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Sample records for al gen env

  1. Detección de secuencias homologas al Gen Env del virus del tumor mamario murino (MMTV en Cáncer de mama de pacientes argentinas Detection of murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV env gene-like sequences in breast cancer from Argentine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Melana

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha renovado el interés en la investigación sobre la posible etiología viral del cáncer de mama humano. En publicaciones previas se ha demostrado la presencia de secuencias homólogas al gen env del virus del Tumor Mamario Murino (MMTV en alrededor del 38% de cánceres de mama de mujeres procedentes de Estados Unidos e Italia; estas secuencias están generalmente ausentes en otros tumores y en tejido mamario normal. En el presente trabajo se analizó la presencia de una secuencia de 250 pb similar a la del gen env de MMTV en biopsias de pacientes argentinas con cáncer de mama. Se detectó este fragmento retroviral en el 31% (23/74 de los tumores analizados, mientras que sólo se obtuvo un caso positivo en tejido de mama normal y ninguno en fibroadenomas. En 46 pacientes con cáncer se analizaron células mononucleares de sangre periférica, detectando la secuencia en el 17% (2/12 de las pacientes portadoras de tumores env positivos y en el 3% (1/34 de aquéllas cuyos tumores eran env negativos. Los datos de Argentina son similares a los obtenidos en Estados Unidos e Italia donde la incidencia de cáncer de mama es también semejante. Estos resultados apoyarían la hipótesis de un probable agente viral implicado en la génesis de esta neoplasia y alientan los estudios en marcha.In the last years research on the possible viral etiology of human breast cancer has been revised. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of a Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV env gene-like sequence in about 38% of breast cancers from American and Italian women; these sequences are generally absent in other tumors and in normal mammary tissue. In the present study we have analyzed the presence of a 250-bp sequence of the MMTV env gene in breast cancer biopsies from Argentine patients. The retroviral fragment was present in 31% (23/74 of the tumors, only in one normal mammary tissue and in none of the fibroadenomas analized. Peripheral

  2. La incidencia de la genética en el derecho (humano al matrimonio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Romeo Malanda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La idea de evitar el nacimiento de persona con algún tipo de enfermedad ha sido una constante en la historia de la humanidad. Una de las formas de conseguirlo ha sido la de establecer limitaciones a la procreación, tanto directamente, a través de esterilizaciones forzosas, como indirectamente, prohibiendo matrimonios entre personas que no cumplían los requisitos estimados más deseables para tener descendencia sana.Contenido: Introducción. El derecho al matrimonio. Derecho al matrimonio y genética: los diagnósticos genéticos prematrimoniales. Conclusión: los diagnósticos genéticos prematrimoniales respetuosos con los derechos humanos.

  3. Estrategias de genética reversa aplicadas al vesivirus de conejo

    OpenAIRE

    García Manso, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    En el ámbito de la Virología, se denomina genética reversa al proceso de rescate de virus RNA de novo a partir de una copia del genoma viral en forma de cDNA. El trabajo recogido en esta memoria de tesis doctoral se ha dirigido a la obtención de un sistema de genética reversa para el vesivirus de conejo (RaV), uno de los pocos calicivirus capaz de ser propagado en cultivos celulares. Para ello, se han utilizado diferentes estrategias para expresar distintos clones de cDNA sintetizados. En ...

  4. Optimized Gen-II FeCrAl cladding production in large quantity for campaign testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sun, Zhiqian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-03

    There are two major objectives in this report; (1) to optimize microstructure control of ATF FeCrAl alloys during tube drawing processes, and (2) to provide an update on the progress of ATF FeCrAl tube production via commercial manufacturers. Experimental efforts have been made to optimize the process parameters balancing the tube fabricability, especially for tube drawing processes, and microstructure control of the final tube products. Lab-scale sheet materials of Gen II FeCrAl alloys (Mo-containing and Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys) were used in the study, combined with a stepwise warm-rolling process and intermediate annealing, aiming to simulate the tube drawing process in a commercial tube manufacturer. The intermediate annealing at 650ºC for 1h was suggested for the tube-drawing process of Mo-containing FeCrAl alloys because it successfully softened the material by recovering the work hardening introduced through the rolling step, without inducing grain coarsening due to recrystallization. The final tube product is expected to have stabilized deformed microstructure providing the improved tensile properties with sufficient ductility. Optimization efforts on Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys focused on the effect of alloying additions and annealing conditions on the stability of deformed microstructure. Relationships between the second-phase precipitates (Fe2Nb-Laves phase) and microstructure stability are discussed. FeCrAl tube production through commercial tube manufacturers is currently in progress. Three different manufacturers, Century Tubes, Inc. (CTI), Rhenium Alloys, Inc. (RAI), and Superior Tube Company, Inc. (STC), are providing capabilities for cold-drawing, warm-drawing, and HPTR cold-pilgering, respectively. The first two companies are currently working on large quantity tube production (expected 250 ft length) of Gen I model FeCrAl alloy (B136Y3, at CTI) and Gen II (C35M4, at RAI), with the process parameters obtained from the experimental

  5. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001608 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001608 ABNJ01079185 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA - Tyr GTA ...

  6. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001574 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001574 ABNJ01021258 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA - Leu TAA ...

  7. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001624 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001624 ABNJ01130619 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA - Met CAT ...

  8. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002099 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002099 ABOL01173632 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Asp GTC ...

  9. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002028 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002028 ABOL01020878 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + His GTG ...

  10. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002045 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002045 ABOL01029424 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - His GTG ...

  11. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002172 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002172 ABOL01426301 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Glu TTC ...

  12. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002100 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002100 ABOL01173734 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Ile GAT ...

  13. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002047 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002047 ABOL01030601 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - His GTG ...

  14. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002186 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002186 ABOL01582464 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + His GTG ...

