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Sample records for al quail pea

  1. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  2. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  3. Quail and other short-lived birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A

    2001-04-01

    Japanese quail are small galliforms that are migratory and generally live 2 to 3years in the wild. Although there is evidence for other environmental cues, they primarily respond to long daylength for regulation of reproduction. In contrast to the Common Tern, a long-lived sea bird that shows little evidence of reproductive aging, Japanese quail follow a well-defined process of aging with evidence of declining function in reproductive, metabolic, and sensory systems. Our studies focus on neuroendocrine changes associated with reproductive aging in the Japanese quail, with emphasis on the male in order to study both endocrine and behavioral components of reproduction and the process of reproductive aging.

  4. Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail (Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... The genetic structure of four strains of Japanese quail (Pharach, Panda, Tuxedo and Golden) was ... valuable laboratory species because of its small body ..... quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl.

  5. ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and evaluation of complementary food based on bambara nut ( Voandze subterranean ) and pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... Objectives: The study formulated and evaluated complementary food made from composites of maize, bambara nut and pigeon pea. Materials ...

  6. Japanese quail performance under different stocking densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; EL-Faramawy, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with Japanese quails at the poultry production farm (Poultry Research Unite, Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Inshas, Egypt) to determine the effects of stocking density on the growth, carcass composition, feed conversion, feed efficiency, corticosterone level, immune response and profit potential. A total of 924 Japanese quail chicks were brooded at 2 weeks of age in batteries at 44, 88 and 176 birds / m2 each of 3 replicates. Chicks brooded at 44 and 88 bird / m2 were grew significantly (P<0.05) during the experimental period more than those brooded at 176 bird/m2. Increasing birds density was associated with significant (P<0.05) increase in serum corticosterone level, carcass protein percent, live body weight per m2 and monetary returns. Carcass fat percent and immune response were reduced sharply with increasing quail stocking density. On the other hand, feed conversion was reduced, while feed efficiency was improved (P<0.05) by increasing quail stocking density

  7. Domestication of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): The Case of the Abyssinian Pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F.

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Abyssinian pea (Pisum sativum ssp. abyssinicum) to other subspecies and species in the genus were investigated to test between different hypotheses regarding its origin and domestication. An extensive sample of the Pisum sativum ssp. sativum germplasm was investigated, including groups a-1, a-2, b, c, and d as identified by Kwon et al. (2012). A broad sample of P. fulvum but relatively few P. s. ssp. elatius accessions were analyzed. Partial sequences of 18 genes were compared and these results combined with comparisons of additional genes done by others and available in the literature. In total, 54 genes or gene fragment sequences were involved in the study. The observed affinities between alleles in P. ssp. sativum, P. s. ssp. abyssinicum, P. s. ssp. elatius, and P. fulvum clearly demonstrated a close relationship among the three P. sativum subspecies and rejected the hypothesis that the Abyssinian pea was formed by hybridization between one of the P. sativum subspecies and P. fulvum. If hybridization were involved in the generation of the Abyssinian pea, it must have been between P. s. ssp. sativum and P. s. ssp. elatius, although the Abyssinian pea possesses a considerable number of highly unique alleles, implying that the actual P. s. ssp. elatius germplasm involved in such a hybridization has yet to be tested or that the hybridization occurred much longer ago than the postulated 4000 years bp. Analysis of the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum alleles in genomic regions thought to contain genes critical for domestication indicated that the indehiscent pod trait was independently developed in the Abyssinian pea, whereas the loss of seed dormancy was either derived from P. s. ssp. sativum or at least partially developed before the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum lineage diverged from that leading to P. s. ssp. sativum. PMID:29720994

  8. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

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    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  9. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  10. Detection of Genetic Relationship in the Tree of Life of Some Quail Through Molecular Markers Analyses

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    Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quail is an important and interesting group of galliform birds. The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; the Panda quail (Coturnix japonica; the Dotted white quail (Coturnix japonica and the Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus were used in this study. PCR-RFLP and SDS-proteins were performed to reveal the genetic characterization and genetic relationship of the studied quails. Analysis of fragments generated by digestion of PCR product with restriction enzyme NlaIII recorded highly polymorphic restriction profiles. There is a wide intraspecific COI, SEMA3E and TLX genes variability among the studied quails. Protein bands varied from10 to 18 between quails with minimum number of bands were in the Dotted white quail (10 bands and the maximum were in the Japanese quail (18 bands as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Dotted white quail revealed the lowest similarity to the Bobwhite with a coefficient of 0.18 while The similarity coefficients between the Common quail and each one of the other quails were 0.67, 0.62, 0.45 and 0.42 for the Japanese, Panda, Dotted white and the Bobwhite quails, respectively. The results indicate that, PCR-RFLP and protein analyses are good techniques to evaluate genetic characterization and genetic relationship of these quails.

  11. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

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    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  12. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  13. The development of ovary in quail's embryo | Rong | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to study the development of ovary in quails' embryos which were incubated for 4 to 17 days and incubated out for 1 day. The quails' embryos or gonads were cut out and HE staining was carried out. The results showed that when embryo was hatched for 4 days, lots of primordial germ cells ...

  14. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  15. Uses Of Gamma Rays In Peas Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghunim, A.; Mobakher, H.; Salman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of peas varieties grown in Syria are introduced and they have variable characteristics and unstable in the productivity. Therefore this study aims to utilize physical mutagens as the developed technology in plant breeding to obtain high, stable productivity and suitable for human consumption and processing. Two green peas vars (onward, local homsi) were used in this study, and their dry seeds were subjected to different doses of Gamma rays (5.0,7.5,10.0) KR and planted conventional used methods at AL Taibba searching station (20 Km from Damascus) in 1985/1986 season. Individual selection from M2 was practiced based on yield traits. Starting from 1991/1992 season the best selected mutants were used in yield trials to be compared with the best common cultivars. After/3/years of yield trials, the advanced lines were incorporated into field test trials. Some morphological and phonological scores, i.e. green pods yield, dry seeds yield per area were achieved in addition to lab tests. Some strains have advanced in yield of green pods and dry seeds per area compared with the local check. Some other strains. Showed an increase in earliness, length of pods, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant than the local check. Therefore these can be called promising strains and as nucleus for new vars. will be used into verifiable fields, and in large-scale cultivation in order to be released. (Authors)

  16. Studies on the susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pisi (Lib.

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    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find the plants resistant to Ascochyta pisi causing leaf and spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in field in the period 1975-1978. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Borek, Cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions peas and field peas cultivares were examined for susceptible to pathotypes 2 and 4 of Ascochyta pisi. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Borel, cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi.

  17. Age determination in juvenile bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, G.A.; Nestler, R.B.

    1943-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  18. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  19. Pb Speciation Data to Estimate Lead Bioavailability to Quail

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting data for lead speciation of soil samples evaluated through an in-vivo/in-vitro correlation for quail exposure. This dataset is associated...

  20. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

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    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  1. Profile Triglycerides Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica After Giving Turmeric (Curcuma longa Powder

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    Sukarman Hadi jaya Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the triglyceride profile of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica after being given the parameters of turmeric (Curcuma longa powder; feed intake, profiles of liver triglycerides, profiles of serum triglycerides and profiles of meat triglycerides. This study uses an experimental method with A Completely Randomized Design Pattern. Test animals used were 45 female Japanese quails were divided into 3 groups, namely; P0: quail were not given turmeric powder, P1: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 54 mg/quail/day, P3: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 108 mg/quail/day. Each group with 5 replications. Each repeat consists of 3 Japanese quails. Provision of treatment every day for 30 days starting from the age of 14 days. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Duncan's test with 95% confidence interval (α = 0.05 level. Analysis of the data used is software Minitab software 16. Results showed that the levels of turmeric powder are given in Japanese quail significant (P˂0.05 on liver triglyceride levels, serum and Japanese quail meat but had no significant effect (P˃0.05 on consumption feed. The results showed that the optimal dose of turmeric powder to lower triglyceride levels of Japanese quail is 108 mg/quail/day as evidenced by the highest decrease in liver triglyceride profiles, profiles of serum triglycerides and triglyceride profiles of Japanese quail meat compared with other treatments.

  2. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

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    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  3. Short barb: a feather structure mutation in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Roberts, C W; Nichols, C R; Cheng, K M

    1982-12-01

    A type of feather structure abnormality in Japanese quail resulting in shortened barbs on contour feathers was found to be controlled by a single autosomal recessive gene, sh (short barb). The mutation was first identified in a full-sib family from the University of British Columbia wild type line. Unlike other feather structure mutations in Japanese quail reported previously in literature, the short barb mutation is not associated with poor reproduction.

  4. Genetic parameters of growth, body, and egg traits in Japanese quails

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... egg traits as well as genetic and phenotypic relationships between these traits in Japanese quails reared in the ... Japanese quail is the smallest avian species farmed .... 2 = cross classified “family” variance component.

  5. Experiment K-313: Rat and quail ontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of spaceflight on the processes of mammalian fertilizaton, implantation and embryonic development are investigated. Five female and two male rats were placed together on Day 2 of the flight. By R+17, it was determined that both flight and synchronous females were not carrying normal pregnancies and three of the flight animals were laparotomized. The uterus and ovaries were processed for microscopic analyses. The two remaining flight females were allowed to recover from the exploratory operation, rebred with flight males and delivered normal litters. As a control for potential transplacental effects that might be interpreted as direct spaceflight effects, a series of fertilized Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs was flown on Cosmos 1129. Although all of the eggs were adversely impacted by an inflight failure of the incubator humidifier on flight Day 13, several embryos were able to progress to a developmental stage equivalent to that of a control 10-12 Day embryo.

  6. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  7. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

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    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  8. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  9. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

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    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  10. Effect of various probiotics on growth performance of Japanese quails

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    P. R. Sirsat

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various probiotics on the performance of Japanese Quails. One hundred Japanese quail chicks were weighed individually and they were uniformly distributed equally to four dietary treatments consisting 25 birds in each. The starter and finisher diets were containing ME 2800 and 2600 Kcal/kg and protein 25 and 23 % respectively. The group T0(Controll fed standard quail diet and T1,T2 and T3 were fed probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus sporogenes and Saccharomyces boulardii @ 0.05 % in diet. The study was conducted for six weeks in the same managemental condition. Weekly live body weight and feed consumption were recorded. The group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in significantly higher growth rate and showed higher weight gain. The average feed efficiency and nitrogen retention were significantly higher in group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cost of production /100gm of meat was found to be Rs.7.10, 6.84, 7.55 and 8.37 respectively in T0 to T3 groups. Thus, the study indicated that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diet of Japanese quails was effective in improving performance of the quails. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 321-322

  11. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying hens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  12. QUAIL: A Quantitative Security Analyzer for Imperative Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Traonouez, Louis-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative security analysis evaluates and compares how effectively a system protects its secret data. We introduce QUAIL, the first tool able to perform an arbitrary-precision quantitative analysis of the security of a system depending on private information. QUAIL builds a Markov Chain model...... of the system’s behavior as observed by an attacker, and computes the correlation between the system’s observable output and the behavior depending on the private information, obtaining the expected amount of bits of the secret that the attacker will infer by observing the system. QUAIL is able to evaluate...... the safety of randomized protocols depending on secret data, allowing to verify a security protocol’s effectiveness. We experiment with a few examples and show that QUAIL’s security analysis is more accurate and revealing than results of other tools...

  13. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... canned food. Sugar rate of pea grains is high. Dry pea grains are broken and used to make soup. On the other hand, the pea grains are used in animal feed. Some pea varieties are used for the purpose of green forage production, dry forage and green manure produc- tion. These varieties are called 'feed ...

  14. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research objectives were: to evaluate the quality of a pea snack prepared using four different methods of cooking, namely, frying, baking, steaming and microwave; to determine the effect of blending dried green pea with chickpea dhal on the quality of a fried pea snack. Green pea and chickpea snacks were prepared ...

  15. Eyeworm infections of Oxyspirura petrowi, Skrjabin, 1929 (Spirurida: Thelaziidae), in species of quail from Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Kendall, R J

    2017-07-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have been declining steadily throughout much of their historical range over the past few decades. Even the Rolling Plains of Texas, historically rich with wild quail and one of the last remaining quail strongholds, has been suffering a population decline, most notably since 2010. Gambel's quail (Callipepla gambelii) have also been experiencing their own decline throughout their respective range, but not as significant as that of other species of quail. Eyeworms (Oxyspirura petrowi) in quail have been recognized for years but not thoroughly studied until recently. New research reveals that O. petrowi infection can cause inflammation, oedema, and cellular damage to the eye of the quail host. The objective of this research was to better understand the prevalence of the eyeworm infection in different quail species, expand on known distribution, and determine if there is a relationship between location and species infected with eyeworms. Northern bobwhite, Scaled quail and Gambel's quail were hunter-donated from one county within Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, and examined for the prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of eyeworm infection from November 2013 to February 2014. Quail from every location were found to have individuals with a varying degree of eyeworm infection. This is the first study to document eyeworm infection in Gambel's quail and in quail in New Mexico and Arizona, and reports the highest eyeworm infection found in Northern bobwhite and Scaled quail.

  16. Spontaneous, Experimentally Induced, and Transmissible AA Amyloidosis in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2017-11-01

    The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, adult quail were repeatedly injected with LPS and the development of AA amyloidosis was confirmed. The amyloid deposition in this model increased when quail amyloid was intravenously injected as an amyloid-enhancing factor. The experiments were repeated with young quail, but amyloid deposits were not observed following LPS injections. However, AA amyloidosis did develop when quail amyloid was injected in addition to LPS. These results indicated that adult quail develop AA amyloidosis after inflammatory stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, quail AA amyloidosis was shown to have transmissibility regardless of age. Interestingly, the authors found that administration of chicken amyloid fibrils also induced AA amyloidosis in young quail. This is the first report of cross-species transmission of avian AA amyloidosis.

  17. Annotated Draft Genome Assemblies for the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) Reveal Disparate Estimates of Modern Genome Diversity and Historic Effective Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldeschulte, David L; Halley, Yvette A; Wilson, Miranda L; Bhattarai, Eric K; Brashear, Wesley; Hill, Joshua; Metz, Richard P; Johnson, Charles D; Rollins, Dale; Peterson, Markus J; Bickhart, Derek M; Decker, Jared E; Sewell, John F; Seabury, Christopher M

    2017-09-07

    Northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ; hereafter bobwhite) and scaled quail ( Callipepla squamata ) populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their US ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0) and second- (v2.0) generation draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1313 and 8990 scaffolds, respectively. The scaled quail assembly (v1.0 = 1.045 Gb) was ∼20% smaller than the bobwhite (v2.0 = 1.254 Gb), which was supported by kmer-based estimates of genome size. Nevertheless, estimates of GC content (41.72%; 42.66%), genome-wide repetitive content (10.40%; 10.43%), and MAKER-predicted protein coding genes (17,131; 17,165) were similar for the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) assemblies, respectively. BUSCO analyses utilizing 3023 single-copy orthologs revealed a high level of assembly completeness for the scaled quail (v1.0; 84.8%) and the bobwhite (v2.0; 82.5%), as verified by comparison with well-established avian genomes. We also detected 273 putative segmental duplications in the scaled quail genome (v1.0), and 711 in the bobwhite genome (v2.0), including some that were shared among both species. Autosomal variant prediction revealed ∼2.48 and 4.17 heterozygous variants per kilobase within the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) genomes, respectively, and estimates of historic effective population size were uniformly higher for the bobwhite across all time points in a coalescent model. However, large-scale declines were predicted for both species beginning ∼15-20 KYA. Copyright © 2017 Oldeschulte et al.

  18. Dynamic effects of adrenaline (epinephrine) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with initial pulseless electrical activity (PEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordseth, Trond; Olasveengen, Theresa Mariero; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Wik, Lars; Steen, Petter Andreas; Skogvoll, Eirik

    2012-08-01

    In cardiac arrest, pulseless electrical activity (PEA) is a challenging clinical syndrome. In a randomized study comparing intravenous (i.v.) access and drugs versus no i.v. access or drugs during advanced life support (ALS), adrenaline (epinephrine) improved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in patients with PEA. Originating from this study, we investigated the time-dependent effects of adrenaline on clinical state transitions in patients with initial PEA, using a non-parametric multi-state statistical model. Patients with available defibrillator recordings were included, of whom 101 received adrenaline and 73 did not. There were significantly more state transitions in the adrenaline group than in the no-adrenaline group (rate ratio = 1.6, pAdrenaline markedly increased the rate of transition from PEA to ROSC during ALS and slowed the rate of being declared dead; e.g. by 20 min 20% of patients in the adrenaline group had been declared dead and 25% had obtained ROSC, whereas 50% in the no-adrenaline group have been declared dead and 15% had obtained ROSC. The differential effect of adrenaline could be seen after approx. 10 min of ALS for most transitions. For both groups the probability of deteriorating from PEA to asystole was highest during the first 15 min. Adrenaline increased the rate of transition from PEA to ventricular fibrillation or -tachycardia (VF/VT), and from ROSC to VF/VT. Adrenaline has notable clinical effects during ALS in patients with initial PEA. The drug extends the time window for ROSC to develop, but also renders the patient more unstable. Further research should investigate the optimal dose, timing and mode of adrenaline administration during ALS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histomorphometric study of brachiocephalic artery of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Sarah; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Brachiocephalic arteries in quails are large arteries which are arising separately from the aortic arch. The aim of the present study was to determine the histomorphometric aspects of brachiocephalic arteries in the Japanese quail. The different layers of the brachiocephalic artery were studied quantitatively in 10, 20 and 60 days-old Japanese quail; (n = 6) and both sexes. Luminal diameter, thickness of the intima, media and adventitia, the percentage of the intima, media and adventitia, as compared with the total wall thickness were determined. It was found that luminal diameter and whole artery thickness increased by age (p < 0.05). In addition, the tunica media was the thickest layer, then tunica intima and at last tunica adventitia (p < 0.05). The muscularity of the right brachiocephalic artery was more than that of the left one (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric study of brachiocephalic arteries of Japanese quails showed that increasing of age causes increase of internal and external diameters of the artery and this increase in females was more than males.

  20. Behaviour of Japanese Quail Eggs Under Mechanical Compression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchar, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Strnková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2015), s. 1110-1118 ISSN 1094-2912 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : quail egg * compression * rupture force Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10942912.2013.862634#.VNI0aC7z_PM

  1. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine the sex of. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) by DNA analysis. Chromo ... M, 100 bp DNA ladder (Fermentas, Germany); lane 1, negative control. (without DNA) .... low cost and reduced risk of contamination, and preven- .... Improving the reliability of molecular sexing.

  2. Growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of other primal cuts were statistically similar (P>0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that substituting synthetic vitamin mineral premixes with natural vitamin mineral premixes in diets is possible with no adverse effects on performance and carcass characteristics of growing Japanese quail. Key words: Proprietary ...

  3. Genetic parameters for quail body weights using a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option.

  4. Fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs under semi arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some factors affecting the fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs were studied at the Poultry Unit of the University of Maiduguri Livestock Teaching and Research Farm. A total of 1850 eggs were used for the study and data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance. The mean values of fertility, hatchability of ...

  5. Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic structure of four strains of Japanese quail (Pharach, Panda, Tuxedo and Golden) was investigated by 12 microsatellite markers in Iran. Whole blood samples were collected from 200 individuals belonging to four strains and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out procedure. The 12 microsatellite markers ...

  6. improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, E.H.A.

    2002-01-01

    this investigation aimed to use gamma irradiation doses as compared to chemical preservative sodium tripolyphosphate (stpp) for increasing the shelf-life and improving the hygienic quality of quail carcasses during cold and frozen storage. one hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. the examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2,4,6 and 8 kGy doses and soaking in 3% stpp and the effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties during cold (4±1 o C) and frozen storage (-18 o C) of samples under investigation were evaluated .the results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation and soaking in STPP treatments. furthermore, treatments had no deleterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. irradiation of samples at doses of 2,4,6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged its shelf- life for 12,15,21,24 and 9 days at 4±1 o C, respectively against only 6 days for control samples

  7. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many birds' species such as Japanese quail, sex determination in young and many adult birds is very difficult. Nowadays, sex identification of animals throughout their lives is possible by molecular genetic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of Japanese ...

  8. Genetic evaluation of European quails by random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Miranda Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare different random regression models, defined from different classes of heterogeneity of variance combined with different Legendre polynomial orders for the estimate of (covariance of quails. The data came from 28,076 observations of 4,507 female meat quails of the LF1 lineage. Quail body weights were determined at birth and 1, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Six different classes of residual variance were fitted to Legendre polynomial functions (orders ranging from 2 to 6 to determine which model had the best fit to describe the (covariance structures as a function of time. According to the evaluated criteria (AIC, BIC and LRT, the model with six classes of residual variances and of sixth-order Legendre polynomial was the best fit. The estimated additive genetic variance increased from birth to 28 days of age, and dropped slightly from 35 to 42 days. The heritability estimates decreased along the growth curve and changed from 0.51 (1 day to 0.16 (42 days. Animal genetic and permanent environmental correlation estimates between weights and age classes were always high and positive, except for birth weight. The sixth order Legendre polynomial, along with the residual variance divided into six classes was the best fit for the growth rate curve of meat quails; therefore, they should be considered for breeding evaluation processes by random regression models.

  9. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  10. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR VEGETABLE PEA SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Anokhina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the presence in genomes of pea hybrid materials of the DNA regions complementary to the primers that are associated with the biochemical characteristics and resistance to powdery mildew.

  11. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph.; Parvathi, M. V. S.; Raja Ganesh, S.; Paranthaman, V.

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point ...

  12. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To... meeting the needs in today's marketing environment. DATES: GIPSA will consider comments received by..., DC, 20250-3604. Email comments to: [email protected] Fax: (202) 690-2173. Internet: Go to http...

  13. Effects of a concentrate of pea antinutritional factors on pea protein digestibility in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guen, M.P. Le; Huisman, J.; Guéguen, J.; Beelen, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to investigate the apparent ileal digestibility of raw pea (Pisum sativum) and two of its components - an isolate of its proteins and a concentrate of its proteinaceous antinutritional factors (ANFs). Three varieties of peas were used: spring varieties Finale and

  14. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  15. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  16. Effect of Pigeon pea and Cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, Yagoub Magboul

    1998-03-01

    two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of pigeon pea and cow pea on the performance and gut immunity of broiler chicks. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets were formulated containing graded levels of cow pea were maintained. Diets were prepared containing 18.21, 18.25 and 18.25% crude protein and 3076.41, 3062 Kel/Kg metabolizable energy for experiment 1, while diets of experiment 11 were prepared containing 18.21, 18.22, and 18.22% crude protein and 3076.41, 3080.5 and 3055.89 KEl/Kg metabolized energy. 120 Loghmann broiler chicks were equally allocated into 15 pens (8 chicks/pen). Then the experimental diets were randomly assigned to the pens. feed and water were provided ad libitum in both experiments. In experiment 1, the results showed no significant difference were found in chick performance at day 45. The feed conversation ratio increased with the level of pigeon pea used. The pancreas mass was increased as the level of pigeon pea increase. In experiment 2 the results showed significant decrease in the body weight and feed intake at day 45, while the pancreas mass tend to increase with increasing level of cow pea in the diet. Histological examination of small intestine slides showed no histopathological differences between the control and chicks fed cow pea and/or pigeon pea. Immunological test of the serum and mucous samples using ELISA techniques revealed no significant difference between the control and chicks given cow pea and / or pigeon pea

  17. Association of Tyrosinase (TYR and Tyrosinase-related Protein 1 (TYRP1 with Melanic Plumage Color in Korean Quails (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available TYR (Tyrosinase and TYRP1 (Tyrosinase-related protein 1 play crucial roles in determining the coat color of birds. In this paper, we aimed to characterize the relationship of TYR and TYRP1 genes with plumage colors in Korean quails. The SNPs were searched by cDNA sequencing and PCR-SSCP in three plumage color Korean quails (maroon, white and black plumage. Two SNPs (367T→C and 1153C→T were found in the coding region of TYRP1 gene, but had no significant association with plumage phenotype in Korean quails. The expression of TYR was higher in black plumage quails than that in maroon plumage quails. In contrast, the expression of TYRP1 was lower in black plumage quails than that in maroon plumage quails. This study suggested that the melanic plumage color in Korean quails may be associated with either increased production of TYR or decreased production of TYRP1.

  18. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [ 3 H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [ 3 H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [ 3 H]methyl group

  19. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  20. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  1. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  2. Rapid activation of catalase followed by citrate efflux effectively improves aluminum tolerance in the roots of chick pea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manorma; Sharma, Vinay; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the comparative response of two contrasting genotypes (aluminum (Al) tolerant and Al sensitive) of chick pea (Cicer arietinum) against Al stress. The Al-tolerant genotype (RSG 974) showed lesser inhibition of root growth as well as lower oxidative damages, measured in terms of the accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation compared to the Al-sensitive genotype (RSG 945). The accumulation of Al by roots of both genotypes was almost equal at 96 and 144 h after Al treatment; however, it was higher in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive genotype at 48 h after Al treatment. Further, the Al-mediated induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly higher in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive genotype. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was almost similar in both genotypes. Al treatment promptly activated catalase activity in Al-tolerant genotype, and it was remarkably higher than that of Al-sensitive genotype. As another important Al detoxification mechanism, citrate efflux was almost equal in both genotypes except at 1000 μM Al treatment for 96 and 144 h. Further, citrate carrier and anion channel inhibitor experiment confirmed the contribution of citrate efflux in conferring Al tolerance in Al-tolerant genotype. Based on the available data, the present study concludes that rapid activation of catalase (also SOD) activity followed by citrate efflux effectively improves Al tolerance in chick pea.

  3. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  4. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  5. INCLUSION OF GUAVA WASTES IN THE DIET OF EUROPEAN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Lemos Camelo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to analyze the performance and carcass characteristics of European quail fed agroindustry residue of guava in substitution of corn. 140 birds were used, distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of a control diet and four diets with levels of guava waste inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% to a diet based on corn and soybean meal. There were no significant differences (P> 0.05 for the variables: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, weight and carcass yield and prime cuts (breast, drumstick and thigh wings, back , neck, head, feet and foodstuffs organs (heart, liver and gizzard. The guava waste can be used as alternative ingredient in the diets of European quail in the period of 16-38 days of age, up to the level of 10% inclusion without depressing the performance and yield of poultry carcasses.

  6. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER VALUE IN PHARAOH QUAIL OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKANOWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age of Pharaoh quails on dressing percentage, carcass composition, and sensory and physicochemical properties of their meat was determined. Compared to 42-day-old birds, Pharaoh quail aged 33 days had lower body weight (169.1 vs 139.4 g, carcass weight (111.7 vs 88.8 g and dressing percentage (66.1 vs 63.7%. The carcasses of 42-day-old birds contained more breast muscles (30.9%, leg muscles (18.3%, skin with subcutaneous fat (6.5% and remainders of the carcass (31.0% compared to birds at 33 days of age (30.8; 16.7; 6.2 and 30.0%, respectively. Older birds showed higher values of pH15, redness (a* and yellowness (b* and lower values of sensory meat properties except aroma intensity.

  7. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DETOMIDINE AND DETOMIDINE - KETAMINE COCKTAIL IN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. F. Durrani, M. Ashraf and A. Khalid¹

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult healthy quails (Coturnix coturnix were divided into two equal groups. One group was administered detomidine (2.4 mg/kg, I/M and other group was administered detomidine-ketamine cocktail (1.2 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, I/M. Detomidine slowly and smoothly induced a light sedation accompanied by superficial analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia in all birds. Detomidine-ketamine cocktail rapidly and smoothly induced a deep anaesthesia accompanied by deep analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia and complete loss of all reflexes in all birds. In both groups, recovery from sedation and anaesthesia was smooth and of short duration. From this study it was concluded that for minor and least painful procedures in quails detomidine can be used alone, while for major and painful surgical procedures detomidine-ketamine combination should be preferred.

  8. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  9. Number and Effectiveness of Pea Rhizobia in Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    Most of 44 Danish soils tested contain between 1000 and 10 000 pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) per gram. Pea rhizobia were not detected in acid moor and forest soils. Only one case of failed nodulation in peas in the field has been noted, in spots in a reclaimed sandy heath m...

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DETOMIDINE AND DETOMIDINE - KETAMINE COCKTAIL IN QUAILS

    OpenAIRE

    U. F. Durrani, M. Ashraf and A. Khalid¹

    2005-01-01

    Twenty adult healthy quails (Coturnix coturnix) were divided into two equal groups. One group was administered detomidine (2.4 mg/kg, I/M) and other group was administered detomidine-ketamine cocktail (1.2 mg/kg + 30 mg/kg, I/M). Detomidine slowly and smoothly induced a light sedation accompanied by superficial analgesia, hypoventilation, hypothermia and bradycardia in all birds. Detomidine-ketamine cocktail rapidly and smoothly induced a deep anaesthesia accompanied by deep analgesia, hypove...

  11. Spatial orientation in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ruploh

    Full Text Available Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain, less conspicuous cues, which are probably also taken into account in uncertain situations. We also presume that the rare orientation towards never rewarded feeders may be due to a foraging strategy instead of being mistakes.

  12. Helminth community of scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) from western Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Jill N; Vasquez, Barbara; Bradley, Russell G; Fedynich, Alan M; Lerich, Scott P; Kinsella, John M

    2007-02-01

    Forty-eight scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) were collected during August 2002 at Elephant Mountain Wildlife Management Area in Brewster County, Texas, and examined for helminths. Eight species of helminths were found (5 nematodes and 3 cestodes), representing 2,811 individuals. Of these species, Gongylonema sp., Procyrnea pileata, and Choanotaenia infundibulum are reported from scaled quail for the first time. Prevalence of Aulonocephalus pennula, Gongylonema sp., Oxyspirura petrowi, Physaloptera sp., P. pileata, C. infundibulum, Fuhrmannetta sp., and Rhabdometra odiosa was 98, 2, 56, 4, 60, 2, 25, and 35%, respectively. Aulonocephalus pennula numerically dominated, accounting for 88% of total worms. Statistical analyses were performed on the 5 species with > or = 25% prevalence using the after-hatch-year host sample (n = 38). Prevalence of P. pileata was higher (P = 0.049) in females than in males and higher (P = 0.037) in the sample collected from the site that had spreader dams (berms 1-2 m high and 4-55 m long constructed in varying sizes to catch and retain rainfall) than the control site (no spreader dams). Higher rank mean abundance of A. pennula and O. petrowi (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0052, respectively) was found in the host sample collected from the site that had spreader dams than the control site. A host gender-by-collection site interaction (P = 0.0215) was observed for P. pileata. Findings indicate that scaled quail are acquiring indirect life cycle helminths in arid western Texas habitats.

  13. Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, P George; Ruxton, Graeme D; Langridge, Keri V; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-02-04

    Camouflage is conferred by background matching and disruption, which are both affected by microhabitat. However, microhabitat selection that enhances camouflage has only been demonstrated in species with discrete phenotypic morphs. For most animals, phenotypic variation is continuous; here we explore whether such individuals can select microhabitats to best exploit camouflage. We use substrate selection in a ground-nesting bird (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica). For such species, threat from visual predators is high and egg appearance shows strong between-female variation. In quail, variation in appearance is particularly obvious in the amount of dark maculation on the light-colored shell. When given a choice, birds consistently selected laying substrates that made visual detection of their egg outline most challenging. However, the strategy for maximizing camouflage varied with the degree of egg maculation. Females laying heavily maculated eggs selected the substrate that more closely matched egg maculation color properties, leading to camouflage through disruptive coloration. For lightly maculated eggs, females chose a substrate that best matched their egg background coloration, suggesting background matching. Our results show that quail "know" their individual egg patterning and seek out a nest position that provides most effective camouflage for their individual phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbinato, D.

    1994-01-01

    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  15. Performance and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Quails Fed on Diets Supplemented with Used Restaurant Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing cotton seed oil (CSO) with Used Restaurant Oil (URO) in Japanese quail diets on performance, fatty acid composition of the carcass and egg and concentration of iodine metabolites. URO was added to the diets at 0, 1, 2 or 4 % at the expense of CSO (4 %) in the control diet during a 10-week trial period. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, mortality rate, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the levels of used restaurant ,oi). Replacing 25,% or 50 % of CSO with URO had no significant (p>0.05) effect on linoleic acid content of carcass and egg. In contrary, linoleic acid content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the carcass and egg of the group which fed on the diet with 4 % URO. It can be concluded that used restaurant oil can be supplemented to the Japanese quail diets at the levels of 1 % and 2 % without any determine effect on the performance and the fatty acid profile of carcass and egg. rat supplementation to broiler chicken is a long standing practice for improving the consistency and palatability of the diets; increasing the energy density of broiler meat; stimulating growth and utilization of food and energy; feed efficiency; egg size, yield, and hatch ability (Carew and Hill, 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968 and Summers and Lesson, 1979 ). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty acids and to facilitate supply and absorption of vitamins (Clarke et al, 1977). Oil may be added to poultry diets in order to meet the 1% linoleic acid requirements

  16. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  17. Detection of Marek's disease virus DNA in Japanese quail susceptible to atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrzak, R.; Shih, J.C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) was demonstrated as an etiological agent which causes atherosclerosis in the chicken. Since herpes viruses are ubiquitous, incidences of viral atherogenesis in humans and other animals were speculated. In this laboratory, the atherosclerosis susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) Japanese quail were developed as the animal model for atherosclerosis research. The susceptibility of the animal might be due to an infection of MDV or a related quail herpes virus (QHV). An initial attempt to isolate viruses from quail and an agar gel precipitin test for MDC were not positive. A DNA hybridization technique was used to determine whether the MDC-DNA existed in the quail cell. The gene library of MDV EcoRl DNA fragments was used to prepare the DNA probe, labeled with [ 32 P] by nick translation. Dot hybridizations were carried out by mixing the MDV-DNA probe with DNAs isolated from quail tissues. A high stringent condition was used. From this experiment it was found that the tissues from the SUS quail were hybridization positive, but most of them from RES quail were negative. When aortas were compared, the severe atherosclerotic had a strong hybridization (3-4 cop. of genome/cell) whereas the others hybridized moderately (1 cop./cell). It was concluded that genes from MDV or a QHV indeed existed in Japanese quail

  18. Microsatellite loci in Japanese quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Makoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In line with the Gifu University's initiative to map the Japanese quail genome, a total of 100 Japanese quail microsatellite markers isolated in our laboratory were evaluated in a population of 20 unrelated quails randomly sampled from a colony of wild quail origin. Ninety-eight markers were polymorphic with an average of 3.7 alleles per locus and a mean heterozygosity of 0.423. To determine the utility of these markers for comparative genome mapping in Phasianidae, cross-species amplification of all the markers was tested with chicken and guinea fowl DNA. Amplification products similar in size to the orthologous loci in quail were observed in 42 loci in chicken and 20 loci in guinea fowl. Of the cross-reactive markers, 57.1% in chicken and 55.0% in guinea fowl were polymorphic when tested in 20 birds from their respective populations. Five of 15 markers that could cross-amplify Japanese quail, chicken, and guinea fowl DNA were polymorphic in all three species. Amplification of orthologous loci was confirmed by sequencing 10 loci each from chicken and guinea fowl and comparing with them the corresponding quail sequence. The microsatellite markers reported would serve as a useful resource base for genetic mapping in quail and comparative mapping in Phasianidae.

  19. Detection of botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F activity using the quail embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently demonstrated an effective new model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A using quail embryos in place of the mouse model. These experiments demonstrated that the Japanese quail embryo at 15 days of incubation was an effective vertebrate animal model to detect the activity of botu...

  20. Pea yield and its components in different crop rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Seibutis, Vytautas; Deveikytė, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the crop rotations (2-4 course) differing in duration on the formation of pea productivity elements and the yield were investigated in stationary field experiments in Dotnuva during 1997-2004. Averaged experimental data showed that the highest pea yield (3.70 t ha-1) was recorded in the three-course crop rotation (sugar beet-spring barley-pea), in the four-course (pea-winter wheat-sugar beet-spring barley) and two-course (pea-winter wheat) crop rotations the grain yield consist...

  1. Stimulation of Egg Production in Japanese Quails by Enriching Feed with Residual Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Oprean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quail eggs are more and more approved for consumers because they bring many benefits to the human body. Therefore, quails breeding for eggs production have become a very profitable business. Residual yeast may be a nutritional supplement, especially rich in vitamins and proteins. This article studies the influence of residual beer yeast on egg laying in Japanese quails. In order to be integrated into the diet of quails the yeast has undergone a process of autolysis; its influence has been examined on separate groups. The results were reported as a percentage compared with the control group, where the feed does not contain this supplement. Due to its content rich in vitamins and proteins, the residual beer yeast used in feeding the quails bred for eggs stimulates egg laying.

  2. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  3. Pea and pea-grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rondahl, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    In this review the use of pea and pea/grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows is discussed. An introductory discussion concerns the ensilage process and protein degradation and effects of different silage additives. To minimise protein loss, prewilting time should be kept short. An acid additive will reduce respiration and thereby reduce protein degradation. The main part of the review discusses nutritional and botanical changes during development as well as results from bo...

  4. Modelling the drying kinetics of green peas in a solar dryer and under open sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM CET Bahal, Haryana–127028 (India); Varun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Hamirpur, (H.P.)–177005 (India); Sharma, Naveen [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, IITR, (U.K.)–247667 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The drying kinetics of green peas was investigated in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun. The entire drying process took place exclusively in falling rate period. The constant rate period was absent from the drying curves. The rehydration capacity was also determined for peas dried in solar dryer and under open sun. The rehydration capacity of solar dried peas was found higher than open sun dried peas. The drying data obtained from experiments were fitted to eight different mathematical models. The performance of these models was examined by comparing the coefficient of correlation (R2), sum of squares error (SSE), mean squared error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and predicted values of moisture ratios. Among these models, the thin layer drying model developed by Page showed good agreement with the data obtained from experiments for bottom tray. The Midilli et al. model has shown better fit to the experimental data for top tray and open sun than other models.

