implicated on the participation of the legal community (indigeneus people in managing the local natural  resources and lack of legal positiveness (kepastian hukum  in law enforcement for violations of the various regulations on these resources .

  3. LANSKAP EKOLOGI KESERASIAN DAN KEMENARIKAN KEPARIWISATAAN ALAM DI WILAYAH YOGYAKARA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad muhamad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extent of landscape ecology and attractiveness of the natural environment in the tourism area in the region north of Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta northern region has objects and natural tourism attractions of the venture capital in its tourism development footprint. The compatibility and attractiveness level of the environment is one of the most important factors to determine the region’s level of potential environmental compatibility and attractiveness, so that the characteristics and the distribution pattern of the attractiveness and harmony of nature in the tourism region can be known. The results showed that the landscape level of ecological harmony and the attractiveness of the environment after the 2010 eruption had a significant amount of the index. The higher the quality of the natural (physical environment and social (human and socioeconomic culture is, the higher the level of harmony and attractiveness of the region. Landscape ecology establishes harmony between the social component (population and the natural environment (bio-physical, suchthat they form a potential tourist attraction at the site of nature tourism in the region north of Yogyakarta.

  4. Aedes aegypti sebagai Vektor Demam Berdarah Dengue Berdasarkan Pengamatan di Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasyimi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Demam berdarah atau Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat. Terutama bagi kota-kota besar yang penduduknya padat dan mobilitas tinggi. Nyamuk Aedes aegypti merupakan penyebar utama penyakit ini, di samping Ae. albopictus. Berhubung sampai saat ini penyakit DBD belum ada obatnya dan vaksin untuk pencegahannya maka pemberantasan penyakit DBD ini dipusatkan kepada pengendalian nyamuk penularnya. Metode pengendalian telah dilakukan dengan bermacam-macam cara, baik secar kimiawi maupun bukan kimiawi.

  5. Clonidine Reduce Bleeding Of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Amir Alam Hospital (1398-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajy Mohammadi F

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effect of clonidine as a premedication on endoscopic sinus surgery bleeding."nMethods and Materials: during a randomized double blind clinical trial we compared two groups of patients who scheduled for endoscopic sinus surgery for polypectomy and etmoidectomy. 216 patients randomly assigned in two groups.In first group 2 hours befor surgery a 0.2mg tablet of clonidine orally adminestered to patients and in second group a 100 mg tablet of vit Bj(with same size and color- as"nplacebowas adminestered to patients. The amount of bleeding measured in two groups."nResults: mean bleeding volume in clonidine group was 113+76 ml and in control group was 211 + 113 ml. There was a significant statistical difference between two groups (pO.0001."nConclusion: Clonidine as premedication can reduce bleeding of endoscopic sinus surgery significantly.

  6. Pemanfaatan Zeolit Alam sebagai Feed Additive dalam Ransum terhadap Karkas dan Boneless Itik Peking

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Herlina

    2012-01-01

    The research was conducted in Laboratory of Biologi Ternak Agriculture Faculty of Sumatera Utara University since March 7th 'till M^iy 2nd 2005. The research purposed to measure the carcase weight, carcase percentage, abdominal fat and boneless percentage by feeding natural zeolites as feed additives.The research method used completely randomized design (CRD), with 5 treatments and 4 replication each replication consist of four Pekin ducks. Th^ treatments used in this research are TO (basal f...

  7. Analisis Kinetika Pertukaran Ion NH4+ dan H+ pada Zeolit Alam Lampung dengan Shrinking Core Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simparmin Ginting

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange process between ion NH4+ and H+ by using zeolite as its ion exchanger is one of methods to purify water from ammonium ion content. Natural zeolites are chosen as ion exchanger because it is abundantly provided in Indonesia, especially in Lampung. The influences of reaction temperature and stirrer speed toward reaction rate constant, mass transfer coefficient and effective diffusivity in batch ion exchange process, were analysed by using shrinking core model. Processes run by mixing zeolite and ammonium solution in a stirred tank at 30, 40 and 50oC with stirrer speed variation of 700, 800 and 900 rpm. Every 5 up to 60 min, the sample was taken for ammonium ion analyses. The results show that mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and ion exchange reaction resistance influenced the overall rate of reaction. The results also show that reaction temperature and stirrer speed influenced the reaction rate constant, mass transfer coefficient and effective diffusivity. The correlations of them are stated in simple empirical equation. Shrinking core model was good to describe the ion exchange kinetics between NH4+ and H+ ion in natural zeolite from Lampung with the average error range of 1,15 % – 3,71%. Keywords: ion exchange kinetics, Lampung natural zeolite, shrinking core model.

  8. Social Determinants of Health: Perspective of the ALAMES Social Determinants Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Escudero

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The recent discussion of the social determinants of health, which has been promoted by the WHO as a way to approach global health conditions is neither a new nor a foreign subject for Latin American social medicine or collective health. Indeed, this approach to health derives from the principles of 19th century European social medicine which accepted that the health of the population is a matter of social concern, that social and economic conditions have an important bearing on health and disease, and that these relationships should be subjected to scientific enquiry. (Rosen, 1985:81 The specific socio-historical conditions of Latin America in the 1970’s fostered the development of an innovative, critical, and socially-based based health analysis, which was seen in an evolving theoretical approach with deep social roots. (Cohn, 2003 This analysis calls for scientific work which is committed to changing living and working conditions and to improving the health of the popular classes. (Waitzkin y col. 2001; Iriart y col. 2002. From its beginning, this school of socio-medical thought recognized that collective health has two main areas of research: 1 the distribution and determinants of health and disease and 2 the interpretation, technical knowledge, and specialized practices concerning health, disease, and death. The goal is to understand health and disease as differentiated moments in the human lifecycle, subject to permanent change, and expressing the biological nature of the human body under specific forms of social organization, all this in such a way as to allow discussion of causality and determination. (Breilh y Granda,1982; Laurell, 1982. Latin American social medicine criticized biomedical and conventional epidemiological approaches for isolating health and disease from social context, misinterpreting social processes as biological, conceptualizing health phenomena in individualistic terms, and adopting the methodological procedures of the natural sciences

  9. Mandatum : lõika kasu Soome firmade suurtest dividendidest / Karri Alamer ; interv. Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alamer, Karri

    2005-01-01

    Mandatumi investeerimisüksuse juht Karri Alameri soovitab investoritel hoida portfellis ülekaalus Jaapani ning arenenud Aasia regioonide aktsiaid. Lisa: Alameri aktsiaportfelli väärtus 6,6 mln krooni

  10. PENCIPTAAN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL PERANCANGAN PROGRAM EDUTAINMENT SERI AKTIVITAS ALAM: GUNUNG MELETUS

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas James Darmawan; Dyah Gayatri Putri

    2015-01-01

    This research is the continuation of previous research. The research is included in the creation of visual communication solutions on how a process of visual communication strategy can contribute a persuasive invitation. Research aims to expose the solution in the realm of visual communication. The research applied qualitative method. It began with the development of communicators becoming a mascot, continued on the delivery of messages through the comics, and invited children as ...