  15. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002064 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002064 ABOL01058741 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Arg CCT ...

  16. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002130 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002130 ABOL01252839 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Glu TTC ...

  17. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002048 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002048 ABOL01030883 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + His GTG ...

  18. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002171 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002171 ABOL01418533 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Ala GGC ...

  19. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002115 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002115 ABOL01202194 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Ile GAT ...

  20. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002114 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002114 ABOL01201499 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Ile GAT ...

  1. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002113 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002113 ABOL01199944 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Ile GAT ...

  2. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002063 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002063 ABOL01055660 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - His GTG ...

  3. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002046 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002046 ABOL01030261 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - His GTG ...

  4. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002098 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002098 ABOL01173441 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Gly CCC ...

  5. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002131 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002131 ABOL01253080 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Ile GAT ...

  6. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001572 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001572 ABNJ01018487 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA + Tyr GTA ...

  7. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002049 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002049 ABOL01033247 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Leu TAA ...

  8. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002132 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002132 ABOL01258260 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Lys TTT ...

  9. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001609 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001609 ABNJ01088362 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA + Met CAT ...

  10. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002157 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002157 ABOL01346421 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Ala TGC ...

  11. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002027 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002027 ABOL01019614 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + His GTG ...

  12. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001625 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001625 ABNJ01132810 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA - Lys TTT ...

  13. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001573 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001573 ABNJ01020371 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA + Leu CAA ...

  14. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001610 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001610 ABNJ01089745 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA + Lys TTT ...

  15. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002117 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002117 ABOL01206716 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Leu CAA ...

  16. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002062 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002062 ABOL01054589 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - His GTG ...

  17. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001627 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001627 ABNJ01138625 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from mixed species mosquitoes collected at Buena Vista Lagoon in Oceanside, CA - Asn GTT ...

  18. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001685 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001685 ABNY01008451 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Asp GTC ...

  19. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001698 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001698 ABNY01026275 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + His GTG ...

  20. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001691 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001691 ABNY01015907 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Ser GGA ...

  1. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001706 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001706 ABNY01038212 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Ala TGC ...

  2. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001711 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001711 ABNY01068122 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Asn GTT ...

  3. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001714 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001714 ABNY01072206 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Asn GTT ...

  4. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001705 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001705 ABNY01036358 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Tyr GTA ...

  5. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001715 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001715 ABNY01081602 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Arg CCG ...

  6. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001713 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001713 ABNY01068850 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Cys GCA ...

  7. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001702 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001702 ABNY01028851 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + His GTG ...

  8. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001696 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001696 ABNY01024252 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Leu TAG ...

  9. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001684 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001684 ABNY01007726 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Gln TTG ...

  10. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001697 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001697 ABNY01025533 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Ser TGA ...

  11. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001695 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001695 ABNY01023764 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Leu TAG ...

  12. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001686 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001686 ABNY01010544 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Leu TAG ...

  13. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001683 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001683 ABNY01007198 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Met CAT ...

  14. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001693 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001693 ABNY01021289 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Leu TAG ...

  15. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001703 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001703 ABNY01030936 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Ala TGC ...

  16. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001694 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001694 ABNY01022656 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Val TAC ...

  17. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001679 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001679 ABNY01001243 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Trp CCA ...

  18. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001699 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001699 ABNY01027832 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Tyr GTA ...

  19. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001680 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001680 ABNY01002362 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Trp CCA ...

  20. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001710 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001710 ABNY01043563 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Ala TGC ...

  1. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001712 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001712 ABNY01068626 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Arg ACG ...

  2. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001709 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001709 ABNY01042852 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Gln TTG ...

  3. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001707 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001707 ABNY01038603 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Gly TCC ...

  4. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001690 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001690 ABNY01015544 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Ser TGA ...

  5. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001682 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001682 ABNY01006742 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Met CAT ...

  6. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001716 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001716 ABNY01090914 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Gly GCC ...

  7. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001701 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001701 ABNY01028675 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + His GTG ...

  8. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001688 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001688 ABNY01010911 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Ser GGA ...

  9. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001689 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001689 ABNY01011527 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Gln TTG ...

  10. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001700 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001700 ABNY01028239 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Leu GAG ...

  11. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001687 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001687 ABNY01010710 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Phe GAA ...

  12. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001692 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001692 ABNY01017929 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Pro TGG ...

  13. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001704 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001704 ABNY01034507 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA - Met CAT ...

  14. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001708 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001708 ABNY01042488 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Gly TCC ...

  15. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001681 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001681 ABNY01004105 saltern metagenome; microbial... fraction from plasmids from marine microbial community in low salinity saltern in San Diego, CA + Leu TAG ...

  16. La introducción de la genética en México: la genética aplicada al mejoramiento vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaona Robles, Ana Lilia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to deal with the introduction, sensu Conry, of genetics in Mexico. In the XIX Century the medical community was one of the most prominent groups that developed the field of «heredity», although they never used the genetical principles in their field. We will try to show that one of the main events in the history of genetics in Mexico deals with the introduction of techniques, rather than theories. The research in genetics began through one of the most practical applications, experimental genetics applied to the improvement of species with economical interests.

    El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la introducción, sensu Conry, de la genética en México. Para ello, hablaremos de la comunidad médica del XIX, la que desarrolló los principios fundamentales de la «herencia», sin aplicar los principios elementales de la genética. Trataremos de mostrar cómo los principios genéticos fueron introducidos vía las técnicas y no vía la teoría. La investigación genética en México comenzó a través de sus aspectos más prácticos, la genética experimental aplicada al mejoramiento de las especies con intereses económicos.