  5. Influences of pea morphology and interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, N; Cuddington, K

    2009-08-01

    It has been claimed that plant architecture can alter aphid reproductive rates, but the mechanism driving this effect has not been identified. We studied interactions between plant architecture, aphid density, environmental conditions, and nutrient availability on the reproduction of pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] using four near-isogenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that differ in morphology. Manipulations of aphid density (1, 5, and 10 adults per plant) allowed us to examine any effects of plant morphology on crowding and consequently reproduction. Pea morphology per se did not alter pea aphid crowding, as measured by mean nearest neighbor distance, and there was no effect on reproduction. In addition, reproduction increased with increasing adult density, indicating positive density dependence. In a separate experiment, peas were fertilized to determine whether differences between nutrient availability of the four different morphologies might drive any observed differences in aphid reproduction. Although plant nitrogen content was altered by fertilization treatments, this did not have an impact on aphid reproduction. Greenhouse experiments, however, suggested that pea morphology can interact with environmental conditions to reduce aphid reproduction under some conditions. We conclude that plant morphology only influences aphid reproduction when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  6. Blood glucose response to pea fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    Two new fiber types, pea fiber (PF) and sugar beet fiber (BF), were compared with wheat bran (WB) to investigate the effect on postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin responses in normal subjects. The control meal consisted of 150 g ground beef mixed with 50 g glucose and 20 g lactulose. Onl...

  7. Pea Streak Virus Recorded in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Bečková, M.; Fránová, Jana; Petrzik, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 164-166 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pea streak virus * alfalfa * carlavirus * partial sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  8. Pea disease diagnostic series - Powdery Mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of pea worldwide, and it could be caused by two fungal species Erysiphe pisi and E. trifolii. White powdery patches on leaves, stems and pods are characteristics of the disease. The pathogen may form black fruiting bodies called chasmothecia near the end of the gr...

  9. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  10. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  11. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas... two or more, of the following safe and suitable optional ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial... “early June” shall precede or follow the name in the case of smooth-skin or substantially smooth-skin...

  12. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  13. Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Binek, Marian; Grodzik, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-nano) on microbial profile of caecum and morphology of enterocytes in duodenum of Japanese quail, as a model animal for poultry. Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (10 d old) were randomly...... killed and samples of duodenum and caeca microflora were collected. This initial investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles did not influence emphatically microflora of quail caecum; however, water containing 25 mg/kg of Ag-nano significantly increased the population of lactic acid bacteria...

  14. Hematological and biochemical effects of chronic CO exposure on the Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J.J.; McGrath, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Japanese Quail were exposed to a concentration of 300 to 350 ppm CO to maintain an equilibrium carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 30% for a period of 4 weeks. Compared to a control group of birds maintained in an identical chamber, the CO-exposed quail demonstrated increases in hematocrit ratio and hemoglobin concentration. At the end of the exposure period, the CO-exposed quail had significantly larger plasma glucose concentrations than the control birds. Cardiac and skeletal muscle carbohydrate stores were not affected by chronic CO exposure.

  15. HARDNESS PHENOMENON IN BEACH PEA (Lethyrus maritimus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    U.D. Chavan; R. Amarowicz; F. Shahidi

    2013-01-01

    Beach pea is mostly grown on seashores and it contains higher amount of protein than other legumes. However, the pea has several undesirable  attributes, such as long cooking time and hard to germinate (imbibitions) that limited its use as food. The present investigation aimed to study the physico-chemical properties, cooking characteristics and hull crude fibre structure of beach pea as compare to other similar legumes. Standard methods of processing pulses were used for present study. Beach...

  16. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types....

  17. DDE increased the toxicity of parathion to coturnix quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) were exposed to DDE or chlordane in the diet and subsequently dosed with parathion or paraoxon. Pretreatment with 5 or 50 ppm DDE in the diet for 12 weeks resulted in increased cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma, but not in the brain. Dietary concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm DDE caused increased susceptibility of quail that were challenged with parathion or paraoxon. The increased mortality resulting from DDE pretreatment was reflected in brain ChE inhibition. The synergistic action of DDE was apparent after 3 days of exposure to 50 ppm DDE and 1 week of exposure to 5 ppm DDE. Birds exposed for 3 weeks to 5 or 50 ppm DDE retained their DDE-potentiated sensitivity to parathion after 2 weeks on clean diet. Chlordane pretreatment resulted in decreased susceptibility (antagonism) to parathion, but not to paraoxon dosage. Implications of differing responses in ChE and mortality among controls, DDE-, and chlordane-pretreated birds after parathion or paraoxon dosage are discussed.

  18. Toxicity of dietary Heliotropium dolosum seed to Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroksuz, Y; Eroksuz, H; Ozer, H; Ilhan, N; Cevik, A; Yaman, I; Ceribasi, A O

    2002-10-01

    Five groups of 30 male Japanese quail, each 7-w-old, were fed diets containing 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10% (w/w) of dehulled H dolosum seed. Half of the birds from the each group were killed at 6 and 24 w after beginning of the trial. At the end of 6th w, neither mortality nor clinical sign occurred in test groups. In the 5 and 10% inclusion levels, mild to moderate hepatic injury was detected as evidenced by mild karyomegaly, moderate fatty change, focal or portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasie, and ovalocyte proliferation along with lower serum protein and albumin levels. By the termination of the experiment (24 w), 5 birds died in the 10% dosed group. Hepatic cirrhosis was the most prominent finding in the 5 and 10% group; at these levels, serum protein and albumin values decreased significanty while billuribin and ALP levels increased. Based on relative weights and histological evaluations, testicularatrophywasdosedependent. These results partly affirm earlier studies that the quail is highly resistant to the toxic effects of H dolosumseed. However, the resistance to H dolosum is less than Senecio Jacobae and Crotalaria spectabilis when considering tissue injury.

  19. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  20. Genomic tools in pea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eTAYEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25 percent protein, complex starch and fibre constituents and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tonnes produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel’s experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress towards deciphering the pea genome.

  1. Comparative toxicity of coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), in chickens, quails, and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A A; Reed, W M

    1990-01-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), was administered by gavage to immature chickens, quails, and turkeys at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight. At 25 mg coniine/kg body weight, clinical signs were observed only in quails (2/10) and consisted of excitement, depression, hypermetria, seizures, opisthotonos, and flaccid paralysis. Chickens (9/10) and quails (8/10) dosed at 50 mg/kg body weight were affected, and several birds of each species died (2/10 and 5/10, respectively). Turkeys (7/10) were affected only when dosed at 100 mg/kg body weight, and quails (6/10), turkeys (4/10), and chickens (10/10) died at this dose. There were no gross or microscopic lesions. Coniine was detected in skeletal muscle and liver of birds dying after ingestion and was present in some survivors 7 days post-treatment.

  2. [Effect of krypton-containing gas mixture on Japanese quail embryo development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul', A R; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Pavlov, N B; Pavlov, B N

    2008-01-01

    Investigated were effects of gas mixture with up to 3.0 kgs/cm2 of krypton on the embryonic development of domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica dom.). Results demonstrated absence of a serious krypton effect on Japanese quail embryos. Development of embryos proceeded in due course; morphometrically the experimental embryos were essentially similar to controls. It should be noted that despite exposure to acute hypoxic hypoxia during the initial 12 hours of development in the krypton-containing gas mixture, viability of quail embryos was high enough which can be ascribed to the krypton protective action. Besides, an additional experiment showed that krypton partial pressure of 5-5.5 kgs/cm2 produces the narcotic effect on adult Japanese quails.

  3. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A.; Garner, Michael M.; Bradley, Gregory A.; Aguilar, Roberto F.

    2011-01-01

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of hemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo’s last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex-situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species. PMID:21726940

  4. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  5. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,PA dos; Ludke,MCMM; Ludke,JV; Rabello,CBV; Santos,MJB dos; Torres,TR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of fol...

  6. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  7. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in Japanese quails and common pheasants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashev, L D; Dimitrova, D J; Milanova, A; Moutafchieva, R G

    2015-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was studied in Japanese quails and common pheasants. Healthy mature birds from both species and both genders were treated intravenously and orally with enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) and marbofloxacin (5 mg/kg). After intravenous administration enrofloxacin was extensively metabolised to ciprofloxacin. Metabolites of marbofloxacin were not detected. Values of volume of distribution were respectively 4.63 l/kg and 3.67 l/kg for enrofloxacin and 1.56 l/kg and 1.43 l/kg for marbofloxacin. In quails, total body clearance values were higher than those in pheasants and other avian species. After oral application enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed in quails, more rapidly than marbofloxacin. Pheasants absorbed both antimicrobials at a lower rate. Higher bioavailability was observed for marbofloxacin (118%). Relatively low bioavailability was established in quails for enrofloxacin (26.4%), accompanied by extensive conversion to ciprofloxacin. Generally, quails absorbed and eliminated both fluoroquinolones more rapidly than pheasants; the latter showed pharmacokinetics similar to poultry. Because of favourable pharmacokinetic properties, marbofloxacin should be preferred for oral administration in Japanese quails and pheasants for treatment of infections caused by equally susceptible pathogens.

  8. Effect of chamomile extract on the welfare of laying Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Isabela Tenório

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chamomile extract on Japanese quail on their performance, animal behavior, tonic immobility, body injuries, and surface temperature. The trial was conducted using 108 quail distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments (0, 2.5, and 5.0 g chamomile/kg of feed, six replicates, and six birds per treatment, evaluated in six measures repeated in time (14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 days of trial. The inclusion of chamomile presented a quadratic effect on sitting behavior, estimating the inclusion of 1.8 g chamomile/kg to maximize this behavior. There was a decreasing linear effect for aggressive pecking, that is, the higher the inclusion of chamomile in the diet, the lower the expression of this behavior. The inclusion of 1.8-5.0 g chamomile/kg in a Japanese quail diet reduces the behavior of aggressive pecking, in addition to keeping the birds seated longer. These results are innovative because they show in the literature for the first time that chamomile supplemented in Japanese quail diets has the capacity to modulate the behavior of the quail, leading to an improvement in the welfare of quail raised in cages.

  9. Humoral immunity of Japanese quail subjected to microwave radiation during embryogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, P.E.; McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Fertile Japanese quail eggs were exposed to continuous wave microwave radiation at an intensity of 5 mW/cm 2 (50 W/m 2 ) and a frequency of 2450 Mhz. The absorbed power density was determined to be 4.03 W/kg. The eggs were exposed throughout the first 12 days of the normal incubation period of 17.5 days. Non-exposed control eggs were incubated in a chamber identical to the exposure chamber. After hatching, exposed and control quail were reared in the conventional laboratory manner. Weekly body weight measurements were made to compare the growth patterns of exposed and control quail. The weights of the exposed male at the ages of 4 and 5 weeks were 12 and 7%, respectively, less than the control males. These differences approached statistical significance (P<=0.05). At 5 weeks of age the quail were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the levels of the anti-SRBC antibodies were determined. The levels of specific anti-SRBC antibodies, determined 4 days after antigen challenges, were of the same magnitude for both the exposed and control quail. Following this assessment of humoral immunity, the quail were sacrificed and the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were removed and a comparison was made of exposed and control birds. The weights of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were not altered significantly by the microwave exposure. (author)

  10. Caecal worm, Aulonocephalus pennula, infection in the northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Dunham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes that infect quail have been understudied and long been dismissed as a problem in quail management. Within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, an area that has experienced quail population “boom and bust” cycles and ultimately a general decline, the need to determine why Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus populations are diminishing has increased in priority. Previously, caecal parasites have been documented to cause inactivity, weight loss, reduced growth, inflammation to the caecal mucosa, and even death. The caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula is an intestinal nematode parasite that is commonly found within the caecum of quail, as well as many other avian species. In the Rolling Plains ecoregion, A. pennula has been documented to have as high as a 98% prevalence in bobwhite quail samples; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. The present study documents A. pennula causes no pathological changes within the caeca of the Northern bobwhite. However, there is concern for disruption of digestion and the possible implications of infection for wild bobwhite quail survival are discussed.

  11. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  12. Functional properties of processed pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...

  13. Substitution Value of toasted Pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...

  14. Functional analysis of mildly refined fractions from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Dry fractionation offers an attractive route to sustainably produce protein-enriched plant-based ingredients. For example, fine milling of peas followed by air classification separates starch granules from the protein matrix. Unlike conventional wet isolates, dry-enriched pea fractions consist of a

  15. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Sesequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, van der E.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  16. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2014-03-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  17. Fibril Formation from Pea Protein and Subsequent Gel Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, XC.D.; Martin, A.H.; Linden, E. van der; Jongh, H.H.J de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20

  18. Dry fractionation for production of functional pea protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Vissers, A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Dry milling in combination with air classification was evaluated as an alternative to conventional wet extraction of protein from yellow field peas (Pisum sativum). Major advantages of dry fractionation are retention of native functionality of proteins and its lower energy and water use. Peas were

  19. The Pisum Genus: Getting out of Pea Soup!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has long been a model for plant genetics and is a widely grown pulse crop producing protein-rich seeds in a sustainable manner. However, many questions remain open about (sub)species relationships in the Pisumgenus. The ongoing pea genome sequencing project and the recent geno...

  20. KASP assays for powdery mildew resistance breeding in pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of pea, caused by Erysiphe pisi DC, is a serious production constraint to pea (Pisum sativum L.) production in the U.S. and elsewhere. Utilization of genetic resistance to powdery mildew using er1 has been an effective strategy to manage this disease. This gene, er1, conferring powde...

  1. Revoluntionary Faith and Religious Disillusionment in Enrico Pea's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questa tragedia segna anche un momento cruciale di transizione nella produzione letteraria di Pea e, pur mostrando chiaramente l'influenza delle sue precedenti affinità con il Marxismo e con il movimento anarchico, guarda già in avanti con il profondo interesse e rispetto di Pea per le proprie radici cattoliche che si ...

  2. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... available for public inspection in the above office during regular business hours (7 CFR 1.27(b)). Please... the fundamental starting point to define commodity quality in the domestic and global marketplace... for whole dry peas, split peas, and lentils in today's marketing environment. According to information...

  3. Yield advantage and water saving in maize/pea intercrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Zhang, L.; Li, W.; Werf, van der W.; Sun, J.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Li, L.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a well-established strategy for maximization of yield from limited land, but mixed results have been obtained as to its performance in terms of water use efficiency. Here, two maize/pea intercrop layouts were studied in comparison to sole maize and sole pea with and without plastic

  4. Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) in a crop/livestock integrated farming system in northern Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... Pigeon pea plots with row lengths averaging 11 m and a planting geometry of 80 cm W 50 cm, were either pruned at 60 or 100 cm above ground level or not ...

  5. The effect of Orobanche crenata infection severity in faba bean, field pea, and grass pea productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fernandez-Aparicio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops i.e. faba bean, field pea and grass pea. Regression functions modelled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2 and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The proportion of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than 4 parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size

  6. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds ( Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  7. In ovo Technology and newcastle disease resistance in Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, I.E.; Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ali, I.E.; Shabana, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    A total number of 1600 fertile eggs from japanese quail birds were used in this study. The eggs were divided into eight groups then incubated. NDV and vite were administered to the groups of eggs in Ovo injection at day 14 from incubation. Hatchability, body weight, egg production and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Five blood samples were collected weekly from each group to measure total serum proteins, albumin, globulin, T3, T4 and HI titre. The results of this work revealed an increase in total serum proteins, globulin, and a decrease in t3, T4 and albumin values of the in ove vaccinating groups. Also HI titre recorded higher values due to ovo vaccination alone or combined with vit. E. It was noticed that the group injected by inactive vaccine plus vit. E registered high increases in hatchability, body weight and egg production beside a decrease in mortality

  8. Gemfibrozil disrupts the metabolism of circulating lipids in bobwhite quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière-Côté, Sophie; Omlin, Teye; de Càssia Pinheiro, Eliana; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The circulating lipids of birds play essential roles for egg production and as an energy source for flight and thermogenesis. How lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals geared to prevent heart disease in humans and that are routinely released in the environment affect their metabolism is unknown. This study assesses the impact of the popular drug gemfibrozil (GEM) on the plasma phospholipids (PL), neutral lipids (NL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus). Results show that bird lipoproteins are rapidly altered by GEM, even at environmentally-relevant doses. After 4 days of exposure, pharmacological amounts cause an 83% increase in circulating PL levels, a major decrease in average lipoprotein size measured as a 56% drop in the NL/PL ratio, and important changes in the fatty acid composition of PL and NEFA (increases in fatty acid unsaturation). The levels of PL carrying all individual fatty acids except arachidonate are strongly stimulated. The large decrease in bird lipoprotein size may reflect the effects seen in humans: lowering of LDL that can cause atherosclerosis and stimulation of HDL that promote cholesterol disposal. Lower (environmental) doses of GEM cause a reduction of %palmitate in all the plasma lipid fractions of quails, but particularly in the core triacylglycerol of lipoproteins (NL). No changes in mRNA levels of bird peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) could be demonstrated. The disrupting effects of GEM on circulating lipids reported here suggest that the pervasive presence of this drug in the environment could jeopardize reproduction and migratory behaviours in wild birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L.; Henry, Paula F.; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Sprague, Dan; Weber, John

    2016-01-01

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with phosphorus significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite and tertiary Pb phosphate), and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb.

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  11. Quail FMO3 gene cloning, tissue expression profiling, polymorphism detection and association analysis with fishy taint in eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengtao Mo

    Full Text Available Quail eggs comprise a significant and favourable part of table eggs in certain countries. Some quail eggs, however, present fishy off-flavor which directly influences their quality. It is reported that flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3 is associated with fish-odour trait in human and animal products. FMO3 is responsible for the degradation of trimethylamine (TMA in vivo. Loss-of-function mutations in FMO3 gene can result in defective TMA N-oxygenation, giving rise to disorder known as "fish-odour syndrome" in human, as well as the fishy off-flavor in cow milk and chicken eggs. In order to reveal the genetic factor of fishy taint in quail eggs, we cloned the cDNA sequence of quail FMO3 gene, investigated FMO3 mRNA expression level in various tissues, detected SNPs in the coding region of the gene and conducted association analysis between a mutation and the TMA content in quail egg yolks. The 1888 bp cDNA sequence of quail FMO3 gene encoding 532 amino acids was obtained and characterized. The phylogenetic analysis revealed quail FMO3 had a closer relationship with chicken FMO3. The FMO3 mRNA was highly expressed in liver and kidney of quail. Nine SNPs were detected in the coding sequence of quail FMO3 gene, including a nonsense mutation (Q319X which was significantly associated with the elevated TMA content in quail egg yolks. Genotype TT at Q319X mutation loci was sensitive to choline. With addition of choline in the feed, the quails with homozygote TT at the Q319X mutation loci laid fish-odour eggs, indicating an interaction between genotype and diet. The results indicated that Q319X mutation was associated with the fishy off-flavor in quail eggs. Identification of the unfavorable allele T of quail FMO3 gene can be applied in future quail breeding to eliminate fishy off-flavor trait in quail eggs.

  12. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  13. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic diseases, lack of proper knowledge

  14. Comparison of the characteristics in hen and quail corneas as experimental models of refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, G C; Pérez-Merino, P; Martínez-García, M C; Barcía, A; Merayo-Loves, J

    2016-07-01

    To compare the histological, morphological and the biophysical measurements between hen and quail corneas, in order to determine which of them were better suited for use as an animal model for research into corneal refractive surgery. A study was performed using the biophysical measurements of the cornea (curvature, thickness, refraction, and axial length) of 20 animals (10 hens and 10 quails). The corneas were then prepared for histological analysis under microscopy light. The analysis showed that both groups have the same number of corneal layers as the human cornea and with an evident Bowman's layer. The thickness of the hen cornea and axial length of the eye, 225.3±18.4μm and 12.8±0.25mm, respectively, were larger than that of the quail (Phen central cornea, 3.65±0.08mm, was greater than that for the quail (Ppower of each cornea was similar. The proportion of total corneal thickness of the hen stroma, 82.6%, was more similar to that of the human than was the quail stroma, 72.5%. Within the hen stroma, the density of keratocytes, 8.57±1.49 per 5,000μm(2), was about half that in the quail stroma (Phen cornea, the stromal thickness and proportional similarity of the corneal layers with human cornea, the hen maybe better than the quail as an alternative species suitable for use in studies of corneal refractive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus-related sequences in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J A; Cywinski, A; Chen, P J; Taylor, J M

    1986-08-01

    We detected sequences related to the avian retrovirus Rous sarcoma virus within the genome of the Japanese quail, a species previously considered to be free of endogenous avian leukosis virus elements. Using low-stringency conditions of hybridization, we screened a quail genomic library for clones containing retrovirus-related information. Of five clones so selected, one, lambda Q48, contained sequence information related to the gag, pol, and env genes of Rous sarcoma virus arranged in a contiguous fashion and spanning a distance of approximately 5.8 kilobases. This organization is consistent with the presence of an endogenous retroviral element within the Japanese quail genome. Use of this element as a high-stringency probe on Southern blots of genomic digests of several quail DNA demonstrated hybridization to a series of high-molecular-weight bands. By slot hybridization to quail DNA with a cloned probe, it was deduced that there were approximately 300 copies per diploid cell. In addition, the quail element also hybridized at low stringency to the DNA of the White Leghorn chicken and at high stringency to the DNAs of several species of jungle fowl and both true and ruffed pheasants. Limited nucleotide sequencing analysis of lambda Q48 revealed homologies of 65, 52, and 46% compared with the sequence of Rous sarcoma virus strain Prague C for the endonuclease domain of pol, the pol-env junction, and the 3'-terminal region of env, respectively. Comparisons at the amino acid level were also significant, thus confirming the retrovirus relatedness of the cloned quail element.

  16. Pea Marker Database (PMD) - A new online database combining known pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, Olga A; Zhernakov, Aleksandr I; Afonin, Alexey M; Boikov, Sergei S; Sulima, Anton S; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Zhukov, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn., possessing sequenced and annotated genome. In the last 5 years, a large number of pea gene-based molecular markers have been designed and mapped owing to the rapid evolution of "next-generation sequencing" technologies. However, the access to the complete set of markers designed worldwide is limited because the data are not uniformed and therefore hard to use. The Pea Marker Database was designed to combine the information about pea markers in a form of user-friendly and practical online tool. Version 1 (PMD1) comprises information about 2484 genic markers, including their locations in linkage groups, the sequences of corresponding pea transcripts and the names of related genes in M. truncatula. Version 2 (PMD2) is an updated version comprising 15944 pea markers in the same format with several advanced features. To test the performance of the PMD, fine mapping of pea symbiotic genes Sym13 and Sym27 in linkage groups VII and V, respectively, was carried out. The results of mapping allowed us to propose the Sen1 gene (a homologue of SEN1 gene of Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen) as the best candidate gene for Sym13, and to narrow the list of possible candidate genes for Sym27 to ten, thus proving PMD to be useful for pea gene mapping and cloning. All information contained in PMD1 and PMD2 is available at www.peamarker.arriam.ru.

  17. Iron and oxygen isotope signatures of the Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite deposits, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Tristan; Simon, Adam C.; Day, Warren C.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2016-01-01

    New O and Fe stable isotope ratios are reported for magnetite samples from high-grade massive magnetite of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite ore deposits and these results are compared with data for other iron oxide-apatite deposits to shed light on the origin of the southeast Missouri deposits. The δ18O values of magnetite from Pea Ridge (n = 12) and Pilot Knob (n = 3) range from 1.0 to 7.0 and 3.3 to 6.7‰, respectively. The δ56Fe values of magnetite from Pea Ridge (n = 10) and Pilot Knob (n = 6) are 0.03 to 0.35 and 0.06 to 0.27‰, respectively. These δ18O and the δ56Fe values suggest that magnetite crystallized from a silicate melt (typical igneous δ56Fe ranges 0.06–0.49‰) and grew in equilibrium with a magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluid. We propose that the δ18O and δ56Fe data for the Pea Ridge and Pilot Knob magnetite-apatite deposits are consistent with the flotation model recently proposed by Knipping et al. (2015a), which invokes flotation of a magmatic magnetite-fluid suspension and offers a plausible explanation for the igneous (i.e., up to ~15.9 wt % TiO2 in magnetite) and hydrothermal features of the deposits.

  18. Rheological and qualitative characteristics of pea flour incorporated cracker biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.

  19. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed sup(95m)Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, male and female Japanese quail were chronically fed alfalfa grown on solutions containing TcO 4 which was mixed into a commercial turkey starter. The objective was to estimate concentration ratios and transfer coefficients from Tc incorporated into alfalfa tissue to quail eggs, edible tissues and other organs. (author)

  20. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by the pea crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1986-08-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nitrate uptake by pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field and pot experiments using the 15 N isotope dilution technique and spring barley as a non-fixing reference crop. Barley, although not ideal, seemed to be a suitable reference for pea in the 15 N-technique. Maximum N 2 fixation activity of 10 kg N fixed per ha per day was reached around the flat pod growth stage, and the activity decreased rapidly during pod-filling. The pea crop fixed between 100 and 250 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to from 45 to 80 per cent of total crop N. The amount of symbiotically fixed N 2 depended on the climatic conditions in the experimental year, the level of soil mineral N and the pea cultivar. Field-grown pea took up 60 to 70 per cent of the N-fertilizer supplied. The supply of 50 kg NO 3 -N ha -1 inhibited the N 2 fixation approximately 15 per cent. Small amounts of fertilizer N, supplied at sowing (starter-N), slightly stimulated the vegetative growth of pea, but the yields of seed dry matter and protein were not significantly influenced. In the present field experiments the environmental conditions, especially the distribution of rainfall during the growth season, seemed to be more important in determining the protein and dry matter yield of the dry pea crop, than the ability of pea to fix nitrogen symbiotically. However, fertilizer N supplied to pot-grown pea plants at the flat pod growth stage or as split applications significantly increased the yield of seed dry matter and protein. (author)

  1. Lighting programs for male and female meat quails (Coturnix coturnix) raised in equatorial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G C; Freitas, E R; Watanabe, P H; Figueiredo, C W S; Silva, L P; Nascimento, G A J; Lima, R C; Nepomuceno, R C; Sá, N L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lighting programs for male and female meat quails raised in an equatorial region on performance and carcass traits. A total of 1,500 sexed quails (Coturnix coturnix) was distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 3 lighting programs (natural, intermittent, and continuous) with 5 replicates of 50 birds. The lighting programs were applied in the period from 7 to 49 d of age, being natural (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 11 h and 30 min of dark), intermittent (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 5 h and 30 min of artificial light, alternating lighting periods with one h and 06 min and periods of darkness with one h and 12 min), and continuous (23 h of natural + artificial light and one h of dark). Regardless of lighting program, female quails were heavier than males, and birds subjected to natural light weighed less than those exposed to continuous and intermittent lighting programs. Quails exposed to intermittent and continuous light presented higher weight gain and feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio compared to birds under a natural light regimen. It is concluded that in an equatorial region, it is possible to use a lighting program with only natural light for raising male and female meat quails from 7 to 49 d of age. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

  3. Distribution and metabolism of selenite and selenomethionine in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Yasumi; Ohbo, Ai; Tani, Yuta; Hatakeyama, Yoshiko; Yawata, Ayako; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2012-05-01

    Compared to the many studies on the physiological and toxicological effects of selenium (Se) in mammals, avian Se metabolism is still an unexplored topic. Some birds are useful as poultry for human nutrition. Moreover, birds belong to higher trophic levels in the biosphere and thus may play an important role in Se circulation in the ecosystem in the same way as mammals do. In this study, we analyzed the distribution and metabolism of Se in an experimental bird, the Japanese quail, which was fed drinking water containing sodium selenite or selenomethionine (SeMet). The highest concentration of Se was detected in the pancreas, followed by down feathers, liver, and kidneys. SeMet was more efficiently incorporated into the quail than selenite. The specific and preferable distribution of Se to the high molecular weight fraction in the serum of the quail was observed only in the SeMet-ingestion group. As in mammals, selenosugar and trimethylselenonium were the major metabolites in quail excreta. Three unknown Se metabolites were detected by HPLC-ICP-MS. Although part of the metabolic pathway of Se in the Japanese quail fed selenite and SeMet was the same as that observed in mammals, the bird also showed certain avian-specific metabolic process for Se.

  4. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM THREONINE REQUIREMENTS OF JAPANESE QUAIL (Coturnix coturnix japonica CHICKS REARED UNDER TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Threonine, like most amino acids, is traditionally noted for its role in protein synthesis. However, dietary threonine concentration required for the maximum performance of Japanese quails is yet to be determined, therefore, a study was conducted to determine the optimum threonine requirement of Japanese quail chicks in the tropical environment. A total of four hundred and fifty, two weeks old quail chicks (mixed sexes were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0.67, 0.81, 0.95, 1.08 and 1.22 % total threonine and replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in average weight gain, average feed intake, feed conversion ratio and age at first lay of quails fed the dietary treatments. Weight of first egg laid was significantly (P0.05 similar for all treatments. There were significant differences (P0.05. It was concluded that the performance of birds were not influenced by the dietary treatments up to the highest dietary level of threonine studied (1.22%. Therefore, it is possible that the optimum dietary level of threonine may be above 1.22 %. Further studies will be necessary to establish higher doses of dietary threonine requirement of Japanese quails reared under tropical climatic environment.

  5. Effect of Transient Treatment with Propylthiouracil on Some Reproduction Traits and Live Weight of Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sogut

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of transient treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU on some reproduction traits and live weight of quails. The trial lasted 8 weeks. To accomplish this goal, 700 1-day-old quail chicks were used, randomly divided into 8 groups. PTU was added to feed by 0.1% and 0.5% /wt. The first 4 groups had 0.5% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 2-8 wk., respectively. The 5 th, 6 th and 7 th groups had 0.1% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 wk., respectively, and the 8 th group was the control with no PTU. Quails were bled at 60 days of age. Then right and left testes were taken out and weighed. At the end of the trail, least square means of the live weight of the treatment groups were higher than the control (p<0.05. Similar results (p<0.05 were observed for testis weight, testis diameter and fertility rate. As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of PTU in quail rations positively affects the live weight and reproduction traits of quails.

  6. Determining population trends and conservation status of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigcerver, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the conservation status and population trends of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix from 1900 to the present. Data are sometimes contradictory with regard to the status of this species as it has some features that make it difficult to produce reliable population estimates. Recent data clearly suggest, either at a local scale or at a trans–national scale, that the Atlantic common quail populations have remained stable in the last two decades, and that restocking practices with farm–reared quails (hybrids with the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica do not affect our estimates. The complex movement patterns showed by this species require special attention. Analysis of ring recoveries can give important information, especially about the nomadic movement of quails in search of suitable habitats after the destruction of winter cereal crops due to harvesting. Thus, when developing a breeding distribution model for this species, continuously updated information on seasonal habitat and weather must be included for optimal prediction. Including fortnightly data of vegetation indices in distribution models, for example, has shown good results. Obtaining reliable predictions about changes in species distribution and movements during the breeding period could provide useful knowledge about the conservation status and population trends and would help in the design of future management measures.

  7. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hatchability and embryonic development of quail eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlany, P.; Sinkovicsne Hlubik, I.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on the embryonic development of quail and hen's eggs was examined. The goals of the examinations were to determine the LD 50 and LD 100 values, to establish the effect of single and multiple irradiation on embryonic development and to get some information on the embryonation of eggs produced by quails and their progeny grown from irradiated eggs. It was shown that 200 rad dose has significant stimulation effect of the hatching results of quail eggs. The LD 50 and LD 100 values were about 800 to 850 rad and 1600 rad, respectively. Repeated irradiation on the progeny-generations proved to be unambiguously deleterious on embryonation. High doses changed the rhythm of embryonal mortality, showing a peak under the irradiation and in the first three days of incubation, and significantly enhanced the number of teratological types. (author)

  9. Effect Of Pyridoxine Injection In Japanese Quail Eggs On HATCHABILITY, Performance And Some Physiological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; WAKWAK, M.M.; MAHROSE, KH.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out at the poultry farm found in the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during January 2009. A total number of two hundreds and seventy five quail eggs were used in an experiment of a completely randomized design to estimate hatchability percentage, chick weight at hatch, growth performance, some blood parameters and carcass traits of Japanese quails as affected by injecting their eggs with pyridoxine. Eggs were divided into 5 groups (55 eggs each); the first group (without injection) was served as control while the second group was injected in the width end of the egg with 500 μl saline. The third, fourth and fifth groups were injected in the width end of the Japanese quail eggs with 40, 80 and 120 μg pyridoxine, respectively, dissolved in 500 μl saline. Hatchability percentage, live body weight, daily body weight gain and some organ weights (liver, gizzard and heart) were studied. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for analyses. It was observed that the groups of quail eggs received 120 μg pyridoxine injection recorded the highest hatchability percent. Chick weight at hatch was non-significantly affected by saline solution injection. The birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine recorded the highest live body weight, especially during the 2 nd and 3 rd weeks of age. The daily body weight gain was significantly affected by pyridoxine injection only during the intervals of 1 to 2, 3 to 4 and from 1 to 6 weeks of age. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were highly significantly elevated in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine than other groups. Serum AST activity was highly significantly increased in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 40 μg pyridoxine than other groups while serum ALT activity and calcium concentration were non

  10. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris F. Pourlis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies.

  11. Lodging resistant pea line derived after mutagenic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Line 1/502 is a new lodging resistant pea ( Pisum sativum L.) developed for the Bulgarian field pea industry. This line is a direct chlorophyll mutant, which originates after treatment of the initial line, cultivar Auralia, with 150 Gy 60 Co γ - radiation. In regional evaluation trials conducted in Sofia over seven successive seasons 1/502 has revealed improved standing ability that most probably is a result from modification of the architecture of the plants appearing in reduction of plant height. The agronomic and morphological characteristics of the mutant line were reported. The upright plant habit and resistance to lodging is especially beneficial for production of high quality peas because pods are held above the soil surface during crop development and during maturity which aids in keeping the peas clean and free of pathogens that can cause discoloration and rotting. (authors)

  12. Effect of Pigeon Pea Hedgerow Alley Management on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year (2010 and 2011 cropping seasons) field investigation conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised three pigeon pea hedgerow alley populations of 20,000, 33,333 and ...

  13. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  14. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the Genomic Era

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smýkal, P.; Aubert, G.; Burstin, J.; Coyne, C.J.; Ellis, N.T.H.; Flavell, A.J.; Ford, R.; Hýbl, M.; Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; McPhee, K.E.; Redden, R.J.; Rubiales, D.; Weller, J.L.; Warkentin, T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-115 ISSN 2073-4395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : breeding * germplasm * genetic diversity * pea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. Short-term spatial memory responses in aged Japanese quail selected for divergent adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, C L; Schmidt, J B; Treese, S T; Satterlee, D G

    2010-04-01

    Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS RAM testing nor its interaction with line further influenced these variables. Thus, although selection for divergent plasma B responsiveness to an acute stressor was found to be associated with severe impairment of spatial memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.

  16. Pea (Pisum sativum L. in the Genomic Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Redden

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. was the original model organism used in Mendel’s discovery (1866 of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species. Although the size and repetitive nature of the pea genome has so far restricted its sequencing, comprehensive genomic and post genomic resources already exist. These include BAC libraries, several types of molecular marker sets, both transcriptome and proteome datasets and mutant populations for reverse genetics. The availability of the full genome sequences of three legume species has offered significant opportunities for genome wide comparison revealing synteny and co-linearity to pea. A combination of a candidate gene and colinearity approach has successfully led to the identification of genes underlying agronomically important traits including virus resistances and plant architecture. Some of this knowledge has already been applied to marker assisted selection (MAS programs, increasing precision and shortening the breeding cycle. Yet, complete translation of marker discovery to pea breeding is still to be achieved. Molecular analysis of pea collections has shown that although substantial variation is present within the cultivated genepool, wild material offers the possibility to incorporate novel traits that may have been inadvertently eliminated. Association mapping analysis of diverse pea germplasm promises to identify genetic variation related to desirable agronomic traits, which are historically difficult to breed for in a traditional manner. The availability of high throughput ‘omics’ methodologies offers great promise for the development of novel, highly accurate selective breeding tools for improved pea genotypes that are sustainable under current and future climates and farming systems.

  17. Ly α and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wofford, Aida, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Astronomy (Mexico)

    2017-03-20

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly α -emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Ly α escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly α and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope . We extract the spatial profiles of Ly α emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly α emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Ly α spatial profile is about 2–4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high- z LAEs probably have larger Ly α sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly α photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Ly α line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Ly α line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3–6 LAEs have similar Ly α and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low- z and high- z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Ly α light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Ly α to UV continuum size ratios (∼1.4–4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  18. PEA: an integrated R toolkit for plant epitranscriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jingjing; Song, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Tang, Yunjia; Ma, Chuang

    2018-05-29

    The epitranscriptome, also known as chemical modifications of RNA (CMRs), is a newly discovered layer of gene regulation, the biological importance of which emerged through analysis of only a small fraction of CMRs detected by high-throughput sequencing technologies. Understanding of the epitranscriptome is hampered by the absence of computational tools for the systematic analysis of epitranscriptome sequencing data. In addition, no tools have yet been designed for accurate prediction of CMRs in plants, or to extend epitranscriptome analysis from a fraction of the transcriptome to its entirety. Here, we introduce PEA, an integrated R toolkit to facilitate the analysis of plant epitranscriptome data. The PEA toolkit contains a comprehensive collection of functions required for read mapping, CMR calling, motif scanning and discovery, and gene functional enrichment analysis. PEA also takes advantage of machine learning technologies for transcriptome-scale CMR prediction, with high prediction accuracy, using the Positive Samples Only Learning algorithm, which addresses the two-class classification problem by using only positive samples (CMRs), in the absence of negative samples (non-CMRs). Hence PEA is a versatile epitranscriptome analysis pipeline covering CMR calling, prediction, and annotation, and we describe its application to predict N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. Experimental results demonstrate that the toolkit achieved 71.6% sensitivity and 73.7% specificity, which is superior to existing m6A predictors. PEA is potentially broadly applicable to the in-depth study of epitranscriptomics. PEA Docker image is available at https://hub.docker.com/r/malab/pea, source codes and user manual are available at https://github.com/cma2015/PEA. chuangma2006@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  20. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  1. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Graciene Conceição dos; Garcia, Edivaldo Antônio; Vieira Filho, Javer Alves; Molino, Andréa de Britto; Pelicia, Kleber; Berto, Daniella Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, eg...