  11. Pengaruh suhu vulkanisasi terhadap sifat mekanis vulkanisat karet alam dan karet akrilonitril-butadiena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arisanti Kinasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers possess different vulcanization characteristics. Selection of the vulcanization system and temperature affects the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber (NR and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR. In the present work, the effect of vulcanization temperature (150, 160, 170 and 180oC on the mechanical properties of NR and NBR vulcanizates was studied. The effect of different vulcanization system (semi efficient, efficient and sulfur donor was studied in NR blends, while the effect of different acrylonitrile content (26, 28 and 33 wt % was studied in NBR blends. The NBR curing characteristics and mechanical properties data showed that vulcanization at low temperature (150oC was suitable for low acrylonitrile-NBR, whereas that at high temperature (170oC was suitable for high acrylonitrile-NBR. In addition, the semi efficient system at low temperature vulcanization (150oC was suitable for natural rubber.

  12. Pengaruh pemlastis nabati terhadap sifat elastomer termoplastik berbasis campuran karet alam/poli propilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Wahini Nurhajati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable plasticizer is a plasticizer that is derived from renewable raw materials, that are used as an alternative to petroleum-based plasticizer. The purpose of this research was to compare the effect of the vegetable and plasticizer with petroleum plasticizers on the mechanical properties of (Thermoplastic Elastomer TPE. Vegetable plasticizer used in this study is a modified castor oil. Natural rubber/polypropylene (KA/PP based TPE was made in an internal mixer at a temperature of 180ºC with a variousvarious ratio KA/PP ratio and type of plasticizer. In general, modified castor oil as a plasticizer has a more positive effect on the mechanical properties of TPE in various ratios of KA/PP, is mainly related to improvement of properties of tensile strength, elongation at break and flexing resistance 100 kcs. The best formula of TPE is a TPE that is composed of KA/PP 60/40 using modified castor oil. XRD results showed that TPE is dominated by amorphous phase.

  13. Keefektifan Kerja Sama Antarlembaga dalam Operasi Pemulihan Bencana Alam Banjir Studi Empirik di Provinsi DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effectiveness of interagency cooperation in recovery operation of natural disaster in DKI Jakarta regions combines between the research of interagency cooperation in disaster context and the research of interagency cooperation in public services. This research is deepened by comparing the perception of governmental organization and Non Governmental Organization (NGO. The aim of this research is to do the empirical test of the relationship of situational factors to interagency processes and outcomes. This research is not only to test the hyphotesis but also to observe the phenomenon in the interagency cooperation. The result of this reasearch shows that the perception of the leader of governmental organization toward communication is higher than the perception of leader of NGO. Cooperation between governmental and NGO within the effort to serve the disaster DKI Jakarta regions becomes a model of partnership interagency cooperation.

  14. Keefektifan Kerja Sama Antarlembaga dalam Operasi Pemulihan Bencana Alam Banjir Studi Empirik di Provinsi DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effectiveness of interagency cooperation in recovery operation of natural disaster in DKI Jakarta regions combines between the research of interagency cooperation in disaster context and the research of interagency cooperation in public services. This research is deepened by comparing the perception of governmental organization and Non Governmental Organization (NGO. The aim of this research is to do the empirical test of the relationship of situational factors to interagency processes and outcomes. This research is not only to test the hyphotesis but also to observe the phenomenon in the interagency cooperation. The result of this reasearch shows that the perception of the leader of governmental organization toward communication is higher than the perception of leader of NGO. Cooperation between governmental and NGO within the effort to serve the disaster DKI Jakarta regions becomes a model of partnership interagency cooperation.

  15. Keanekaragaman Jenis Pohon dan Produktivitas Buah Pakan Orangutan di Cagar Alam Jantho

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhartuty

    2016-01-01

    The study entitled "Biodiversity and Productivity Fruit Trees Feed Orangutan Nature Reserve Jantho" has been done of the month December 2013 - in May 2014. This study aims to determine species diversity and productivity of fruit trees in the Nature Reserve orangutan Jantho. The method used in the form of terraced line method which consists of 4 lines, 16 plots with an area of research area of 1 ha, while the fruit productivity using phenological observations with the criteria of the presence ...

  16. Keanekaragaman Piperaceae Dan Rubiaceae Di Taman Wisata Alam Deleng Lancuk Kabupaten Karo Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Ahdatika Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian Keanekaragaman Piperaceae dan Rubiaceae di TWA Deleng Lancuk telah dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari 2008 – Maret 2008. Lokasi penelitian di tentukan secara Purposive dan dibagi menjadi 5 berdasarkan jumlah bukit; yaitu bukit I, II, II, IV dan bukit V, Ketinggian ke 5 bukit tersebut berada pada ketinggian 1300 – 1600 m dpl. Areal pengamatan seluas 1,25 ha (10 x 10 x 25 x 5) tiap lokasi yang diamati dibuat dalam 25 plot berukuran 10 x 10 m. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh 32 jenis ...

  17. KEANEKARAGAMAN ANGGREK EPIFIT DI KAWASAN TAMAN WISATA ALAM DANAU BUYAN-TAMBLINGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Pradnya Paramitha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchids are often found growing naturally in the tropical rain forest. Destruction of tropical rain forests can reduce the germplasms of natural orchids. One of the tropical rain forest areas which is often visited by tourists in Bali is Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park. Research conducted from December 2011 until April 2012. The results showed that in the Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park there are 30 species of epiphyte orchids. The epiphyte orchids which have the highest individual number is Appendicula elegans Rchb. f with total individual number was 198 individuals/ha. The Shannon-Wienner diversity index value of epiphyte orchid in Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park is 1,1561.