  17. Doping Genético e Eugenia: Diálogos além do esporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Vieira Bomtempo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La ingeniería genética trajo posibilidades antes inimaginables, en la que no hace mucho tiempo era visto sólo en las películas. De la terapia génica, dirigida hacia una corrección o cura de una enfermedad, pasa a la posibilidad del mejoramiento genético, actualmente vislumbrado en el mundo del deporte con el doping genético. ¿Pero, el doping genético no estaría violando el derecho al patrimonio genético no modificado? Aunque la intervención genética no se transmita a los descendentes, habría un mejoramiento genético, que afectaría el genoma del atleta y lo diferenciaría de los demás atletas y otros individuos, hiriendo el principio de igualdad en detrimento de la autonomía privada, pudiéndose estar hablando inicialmente de una relación de dominación, aunque sea en razón al rendimiento físico en el deporte. En este sentido, estas innovaciones que atraviesan el campo de la ingeniería genética, infunden una preocupación acerca de la manipulación genética en las generaciones futuras, punto de discusión no sólo biomédica, sino también bioético y biojurídico. Así, surge una preocupación si estos nuevos avances pueden afectar a la dignidad humana delante de una posible eugenesia, debido a la proyección de personas y la consecuente discriminación por determinada identidad genética. Junto a esto, el objetivo de este artículo es investigar si el dopaje genético ofendería el derecho al patrimonio genético no modificado y los derechos de las generaciones futuras, dando lugar a una nueva forma de eugenesia, al no permitir el ejercicio igualitario de las libertades fundamentales. Por lo tanto, se hace necesaria una investigación basada en los autores de la bioética y el bioderecho, así como también los textos legales nacionales e internacionales que involucran el tema. Es indispensable la discusión de estas cuestiones, sobre todo con la proximidad de los Juegos Olímpicos de Verano en Brasil en este año 2016

  18. ALV-J GP37 molecular analysis reveals novel virus-adapted sites and three tyrosine-based Env species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Ye

    Full Text Available Compared to other avian leukosis viruses (ALV, ALV-J primarily induces myeloid leukemia and hemangioma and causes significant economic loss for the poultry industry. The ALV-J Env protein is hypothesized to be related to its unique pathogenesis. However, the molecular determinants of Env for ALV-J pathogenesis are unclear. In this study, we compared and analyzed GP37 of ALV-J Env and the EAV-HP sequence, which has high homology to that of ALV-J Env. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five groups of ALV-J GP37 and two novel ALV-J Envs with endemic GP85 and EAV-HP-like GP37. Furthermore, at least 15 virus-adapted mutations were detected in GP37 compared to the EAV-HP sequence. Further analysis demonstrated that three tyrosine-based motifs (YxxM, ITIM (immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and ITAM-like (immune tyrosine-based active motif like associated with immune disease and oncogenesis were found in the cytoplasmic tail of GP37. Based on the potential function and distribution of these motifs in GP37, ALV-J Env was grouped into three species, inhibitory Env, bifunctional Env and active Env. Accordingly, 36.91%, 61.74% and 1.34% of ALV-J Env sequences from GenBank are classified as inhibitory, bifunctional and active Env, respectively. Additionally, the Env of the ALV-J prototype strain, HPRS-103, and 17 of 18 EAV-HP sequences belong to the inhibitory Env. And models for signal transduction of the three ALV-J Env species were predicted. Our findings and models provide novel insights for identifying the roles and molecular mechanism of ALV-J Env in the unique pathogenesis of ALV-J.

  19. ALV-J GP37 molecular analysis reveals novel virus-adapted sites and three tyrosine-based Env species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianqiang; Fan, Zhonglei; Shang, Jianjun; Tian, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jialiang; Chen, Hongjun; Shao, Hongxia; Qin, Aijian

    2015-01-01

    Compared to other avian leukosis viruses (ALV), ALV-J primarily induces myeloid leukemia and hemangioma and causes significant economic loss for the poultry industry. The ALV-J Env protein is hypothesized to be related to its unique pathogenesis. However, the molecular determinants of Env for ALV-J pathogenesis are unclear. In this study, we compared and analyzed GP37 of ALV-J Env and the EAV-HP sequence, which has high homology to that of ALV-J Env. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five groups of ALV-J GP37 and two novel ALV-J Envs with endemic GP85 and EAV-HP-like GP37. Furthermore, at least 15 virus-adapted mutations were detected in GP37 compared to the EAV-HP sequence. Further analysis demonstrated that three tyrosine-based motifs (YxxM, ITIM (immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif) and ITAM-like (immune tyrosine-based active motif like)) associated with immune disease and oncogenesis were found in the cytoplasmic tail of GP37. Based on the potential function and distribution of these motifs in GP37, ALV-J Env was grouped into three species, inhibitory Env, bifunctional Env and active Env. Accordingly, 36.91%, 61.74% and 1.34% of ALV-J Env sequences from GenBank are classified as inhibitory, bifunctional and active Env, respectively. Additionally, the Env of the ALV-J prototype strain, HPRS-103, and 17 of 18 EAV-HP sequences belong to the inhibitory Env. And models for signal transduction of the three ALV-J Env species were predicted. Our findings and models provide novel insights for identifying the roles and molecular mechanism of ALV-J Env in the unique pathogenesis of ALV-J.

  20. Variantes alélicas del gen de la Kappa-Caseína en ganado criollo lechero tropical.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Cepeda, Amado Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Las variantes A y B del gen de la κ-caseína influyen en la producción y composición de la leche y sus derivados. La variante B está relacionada con un mayor rendimiento de la cuajada. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las frecuencias genotípicas y alélicas de las variantes A y B del gen de la κ-caseína en la población de hembras Criollo Lechero Tropical y su relación con la composición química de la leche. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre de la vena coccígea de las hembras utiliza...