  2. Pathobiology and transmission of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Dolz, Roser; Busquets, Núria; Gamino, Virginia; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Chaves, Aida J; Ramis, Antonio; Abad, F Xavier; Höfle, Ursula; Majó, Natàlia

    2013-03-28

    European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix) may share with Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) its potential as an intermediate host and reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). To elucidate this question, European quail were experimentally challenged with two highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) (H7N1/HP and H5N1/HP) and one low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) (H7N2/LP). Contact animals were also used to assess the viral transmission among birds. Severe neurological signs and mortality rates of 67% (H7N1/HP) and 92% (H5N1/HP) were observed. Although histopathological findings were present in both HPAIV-infected groups, H5N1/HP-quail displayed a broader viral antigen distribution and extent of microscopic lesions. Neither clinical nor pathological involvement was observed in LPAIV-infected quail. Consistent long-term viral shedding and effective transmission to naive quail was demonstrated for the three studied AIV. Drinking water arose as a possible transmission route and feathers as a potential origin of HPAIV dissemination. The present study demonstrates that European quail may play a major role in AI epidemiology, highlighting the need to further understand its putative role as an intermediate host for avian/mammalian reassortant viruses.

  3. Responses to graded phytic acid in young Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Fry, B.E. Jr.; Phillippy, B.Q.; Lee, Y.H.; Johnston, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Graded levels of phytic acid (PA) were fed to day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) for 7 d to establish responses for evaluating effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates. Sodium phytate was added to supply 1.4, 2.8, 5.5, 8.4, 11.0, and 13.8 g PA/kg adequate casein-gelatin diet containing 20 mg Zn/kg. Eleven g phytic acid approximates that in diets containing defatted soy flour as the protein source. PA:Zn molar ratios were 7, 14, 27, 41, 54, and 68. The effects and graded response ranges (g PA/kg diet) were as follows: decreased body weight, 2.8-13.8; defective feathering, 1.4-5.5; decreased tibia Zn, 1.4-5.5; decreased tibia ash, 1.4-13.8; and decreased pancreas Zn, 1.4-5.5. The lowest level of PA produced marked decreases in tibia and pancreas Zn; thus the PA ranges can be extended to even lower levels. The effects of PA were reproducible between experiments and the mean values were reproducible except for tibia ash and liver Mn, which varied somewhat. There were no effects of PA on liver Zn and Mg, or on pancreas Fe and Mg; the effects on liver Fe and Cu, and tibia Fe and Mg were small and inconsistent. The responses to PA and the dose ranges provide a realistic basis for assessing the biological effects of other inositol phosphates that can be formed during food processing

  4. Neuropeptidomic analysis of the embryonic Japanese quail diencephalon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sköld Karl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous peptides such as neuropeptides are involved in numerous biological processes in the fully developed brain but very little is known about their role in brain development. Japanese quail is a commonly used bird model for studying sexual dimorphic brain development, especially adult male copulatory behavior in relation to manipulations of the embryonic endocrine system. This study uses a label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry approach to analyze the influence of age (embryonic days 12 vs 17, sex and embryonic day 3 ethinylestradiol exposure on the expression of multiple endogenous peptides in the developing diencephalon. Results We identified a total of 65 peptides whereof 38 were sufficiently present in all groups for statistical analysis. Age was the most defining variable in the data and sex had the least impact. Most identified peptides were more highly expressed in embryonic day 17. The top candidates for EE2 exposure and sex effects were neuropeptide K (downregulated by EE2 in males and females, gastrin-releasing peptide (more highly expressed in control and EE2 exposed males and gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone related protein 2 (more highly expressed in control males and displaying interaction effects between age and sex. We also report a new potential secretogranin-2 derived neuropeptide and previously unknown phosphorylations in the C-terminal flanking protachykinin 1 neuropeptide. Conclusions This study is the first larger study on endogenous peptides in the developing brain and implies a previously unknown role for a number of neuropeptides in middle to late avian embryogenesis. It demonstrates the power of label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to analyze the expression of multiple endogenous peptides and the potential to detect new putative peptide candidates in a developmental model.

  5. Isolation and serological differentiation of a herpesvirus from bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J; Glünder, G; Stiburek, B

    1980-01-01

    An infectious agent was isolated from the liver of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758). The agent was sensitive to chloroform and its multiplication was inhibited by 5-iodine-2-deoxy-uridine. It passed filters with a pore diameter of 220 nm and more but not 100 nm filters. Electron microscopic examination revealed numerous nucleocapsids with hollow capsomeres and few enveloped particles in the supernatant fluids of infected cultures. The nucleocapsids were calculated to have 162 capsomeres on their surface. Using the plaque reduction method for neutralization tests no serological cross reactions could be detected between the quail isolate and sera against Marek's disease virus, turkey herpes-virus (HV), duck enteritis HV, infectious laryngotracheitis HV, amazon parrot HV, great horned owl HV, eagle owl HV, snowy owl HV, falcon HV, pigeon HV, Lake Victoria Cormorant HV, and stork HV. The isolate from bobwhite quail did only cross-react with antiserum against crane HV. It is concluded that the isolated virus is a member of the avian herpesvirus group and it is proposed to tentatively term it herpesvirus colinum (from Colinus virginianus = bobwhite quail).

  6. Egg quality of quails fed low methionine diet supplemented with betaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Dewanti, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of betaine supplementation to low methionine diet on egg quality of quails. A total of 340 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was divided into 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 17 quails each. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The four dietary treatments were the low methionine diet (0.3% methionine) without betaine supplementation and the low methionine diet supplemented with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% betaine. The experimental diets were applied for 8 weeks and the egg quality traits were measured at the age of 16 and 20 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to orthogonal polynomial test to determine the optimum level of betaine. Increasing dietary levels of betaine increased the fat content of the egg with the linear regression of y = 11.0949 + 4.1914x (R2 = 0.18). However, supplementation of betaine did not affect protein content, yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentage. It can be concluded that betaine supplementation up to 0.21% to low methionine diet only had little effect in improving the quality traits of quail eggs.

  7. Validation of the DLW method in Japanese quail at different water fluxes using laser and IRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mclean, M.; Visser, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    In Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica; n = 9), the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (H-2, O-18) for estimation Of CO2 production (1/day) was validated. To evaluate its sensitivity to water efflux levels (r(H2Oe); g/day) and to assumptions of fractional evaporative water loss (x; dimensionless),

  8. Organizational effects of diethylstilbestrol on brain vasotocin and sexual behavior in male quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Montoncello, Barbara; Mura, Elena; Pessatti, Marzia; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2005-04-15

    In Japanese quail, we previously described a sexual dimorphism of the parvocellular vasotocin system of the limbic region that, as the reproductive behavior, is steroid-sensitive and is organized during embryonic life by the exposure to estradiol. We verified in this study whether diethylstilbestrol, a chemical xenoestrogen, has analogous organizational effects on the vasotocin system of limbic regions and on copulatory behavior of male Japanese quail. We injected in the yolk sac of 3 day-old quail embryos diethylstilbestrol or estradiol benzoate (a treatment which suppresses male copulatory behavior in adulthood and reduces vasotocin innervation), or sesame oil (control). No further hormonal manipulations were performed after hatching. Sexual behavior was recorded in males at the age of 6 weeks. Estradiol- and diethylstilbestrol-treated males exhibited a total suppression of copulatory behavior. After behavioral tests, all males were sacrificed and brain sections processed for vasotocin immunocytochemistry. Significant decrease in the density of vasotocin immunoreactivity was detected in the medial preoptic nucleus, in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and in the lateral septum of diethylstilbestrol-treated males. The magnocellular vasotocin neurons were, in contrast, not affected. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that embryonic treatment with diethylstilbestrol induces a full sex reversal of behavioral phenotype as well as a significant decrease of vasotocin expression in the preoptic-limbic region in male Japanese quail. Therefore, the parvocellular vasotocin system could represent an optimal model to investigate the effects of pollutants on neural circuits controlling reproductive functions.

  9. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  10. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 4. Carcase composition and thyroid hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena; Darras, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2008). s. 96-102 ISSN 0007-1668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/1262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Japanese quail * Growth phases * Carcase quality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.134, year: 2008

  11. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  12. Feed efficiency of diets with different energy and protein concentrations supplemented with methionine in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the feed efficiency of quail diets containing different concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) with constant ratio and supplemented with methionine. Four hundred laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment used 5 replicates of 20 quails. Two basal diets were formulated to contain 2,800 kcal kg-1 ME and 18.7% CP (High ME-CP) and 2,600 kcal kg-1 ME and 17.3% CP (Low ME-CP). Each basal diet was supplemented with 0 and 0.12% methionine. The High ME-CP diets generated lower feed consumption but higher egg mass and feed efficiency (Pprotein efficiency ratio (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with methionine resulted the highest feed efficiency followed by the Low ME-CP supplemented with methionine, while both High ME-CP and Low ME-CP without methionine supplementation resulted the lowest feed efficiency (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with 0.12% methionine provided benefit to improve the feed efficiency in laying quails.

  13. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  14. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails, besides the weight gain and genotoxic activity. Although the pomegranate is recognized by multiple properties, including anti-coccidial, in the current study the results are contrary. The treated group shed greater amount of oocysts; the sporulation times and viability were similar in both groups; despite some morphometric differences, these were not expressive; weight gains were similar; and the pomegranate had insignificant effect genotoxic. Finally, these results suggest that the pomegranate pericarp extract did not influence on Eimeira spp. from Japanese quails; therefore, the pomegranate pericarp extract is not suggested in the prevention/treatment of coccidiosis in Japanese quails, or at least not using methods of preparation and administration applied in this study.

  15. Evaluation of a quail embryo model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quail embryo was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving 20 ng of BoNT or higher had m...

  16. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  17. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Chih eChu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that preferred Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import.

  18. Metabolic effects of quail eggs in diabetes-induced rats: comparison with chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lontchi-Yimagou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quail eggs as a food item have recently been introduced into the diet of some Cameroonians. These eggs are being sold in local markets, but with many unfounded health claims. One claim is that quail eggs can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetics. It was therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of consuming quail eggs on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes-induced rats. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats weighing, on average, 250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 consisted of rats with normal blood glucose, and the other three groups (2, 3, and 4 consisted of diabetes-induced rats achieved by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. During 16 days, rats in groups 1 and 2 received distilled water; and rats in groups 3 and 4 received quail and chicken eggs, respectively, with gastroesophageal probe at a dose of 1 mL/200 g body weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined in all the groups on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 17th days after induction of diabetes. On the 17th day, the fasting rats were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results: In 17 days, the consumption of quail and chicken eggs had no effect on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Total cholesterol levels were higher in groups 3 (75.59 mg/dL and 4 (59.41 mg/dL compared to group 2 (55.67 mg/dl, although these differences were not significant (all p>0.05. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (p <0.05 in groups 3 (106.52 mg/dL and 4 (109.65 mg/dL compared to group 2 (65.82 mg/dL. Quail eggs had no effect on oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, and catalase. Conclusions: The consumption of quail eggs by diabetic rats at the tested dose had no effect on blood glucose level and oxidative stress parameters and may have a negative effect on lipid profile.

  19. Characterization of pea (Pisum sativum) seed protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Luis A; Pérez, Alicia; Ruiz, Raquel; Guzmán, M Ángeles; Aranda-Olmedo, Isabel; Clemente, Alfonso

    2014-01-30

    Legume seed proteins have to be chemically characterized in order to properly link their nutritional effects with their chemical structure. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination, as assessed by mass peptide fingerprinting analysis, were obtained from defatted pea (Pisum sativum cv. Bilbo) meal. The extracted protein fractions contained 56.7-67.7 g non-starch polysaccharides kg⁻¹. The vicilin fraction was higher than legumins in arginine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. The most abundant amino acids in the albumin fraction were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine, and the amounts of methionine were more than double than those in legumins and vicilins. The pea albumin fraction showed a clear enrichment of protease inhibitory activity when compared with the seed meal. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were 0.63 ±  0.04, 0.88 ±  0.04 and 0.41 ±  0.23 for legumins, vicilins and albumins respectively. Vicilin and albumin fractions devoid of cross-contamination with other proteins were obtained from pea seed meal. The vicilin fraction also contained low amounts of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and was enriched in isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine. In vitro digestibility values for pea proteins were similar or even numerically higher than those for control proteins. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  1. Ascorbic acid and melatonin reduce heat-induced performance inhibition and oxidative stress in Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Sahin, K; Gursu, M F; Smith, M O

    2004-02-01

    1. The effects of ascorbic acid (L-ascorbic acid) and melatonin supplementation on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation indicator, ascorbic acid, retinol, tocopherol and mineral status in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature were evaluated. 2. Two hundred and forty Japanese quails (10 d old) were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups consisting of 10 replicates of three birds each. The birds were kept in a temperature-controlled room at 22 degrees C (Thermoneutral, TN groups) or 34 degrees C (for 8 h/d; 09:00 to 17:00 h; Heat stress, HS groups). Birds in both TN and HS were fed either a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet (Ascorbic acid group), 40 mg of melatonin/kg of diet (Melatonin group) or both (Ascorbic acid + Melatonin group). 3. Supplementing heat-stressed quails with ascorbic acid and melatonin improved performance compared with the control group. Effects generally were greatest in quails supplemented with both ascorbic acid and melatonin. 4. Although supplementation did not consistently restore the concentrations of serum ascorbic acid, retinol and tocopherol to those of TN groups, these concentrations increased significantly with supplementation. Furthermore, serum and liver MDA and serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations were lower in the supplemented groups than in the heat-stressed controls. 5. Within each environment, excretion of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cr were lowest in the combination group and, in all cases, highest in the HS group. Interactions between diet and temperature were detected for live weight gain, cold carcase weight, MDA, ascorbic acid, tocopherol concentrations and excretion of zinc. 6. The results of the study indicate that ascorbic acid and melatonin supplementation attenuate the decline in performance and antioxidant and mineral status caused by heat stress and such

  2. PEA3activates CXCL12transcription in MCF-7breast cancer cells%PEA3 activates CXCL12 transcription in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CHEN Bo-bin; LI Jun-jie; JIN Wei; SHAO Zhi-min

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the activity of PEA3 ( polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 ) on CXCL12 (Chemokine CXC motif ligand 12) transcription and to reveal the role of PEA3 involved in CXCL12-mediated metastasis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Methods Methods such as cell transfection, ChIP assay (chromatin immunoprecipitation ), and siRNA (small interfering RNA) were applied to demonstrate and confirm the interaction between PEA3 and CXCL12. Results Over-expression of PEA3 could increase the CXCL12 mRNA level and the CXCL12 promoter activity in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ChIP assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCL12 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector. PEA3 siRNA decreased CXCL12 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCL12 promoter in MCF-7 cells. Conclusions PEA3 could activate CXCL12 promoter transcription. It may be a potential mechanism of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis regarding of PEA3 and CXCL12.

  3. Protein nativity explains emulsifying properties of aqueous extracted protein components from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Marlies E.J.; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Padt, van der Albert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the emulsifying properties of a protein-enriched fraction from pea are unravelled. The emulsifying properties of mildly fractionated protein fractions from yellow pea and compared to those of commercial pea protein isolate. The emulsion stability of an oil-in-water emulsions were

  4. Discrete forms of amylose are synthesized by isoforms of GBSSI in pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Zeeman, S.; Smith, A.; Martin, C.

    2002-01-01

    Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be

  5. Effect of Katuk leaf (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr suplementation in the diet on reproductive function of Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Subekti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr is known to contain carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, protein, and sterol compounds. This study was aimed to determine whether phytosterol in Sauropus androgynus (SA leaf affected the reproductive system of female quails. One hundred and fifty female quails were raised from 2-27 weeks old and divided into three dietary treatment, with five replicates and 10 quails in each replicate. The treatment diets were: 1 control group: diet without katuk leaf meal; 2 diet with 9% SA ethanol extract (TEK; 3 Diet containing 9% SA meal (TDK. The TDK-fed quails laid their first eggs at 46 day of age, compared with the TEK (52 day and the control groups (53 day. The highest fertility (94.55% and hatchability (93.29% were obtained from the TDK fed quails at the age of 23 and 24 weeks, respectively. These findings indicated that the reproductive system of female quails were improved not only by phytosterol in SA leaf, but also by the β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol in SA leaf.

  6. Physiological Studies on Pea Tendrils. IV. Flavonoids and Contact Coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1967-01-01

    Pea tendrils contain high concentrations of flavonoids, mainly quercetin-triglucosyl-p-coumarate (QGC). QGC is most abundant near the highly responsive apex of the tendril, and least abundant at the base. After mechanical stimulation, and during coiling of the tendril, the QGC titer drops to about 30% of its original value. The kinetics of flavonoid disappearance are significantly correlated with the kinetics of coiling. Aqueous extracts of unstimulated pea tendrils or 10 μm QGC inhibit contact coiling of excised tendrils. Extracts of coiled tendrils do not. The evidence indicates a possible regulatory role for flavonoids in contact coiling. PMID:16656581

  7. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  8. Accumulation and localization of extensin protein in apoplast of pea root nodule under aluminum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena; Borucki, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Cell wall components such as hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs, extensins) have been proposed to be involved in aluminum (Al) resistance mechanisms in plants. We have characterized the distribution of extensin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules apoplast under short (for 2 and 24h) Al stress. Monoclonal antibodie LM1 have been used to locate extensin protein epitope by immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling. The nodules were shown to respond to Al stress by thickening of plant and infection thread (IT) walls and disturbances in threads growth and bacteria endocytosis. Immunoblot results indicated the presence of a 17-kDa band specific for LM1. Irrespective of the time of Al stress, extensin content increased in root nodules. Further observation utilizing fluorescence and transmission electron microscope showed that LM1 epitope was localized in walls and intercellular spaces of nodule cortex tissues and in the infection threads matrix. Al stress in nodules appears to be associated with higher extensin accumulation in matrix of enlarged thick-walled ITs. In addition to ITs, thickened walls and intercellular spaces of nodule cortex were also associated with intense extensin accumulation. These data suggest that Al-induced extensin accumulation in plant cell walls and ITs matrix may have influence on the process of IT growth and tissue and cell colonization by Rhizobium bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.

  10. Protein Kinase B/Akt Binds and Phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, Stabilizing Its Antiapoptotic Action

    OpenAIRE

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser116. In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser116 PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser116. In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser116→Gly (PEDS116→G) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also i...

  11. Role Of SYNBIOTICS And Low Level GAMMA Irradiation Treatments In Improving Performance Of Japanese Quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A total number of 800 Japanese quail eggs were obtained from a parent flock maintained the poultry research unit of the Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Centre at Inshas, Egypt, and used in the present study. Before incubating the eggs, they were divided into two equal groups of 400 eggs each; the 1 st group was exposed to a low level of gamma irradiation at 50 rad before sitting while the 2 nd group did not exposed to gamma irradiation. After hatching of the two groups, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and hatching weight were determined. Hatched quail chicks from each group (1 and 2) were divided into four identical subgroups and all fed the basal diet but with a different supplement. The diet of the 1 st subgroup was supplemented with 2.5% Lactobacilli, the 2 nd with 1.5% lactose, the 3 rd with 2.5% Lactobacilli plus 1.5% lactose, while the 4 th subgroup was fed the basal diet only and served as control. The results showed decreased embryonic mortality and increased hatchability and hatching weight due to exposing quail eggs to low level of gamma radiation as compared to non-exposed eggs. The average body weight and the relative weights of carcass, testis and oviduct, egg production, egg weight, serum total protein, albumin, globulins, RBC, WBC and Hb values were increased significantly (P th week due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet. Significant reduction (P<0.05) in the intestinal wall index was observed due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet of hatched quails. In conclusion, adding Lactobacilli and/or lactose to the basal diet of hatched Japanese quails improved performance as well as blood constituents and intestinal wall index. The magnitude of this improvement was even greater when both supplements were combined. In addition, the exposure of eggs to low level of gamma radiation (50 rad) improved hatchability and hatching weight of Japanese quail eggs, but no relationship to dietary

  12. A brief review on the early distribution of pea (Pisum sativum L. in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea was a part of the everyday diet of the European hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. The major criteria to determine the domestication in pea are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed testa. Pea seeds were found among the earliest findings of cultivated crops at the site of Tell El-Kerkh, Syria, from 10th millennium BP. Along with cereals and lentil, pea has definitely become associated with the start of the 'agricultural revolution' in the Old World. Pea entered Europe in its southeast regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Its distribution was rapid, since the available evidence reveals its presence in remote places at similar periods. The linguistic evidence supports the fact that pea had been present in nearly all regions of Europe. Most of European peoples have their own words denoting pea, meaning that it preceded the diversification of their own proto-languages.

  13. Performance of fourteen improved pea lines (Pisum sativum L. in Challapata zone, Oruro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Benedicto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Challapata zone, cultivated pea varieties are low yielding and long cycle. The research objective was to determine the performance of fourteen pea lines developed by “Pairumani Fitoecogenetics Investigation Center” (CIFP in Challapata zone (Oruro. The 14 pea lines with local pea variety, were planted in row and column generalized experimental design with four replications in tree location randomly selection in Challapata zone (Oruro, between October 2011 and April 2012. The results indicate, that, in general, all the improved lines were superior in green pod yield to the local pea variety (3.69 t.ha-1, between 6.13 and 16.58 t.ha-1, (65.9 and 349.3% respectively. among the improved lines, Pea5_102-1, Pea5_102-6, Pea5_102-5, Pea5_102-2, Pea5_102-3 and Pea5_102-4, with high green pod yield (13.05 and 16.58 t.ha-1, large pod (8.49 to 9.25 cm, mayor number of grains for pod (5.27 to 7.20 grains and intermediate cycle (85 days to the floración, are the superior performance. The lines Pea5_102-14, Pea5_102-10 (Pairumani 3 and Pea5_102-13, because of their characteristics of high green pod yield, the longest pod, the mayor number of grains for pod, early maturity, preference and wide adaptability, and according to the farmer’s criteria, are the most recommend for their use in Challapata zone (Oruro.

  14. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  15. The rhizobium-pea symbiosis as affected by high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, J.F.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made concerning the effect of high temperatures on the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum and pea plants (Pisum sativum). At 30°C, no nodules were found on the roots of plants growing in nutrient solution after inoculation with

  16. Determination of mycoflora of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Mycoflora of pea seeds and the effectiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum on important seed-borne pathogens ... seed germination and promoted the plants growth under controlled and ..... 27. Table 3. Summary of fungal inoculation test. .... and lettuce by phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum.

  17. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth

  19. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de A.E.I.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during

  20. Bitterness of saponins and their content in dry peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.; Vincken, J.P.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Legger, A.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Roozen, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The bitterness of a saponin mixture (containing saponin B and DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in a ratio of 1:4) and saponin B obtained from dry peas were established by a trained panel using line scaling. Both saponins were found to be bitter. However, the saponin

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHAIN OF PEA VARIETIES FOR VEGQ ETABLE CANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Samarin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of seven pea varieties of different groups of ripening are described. These cultivars provide the sustainable row material input in canning factories of Krasnodar region. In bogharic agriculture it takes 24,26 days. When using the irrigation system and different time of sowing it takes 35,40 days.

  2. Symbiotic effectiveness of pea-rhizobia associations and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected strains were isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) plants in the Loess Plateau of China. Analyses focused on the nodule number, nodule dry weight, plant dry weight, nitrogenase activity, total N accumulation of per plant and seed yield.

  3. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.172 Canned dry...

  4. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  5. Breeding of a protein pea ideotype for Finnish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Hovinen

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of protein pea (Pisum sativum L. adapted to cultivation in Finnish conditions were specified. Ideotypes for pure and mixed stands were defined separately. Factors affecting seed yield, protein yield and protein content were determined. Efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation in the varieties was evaluated at two nitrogen application levels, 16 and 80 kg/ha. Selection methods for increasing protein content were discussed. The commercial varieties bred during the programme were presented. The effect of the gene af on different characteristics of the pea was the central object of the studies. The ideotype of peas for cultivation in Finland has to be of the afila-type. This concerns cultivation in both pure and mixed stands. Afila-peas gave seed yields and protein yields as high as the leafed ones. The lodging of afila-peas throughout the generative growth phase was less than that of the conventional leaf types. In mixed cropping the most suitable afila-peas generally formed almost completely unlodged stands together with cereals. The best seed yields were given by the varieties with a stem height of 61 to 94 cm. Due to competition, the corresponding height in mixed stands ranged from 80 to 100 cm. For the same reason, varieties to be used in mixed stands must possess a fairly large seed size and fast growth rate after emergence. The optimum flowering period lasted from 19 to 28 days. The varieties must be early, with a growing time from 91 to 101 days. Late varieties are not adapted to northern conditions, giving low yields and poor quality. The mean yield of the varieties was 4500 kg/ha in pure stands. The high nitrogen application level of 80 kg/ha did not increase pea yield in comparison with the 16 kg/ha level. In contrast, it enhanced the protein content by 1 % and the protein yield slightly. In mixed stands the mean total yield was 4700kg/ha. The hectare yields of crude protein reached levels of 990 and 900 kg

  6. Whole-Genome de novo Sequencing Of Quail And Grey Partridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Panitz, Frank; Burt, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The development in sequencing methods has made it possible to perform whole genome de novo sequencing of species without large commercial interests. Within the EU-financed QUANTOMICS project (KBBE-2A-222664), we have performed de novo sequencing of quail (Coturnix coturnix) and grey partridge...... (Perdix perdix) on a Genome Analyzer GAII (Illumina) using paired-end sequencing. The amount of generated sequences amounts to 8 to 9 Gb for each species. The analysis and assembly of the generated sequences is ongoing. Access to the whole genome sequence from these two species will enable enhanced...... comparative studies towards the chicken genome and will aid in identifying evolutionarily conserved sequences within the Galliformes. The obtained sequences from quail and partridge represent a beginning of generating the whole genome sequence for these species. The continuation of establishing the genome...

  7. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  8. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: new characteristic features and diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

  9. Tissue localization of DDT and PCB isomers (octa- and tetrachlorobiphenyl) in laying quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, I.; Hoegman, P.-G.; Larsson, Y.; Olsson, S.

    1978-01-01

    Whole-body autoradiography of DDT- 14 C, 2,2',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl- 14 C and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6'=octachlorobiphenyl- 14 C in laying quails indicated a strong deposition of radioactivity in the yolk of the growing follicles and the egg, confirming this to be a significant excretion route of lipophilic environmental pollutants in laying birds. A specific uptake of DDT and octachlorobiphenyl, but not of tetrachlorobiphenyl, was observed in the cortical cords of the adrenals. The octachlorobiphenyl was concentrated also in the ovarian stroma. Both DDT and the tetrachlorobiphenyl were excreted in the bile juice to the small intestine. No such excretion of octachlorobiphenyl was observed, indicating its rate of metabolization to be low. All compounds were accumulated and stored in the body fat. A previously described specific accumulation of 2,2',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in the respiratory tract of mice was not observed in the quail. (author)

  10. Classification of the coefficients of variation of parameters evaluated in Japanese quail experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHV Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a classification range of the coefficients of variation (CV of traits used in experiments with eggtype Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. The journal Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia was systematically reviewed, using the key word 'quail' during the period of January, 2000 to 2010. The CV of feed intake (g/bird/d, egg production (%/bird/d, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/d, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (g/dozen, feed conversion ratio per egg mass (g/g, and egg specific gravity (g/mL were collected. For each parameter, CV were classified using the following median (MD and pseudo-sigma (PS ratio as follows: low (CV MD + 2PS. According to the results, it was concluded that each parameter has a specific classification range that should be taken into account when evaluating experimental precision.

  11. Nutrient digestibility of vegetables waste flour on male quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Primadhani, M. S.; Swastike, W.; Sutrisno, J.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the nutrient digestibility of vegetables waste flour on of male quail. Four hundred male quails were divided into four groups with five replications. The experiment is Completely Randomized Design and the data were analyzed by analyses of variants. The experimental diets were P0 = basal diet, P1 = 97% basal diet + 3% vegetables waste flour, P2 = 94% basal diet + 6% vegetables waste flour, and P3 = 91% basal diet + 9% vegetables waste flour. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and extract ether. Result showed that of the addition of vegetable waste flour in the diet had no effect on crude protein digestibility (P>0.05), however shown significant effect on dry matter (P digestibility.

  12. Effect of Long-Term Hypodynamy on Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Small Intestine in Japanese Quail Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľ. Lenhardt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional development of the small intestine was investigated in Japanese quail chicks subjected to simulated microgravity (hypodynamy on the second day after hatching and reared under these conditions to 63 days of age. On days 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56 and 63 the activity of brush-border-bound alkaline phosphatase (AP in the duodenum and jejunum were determined in experimental animals as well as in control quail chicks housed in a floor box during these periods. As compared with control quails the experimental animals displayed a significantly increased enzyme activity until day 42 in the duodenum and day 35 in the jejunum (P < 0.001 whereas in older quails no significant enzymatic differences between these groups was found. However, a decrease in food consumption due to a partial physical constraint cannot be excluded. Moreover, the results suggested that the activity of AP in the control birds did not change substantially during all the periods examined. In contrast, in older hypodynamy quail the AP activity significantly decreased in the duodenum on days 56 and 63 and in the jejunum on days 42, 56 and 63, respectively. These results indicate that a the enhanced intestinal function in early periods of life may reflect the higher sensitivity of small intestine to simulated weightlessness, b the decrease of the AP activity in older animals to the level of controls might be considered as a part of intestinal mechanisms involved in adaptation of quail chicks to long-term hypodynamy, c different activity of AP in the small intestine of Japanese quail may not have resulted only from hypodynamy but also due to decreased food intake.

  13. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Ali, El-Shimaa M R; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Poultry production is considered one of the prospective opportunities to accomplish sustainable and quick production of superior protein to challenge the growing mandate for animal protein. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore the difference on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains. A total of 480 quail chicks of four different plumage colors (120 of each white, golden, gray and brown) were collected after hatching. At 6 week of age, birds were stunned and decapitated to determine the physical meat quality, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and amino acid profile. White quails had the highest weight of slaughter, carcass, dressing, carcass yield, liver, gizzard, heart and spleen (197.27 g, 169.27 g, 91%, 82%, 6.63 g, 6.53 g, 2.27 g and 0.40 g, respectively). Also, they had the highest Ph U , lightness, yellowness and water holding capacity with the lowest level of redness, cooking losses and thiobarbituric acid in pectoral (6.28, 46.40, 12,46, 22.17, 9.20, 19.21 and 0.44, respectively) and thigh muscles (6.37, 42.30, 11.51, 26.01, 10.12 and 0.93, respectively). Moreover, they possessed the highest level of all essential (11.68 and 10.16 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively) and non essential amino acids (13.27 and 12.54 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively). Therefore, the current study revealed that white quails had the heaviest body weight with the best carcass traits and meat quality.

  14. Nutritional requirements of digestible threonine for growing meat-type quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Ton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the nutrient requirements of digestible threonine for meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix sp in the growth phase. A total of 1350 not sexed meat-type quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with six threonine levels (10.80, 11.50, 12.20, 12.90, 13.60 and 14.30 g/kg as fed, five replications and 45 quails per experimental unit, from 1 to 14 days of age. The threonine levels in the diet had a quadratic effect on body weight, feed intake and weight gain. Estimates for highest body weight (79.41 g, feed intake (128.96 g/bird and weight gain (70.73 g were observed with diets containing 12.60 g/kg of digestible threonine. According to the LRP model, the threonine intake was estimated at 13.40 g/kg of digestible threonine. Protein deposition rate and energy retained in the carcass showed quadratic effect, with estimated digestible threonine levels of 11.80 and 12.00 g/kg in the diet for maximum protein deposition rate (2.00 g/bird and retained energy in the carcass (15.88 kcal/g, respectively. There was a linear effect on feed cost per kg of live weight gain as threonine levels were increased. Nutritional requirement of digestible threonine for meat-type quails for maximum growth is 12.60 g/kg, corresponding to a digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of 67.02.

  15. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  16. Reproductive performance of breeder quails fed diets supplemented with L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Farzinpour, A; Vaziry, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on reproductive performance in breeder quails. The five treatment diets consisted of (i) negative control diet not supplemented with iron, (ii) positive control diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg of Fe 3 O 4 and (iii) experimental diets supplemented with 0.6, 6 and 60 mg/kg of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A total of 100 seven-day-old quail chicks were weighed and randomly placed to five groups of five replicate cages. Four quails (one male and three females) were raised in each cage (50 × 15 × 17 cm). Egg production, feed consumption and egg weight were recorded daily and calculated on a hen per day basis. Egg components, fertility, hatchability and day-old chicks hatched from their eggs were measured at the end of the experiment. The percentage of egg production and egg mass of the 6 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group were significantly higher than those of the control groups. Throughout the experimental period, the highest weekly egg weight was recorded for the 60 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group. Fertility was improved by diet supplemented with iron, both FeSO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs. The breeder fed Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs had the highest day-old chicks weight. The results of this study showed that Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles that were coated by L-cysteine could improve availability and utilization of iron in diet. Finally, it was proposed that Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs could be used as feed additives in quails. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El-Barkouky, E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness

  18. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Taleb, A M; Ezzat, I E; El-Barkouky, E [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness.

  19. Shelf life of fresh air packaged and precooked vacuum packaged quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of 3 batches (Q1, Q2, Q3 of quail meat, were examined. Q1 were cut and seasoned with commercial olive oil, stoned green olive and sliced bacon. Q2 were divided into two subgroups: Q2.1 produced in the previously described conditions; Q2.2 seasoned also with rosemary. Quails were placed in lowdensity polystirene barrier trays and aerobically packaged. Q3 quails were boiled in salted hot water for 40 min, seasoned with myrtle leafs, placed in low density polyethylene bags and vacuum packaged. All samples were stored at +2 and +7°C. Analysis were conducted at 0, 3, 7, 9 and 14 days (T0, T3, T7, T9, and T14, respectively. For all the samples, pH measurement and microbial analysis [total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Lactobacillus spp. (LAB, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS, Enterococcus spp., yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes] were performed. Initial TVC levels of fresh quails (ca. 4 log CFU/g were rather high and this may be due to the microbial population of the raw material. In Q1 and Q2.1 samples, TVC reached the value of 7 log, which is considered as the upper acceptability limit for fresh poultry meat (after T9 under storage at +2°C and after T7 at +7°C. In Q2.2 samples such limit was reached earlier, after T3. In Q3 samples, lower TVC levels were recorded and did not reach the above mentioned limit, not even at the end of storage. However, mean counts >5 log were reached, maybe because of a post-cooking cross-contamination. Salmonella spp. prevalence was 33% in Q1, Q2.1 and Q2.2 samples.

  20. Identification of New World Quails Susceptible to Infection with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Hron, Tomáš; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Elleder, Daniel; Hejnar, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2017), č. článku e02002. ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30983S; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ALV-J * antiretroviral resistance * Na+/H+ exchanger * New World quail * retroviral receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 4.663, year: 2016

  1. The Effects of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Over the Egg Quality in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCAN, Mukaddes; ÇÖTELİOĞLU, Ülker

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on the egg quality in 5 week-female Japanese quails was investigated. Hyperthyroidsm and hypothyroidism were achieved by mixing 0.4 mg/100 g. levatrocsyn-sodium and % 0.2 g. propylthiouracil (PTU) in to the food during the 5 weeks period, respectively. It was found that egg weight, albumen weight, shell weight and shell thickness values in both trial groups reduced (P

  2. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dragalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%, confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  3. Cocaine induces state-dependent learning of sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Rice, Beth Ann; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current study investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using a sexual conditioning paradigm. Cocaine-induced state-dependent learning effects were investigated using a 2×2 factorial design with training state as one factor and test state as the other factor. During a 14-day training phase, male quail were injected once daily with 10mg/kg cocaine or saline and then placed in a test chamber after 15min. In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by sexual reinforcement. During the state dependent test, half of the birds received a shift in drug state from training to testing (Coc→Sal or Sal→Coc) while the other half remained in the same drug state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal). Results showed that male quail that were trained and tested in the same state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal) showed greater sexual conditioning than male quail that were trained and tested in different states (Sal→Coc) except when cocaine was administered chronically prior to the test (Coc→Sal). For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An alternative explanation for the findings is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of pea, pea hulls, faba beans and faba bean hulls on the ileal microbial composition in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Panneman, H.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Grain legumes produced in Europe such as pea, faba beans and lupins are alternative vegetable protein sources for imported soy protein in animal feeds. These legume seeds contain constituents that are not digested and may act as a substrate for microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract,

  5. Dopamine modulates male sexual behavior in Japanese quail in part via actions on noradrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, Charlotte A; Dejace, Christel; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2005-08-30

    In rats, dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior through its combined action on D1- and D2-like receptors, in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as well as other brain areas. In Japanese quail, systemic injections of dopaminergic drugs suggested a similar pharmacology but central injections have never been performed. Recent electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that DA effects in the MPOA of quail are mediated mainly through the activation of alpha2-noradrenergic receptors. Previous studies of DA action on behavior used specific dopaminergic agonists/antagonists and therefore unintentionally avoided the potential cross-reaction with alpha2-receptors. The present study was thus designed to investigate directly the effects of DA on male sexual behavior and to test whether the interaction of DA with heterologous receptors affects this behavior. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of DA or NE inhibited copulation in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic injections of yohimbine, an alpha2-noradrenergic antagonist, modulated copulation in a bimodal manner depending on the dose injected. Interestingly, a behaviorally ineffective dose of yohimbine markedly reduced the inhibitory effects of DA when injected 15min before. Together, these results show for the first time that i.c.v. injections of DA itself inhibit male sexual behavior in quail and suggest that the interaction of DA with alpha2-receptors has behavioral significance.