  18. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  19. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 3rd International Conference on solar air-conditioning in Palermo (Italy) at 30th September to 2nd October, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Removal of non-technological barriers to solar cooling technology across Southern European islands (Stefano Rugginenti); (2) The added economic and environmental value of solar thermal systems in microgrids with combined heat and power (Chris Marney); (3) Australian solar cooling interest group (Paul Kohlenbach); (4) Designing of a technology roadmap for solar assisted air conditioning in Austria (Hilbert Focke); (5) Solar cooling in the new context of renewable policies at European level (Raffaele Piria); (6) Prototype of a solar driven steam jet ejector chiller (Clemens Pollerberg); (7) New integrated solar air conditioning system (Joan Carlos Bruno); (8) Primary energy optimised operation of solar driven desiccant evaporative cooling systems through innovative control strategies; (9) Green chiller association (Uli Jakob); (10) Climate Well {sup registered} (Olof Hallstrom); (11) Low capacity absorption chillers for solar cooling applications (Gregor Weidner); (12) Solar cooling in residential, small scale commercial and industrial applications with adsorption technology (Walter Mittelbach); (13) French solar heating and cooling development programme based on energy performance (Daniel Mugnier); (14) Mirrox fresnel process heat collectors for industrial applications and solar cooling (Christian Zahler); (15) Modelling and analyzing solar cooling systems in polysun (Seyen Hossein Rezaei); (16) Solar cooling application in Valle Susa Italy (Sufia Jung); (17) Virtual case study on small solar cooling systems within the SolarCombi+Project (Bjoern Nienborg); (18) Design of solar cooling plants under uncertainty (Fernando Dominguez-Munoz); (19) Fast pre-design of systems using solar thermally driven chillers (Hans-Martin Henning); (20) Design of a high fraction solar heating and cooling plant in southern

  20. Frontiers in air quality modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA. Besides the technical challenge, we find that model biases are significantly reduced, especially over urban areas. The high resolution grid also allows revisiting the contribution of individual city plumes to the European burden of pollution, providing new insights for designing air pollution control strategies.

  1. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  2. Air Emissions Sources, Charts and Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Air Emissions provides (1) interactive charts supporting national, state, or county charts, (2) county maps of criteria air pollutant emissions for a state, and (3)...

  3. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  4. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  5. Acute pulmonary embolism following air travel

    OpenAIRE

    Ledermann, J. A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of pulmonary embolism following long air flight are described. There was no previous history of venous disease. The symptoms were transient in one and severe in two. The occurrence of pulmonary embolism immediately after air travel is emphasized.

  6. Estonian Air sai lennukilisa / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2007-01-01

    Lennukompanii Estonian Air liisib kolm uut lennukit. Kommenteerib Rein Loik. Vt. samas intervjuud SAS-i asepresidendi Per Jensen Mölleriga, kes eitab spekulatsioone, et SAS võiks airBalticu ja Estonian Airi liita

  7. Community air monitoring and Village Green Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  8. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... routine or in a less populated place, tiny pollution particles in the air can lead to big ...

  9. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  10. Guide to Air Cleaners in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... precipitators use a process called electrostatic attraction to trap charged particles. They draw air through an ionization ... a fan. Top of Page Conclusion Indoor air pollution is among the top five environmental health risks. ...

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  12. Model test of air-exchange efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobut, K.

    1987-01-01

    The mixing-air flow pattern was studied. Three air flows were tested using the tracer gas technique and decay method. The indices of air exchange efficiency were calculated, namely: overall air-exchange efficiency and room-air mean age for the whole room; local ventilation indices and local mean ages of air at 10 points distributed throughout the room. Experiments were carried out in both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. Based on the theory of similarity requirements, a reduced-scale model, geometrically similar to the laboratory test room, was built. Air flows and temperature differences were calculated for the model tests in order to make them comparable with the full scale, and the tests were repeated. The objective of the study was to determine the relation between the air-exchange efficiency indices obtained in the model and on the full scale.

  13. Long-range air transmission of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovallius, A; Bucht, B; Roffey, R; Anäs, P

    1978-06-01

    Bacterial spores from a sandstorm area north of the Black Sea were transmitted to Sweden by air, giving increased concentrations of viable bacterial spores at two air sampling stations in Sweden. PMID:677884

  14. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  15. Air Radioactivity Monitoring in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana; Jokic, Vesna Spasic; Djuric, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    It can be concluded that monitoring natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in ground level air provide important information on the content of radionuclides due to their origin, weather and climate conditions (rate of precipitation, washout effects, temperature differences and inverstion, wind direction and intensity, troposphere-to-stratosphere transport and exchange, etc). The local topology, as well as anthropogenic factors such as the effects of traffic and heating plants are highly impo...

  16. Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Garth Heutel; Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that mortality rates increase during economic booms and decrease during economic busts, but little analysis has been conducted investigating the role of environmental risks as potential mechanisms for this relationship. We investigate the contribution of air pollution to the procyclicality of deaths by combining state-level data on overall, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates with state-level measures of ambient concentrations of three types of polluta...

  17. A Blast of Cool Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Unable to solve their engineering problem with a rotor in their Orbital Vane product, DynEco Corporation turned to Kennedy Space Center for help. KSC engineers determined that the compressor rotor was causing a large concentration of stress, which led to cracking and instant rotor failure. NASA redesigned the lubrication system, which allowed the company to move forward with its compressor that has no rubbing parts. The Orbital Vane is a refrigerant compressor suitable for mobile air conditioning and refrigeration.

  18. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  19. Indoor air pollution and health

    OpenAIRE

    World Heath Organization (WHO)

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a fact sheet summarizing the indoor air pollution problem. The risk factors include health impacts such as respiratory infections and lung cancer. The fact sheet explains that women and children in developing nations are most vulnerable to the pollutants. It links Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4 and 7 (eradicate extreme poverty, empowering women, reducing child mortality, and ensure environmental sustainability) with the need for action. The fact sheet end...

  20. Air leaks and vasopressin release.

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, N.; Prakash, P.; Smith, A.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven very low birthweight babies being ventilated for respiratory problems during the first week of life developed air leaks on 22 occasions. On 16 out of 19 occasions the infants showed increases in urinary excretion of vasopressin after these events and on 10 occasions out of 13 there was a rise in the plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. The peripheral signs of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release were seen on only one occasion in response to the sometimes hig...

  1. Air pollution of urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active ex...

  2. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  3. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  4. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  5. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....