  1. Transhumanistas y Bioconservadores en torno al dopaje genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Francisco Sebastián Solanes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente texto proponemos una reflexión sobre uso de tecnologías genéticas que  aumentan el rendimiento deportivo como futuro campo de investigación de una Neuroética social. Este problema, que se ha dado en llamar “dopaje genético”, congrega a su alrededor un debate entre los partidarios del Bioconservadurismo y del Transhumanismo. Expondremos la concepción de dos importantes representantes del Transhumanismo (J. Savulescu y C. Tamburrini y de dos conocidos partidarios del Bioconservadurismo (M. Sandel y R. L. Simon, a fin de subrayar la importancia de este debate y las futuras implicaciones en la mejora del rendimiento físico, cognitivo y educacional a las que se deberá hacer frente desde el nivel socio-cultural de la Neuroética.

  2. Mutationen des Androgenrezeptor-Gens als mögliche Ursache der Antiandrogenresistenz beim Prostatakarzinom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röpke A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Androgenrezeptor (AR ist ein nukleärer Transkriptionsfaktor, der die intrazelluläre Wirkung der Androgene vermittelt. Das Prostatakarzinom ist in Deutschland das häufigste Krebsleiden beim Mann. Bei fortgeschrittenem Prostatakarzinom ist eine radikale Entfernung der Prostata nicht immer möglich. In diesen Fällen wird auf eine palliative endokrine Behandlung zurückgegriffen. Da primäre Prostatakarzinome in ihrem Wachstum meist androgenabhängig sind, ist die Ansprechrate auf eine Antiandrogentherapie entsprechend hoch und liegt bei ca. 75 %. Mit der Antiandrogentherapie wird versucht, die Konzentration von freizirkulierenden Androgenen herabzusetzen oder die transkriptionelle Eigenschaft des AR zu blockieren. Bei den meisten Patienten kommt es jedoch trotz einer zunächst erfolgreichen Antiandrogentherapie sekundär unter der Therapie zu einer erneuten Proliferation oder Metastasierung des Prostatakarzinoms. Bei ca. 25 % der Patienten wird bereits primär eine Resistenz gegenüber der Antiandrogentherapie beobachtet. Für das Versagen der Antiandrogentherapie können Veränderungen des AR im Tumor verantwortlich sein. Bei Prostatakarzinomen mit sekundärer Antiandrogenresistenz besteht häufig eine Amplifikation des AR-Gens. Dagegen zeigen Prostatakarzinome ohne Antiandrogentherapie sehr selten (1 % eine Amplifikation des AR-Genlokus, jedoch in 11 % eine Polysomie des X-Chromosoms, einschließlich des AR-Gens. Mutationen im AR-Gen werden bei metastasierten oder hormonrefraktären, seltener bei primären Prostatakarzinomen beschrieben. Es konnte in einer Vielzahl von Studien festgestellt werden, daß verschiedene Steroidhormone eine höhere Affinität zu mutierten AR aufweisen, dadurch zu einer höheren transkriptionellen Aktivität führen und so die zelluläre Proliferation stimulieren.

  3. Youngimonas vesicularis gen. nov., sp. nov., of the family Rhodobacteraceae, isolated from surface seawater, reclassification of Donghicola xiamenensis Tan et al. 2009 as Pseudodonghicola xiamenensis gen. nov., comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Donghicola Yoon et al. 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Asif; Shahina, Mariyam; Lin, Shih-Yao; Nakayan, Phanit; Liu, You-Cheng; Lai, Wei-An; Hsu, Yi-Han

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-pigmented, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium, devoid of bacteriochlorophyll, designated strain CC-AMW-E(T), was isolated from surface seawater off the coast at Kending, Taiwan. Strain CC-AMW-E(T) shared 95.7 and 93.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with the type strains of the type species of the genera Donghicola (Donghicola eburneus SW-277(T)) and Roseovarius (Roseovarius tolerans EL-172(T)). The predominant (>75% of the total) fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C(18 : 1)ω6c and/or C(18 : 1)ω7c). The polar lipid profile included major amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminolipid. In addition, moderate amounts of an unidentified lipid and trace amounts of an unidentified phospholipid were detected. The DNA G+C content was 67.9 mol%. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the sole respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic distinctiveness and distinguishing phenotypic characteristics (in particular its polar lipid pattern), we conclude that strain CC-AMW-E(T) represents a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Youngimonas vesicularis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Youngimonas vesicularis is CC-AMW-E(T) ( = JCM 18819(T) = BCRC 80549(T)). In addition, an emended description of the genus Donghicola Yoon et al. 2007 and the reclassification of Donghicola xiamenensis Tan et al. 2009 as Pseudodonghicola xiamenensis gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain Y-2(T) = MCCC 1A00107(T) = LMG 24574(T) = CGMCC 1.7081(T)) are proposed.

  4. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  5. Reclassification of Arthrobacter sanguinis (Mages et al. 2009) as Haematomicrobium sanguinis gen. nov., comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-12-29

    Due to its separate position within the genus Arthrobacter in many published phylogenetic trees and its incomplete chemotaxonomic characterization the type strain of Arthrobacter sanguinis was subjected to analysis of its chemotaxonomic traits including quinone system, polar lipid profile, peptidoglycan structure and fatty acid profile. The fatty acid profile consisted of the major compounds (>10 %) iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. It showed a quinone system with the predominating menaquinone MK-9(H2). Both, fatty acid profile and quinone system are in line with the description of the genus Arthrobacter. The peptidoglycan type was L-Lys - L-Ala - Gly (A11.50) which is unique within the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato and also among Arthrobacter species recently reclassified in the genera Sinomonas, Paenarthrobacter and Pseudarthrobacter. The polar lipid profile was very complex and unique among the group of taxa in containing relatively high proportions of several unidentified lipids. In conclusion from its phylogenetic position and its chemotaxonomic distinguishability from related taxa here the reclassification of A. sanguinis in a new genus and species, Haematomicrobium sanguinis gen. nov., comb. nov, is proposed. The type strain is 741T (=CCUG 46407T=DSM 21259T).