  6. Neuroanatomical localization of endocrine control of reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.T. III.

    1989-01-01

    Steroid autoradiography and systematic and intracranial steroid treatment were undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which are sufficient to activate steroid sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail. (1) Autoradiographic localization of steroid binding cells was performed on male and female quail brains using tritiated ( 3 H) testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The distributions of labelled cells in the quail brain following 3 H-T or 3 H-E2 injection and autoradiography were similar to one another. The distribution of labelled cells following 3 H-DHT autoradiography was limited in comparison to that following 3 H-T autoradiography. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in nucleus taeniae. (2) Intracranial implantation of minute pellets of testoterone propionate (TP) and estradiol benzoate (EB) was performed to determine neuroanatomical loci at which steroids activate sexual behavior. Both TP and EB implants in the preoptic area (POA) activated male copulatory behavior. (3) Systematic injection of aromatase inhibitor prior to and concurrent with implantation completely blocked copulatory behavior in males with TP implants in the POA but failed to block copulation in males with EB implants in the POA. (4) Intact males and castrated males given 5 dosages of systematic EB treatment were tested for sexual behavior, and blood samples from each group were assayed for E2 concentration. (5) Midbrain DHTP implants were activated crowing without significantly stimulating peripheral androgen-sensitive tissues, but the effect on crowing was not localized to any one nucleus

  7. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  8. Enhancement of parathion toxicity to quail by heat and cold exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Becker, J.M.; Nakatsugawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of ambient temperature on the acute oral toxicity of parathion were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) maintained at thermoneutral temperature (26.degree. C) or exposed to elevated (37.degree. C) or reduced (4.degree. C) temperatures commonly encountered by free-ranging wild birds. Based upon estimates of the median lethal dosage, there was up to a two-fold enhancement of parathion toxicity in birds chronically exposed to heat or cold. Twenty-four hours after administration of a low dosage (4 mg/kg body wt, po), there was markedly greater cholinesterase inhibition in surviving heat-exposed quail compared with those reared at 26.degree. C (e.g., brain acetylcholinesterase depression of 42% versus 12%). There were no differences in hepatic activities of parathion oxidase, paraoxonase, or paraoxon deethylase which could account for greater toxicity to chronically heat-exposed birds. In contrast, 4 mg parathion/kg wt elicited less plasma cholinesterase inhibition in cold-exposed quail compared to thermoneutral controls (e.g., birds is substantially influenced by environmental temperature.

  9. Effect of Increasing Yolk Testosterone Levels on Early Behaviour in Japanese Quail Hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okuliarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate effects of increased testosterone content in egg yolk on early behaviour of 1- and 2-day-old Japanese quail. Three different doses of testosterone (0.25; 2.5 and 25 ng, not exceeding a physiological range, were examined in three separate experiments. Testosterone propionate dissolved in 20 μl olive oil was injected into the yolk before the onset of incubation. Behaviour of newly hatched chicks was recorded in response to both a novel environment in the open-field test and manual restraining in the test of tonic immobility (TI. Behavioural consequences of embryonic exposure to elevated testosterone were observed in the open-field test in all three experiments which indicated inhibition of behavioural responses in hatchlings. Birds treated with testosterone in ovo displayed longer latency to leave the start square, decreased locomotor activity, enhanced defecation and lower number of distress calls as compared to control birds. In TI test, the influence of treatment was manifested at the highest concentration only. Hatchlings from testosterone treated eggs expressed longer duration of TI and required less attempts to induce TI in comparison with the control group. Our results demonstrated increased fearfulness of Japanese quail chicks hatched from eggs with experimentally elevated testosterone content. The effect is specific for a short period after hatching since previous studies reported stimulatory effect of yolk testosterone on behaviour of Japanese quail later in ontogeny.

  10. Metabolizable energy levels for meat quails from 15 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cunha Lima Muniz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietetic metabolizable energy levels on performance and carcass traits of meat quails from 15 to 35 days old. Five hundred sixty, 15-d old, meat quails were randomly assigned to five treatments (2.850; 2.950; 3.050; 3.150 e 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 of diet, with eight replicates and fourteen birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, protein and lysine intake and feed conversion decreased linearly as the metabolizable energy content of diets increased (P0.05 by the treatments. Diets did not influence (P>0.05 carcass traits as dry matter, moisture and protein content in carcass. However a quadratic effect (P<0.04 were observed on carcass fat content. Based on these results, the adequate metabolizable energy level to ensure better meat quails' growth is 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 diet, that corresponds to a metabolizable energy: crude protein ratio of 139,24.

  11. Effects of exposure to clothianidin on the reproductive system of male quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Junko; Danjo, Megumi; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Omotehara, Takuya; Tatsumi, Atsutoshi; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Sekijima, Tsuneo; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is a neonicotinoid developed in the 1990s as an insecticide having selective toxicity, but it was later found to cause reproductive abnormalities in rats through oxidative stress. There is an attempt to preserve endangered animals, including the Japanese crested ibis, in Japan. However, there is a concern that neonicotinoid affects the reproduction of this bird, since it is used in its habitat. CTD toxicity in the birds is poorly understood, so we investigated whether or not the daily oral administration of CTD has any deleterious effects on the reproductive functions of mature male quails as experimental animals. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 or 7 quails each, treated orally with 0, 0.02, 1 or 50 mg CTD/kg body weight (Control, CTD0.02, CTD1 and CTD50). After that the males bred with untreated females to estimate the egg weights, and rates of fertilization and normal development, the testes, liver and spleen were examined histologically. Vacuolization and the number of germ cells having fragmented DNA in seminiferous tubules, and the number and size of vacuoles in hepatocytes increased dose-dependently. There were no significant differences in egg weights and fertilization rates between the groups, but some eggs of the CTD1 and CTD50 groups failed to develop, and embryonic length decreased dose-dependently. Thus, it was found that CTD affected the reproduction of the male quail through the fragmentation of germ cells and the inhibition or delay of embryonic development.

  12. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet ± 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  13. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ABU TALEB, A M [Biological Applications Dept., Radioisotope Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Abou-Zaable, Inshas (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet {+-} 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  14. Egg shell quality in Japanese quail: characteristics, heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinc, D; Aygun, A; Karaman, E; Aksoy, T

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell ratio, egg shell strength, egg length, egg width and shell weight in Japanese quail eggs. External egg quality traits were measured on 5864 eggs of 934 female quails from a dam line selected for two generations. Within the Bayesian framework, using Gibbs Sampling algorithm, a multivariate animal model was applied to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for external egg quality traits. The heritability estimates for external egg quality traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.81. The heritability estimates for egg and shell weight of 0.81 and 0.76 were fairly high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between egg shell strength with specific gravity, shell ratio and shell weight ranging from 0.55 to 0.79 were relatively high. It can be concluded that it is possible to determine egg shell quality using the egg specific gravity values utilizing its high heritability and fairly high positive correlation with most of the egg shell quality traits. As a result, egg specific gravity may be the choice of selection criterion rather than other external egg traits for genetic improvement of egg shell quality in Japanese quails.

  15. Sex Determination of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica using with Zoometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Çiçek Rathert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of sex determination in most poultry species causes significant financial losses for poultry production as birds cannot be separated at early stages of growth for meat or egg production. Therefore it is important to determine bird’s sex with zoometric parameters. This study was carried out to determine the sex of Japanese quails with zoometric measurements, such as live weight, body length, chest depth and chest width. Eighty-eight male and female Japanese quail chicks were used individually for live weight, chest depth (mm, chest width (mm and body length (mm with using digital scaled balance and caliper for every week over a period of six weeks. The weekly collected data were applied to t test for estimating the sex discrimination. The Pearson’s correlation was applied for examining the interrelationship between sex and biometric traits. The results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between live weight and body length beginning with the 2nd week. Therefore, zoometric measurement of these body traits is suitable for discriminating the sex of Japanese quails in early phase of life.

  16. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

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    Graciene Conceição Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, egg quality, total solids and nitrogen in the excreta. There was a linear increase only for isoleucine intake with increasing levels of isoleucine in the diets. The comparison of mean values of each combination of isoleucine levels for diets with 16% CP with the control with 20% CP showed that the intake of CP and isoleucine, egg weight, nitrogen excretion and yolk color were significantly affected. For Japanese quail fed diets with 16% CP, with isoleucine level at 0.672%, meets the requirements for obtaining satisfactory performance and egg quality and promoted a reduction in nitrogen excretion.

  17. Vitamin K supplementation for meat quail in growth of 1 to 14 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Espejo Stanquevis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried outto determine the levels of vitamin K for meat quails (Coturnixcoturnixsp from 1 to 14 days of age. Atotal of 2200 birds were used, complete by random experimental design, with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions and 55 meat quails per experimental unit. The levels of vitamin K supplementation were 0; 0.7; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 1.9; 2.2; 2.5 mg/kg diets. The performance was measured through weighing weekly from the birds and feed, and at the end of the experiment was carried out collects blood and bones for the assessment of bone quality parameters. The levels of vitamin K supplementation had no influence on performance orbone quality, except thatthe bone density and calcium concentration of the femur and the bone density of the tibia showeda quadratic effect, with estimates of 0.98; 0.92 and 1.18 respectively. The length of the tibia showed a linear increase according to the levels of vitamin K. There was no effect in the concentration of serum calcium, but there was a quadratic effect in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase. The vitamin K supplementation did not affect the performance of the meat quails from 1 to 14 days of age, showing that the amount of vitamin K present in ground corn and soybean meal-based diets is sufficient to meet the needs of the birds’ performance.

  18. Uses of irradiation or sodium tripolyphosphate for shelf-life extension of quail carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Khalaf, H.H.; Afifi, E.A.; Nasr, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    this investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma iraadiation or sodium tripolyphoshate (STPP) for increasing shelf-life of quail carcasses during cold storage. The quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 4, 6 and 8 kGy or soaked in 3% STPP. The effect of these treatments on the organoleptic, microbiological aspects and chemical properties of samples under investigation were evaluated during cold storage (4± 1C degree). The results indicated that, the chemical compositions of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation or soaking in STPP. Futhermore, treatment had no deterious effects on the organoleptic properties of quail samples. Meanwhile, irradiation of samples at doses of 4, 6 and 8 kGy or soaking in STPP greatly reduced its microbial count and prolonged the shelf-life for 15,21,24 and 9 days at 4 ± 1 Cdegree in comparison with 6 days for control samples. Moreover, the acid value (A.V), peroxide value (P.V) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value were increased after irradiation, while total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content had no real change by this treatment. On the other hand, soakking in STPP treatment decreased these values and gradual increases were observed during cold storage

  19. Dietary cadmium and enteropathy in the Japanese quail: histochemical and ultrastructural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.E.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium was fed to young Japanese quail, at a level of 75 mg. per kg. of diet, from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Cadmium produced gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions in the proximal small intestine of these quail, similar to those occurring in human malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, nontropical sprue, and tropical sprue. The small intestines of the quail were dilated and thin walled. Villi were short and thick and had a dense cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria. The striated border was thin but stained for neutral mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal border. Some villi were covered with stratified epithelial cells. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet were seen, but the mucin stained for weakly acidic mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal cells. At the ultrastructural level, microvilli of both absorptive and goblet cells were markedly shortened, particularly near the tips of the villi. Absorptive cells were atrophic, and there was s diminution of the usual cellular organelles. Granular cisternae were long and tortuous, mitochondria were dense and small, and large lysosome-like bodies and large lipid droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm, but there was a decrease in the normal small, pale and dark lipid droplets. The cellular infiltrate of the lamina propria included groups of plasma cells with dilated cisternae. There were large, irregular, electron-dense bodies in the endothelium of large veins and degeneration of some nerve plexuses in the muscularis propria. 31 references, 21 figures.

  20. Improving the microbial safety and quality of quail carcasses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Khalaf, H.H.; Afifi, E.A.; Nasr, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for improving the microbial safety quality of quail carcasses. One hundred quail carcasses were examined for the presence of salmonella. The examination illustrated that 70 carcasses from all examined carcasses were positive for salmonella. therefore, the contaminated quail carcasses were gamma irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy doses and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and chemical properties of samples under investigation were evaluated. The results indicated that, the chemical composition of samples did not alter by gamma irradiation treatment. Furthermore, irradiation of samples at doses of 2, 4 and kGy greatly reduced its microbial count. Moreover, irradiation doses of 2 and 4 kGy completely destroyed salmonella and enterococcus faecalis, respectively. In addition, the acid value, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value were increased after irradiation. On the other hand, irradiation treatment had no real effects on the total volatile basic nitrogen content and amino acid composition of samples under investigation

  1. Ovarian radiographic and direct measurements of Japanese Quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica submitted to light restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Often, in pet birds, any stimulus to lay eggs is unwanted in order to reduce reproductive diseases and disorders. The objectives of this study were: to determine the time necessary to promote ovary involution after an eight hour photoperiod using laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica; to connect the ovarian radiographic measurements with egg production; and to compare these measurements with direct ovary data obtained at necropsy. Birds were separated into three groups: 12h/24d (control group - 12h photoperiod for 24 days, 8h/24d and 8h/36d (8h photoperiod for 24 and 36 days. After euthanasia, all cadavers were x-rayed to measure ovary length and height. Birds were necropsied to measure ovarian length and weight. Results: radiographic ovary length demonstrated strong and positive correlation (r=0.96 with direct ovary length of all three groups; laying quails showed higher ovary height (p=0.025 and length (p=0.009 than non-laying quails; eight hours of artificial light per day promotes ovary length (p=0.025 and weight (p=0.009 reduction. Conclusions: radiography can estimate the ovary measure and indicate posture; an eight hour photoperiod of 24 days is not enough to promote ovarian regression, while the use of reduced photoperiod for 36 days promotes significant ovary involution.

  2. Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, S.A.; Anjum, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intercropping with legumes makes effective use of land and other resources and results in reduced cost of production. Increased agricultural production through intercropping with minimal cost is need of time to feed increasing population. The reported work evaluates the biological efficiencies and economics of pea, garlic, turnip and cauliflower grown as sole crops and when pea intercropped in garlic, turnip and cauliflower during 2010-12. All the vegetables generally yielded more when grown as single crop compared with when pea was intercropped in these vegetables. In peas in garlic intercropping, pea yield was not significantly affected; however, garlic yield was significantly reduced (65.8%). Pea intercropping in turnip or cauliflower resulted in significantly lower yields of both crops (29.1 and 28.0%, respectively) as compared with their sole cropping. All other characteristics (plant growth and yield components) of all the four crops which indicate biological efficiency generally were greater when grown as single crops and decreased in intercropping combinations. Analysis of intercropping treatments revealed that pea intercropping in turnip resulted in the highest marginal rate of return (8,875%), followed by pea intercropping in cauliflower (6,977%), due to lower input costs incurred per hectare. However, net benefit to the growers was higher (Rs. 327,925) in case of pea intercropping in cauliflower, followed by pea intercropping in garlic (Rs. 213,425). (author)

  3. The influence of a probiotic supplementation on memory in quail suggests a role of gut microbiota on cognitive abilities in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parois, Severine; Calandreau, Ludovic; Kraimi, Narjis; Gabriel, Irène; Leterrier, Christine

    2017-07-28

    The gut microbiota is involved in host behaviour and memory in mammals. Consequently, it may also influence emotional behaviour and memory in birds. Quail from two genetic lines with different fearfulness (LTI: long tonic immobility, n=37; STI: short tonic immobility, n=32) were either or not supplemented with a probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) from hatching. Emotional reactivity was measured in a tonic immobility test (d6 and 7 of age) and two open-field tests (d13-15; d22-24). Memory was measured in a test rewarded with mealworms, where quail had to remember the cups previously visited (d34-36). Quail endured a 5-days stress period from days 17 to 21 to help revealing the potentially beneficial effect of the probiotic. As expected, STI quail were less fearful compared to the LTI quail (p0.05), except in the tonic immobility test where supplemented STI quail had lower immobility duration (p=0.0001). Regarding the memory test, the two lines had similar performances. Quail fed with probiotics made fewer errors (p=0.040). There was no significant correlation between traits of emotional reactivity and of memory. In conclusion, the supplementation with Pediococcus acidilactici as a probiotic, affected a specific trait of emotional reactivity in STI quail, and improved memory in both lines, whichstrengthens the idea that the influence of gut microbiota on the host behaviour and memory seen in mammals is shared by birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The positive expression of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (Malaysian isolate in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizma Felisha Mazlan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV is the most predominant NDV strains that circulating in Malaysia; thus, this study was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Japanese quails toward genotype VII NDV. Clinical signs, gross pathological lesions of organs, positive detection of virus in organs and cloacal swabs, as well as the expression of the antibody titer, were used as parameters to assess the susceptibility of Japanese quails following infection of genotype VII NDV. Materials and Methods: About 20 quails were divided into three groups (n=8 for Groups A and B; n=4 for the control group. The quails in the Groups A and B were infected via intraocular route with 0.03 ml of 103.5 ELD50 and 107.0 ELD50 of NDV strain IBS 002, respectively, while the control group received 1x phosphate-buffered saline. Cloacal swabs and necropsy were taken on day 7 post-infection for all quails were subjected to one-step reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR for detection of virus and examination for gross pathological lesion, respectively. Blood serums of infected quails were taken on day 10, 14, and 21 post-day infections and were subjected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. Results: Depression and ruffled feathers, trachea rales, leg paralysis, and torticollis were shown in some of the quails in both infected groups. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in clinical signs between the infected groups. The results for RT-qPCR were found to be negative for all groups, and no gross pathological lesions of organs observed for quails in both infected groups. Trachea, proventriculus, and cecal tonsil were taken for the detection of NDV by RT-qPCR, and some of the organ samples showed positive detection of virus in both infected groups. HI assay showed an increase in mean titers of antibody across time and between infected groups. Conclusion: In summary, Japanese quails

  5. Effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on anti-nutritional factors, protein denaturation and functional properties in raw pea and pea protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of hot aqueous ethanol treatment on several nutritionally relevant mainly protein-related parameters in raw peas (var. Solara) and ultra-filtrated pea protein isolate was examined. Of all test samples, water absorptive capacity (WAC), weight loss and protein loss owing to the processing

  6. Photosynthetic alterations of pea leaves infected systemically by pea enation mosaic virus: A coordinated decrease in efficiencies of CO(2) assimilation and photosystem II photochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyseláková, H.; Prokopová, J.; Nauš, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2011), s. 1279-1289 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * Pea enation mosaic virus * Pea * Photosynthesis * Photosystem II * Senescence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2011

  7. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD]- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old. Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05 of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP/kg VPD and 2 g (SP/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.

  8. Utilization of Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr meal and extract as ration substitution to produce low chollesterol Japanese Quail product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Subekti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr is known to contain carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, protein and phytosterol compound. This study was aimed to determine the ability of phytosterols in Sauropus androgynus (SA leaf to obtain poultry product that has low cholesterol content. One hundred fifty female quails were raised from 2-27 weeks old, divided into three treatment diets, five replicates with 10 quails in each replicate. The treatment diets were: 1 Control group: diet without katuk leaf meal; 2 Diet with 9% SA ethanol 70% extract (SAE; 3 Diet containing 9% SA meal (SAM. Kolesterols were determined with CHOD-PAP-Method by Human, there is enzymatic Colorimetric Test for Cholesterol with Lipid Clearing Factor. The result showed that total cholesterol in the egg yolk, carcass and liver of SAE and SAM treated quails were lower (P<0.05 than that of the control-treated quails, except the cholesterol content in the serum. These findings indicated that the cholesterol concentration of female quails was decreased due to phytosterol content in katuk leaf.

  9. [Quantitative changes in the ultrastructure of myocardial cells in Japanese quail during hypergravity, hypodynamia and space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bózner, A; Boda, K; Dostál, J; Matĕjková, Z; Devecka, V

    1993-03-01

    The experimental work aimed at the quantitative ultrastructure of the myocardial cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica during hypergravitation, hypodynamism and space flight in a Soviet satellite. For the determination of quantitative changes of the myocardial ultrastructure a morphometrical method was used with parameters like the number of mitochondria, average mitochondrial size, relative mitochondrial volume, deficiency of cristae and relative volume of myofibrils. The quails were observed in 3 groups. The absolute control consisted of quails living in normal Earth conditions, in the laboratory group the quails were exposed to conditions of hypergravitation and hypodynamism in a specially constructed centrifuge, and in the flying group the quails were exposed to space flight in a Soviet orbital station MIR. In the group of absolute controls no pathological changes of the myocardial ultrastructure were found. In the flying group there were no significant changes, with the exception of decreased relative volume of myofibrils, which however agrees with the findings on symptoms corresponding to human and animal heart weakness during space flights. In the laboratory group, pathological changes were observed in each of the fractions. The most significant pathological findings were found in the group controls in the center and in hypergravitation combined with hypodynamism. It can be concluded that the laboratories can simulate conditions induced by the start and flight of space ships. (Fig. 2, Ref, 8.)

  10. Effect of feed supplement containing earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) on production performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, L.; Sakti, A. A.; Suryani, A. E.; Karimy, M. F.; Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed supplement (FS) contained earthworm meal (EWM) on production performance of laying quails. Twenty weeks-old of 360 Coturnix coturnix japonica quails were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three dietary treatments A = CD (control without FS), B = CD + 0.250 % of FS, and C = CD + 0.375 % of FS during 6 weeks of experimental period. Each treatment in 4 equal replicates in which 30 quails were randomly allocated into 12 units of cages. Variable measured were feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, mortality rate, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity. Data were statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA and the differences among mean treatments are analysed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that administration of 0.375% FS based on earthworm meal, fermented rice bran, and skim milk impaired the feed conversion ratio and increased the feed efficiency. The experimental treatments did not effect on feed intake, mortality, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity of quail. It is concluded that administration of feed supplement improved the growth performance of quail.

  11. The effect of organic quail egg supplementation on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus Norvegicus L.) during the lactation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    lestari purba, Sri; Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Isdadiyanto, Sri

    2018-05-01

    Background: Quail eggs contain a considerable amount of complete nutritional sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and micronutrients. However, they also have a high cholesterol level, which can potentially cause atherosclerosis and chronic heart diseases. The response of the body to foods containing is influenced by factors such as ethnicity, genetics, and hormonal and nutrient status of the consumer. The cholesterol level of quail eggs can be reduced by manipulating the feed using supplemental organic feed. Organic quail eggs have been believed to correct the lipid profile of white mice during the lactation phase. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of feed containing organic quail eggs on the blood lipid profile of white mice (Rattus norvegicus L.) during the lactation phase. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using a completely randomized design with four experiments and five repetitions. Experimental mice: T0 mice were used as control; T1 mice were supplemented with quail eggs produced by quails that were fed with standard feed; T2 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with standard organic feed; and T3 mice were supplemented with eggs produced by quails fed with organic feed with the addition of cassava leaf flour, mackerel flour, and turmeric powder. Quail egg supplementation was administered to the mice from the early pregnancy period till the end of the lactation phase. The acquired data were analyzed using ANOVA. SPSS version 16.0 software for Windows was used for data analyses. Results and summary: Feeding the white mice with different compositions of organic quail egg supplements had no effect on the consumption of feed and water, body weight, and lipid profile (including total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride) during the lactation phase (P > 0.05).

  12. Evaluation of Pigeon Pea Lines for Biological Soil Decompaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Godoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil decompaction is generally achieved through mechanical cultivation practices; however biological processes can significantly add to this process through root growth, development, and later senescence. This study was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and had the purpose of selecting, among forty one pure pigeon pea lines, the most efficient genotypes that promote soil decompaction by roots penetrating compacted soil layers. Utilizing artificially compacted 30 mm high soil blocks, in a series of experiments, these lines were compared to the cultivar Fava Larga taken as a standard. Three lines were preliminarily selected out of the initial group, and afterwards, in more detailed screenings by monitoring soil resistance to penetration and also evaluating the behavior of Tanzania grass plants seeded after pigeon pea, two of them, g5-94 and g8-95, were selected as possessing the most fit root system to penetrate compacted soil layers.

  13. PIGEON PEA (Cajanus cajan AN ALTERNATIVE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Navarro V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.

  14. Achievements of nuclear applications in chick-pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharwal, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Due to narrow and limited genetic variability available in chick-pea, this crop is ideally suited for genetic improvement through mutation breeding. Thus, the use of nuclear tools for regenerating some of the lost useful variability in this crop particularly for an improved plant type of increased yield and disease resistance appears to offer greater scope and promise. Practical results already achieved through the use of nuclear tools which fulfill these expectations to a large extent are confirmed by the extensive studies on mutation breeding in chick-pea crop carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan and at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

  15. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of 3 H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action

  16. Uptake and distribution of 232U in peas and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of 232 U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for 232 U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of 232 U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10 -4 while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10 -3 . The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10 -4 , 3.3 x 10 -3 and 1.7 x 10 -2 , respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man. (author)

  17. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment and natu...... with lower soil N levels, and vice versa for wheat, paving way for future option to reduce N inputs and negative environmental impacts of agricultural crop production......., grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  18. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  19. Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Adenekan, Monilola K.; Fadimu, Gbemisola J.; Odunmbaku, Lukumon A.; Oke, Emmanuel K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water‐extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%...

  20. COMPARATIVE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THYMUS WITH REFERENCE TO ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN QUAIL, CHICKEN AND DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative histomorphological study was conducted on thymus of broiler chicken, duck and quail. The thymus of all three species of post-hatch (adult birds showed a thin connective tissue capsule. However, fine septa originating from the capsule divided the organ into incomplete but distinct lobules in chicken, whereas lobules were ill defined in both quail and duck. Each lobule, in turn, was composed of a peripheral cortex, densely studded with lymphocytes and a central medulla that was enriched with epithelial reticular cells. So, the cortex appeared more basophilic than that of medulla. But the concentration of lymphocyte, an immune competent cell was highest in chicken followed by duck and quail. Hassall’s corpuscles like structures were found inside the medulla as pale stained diffuse body. General histo-architecture was almost similar in all the birds.

  1. Obtaining of interspecific hybrids for pea introgressive breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vasilevich Bobkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overcoming of reproductive isolation, identification and transfer of agronomic value genes from wild relatives into cultivated pea genomes is an important task for pea introgressive breeding. Materials and methods. Reciprocal hybridization of cultivated pea with wide set of P. fulvum accessions was conducted. Identification of hybrids was carried out with use of biochemical and morphological markers. Identification of unique protein was conducted with use of electrophoretic spectra of mature seeds. Results. Pea interspecific hybrids were obtained in two reciprocal directions of crosses. Cross efficiency in Р. sativum × P. fulvum and P. fulvum × Р. sativum combinations was 36 % and 7 %, respectively. All tested seeds in crosses Р. sativum × P. fulvum were hybrids. Crosses in direction P. fulvum × Р. sativum led to formation of puny seeds restricted in embryo growth. Protein markers of one seed derived in cross P. fulvum × Р. sativum proved its hybrid nature. Morphological markers demonstrated that plant derived from another cross was also a hybrid. Culture of immature embryos was developed for recovering plants in interspecific crosses. Morphogenic calli and regenerated plants were obtained in culture of immature embryos P. fulvum (И592589 × Р. sativum (Aest. Identification of unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was conducted. Inheritance of that protein was proved as monogenic dominant. Conclusion. Efficiency of hybridization in combination P. fulvum × Р. sativum was significantly less in compare to reciprocal one. All products of that cross combination were tested as hybrids. Unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was revealed as a result of mature seed electrophoretic spectra analysis. Inheritance of that protein was determined as monogenic dominant.

  2. Investigation of pea seeds treated by 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepold, J.; Soos, T.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of pea seeds were treated by 137 Cs. Radiation doses of 10 and 15 gray, resp. were applied at a dose rate of 480 gray per hour. Both the rate of sprouting and the number of plants per m 2 of the irradiated seeds exceeded the corresponding parameters of the control. The total quantity of the crop and its content of protein and water were higher, too. (L.E.)

  3. Eesti ei pea ümberasujatele midagi tagastama / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Omandireformi aluste seaduse 7 paragrahvi lõikest 3 ja varade tagastamisest nn. järelümberasunutele. Sama ka Meie Maa 12. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 2. veeb. 2006, lk. 11 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15 ; Pärnu Postimees 9. veeb. 2006, lk. 15, pealkiri kujul : Ümberasujatele ei pea midagi tagastama

  4. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. OPPORTUNITIES TO USE PEA - WHEAT MIXES IN ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigori Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presented the results of productivity and quality of the green mass of pea-wheat mixes grown in conditions of organic farming. Are explored 5 wheat varieties - Sadovo 1, Geia 1, Guinness, Farmer, Liusil and 4 varieties of winter peas -Mir, Vesela, №11, L12AB, at different ratio between them - 50:50 and 30:70%. The selection of varieties is made based on previous studies of their complex characteristics – ripening, yield, chemistry (Angelova S., T.Georgieva, M.Sabeva, 2011. Setting up and raising the experimental mixture of seeds has been made in a medium free of organic and mineral fertilizers. We have studied the changes in green mass yield and the biochemistry of surface biomass. The cultivation of pea–wheat mixtures under conditions of organic farming leads to increased yields of green mass in comparison with the self-seeding of wheat and peas. According to the results obtained at early ripening and the highest crude protein content average of three years is the mixture Sadovo1–Mir 30:70%. The most productive is the mixture Sadovo1-Mir 50-50%.

  6. Selenium and phosphorus interaction in pea (pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra; Bhandari, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of selenium and phosphorus on the dry matter yield and concentration and uptake of phosphorus, sulfur and selenium was studied in pea (Pisum sativnum) var. T 163. The fertilizer was tagged with P 32 . It was observed that increased concentration of applied selenium in soil decreased the dry matter yield and increased the concentration and uptake of total P, soil P and selenium in pea plants. Increased concentration of P alone increased dry matter yield, concentration and uptake of total, soil and fertilizer P and selenium which was beyond safe limits, and decreased concentration and uptake of sulphur. Selenium and phosphorus showed strong synergetic relationship by increasing the concentration of each other in plants while both showed antagonistic effect on the concentration of sulphur. Phosphorus compensated the toxic effect of selenium and improved the growth and dry matter yield of pea plants. The highest selenium concentration of 22.4 ppm was observed in 100 ppm phosphorus with 5 ppm selenium treated pots while lowest (0.10 ppm) in control. (author)

  7. Performance of Garden Pea Genotypes in Eastern Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Poudel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Garden pea (Pisum sativum L is an important winter legume used as fresh vegetables and other drier food products. Despite of its importance as cash crop in many parts of Nepal, much study on various aspects for enhancing production and productivity has yet to be done. Therefore, to evaluate the production performance different genotypes of garden pea in eastern hills agro-ecological conditions present experiments were carried out consecutively for two years (2015 and 2016 at Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas. The experiment comprised of 11 different genotypes of garden pea including a check variety Arkel. The production performance was evaluated in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The seeds were sown at 50 × 10 cm spacing during first week of October for two years. The result showed that DGP-05 genotype had earliest 104 days after sowing. The DGP-08 genotype showed 13 which were the maximum numbers of pods per plant (13, while DGP-01 showed 8 numbers of seeds as the maximum per pod. The DGP-03 genotype had the longest pod of 9.78 cm among others. The highest fresh pod yield of 18.14 t/ha was achieved from genotype DGP-09 followed by Arkel with (16.32 t/ha.

  8. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Addition of sucralose enhances the release of satiety hormones in combination with pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Troost, Freddy J; Saris, Wim H M

    2012-03-01

    Exposing the intestine to proteins or tastants, particularly sweet, affects satiety hormone release. There are indications that each sweetener has different effects on this release, and that combining sweeteners with other nutrients might exert synergistic effects on hormone release. STC-1 cells were incubated with acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharine, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. After a 2-h incubation period, cholecystokinin(CCK) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured. Using Ussing chamber technology, the mucosal side of human duodenal biopsies was exposed to sucrose, sucralose, pea, and pea with each sweetener. CCK and GLP-1 levels were measured in basolateral secretions. In STC-1 cells, exposure to aspartame, sucralose, sucrose, pea, and pea with sucralose increased CCK levels, whereas GLP-1 levels increased after addition of all test products. Addition of sucrose and sucralose to human duodenal biopsies did not affect CCK and GLP-1 release; addition of pea stimulated CCK and GLP-1 secretion. Combining pea with sucrose and sucralose induced even higher levels of CCK and GLP-1. Synchronous addition of pea and sucralose to enteroendocrine cells induced higher levels of CCK and GLP-1 than addition of each compound alone. This study shows that combinations of dietary compounds synergize to enhance satiety hormone release. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum sub-proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nicole Meisrimler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L. has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula G. allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins. Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed.

  11. The effect of Normast (PEA) in neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Sven Robert; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neuropathic pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury represent significant problems. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid that is produced in many cells in the body, and it is thought to potentiate the body's own cannabis-like substances (endocannabinoids). PEA is suggested...... to reduce pain and inflammation but randomized controlled trials are lacking. Normast is a medical supplement which contains (PEA) approved for use in Denmark. The primary aim is to investigate the effect of Normast (PEA) on neuropathic pain, and secondary to study the effect of Normast on spasticity...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in the commercial turkey, quail flocks and domestic pigeons by bacteriological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize the ORT from domestic turkeys, quails and pigeons. For this purpose, 250 samples from each bird species (turkey, quail and pigeon with or without respiratory signs were tested by taking of tracheal swabs. In addition, respiratory tissue samples (tracheal and lung, from 250 slaughtered turkeys, 50 slaughtered quails and 100dead pigeons were also subjected to culture for ORT as tracheal swabs. Respiratory tissues were also tested for bacterial DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In general, 30 isolates including 4 isolates from turkeys, 3 isolates from quails and 23 isolates from pigeons were identified as ORT by bacteriologicalmethod and then confirmed by PCR. Bacterial DNA was detected in 20%, 50% and 35% of respiratory tissues in turkeys, quails and pigeons respectively. Five ORT isolates from pigeon and all four isolates from turkey showed smaller colony size, while other isolates had larger colonies when cultured in blood agar. Fifty percent of the isolates with larger colony but none of the isolates with small colony size could agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs. All of the isolates were sensitive to danofloxacin and chloramphenicolwhile more than 90% of pigeon isolates were resistant to ampicillin. All of turkey and quail and 30% of pigeon isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98%- 100% insequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GeneBank.

  13. Experimental Assessment of the Pathogenicity of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Subtype in Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asasi, K.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza A viruses are endemic in poultry of many Eurasian countries and have caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. It has been also reported that H9N2 can cause high mortality in commercial broiler farms in Iran previously. However there was no report of H9N2 outbreak in any other species. In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of H9N2 virus in Japanese quail, 145 Japanese quail were randomly divided into 5 separate groups (116 quails in the treatment and 29 quails in the control groups. The experimental groups infected via oral rout, eye drop, intramuscular injection and spray method at the age of 32 days with 106.5 EID50/bird. The virus A/chicken/Iran/ZMT-101/98(H9N2 was kindly provided obtained from Razi vaccine& serum institute with EID50=108. The blood samples were experimented the day before use to show freedom from antibodies to influenza A and more specifically, the H9 subtype. The clinical signs and antibody titer of the infected chicks were also monitored. Five birds of each group were bled at 10 and 20 days post infection (DPI, and 20 birds of each group at 30 DPI were bled. The immune response to infection was measured by Haemmaglutination Inhibition (HI test using the H9N2 virus as antigen. Feed & water consumption were recorded on daily bases before and after inoculation. Body weight of each group was also recorded on weekly bases before and after inoculation. During the current study clinical signs such as sneezing, gasping, depression observed in challenged groups followed by decreasing in laying (1-17%. High HI antibody titers of AIV subtype H9 was seen in 10 DPI. The quails exhibited no decrease in food and water consumption and all quails were growing well and did not show any abnormality.

  14. Effects of selection for yolk cholesterol on growth and meat quality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bednarczyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Descendants ( of S18 generation of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, selected for low (line 11, n=15 or for high (line 12, n=6 yolk cholesterol content were used for this experiment. The high (12 and low (11 lines were developed from a control egg type (line13 wild color plumage stock 07, from Poultry Breeding Station in Ivanka at Danube (Slovakia that was maintained without conscious selection. The results of selected lines were compared to this one from unselected lines, egg type (line 13, n=15 and meat type (line 8, n=15, to study productive performance (growth and carcass weight as well as meat quality traits (intramuscular collagen properties, fatty and cholesterol content. The birds were grown up to 35 days of age. Quails were fed ad libitum with commercial diets according to their ages. Animals had free access to water during the experiment. The body weight of the quails was controlled every week (from week 1 to 5. At the slaughter (at avg. weight of 104.0, 107.7, 110.6 g vs 209.3 g for lines 11, 12, 13 vs 8, respectively; P<0.05 the hot carcass weight was recorded and dressing percentage was calculated. Pectoralis superficialis muscles were removed from the carcasses to assess intramuscular collagen (IMC properties (collagen and crosslink concentrations, intramuscular lipid and cholesterol contents. Growth and slaughter performance, intramuscular fat percentage and IMC properties of Pectoralis superficialis were not different between the birds selected for low (line 11 and high (line 12 yolk cholesterol content and were also found to be similar between the quails of egg type and those selected for yolk cholesterol content (lines 11 and 12. Compared to the birds of egg type line and those selected for yolk cholesterol content, the quails of meat type had higher growth and carcass traits (P<0.05, while meat quality traits were found to be similar. The meat of the quails selected for low cholesterol in the egg yolk (line 11

  15. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), with reference to other galliform species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) as a representative of the avian order Galliformes. The heads, bodies, wings, and pelvic limbs of four adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal anatomy of these regions. A xeroradiograph of the tarsometatarsus of the domestic peacock (Pavo cristatus) was also included to demonstrate the metatarsal spur, which is not present in the quail

  16. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  17. A Review on Some Parameters of Environment in Youth Intensive Raising of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ioniţă

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-art of scientific research on some environmentalparameters recommended by the literature in the intensive raising of young quails. As a result ofthe research it can be said that the temperature in the raising area of the young Japanese quailvaries between 35 º - 37.8 º C in the first week of life, after which it decreases by 3-4 ° C / week.The relative humidity in the shelter of young quails in the first week of raising must bemaintained at 80% (made with trays of water; then it should decrease at the value of 70%. Lightregime recommended for intensive young quails raising can be 24 hours light per day to 42 daysor can choose a program of light of 24 hours a day during the first 7 days of life, after which itcan be reducde up to 16 hours a day until the age of 42 days. Light intensity should be between20 lux and 45 lux for the first 7 days of life of the youth, then can be reduced by 20 to 5 lux untilthe age of 41 days. Density per area unit in the house is of 150 chicken / sqm (for ground riasing,reaching the age of 6 weeks at a density of 100 chicks / sqm or 250 chicken / sqm cage (in thecase of youth raising in batteries The number of chickens decreases to 250 for 1.5 sqm of cagearea in the second week of life and 250 chicken for 2 sqm cage area in the third week.