  6. Sensitivity to draught in turbulent air flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todde, V.

    1998-09-01

    Even though the ventilation system is designed to supply air flows at constant low velocity and controlled temperature, the resulting air movement in rooms is strongly characterised by random fluctuations. When an air flow is supplied from an inlet, a shear layer forms between the incoming and the standstill air in the room, and large scale vortices develops by coalescence of the vorticity shed at the inlet of the air supply. After a characteristically downstream distance, large scale vortices loose their identity because of the development of cascading eddies and transition to turbulence. The interaction of these vortical structures will rise a complicated three dimensional air movement affected by fluctuations whose frequencies could vary from fractions of Hz to several KHz. The perception and sensitivity to the cooling effect enhanced by these air movements depend on a number of factors interacting with each other: physical properties of the air flow, part and extension of the skin surface exposed to the air flow, exposure duration, global thermal condition, gender and posture of the person. Earlier studies were concerned with the percentage of dissatisfied subjects as a function of air velocity and temperature. Recently, experimental observations have shown that also the fluctuations, the turbulence intensity and the direction of air velocity have an important impact on draught discomfort. Two experimental investigations have been developed to observe the human reaction to horizontal air movements on bared skin surfaces, hands and neck. Attention was concentrated on the effects of relative turbulence intensity of air velocity and exposure duration on perception and sensitivity to the air movement. The air jet flows, adopted for the draught experiment in the neck, were also the object of an experimental study. This experiment was designed to observe the centre-line velocity of an isothermal circular air jet, as a function of the velocity properties at the outlet

  7. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  8. The effectiveness of a heated air curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria

    2014-11-01

    Air curtains are high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in the doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The air curtain effectiveness E is defined as the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. In the present study, we investigate the effects of an opposing buoyancy force on the air curtain effectiveness. Such an opposing buoyancy force arises for example if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. We conducted small-scale experiments using water as the working fluid with density differences created by salt and sugar. The effectiveness of a downwards blowing air curtain was measured for situations in which the initial density of the air curtain was less than both the indoor and the outdoor fluid density, which corresponds to the case of a heated air curtain. We compare the effectiveness of the heated air curtain to the case of the neutrally buoyant air curtain. It is found that the effectiveness starts to decrease if the air curtain is heated beyond a critical temperature. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model to describe the dynamics of the buoyant air curtain. Numerical results obtained from solving this model corroborate our experimental findings.

  9. AirBaltic says RIX favors Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia lennujaama juht märkis 10. märtsi telesaates, et airBaltic ei saa oma arveid õigeks ajaks makstud. AirBaltic süüditab lennujaama Ryanairi soosimises. Valitsus kaalub airBalticule investorite otsimist

  10. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  11. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.;

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality...

  12. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  13. 40 CFR 257.3-7 - Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air. 257.3-7 Section 257.3-7... and Practices § 257.3-7 Air. (a) The facility or practice shall not engage in open burning of... 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended. (c) As used in this section “open burning” means the...

  14. Air pocket removal from downward sloping pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in water pipelines and hydropower tunnels. Water pipelines and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket accumulation in downward sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pockets cause energy losses and an assoc

  15. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  16. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in fo

  17. Air quality in Spain 1990. Calidad del aire en Espaa 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This monograph studies air quality in Spain. It is articulated into 7 chapters: - Air pollution in the world - Air pollution in regions (regional areas) - Air pollution in villages (local areas) - Local networks in Spain - Meteorological characteristics in 1990 - Events - Atmospheric chemistry.

  18. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  19. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...

  20. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  1. 76 FR 66717 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air... announces a public teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and... site at http://www.epa.gov/casac . Any inquiry regarding EPA's draft Near-Road NO 2...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Society of Mechanical Engineers, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box 2900, Fairfield, New Jersey 07007, Phone:...

  3. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  4. Guidance for air sampling at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal uses of air sampling at nuclear facilities are to monitor general levels of radioactive air contamination, identify sources of air contamination, and evaluate the effectiveness of contaminant control equipment, determine exposures of individual workers, and provide automatic warning of hazardous concentrations of radioactivity. These applications of air sampling are discussed with respect to standards of occupational exposure, instrumentation, sample analysis, sampling protocol, and statistical treatment of concentration data. Emphasis is given to the influence of spacial and temporal variations of radionuclide concentration on the location, duration, and frequency of air sampling

  5. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed....

  6. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence or? the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...... air" to each individual. The application of this concept is discussed in this paper: (C) 2000 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved....

  7. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity...... and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...... toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality...

  8. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  9. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Grupo Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares], E-mail: jasan@cae.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: rpla@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Santos, Marina dos [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Lab. de Contaminacion del Aire], E-mail: mdossant@cnea.gov.ar

    2007-07-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  10. Air Quality Assessment Using Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awkash Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is increasing rapidly in almost all cities around the world due to increase in population. Mumbai city in India is one of the mega cities where air quality is deteriorating at a very rapid rate. Air quality monitoring stations have been installed in the city to regulate air pollution control strategies to reduce the air pollution level. In this paper, air quality assessment has been carried out over the sample region using interpolation techniques. The technique Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW of Geographical Information System (GIS has been used to perform interpolation with the help of concentration data on air quality at three locations of Mumbai for the year 2008. The classification was done for the spatial and temporal variation in air quality levels for Mumbai region. The seasonal and annual variations of air quality levels for SO2, NOx and SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter have been focused in this study. Results show that SPM concentration always exceeded the permissible limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Also, seasonal trends of pollutant SPM was low in monsoon due rain fall. The finding of this study will help to formulate control strategies for rational management of air pollution and can be used for many other regions.

  11. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  12. Practicality study on air-powered vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LIU; Xiaoli YU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and outlook of air-powered vehicles including compressed air-powered vehicle and liquid nitrogen-powered vehicle, thermodyn-amic analysis and experiment data were used to analyze the energy density, performance, safety, running effi-ciency, fuel circulation economy and consumer accep-tance, etc. The results show that compressed air and liquid nitrogen have similar energy density as Ni-H battery; the characteristics of an air-powered engine is suitable for driving a vehicle; the circulation efficiency of liquid nitrogen is 3.6%-14% and that of compressed air is 25%-32.3% in practice, and existing technology can assure its safety. It is concluded that though the performance of an air-powered engine is inferior to that of the traditional inert combustion engine, an air-powered vehicle is fit for future green cars to realize the sustainable development of society and environment.

  13. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries.