  6. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002005 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002005 ABOK01308326 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Val GAC ...

  7. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08002006 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08002006 ABOK01337352 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Val GAC ...

  8. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001917 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001917 ABOK01014385 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Met CAT ...

  9. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001991 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001991 ABOK01218729 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Lys TTT ...

  10. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001958 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001958 ABOK01090996 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Lys TTT ...

  11. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001916 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001916 ABOK01013921 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Gln TTG ...

  12. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001919 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001919 ABOK01017442 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Gln CTG ...

  13. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001934 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001934 ABOK01050102 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Arg CCT ...

  14. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001933 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001933 ABOK01048051 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Gly GCC ...

  15. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001932 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001932 ABOK01046212 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Asp GTC ...

  16. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001975 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001975 ABOK01148089 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Val TAC ...

  17. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001918 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001918 ABOK01017030 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Arg CCT ...

  18. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001960 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001960 ABOK01092952 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Cys GCA ...

  19. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001990 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001990 ABOK01217516 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Val GAC ...

  20. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001959 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001959 ABOK01092151 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA + Ile GAT ...

  1. tRNA配列、アノテーション及びキュレーションのデータ: >ENV08001974 [tRNADB-CE (tRNA gene database curated manually by experts)

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Environmental sample (ENV) from GenBank >ENV08001974 ABOK01144549 mosquito metageno...me; viral fraction from Mung bean nuclease digestion of DNA from mixed species mosquitoes collected in Mission Valley in San Diego, CA - Leu TAG ...

  2. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  3. DNA Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Partial env Gene of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J in Wuhua Chicken Flocks%五华鸡J亚群白血病病毒env部分基因的和序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴银; 张丹俊; 胡晓苗; 赵瑞宏

    2011-01-01

    The partial sequence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) env gene was cloned by PCR in Anhui province, which was named as ALV-J-envl. And we compared ALV-J-envl with the partial sequence of eight ALV-J env genes in the GenBank database. The results showed that ALV-J infection in Wuhua chicken was found in Anhui province. Alignment of nine gene sequences of ALV-J env, the homology between ALV-J-envl and the other sequences ranged from 94. 2% to 96. 6%. The result revealed that the env gene from different strains had the mutation at nucleotide sequence. However, the highest homology with ALV-J-envl were HQ425636 and HM235665 gene sequences isolated from strains in China, and they gathered together in the evolutionary tree, indicating a close genetic relationship, and they evolved from common strains. The lowest homology with ALV-J-envl was the gene sequence of AY312965 isolated from Malaysia, it could be further confirmed by phylogenetic analysis.%本试验通过PCR技术获得了安徽省地方品种五华鸡禽白血病病毒J亚群(avian leukosis virus subgroup J,ALV-J)env部分基因序列AL V-J-env1,并将该序列与GenBank数据库中登录的8条env基因相应序列进行了比对分析.结果表明,五华鸡已经感染了J亚群禽白血病,且部分鸡个体已经发病.通过分析可见,AL V-J-env1与所比较的基因序列同源性介于94.2%~96.6%之间,说明不同毒株之间的env基因有一定变异.但与ALV J-env1同源性最高的是来自于中国ALV-J毒株的HQ425636和HM235665基因序列,且在进化树中聚集为一组,暗示它们之间亲缘关系较近,由共同的毒株进化而来.与ALV-J-env1同源性最低的是来源于马来西亚毒株的AY312965基因序列,遗传进化分析也进一步证实,两者之间亲缘关系较远.

  4. Mejoramiento genético en solanum lycopersicum para la resistencia al pasador del fruto Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rosero, Mardelix

    2010-01-01

    El pasador del fruto N. elegantalis, es la principal plaga en el cultivo del tomate en Colombia. Actualmente no existen variedades comerciales de tomate con resistencia al pasador. El presente trabajo es una etapa más en el proceso de obtención de genotipos de tomate S. lycopersicum con resistencia genética a N. elegantalis y con excelente producción y calidad de fruto. Como fuente de resistencia al pasador (padre donante de polen ♂) se usaron las introducciones PI 134417, PI 134418 y PI 1264...

  5. La Comunidad Andina frente al reto del acceso a los recursos genéticos y la distribución de beneficios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Gómez Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia las medidas jurídicas y políticas que ha adoptado la Comunidad Andina (CAN sobre el acceso a los recursos genéticos y la distribución de beneficios a la luz de los estudios de equidad en la distribución de beneficios de Bram de Jonge y Niels Louwaar (2009. Según estos autores, el principio de Acceso y Distribución de Beneficios (ADB se justifica por tres asimetrías que están presentes en este asunto. Por un lado, la doble asimetría entre la asignación y la explotación de los recursos y, por otro, la asimetría entre los derechos de propiedad intelectual y los derechos legales de los recursos genéticos y los conocimientos tradicionales. En este contexto, la CAN ratifica los principios de soberanía de los recursos genéticos y de Acceso y Distribución de Beneficios del Convenio sobre Diversidad Biológica. Las principales respuestas que ha dado la CAN al reto del acceso a los recursos genéticos y distribución de beneficios son las Decisiones 391, 486 y 523. En este contexto, el Programa BIOCAN está trabajando en los temas de especial relevancia para la región, dentro de los cuales están los desafíos de asignarle valor a los recursos genéticos y el de la biopiratería.