  18. Genetic analysis of partial egg production records in Japanese quail using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; Farahat, G S; Emam, A M; El-Full, E A

    2017-08-01

    The main objectives of this study were to detect the most appropriate random regression model (RRM) to fit the data of monthly egg production in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail and to test the consistency of different criteria of model choice. Data from 1,200 female Japanese quails for the first 5 months of egg production from 4 consecutive generations of an egg line selected for egg production in the first month (EP1) was analyzed. Eight RRMs with different orders of Legendre polynomials were compared to determine the proper model for analysis. All criteria of model choice suggested that the adequate model included the second-order Legendre polynomials for fixed effects, and the third-order for additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. Predictive ability of the best model was the highest among all models (ρ = 0.987). According to the best model fitted to the data, estimates of heritability were relatively low to moderate (0.10 to 0.17) showed a descending pattern from the first to the fifth month of production. A similar pattern was observed for permanent environmental effects with greater estimates in the first (0.36) and second (0.23) months of production than heritability estimates. Genetic correlations between separate production periods were higher (0.18 to 0.93) than their phenotypic counterparts (0.15 to 0.87). The superiority of the selected line over the control was observed through significant (P egg production in earlier ages (first and second months) than later ones. A methodology based on random regression animal models can be recommended for genetic evaluation of egg production in Japanese quail. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Genetic analyses of partial egg production in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, K; Zerehdaran, S; Barzanooni, B; Lotfi, E

    2017-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for average egg weight (EW) and egg number (EN) at different ages in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression (MTRR) models. 2. A total of 8534 records from 900 quail, hatched between 2014 and 2015, were used in the study. Average weekly egg weights and egg numbers were measured from second until sixth week of egg production. 3. Nine random regression models were compared to identify the best order of the Legendre polynomials (LP). The most optimal model was identified by the Bayesian Information Criterion. A model with second order of LP for fixed effects, second order of LP for additive genetic effects and third order of LP for permanent environmental effects (MTRR23) was found to be the best. 4. According to the MTRR23 model, direct heritability for EW increased from 0.26 in the second week to 0.53 in the sixth week of egg production, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.48 to 0.1. Direct heritability for EN was low, whereas the ratio of permanent environment to phenotypic variance decreased from 0.57 to 0.15 during the production period. 5. For each trait, estimated genetic correlations among weeks of egg production were high (from 0.85 to 0.98). Genetic correlations between EW and EN were low and negative for the first two weeks, but they were low and positive for the rest of the egg production period. 6. In conclusion, random regression models can be used effectively for analysing egg production traits in Japanese quail. Response to selection for increased egg weight would be higher at older ages because of its higher heritability and such a breeding program would have no negative genetic impact on egg production.

  20. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes. Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD values used were 0.617mm and 0.723mm (corn fine and coarse particle sizes, respectively, and 0.361mm, 0.721mm, and 0.947mm (limestone fine, intermediate and coarse particle sizes, respectively. The following treatments were applied: T1: fine corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T2: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T3: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone; T4: coarse corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T5: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T6: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone. The experiment lasted 112 days, consisting of 4 cycles of 28 days. No significant interaction was observed among corn and limestone particle sizes for any of the analyzed parameters. There were no significant effects (p>0.05 of the tested corn particle sizes on quail performance or egg quality. There were significant (p<0.05 isolated effects of limestone particle size only on the percentage of cracked eggs, which was reduced when birds fed 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm and 50% fine limestone (0.361mm as compared to those fed 100% fine limestone. Therefore, the inclusion of 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm is recommended for quail egg production.

  1. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  2. Immunomodulation and hormonal disruption without compromised disease resistance in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposed Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Judit E.G.; Nain, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of oral perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Japanese quail at concentrations found in American and Belgian workers at PFOA manufacturing facilities. Three arms of the immune system were tested; T cell, B cell, and innate immunity. After 6 weeks exposure, quail were challenged with E. coli infection to test the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity, disease resistance. The T cell response was lower in the high exposure groups. Antibody mediated, and innate immune responses were not different. Growth rate was higher, whereas thyroid hormone levels were lower in PFOA-exposed birds. Morbidity/mortality from disease challenge was not different among the control and PFOA-exposed groups, and no overt PFOA toxicity was observed pre-disease challenge. Although PFOA at ‘worst case scenario’ levels caused T cell immunosuppression, this did not translate into increased disease susceptibility, demonstrating that immunotoxicity testing must be interpreted with caution since disease resistance is the ultimate concern. -- Highlights: •Birds orally exposed to high levels of PFOA for 8 wks showed no signs of toxicity. •PFOA exposure caused immunotoxicity by suppressing the T cell mediated response. •PFOA exposure did not affect antibody mediated, or innate immunity. •PFOA exposure did not cause increased morbidity/mortality after E. coli infection. •PFOA exposed birds showed endocrinological changes that may warrant further study. -- Oral exposure of quail to the pollutant, PFOA, resulted in hormonal and immunological changes, but did not compromise disease resistance after challenge by a common avian pathogen

  3. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A, E-mail: emmanuel.demargerie@univ-rennes1.fr [CNRS UMR 6552 Ethologie Animale et Humaine, Universite Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2011-09-15

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  4. Comparison between the effects of animal and plant basal diets on productivity of Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease in cattle, known as m ad cow disease , make the European commission to take an action for preventing the spread of such disease by banning the feeding ruminant tissue and animal by-products to farm animals. This study suggested to compare between two basal diets originated from either plants or animal and their effects on some physiological parameters related to the bird growth. A total number of 800 one day old unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into two groups containing 400 birds each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 100 birds. Group one the birds were fed on animal diet and group two fed on plant diet. The two diets contained 24% crude protein (CP) and 4% fat and contains 3200 Kcal/kg diet in starter, while the layer diet contained 21% CP and 4% fat and contains 3000 Kcal/kg diet. Growth data were obtained by weighing the quails individually every week until 6 th weeks, 6 th months and 1 2th months. Eggs were collected daily and weighed for eight months starting from the onset of first egg lying. At 8 th month, a sample of 8 quails was sacrificed, organ weighted and blood samples were collected. Carcass composition was performed to determine % fat, % protein, % ash and total moisture. Hematological and histological parameters, liver and kidney functions, total protein, albumin, globulin, estradiol, testosterone, cholesterol and total lipids were evaluated. The results showed significant increase in body weights gain in one and three weeks only in animal protein diet but no difference were shown between animal and plant diet after 4 weeks and until 12 month. No difference between animal and plant diets were noted in total dry solids (TDS), fat %, ash and protein of TDS and egg production. Levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, total protein, albumin, hematological parameters and total lipids showed non-significant values. The histological parameters

  5. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 by lesser snow geese and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the oxidative biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) by liver microsomes from wild lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Formation of hydroxy-metabolites was analyzed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with avian liver microsomes produced sixteen hydroxy-metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by liver microsomes from individual lesser snow geese were 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-42), 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-47), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-49). By comparison, 4-OH-BDE-42 and 4'-OH-BDE-49, but not 3-OH-BDE-47, were major metabolites of Japanese quail liver microsomes. Unidentified metabolites included monohydroxy- and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Incubation of BDE-99 with avian liver microsomes produced seventeen hydroxy-metabolites, twelve of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by lesser snow goose liver microsomes were 2,4,5-tribromophenol, 3-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-90), and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-99). By comparison, the major metabolites produced by liver microsomes from Japanese quail included 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47) and 2-hydroxy-2',3,4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2-OH-BDE-123), but not 3-OH-BDE-47. Unidentified metabolites consisted of monohydroxy-pentabromodiphenyl ethers, monohydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Another difference between the two species was that formation rates of BDE-47 and BDE-99 metabolites were greater with liver

  6. Incorporation of radioactive zinc into the eggs of Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix Japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusaka, Naonori; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Isao; Yuyama, Akira

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of 65 Zn into eggs was investigated after single or daily intraperitoneal administration to laying Japanese quails. After a single intraperitoneal administration, 65 Zn appeared first in the 2nd egg yolks and reached the highest level in the 3rd and 4th ones, followed by a gradual decrease. The cumulative amount of 65 Zn in the egg yolks over a period of 3 weeks accounted for about 40% of dose. After daily intraperitoneal administration, the 6th-9th egg's yolks contained the highest radioactivity of the eggs examined. Whole-body retention patterns were also observed in both of the experiments. (auth.)

  7. Kisspeptin-10 Enhanced Egg Production in Quails Associated with the Increase of Triglyceride Synthesis in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10 injections via intraperitoneal (i.p. once daily for three weeks notably promoted the egg laying rate in quails. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the effects of Kp-10 on enhancing the egg laying rate in birds, this study focused on the alternations of lipids synthesis in liver after Kp-10 injections. 75 female quails (22 d of age were allocated to three groups randomly, and subjected to 0 (control, Con, 10 nmol (low dosage, L and 100 nmol (high dosage, H Kp-10 injections via i.p. once daily for three weeks, respectively. At d 52, quails were sacrificed and sampled for further analyses. Serum E2 concentration was increased by Kp-10 injections, and reached statistical significance in H group. Serum triglyceride (TG concentrations were increased by 46.7% in L group and 36.8% in H group, respectively, but did not reach statistical significance, and TG contents in liver were significantly elevated by Kp-10 injections in a dose-dependent manner. Serum total cholesterol (Tch concentrations significantly decreased in H group, while in H group the hepatic Tch content was markedly increased. The level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, apolipoprotein A1 and B (apoA1 and apoB were not altered by Kp-10 injections. The genes expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, fatty acid synthetase (FAS, apolipoprotein VLDL-II (apoVLDL-II, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and vitellogenin II (VTG-II were significantly up-regulated by high but not low dosage of Kp-10 injection compared to the control group. However, the expression of SREBP-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA (Δ9 desaturase 1 (SCD1, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1, fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductases (HMGCR, estrogen receptor α, β (ERα and β mRNA were not affected by Kp-10 treatment. In line with hepatic mRNA abundance, hepatic SREBP

  8. Effect of Hypodynamy on Structure and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Kidney in Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Almášiová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to observe the effect of experimental hypodynamy simulating weightlessness in space on the structure, ultrastructure and alkaline phosphatase activity of kidney in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Two days after hatching, the quails were suspended in special shirts below the cage ceiling so their feet did not touch the floor. They could consume food and water ad libitum. Experimental animals were sacrificed after 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days of hypodynamy. Birds of the same age, hatched at the same time, and fed the same diet were used as a control. Samples of kidney were processed for light (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and alkaline phosphatase (AP analysis. Short-term (14–28 days hypodynamy caused no marked damage to the structure and ultrastructure of kidneys. However, after long-term (35–59 days hypodynamy, morphological changes were observed in some cells of the proximal and distal tubules. The dying cells in proximal tubules, observed in semi-thin sections by LM, were dark and contained a nucleus of irregular shape. Observation by TEM showed that their nucleus was dark and shrivelled and the electron-dense cytoplasm contained long, dense, rod-shaped mitochondria with thin mitochondrial cristae. Microvilli were present on the apical surface of cells and formed a brush border. Sporadic dying cells were also observed in distal tubules. Large, light vacuoles were found in the cytoplasm of cells of collecting tubules, however, the structure of renal corpuscles and medullary loops remained undisturbed. Microscopical analysis by means of a direct TUNEL reaction on days 35 to 59 of hypodynamy showed a moderate occurrence of cellular apoptosis in the proximal and distal tubules of experimental Japanese quail. The activity of AP in the brush border of the proximal tubules on days 14–29 of hypodynamy was normal in experimental animals and showed no significant differences in

  9. Influence of a mobile robot on the spatial behaviour of quail chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Margerie, E; Lumineau, S; Houdelier, C; Richard Yris, M-A

    2011-01-01

    Quail chicks encountered an autonomous mobile robot during their early development. The robot incorporated a heat source that stimulated following of chicks. The spatial behaviour of grown-up chicks was tested in an exploration test and a detour test. Chicks that grew with the mobile robot exhibited better spatial abilities than chicks grown with a static heat source. We discuss these results in the perspective of animal-robot interaction and of the role of early spatial experience on the behavioural development. (communication)

  10. Performance of japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Berto,DA; Garcia,EA; Móri,C; Faitarone,ABG; Pelícia,K; Molino,AB

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes). Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD) values used were 0.617mm and 0.72...

  11. Boron Supply Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum by Interacting with Cell Wall Pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop growth in acidic soils. Boron (B alleviates Al toxicity in plants, which is mainly considered to be due to the formation of Rhamnogalacturonan II-B (RGII-B complexes, which helps to stabilize the cytoskeleton. It is unclear yet whether this is due to the increasing of net negative charges and/or further mechanisms. Kinetics of Al accumulation and adsorption were investigated using entire cells, cell wall and pectin of root border cells (RBCs of pea (Pisum sativum, to reveal the mechanism of B in interacting with alkali-soluble and chelator-soluble pectin for an increased Al tolerance in RBCs. The results show that B could rescue RBCs from Al-induced cell death by accumulating more Al in the cell wall, predominately in alkali-soluble pectin. Boron also promotes Al3+ adsorption and inhibits Al3+ desorption from alkali-soluble pectin. Thus, more Al3+ is immobilized within the alkali-soluble pectin fraction and less in the chelator-soluble pectin, rendering Al3+ less mobile. Boron induces an increase of RG-II (KDO,2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid content for forming more borate-RGII complexes, and the decrease of pectin methyl-esterification, thus creates more negative charges to immobilize Al3+ in cell wall pectin. The study provides evidence that abundant B supply enhances the immobilization of Al in alkali-soluble pectin, thus most likely reducing the entry of Al3+ into the symplast from the surroundings.

  12. Doing the Basics Better in Africa: How School Support, Autonomy, and Accountability Improved Outcomes for Girls in PEAS Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Libby

    2017-01-01

    Promoting Equality in African Schools (PEAS) seeks to expand access to sustainably delivered, quality secondary education in Africa. PEAS builds and runs chains of not-for-profit, low-cost private schools in public-private partnership with governments. External evaluation data show that PEAS schools in Uganda are delivering higher quality…

  13. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  14. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  15. Vooruit met de geit. Marktkansen voor Geitenvlees! Een duik in de keten van The Green Peas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    De geitensector loopt tegen verschillende problemen aan. The Green Peas is gevraagd door Wageningen UR Livestock Research (WUR) om onderzoek te doen naar het verwaarden van duurzaam, Nederlands geitenvlees. The Green Peas is gevraagd vanwege haar expertise op het gebied van duurzaam voedselonderzoek

  16. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  17. Microsynteny between pea and Medicago truncatula in the SYM2 region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gualtieri, G.; Kulikova, O.; Limpens, E.; Kim, D.J.; Cook, D.R.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2002-01-01

    The crop legume pea (Pisum sativum) is genetically well characterized. However, due to its large genome it is not amenable to efficient positional cloning strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine if the model legume Medicago truncatula, which is a close relative of pea, could be used

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed John, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken in pigeon pea parents and their F 1 hybrid to analyse the pollen and seed fertility following gamma irradiation. It is found that the reduction of pollen and seed fertility in pigeon pea was lesser over those of black gram and cowpea. 5 refs., 1 tab

  19. Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Cowpea and Pigeon pea as Nutritional Ingredients in Culture Media. ... Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Cheap, locally available plant seeds such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) could be used in the design and formulation of microbial culture media in order to reduce the cost.

  20. Effect of enzyme treatment on pea starch physicomechanical properties of biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sh. Zakirova; T. N. Manahova; A. V. Kanarskiy; Z. A. Kanarskaya

    2013-01-01

    The regularities of change in physical and mechanical properties of biofilms based on pea starch treated with pullulanase enzyme preparation were obtained. The possibility of formation of linear pea starch amylopectin polymers, which contribute to improvement of the mechanical and rheological properties of biofilms was identified.

  1. Effect of enzyme treatment on pea starch physicomechanical properties of biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Zakirova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of change in physical and mechanical properties of biofilms based on pea starch treated with pullulanase enzyme preparation were obtained. The possibility of formation of linear pea starch amylopectin polymers, which contribute to improvement of the mechanical and rheological properties of biofilms was identified.

  2. Exploring variation in pea protein composition by natural selection and genetic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzitzikas, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pea (Pisumsativum L.) seeds are a rich and valuable source of proteins, which can have potential for food industrial applications. Pea storage proteins are classified into two major classes: the salt-soluble globulins, and the water-soluble

  3. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gregory

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning.

  4. Incidence, species and antimicrobial resistance of naturally occurring Campylobacter isolates from quail carcasses sampled in a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the published information about the presence of Campylobacter on processed poultry is from studies with chickens and turkeys; therefore there is a paucity of published material about the presence of Campylobacter on commercially processed quail (Coturnix coturnix). The objective of this stud...

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

    2013-03-01

    A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail.

  6. EFFECT OF USING SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (ANISE, CHAMOMILE AND GINGER) ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; HAMODI, S.J.; EL AFIFI, SH.F.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding medicinal plants to Japanese quail diet on their performance and some metabolic functions. Four hundred, one day old, unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups of 100 birds each according to medicinal plant additives. Group one was control (without additives, and the other groups contained 0.3% from anise (group 2), chamomile (group 3) and ginger (group 4). The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, feed intake, some organs weight and some blood parameters were measured.The results indicated that addition of medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) improved growth rate, carcass and the relative weights of spleen, ovary and testis. Also, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. There was reduction in cholesterol in treated groups as compared to the control.The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) to improve the health condition as well as the productive and physiological characteristics of quails

  7. Effect of feeding camphor (Eucalyptus Globules) levels on some immunity characteristics, growth and gut microflora of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Salah, H.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El Barkouky, E.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding Eucalyptus globules Egypt to Japanese quail diet on performance and some metabolic functions and immunity. Four hundred,one day old, unsexed japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups containing 100 birds in each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 25 birds. Group one was supplemented with 1% Egypt in basal diet, group two was supplemented with 2% Egypt in basal diet, group three was used as negative control (-ve)without any addition of antibiotic in diet or water, while group four represented the positive control (+ ve) by addition antibiotics (0.5 g neomycin sulphate +0.5 g oxytetracyclin) in drinking water for 5 days post hatching. The experimented diet contained 3200 Kcal ME/kg and 24% crude proteins. The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, mortality, some organs weighs and some blood parameters were measured and some microbial population of small intestines was counted. Results indicated that the addition of Egypt led to significant increase in quails body weights, spleen, bursa and ovary and the measures of total proteins, globulins, haemagglutination inhibition (HI)and triiodothyronine (T3). Decrease in mortality ratio and less counts of microflora and salmonella of gut were also achieved as a result of diet camphor addition

  8. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  9. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  10. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of mercury and its transfer to the egg in the laying quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M; Urakawa, N; Ikeda, M

    1971-01-01

    Autoradiographic and tracer techniques were employed to investigate the distribution and movement of radiomercury in the form of /sup 203/Hg-nitrate, and its transfer to eggs in laying quails. After injection, the radiomercury tended to concentrate in the kidneys and ova, plateauing about 12 hours after injection. Within the egg, the mercury concentrated in the yolk.

  11. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  12. Age Maturity of Female Japanese Quails Fed Diets Containing Katuk Leave Meal (Sauropus androgynus L.Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wiradimadja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of katuk leave meal on sexual maturity in Japanese quail. Three hundred female Japanese quails, with 4 weeks age, were assigned into a completely randomized design with 4 treatments i.e., R1 (diet with neither katuk leave meal nor cholesterin, R2 (diet without katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin, R3 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal without cholesterin, and R4 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin. The parameters measured were estradiol hormone in plasma, and age maturity (five percent henday production. Estradiol hormone was measured with Radioimmunoassay. The data were collected and analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results showed that the addition of 15% katuk leave meal in the diet significantly decreased the estrogen concentration (P<0.05, so that slow down on the age maturity of female Japanese quail. (Animal Production 9(2: 67-72 (2007Key Words : Katuk leave meal, estradiol hormone, age maturity, quail

  13. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  14. The Effect of Divergent Selection on 4-wk BW on the Shape of Growth Curve in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Beyki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term divergent selection on the shape growth curve in different lines of Japanese quail. The Quail lines utilized in this study were two divergently selected for high (HW and low (LW 4-wk body weight during 7 generation and also a control line (C. The Richard function parameters were used to describe growth curves of different lines. The weight at hatch was approximately similar among lines (8.08 g, 7.55 g and 8.76 g for HW, LW and C line respectively. The results of current study indicated that the selected lines (HW & LW were immediately diverged from the C line after hatch. Sexes within each line had no difference in average growth rate, age and body weight at inflection point and adult body weight. However significant differences were found in the growth curve parameters among lines. The results of current study indicated that short term divergent selection for 4-wk BW in Japanese quail can change the growth pattern and the carcass compartments of the selected birds. Therefore to avoid undesirable side effects due to selection in Japanese quails it is recommended to consider the growth pattern changes of the selected birds in the breeding programs

  15. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. Effect of Gamma Radiation and temperature on storage quality of Pea (Pisum sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Hossain, M. M.; Hossain, M. A.; Alam, M. K.; Sarder, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of radiation, storage temperature and storage period of pea was investigated. During the entire storage period of 12 months, no major changes occurred in weight loss, insect infestation, moisture content, water activity (a w ) and protein content of the pea stored at room temperature (RT) and at 4 0 C. Reconstitution properties and tenderness after cooking were affected at room temperature storage. Both reconstitution properties and tenderness gradually decreased with the increase of storage period when pea was stored at RT. The initial reconstitution properties (94%) decreased to 77% at the end of 12 months and the initial tenderness (97%) decreased to 13% when pea was stored at room temperature. On the other hand the reconstitution properties and tenderness were found 92% and 83% respectively in pea stored at 4 0 C.(author)

  17. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  18. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    N deposited in the rhizosphere of a legume may contribute to the N-nutrition of an intercropped non-legume. The process of deposition and subsequent uptake by a neighbouring plant is often termed N-transfer. The N-transfer from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) to associated spring barley (Hordeum...... debris. Separating the root systems reduced the barley recovery of pea-derived N to about half the amount recovered in the association where root systems grew in the same compartment. The death of pea, caused by spraying with a herbicide, increased the amount of N recovered in barley, whereas shading...... the pea plant had no effect on the amount of pea-derived N taken up in barley. The N deposited up to 45 days of growth contributed

  19. Developmental changes in aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis in pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.R.; Cato, L.W.; Stephens, B.W.; Reeves, M.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated chloroplasts are known to synthesize the asp-derived amino acids (ile, hse, lys and thr) from [ 14 C]asp (Mills et al, 1980, Plant Physiol. 65, 1166). Now, we have studied the influence of tissue age on essential amino acid biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) plastids. Chloroplasts from the younger (third and fourth) leaves of 12 day old plants, were 2-3 times more active in synthesizing lys and thr from [ 14 C]asp than those from older (first or second) leaves. We also examined two key pathway enzymes (aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase); with each enzyme,a activity in younger leaves was about 2 times that in plastids from older tissue. Both lys- and thr-sensitive forms of aspartate kinase are known in plants; in agreement with earlier work, we found that lys-sensitive activity was about 4 times higher in the younger tissues, while the thr-sensitive activity changed little during development (Davies and Miflin, 1977, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 323). Recently the role of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase in controlling asp-family amino acid synthesis has been questioned (Giovanelli et al, 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1584); we hope that measurements of amino acid levels in chloroplasts as well as further enzyme studies will help us to better understand the regulation of asp-family amino acid synthesis

  20. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  1. Lead pellet retention time and associated toxicity in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Steven; Jarrett, Timothy; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Holladay, Jeremy; Williams, Jamie; Gogal, Robert

    2010-12-01

    Birds are exposed to Pb by oral ingestion of spent Pb shot as grit. A paucity of data exists for retention and clearance of these particles in the bird gastrointestinal tract. In the current study, northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were orally gavaged with 1, 5, or 10 Pb shot pellets, of 2-mm diameter, and radiographically followed over time. Blood Pb levels and other measures of toxicity were collected, to correlate with pellet retention. Quail dosed with either 5 or 10 pellets exhibited morbidity between weeks 1 and 2 and were removed from further study. Most of the Pb pellets were absorbed or excreted within 14 d of gavage, independent of dose. Pellet size in the ventriculus decreased over time in radiographs, suggesting dissolution caused by the acidic pH. Birds dosed with one pellet showed mean blood Pb levels that exceeded 1,300 µg/dl at week 1, further supporting dissolution in the gastrointestinal tract. Limited signs of toxicity were seen in the one-pellet birds; however, plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD) activity was persistently depressed, suggesting possible impaired hematological function. © 2010 SETAC.

  2. Green synthesis and characterisation of platinum nanoparticles using quail egg yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Gungor, Azize Alayli; Ince, Selvi; Babagil, Aynur

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is extensively used in all parts today. Therefore, nano synthesis is also significant in all explored areas. The results of studies conducted have revealed that nanoparticle synthesis is performed by using both chemical and physical methods. It is well known that these syntheses are carried out at high charge, pressure and temperature in harsh environments. Therefore, this study investigated green synthesis method that sustains more mild conditions. In this study, quail egg yolk having high vitamin and protein content was prepared for green synthesis reaction and used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in the reaction medium. Reaction situations were optimised as a function of pH, temperature, time and concentration by using quail egg yolk. The results showed that the highest platinum nanoparticles were synthesised at 20 °C and pH 6.0 for 4 h. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was established as 0.5 mM. The synthesised platinum nanoparticles were characterised by using UV spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  3. RESEARCH ON THE QUAIL EGGS ALBUMEN CONTENT IN SOME HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VIZITIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of a sample batch of 20 Japanese quails, Pharaoh race, with an age of 100 days and weighing 245 g, approximately 200 eggs were collected at the peak phase of the laying period. The eggs were measured, weighed and broken, separating the albumen from the other components. The data obtained served to calculate the physical and morphological indices. Primary chemical composition, caloricity, heavy metals content were first determined, the following data being obtained: quail eggs albumen has an average weight of 7.1025±0.061g, an average volume of 7.158±0.09cm3, an average density of 1.0168±0.0139 g/cm3 and an index (of freshness of 0.0797±0.0015. The albumen contains: 86.76% water, 13.24% dry matter, 0.835% mineral matter, 11.37% protein, 1.03% non-nitrogenous extractive substances and a caloricity of 289.498 kJ for 100 g product. The average content of heavy metals in albumen was: 1.33*10-3 ppm, for cadmium; 8.83*10-2 ppm, for zinc; 1.005 ppm, for cooper and 0.0 ppm, respectively, for lead.

  4. Interactions between aromatase (estrogen synthase) and dopamine in the control of male sexual behavior in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-05-01

    In male quail, like in other vertebrates including rodents, testosterone acting especially through its estrogenic metabolites is necessary for the activation of male sexual behavior. Also, the administration of dopamine agonists and antagonists profoundly influences male sexual behavior. How the steroid-sensitive neural network and dopamine interact physiologically, remains largely unknown. It is often implicitly assumed that testosterone or its metabolite estradiol, stimulates male sexual behavior via the modification of dopaminergic transmission. We have now identified in quail two possible ways in which dopamine could potentially affect sexual behavior by modulating the aromatization of testosterone into an estrogen. One is a long-acting mechanism that presumably involves the modification of dopaminergic transmission followed by the alteration of the genomic expression of aromatase. The other is a more rapid mechanism that does not appear to be dopamine receptor-mediated and may involve a direct interaction of dopamine with aromatase (possibly via substrate competition). We review here the experimental data supporting the existence of these controls of aromatase activity by dopamine and discuss the possible contribution of these controls to the activation of male sexual behavior.

  5. Effect of Adding Different Vegetable Oils to Quail Diets On Some Blood Parameters and Immune System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Wakwak, M.; Sabek, E.M.; Elaroussi, M.A.; El-Gendy, H.M.; Hammad, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A total number of 1400 one-day old Japanese quail birds were used in this study, the birds were divided into seven equal groups, six treated while the 7 t h served as the control. The diet of the six treated groups was supplemented with 8 % of either one of the following tested oils: soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), corn (CO), cottonseed (CSO), olive (OO) or palm (PO). At the end of the 4 t hand 8 t h weeks of age blood samples were collected for blood picture, proteins and cortisol determination. Antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) were determined at 7 and 8 weeks of age respectively. The results showed significant increase in relative lymphoid organ weights, RBCs, WBCs, Hb and PCV, total protein, globulin and cortisol hormone in treated groups compared to the control. The immunological parameters showed a significant increase in (HA) and (HI) against (SRBCs) and (NDV), respectively, in all treated groups compared to the control group. The present results confirm the beneficial effects of dietary oil supplementation to quail birds and in particular olive oil.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on mutability in male gametes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J [Vyskumny Ustav Chovu a Slachtenia Hydiny, Laboratorim Genetiky, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the mutability of developmental stages of male gametes of the japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), after irradiation with /sup 60/Co exposures (5.16; 15.48; and 30.96)x10/sup -2/C kg/sup -1/, i.e. 200, 600 and 1200 R, at an exposure rate of 8.59x10/sup -5/C kg/sup -1/s/sup -1/, i.e. O.33 R s/sup -1/, has shown that the rate of overall induced dominant lethality as well as the rate of mutation were highest in spermatocytes of the second order at all exposures. Starting from an exposure of 200 R the following values were found for lethal interference per 1 gamete for 1 R: spermatozoa 2.0x10/sup -3/, spermatides 1.95x10/sup -3/, spermatocytes II 6.1x10/sup -3/, spermatocytes I 4.06x10/sup -3/, spermatogonia in the process of differentiation 6.8x10/sup -3/. When analysing overall embryonic lethality, according to early and late lethality, dominant lethal mutations mainly manifested themsel--ves in the oviductal and germinal developmental periods, so that these periods can be considered as sensitive indices of genetic changes. The spermatogenic epithelium of the japanese quail was found to be greatly radioresistant since not even an exposure to 1200 R caused complete and permanent sterility.

  7. Factorial correspondence analysis of fear-related behaviour traits in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, S; Roussot, O; Delaby, C; Faure, J M.; Mills, A; Leterrier, C; Guéméné, D; Constantin, P; Mills, M; Lepape, G; Beaumont, C

    2003-02-28

    Factorial correspondence analysis was performed on 341 quails from a F2 cross between two lines divergently selected on the duration of tonic immobility over 29 generations. Several fear- or stress-related traits were recorded, i.e. tonic immobility duration, number of inductions needed to induce tonic immobility, open-field behaviour (time spent walking, latency before first movement and number of defecations), asymmetry of tibia lengths and corticosterone concentration after restraint stress. Variables were categorised in classes and analysed by factorial correspondence analysis. The first axis was mostly described by open-field behaviour, and the second by tonic immobility traits (duration of tonic immobility and number of inductions), which showed that these behaviours were almost independent. No relationship was found between axes of the factorial correspondence analysis and corticosterone concentration or asymmetry of tibia lengths, showing that these variables reflected other characteristics of stress susceptibility than those described by tonic immobility and open-field behaviour. These results show that reaction to stress of quails is a multidimensional trait and cannot be summarised by one trait.

  8. Comparative metabolism and fate of fenvalerate in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and rats (Rattus norwegicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, M.M.; Menzer, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Adult Japanese quail were administered 100 mg/kg chlorophenyl-labeled [ 14 C]fenvalerate, α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 2-(4-chlorophenyl)isovalerate, for study of its distribution, elimination, and metabolism. Ninety percent of the administered dose was eliminated in the excreta within the first 24 h. In addition to fenvalerate, the following metabolites were present: benzeneacetic acid, 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-,cyano(3-phenoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl ester [4'-OH-fenvalerate]; benzeneacetic acid, 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)-,(aminocarbonyl)(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester [CONH 2 -fenvalerate]; 4-chloro-α-(1-methylethyl)benzeneacetic acid[Cl-V acid]; 4-chloro-α-(2-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)benzeneacetic acid[4-OH-Cl-V acid]. In time course studies radiocarbon peaked at 3 h (9μg/g) in the liver and gradually declined, while in the blood it peaked within 2 h and fell quickly to an equilibrium value of 1.5 μg/mL blood. In liver microsomal and isolated heptatocyte preparations of Japanese quail and rat, the following metabolites were identified: Cl-V acid, 4-OH-Cl-V acid, 4'-OH-fenvalerate, CONH 2 -fenvalerate. Oxidation was found to be the predominant route of degradation either pre- or post-hydrolysis of the parent compound. Rapid excretion, lesser absorption, and faster metabolism probably explain the lower toxicity of fenvalerate to birds compared to rats

  9. RADIOIODINATION OF OCHRATOXIN TO STUDY THE ROLE OF YEAST IN COUNTERACTING ITS EFFECT ON JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; EL-BARKOUKY, E.E.; AYYOUB, S.M.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioiodination of ochratoxin using iodogen as an oxidizing agent was studied. The factors affecting the radioiodination yield, such as reaction time, concentration of substrate and oxidizing agent, pH, stability of iodogen coated tubes have been investigated. Separation and purification of the labelled product using thin layer chromatography and gel chromatography on sephadex G-25 column were described.A total number of 80 quail chicks at eight weeks age were divided into two groups 40 birds each. The first group (control) feed basal diet and the second group was supplemented with 0.5% active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in basal diet. All groups were given orally labelled ochratoxin. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours from oral feeding, the quails (5 birds from every group) were slaughtered and blood samples were collected when slaughtering. The organs; liver, heart, spleen lung, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine content, kidney, testis, ovary, oviduct, breast and thigh, were removed and weighed individually and their weights related to body weight have been calculated. Also, manure and eggs were collected. The radioactivity levels in the second group that supplemented yeast in diet was lower than the first group (control) except manure

  10. Number and size of nucleoli in the spermatocytes of chicken and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraszek, Katarzyna; Gryzińska, Magdalena; Knaga, Sebastian; Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoli are the product of nucleolus organizing region activity (NOR) of specific chromosomes. Their basic function is to synthetise ribosomal RNA precursors and promote the maturation and assemblage of preribosomal RNP molecules. Information on rRNA-coding gene activity can be provided by the analysis of the number and size of nucleoli in the prophase of the first meiotic division. The morphology and ultrastructure of a nucleolus depends, among others, on the species and cell growth cycle as well as the physiological and pathological state of an organism. The purpose of this research was to determine the number and size of nucleoli in the spermatocytes of the domestic chicken and the Japanese quail. Diverse numbers and sizes of nucleoli in the cells of the analysed birds were observed. 1-4 nucleoli were identified in chicken cells (1.91 +/- 0.63 on average) and 1-2 in quail cells (1.13 +/- 0.33 on average). For the total of 957 nucleoli observed in Gallus cells, 329 were classified as large and 628 as small. In Coturnix cells, 563 nucleoli were identified (66 large and 497 small ones). An analysis of the numbers and sizes of nucleoli can be performed at the cytogenetic level and serve as an alternative source of information on rRNA encoding gene and nucleolus organising region (NOR) activities.

  11. Effect of immobilized lipase supplementation of diets on the performance of the Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; Saleh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, lipase was immobilized onto two different supports, agarose and gelatin. Some physico-chemical properties of the free and immobilized lipase such as optimum temperature, optimum ph and storage stability were studied. Storage of the enzymes for 2 months showed that the free enzyme lost its activity, while the immobilized on the gelatin showed better resistance towards ph and temperature variations than that immobilized onto agarose. Four experiments were conducted to test the effect of the immobilized lipase supplementation on the productive performance of the Japanese quails. During the first 3 weeks, the addition of lipase to poultry diets caused an increase in the body weight gain of birds than the enzyme-free diet. An obvious improvement in quail day egg production during the laying period was observed with the groups fed on a diet supplemented with 3000 and 2000 I U of immobilized lipase per kilogram feed. Blood cholesterol was not affected with lipase addition, while total lipids were significantly increased. Significant reduction was also observed in thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) as compared with the control group

  12. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  13. Performance of japanese quail chickens injected with monosodium glutamate in the early post hatch period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; Ezzat, I.E. and others

    2002-01-01

    Neo hatched Japanese quails chicks were divided equally into three groups (G1, G2 and G3) and injected once subcutaneously with monosodium glutamate (MSG) at 0,2 or 4 mg/g body weight for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The obtained results clear that, 1-At-marketing stage, body weight increased by about 4% and 6%, feed conversion ratio reduced by 8.7% and 5.7% in-groups G2 and G3 respectively. 2-MSG had no significant effect on male and female serum T4 as well as male serum T3. The injection with 2-mg MSG per gram body weight increased female serum T3 significantly. 3-MSG increased significantly fat % DM in the male and female quails. This treatment in was positively correlated with the amount of injected MSG. Ash % DM and protein % DM were decreased significantly in both injected males and females and the reduction was dose dependent. 5-in males, weights of heart, spleen and testes besides weights and lengths of gastrointestinal tract regions were not significantly affected by MSG administration. 6-in females, the injection with MSG (2 mg/g body weight) significantly reduced the weight as percent body weight, moreover, the administration of MSG had no significant effect on the weights or the lengths of the remain parameters of the females gastrointestinal tract regions, ovary, oviduct, heart and spleen

  14. The Effect of Different Foam Concentrations on Sperm Motility in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of foam extract on sperm motility in the male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Adult male quails (<12 weeks of heavy body weight strain were housed in individual cages and divided into 5 groups according to the size of their cloacal glands. The data indicated that the size of the cloacal gland was positively correlated with the frequency of foam secretion and total foam production. One gram of freshly collected clean foam was mixed with 1.0 mL of normal saline and homogenized for 10 minutes. After centrifugation at 35 000 rpm, the supernatant was used as 100% foam extract. The extract was diluted to 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, and 1:4 with normal saline to produce 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 25% foam extracts, respectively. 5% foam extract enhanced sperm survival at room temperature (30°–35°C for 2 to 3 hrs, whereas higher concentrations (10% and above suppressed sperm motility. From this study, it may be concluded that foam secretion and quantity of foam are directly proportional to the size of the cloacal gland and that the foam enhances and prolongs sperm motility, in vitro at an optimum concentration of 5%.