  14. Changes in air flow patterns using surfactants and thickeners during air sparging: Bench-scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Heonki; Annable, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Air injected into an aquifer during air sparging normally flows upward according to the pressure gradients and buoyancy, and the direction of air flow depends on the natural hydrogeologic setting. In this study, a new method for controlling air flow paths in the saturated zone during air sparging processes is presented. Two hydrodynamic parameters, viscosity and surface tension of the aqueous phase in the aquifer, were altered using appropriate water-soluble reagents distributed before initiating air sparging. Increased viscosity retarded the travel velocity of the air front during air sparging by modifying the viscosity ratio. Using a one-dimensional column packed with water-saturated sand, the velocity of air intrusion into the saturated region under a constant pressure gradient was inversely proportional to the viscosity of the aqueous solution. The air flow direction, and thus the air flux distribution was measured using gaseous flux meters placed at the sand surface during air sparging experiments using both two-, and three-dimensional physical models. Air flow was found to be influenced by the presence of an aqueous patch of high viscosity or suppressed surface tension in the aquifer. Air flow was selective through the low-surface tension (46.5 dyn/cm) region, whereas an aqueous patch of high viscosity (2.77 cP) was as an effective air flow barrier. Formation of a low-surface tension region in the target contaminated zone in the aquifer, before the air sparging process is inaugurated, may induce air flow through the target zone maximizing the contaminant removal efficiency of the injected air. In contrast, a region with high viscosity in the air sparging influence zone may minimize air flow through the region prohibiting the region from de-saturating.

  15. Changes in air flow patterns using surfactants and thickeners during air sparging: bench-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Heonki; Annable, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Air injected into an aquifer during air sparging normally flows upward according to the pressure gradients and buoyancy, and the direction of air flow depends on the natural hydrogeologic setting. In this study, a new method for controlling air flow paths in the saturated zone during air sparging processes is presented. Two hydrodynamic parameters, viscosity and surface tension of the aqueous phase in the aquifer, were altered using appropriate water-soluble reagents distributed before initiating air sparging. Increased viscosity retarded the travel velocity of the air front during air sparging by modifying the viscosity ratio. Using a one-dimensional column packed with water-saturated sand, the velocity of air intrusion into the saturated region under a constant pressure gradient was inversely proportional to the viscosity of the aqueous solution. The air flow direction, and thus the air flux distribution was measured using gaseous flux meters placed at the sand surface during air sparging experiments using both two-, and three-dimensional physical models. Air flow was found to be influenced by the presence of an aqueous patch of high viscosity or suppressed surface tension in the aquifer. Air flow was selective through the low-surface tension (46.5 dyn/cm) region, whereas an aqueous patch of high viscosity (2.77 cP) was as an effective air flow barrier. Formation of a low-surface tension region in the target contaminated zone in the aquifer, before the air sparging process is inaugurated, may induce air flow through the target zone maximizing the contaminant removal efficiency of the injected air. In contrast, a region with high viscosity in the air sparging influence zone may minimize air flow through the region prohibiting the region from de-saturating.

  16. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  17. Air-Operated Sump Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolt, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Pump removes liquid seepage from small, restricted area and against large pressure head. Developed for moving small amounts of water and oil from sump pit 85 ft (25.91 m) deep. Fits in space only 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm) in diameter and 18 in. (45.7 cm) long. In discharge part of pumping cycle, air forces liquid out of pump chamber through pipe. During filling part of pumping cycle, water enters pump chamber from sump pit. Float in chamber next to pump chamber controls pressurization through timer and solenoid valve.

  18. A synthetic zero air standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  19. Green Walls for Clean Air

    OpenAIRE

    Gölsdorf, Katrin; Müller, Hans; Collier, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Can plants help to improve the air quality? People have often complained about Ivy on buildings, but research by Helix Pflanzen GmbH, a company that is specialised in the cultivation of ivy species and the development of green wall technology, is shedding new light on an old problem. Using a cultivated variety of ivy (Hedera helix 'Wörner'), experiments were carried out that illustrated the binding effect that this Ivy has on fine dust particles. This is particularly important in urban ...

  20. HPCN and air quality modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Joke; Lioen, W.M.; Verwer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the implementation of an off-line air quality model (AQM). More precisely, how to design a code for an AQM that runs efficiently on a variety of computer platforms. We implemented our ideas in an AQM benchmark and we show the performance of this benchmark on the different architectural paradigms. A second subject of the paper is the I/O performance of the Cray~T3E for an off-line model. We implemented the required I/O in different ways and show that none of these results in a truly...

  1. Uncertainty in Air Quality Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Douglas G.

    1984-01-01

    Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on Air Quality Modeling, a small group of scientists convened to consider the question of uncertainty in air quality modeling. Because the group was particularly concerned with the regulatory use of models, its discussion focused on modeling tall stack, point source emissions.The group agreed that air quality model results should be viewed as containing both reducible error and inherent uncertainty. Reducible error results from improper or inadequate meteorological and air quality data inputs, and from inadequacies in the models. Inherent uncertainty results from the basic stochastic nature of the turbulent atmospheric motions that are responsible for transport and diffusion of released materials. Modelers should acknowledge that all their predictions to date contain some associated uncertainty and strive also to quantify uncertainty.How can the uncertainty be quantified? There was no consensus from the group as to precisely how uncertainty should be calculated. One subgroup, which addressed statistical procedures, suggested that uncertainty information could be obtained from comparisons of observations and predictions. Following recommendations from a previous AMS workshop on performance evaluation (Fox. 1981), the subgroup suggested construction of probability distribution functions from the differences between observations and predictions. Further, they recommended that relatively new computer-intensive statistical procedures be considered to improve the quality of uncertainty estimates for the extreme value statistics of interest in regulatory applications.A second subgroup, which addressed the basic nature of uncertainty in a stochastic system, also recommended that uncertainty be quantified by consideration of the differences between observations and predictions. They suggested that the average of the difference squared was appropriate to isolate the inherent uncertainty that

  2. Text writing in the air

    OpenAIRE

    Beg, Saira; Khan, M. Fahad; Baig, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a real time video based pointing method which allows sketching and writing of English text over air in front of mobile camera. Proposed method have two main tasks: first it track the colored finger tip in the video frames and then apply English OCR over plotted images in order to recognize the written characters. Moreover, proposed method provides a natural human-system interaction in such way that it do not require keypad, stylus, pen or glove etc for character input. For...