  6. Mobilicoccus pelagius gen. nov., sp. nov. and Piscicoccus intestinalis gen. nov., sp. nov., two new members of the family Dermatophilaceae, and reclassification of Dermatophilus chelonae (Masters et al. 1995) as Austwickia chelonae gen. nov., comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Moriyuki; Iino, Takao; Iwami, Takahiro; Harayama, Shigeaki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Two Gram-positive bacteria, designated strains Aji5-31(T) and Ngc37-23(T), were isolated from the intestinal tracts of fishes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that both strains were related to the members of the family Dermatophilaceae, with 95.6-96.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The family Dermatophilaceae contains 2 genera and 3 species: Dermatophilus congolensis, Dermatophilus chelonae and Kineosphaera limosa. However, it has been suggested that the taxonomic position of D. chelonae should be reinvestigated using a polyphasic approach, because the chemotaxonomic characteristics are not known (Stackebrandt, 2006; Stackebrandt and Schumann, 2000). Our present study revealed that strains Aji5-31(T), Ngc37-23(T) and D. chelonae NBRC 105200(T) should be separated from the other members of the family Dermatophilaceae on the basis of the following characteristics: the predominant menaquinone of strain Aji5-31(T) is MK-8(H(2)), strain Ngc37-23(T) possesses iso- branched fatty acids as major components, and the menaquinone composition of D. chelonae is MK-8(H(4)), MK-8 and MK-8(H(2)) (5 : 3 : 2, respectively). On the basis of these distinctive phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis results, it is proposed that strains Aji5-31(T) and Ngc37-23(T) be classified as two novel genera and species of the family Dermatophilaceae. The names are Mobilicoccus pelagius gen. nov., sp. nov. and Piscicoccus intestinalis gen. nov., sp. nov., and the type strains are Aji5-31(T) (=NBRC 104925(T) =DSM 22762(T)) and Ngc37-23(T) (=NBRC 104926(T) =DSM 22761(T)), respectively. In addition, D. chelonae should be reassigned to a new genus of the family Dermatophilaceae with the name Austwickia chelonae gen. nov., comb. nov.

  7. Description of Alloprevotella rava gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity, and reclassification of Prevotella tannerae Moore et al. 1994 as Alloprevotella tannerae gen. nov., comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Julia; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Tanner, Anne C R; Wade, William G

    2013-04-01

    Five strains of anaerobic, gram-negative bacilli isolated from the human oral cavity were subjected to a comprehensive range of phenotypic and genotypic tests and were found to comprise a homogeneous group. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains represented a novel group within the family Prevotellaceae, and the most closely related species was Prevotella tannerae. P. tannerae and the novel taxon are deeply branched from the genus Prevotella, with sequence identities to the type strain of the type species of Prevotella, Prevotella melaninogenica, of 82.2 and 85.6 %, respectively. The novel genus Alloprevotella gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel species Alloprevotella rava gen. nov., sp. nov. and the previously named Prevotella tannerae Moore et al. 1994 as Alloprevotella tannerae gen. nov., comb. nov. The type species is Alloprevotella tannerae. The type strain of Alloprevotella rava is 81/4-12(T) ( = DSM 22548(T)  = CCUG 58091(T)) and the type strain of Alloprevotella tannerae is ATCC 51259(T)  = CCUG 34292(T)  = CIP 104476(T)  = NCTC 13073(T). Alloprevotella rava is weakly to moderately saccharolytic and produces moderate amounts of acetic acid and major amounts of succinic acid as end products of fermentation. Strains are sensitive to 20 % bile and hydrolyse gelatin. The principal cellular long-chain fatty acids are anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 47 mol%.

  8. Quantifying CD4/CCR5 Usage Efficiency of HIV-1 Env Using the Affinofile System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas E; Lee, Benhur

    2016-01-01

    Entry of HIV-1 into target cells involves the interaction of the HIV envelope (Env) with both a primary receptor (CD4) and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5). The relative efficiency with which a particular Env uses these receptors is a major component of cellular tropism in the context of entry and is related to a variety of pathological Env phenotypes (Chikere et al. Virology 435:81-91, 2013). The protocols outlined in this chapter describe the use of the Affinofile system, a 293-based dual-inducible cell line that expresses up to 25 distinct combinations of CD4 and CCR5, as well as the associated Viral Entry Receptor Sensitivity Assay (VERSA) metrics used to summarize the CD4/CCR5-dependent infectivity results. This system allows for high-resolution profiling of CD4 and CCR5 usage efficiency in the context of unique viral phenotypes.

  9. Caracterización de variantes genómicas. Aplicación de nuevas tecnologías al estudio del retraso mental.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Estudios recientes han permitido estimar que aproximadamente un 5% del genoma consiste en duplicaciones segmentarias (DS), secuencias de entre 1-100 kb con un nivel de similitud de más del 95% (Eichler, 2001). Las regiones flanqueadas por duplicaciones segmentarias son susceptibles de sufrir reordenamientos mediante recombinación homóloga no alélica y se ha hipotetizado que estas regiones representan puntos calientes de inestabilidad genómica propensos a variación en número de copia (CNVs). E...

  10. Retroviral Env Glycoprotein Trafficking and Incorporation into Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Murakami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Gag protein, the Env glycoprotein is a major retroviral structural protein and is essential for forming infectious virus particles. Env is synthesized, processed, and transported to certain microdomains at the plasma membrane and takes advantage of the same host machinery for its trafficking as that used by cellular glycoproteins. Incorporation of Env into progeny virions is probably mediated by the interaction between Env and Gag, in some cases with the additional involvement of certain host factors. Although several general models have been proposed to explain the incorporation of retroviral Env glycoproteins into virions, the actual mechanism for this process is still unclear, partly because structural data on the Env protein cytoplasmic tail is lacking. This paper presents the current understanding of the synthesis, trafficking, and virion incorporation of retroviral Env proteins.