  15. The effect of salinity and moisture stress on pea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.Abd-El Ghany

    1985-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in the green house in Inchas, Atomic Energy Establishment, to study the effect os salinity and moisture stress on pea plants. Salinity experiments were conducted in 1981/1982, 1982/1983 and 1983/1984 seasons to study the effect of NaCl and/or CaC l 2 as single or mixed salts and radiation combined with salinity. Water stress studies were conducted in 1983/1984 growing season to investigate the effect of soil moisture stress on growth, yield and water use efficiency

  16. Stamina pistilloida: a new mutation induced in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, L M; Devreux, M

    1969-01-01

    After diethylsulphate treatment of seeds of the pea variety 'Parvus', a new floral mutation was isolated in the second generation. This mutation, named stamina pistilloida, is characterized by a partial fusion of the androecium with the gynoecium; the two marginal stamens of the staminal column are transformed in rudimentary carpels more or less differentiated according to ecoclimatic conditions. The genetic analysis has shown the monogenic and recessive behaviour of the mutation (gene proposed stp) and its linkage with the gene oh in the chromosome II.

  17. Mutation studies in gamma-ray treated peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narsinghani, V G; Kumar, S [Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Plant Breeding

    1976-01-01

    Pea Seeds (Pisum Sativum L. 2n=14) irradiated with four doses of gamma rays viz, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kR revealed a reduction in seedling height, survival percentage, pods and seed yield and pollen fertility during X/sub 1/ and X/sub 2/ generations. Chlorophyll and leaf mutations were noted. The mitotic cells indicated chromosomal aberrations which were dose dependent. In meiosis, translocated rings and chains of 4,6 and 8 chromosomes; paracentric and pericentric inversions, fragments, laggards and unequal distribution of chromosomes were observed. Besides, the frequency of aberrations were lower during X/sub 2/ as compared to X/sub 1/.

  18. Biomass production and nitrogen accumulation in pea, oat, and vetch green manure mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system

  19. Circumnutation and its dependence on the gravity response in rice, morning glory and pea plants: verification by spaceflight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Akie; Fujii, Nobuharu; Yano, Sachiko; Shimazu, Toru; Kim, Hyejeong; Tomita, Yuuta; Miyazawa, Yutaka

    Plant organs display helical growth movement known as circumnutation. This movement helps plant organs find suitable environmental cues. The amplitude, period and shape of the circumnutation differ depending on plant species or organs. Although the mechanism for circumnutation is unclear, it has long been argued whether circumnutation is involved with gravitropic response. Previously, we showed that shoots of weeping morning glory (we1 and we2) are impaired in not only the differentiation of endodermis (gravisensing cells) and gravitropic response, but also winding and circumnutation (Kitazawa et al., PNAS 102: 18742-18747, 2005). Here, we report a reduced circumnutation in the shoots of rice and the roots of pea mutants defective in gravitropic response. Coleoptiles of clinorotated rice seedlings and decapped roots of pea seedlings also showed a reduction of their circumnutational movement. These results suggest that circumnutation is tightly related with gravitropic response. In the proposed spaceflight experiments, “Plant Rotation”, we will verify the hypothesis that circumnutation requires gravity response, by using microgravity environment in KIBO module of the International Space Station. We will grow rice and morning glory plants under both muG and 1G conditions on orbit and monitor their growth by a camera. The downlinked images will be analyzed for the measurements of plant growth and nutational movements. This experiment will enable us to answer the question whether circumnutation depends on gravity response or not.

  20. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  1. Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyotiprabha; Abraham, Robinson J J; Rao, V Appa; Rajini, R Asha; Mishra, B P; Sarangi, N R

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the chemical composition of solar dried blood and rumen content (DBRC) and further ascertain the concentration at which DBRC could be included in Japanese quail diets without any adverse effect on its performance. Feeding trial on the effect of DBRC on performance of Japanese quails was studied up to 5 weeks. 252 numbers of day old (Nandanam Type III breed) Japanese quails were purchased from Poultry Research Station, Madhavaram and divided into 7 batches (control+ six treatments) each consisting of 36 birds. The DBRC was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% in diets as control, treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2), treatment-3 (T3), treatment-4 (T4), treatment-5 (T5) and treatment-6 (T6) respectively in a completely randomized design to replace soybean meal in Japanese quail feed. The birds were provided with ad-labidum feed and drinking water ad-libitum during the entire experimental period. The crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash contents of DBRC were 35.87%, 17.40%, 3.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The amount of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acid content were found to be 12.98 and 4.87 (g/100 g of feed) respectively in DBRC feed. Result showed that all birds fed DBRC diets performed better than the control group. Mortality was unaffected by dietary treatments. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) observed in weight gain in treatment groups compared to the control. Up to 30% DBRC could be incorporated in the diets of Japanese quails without any adverse effects on its performance.

  2. [The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails exposed to nitrates and correction by the amaranth's seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhmistrenko, S I; Ponomarenko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail's pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using of amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail's pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the ability of amaranth's seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail's pancreas under nitrates influence.

  3. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  4. Effects of Propolis, Royal Jelly, Bee Pollen and Ronozyme Supplementation in Diets of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) on Yolk Lipid Peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz S; Tatli Seven P; Kaya E

    2017-01-01

    This study discovers the possible effect propolis, royal jelly, bee pollen and Ronozyme supplementation in diets that can be beneficial for Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Total one hundred and sixty Japanese quails at 43 days of age were used and divided randomly into 4 replicate groups each containing 32 animals. The experimental groups as follows: control group was feed a basal diet, royal jelly group was added to the water with 500 mg/kg diet, propolis group was feed orally ...

  5. Infection levels of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi and caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula in the northern bobwhite and scaled quail from the Rolling Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Peper, S T; Downing, C; Brake, E; Rollins, D; Kendall, R J

    2017-09-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have experienced chronic declines within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Parasitic infection, which has long been dismissed as a problem in quail, has not been studied thoroughly until recently. A total of 219 northern bobwhite and 101 scaled quail from Mitchell County, Texas were captured and donated from 2014 to 2015, and examined for eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) infections. In 2014, bobwhites averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 eyeworms and 98.6 ± 8.2 caecal worms, and 23.5 ± 2.1 eyeworms and 129.9 ± 10.7 caecal worms in 2015. Scaled quail averaged 4.8 ± 1.0 eyeworms and 50 ± 6.8 caecal worms in 2014, and 5.7 ± 1.3 eyeworms and 38.1 ± 7.1 caecal worms in 2015. This study expands the knowledge of parasitic infection in quail inhabiting the Rolling Plains of Texas. A significant difference was documented in O. petrowi infection between species but there was no significant difference in A. pennula between quail species. No significant difference was detected in parasite infection between the sexes of both northern bobwhite and scaled quail. This study also documented the highest reported O. petrowi infection in both species of quail. Additional research is needed on the life history and infection dynamics of O. petrowi and A. pennula infections to determine if there are individual- and/or population-level implications due to parasitic infection.

  6. Strigolactones positively regulate chilling tolerance in pea and in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Hu, Yan; Beyyoudh, Leila; Yildiz Dasgan, H; Kunert, Karl; Beveridge, Christine A; Foyer, Christine H

    2018-01-17

    Strigolactones (SL) fulfil important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of SL in the dark chilling tolerance of pea and Arabidopsis by analysis of mutants that are defective in either SL synthesis or signalling. Pea mutants (rms3, rms4, rms5) had significantly greater shoot branching with higher leaf chlorophyll a/b ratios and carotenoid contents than the wild type. Exposure to dark chilling significantly decreased shoot fresh weights but increased leaf numbers in all lines. However, dark chilling treatments decreased biomass (dry weight) accumulation only in rms3 and rms5 shoots. Unlike the wild type plants, chilling-induced inhibition of photosynthetic carbon assimilation was observed in the rms lines and also in max3-9, max4-1, max2-1 mutants that are defective in SL synthesis or signalling. When grown on agar plates the max mutant rosettes accumulated less biomass than the wild type. The synthetic SL, GR24 decreased leaf area in the wild type, max3-9 and max4-1 mutants but not in max2-1 in the absence of stress. Moreover, a chilling-induced decrease in leaf area was observed in all the lines in the presence of GR24. We conclude that SL plays an important role in the control of dark chilling tolerance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  8. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  9. Ecdysone signaling underlies the pea aphid transgenerational wing polyphenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Gupta, Purba; Hall, Tannice A; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2017-02-07

    The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism. Here, we analyzed ecdysone-related gene expression patterns and found that they were consistent with a down-regulation of the ecdysone pathway being involved in the production of winged offspring. We therefore predicted that reduced ecdysone signaling would result in more winged offspring. Experimental injections of ecdysone or its analog resulted in a decreased production of winged offspring. Conversely, interfering with ecdysone signaling using an ecdysone receptor antagonist or knocking down the ecdysone receptor gene with RNAi resulted in an increased production of winged offspring. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that ecdysone plays a causative role in the regulation of the proportion of winged offspring produced in response to crowding in this polyphenism. Our results also show that an environmentally regulated maternal hormone can mediate phenotype production in the next generation, as well as provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity.

  10. Atomic force microscopy of pea starch: origins of image contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Michael J; Parker, Mary L; Hedley, Cliff L; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Morris, Victor J

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the internal structure of pea starch granules. Starch granules were encased in a nonpenetrating matrix of rapid-set Araldite. Images were obtained of the internal structure of starch exposed by cutting the face of the block and of starch in sections collected on water. These images have been obtained without staining, or either chemical or enzymatic treatment of the granule. It has been demonstrated that contrast in the AFM images is due to localized absorption of water within specific regions of the exposed fragments of the starch granules. These regions swell, becoming "softer" and higher than surrounding regions. The images obtained confirm the "blocklet model" of starch granule architecture. By using topographic, error signal and force modulation imaging modes on samples of the wild-type pea starch and the high amylose r near-isogenic mutant, it has been possible to demonstrate differing structures within granules of different origin. These architectural changes provide a basis for explaining the changed appearance and functionality of the r mutant. The growth-ring structure of the granule is suggested to arise from localized "defects" in blocklet distribution within the granule. It is proposed that these defects are partially crystalline regions devoid of amylose.

  11. Mechanisms of protection of pea plants by polysaccharides extracted from a strain of Rhizobium against Orobanche crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairi, Hanene; Temani, Randa

    2009-01-01

    The Broomrape causes notable damage on the leguminous crops and became major factor limiting production of pea in the Mediterranean region. The effect of the polysaccharides extracted from P.SOM Rhizobium strain on the development of Orobanche crenata on pea was studied. The results showed that the lipopolysaccharides significantly reduce the infestation of pea by O. crenata. This limitation of infestation results from the reduction of seeds germination rates of the parasite resulting in reduction of the tubercles number on pea roots. Moreover, necrosis of orobanche before or after attachment on pea roots treated by LPS can explain this reduction of parasitism. A correlation was observed between the reduction of pea infection by the broomrape and the activation phenolic compounds pathway. This activation resulted to increase of two enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) activities these enzymes are implicated in plant defense. The results of our study showed that the LPS seem implied in the induction of pea resistance against the broomrape.

  12. PEA3 activates CXCR4 transcription in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengmei Gu; Li Chen; Qi Hong; Tingting Yan; Zhigang Zhuang; Qiaoqiao wang; Wei Jin; Hua Zhu; Jiong Wu

    2011-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface receptor that has been shown to mediate the metastasis of many solid tumors including lung,breast,kidney,and prostate tumors.In this study,we found that overexpression of ets variant gene 4 (PEA3) could elevate CXCR4 mRNA level and CXCR4 promoter activity in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.PEA3 promoted CXCR4 expression and breast cancer metastasis.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCR4 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector.PEA3 siRNA attenuated CXCR4 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCR4 promoter in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.These results indicated that PEA3 could activate CXCR4 promoter transcription and promote breast cancer metastasis.

  13. Productivity and selenium concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails fed selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinrasri, Orawan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Maneetong, Sarunya; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Chantiratikul, Anut

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Se from hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprout (HPSeKS) on productive performance, egg quality, and Se concentrations in egg and tissue of laying quails. Two-hundred quails, 63 days of age, were divided into four groups. Each group consisted of five replicates and each replicate had ten birds, according to a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were T1 (control diet), T2 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite), T3 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched yeast), T4 (control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from HPSeKS). The findings revealed that productive performance and egg quality of quails were not altered (p > 0.05) by Se sources. Whole egg Se concentrations of quails fed Se from HPSeKS and Se-enriched yeast were higher (p  0.05), but higher (p < 0.05) than that of quails fed Se from sodium selenite. The results reveal that Se from HPSeKS did not change the performance and egg quality of quails. The effectiveness of Se from HPSeKS was comparable to that of Se-enriched yeast, which was higher than that of Se from sodium selenite.

  14. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Elena; Parolini, Cinzia; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Brambilla, Stefano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats were fed Nath's hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (pPea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (ppea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (ppea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes.

  15. Germinated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan): a novel diet for lowering oxidative stress and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchegbu, Nneka N; Ishiwu, Charles N

    2016-09-01

    This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea. Also after germination there was an increase in the inhibitory potential of pigeon pea extract against α-glucosidase compared with the nongerminated pigeon pea extract. There was a significant increase (P pigeon pea extract gave rise to a reduced fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. On administration of germinated pigeon pea extract, LPO reduced drastically but there was an increase in the level of GSH. This study concluded that intake of germinated pigeon pea is a good dietary supplement for controlling hyperglycemia and LPO.

  16. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L. Nodule Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Zhukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L. genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR.

  17. Effect of shed rooftype and babassu pie on the productive characteristics of meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane de Oliveira Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the effects of shed roof(SR typeand the inclusion of babassu pie (BP in rations on the productive characteristics ofmeat quailsfrom days 14 to 28 and days14 to 40. We studied 896 meatquails. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 4x4 factorial arrangement, using four types of shedroofs (fiber cement, ceramic, straw, and painted fiber cement and four rations (with 0, 5, 10, and 15% inclusion of babassu pie. The performance variables evaluated from 14 to 28 and 14 to 40 days included food intake (FI, g/bird, mean weight gain (WG, g/bird, food conversion (FC, g/g, mean live weight on day 28 (MW28, g/bird, mean live weight on day 40 (MW40, g/bird, and energy efficiency (EF; g Mcal. After slautherthe birds on day 40, we measured the carcass weight (CW and the carcass yield (CY, %, obtained for the breast (BY, legs (LGY, and wings (WINGY. We also obtained the relative weight of the heart (HRW, liver (LRW, gizzard (GRW, and intestine (IRW. To compare the economic efficiency between the experimental rations, we analyzed the cost of ration per kg of carcass (CC and determined the gross margin (GM. Between day 14 and day 28, we found that the use of SR influenced the FI28, WG28, and the MW28 of the quails (p 0.05, but it linearly improved WG28, FC28, MW28, and EF28. Between days 14 and 40, we found that SR influenced the WG40, FC40, MW40, and EF40 of the quails (p < 0.05 and that a BP increased the FI40, WG40, and MW40 in a quadratic manner. SR and BP did not affect the CW, BY, WINGY, LGY, HRW, LRW,or IRW. However, BP influenced MGRW, which increased linearly with the inclusion of BP. We concluded that a ceramic roof provides better environmental conditions than do other shed roofs. The inclusion of BP improved the performance characteristics, and it was technically feasible to include up to 15% BP in the rations of meat quails. Based on the current cost analysis, however, the inclusion of BP is economically

  18. The occurrence of gibberellin-binding protein(s) in pea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from epicotyls of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Progress No. 9) and tall pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were investigated using ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in a DEAE filter paper assay at 0-3 C. The binding obtained is saturable, reversible, and temperature labile in dwarf pea, and has a half-life of dissociation of 5-6 min. By varying the concentration of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in the incubation medium the Kd was estimated to be 120-140 nM in dwarf pea and 70 nM in tall pea. The number of binding sites (n) was estimated to be 0.66 and 0.43 pmole mg{sup {minus}1} soluble protein in dwarf pea and in tall pea, respectively. In competition binding assays, biologically active GAs, such as GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 4} could reduce the level of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding much more than the biologically inactive GA{sub 4} methyl ester and epi-GA{sub 4}. Changes in gibberellin-binding protein(s) were studied during seed germination. While the Kd of the binding protein(s) for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} remained the same, there was a marked increase in the number of binding sites from 24 h soaked seed to 8-day old seedlings. Also, the Kd and the number of binding sites in the GA-responsive apical part and in the nonresponsive basal part in the epicotyl were similar. The effect of light on gibberellin-binding protein in dwarf pea was also studied. The GA-binding protein in dwarf pea was partially purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography.

  19. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Županac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is becoming more represented gorage leguminoza on the fields Republic of Croatia. Three year field trials (2003-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seed was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 which is part of the microbiological collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The results of the research showed that the highest total nodule number on pea root (39.7 nodule/plant as well as nodule dry matter weight (0.203 g/plant was determined on the inoculated variant. Average highest yield of winter pea dry matter was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (4.33 t ha-1. Total dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture were ranging from 8.92 t ha-1 (control up to 10.64 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average highest yield of winter pea crude protein was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (266 kg ha-1 in 2003, (672 kg ha-1 in 2004 and (853 kg ha-1 in 2005. The conclusion of this research is that the highest dry matter yield (4.33 t ha-1 and crude protein yield was obtained with the inoculation of new genotype winter pea G3.

  20. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  1. PEA-15 Induces Autophagy in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and is Associated with Prolonged Overall Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Rosen, Daniel; Wei, Caimiao; Kazansky, Anna; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kondo, Seiji; Liu, Jinsong; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2008-01-01

    Phospho-enriched protein in astrocytes (PEA-15) is a 15-kDa phosphoprotein that slows cell proliferation by binding to and sequestering extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting ERK-dependent transcription and proliferation. In previous studies of E1A human gene therapy for ovarian cancer, we discovered that PEA-15 induced the antitumor effect of E1A by sequestering activated ERK in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of PEA-15 ...

  2. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  3. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  4. Resistance to rusts (uromyces pisi and u. viciae-fabae) in pea

    OpenAIRE

    Barilli, Eleonora; Sillero, Josefina C.; Prats, Elena; Rubiales, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Pea is the second most important food legume crop in the world. Rust is a pea disease widely distributed, particularly in regions with warm, humid weather. Pea rust can be incited by Uromyces viciae-fabae and by U. pisi. U. viciae-fabae prevails in tropical and subtropical regions such as India and China, while U. pisi prevails in temperate regions. Chemical control of rust is possible, but the use of host plant resistance is the most desired means of rust control. In this paper we revise and...

  5. Late morphological and functional changes caused by ionizing radiation in eggs of Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J; Grom, A; Csuka, J; Stasko, J; Kindlova, L [Vyskumny Ustav Chovu a Slachtenia Hydiny, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1976-01-01

    Eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were irradiated before incubation with doses of 300, 500, 800, 1500, 2000 and 2500 R of /sup 60/Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 187 R/min. The parameters of hatchability, embryonic morphology in the last phases of development, growth changes, viability, sex ratio and production of eggs in the control and experimental groups were followed. Embryonic mortality was proportional to the dose, irradiation weakened the embryos, at doses of 800 R and more the radiation evoked various teratogenic changes and slightly lengthened the incubation period. For the period of embryonic development, LD/sub 50/ approximately equal to 800 R and LD/sub 100/=2500 R was determined. Radiation slightly suppressed growth, viability in the postembryonic stage was influenced very slightly. Irradiation of eggs did not influence the sex ratio; the production of eggs was significantly reduced only at a dose of 1500 R and more.

  6. Hormonal responses and tolerance to cold of female quail following parathion ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-week-old female bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), maintained at 26 + 1?C, were provided diets containing 0,25, or 100 ppm parathion ad libitum. After 10 days, birds were exposed to mild cold (6 + 1?C) for 4,8, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in birds receiving 25 and 100 ppm parathion. Body weight, egg production, and plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations were reduced in birds receiving 100 ppm parathion compared with other groups. Cold exposure did not alter plasma corticosterone levels in the 0- and 25-ppm parathion groups, but a two- to five fold elevation of plasma corticosterone was observed in birds fed 100 ppm parathion. These findings indicate that (i) short-term ingestion of parathion can impair reproduction possibly by altering gonadotropin or steroid secretion, and (ii) tolerance to cold may be reduced following ingestion of this organophosphate.

  7. Late morphological and functional changes caused by ionizing radiation in eggs of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.; Grom, A.; Csuka, J.; Stasko, J.; Kindlova, L.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were irradiated before incubation with doses of 300, 500, 800, 1500, 2000 and 2500 R of 60 Co gamma rays at a dose rate of 187 R/min. The parameters of hatchability, embryonic morphology in the last phases of development, growth changes, viability, sex ratio and production of eggs in the control and experimental groups were followed. Embryonic mortality was proportional to the dose, irradiation weakened the embryos, at doses of 800 R and more the radiation evoked various teratogenic changes and slightly lengthened the incubation period. For the period of embryonic development, LD 50 approximately equal to 800 R and LD 100 =2500 R was determined. Radiation slightly suppressed growth, viability in the postembryonic stage was influenced very slightly. Irradiation of eggs did not influence the sex ratio; the production of eggs was significantly reduced only at a dose of 1500 R and more. (author)

  8. Activation of vitellogenin II gene expression by steroid hormones in the old Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Upadhyay, R; Kanungo, M S

    1998-11-01

    Alterations in the basal transcription rates of eukaryotic genes are believed to involve the binding of trans-acting factor(s) with specific DNA sequences in the promoter. We show here two interrelated events for the VTGII gene of the old, non-egg laying Japanese quail: alterations in the structure of the chromatin encompassing the gene, and binding of trans-acting factors to the promoter of the gene. Estradiol/progesterone alone or together cause alterations in the conformation of the chromatin of the promoter region of the gene. This may allow free access of nuclear protein(s) to the cis-acting elements, ERE, PRE and NF1, in the promoter of the gene and cause activation of transcription.

  9. Diurnal rhythm of pituitary gonadotropic activity of male Japanese quail in relation to testicular growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Mineo; Koga, Osamu; Nishiyama, Hisayoshi

    1977-01-01

    Male Japanese quail were exposed to 14-hr (5:00-19:00) light:10-hr darkness (14 L:10D) from 1 day to 28 days of age and exposed to 8 L (5:00-13:00); 16D from 29 days to 49 days of age. Thereafter the birds were again transferred to 14L:10D for photostimulation. Gonadotropic activities of the anterior lobes of the pituitary were measured at various times during the 24-hr period in relation to testicular growth with a blossary method based on sup(32P)-uptake by one-day-old chick tests. The mean testicular weights increased from the 2nd to 35th day of exposure to 14L:10D and an abrupt increase was observed between the 7th and 21st day. Thereafter the weight reached a plateau. Under 8L:16D and on the 1st day of exposure to 14L:10D, no diurnal changes in the pituitary gonadotropic activity were observed but on the 2nd day the activity showed a peak at 19:00 (14 hr after the onset of light). On the 7th and 21st day, two peaks of the activity were found at 8:00 (3 hr after the onset of light) and 22:00 (17 hr after the onset of light or 3 hr after the onset of darkness). However, only one peak was found at 19:00 (14 hr after the onset of light) on the 35th and 49th day. These results indicate that the diurnal rhythm of pituitary gonadotropic activity of male quail appears after transfer of the birds from short days to long days, and that the diurnal pattern changes with photoperiodically induced testicular growth. (auth.)

  10. In ovo exposure quail assay for risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Ryo; Takahashi, Shinji; Shimizu, Akira; Morita, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Fujio

    2006-12-01

    Although there are in vivo assays using various organisms for the risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, effective experimental methods for avian species are still under debate. We have developed an in ovo exposure assay using Japanese quail eggs, aimed at assessing disrupting effects on avian reproductive development and function. Hybrid eggs from Brazilian Brown male and White Egg female quails, which can be genetically sexed by their plumage color after hatching, were prepared, and test materials dissolved in olive oil were injected into the air-chamber on day 10 of incubation. After sexual maturation of hatched chicks, we observed egg production by females and the egg quality and male-typical reproductive behavior, and then examined reproductive system morphology and serum steroid concentrations in both sexes. Treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.5-50 ng/g egg), dose-dependently reduced the eggshell thickness and strength of eggs. A few females treated with 5 ng/g DES per egg produced soft-shelled/ unmarked eggs, and all laying females treated with 50 ng/g egg produced eggs completely lacking shells. DES also induced shortening of the left oviduct and abnormal development of the right oviduct in a dose-dependent manner, while testis weight was reduced symmetrically. In addition, 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol (10-1,000 ng/g egg), which previously showed relatively high estrogenic activity in vitro, caused dose-dependent shortening of the left oviduct and reduction in testis weight. The methods for evaluating endocrine disrupting effects and preparing experimental birds proposed in the present study are expected to facilitate assays for avian reproductive toxicology.

  11. Enterococci Isolated from Japanese Quails Exposed to Microgravity Conditions and Stability of their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lauková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci isolated from the crop and caecum of Japanese quails exposed to 7 day conditions of microgravity were re-vitalized after their dry-freezing long storage. Originally, the strains were isolated from Japanese quails after their landing from flight onboard the orbital station Mir during the experiment in August 1990. Because taxonomy as well as the studies concerning the bacteriocins, especially those produced by enterococci, have been continually developed for years, the aim of this study was to confirm species identification, stability of the properties of enterococci as well as to test new properties after their long storage. Genotyping allotted the strains to the species E. faecium. Lactic acid production was detected in similar amounts in the strains before and after their long-storage in dry-frozen form. The strains were vancomycinsensitive and kanamycin-resistant before as well as after their long-time storage. Variability in sensitivity to different antibiotics was found among the strains tested even before and after longtime storage. Each of the strains possessed at least one structural enterocin gene. The structural genes for enterocin A, P, B, L50B were detected in E. faecium EP7. E. faecium EP2, EEP4 have the genes for ent A, B, L50B. The gene for ent P was detected only in the strain EP7. The most often detected was ent A gene followed by ent genes B, L50B. All strains inhibited growth of at least 4 out of 15 indicators. The stability of the enterococcal properties determined before as well as after their dry-freezing was not influenced during their long-term storage; moreover, new properties were determined.

  12. Adjustment of equations to predict the metabolizable energy of corn for meat type quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Junior Pasquetti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metabolizable energy (ME determination for foods used in quail diets, through metabolism assays, takes time, infrastructure and financial resources, which makes the development of prediction equations based on proximal composition of foods to estimate the ME values of particular interest. The objective of this study was to adjust the prediction equations of metabolizable energy (ME of corn for quail. The chemical compositions of 12 maize varieties were determined and a metabolism assay was carried out in order to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of these corn varieties. The values of chemical composition, AME and AMEn, converted to dry matter, were used to adjust the prediction equations. The initial adjustment of simple and multiple linear regression of the AME and AMEn was performed using the values of crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral (NDF and acid (ADF detergent fiber, mineral matter (MM, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P as regressors (full model. To adjust the prediction equations the statistical procedure of simple and multiple linear regression was used, with the technique of indirect elimination (Backward. There was adjustment of 10 prediction equations, in which five were for AME and another five for AMEn, the R² values of which ranged from 0.20 to 0.75 and from 0.21 to 0.78, respectively. For all adjusted equations, negative correlations for MM were observed, which may be related to its dilutive effect of the gross energy contained in corn. In conclusion, the equations that showed better adjustment were AME= 5605.46 - 385.074CP + 111.648EE + 48.1133NDF + 303.924ADF - 929.931MM (R²= 0.75 and AMEn= 5878.16 - 403.937CP + 81.9618EE + 41.8954NDF + 303.506FDA - 901.621MM (R²= 0.78.

  13. Development of pea protein-based bioplastics with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Puyana, Víctor; Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Guerrero, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, bioplastics from renewable polymers were studied in order to reduce the huge generation of plastic wastes, causing an environmental problem that continues owing to the increasing demand for plastic products. Bioplastics with much better antimicrobial properties, in particular against Gram-positive bacteria, were obtained with the addition of nisin to the initial protein/plasticizer mixture. However, the addition of nisin produces more rigid but less deformable bioplastics (higher Young's modulus but lower strain at break). The results obtained are useful to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of pea protein-based bioplastics by adding nisin and make them suitable as potential candidates to replace conventional plastics in food packaging. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  15. Phloem unloading and cell expansion in pea stems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Cosgrove, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Phloem unloading into elongating stems of dark-grown pea seedlings was greater in regions with higher relative growth rates. Phloem transport was monitored over 1 h by measuring accumulation of radiolabel from 14 C-sucrose added between the cotyledons. The apical hook and plumule and 8 mm of the growing region of an intact plant were sealed in a pressure chamber and the pressure was raised to stop elongation. Phloem unloading was inhibited in the pressurized zone of elongation and accelerated in the apical hook and plumule, with the result that the magnitude of phloem transport into the stem was unchanged. The results demonstrate a coupling between cell expansion and phloem unloading

  16. Induction of mutation in peas (Pisum sativum) in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Pando, L.; Torres Aranda, M.; Romero Loli, M.

    1984-01-01

    The production of peas, a staple food in Peru, can be increased by crop rotation with cereals in high lands (3000 m and above). Cultivation in high lands not only gives cultivar of higher proteic content but also improves the fertility of the soils. However, the low temperature (in the freezing region) in the high lands and the associated plant diseases are the major problems for this kind of cultivation. The present report describes the development of freezing and disease resistant mutants through mutagenesis with gamma radiation. Two varieties, Alderman and Amarilla, which had been adopted to high lands are selected for the present study. Two doses were used, 14 and 18 Krad, employing 4600 seeds/dose for the Alderman variety and 3600 seeds/dose for Amarilla. Preliminary results are presented

  17. Macromolecular organization of xyloglucan and cellulose in pea epicotyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Maclachlan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Xyloglucan is known to occur widely in the primary cell walls of higher plants. This polysaccharide in most dicots possesses a cellulose-like main chain with three of every four consecutive residues substituted with xylose and minor addition of other sugars. Xyloglucan and cellulose metabolism is regulated by different processes; since different enzyme systems are probably required for the synthesis of their 1,4-β-linkages. A macromolecular complex composed of xyloglucan and cellulose only was obtained from elongating regions of etiolated pea stems. It was examined by light microscopy using iodine staining, by radioautography after labeling with [ 3 H]fructose, by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescein-lectin (fructose-binding) as probe, and by electron microscopy after shadowing. The techniques all demonstrated that the macromolecule was present in files of cell shapes, referred to here as cell-wall ghosts, in which xyloglucan was localized both on and between the cellulose microfibrils

  18. Xyloglucan galactosyl- and fucosyltransferase activity from pea epicotyl microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faik, A.; Chileshe, C.; Sterling, J.; Maclachlan, G.

    1997-01-01

    Microsomal membranes from growing tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyls were incubated with the substrate UDP-[14C]galactose (Gal) with or without tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) as a potential galactosyl acceptor. Added tamarind seed XG enhanced incorporation of [14C]Gal into high-molecular-weight products (eluted from columns of Sepharose CL-6B in the void volume) that were trichloroacetic acid-soluble but insoluble in 67% ethanol. These products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to fragments comparable in size to XG subunit oligosaccharides. XG-dependent galactosyltransferase activity could be solubilized, along with XG fucosyltransferase, by the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1 propanesulfonate. When this enzyme was incubated with tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed XG or nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) seed XG that had been partially degalactosylated with an XG-specific beta-galactosidase, the rates of Gal transfer increased and fucose transfer decreased compared with controls with native XG. The reaction products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to 14C fragments that were analyzed by gel-filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation with pulsed amperometric detection. The major components were XG subunits, namely one of the two possible monogalactosyl octasaccharides (-XXLG-) and digalactosyl nonasaccharide (-XLLG-), whether the predominant octasaccharide in the acceptor was XXLG (as in tamarind seed XG) or XLXG (as in nasturtium seed XG). It is concluded that the first xylosylglucose from the reducing end of the subunits was the Gal acceptor locus preferred by the solubilized pea transferase. These observations are incorporated into a model for the biosynthesis of cell wall XGs

  19. Effect of boiled oil as dietary supplements for Japanese Quail on serum protein fractions and intestinal and hepatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faramawy, A.A.; Soliman, S.M.; Fahmy, Y.M.O.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the levels of serum protein fractions and testosterone, in addition to histopathological changes of small intestine and liver of Japanese quail following feeding with diets containing different concentrations of boiled oil (BO). Male Japanese quails (n=120), arranged into four groups each of three replicates, were supplemented with BO at 1%, 2% and 4% at the expense of 4% cotton seed oil (CSO). At the end of the experiment (10 weeks), three birds from each replicate were slaughtered and serum, small intestine and liver were collected for the determination of total testosterone, total protein, albumin and globulin fractions and fat studying the histology of small intestine and liver. The data revealed that feeding with BO led to decrease of total proteins and β-globulins in addition to cellular damages of small intestine and liver. This effect was increased with increasing the BO concentration in the diet

  20. Physiological responses of PEA (Pisum sativum cv. meteor) to irrigation salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Pervez, M.A.; Balal, R.M.; Azhar, N.; Shahzad, J.; Ubaidullah

    2008-01-01

    The effects of irrigation water or soil salinity on physiological aspects of pea (Pisum sativum cv.Meteor) were contrived. Ten weeks old pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 40, 90 and 140 mM in nutrient solution Plants were grown in controlled environment and harvested at each 3 days interval for decisiveness 0 physiological parameters. Photosynthetic rate, relative water content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents reduced by increasing the NaCI concentration while CO/sub 2/ concentration and free proline content intensified. By experiment it was adumbrated that high salinity level along with prolonged accentuate duration is more drastic to pea plants physiology. Results also exhibited that pea plants could indulge 40 and 90 mM NaCl but are sensitive to 140 mM. (author)

  1. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania

    2008-06-01

    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  2. Effect of cadmium on growth, protein content and peroxidase activity in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavi, K.; Kholdebarin, B.

    2011-01-01

    n this study the effects of different cadmium chloride concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mu M) on some physiological and biochemical processes including seed germination, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, protein content and peroxidase activity in peas (Cicer arietinum cv. pars) were investigated. Cadmium did not have any significant effect on the rate of pea seed germination. However, it affected the subsequent growth rate in these plants. Higher cadmium concentrations specially at 50 and 100 mu M reduced plant growth significantly. Leaf chlorosis, wilting and leaf abscission were observed in plants treated with cadmium. Protein content in pea roots reduced significantly in the presence of high cadmium concentrations. Low concentrations of CdCl/sub 2/ resulted in higher peroxidase activity both in roots and shoots of pea plants. (author)

  3. Competition for and utilisation of sulfur in sole and intercrops of pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Klindt; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2007-01-01

    gave barley a growth and nutrient use advantage compared to pea (REIc values importance of initial size differences decreased relative to the effect of species identity in determining the competitive strength of the two species and by the end...

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-09-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour.

  5. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  6. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  7. Modified saponification and HPLC methods for analyzing carotenoids from the retina of quail: implications for its use as a nonprimate model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Matthew B; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-09-01

    To investigate carotenoid content in the retina of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), for comparison with carotenoids in human retina, and to assess the effects of different saponification procedures on the recovery of quail retinal carotenoids. Extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified with methods adapted from recent studies, then identified and quantified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from quail retina, we varied base concentration and the total time of saponification across a wide range and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations among conditions. Astaxanthin and galloxanthin were the dominant carotenoids recovered in the quail retina, along with smaller amounts of five other carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, 3'-epilutein, epsilon-carotene, and an unidentified carotenoid). Astaxanthin was sensitive to saponification conditions; recovery was poor with strong bases (0.2 and 0.5 M KOH) and best with weak bases (0.01 and 0.2 M KOH). In contrast, xanthophyll carotenoids (galloxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, and the unknown) were best recovered with strong base after 6 hours of saponification at room temperature. The recovery of epsilon-carotene was not affected by saponification conditions. Separate chemical hydrolysis procedures--using a strong base to recover xanthophylls and a weak base to recover astaxanthin--should be used for maximizing recovery of quail retinal carotenoids. Because the dominant carotenoids in quail retina are absent in human retina, and because of their different packaging (e.g., esterified in oil droplets) and light-absorbance properties compared with xanthophylls in the human eye, use of the quail as a model organism for studying human retinal carotenoids should be approached with caution.

  8. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C; Tun, Hein M; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and -resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3-5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host

  9. Effect of Different Levels of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Powder on the Performance and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Japanese quail chicks (1 d old were used in a 42-d trial to study the effects of Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E on growth performance and meat quality. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails in each, using a 4×2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Results showed that supplementing the basal diet with Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E significantly affected growth performance at 21 d of age (P. Dietary treatments significantly affected 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS and water holding capacity (WHC values of breast meat (P. The value of TBARS in breast meat was not affected by dietary levels of Artichoke leaf powder, whereas the value decreased significantly by vitamin E treatment (P. Quails receiving 1.5 percent Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had significantly lower breast meat WHC than those  receiving the basal diet (P. Breast meat crude fat and WHC were affected by gender (P. Dietary 3 percent Artichoke leaf powder increased the b* values of thigh meat compared with the control. The lightness of thigh and breast meat and also redness of thigh meat were affected by gender (P. In general, the results indicated that supplementation of diet by Artichoke leaf powder did not improve growth performance of quails, but may have a potential to improve the oxidative stability and meat quality.