  3. Air pollution monitor for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1988, sixteen superconducting RF cavities were installed to increase the beam energy of TRISTAN and they began to be effective operation in November. One of the obvious problems created by the installation of superconducting equipment to the tunnel is oxygen-poor in case of bursting the liquefied gases. Air pollution in the tunnel from poisonous gases formed by synchrotron radiations is also becoming serious problem as upgrading TRISTAN. It is the purpose of this paper to show the special safety control problems and the system used in TRISTAN to give a solution for these problems. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  6. Magnetodynamic waves in the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Alexander I.

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes experiments to search for a variable magnetic field close to a rechargeable conductive flat plate and a ball in the air, as well as an experiment looking for a variable electric field near a rotating permanent magnet. It has been found that variable electric and magnetic fields do not induce each other within the measurement error. It means that rotary Maxwell's equations are not applicable in the near-field zone and the classical concept of displacement current in vacuum (air) has no physical meaning. A conclusion is made on the existence of transverse magnetodynamic waves. Statics and dynamics of the magnetic field near the permanent magnet rod are investigated experimentally. The methods to compute magnetodynamic waves from any source are presented. Four types of polarization of these waves are identified: linear, circular, toroidal and mixed. Concentration and deflection of magnetodynamic waves are observed on introducing inhomogeneity in the form of a ferrite rod into their propagation way, which is similar to diffraction in optics. Secondary magnetodynamic waves from the induced magnetic moments in atoms of ferrite are registered near its surface, which is like reflection in optics. Some ideas for observation of effects similar to dispersion and interference are presented for magnetodynamic waves. The structure and properties of electrodynamic, magnetodynamic and electromagnetic waves are discussed. The ideas of experiments to search for their unknown properties are described. In conclusion, technical applications of magnetodynamic waves such as magnetography, magnetic tomography and other are considered.

  7. The Economic Value of Air Quality Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Sumo, Tasha

    Both long-term and daily air quality forecasts provide an essential component to human health and impact costs. According the American Lung Association, the estimated current annual cost of air pollution related illness in the United States, adjusted for inflation (3% per year), is approximately $152 billion. Many of the risks such as hospital visits and morality are associated with poor air quality days (where the Air Quality Index is greater than 100). Groups such as sensitive groups become more susceptible to the resulting conditions and more accurate forecasts would help to take more appropriate precautions. This research focuses on evaluating the utility of air quality forecasting in terms of its potential impacts by building on air quality forecasting and economical metrics. Our analysis includes data collected during the summertime ozone seasons between 2010 and 2012 from air quality models for the Washington, DC/Baltimore, MD region. The metrics that are relevant to our analysis include: (1) The number of times that a high ozone or particulate matter (PM) episode is correctly forecasted, (2) the number of times that high ozone or PM episode is forecasted when it does not occur and (3) the number of times when the air quality forecast predicts a cleaner air episode when the air was observed to have high ozone or PM. Our collection of data included available air quality model forecasts of ozone and particulate matter data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s AIRNOW as well as observational data of ozone and particulate matter from Clean Air Partners. We evaluated the performance of the air quality forecasts with that of the observational data and found that the forecast models perform well for the Baltimore/Washington region and the time interval observed. We estimate the potential amount for the Baltimore/Washington region accrues to a savings of up to 5,905 lives and 5.9 billion dollars per year. This total assumes perfect compliance with

  8. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  9. Air leakage in refrigerated vans. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Air Leakage in Refrigerated Vans Project was initiated by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of air leakage on fuel consumption of highway transport refrigeration equipment. The project, conducted from September of 1977 to December of 1978 collected air leakage data on refrigerated trailers, containers and truck bodies. A Prototype Air Leakage Test Set was developed, designed and constructed to take measurements, and a total of 92 representative vehicles were examined. The results of the study indicate that air leakage causes a 25% increase in the average refrigeration load. However, the majority of transport refrigeration units are equipped with control systems that require the power to be supplied continuously, so that the potential reduction in fuel consumption that can be expected by reduced air leakage is limited. Alternative control techniques and power sources for the control and operation of refrigeration unit components other than the compressor could reduce fuel consumption by approximately 60%.

  10. Air permitting guidelines for combustion turbine projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macak, J.J. III [Mostardi-Platt Associates, Inc., Elmhurst, IL (United States); Schott, G.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit

    1997-09-01

    Before construction can begin on a new combustion turbine facility, an air permit must be obtained. The air permitting process is generally the critical path permit, often taking in excess of one year to receive final approval. Careful consideration and understanding of combustion turbine operational characteristics and air pollutant emissions will expedite the air permitting process. The purpose of this paper is to identify key issues related to combustion turbine operation that will aid in the preparation of air permit applications. However, before applying for an air permit, a pre-application meeting should be held with the regulatory agency to present an overview of the proposed project, as well as develop the requisite protocols to begin the process.

  11. A survey of an air monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes

  12. Air Turbulence and sensation of draught

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Hanzawa, H.;

    1988-01-01

    The impact of turbulence intensity (Tu) on sensation of draught has been investigated. Fifty subjects, dressed to obtain a neutral thermal sensation, were in three experiments exposed to air flow with low (Tu55%) turbulence intensity. In each experiment...... the sedentary subjects were exposed to six mean air velocities ranging from 0.05 m/s to 0.40 m/s. The air temperature was kept constant at 23°C. They were asked whether and where they could feel air movement and whether or not it felt uncomfortable. The turbulence intensity had a significant impact...... on the occurence of draught sensation. A model is presented which predicts the percentage of people dissatisfied because of draught as a function of air temperature, mean velocity and turbulence intensity. The model can be a useful tool for quantifying the draught risk in spaces and for developing air distribution...

  13. The "Family Tree" of Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper all total volume air distribution principles are addressed based on discussions of air flow pattern in a room with heat sources giving a cooling load. The supply and exhaust air openings are considered to have different locations and sizes in the room, and it is possible to show...... that all the known types of air distribution systems are interconnected in a “family tree”. The influence of supplied momentum flow versus buoyancy forces is discussed, and geometries for high ventilation effectiveness are indicated as well as geometries for fully mixed flow. The paper will also show...... conditions which are not used for air distribution in general. A number of experiments with different air distribution systems are addressed, and they illustrate the behaviour at the different conditions discussed in the paper....

  14. Unitary and room air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    The scope of this technology evaluation on room and unitary air conditioners covers the initial investment and performance characteristics needed for estimating the operating cost of air conditioners installed in an ICES community. Cooling capacities of commercially available room air conditioners range from 4000 Btu/h to 36,000 Btu/h; unitary air conditioners cover a range from 6000 Btu/h to 135,000 Btu/h. The information presented is in a form useful to both the computer programmer in the construction of a computer simulation of the packaged air-conditioner's performance and to the design engineer, interested in selecting a suitably sized and designed packaged air conditioner.