  11. DEL GEN EGOISTA AL GEN ALTRUISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Fernández Galíndez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Darwinian thought derived from the interpretations and / or rereadings done on Charles Darwin's work, they have generated many controversy. Even the same Darwin demonstrated in many occasions her, doubts on her, before raised ideas, of there that I dress the evolutionism as paradigm, it suggests a serious review in the frame of the emergent thought and in the most igalitarian search of a society and less fragmented.

  12. La fábrica de la empatía. Del determinismo genético al origen social de la moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Castro, David

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preston and De Waal have adopted a theoretical idea known as the “Perception-Action Model” (PAM, which suggests that empathy and morality have genetic and evolutionary roots. In this paper, the author proposes a critical reading of PAM and an alternative interpretation, “the empathy factory”, which reconsiders the “Perception-Action Hypothesis” and the discovery of mirror neurons in the light of Judith Butler’s concept of performativity and the social construction of emotions. The conclusion is that the origin of the moral impulse does not lie in genetic determinism but in social relationships, language and affective communication.Preston y De Waal han adoptado una idea teórica, el Mecanismo de Percepción-Acción (MPA, que sugiere que la empatía y la moral tienen raíces genéticas y evolutivas. En este artículo analizamos críticamente el MPA y proponemos una interpretación alternativa, la fábrica de la empatía, que reconsidera la “Hipótesis de la Percepción-Acción” y el descubrimiento de las neuronas espejo bajo la luz del concepto de performatividad de Judith Butler y la construcción social de las emociones. Frente al determinismo genético, nuestra investigación apunta a las relaciones sociales y el lenguaje.

  13. Detección de Leishmania spp. en base al gen que codifica la proteína HSP20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Montalvo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Explorar una nueva diana para el diagnóstico molecular de Leishmania. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la utilidad del gen que codifica la proteína de choque térmico de 20kDa (hsp20 para la detección de Leishmania por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR.Se normalizó la PCR y se determinaron los parámetros analíticos, así como la validez y seguridad diagnóstica y la concordancia con la PCR-18S. Se evaluó la PCR-hsp20 con ADN obtenido de un grupo de muestras clínicas de distinta procedencia. Resultados. Los parámetros analíticos resultaron adecuados. La sensibilidad obtenida fue de 86% y la especificidad del 100%, la concordancia con el método de referencia resultó buena (κ = 0,731, lo que apoya su posible uso para el diagnóstico. La posibilidad de identificación posterior de la especie mediante secuenciación del producto amplificado le confiere una ventaja adicional. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la utilidad de este gen como una nueva diana para la detección del género Leishmania. Debido a su potencial, se recomienda mejorar la sensibilidad del procedimiento y realizar su evaluación en diversas regiones endémicas.

  14. Detección de Leishmania spp. en base al gen que codifica la proteína HSP20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Montalvo

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Explorar una nueva diana para el diagnóstico molecular de Leishmania. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la utilidad del gen que codifica la proteína de choque térmico de 20kDa (hsp20 para la detección de Leishmania por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR.Se normalizó la PCR y se determinaron los parámetros analíticos, así como la validez y seguridad diagnóstica y la concordancia con la PCR-18S. Se evaluó la PCR-hsp20 con ADN obtenido de un grupo de muestras clínicas de distinta procedencia. Resultados. Los parámetros analíticos resultaron adecuados. La sensibilidad obtenida fue de 86% y la especificidad del 100%, la concordancia con el método de referencia resultó buena (κ = 0,731, lo que apoya su posible uso para el diagnóstico. La posibilidad de identificación posterior de la especie mediante secuenciación del producto amplificado le confiere una ventaja adicional. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la utilidad de este gen como una nueva diana para la detección del género Leishmania. Debido a su potencial, se recomienda mejorar la sensibilidad del procedimiento y realizar su evaluación en diversas regiones endémicas.

  15. Herencia y relación genética asociados al rendimiento, madurez en híbridos de tomate [Solanum lycopersicum L. (Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    López, Edy; Gabriel, Julio; Angulo, Ada; Magne, Jury; La Torre, Jaime; Crespo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Durante 2010-2011 se evaluaron en invernadero, 30 híbridos de tomate, con el objetivo de determinar las relaciones genéticas entre los distintos caracteres afines al rendimiento, el número de días a la madurez y duración en anaquel. Los resultados mostraron que el híbrido 5 fue el mejor en textura, para grados brix los mejores híbridos fueron: 2, 29, 25, 16 y 10, para número de días a la madurez, el híbrido 12. El híbrido 8 para tamaño y ancho de fruto, para longitud de fruto el híbrido 4 y e...

  16. Mecanismos genéticos en la predisposición hereditaria al cáncer colorrectal Genetic mechanisms in the hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alonso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Una proporción de los cánceres colorrectales presentan algún tipo de predisposición genética que es posible reconocer en la práctica clínica. Desde los clásicos patrones hereditarios dominantes de la poliposis adenomatosa familiar o el cáncer de colon hereditario no asociado a poliposis, pasando por la transmisión recesiva mostrada por la poliposis asociada al gen MYH, hasta llegar a los novedosos síndromes de la "vía serrada" o los alelos de baja penetrancia, el descubrimiento de nuevos genes y el mejor conocimiento de los mecanismos de acción de los ya conocidos, están permitiendo comprender nuevos aspectos de la carcinogénesis colorrectal que arrojan nueva luz sobre algunas de las observaciones de patrones de agregación familiar al cáncer de colon que permanecían inexplicadas.A proportion of colorectal cancers shows some type of genetic predisposition that can be recognised in clinical practice. From the classical dominant inheritance pattern of familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, through the recessive transmission of the MYH associated polyposis, to the new syndromes of the "serrated pathway" or low-penetrance alleles, the discovery of new genes and a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action of already-known ones are enabling us to understand new aspects of the colorectal carcinogenesis. This is throwing a new light on some of the observed familial aggregation patterns which had remained unexplained.