  10. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA ® -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA ® -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The role of heat shock protein 70 in oxidant stress and inflammatory injury in quail spleen induced by cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiayi; Liu, Chunpeng; Zhao, Dan; Fu, Jing

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in the spleen of quails which were induced by cold stress. One hundred ninety-two 15-day-old male quails were randomly divided into 12 groups and kept at 12 ± 1 °C to examine acute and chronic cold stress. We first detected the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes in the spleen tissue under acute and chronic cold stress. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) fluctuated in acute cold stress groups, while they were significantly decreased (p stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) content were decreased significantly (p stress groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased (p stress except the 0.5 h group of acute cold stress. Besides, histopathological analysis showed that quail's spleen tissue was inflammatory injured seriously in both the acute and chronic cold stress groups. Additionally, the inflammatory factors (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), iNOS, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α)) and Hsp70 mRNA levels were increased in both of the acute and chronic cold stress groups compared with the control groups. These results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammatory injury could be induced by cold stress in spleen tissues of quails. Furthermore, the increased expression of Hsp70 may play a role in protecting the spleen against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused by cold stress.

  12. Efficient in vitro import of a cytosolic heat shock protein into pea chloroplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lubben, Thomas H.; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1986-01-01

    In order to further our understanding of the targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins into intracellular organelles, we have investigated the import of chimeric precursor proteins into pea chloroplasts. Two different chimeric precursor proteins were produced by in vitro expression of chimeric genes. One chimeric precursor contained the transit peptide of the small subunit of soybean ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the mature peptide of the same protein from pea. The second contained th...

  13. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-08

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.

  14. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurement...

  15. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  16. Effect of using different levels of Nigella sativa meal on the growth performance and meat quality of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mousapour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Nigella sativa meal (NSM on the growth performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, egg yolk cholesterol and meat quality in Japanese quail. For this purpose 300 one-day old Japanese quail chicks in a completely randomized design was used with five treatments in four replicates containing 15 birds each(. The experimental diets were control group (without NSM and diets containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of NSM. Feed intake of birds fed diets with 5 and 15% of NSM were statistically higher than control group. Weight gain in birds fed with 15% of NSM was significantly higher than control group. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed diets with 20% of NSM was statistically higher than control. No significant treatment effect was observed on egg yolk cholesterol, blood parameters (including triglyceride, HDL and total cholesterol concentrations and meat quality parameters (TBA, WHC, Dripping loss, Cooking loss. And also the use of different levels of NSM had no any significant effect on internal organs weight, except gizzard. NSM significantly decreased feed costs compared to control group. So, by using NSM up to 15% in Japanese quails diets, can improve weight gain and feed conversion ratio and decrease feed and meat production costs.

  17. Effect of different levels of selenium and vitamin E on blood biochemical parameters in the Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein zadeh adamnejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-administration of vitamin E and selenium has positive effects on growth performance of avian species, but their effect is not fully elicited in the Japanese quail. Also, controversial reports exist for the effect of vitamin E and selenium on avian performance. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different levels of selenium (0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg and vitamin E (0, 150 and 300 mg/kg in the diet of the Japanese quail. Birds received mesh diet from the start of the study, then selenium and vitamin E were added on day 17. At the end of the study, after food deprivation for 6 hours, Japanese quail (1 male and 1 female were selected and blood samples collected for biochemical investigations and determination of glucose, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels. There was significant decrease in cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels and significant decrease in albumin and total protein levels on day 35 (p

  18. Effect of using garlic or curcumin or parsley on the growth performance, meat and egg quality of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.; Wakwak, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two grams of powdered garlic or curcumin or parsley were added separately to each kg of the diet of unsexed Japanese quail aged one day old in an attempt to evaluate growth performance, serum cholesterol, triiodothyronine hormone, small intestine thickness and caecal microbial count to improve meat quality and egg production. The quails were hold in equal 4 groups; each group contained three replicates of 30 birds. Birds were watered and fed ad libitum for 7 weeks then 69 chicks from each group (6 males and 17 females for each replicate) were transferred into laying cages for another 6 weeks while 3 birds from each replicate were slaughtered for serum cholesterol, triiodothyronine, small intestine thickness, microbial count and carcass fatty acid determination. The data revealed that addition of each of the tested herb supplements caused significant increase in body weight, while there was non-significant changes in serum cholesterol, T3, small intestine thickness and total bacterial count. In addition, there was significant increase in unsaturated fatty acids and significant decrease in saturated fatty acids of carcass. The three additives caused remarkable increases in egg production and hatch ability %, besides augmenting the fertility % and number of ovarian follicles. It may be concluded that addition of 2g garlic or curcumin or parsley powder to each kg of the diet of Japanese quail favored consumer expectation in relation to meat quality and egg production and prolonged feed preservation

  19. Immunocytochemical distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the central nervous system of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Curry, P; Aste, N; Viglietti-Panzica, C; Panzica, G C

    1991-01-01

    In the present study we detailed the distribution of GFAP-immunopositive structures within the central nervous system of the Japanese quail. Different fixation and embedding procedures were applied. The best results were obtained on frozen cryostatic sections from freshly dissected brains subsequently fixed by a short immersion in cold acetone. Immunopositive structures were observed both with immunofluorescence, and with immunoperoxidase methods. Immunoreactive cell bodies and processes were observed within the whole central nervous system, and different cell types can be identified on the basis of their topographical location and morphology. A first class of astrocytes is composed of intensely stained unipolar cells lining the inner surface of the pia mater and the large blood vessels. A second type is represented by multipolar astrocytes of variable size, provided with an irregular cell body. The last type is represented by similar elements, showing an immunonegative cell body, that can be identified only by the presence of converging processes. These three types of cells, and several isolated processes, show a differential distribution within the quail central nervous system, both in the grey and in the white matter. Present results suggest that GFAP may represent a good marker for at least part of the astroglial population in quail.

  20. Effect of dietary fat type on the fatty acids composition of irradiated and frozen storage japanese quails meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EI-Wahab, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of substitution of dietary cotton seed oil (CSO) by used restaurant oil (URO) with different percentages 25% group 2 (G2), 50% group 3 (G3) and 100% group 4 (G4) in Japanese quail diets on the fatty acids composition of their meat especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The effect of gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 5 kGy) at frozen storage -18 C (degree) for 2 and 4 months in comparison with unirradiated and un storage were studied. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in quail meat fed G4 diet (100% URO) increased significantly in comparison with SFA in G2 (25% URO) and G3 (50% URO) but there is no significant effect with G2 and G3 in comparison with G1 (100% CSO).The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not affected by G2 and G3 diet. Also, linoleic acid (C 18:2, n-6) had the same trend in those groups with range (32.75% to 33.35%). It is concluded that feeding a diet with URO 25% and 50% conserve the content of linoleic acid and the content of PUFA in quail meat. The irradiation doses and storage periods had no significant effect on the linoleic acid, MUFA and PUFA content.

  1. Effect of probiotic supplementation on organic feed to alternative antibiotic growth promoter on production performance and economics analysis of quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokapirnasari, W P; Dewi, A R; Fathinah, A; Hidanah, S; Harijani, N; Soeharsono; Karimah, B; Andriani, A D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the production performance and economic analysis in quail which use probiotic supplementation to alternate antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) to feed consumption, water consumption, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and feed efficiency. About 240 quails ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) at 14 weeks of age were completely randomized into four treatments, each treatment consisted of six replications and each replication consisted by 10 heads. The treatment was T0 (organic feed without AGP and without probiotic), T1 (organic feed + 0.001% AGP), T2 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in feed), and T3 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in drinking water). The probiotic consist of 1.2×10 5 CFU/g of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus . The results showed that the probiotic supplementation both in feed and water give a significant impact to feed consumption, water intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, and quail day production, but no statistical difference of egg mass. The T3 also show the most profitable business analysis, which has the best result in income, profit, break-even point, return cost ratio, benefit-cost ratio, and return on investment. It can be concluded that giving 0.005% probiotic in drinking water to get the best egg production and profit.

  2. Traceability of animal meals in Japanese quail eggs using the technique of 13C e 15N* stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails by analyzing eggs and egg fractions (yolk and albumen by the technique of carbon-13 (13C and nitrogen-15 (15N stable isotopes. In the trial, 120 Japanese quails were distributed in six treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The following treatments were applied: feed based on corn and soybean meal, containing graded BMBM inclusions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5%. After 42 days, 20 eggs per treatment were randomly collected for three consecutive days. Ten eggs were used for yolk and albumen sample collection, and ten for total egg sample collection. It was possible to detect the dietary inclusion of 1% BMBM in the egg and its fractions. Therefore, the technique of isotopes 13C and 15N is able of tracing since 1% inclusion level of BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails in eggs and their fractions.

  3. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations in moderately hypercholesterolaemic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Triolo, Michela; Bosisio, Raffaella; Bondioli, Alighiero; Calabresi, Laura; De Vergori, Viviana; Gomaraschi, Monica; Mombelli, Giuliana; Pazzucconi, Franco; Zacherl, Christian; Arnoldi, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of plant proteins (lupin protein or pea protein) and their combinations with soluble fibres (oat fibre or apple pectin) on plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group design was followed: after a 4-week run-in period, participants were randomised into seven treatment groups, each consisting of twenty-five participants. Each group consumed two bars containing specific protein/fibre combinations: the reference group consumed casein+cellulose; the second and third groups consumed bars containing lupin or pea proteins+cellulose; the fourth and fifth groups consumed bars containing casein and oat fibre or apple pectin; the sixth group and seventh group received bars containing combinations of pea protein and oat fibre or apple pectin, respectively. Bars containing lupin protein+cellulose ( - 116 mg/l, - 4·2%), casein+apple pectin ( - 152 mg/l, - 5·3%), pea protein+oat fibre ( - 135 mg/l, - 4·7%) or pea protein+apple pectin ( - 168 mg/l, - 6·4%) resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol levels (Ppea protein+cellulose. The present study shows the hypocholesterolaemic activity and potential clinical benefits of consuming lupin protein or combinations of pea protein and a soluble fibre, such as oat fibre or apple pectin.

  4. Growth performance, meat quality traits, and genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci in 3 generations of Japanese quail populations (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaniello, S; Maiorano, G; Siwek, M; Knaga, S; Witkowski, A; Di Memmo, D; Bednarczyk, M

    2014-08-01

    The current research was conducted to compare growth, carcass traits, pH, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, and genetic bases of IMC and carcasses (breast-muscle weight) of different lines and generations of adult males and females of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Forty-four quails (generation F0), 22 Pharaoh (F-33) meat-type males and 22 Standard (S-22) laying-type females, were crossed to produce the F1 hybrids generation. The F2 generation was created by mating one F1 male with one F1 female, full siblings. The birds, randomly chosen from F0 (22 males and 22 females), F1 (22 males and 22 females), and F2 (84 males and 152 females) were raised to 20 wk of age in collective cages. Quails were fed ad libitum commercial diets. At slaughter, all birds were individually weighed (after a fasting period of 12 h) and dressing yield (without giblets) was calculated. The carcasses were then dissected. Genomic DNA was extracted from all of the blood, and 30 microsatellite markers located on 2 quail chromosomes were genotyped. The F -: 33 quails had higher in vivo and postmortem performances and a higher abdominal fat percentage than those of the egg line. Meat from S -: 22 quails had a slower collagen maturation (hydroxylysylpyridinoline crosslink/collagen) and a higher ultimate pH. The F1 and F2 generations showed an evident sexual dimorphism, and an additional effect could be due to hybrid heterosis evident in F2. Meat from quails of F1 and F2 generations had a lower IMC amount with a higher degree of collagen maturation compared with parental lines. Two statistically significant QTL have been detected on quail chromosome 2 (CJA02): a QTL with an additive effect (0.50) for IMC in the marker bracket GUJ0037 and GUJ0093; a second QTL with additive (1.32) and dominant (1.91) effects for breast-muscle weight in the marker bracket GUJ0084 and GUJ0073. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL associated with breast-muscle weight and IMC in quail and

  5. Isolation, identification, and serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum from quails in Indonesia with typical infectious coryza disease symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti Wahyuni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Infectious coryza (IC or snot is an infectious upper respiratory disease affecting chickens and birds, including quails, and it is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. The symptoms of IC are facial swelling, malodorous nasal discharge, and lacrimation. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and serotype the A. paragallinarum of snot in quails and to determine the sensitivity and resistance to several antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Nine quails from Yogyakarta, Indonesia with typical snot disease symptoms were used in this study. The nasal swab was obtained and directly streaked onto a chocolate agar plate and blood agar plate (BAP, then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h. Staphylococcus spp. was cross-streaked onto the BAP to show the satellite growth. The observation of the morphology of the suspected colony, Gram staining, and biochemical tests (catalase test, oxidase test, urease test, peptone test, and carbohydrate fermentation such as maltose, mannitol, lactose, and sorbitol are done to identify the species of bacteria. This research also detects the serovar of A. paragallinarum using hemagglutination inhibition test. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were also performed using several antibiotics against five A. paragallinarum isolates that were cultured on Mueller-Hinton Agar and added with antibiotic discs, then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h. Results: Five isolates out of nine suspected isolates (55.5% were A. paragallinarum. The growth of isolates from quails did not depend on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD (NAD-independent. Sensitivity test was done using the five identified A. paragallinarum isolates, results showed that they were 100% sensitive to amoxicillin (AMC and ampicillin (AMP; 100% resistant toward amikacin (AK, erythromycin (E, gentamycin (CN, and tetracycline (TE; 80% resistant toward kanamycin (K and trimethoprim (W; 60% resistant toward chloramphenicol (C; and 20

  6. The role of vitamin E or clay in growing Japanese quail fed diets polluted by cadmium at various levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Kassem, D E; Mahrose, Kh M; Alagawany, M

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether vitamin (Vit) E or natural clay as feed additives has the potential to modulate the deleterious effects resulting from exposure to cadmium (Cd) in growing Japanese quail. 648 Japanese quail chicks (1 week old) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary Cd (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg diet) and two levels of Vit E (0, 250 mg/kg diet) or two levels of natural clay (0 and 100 mg/kg diet) to study the influences of Cd, Vit E, clay or their different combinations on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood biochemical components and Cd residues in muscles and liver. Live BW and weight gain of quails were linearly decreased with increasing dietary Cd levels. Moreover, feed conversion was significantly worsened with increasing Cd level. Mortality percentage was linearly increased as dietary Cd level increased up to 120 mg/kg diet. Carcass percentage was linearly decreased as dietary Cd level increased. While, giblets percentage were linearly and quadratically differed as dietary Cd level increased. Cd caused significant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, creatinine, urea-N and uric acid concentrations as well as ALT, AST and ALP activities. Increasing dietary Cd level was associated with its increase in the muscles and liver. Dietary supplementation with 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet or 100 mg clay/kg improved live BW, BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the un-supplemented diet. Quails fed diet contained 250 mg Vit E/kg and those fed 100 mg clay/kg had the highest percentages of carcass and dressing than those fed the un-supplemented diet. Blood plasma biochemical components studied were better when birds received 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet and those received 100 mg clay/kg. Cd residues in the muscles and liver were significantly less in the birds had 250 mg of Vit E/kg or those received 100 mg clay/kg diet than those un-supplemented with Vit E. Growth performance traits and blood plasma

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) on meat quality and egg fatty acid composition of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, H; Konca, Y; Durmuscelebi, F

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted in two separate experiments. Experiment I was conducted to investigate the effects of hemp seed (HS) on meat quality traits, and experiment II was designed to determine egg fatty acid (FA) composition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In experiment I and experiment II treatments, groups were as follows: (i) control (not included HS0), (ii) 5% HS inclusion to diets, (iii) 10% HS inclusion to diets and (iv) 20% HS inclusion to diets. In experiment I, a total of 192 7-day-old-quail were fed with HS diets for 5 weeks, and end of the experiment I, a total of 64 quail (16 each) slaughtered and meat samples were analysed for meat colour, pH, cooking and thawing loss and FA composition. In experiment II, a total of 120 8-week-old laying quail were fed with experimental diets for 6 weeks and egg FA composition were determined. Breast meat cooking loss was significantly lower in 20% supplemented group (p egg samples were linearly increased with increasing the dietary HS ratio (p eggs (p egg yolk omega-3 FA content and decrease cooking loss of quail meats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  9. Effect of Processing on the in Vitro and in Vivo Protein Quality of Yellow and Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Franczyk, Adam J; Medina, Gerardo; Neufeld, Jason; Appah, Paulyn; Utioh, Alphonsus; Frohlich, Peter; House, James D

    2017-09-06

    In order to determine the effect of extrusion, baking, and cooking on the protein quality of yellow and green split peas, a rodent bioassay was conducted and compared to an in vitro method of protein quality determination. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) of green split peas (71.4%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67.8%), on average. Similarly, the average Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) of green split peas (69%) was higher than that of yellow split peas (67%). Cooked green pea flour had lower PDCAAS and DIAAS values (69.19% and 67%) than either extruded (73.61%, 70%) or baked (75.22%, 70%). Conversely, cooked yellow split peas had the highest PDCCAS value (69.19%), while extruded yellow split peas had the highest DIAAS value (67%). Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between in vivo and in vitro analysis of protein quality (R 2 = 0.9745). This work highlights the differences between processing methods on pea protein quality and suggests that in vitro measurements of protein digestibility could be used as a surrogate for in vivo analysis.

  10. The ERK MAP kinase-PEA3/ETV4-MMP-1 axis is operative in oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, Richard

    2010-12-09

    Abstract Background Many members of the ETS-domain transcription factor family are important drivers of tumourigenesis. In this context, their activation by Ras-ERK pathway signaling is particularly relevant to the tumourigenic properties of many ETS-domain transcription factors. The PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors have been implicated in tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Results Here, we have studied the expression of the PEA3 subfamily members PEA3\\/ETV4 and ER81\\/ETV1 in oesophageal adenocarcinomas and determined their role in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell function. PEA3 plays an important role in controlling both the proliferation and invasive properties of OE33 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells. A key target gene is MMP-1. The ERK MAP kinase pathway activates PEA3 subfamily members and also plays a role in these PEA3 controlled events, establishing the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis as important in OE33 cells. PEA3 subfamily members are upregulated in human adenocarcinomas and expression correlates with MMP-1 expression and late stage metastatic disease. Enhanced ERK signaling is also more prevalent in late stage oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Conclusions This study shows that the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis is upregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells and is a potentially important driver of the metastatic progression of oesophageal adenocarcinomas.

  11. Genetic diversity and trait genomic prediction in a pea diversity panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstin, Judith; Salloignon, Pauline; Chabert-Martinello, Marianne; Magnin-Robert, Jean-Bernard; Siol, Mathieu; Jacquin, Françoise; Chauveau, Aurélie; Pont, Caroline; Aubert, Grégoire; Delaitre, Catherine; Truntzer, Caroline; Duc, Gérard

    2015-02-21

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a major pulse crop grown for its protein-rich seeds, is an important component of agroecological cropping systems in diverse regions of the world. New breeding challenges imposed by global climate change and new regulations urge pea breeders to undertake more efficient methods of selection and better take advantage of the large genetic diversity present in the Pisum sativum genepool. Diversity studies conducted so far in pea used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Retrotransposon Based Insertion Polymorphism (RBIP) markers. Recently, SNP marker panels have been developed that will be useful for genetic diversity assessment and marker-assisted selection. A collection of diverse pea accessions, including landraces and cultivars of garden, field or fodder peas as well as wild peas was characterised at the molecular level using newly developed SNP markers, as well as SSR markers and RBIP markers. The three types of markers were used to describe the structure of the collection and revealed different pictures of the genetic diversity among the collection. SSR showed the fastest rate of evolution and RBIP the slowest rate of evolution, pointing to their contrasted mode of evolution. SNP markers were then used to predict phenotypes -the date of flowering (BegFlo), the number of seeds per plant (Nseed) and thousand seed weight (TSW)- that were recorded for the collection. Different statistical methods were tested including the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage ans Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Squares), SPLS (Sparse Partial Least Squares), Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) methods and the structure of the collection was taken into account in the prediction. Despite a limited number of 331 markers used for prediction, TSW was reliably predicted. The development of marker assisted selection has not reached its full potential in pea until now. This paper shows that the high-throughput SNP arrays that are being

  12. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  14. Acidulants for japanese quails housed at high stocking rates at finishing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Oliveira Saccomani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quail for being an alternative species will be able to supply a new market niche due to its fast growth, high laying rate, low feed intake, in addition to the increase of the acceptance of its products by the consumer. A growing interest in raising the stocking rates in the cages as an alternative to increase the performance of the stock is noticed; although studies demonstrate that high densities can result into unfavorable environment to the birds’ welfare with alterations in the performance of the flocks and as a stressing factor being able to alter the production and profitability of the flock. At high stocking rates, the birds become predisposed to aggressiveness reactions, presenting cannibalism behavior, besides the combination of factors such as pH, temperature, ventilation and humidity deficiency which create environmental conditions favorable for certain benign bacteria which utilize uric acid of the manure through their enzymatic complexes and produce ammonia, causing stress to birds and which can cause damages to performance with significant economic losses to the producer.  The experiment with 112-day duration was conducted with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of acidulants in the Japanese quails’ drinking water and verifying the effect on the stocking rate in cages. A completely randomized design with four treatments (2 stocking rates of quails x 2 additions of and 5 replications of 24 and 36 birds per cage, corresponding to the stocking rates of 141.67 and 94.44 cm2/bird, respectively, receiving or not acidulant in the water (acetic, lactic and phosphoric acid was utilized. Performance was evaluated through egg weight (EWg, egg yield (%Laying., egg mass (EMg/bird/day, feed intake (FIg/bird/day, feed conversion (FCkg/dz and FCkg/kg and mortality (%Mort. No significant statistical differences about the performance (P>0.05 were found. There was a significant effect (P<0.05 of the density for daily feed intake with

  15. The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woźniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects, on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A. pisum. Therefore, the profile of flavonoids and expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase were determined. A significant accumulation of total salicylic acid (TSA and abscisic acid (ABA was recorded in the roots and leaves of pea seedlings growing on lead-supplemented medium and next during infestation by aphids. Increased generation of these phytohormones strongly enhanced the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including a phytoalexin, pisatin. This research provides insights into the cross-talk between the abiotic (lead and biotic factor (aphid infestation on the level of the generation of signalling molecules and their role in the induction of flavonoid biosynthesis.

  16. Analyses of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus-encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Björn; Schießl, Ingrid; Greiner, Eva; Krapp, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a multipartite, circular, single-stranded DNA plant virus. PNYDV encodes eight proteins and the function of three of which remains unknown-U1, U2, and U4. PNYDV proteins cellular localization was analyzed by GFP tagging and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) studies. The interactions of all eight PNYDV proteins were tested pairwise in planta (36 combinations in total). Seven interactions were identified and two (M-Rep with CP and MP with U4) were characterized further. MP and U4 complexes appeared as vesicle-like spots and were localized at the nuclear envelope and cell periphery. These vesicle-like spots were associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. In addition, a nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped for U1, and a mutated U1 with NLS disrupted localized at plasmodesmata and therefore might also have a role in movement. Taken together, this study provides evidence for previously undescribed nanovirus protein-protein interactions and their cellular localization with novel findings not only for those proteins with unknown function, but also for characterized proteins such as the CP.

  17. Application of fast neutrons in the mutagenesis of peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczkowski, J.; Kubajak, A.

    1976-01-01

    Air dry seeds of two varieties of peas were irradiated with fast neutrons of average energy of 5,6 MeV obtained in the U-120 cyclotron at the Cracow Institute of Nuclear Physics. The doses varied from 60 to 1600 rads. It was found that even very low doses (less than 100 rads) cause a conspicuous delay of germination; a significant decrease of seedling height was only observed at doses higher than 200 rads. In the 170-620 rad range seedling height diminished lineraly with increase of dose. On the basis of the greenhouse experiment five doses were chosen for field experiments: 200, 300, 500, 800 and 1000 rads. It was found that a dose of about 500 rads was the maximum that could be applied for breeding purposes: the survival and fertility rate at that dose was about 40% of the control, doses of 800 to 900 rads caused full mortality. The M2 seeds were sown in the greenhouse and the frequency of chlorophyl mutations was examined in generation M2. It was found to be very high: for doses of 200 t0 300 rads the mutations ocurred in about 4% of M2 seedlings. (author)

  18. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation.

  19. Induced mutations in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potdukhe, N.R.; Narkhede, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of pigeon pea cv.ICPL-87119 were treated separately with gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and sodium azide (SA). Physical and chemical mutagens were found effective in affecting the germination and survival of plants in M 1 , M 2 and M 3 generations. However, reduction in survival was more pronounced in M 1 as compared to M 2 and M 3 generation and was increased as the dose or concentration increased. The survival of plants was comparatively affected more than germination of seeds due to the fact that the seedlings failed to grow after primary leaf stage due to shoot and root damage. Seedling damage and reduction in pollen fertility revealed linear trend with increase in dosage of three mutagens. As regards the pollen diameter of both fertile and sterile pollen reduction was more pronounced in EMS and sodium azide as compared to gamma rays. Among the mutagens, sodium azide was the most effective and EMS the least in causing irregularities. The meiotic cell division in the PMC's of morphological variant viz., simple leaf mutant, robust leaf mutant, dwarf and bushy mutant, xantha, branchless, uniculm and bunchy flowered mutant etc. isolated in M 2 generation. (author)

  20. ESTIMATION OF PEA GRAIN YIELD STABILITY (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to determine yield and estimate pea grain yield stability of newly-created lines JSG-1 (cultivar in recognition process as well as compare with foreign origin cultivars in agroecological area of east Slavonia. The trial was set up by a randomized block design on the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek in four replicates in the five-year period (1998 – 2002. Six (five foreign and one inland cultivars were included by the trial: Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1 (in a recognition process, Torsz and Baccara. Stability parameters were calculated by the grouping method after Francis and Kannenberg (1978 and by the model of individual stability estimation after Eberhart and Russel method (1966. According to Francis and Kannenberg, cultivars Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 and Baccara belonged to group I known for high yield and low trait varying coefficient, thus, represent stabile yield cultivars. According to regression coefficient and regression deviation variance the most stabile cultivar appeared to be cultivar JSG-1 (bi =1.06 and S2 di=0.010 and the lowest one was Torsz (bi =0.67 and S2 di =0.160. Cultivar Baccara (bi = 1.22 and S2 di =0.034 was comprised by the group of unstabile and adaptible for high-yielding environments.

  1. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  2. Formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes in isolated developing pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaver, S.S.; Bhava, D.; Castelfranco, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to chlorophyll-protein complexes, other proteins were labeled when isolated developing pea chloroplasts were incubated with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid [ 14 C]-ALA. The major labeled band (M/sub r/ = 43 kDa by LDS-PAGE) was labeled even in the presence of chloramphenicol. Heme-dependent peroxidase activity (as detected by the tetramethyl benzidine-H 2 O 2 stain) was not visibly associated with this band. The radioactive band was stable to heat, 5% HCl in acetone, and was absent if the incubation with [ 14 C]-5-aminolevulinic acid was carried out in the presence of N-methyl protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (a specific inhibitor of ferrochelatase). Organic solvent extraction procedures for the enrichment of cytochrome f from chloroplast membranes also extracted this unknown labeled product. It was concluded that this labeled product was probably a c-type cytochrome. The effect of exogenous iron, iron chelators, gabaculine (an inhibitor of ALA synthesis) and other incubation conditions upon the in vitro formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes will be discussed

  3. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDY VIA LINEAR POLARIZATION IN PEAS CAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Costa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the corrosion of tinplate can for peas. Firstly, the characterization of canning solution was made. The values of pH, conductivity, Brix, viscosity, density and content of Fe were, respectively, 5.88; 32.6 mS/cm; 6.6%; 3,42cP; 1.026 g/ml; 12.05 mg/kg. The corrosion rate in the cans was determined by linear polarization technique. The electrodes with and without varnish were analyzed in the first and fifth day of the experiment for the 3 parts of the can. The corrosion rate increased significantly when the coating was removed and the body showed a higher corrosion rate, reaching 1.7 mm/year in the absence of varnish. The microstructure of the samples was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The increase of iron on the surface, evidenced by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS may have contributed to the corrosion in the samples without varnish.

  4. THE ORIGIN AND OPTICAL DEPTH OF IONIZING RADIATION IN THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.

  5. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  6. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  7. Marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance of 672 worldwide pea (Pisum sativum L.) collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Fang, Li; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Zhang, Hongyan; Han, Wenliang; Hua, Zeke; Hao, Junjie; Zong, Xuxiao

    2017-07-19

    Frost stress is one of the major abiotic stresses causing seedling death and yield reduction in winter pea. To improve the frost tolerance of pea, field evaluation of frost tolerance was conducted on 672 diverse pea accessions at three locations in Northern China in three growing seasons from 2013 to 2016 and marker-trait association analysis of frost tolerance were performed with 267 informative SSR markers in this study. Sixteen accessions were identified as the most winter-hardy for their ability to survive in all nine field experiments with a mean survival rate of 0.57, ranging from 0.41 to 0.75. Population structure analysis revealed a structured population of two sub-populations plus some admixtures in the 672 accessions. Association analysis detected seven markers that repeatedly had associations with frost tolerance in at least two different environments with two different statistical models. One of the markers is the functional marker EST1109 on LG VI which was predicted to co-localize with a gene involved in the metabolism of glycoproteins in response to chilling stress and may provide a novel mechanism of frost tolerance in pea. These winter-hardy germplasms and frost tolerance associated markers will play a vital role in marker-assisted breeding for winter-hardy pea cultivar.

  8. Biocompatibility of Poly(ester amide (PEA Microfibrils in Ocular Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kropp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery systems (DDS are able to deliver, over long periods of time, therapeutic concentrations of drugs requiring frequent administration. Two classes of DDS are available, biodegradable and non-biodegradable. The larger non-biodegradable implants ensure long-term delivery, but require surgical interventions. Biodegradable biomaterials are smaller, injectable implants, but degrade hydrolytically and release drugs in non-zero order kinetics, which is inefficient for long-term sustained drug release. Biodegradable poly(ester amides (PEAs may overcome these difficulties. To assess their ocular biocompatibility and long-term behavior, PEA fibrils were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, incubation in vitreous humor changes to PEA structure, suggests degradation by surface erosion, enabling drug release with zero order kinetics. Clinical and histological analysis of PEA fibrils implanted subconjunctivally and intravitreally showed the absence of an inflammatory response or other pathological tissue alteration. This study shows that PEA fibrils are biocompatible with ocular environment and degrade by surface erosion.

  9. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  10. An application of CART algorithm in genetics: IGFs and cGH polymorphisms in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Selçuk

    2017-04-01

    The avian insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGFs) and avian growth hormone (cGH) genes are the most important genes that can affect bird performance traits because of its important function in growth and metabolism. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of variation in growth-related traits is of importance for continued improvement and increased rates of genetic gain. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of cGH and IGFs genes in Japanese quail using conventional least square method (LSM) and CART algorithm. Therefore, this study was aimed to demonstrate at determining the polymorphisms of two genes related growth characteristics via CART algorithm. A simulated data set was generated to analyze by adhering the results of some poultry genetic studies which it includes live weights at 5 weeks of age, 3 alleles and 6 genotypes of cGH and 2 alleles and 3 genotypes of IGFs. As a result, it has been determined that the CART algorithm has some advantages as for that LSM.

  11. The distribution of 14C-chloramphenicol in the Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgreen, L.-E; Biessmann, A.; Martin, K.; Salemi, M.A.; Wiese, B.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of 14 C-labelled chloramphenicol after oral and intravenous administration to egg laying Japanese quail was studied by whole-body autoradiography. In the liver, kidneys, gizzard, intestinal contents (bile) and oviduct, the 14 C-concentration was higher than that of the blood short time after injection and remained higher than the blood up to 4 days. From 4 hrs, the concentration of 14 C in the egg yolks was higher than that of the blood and from 24 hrs the radioactivity in the albumen of the eggs in the oviduct was also higher than that of the blood. The peak concentration in the egg yolk was found in the second egg laid 2-4 days after administration of 14 C-chloramphenicol. In the albumen the maximum concentration was found in the first laid egg 24-48 hrs after administration. In the egg yolks, about 30% of the radioactivity represented unchanged chloramphenicol up to 5 days after administration. It was also shown that about 5% of the injected 14 c-chloramphenicol was exhaled as 14 CO 2 during the first 12 hrs and about 37% of the dose was excreted in the combined faeces and urine during the same period of time. (author)

  12. Influence of long-term hypodynamy on spongy bone tissue in Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tarabová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weightlessness can cause various damages especially on the musculoskeletal system both in animals and humans. The aim of our study was to observe the influence of simulated, long-term microgravity on the spongy bone tissue of the femur in Japanese quails. A total of 80 cockerels at the age of 2 days were exposed to simulated microgravity – hypodynamy. After days 56, 63, 90 and 180, six birds from the experimental group and six birds from the control group were euthanised. Samples for histological examination were collected from femur epiphysis. The whole femur of the other limb was used for the analysis of the calcium content. Microscopic examination showed differences between experimental and control animals in the spongy bone tissue after every day of the experiment. In the experimental animals, there were numerous, big, multinucleated cells osteoclasts, lying on the bone trabeculae surface, which were damaged. The highest difference in the calcium content in femurs between the control and experimental animals was found after 90 days of hypodynamy. This study builds on short-term hypodynamy experiments; such long periods had never been studied before in birds. Because our findings are similar to those found in osteoporotic bone tissue, it could by useful in the development of countermeasures against the negative influence of microgravity and immobilization.

  13. Effect of mercuric chloride feeding on sexual maturity, egg production and fertility in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1973-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 8, 16 or 32 p.p.m. of mercury as mercuric chloride from 3 days of age through 20 weeks of age. The onset of egg production generally occurred earlier for hens fed HgCl2. Average age in days at first oviposition for the control, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m. and 32 p.p.m. was 48.4, 50.9, 46.9 and 44.0 respectively. The average rate of egg productivity from first oviposition to attainment of full growth (9 weeks of age) correlated positively with in increased dietary mercury (controls, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m., 32 p.p.m. ? 75.2, 69.3, 86.1 and 93.3% respectively). By 20 weeks of age productivity was 81.0, 80.6, 87.5 and 92.9% for control, 8, 16 and 32 p.p.m. groups respectively. Fertility was depressed when hens were fed HgCl2. At 9 weeks of age average control fertility was 59% contrasted with 25% for the 32 p.p.m. group. At 12 weeks fertility increased to 89% and 57% for these groups. From this study it is apparent. that the onset and rate of egg production was stimulated by HgCl2, but fertility was adversely affected.

  14. Estimation of Digestible Lysine Requirements of Japanese Quail during the Starter Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashoori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the estimation of digestible lysine requirements of Japanese quail during the 7-21d period. Graduation level of L-lysine.HCL were added to the basal diet at the expense of corn starch to create different levels of digestible lysine ranged from 0.75 to 1.35% of diet. Growth performance and carcass composition were evaluated during the experiment. The results showed that incremental levels of digestible lysine significantly affected the body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed intake (FI, breast meat yield (BMY and thigh meat yield (TMY. Either linear broken- line or quadratic broken line model were used to get break points of digestible lysine as a requirement. Based on linear broken line analysis, the break points for FCR and BMY were 0.99 and 1.04 % of diet, respectively. Using the quadratic broken-line model, the estimated Lys requirements for BWG, FCR, and BMY were 1.11, 1.04, and 1.15% of diet, respectively. The results showed that the Lys needs for optimum BMY was higher than BWG and FCR.

  15. Impact of vinclozolin on reproductive behavior and endocrinology in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGary, S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been demonstrated in mammalian models, but less research is available for avian species. The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, on sexual differentiation and maturation were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). On day 4 of incubation, embryos were exposed to no treatment, oil, or 25, 50, or 100 ppm of VIN. Endpoints measured included adult male reproductive behavior, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) content in hatchlings and adults, plasma steroid levels in hatchlings and adults, proctodeal gland growth during maturation, and relative testicular weight at seven weeks of age. Results showed that exposure to VIN significantly (p < 0.05) altered GnRH-I in male hatchlings, whereas GnRH-I levels in females remained unaffected. Although steroid levels were unaltered by any VIN treatment, the display of male reproductive behavior seemed delayed, with the number of mounts and the number of cloacal contacts being significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the VIN-treated males. This could have an extreme negative impact on wild avian species that are routinely exposed to similar EDCs.

  16. Distinct protease pathways control cell shape and apoptosis in v-src-transformed quail neuroretina cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Benjamin D.; Aouacheria, Abdel; Nouvion, Anne-Laure; Ronot, Xavier; Gillet, Germain

    2005-01-01

    Intracellular proteases play key roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In nerve cells, little is known about their relative contribution to the pathways which control cell physiology, including cell death. Neoplastic transformation of avian neuroretina cells by p60 v-src tyrosine kinase results in dramatic morphological changes and deregulation of apoptosis. To identify the proteases involved in the cellular response to p60 v-src , we evaluated the effect of specific inhibitors of caspases, calpains and the proteasome on cell shape changes and apoptosis induced by p60 v-src inactivation in quail neuroretina cells transformed by tsNY68, a thermosensitive strain of Rous sarcoma virus. We found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is recruited early after p60 v-src inactivation and is critical for morphological changes, whereas caspases are essential for cell death. This study provides evidence that distinct intracellular proteases are involved in the control of the morphology and fate of v-src-transformed cells

  17. The negative influence of high-glucose ambience on neurogenesis in developing quail embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is defined as glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it is presented as high blood glucose levels during the onset pregnancy. This condition has an adverse impact on fetal development but the mechanism involved is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on the developing quail embryo, especially its impact on the development of the nervous system. We established that high glucose altered the central nervous system mophologically, such that neural tube defects (NTDs developed. In addition, we found that high glucose impaired nerve differentiation at dorsal root ganglia and in the developing limb buds, as revealed by neurofilament (NF immunofluorescent staining. The dorsal root ganglia are normally derived from neural crest cells (NCCs, so we examine the delamination of NCCs from dorsal side of the neural tube. We established that high glucose was detrimental to the NCCs, in vivo and in vitro. High glucose also negatively affected neural differentiation by reducing the number and length of neurites emanating from neurons in culture. We established that high glucose exposure caused an increase in reactive oxidative species (ROS generation by primary cultured neurons. We hypothesized that excess ROS was the factor responsible for impairing neuron development and differentiation. We provided evidence for our hypothesis by showing that the addition of vitamin C (a powerful antioxidant could rescue the damaging effects of high glucose on cultured neurons.