  15. A survey of an air monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes.

  16. A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, D. P. Mahure, P. A. Zamre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a detailed study and description of a new solar-based air-conditioning technique. It uses solar energy to produce cold or hot air. This technology can be used to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of mechanical cooling system. The use of Desiccant cooling is used to perform air dehumidification operation by utilizing low grade heat source. The solar desiccant air conditioner uses solar power as the main energy source to help in the thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. With our constructed design we have seen temperature as well as humidity level drops throughout the desiccant cooling system. A significant advantage of this system is, it have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials.

  17. Modification of an Aquila unmanned air vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, John E. C.

    1995-01-01

    The requirement exists at the Naval Postgraduate School Unmanned Air Vehicle Laboratory for an air vehicle capable of carrying a 60 pound payload. To that end, an air vehicle from the canceled Army Aquila program was modified to become the payload carrier. The modifications involved designing and building landing gear and an empennage. The landing gear design consisted of determining the anticipated loads and designing a structure to withstand those loads. The construction process was compris...

  18. Improving the indoor air quality using water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article briefly describes the principle of a Danish air cleaning device called the Aqua-Wall. This is a clear acrylic wall with filters and pump and liquid that ripples down the vertical wall. The liquid is cleaned water to which is added harmless chemicals that prevent bacteria and algal growth. By means of this falling water and a patent that makes the water bind microorganisms and dust particles the system cleans the air and creates a natural air humidity

  19. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  20. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  1. Indoor Air Quality in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Clean air is a basic requirement of life (World Health Organization, 2010). The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors (Franck et al., 2011; Canha et al., 2010; WHO, 2010; Environmental Protection Agency, 2010; Saliba et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2008; Fromme et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2004; ...

  2. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  3. The corona discharge current in flowing air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DC corona discharge of both polarities, burning in flowing air (0.08-0.8 ms-1) was investigated. A cylindrical discharge tube consisting of five identical and electrically separated sections was used. A negligible effect of air flow on the positive corona properties and a conspicuous increase of the negative corona current with increasing flow velocity of the air were observed. A novel explanation of these effects is proposed. (author) 2 tabs., 6 figs., 10 refs

  4. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Lu; Sy-Yuan Kang; Shu-Hui Liu; Cheng-Wei Mai; Chao-Heng Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstra...

  5. Air Damping Analysis in Comb Microaccelerometer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Zhou; Yu Chen; Bei Peng; Hui Yang; Huijun Yu; Heng Liu; Xiaoping He

    2014-01-01

    Air damping significantly influences the dynamical characteristics of MEMS accelerometers. Its effects at micro-scale level sharply depend on the structure layouts and size of MEMS devices. The damping phenomenon of comb microaccelerometers is investigated. The air between fixed plate electrodes and movable plate electrodes cannot flow freely and is compressed. The air damping, therefore, exhibits both viscous effects and stiffness effects. The former generates a drag force like that in macro...

  6. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making...

  7. REAL TIME WIRELESS AIR POLLUTION MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Vara Prasad Y; Mirza Sami Baig; Mishra, Rahul K; Rajalakshmi, P.; U. B. Desai; S. N. Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has significant influence on the concentration of constituents in the atmosphere leading to effects like global warming and acid rains. To avoid such adverse imbalances in the nature, an air pollution monitoring system is utmost important. This paper attempts to develop an effective solution for pollution monitoring using wireless sensor networks (WSN) on a real time basis namely real time wireless air pollution monitoring system. Commercially available discrete gas sensors for ...

  8. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  9. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  10. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  11. Pulmonary function tests in air conditioner users

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya G; Kumar B.A; Kalpana M; Chand K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Modernization has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases. House dust, mites, and indoor air pollutants have been reported to cause elevation of serum IgE levels and/or enhancement of eosinophil activity. A component of modern lifestyle is the intense use of air-conditioners (AC) that has increased the risk of atopic sensitization. Aim: To assess the effect of air conditioners on pulmonary function tests in healthy non-smokers. Methods: The study included 1...

  12. Cabin Air Sampling Study Functionality Test.

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, Helen; Walton, Christopher; McKeown, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The Department for Transport (DFT), on behalf of the Government’s Aviation Health Working Group (AHWG), commissioned Cranfield University to organise, manage and deliver a functionality test of a variety of air sampling devices capable of detecting a wide range of compounds in a cabin air environment. The functionality test was to be the preliminary stage of a major monitoring study of the cabin air environment, which the Department intends to conduct. Report prepared for the Department f...

  13. European Private Law: Up in the Air?

    OpenAIRE

    Luzak, J.; Bobek, M.; Prassl, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the existing rights granted to consumers when they purchase services in the EU, whether in a shop or within a distance selling scheme, with the provisions of Regulation 261/2004. While the works on the new European rules on air passengers’ rights are still ongoing it is important to examine what protection measures the air passengers are currently missing that European consumers may already be enjoying while concluding contracts other than for air transport services. Addit...

  14. A breath of fresh air!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    During LS1 the teams in charge of the cooling and ventilation systems of the CERN accelerators will perform maintenance work on all the equipment for which they are responsible. What with replacing complete systems, making improvements or bringing equipment back up to scratch, their workload looks like being a heavy one over the coming months.   Installing a fan in a cooling tower at Point 6 of the LHC in 2009. A similar exercise will be carried out in a few weeks. CERN's Cooling and Ventilation (CV) Group is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the cooling systems, pumping stations, air-conditioning facilities and fluid distribution systems for CERN's Computer Centre, the PS, the SPS, the LHC and their respective experiment areas. All these systems are equally indispensable and their maintenance is far from being a straightforward operation. During operating periods, the technical stops are too short for any major maintenance work. Although the work take...

  15. The Air Is on Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Guilbert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available C’est un grand néon rose fluorescent accroché à la façade de verre de la Fondation Cartier qui affiche le nom de David Lynch et annonce l’exposition The Air Is on Fire (du 3 mars au 27 mai 2007. La forme froide des lettres intriquées évoque l’architecture industrielle qui fascine tant l’artiste et, sans surprise, le modèle du néon sera à chercher dans la collection de ses dessins soigneux. Car on connaissait David Lynch le cinéaste, mais voilà le plasticien : peintures et aquarelles, sculptu...

  16. [Molybdenum as an air pollutant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, R; Junker, E; Hoheiser, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigations into the reasons for the retarded growth and discolouration of a small area of a field of rape situated on the outskirts of Vienna revealed higher than normal levels of molybdenum in the soil (up to 430 micrograms/l) and in the water (up to 9.7 mg/l). The source of the pollution was traced to a neighbouring industrial plant that was emitting the metal via the chimney stack. A review of the literature on the toxic effects of molybdenum in general and as an air pollutant in particular is provided. This shows that, in contrast to animals, this effect is relatively small in humans and plants. Nevertheless, the occupation-related inhalation of the metal has been shown to be associated with pneumoconiosis and gout-like symptoms.

  17. 78 FR 925 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards... air quality designations for the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards for all areas in... Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' and ``Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient...

  18. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  19. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  20. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. A first system receives parameters for flight plan configurations (e.g., initial fuel carried, flight route, flight route segments followed, flight altitude for a given flight route segment, aircraft velocity for each flight route segment, flight route ascent rate, flight route descent route, flight departure site, flight departure time, flight arrival time, flight destination site and/or alternate flight destination site), flight plan schedule, expected weather along each flight route segment, aircraft specifics, airspace (altitude) bounds for each flight route segment, navigational aids available. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. Several classes of potential incidents are analyzed and averted, by appropriate change en route of one or more parameters in the flight plan configuration, as provided by a conflict detection and resolution module and/or traffic flow management modules. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements. The invention combines these features to provide an aircraft monitoring system and an aircraft user system that interact and negotiate changes with each other.

  1. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  2. Magnetodynamic waves in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes experiments to search for a variable magnetic field close to a rechargeable conductive flat plate and a ball in the air, as well as an experiment looking for a variable electric field near a rotating permanent magnet. It has been found that variable electric and magnetic fields do not induce each other within the measurement error. It means that rotary Maxwell's equations are not applicable in the near-field zone and the classical concept of displacement current in vacuum (air) has no physical meaning. A conclusion is made on the existence of transverse magnetodynamic waves. Statics and dynamics of the magnetic field near the permanent magnet rod are investigated experimentally. The methods to compute magnetodynamic waves from any source are presented. Four types of polarization of these waves are identified: linear, circular, toroidal and mixed. Concentration and deflection of magnetodynamic waves are observed on introducing inhomogeneity in the form of a ferrite rod into their propagation way, which is similar to diffraction in optics. Secondary magnetodynamic waves from the induced magnetic moments in atoms of ferrite are registered near its surface, which is like reflection in optics. Some ideas for observation of effects similar to dispersion and interference are presented for magnetodynamic waves. The structure and properties of electrodynamic, magnetodynamic and electromagnetic waves are discussed. The ideas of experiments to search for their unknown properties are described. In conclusion, technical applications of magnetodynamic waves such as magnetography, magnetic tomography and other are considered. - Highlights: ► This paper is about new type of spatial-in-time disturbance (wave)- magnetodynamic waves. ► Theoretical and experimental evidences of existence the waves are done. ► The general properties of this waves are considered and suggestions regarding research new useful properties are done.

  3. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel. PMID:20669640

  4. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C....

  5. Nuclear air cleaning programs in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes air cleaning research activities in the United States nuclear program other than those described in the various papers presented at the conference. First described are those related to aerosol and particulate cleaning generic programs. Discussed next are air cleaning regulations and standards. Specific activities underway in developing air cleaning information and processes for specific areas are discussed beginning with the support of nuclear reactors, e.g., the Electric Power Research Institute programs on reactor accident phenomena and the Savannah River Site program related to aerosol and adsorber research. Finally, the limited research activities in support of air cleaning systems for nuclear fuel reprocessing are described

  6. ATMOSPHERIC AIR QUALITY IN CALARASI TOWN

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    The present paper seeks to highlight the appearance of air pollution in Calarasi region on the basis of the annual reports of the environment in recent years and of the integrated air quality management for Cǎlǎraşi (data are presented about current and future emissions and concentrations of pollutants) I tried to mark out the impurity of the atmospheric air from this area.Emission data interpretation was made on the basis of the inventory of emissions of pollutants in the air made for fixed ...

  7. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  8. A Brief Introduction of Air Traffic Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Air Traffic Management (ATM) started publication in 1995 by Air Traffic Management Bureau of CAAC. It is the first magazine about ATM field in CAAC. The chairman of Editorial Board of ATM is Mr. Bao Peide, Vice Minister of CAAC. Mr. Chen Ziye, Vice President of the 1st Research Institute of CAAC and Chen Xuhua, General Director of Air Traffic Management Bureau are vice chairmen of the editorial board, and six general directors of local air traffic management bureau and some professors and experts are members of the editorial board.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.803 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of fresh air shall be provided. (5) Whenever heat-producing machines (moles, shields) are used in... be equipped with noncombustible, nonabsorptive, insulating sockets, approved handles, basket...

  10. Valuation of Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA

    OpenAIRE

    Nordbø, Christer; Raza, Jabbar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to do a valuation on Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA, and based upon this objective we have formulated the following problem statement: “What is the fair value of Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA as per 31.03.2016?” The purpose of this valuation is to evaluate if the stock price is either over or under priced. Based on the findings in this thesis, we estimated the stock price of Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA to be NOK 283,1. On 31.03.2016 the stock price of Norwegian Air Shuttle ...

  11. AIR TRANSPORTS – COMPONENT OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Loredana LĂPĂDUŞI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air transports activity has known an important development caused by the economic increase, by Romania’s involvement in the international products trade, in international tourism. They are completed by the specific characteristics of air transports, which, together with the characteristics of the other ways of transport, has certain transport objectives with a higher and higher significance. Air traffic has a national commercial value and thus practices have been established in approaching national policies regarding: internal traffic protection through national air transporters, granting access to foreign transporters to national traffic in international transports.

  12. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  13. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  14. Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm;

    2005-01-01

    A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown.......A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown....

  15. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  16. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    .... See 64 FR 67793. Continuous web cleaning machines are solvent cleaning machines in which parts such as... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36''), and the Rhode Island Air...

  17. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  18. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Ohio Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    .... Hand Delivery: Jay Bortzer, Chief, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule....

  19. Air-Microfluidics: Creating Small, Low-cost, Portable Air Quality Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air-microfluidics shows great promise in dramatically reducing the size, cost, and power requirements of future air quality sensors without compromising their accuracy. Microfabrication provides a suite of relatively new tools for the development of micro electro mechanical syste...

  20. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines and... Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...