  18. Recognition of ERK MAP kinase by PEA-15 reveals a common docking site within the death domain and death effector domain

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Justine M.; Vaidyanathan, Hema; Ramos, Joe W.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Werner, Milton H.

    2002-01-01

    PEA-15 is a multifunctional protein that modulates signaling pathways which control cell proliferation and cell death. In particular, PEA-15 regulates the actions of the ERK MAP kinase cascade by binding to ERK and altering its subcellular localization. The three-dimensional structure of PEA-15 has been determined using NMR spectroscopy and its interaction with ERK defined by characterization of mutants that modulate ERK function. PEA-15 is composed of an N-terminal death effector domain (DED...

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of roots and competition for nitrogen in pea-barley intercrops - a field study employing P-32 technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    was the dominant component of the pea-barley intercrop, obtaining 90% of its sole crop yield, while pea produced only 15% of the grains of a sole crop pea. Intercropping of pea and barley improved the utilization of plant growth resources (LER > 1) as compared to sole crops. Root system distribution in time...... and space can partly explain interspecific competition. The P-32 methodology proved to be a valuable tool for determining root dynamics in intercropping systems....

  20. Influence of Pea Protein Aggregates on the Structure and Stability of Pea Protein/Soybean Polysaccharide Complex Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Yin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS, and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  1. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping

    2015-03-20

    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry.

  2. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  3. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  4. ADAPTIVITY EVALUATION OF PEA VARIETIES SUITABLE F OR FREEZING IN THE SOUTHWEST-ERN OF CENTRAL CHERNOZEM ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shulpekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of adaptability of 24 pea varieties to justify the use of the assortment in the technology of conveyor cultivation of raw green peas for freezing in conditions of the south-west of the CCZ is presented.

  5. Quantitative analysis of the network structure that underlines the transitioning in mechanical responses of pea protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Linden, van der E.; Ako, K.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze quantitatively the network structure that underlines the transitioning in the mechanical responses of heat-induced pea protein gels. To achieve this, gels were prepared from pea proteins at varying pHs from 3.0 to 4.2 at a fixed 100 mg/mL protein

  6. Characterization of Pea Vicilin. 1. Denoting Convicilin as the α-Subunit of the Pisum Vicilin Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Kane, F.E.; Happe, R.P.; Vereijken, J.M.; Gruppen, H.; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van

    2004-01-01

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin

  7. Effect of the combinations between pea proteins and soluble fibres on cholesterolaemia and cholesterol metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Rigamonti, Elena; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2013-10-01

    Many functional foods and dietary supplements have been reported to be beneficial for the management of dyslipidaemia, one of the major risk factors for CVD. Soluble fibres and legume proteins are known to be a safe and practical approach for cholesterol reduction. The present study aimed at investigating the hypocholesterolaemic effect of the combinations of these bioactive vegetable ingredients and their possible effects on the expression of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis. A total of six groups of twelve rats each were fed, for 28 d, Nath's hypercholesterolaemic diets, differing in protein and fibre sources, being, respectively, casein and cellulose (control), pea proteins and cellulose (pea), casein and oat fibres (oat), casein and apple pectin (pectin), pea proteins and oat fibres (pea+oat) and pea proteins and apple pectin (pea+pectin). Administration of each vegetable-containing diet was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations compared with the control. The combinations (pea+oat and pea+pectin) were more efficacious than fibres alone in modulating cholesterolaemia ( - 53 and - 54%, respectively, at 28 d; Ppea proteins, a lower hepatic cholesterol content (Ppea proteins and oat fibres or apple pectin are extremely effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations in rats and affect cellular cholesterol homeostasis by up-regulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol turnover.

  8. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N

    2004-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  9. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  10. Pea powdery mildew er1 resistance is associated to loss-of-function mutations at a MLO homologous locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Schiavulli, A.; Appiano, M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew

  11. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)—‘Promiscuous’ anti-inflammatory and analgesic molecule at the interface between nutrition and pharma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppel Hesselink, J.M.; Kopsky, D.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (N-palmitoylethanolamine or PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) class of signalling molecules. Earliest reports on the anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties of PEA date back to 1957 when its isolation from soy lecithin,

  12. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in production of the milk on family farms in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on number and nodule dry weight g/plant of pea root and also on the yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which is part of the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (28 nodule/plant was determined on the inoculated variant 2 as well as nodule dry weight (0,175 g/plant. Average pea seed yield were ranging from 1327 kg ha-1 (control up to 1825 kg ha-1 (inoculation. Average triticale grain yield were ranging from 2375 kg ha-1 (control up to 3345 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average total grain yield of winter peas in mixture triticale were ranging from 3702 kg ha-1 (control up to 5045 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. This paper and given results are a humble contribution to the research of pea growth in the Republic of Croatia.

  13. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.; Scheres, B.; Franssen, H.J.; Lierop, van M.J.; Lammeren, van A.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1990-01-01

    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  14. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, C. van de; Scheres, B.J.G.; Franssen, H.; Lierop, M.-J.; Lammeren, A. van; Kammen, A. van; Bisseling, T.

    1990-01-01

    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  15. Functional analysis of SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 during the myogenic differentiation of quail myoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Won Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Owing to the public availability of complete genome sequences, including avian species, massive bioinformatics analyses may be conducted for computational gene prediction and the identification of gene regulatory networks through various informatics tools. However, to evaluate the biofunctional activity of a predicted target gene, in vivo and in vitro functional genomic analyses should be a prerequisite. Methods Due to a lack of quail genomic sequence information, we first identified the partial genomic structure and sequences of the quail SH3 domain containing ring finger 2 (SH3RF2 gene. Subsequently, SH3RF2 was knocked out using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology and single cell-derived SH3RF2 mutant sublines were established to study the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in quail myoblast (QM7 cells during muscle differentiation. Results Through a T7 endonuclease I assay and genotyping analysis, we established an SH3RF2 knockout (KO QM7#4 subline with 61 and 155 nucleotide deletion mutations in SH3RF2. After the induction of myotube differentiation, the expression profiles were analyzed and compared between regular QM7 and SH3RF2 KO QM7#4 cells by global RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Conclusion We did not detect any statistically significant role of SH3RF2 during myotube differentiation in QM7 myoblast cells. However, additional experiments are necessary to examine the biofunctional activity of SH3RF2 in cell proliferation and muscle growth.

  16. Is gastrointestinal plasticity in king quail (Coturnix chinensis) elicited by diet-fibre or diet-energy dilution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean A; Jones, Stephanie K Courtney; Munn, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of organ size allows some animals to manage fluctuations of resource quality or availability. Here, we examined the phenotypic plasticity of the gastrointestinal tract of king quail (Coturnix chinensis) in a diet-fibre manipulation study. Quail were offered either a control low-fibre (high-quality) food (8.5% neutral-detergent fibre; NDF), or one of two experimental diets of higher fibre contents of 16% NDF (i.e. low-quality food). To examine whether phenotypic plasticity of organ size was associated with the fibre content per se, or as a consequence of diluting the diet energy contents by adding fibre, one of the high-fibre feeds was 'balanced' with additional energy to match that of the low-fibre control diet. Total empty dry mass of the gastrointestinal tract was significantly heavier among birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet as compared with those offered the control diet, with birds offered the fibrous but energy-balanced diet having guts of intermediate size. The heavier entire-gut mass (dry) of quail offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated mainly with these birds having significantly heavier gizzards. Notably, the larger gizzard in the birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated with marked increases in their metabolisability (digestion) of diet fibre. Our findings suggest that the available energy in the diet may be more important for eliciting phenotypic changes in the gut of these herbivorous birds rather than simple physical effects of diet fibre on feed intakes or on muscular compensation to fibrous ingesta. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Quail egg safety and trade on beaches of Salvador (BA: a study from a child labor perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permínio Oliveira Vidal Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the trade and microbiological quality of boiled quail eggs on the waterfront of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, from the child labor perspective. METHODS: This cross-sectional study administered semi-structured questionnaires to 40 underage vendors and performed the microbiological assessment of 40 quail egg samples as follows: mesophilic aerobic microorganism count, coagulase-positive staphylococcus count, estimation of the most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms/Escherichia coli, and testing for Salmonella spp.. The results were compared with the standards provided by the Resolution RDC nº 12/2001, National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: The vendors were mostly female (57.5% students (95.0% aged 8 to 17 years. The most common reason for working was supplementation of the family income (57.5%. The mean gross income was R$38.31/day. Most of them presented inadequate personal hygiene but they recognized that foods could cause diseases. Many (47.5% vendors reported washing their hands up to twice daily. Mean mesophilic aerobic microorganism and coagulase-positive staphylococcus counts were 2.43 and 2.01 log colony-forming unit/g, respectively, and the estimated thermotolerant coliform contamination was 0.98 log most probable number/g. Escherichia coli was found in 15.0% of the samples and none contained Salmonella spp. Most (55.0% samples were noncompliant with the legislation. CONCLUSION: The results evidenced the presence of minors selling quail eggs on beaches of Salvador and suggest risk to consumers' health because of the detected contamination and vendors' ignorance of principles of hygiene.

  18. Grounded running in quails: simulations indicate benefits of observed fixed aperture angle between legs before touch-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2013-10-21

    Many birds use grounded running (running without aerial phases) in a wide range of speeds. Contrary to walking and running, numerical investigations of this gait based on the BSLIP (bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum) template are rare. To obtain template related parameters of quails (e.g. leg stiffness) we used x-ray cinematography combined with ground reaction force measurements of quail grounded running. Interestingly, with speed the quails did not adjust the swing leg's angle of attack with respect to the ground but adapted the angle between legs (which we termed aperture angle), and fixed it about 30ms before touchdown. In simulations with the BSLIP we compared this swing leg alignment policy with the fixed angle of attack with respect to the ground typically used in the literature. We found symmetric periodic grounded running in a simply connected subset comprising one third of the investigated parameter space. The fixed aperture angle strategy revealed improved local stability and surprising tolerance with respect to large perturbations. Starting with the periodic solutions, after step-down step-up or step-up step-down perturbations of 10% leg rest length, in the vast majority of cases the bipedal SLIP could accomplish at least 50 steps to fall. The fixed angle of attack strategy was not feasible. We propose that, in small animals in particular, grounded running may be a common gait that allows highly compliant systems to exploit energy storage without the necessity of quick changes in the locomotor program when facing perturbations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS and –resistant (RES, have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3 to 5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol. At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of 4 species of Lachnospiraceae, 3 species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail’s cecal environment

  20. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe, E-mail: pkarthe@hotmail.com [Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2008-07-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2008-01-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å

  3. Polyamine Spermine Protects Young Pea Plants Against Ultraviolet-C Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovska, D.; Katerova, Z.; Shopova, E.; Nikolova, A.; Georgieva, N.; Sergiev, I.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-C - UV-C irradiation and polyamine spermine on the content of some stress marker and non-enzymatic antioxidants in leaves of young pea plants were investigated. UV-C irradiation led to a decrease in pea fresh weight, the content of leaf pigments and free proline, accompanied with an increase in malondialdehyde. The initial augmentation in the free thiol levels was transient in UV-C treated plants and finally a substantial decrease was found. Spermine led to a significant augmentation of free thiols and proline content along with a decline in total phenols, but these alterations diminished during the experimental period. Based on comparative analyses of the results obtained for plants treated with UV-C and polyamine, it could be concluded that preliminary application of spermine protects pea plants against irradiation, by maintaining normal plant growth, stabilizing cell membranes and activating non-enzymatic antioxidants

  4. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48......% of the below-ground N in pea when determined 7 and 14 (maturity) wk after planting (WAP), respectively. In barley 32 and 71% of the below-ground N were present in rhizodeposits at the two samplings. At maturity the rhizodeposition of N amounted to 19 mg N plant(-1) (7% of total plant N) for pea and 17 mg N...

  5. Suitability of some green pea (Pisum sativum L. varieties for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Green pea (Pisum sativum L. has a long tradition in Serbia and Montenegro as a processing crop. Short growing season, relatively simple production, pleasant taste and high nutritional value stimulate both production and consumption of peas. The objective of this paper is to present the main characteristics of two pea varieties, domestic cultivar Tamis and imported cultivar Jof and the influence of prolonged time between harvest and processing on the changes of main characteristics. Both cultivars have grains of very high quality that can be used for industrial processing as well as for garden growing (the green market. In the present paper the results of one-year study are shown: cultivar characteristics, growing season length, and physico-chemical (tenderometer value (TM, dry matter, alcohol insoluble solids (AIS, sugar and starch measurements for texture determination. According to the results, the optimal way of processing for each variety was recommended. .

  6. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  7. Deficit irrigation and organic compost improve growth and yield of quinoa and pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Supplying organic matter under deficit irrigation conditions could be a practical solution to compensate the negative effect of water stress. For this purpose, studies in pea as a legume and quinoa as a new drought-tolerant crop were conducted in the south of Morocco between October 2011 and March...... significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased seed yield by 18 and 11% under stress conditions and by 13 and 3% under full irrigation for quinoa and by 24 and 11% under full irrigation and by 41 and 25% under water-deficit irrigation for pea. It can be concluded that organic amendment improved significantly yield...... harvested yield was affected significantly (P seed yields (3.3 t ha-1 for quinoa and 5.6 t ha-1 for pea) were recorded under full irrigation and 10 t ha-1 of compost. Results indicated that organic amendment of 10 t ha-1 and 5 t ha-1...

  8. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siczek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides. To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M or water (control before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  9. Toxicity of Heliotropium dolosum, Heliotropium circinatum, and Senecio vernalis in Parental Quail and Their Progeny, with Residue Evaluation of Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    ERÖKSÜZ, Yesari; ÇERİBAŞI, Ali Osman; ÇEVİK, Aydın; ERÖKSÜZ, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    In all, 160 Japanese quail (80 male and 80 female) were divided into 4 groups (3 test groups and 1 control group). The test groups were fed a diet containing aerial parts (leaves, stems, and flowers) of Senecio vernalis (SV group), Heliotropium dolosum (HD group), or Heliotropium circinatum (HC group) at the level of 30% for 6 weeks, and the control group was fed 0% in order to evaluate parental and progenial toxicity, along with the transference of alkaloid residues to their eggs. The pyrrol...

  10. Viability of quail embryos and nestlings from the eggs exposed to gamma-radiation, vibration and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, V.F.; Shafirkin, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The viability of quail embryos and nestlings from the incubation eggs exposed (in) to gamma-radiation at a dose of 300 cGy and stored for 15 days or (ii) to gamma-radiation at a dose of 300 cGy and stored for 30 days or (iii) to vibration with the acute egg end oriented contrary to the vibration front and stored for 30 days did not decrease as compared to that of the controls stored for the same time period. The viability diminished if the radiation dose was increased to 600-1200 cGy of if the egg orientation during vibration was changed

  11. Valor nutricional de produtos de ervilha em comparação com a ervilha fresca Nutritional value of pea products in comparison to fresh peas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar a composição centesimal e os teores de minerais, taninos e a disponibilidade de ferro e digestibilidade de proteínas em produtos de ervilha comercializados em Piracicaba/SP, em comparação com a ervilha fresca. Ocorreram alterações na composição centesimal, especialmente nas fibras, que se apresentaram em maiores quantidades na ervilha fresca. Os teores de taninos foram baixos. O teor de ferro foi maior na ervilha fresca (27,16 mg/Kg como também sua disponibilidade (28,5%, em conjunto com a sopa liofilizada (27,08%. O menor valor foi apresentado pela ervilha enlatada (14,04%, seguida pela sopa creme congelada (17,81%. Para a digestibilidade, a variação foi de 64,59 a 79,33%, sendo a proteína da sopa liofilizada a de menor digestibilidade. Foi concluído que o consumo de ervilha fresca seria o mais recomendado do ponto de vista nutricional, considerando os parâmetros analisados.The aim of this research was to evaluate the composition, amount of minerals and tannin, and iron availability in pea products sold in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo state, and compare them with fresh peas. Alterations occurred in the components of compositions, especially in fibers which presented a high quantity of fresh peas. Tannin was very low and iron was the highest in fresh peas (27.16 mg/Kg also the availability (28.5%, such as freeze drying soup (27.08%. The lowest value was for canned peas (14.04%, in sequence freezing soup (17.81%. The digestibility range from 64.59 to 79.33%, freeze drying soup presented the lowest digestibility. It was concluded that the consumption of fresh peas was the most recommended from a nutritional point of view, when the analysed parameters were considered.

  12. Extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms in aposymbiotic pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabachi, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2003-03-01

    Aposymbiotic pea aphids, which were deprived of their intracellular symbiotic bacterium, Buchnera, exhibit growth retardation and no fecundity. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis revealed that these aposymbiotic aphids, when reared on broad bean plants, accumulated a large amount of histamine. To assess the possibility of extraordinary proliferation of microorganisms other than Buchnera, we enumerated eubacteria and fungi in aphids using the real-time quantitative PCR method that targets genes encoding small-subunit rRNAs. The result showed that these microorganisms were extremely abundant in the aposymbiotic aphids reared on plants. Microbial communities in aposymbiotic aphids were further profiled by phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rDNAs. Of 172 nonchimeric sequences of fungal 18S rDNAs, 138 (80.2%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Among them, 21 clustered within a monophyletic group consisting of insect-pathogenic fungi and yeast-like symbionts of homopteran insects. Thirty-one (18.0%), two (1.2%), and one (0.6%) clones were clustered within the Basidiomycota, Zygomycota, and Oomycota, respectively. Of 167 nonchimeric sequences of eubacterial 16S rDNAs, 84 (50.3%) belonged to the gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria to which most primary endosymbionts of insects and prolific histamine producers belong. Forty (24.0%), 25 (15.0%), 10 (6.0%), and five (3.0%) clones were clustered within alpha-Proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group, Actinobacteria, and beta-Proteobacteria, respectively. Three had no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions. None of the sequences studied in this study coincided exactly with those deposited in GenBank.

  13. Cytokinins and polar transport of auxin in axillary pea buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kalousek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cytokinin on auxin transport during release of axillary buds from apical dominance was studied. Expression of auxin-carrier coding genes PsAUX1 (AUXIN RESISTANT 1 and PsPIN1 (PIN-FORMED 1 was explored in axillary buds of the 2nd node of 7-day pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Vladan after decapitation or after exogenous application of benzyladenine (6-benzylaminopurine onto axillary buds of intact plants. Localization of the PsPIN1 protein, the key factor for polar transport of auxin in axillary buds, was visualised by immunohistochemistry. After exogenous application of cytokinin the expression of PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 rapidly increased with a simultaneous rapid decrease in PsDRM1 and PsAD1 expression – genes related to bud dormancy. The same changes in expression were observed after decapitation, however they were markedly slower. The PsPIN1 auxin efflux carrier in the inhibited axillary buds of intact plants was localised in a non-polar manner. After exogenous application of cytokinin gradual polarisation of the PsPIN1 protein occurred on the basal pole of polar auxin transport competent cells. Despite the fact that direct auxin application to buds of intact plants led to an increase in PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 expression, the buds remained dormant (non-growing what was accompanied by persistent expression of the dormancy markers PsDRM1 and PsAD1. The results indicate a possible effect of cytokinins on biosynthesis, and/or transport of auxin in axillary buds and they highlight the importance of auxin-cytokinin crosstalk in the regulation of bud outgrowth after breaking of apical dominance.

  14. Mrk 71/NGC 2366: The Nearest Green Pea Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheva, Genoveva; Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); James, Bethan L. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present the remarkable discovery that the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 2366 is an excellent analog of the Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which are characterized by extremely high ionization parameters. The similarities are driven predominantly by the giant H ii region Markarian 71 (Mrk 71). We compare the system with GPs in terms of morphology, excitation properties, specific star-formation rate, kinematics, absorption of low-ionization species, reddening, and chemical abundance, and find consistencies throughout. Since extreme GPs are associated with both candidate and confirmed Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters, Mrk 71/NGC 2366 is thus also a good candidate for LyC escape. The spatially resolved data for this object show a superbubble blowout generated by mechanical feedback from one of its two super star clusters (SSCs), Knot B, while the extreme ionization properties are driven by the ≲1 Myr-old, enshrouded SSC Knot A, which has ∼10 times higher ionizing luminosity. Very massive stars (>100 M {sub ⊙}) may be present in this remarkable object. Ionization-parameter mapping indicates that the blowout region is optically thin in the LyC, and the general properties also suggest LyC escape in the line of sight. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 does differ from GPs in that it is one to two orders of magnitude less luminous. The presence of this faint GP analog and candidate LyC emitter (LCE) so close to us suggests that LCEs may be numerous and commonplace, and therefore could significantly contribute to the cosmic ionizing budget. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 offers an unprecedentedly detailed look at the viscera of a candidate LCE, and could clarify the mechanisms of LyC escape.

  15. Social aggregation in pea aphids: experiment and random walk modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Nilsen

    Full Text Available From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control.

  16. Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Filho, Pedro F; Nair, Ramkumar B; Andersson, Dan; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-01-01

    Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota ( Aspergillus oryzae , Fusarium venenatum , Monascus purpureus , Neurospora intermedia ) and Zygomycota ( Rhizopus oryzae ) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield. A. oryzae had the best performance among the tested fungi, with a protein yield of 0.26 g per g of pea-processing byproduct from the bench scale airlift bioreactor cultivation. It is estimated that by integrating the novel fungal process at an existing pea-processing industry, about 680 kg of fungal biomass attributing to about 38% of extra protein could be produced for each 1 metric ton of pea-processing byproduct. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the potential of the pea-processing byproduct to be used by filamentous fungi to produce vegan-mycoprotein for human food applications. The pea-processing byproduct (PpB) was proved to be an efficient medium for the growth of filamentous fungi to produce a vegan-protein concentrate. Moreover, an industrial scenario for the production of vegan-mycoprotein concentrate for human nutrition is proposed as an integrated process to the existing PPI production facilities.

  17. Studies on the infection process by Erysiphe polygoni in resistant and susceptible peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirulli, M.; Montemurro, G.; Ciccarese, F.; Smilari, F.

    1976-01-01

    The infection of pea by Erysiphe polygoni was investigated. The susceptible cultivar ''Sprinter'' and the resistant varieties ''Stratagem Resistant'' (er 1 er 1 Er 2 Er 2 ) and ''Mexique-4'' (er 1 er 1 er 2 er 2 ) were used. Observations of germination of conidia, formation of primary appressoria, differentiation of secondary hyphae, number of secondary hyphae per conidium, and number of branches on the longest hyphae per conidium were made at different times from inoculation. The rate of conidial germination was not affected by the host genotypes. The formation of short germ tubes with primary appressoria were found to be similar on the susceptible ''Sprinter'' as well as on the ''Stratagem Resistant'' and ''Mexique-4''. No statistical difference in the growth of germ tubes with appressorium between susceptible and resistant peas was observed at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 hrs after inoculation. In resistant peas formation of primary appressoria was not followed by further mycelial growth. Conversely, in the susceptible pea, germinating conidia produced multiple germ tubes and branching hyphae. The establishment of a compatible relationship between host and pathogen appears to occur at or near the stage of formation of the primary appressorium. Most conidia on the leaves formed primary appressoria as early as 2 hrs after inoculation. The Course of the host/pathogen relationship is apparently decided at a very early stage after pathogen contact with the host, such as the length of the longest hyphae, number of germ tubes per conidium and branching of the longest, and the difference in the macroscopic fungal fructification. E. polygoni activity in susceptible pea is evidently influenced by temperature whereas the gene action of the genetic factors remains unaffected in resistant pea

  18. Organic cultivation of field pea by use of products with different action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, N.; Nikolova, I.; Delchev, G.

    2015-07-01

    The possibilities for increasing the productivity and control of the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) organic cultivation by the use of following bioproducts NeemAzal T/S and Pyrethrum FS-EC (insecticides), applied individually and in combination with Polyversum (growth regulator and fungicide) and Biofa (foliar fertilizer), as well as to evaluate the stability of the used mixtures were studied. Synthetic products Nurelle D and Flordimex 420 (alone and in combination) were used as a standard. The products were applied once (at budding stage) or twice (at budding and flowering stages). The results showed that forage pea productivity was influenced positively by the application of all organic products. The plants treated with the organic combinations formed an average yield of 3190.2 kg/ha, which was only 4.7% lower than that for the synthetic combination of Flordimex+Nurelle D. The highest yield was produced under application of two mixtures: Biofa+Pyrethrum and Polyversum+Pyrethrum at budding and flowering stages (22.0 and 21.8% above untreated control, respectively). These combinations were also distinguished for their most pronounced protective effect against the attack of the pea weevil and decrease in its numbers of 37.0 and 38.5%, respectively. Pyrethrum was distinguished for a lower degree of damaged seeds and a toxic effect against the pea weevil in comparison with NeemAzal. Technologically the most valuable variant, which united high stability, productivity and protection against pea weevil, was the combination of Biofa+Pyrethrum applied twice. Further investigations are indispensible to expand the range of products (bioinsectides, biofertilizers and growth regulators), which provides good insect control and high prod. (Author)

  19. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  20. Age-dependent variation in membrane lipid synthesis in leaves of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Sandelius, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d. In the expand......To study membrane lipid synthesis during the lifespan of a dicotyledon leaf, the second oldest leaf of 10-40-d-old plants of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) was labelled with [1-C- 14]acetate and the distribution of radioactivity between the major membrane lipids was followed for 3 d...

  1. Size measuring techniques as tool to monitor pea proteins intramolecular crosslinking by transglutaminase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoullah, Attaf; Krechiche, Ghali; Husson, Florence; Saurel, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, techniques for monitoring the intramolecular transglutaminase cross-links of pea proteins, based on protein size determination, were developed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of transglutaminase-treated low concentration (0.01% w/w) pea albumin samples, compared to the untreated one (control), showed a higher electrophoretic migration of the major albumin fraction band (26 kDa), reflecting a decrease in protein size. This protein size decrease was confirmed, after DEAE column purification, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) where the hydrodynamic radius of treated samples appears to be reduced compared to the control one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologicallycontrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R.A.L.; Dennett, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest RUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar RUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher RUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture and

  3. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologically contrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R. A. L.; Dennett, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest CRUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar CRUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher CRUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture

  4. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  5. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  6. Simple Identification of the Neutral Chlorinated Auxin in Pea by Thin Layer Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1980-01-01

    to small volumes and chromatographed in CHCl3 or CCl4 solvent systems separating the chlorinated auxin from indoleacetonitrile and the methyl or ethyl esters of indoleacetic acid. Colour reaction was carried out with some of the Salkowski FeCl3 sprays of which Ehmann's FeCl3/dimethylaminobenzaldehyde......One of the neutral chlorinated auxins of immature pea seeds was readily identified by thin layer procedures simple enough to serve in student's laboratory courses. 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was extracted from 50 g of commercial, frozen peas by either water or acetone, concentrated...

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour

    OpenAIRE

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in c...

  8. Nutrient composition, functional, and pasting properties of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweetpotato flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohizua, Ehimen R; Adeola, Abiodun A; Idowu, Micheal A; Sobukola, Olajide P; Afolabi, T Adeniyi; Ishola, Raphael O; Ayansina, Simeon O; Oyekale, Tolulope O; Falomo, Ayorinde

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated some quality attributes of unripe cooking banana (UBF), pigeon pea (PPF), and sweetpotato (SPF) flour blends. Simplex centroid mixture design was used to obtain 17 blends from the flours. The nutrient composition, color, and functional properties of the blends were evaluated using standard methods. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level. There were significant ( p  pigeon pea-sweetpotato flour blends are desirable for alleviating malnutrition in Nigeria and developing new food formulations.

  9. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Jin Tong; Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphologi...

  10. Isolation and expression of a pea vicilin cDNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M D; Lambert, N; Delauney, A; Yarwood, J N; Croy, R R; Gatehouse, J A; Wright, D J; Boulter, D

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence for vicilin from pea (Pisum sativum L.) was isolated. It specifies a 50,000-Mr protein that in pea is neither post-translationally processed nor glycosylated. The cDNA clone was expressed in yeast from a 2 micron plasmid by using the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase promoter and initiator codon. The resultant fusion protein, which contains the first 16 amino acid residues of phosphoglycerate kinase in addition to the vicilin sequence, was puri...

  11. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Kosterin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an English translation of a paper published in Russian (but with proper Latin formulations at taxonomical novelties to make them validly published on March 15, 2017 in Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Vol. 22 (2: 158-169. The Abyssinian pea (Pisum abyssinicum A. Br., concerned in this review, is known from Ethiopia and Yemen, where it is cultivated along with the common pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum. The continuously reproduced notion of its possible spontaneous occurrence in the wild ascends to suppositions made in the XIX century and is not based on any actual data. P. abyssinicum is of practical interest owing to its extra early ripening and resistance to bacterial blight. Morphologically it is very similar to P. sativum but its crossability with it is bad as either seed or pollen parent. Traditionally this reproductive barrier was associated with karyological differences. The Abyssinian pea karyotype is variable as 1–2 reciprocal translocations were reported. At the same time there are accessions not differing from the standard karyotype of P. sativum with respect to reciprocal translocations, yet their crossability with the latter is very low and the pollen fertility of F1 and F2 hybrids is lowered. Data were reported on influence of the region of Linkage Group III, containing a gene known to participate in the conflict of nucleus and plastids in remote crosses of peas, on the pollen fertility of hybrids with abyssinian pea. With their karyological variability, the known accessions of the Abyssinian pea are very close to each other genetically, as they diverged just about 4 000 years ago. The presence of alleles of molecular markers common with Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Smith on the one hand and with P. sativum L. subsp. elatius (Bieb. Schmalh. on the other hand evidences in favour of an old hypotheses by L.I. Govorov that the Abyssinian pea originated from their spontaneous hybrid. This spontaneous cross may

  12. Combined exposure of Japanese quails to cyanotoxins, Newcastle virus and lead: oxidative stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskova, Veronika; Veronika, Paskova; Paskerova, Hana; Hana, Paskerova; Pikula, Jiri; Jiri, Pikula; Bandouchova, Hana; Hana, Bandouchova; Sedlackova, Jana; Jana, Sedlackova; Hilscherova, Klara; Klara, Hilscherova

    2011-10-01

    Wild birds are continually exposed to many anthropogenic and natural stressors in their habitats. Over the last decades, mass mortalities of wild birds constitute a serious problem and may possibly have more causations such as natural toxins including cyanotoxins, parasitic diseases, industrial chemicals and other anthropogenic contaminants. This study brings new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors in birds. The aim was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass, lead and antigenic load may combine to enhance the effects on birds, including modulation of antioxidative and detoxification responses. Eight treatment groups of model species Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were exposed to various combinations of these stressors. The parameters of detoxification and oxidative stress were studied in liver and heart after 30 days of exposure. The antioxidative enzymatic defense in birds seems to be activated quite efficiently, which was documented by the elevated levels and activities of antioxidative and detoxification compounds and by the low incidence of damage to lipid membranes. The greatest modulations of glutathione level and activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation were shown mostly in the groups with combined multiple exposures. The results indicate that the antioxidative system plays an important role in the protective response of the tissues to applied stressors and that its greater induction helps to protect the birds from more serious damage. Most significant changes of these "defense" parameters in case of multiple stressors suggest activation of this universal mechanism in situation with complex exposure and its crucial role in protection of the bird health in the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of eggshell colour and spot area in Japanese quails: II. Slaughter and carcass characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Alasahan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate the effects of eggshell colour and spot properties (colour and size of the spot area on growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica eggs. Study material were allocated to five groups according to their eggshell and spot colours: black spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (I, blue spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (II, diffuse brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (III, brown spots on light green colored eggshell (IV, and small brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (V. The size of the spotted area was determined in each egg group using digital image analysis. The groups did not differ for body weight and length of the shank at the end of the growth period. However, the groups differed significantly for carcass yield after slaughter (not eviscerated and carcass yield. These parameters were highest in Group I (82.08 and 76.09% and lowest in Group III (80.20 and 73.86%. Digital image analysis demonstrated that heart length, cardiac fat area, gizzard width, and intestine length varied between the groups. Cardiac fat area was largest in Group III (0.86 cm2 and smallest in Group V (0.65 cm2. Gizzard width was greatest in Group I (2.63 cm and smallest in Group V (2.47 cm. Intestine length was greatest in Group V (78.45 cm and smallest in Group IV (72.39 cm. Body weight, shank length, and slaughter and carcass weight do not vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area. The lengths of intestine and heart, gizzard width, and cardiac fat area do vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area.

  14. Comparison of animal and plant proteins for young pen-reared bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.M.; Rensberger, M.J.

    1945-01-01

    Bobwhite quail chicks, when given a choice of balanced diets in which the essential difference was the protein supplement, showed preferences for one diet containing 49 per cent peanut oil meal, another containing a mixture of 9 per cent meat and bone scraps (50% protein) with 38 per cent soybean oil meal, and a third (control) diet containing a mixture of 16 per cent dried buttermilk with 42 per cent soybean oil meal, in contrast to diets containing sardine meal or menhaden fish meal. ....Feeding tests during the first five weeks of life showed that diets containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal consistently gave high live weights, low mortality, and high efficiency of feed utilization. Diets with 9 to 10 per cent menhaden meal produced nearly as good results....Live weights, survival, and efficiency of feed utilization were markedly better on a diet containing 9 per cent meat and bone scrap (50% protein) than on one with 9 per cent meat scrap (55% protein), but not as good as with diets containing fish meal without meat....The chicks grew and survived more successfully on diets containing either soybean oil meal or peanut oil meal as the sole protein supplement, than on diets containing either linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, or dried buttermilk as the sole protein concentrate. None of these was as satisfactory as the diets containing fish meal.....All chicks died on diets containing either linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, or dried buttermilk as the sole source of protein. All three of these concentrates, however, gave satisfactory results, when used as 10 per cent of the diet. In fact, survival and efficiency of feed utilization were nearly as good on a diet containing 10 per cent dried buttermilk, 10 per cent linseed oil meal, 10 per cent peanut oil meal, and 27 per cent soybean oil meal, as on diets containing fish meal.

  15. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  16. Osteoclast cell-surface specializations and nuclear kinetics during egg-laying in Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Medullary bone deposits serve as a reservoir of labile calcium for egg-shell calcification in birds. Quantitative transmission-electron-microscope methods and light-microscope autoradiographic cell-population-kinetic analyses were used to determine changes in cell-surface specializations and population dynamics of medullary bone osteoclasts during egg-laying in Japanese quail. Prior to egg-shell formation, from 0 to about 8 hours after the previous oviposition, very few osteoclast profiles had ruffled borders. The appearance of ruffled borders coincided with the beginning of egg-shell calcification, about 9-10 hours after the previous oviposition. During egg-shell calcification, about 10-21 hours after the previous oviposition, most osteoclast profiles had ruffled borders. Ruffled borders disappeared at the completion of egg-shell calcification and commencement of egg-shell pigmentation. Thus, functional activities of medullary bone osteoclasts appear to be closely synchronized with egg-shell calcification during egg-laying. From 1 to 48 hours after a single injection of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR), very few labeled osteoclast nuclei were seen during egg-laying. Following multiple injections of 3H-TdR, the percentage of labeled nuclei reached a peak at about 170 hours after the first injection. At this peak-labeling time, relatively few of the osteoclast profiles that had labeled nuclei had two or more; although the average number of nuclei per osteoclast profile was about 3.6. These kinetic data suggest that the medullary bone osteoclast population has a prolonged rate of turnover compared to rapid changes in cell activities associated with each 24-hour egg-laying cycle; and collectively they would suggest that rapid changes in osteoclast functions occur independently of changes in cell-population dynamics

  17. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  18. Effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture on mucociliary clearance in anesthetized quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tianshan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture therapy for obstructive respiratory diseases has been effectively used in clinical practice and the acupuncture points or acupoints of Zhongfu and Tiantu are commonly-used acupoints to treat patients with the diseases. Since the impaired mucociliary clearance is among the most important features of airway inflammation in most obstructive respiratory diseases, the effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture at the specific acupoints on tracheal mucociliary clearance was investigated in anesthetized quails. Methods Mucociliary transport velocity on tracheal mucosa was measured through observing the optimal pathway, and fucose and protein contents in tracheal lavages were determined with biochemical methods. In the therapeutic group, needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the acupoints was applied without or with constant current output in 2 mA and at frequency of 100 Hz for 60 minutes. In the sham group, electro-acupuncture stimulation to Liangmen was applied. Results Our present experiments demonstrated that the electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly increased tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and decreased the content of protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Moreover, either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly reverted the human neutrophil elastase-induced decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and human neutrophil elastase -induced increase in the contents of fucose and protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Conclusion These results suggest that either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the effective acupoints significantly improves both airway mucociliary clearance and the airway surface liquid and that the improvements maybe ascribed to both the special function of the points and the substantial stimulation of electricity.

  19. On the influence of storage duration on rheological properties of liquid egg products and response of eggs to impact loading - Japanese quail eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, May (2015), s. 86-94 ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg quality * japanese quail * haugh units * storage duration * non-Newtonian fluid * non-destructive impact * surface displacement Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 3.199, year: 2015

  20. The effect of nano-selenium particles and sodium selenite on humoral immunity indices of quails using foods contaminated with aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Talebi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of inhibition of aflatoxin B1 by various sources of selenium and to compare the effect of nano selenium and sodium selenite on humoral immunity of quails. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design (CRD using six treatments and four replicates of ten quail chicks per replicate. Two hundred forty quails were divided in six groups vis. control: without aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group2: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and without selenium. Group3: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm nano selenium. Group4: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.3 ppm sodium selenite. Group5: 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm nano selenium. Group6: 1ppm aflatoxin B1 and 0.6 ppm sodium selenite. To evaluate the humoral immunity response 0.2­ml of sheep red blood cell (SRBC solution was injected into breast muscle of quails at day 35 and blood sampling was conducted after a week. Newcastle vaccine was injected at day 28 and the antibody titer was determined after two weeks. The highest level of titer of antibody against the SRBC solution was related to the group which received 0.06 ppm nano selenium (p