  17. Variabilidad del gen de la envoltura del VIH-1 en tres grupos humanos con diferentes conductas sexuales de riesgo para adquirir ITS-VIH

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la variabilidad genética del gen de la envoltura porción C2-V3-C3 (env) del VIH-1 infectando grupos humanos con diferente conducta sexual de riesgo para adquirir ITS-VIH. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionaron 50 sujetos infectados con VIH-1 de los cuales 19 fueron hombres trabajadores sexuales (HTS), 8 mujeres trabajadoras sexuales (MTS) y 23 sujetos heterosexuales (SH). Se realizó la extracción de ADN genómico y la amplificación del gen env por PCR. Se identificó el sub...

  18. Parámetros genéticos y fenotípicos para peso al año, circunferencia escrotal y talla en ganado Simmental y Simbrah en México

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Torres-Vázquez; Coralia Inés Valentina Manzanilla Pech; Aurelio Borrayo Zepeda; Ángel Ríos-Utrera; Vicente Eliezer Vega-Murillo; Guillermo Martínez-Velázquez; Juan José Baeza Rodríguez; Moisés Montaño-Bermúdez

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo fue estimar los componentes de (co)varianza, heredabilidades y correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas para peso al año (YW), circunferencia escrotal (SC) y talla (FS) en toros jóvenes Simmental y Simbrah de México. Todas las características se ajustaron a 305 días acorde a los lineamientos descritos por la Federación para el Mejoramiento Genético de los Bovinos de Carne (BIF). El archivo final de datos incluyó 1,949 registros Simmental y 1,259 Simbrah. Para estimar los compones de ...

  19. Métodos y usos agrícolas de la ingeniería genética aplicada al cultivo de arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina DiazGranados D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods and agricultural uses of genetic engineering applied to rice crop Resumen: En biotecnología de arroz se han logrado avances en transformación genética, con importantes resultados en el mejoramiento genético de variedades elite de las subespecies japónica e índica. Con el propósito de revisar los métodos y los usos agrícolas de la ingeniería genética aplicada al cultivo del arroz, se usaron varias palabras claves en idioma inglés en algunas de las bases de datos de revistas científicas indexadas, disponibles en el Sistema Nacional de Bibliotecas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (SINAB, seleccionando documentos publicados entre 2000 y 2011. La base de esta revisión inicial, se complementó con artículos publicados en fechas anteriores, que se consideraron relevantes, debido a que implicaban cambios metodológicos importantes. Desde que se logró producir la primera planta transgénica de arroz a finales de los 80´s, varios protocolos para la transferencia de genes se han empleado con éxito logrando la modificación genética de más de 60 cultivares de arroz. Para ello se han empleado sistemas de transformación tanto directos como indirectos.  Se han realizado modificaciones de rasgos importantes en el cultivo, tales como la resistencia a factores bióticos (insectos, hongos, bacterias, virus, nematodos, tolerancia a factores abióticos (salinidad, sequía, altas y bajas temperaturas, inmersión, y mejoramiento de características agronómicas (calidad nutricional, rendimiento, uso de nutrientes, tolerancia a herbicidas. Palabras claves: Arroz; cultivos transgénicos; factores bióticos; factores abióticos. Abstract: In rice biotechnology advances have been made in genetic transformation, with significant results in breeding elite varieties of japonica and indica subspecies. In order to review the methods and agricultural uses of genetic engineering applied to rice, calves were used several words in English in

  20. Presence of env-like sequences in Quercus suber retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M; Ribeiro, T; Viegas, W; Morais-Cecilio, L; Rocheta, M

    2010-01-01

    The main difference between LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses is the presence of the envelope (env) gene in the latter, downstream of the pol gene. The env gene is involved in their infectious capacity. Here we report the presence of env-like sequences in the genome of Quercus suber (cork oak), one of the most economically important Portuguese species. These gene sequences were isolated through DNA amplification between RNaseH conserved motifs and 3' LTR, based on the structure of copia retrotransposons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that almost all the clones isolated are clustered with Cyclops-2, a Ty3-gypsy element identified in Pisum sativum, except one clustered with gypsy and copia retroelements found in different species. This suggests the existence of a potential ancestral sequence of the env gene, prior to the separation of Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia retrotransposons. Additionally, the isolated env-like sequences showed 26-39% of homology with env-like sequences characterized in viruses. The origin of env-like sequences in retrotransposons from host plant taxa is discussed.

  1. GEN 480 uop / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    GEN 480 Week 1 Individual Assignment Ethics Awareness Inventory GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 1 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 2 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 3 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 4 GEM 480 Week 1 Summary GEN 480 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ethics Awareness Inventory Analysis GEN 480 Week 2 Individual Assignment Professional Workplace Dilemma Paper GEN 480 Week 2 Learning Team Assignment Skills Assessment Paper and Matrix GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 1 GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 2 GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 3 ...

  2. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal Random amplified microsatellites (RAM´s in plant genetic diversity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.The use and importance, advantages, disadvantages and features of the Random Amplified Microsatellites RAMs technique, were reviewed in Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana, blackberry Rubus spp, guava Psidium guajava and heliconias Heliconia spp. In blackberry, we differentiated the species R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, detected duplicated accessions and found high genetic diversity in R. glaucus, the most important specie. In cape gooseberry we found high diversity and two red fruit accessions genetically differentiated from the yellow fruit ones and a geographical region with high variability. In guava, primers were highly polymorphic and found high variability in Valle del Cauca region. In Heliconia and related species we differentiated families belonging to Zingiberal order, between some sub genera and variation among specie. The technique has low cost of implementation, use a single primer, do not require previous information, is highly

  3. Reclassification of Lactobacillus catenaformis (Eggerth 1935) Moore and Holdeman 1970 and Lactobacillus vitulinus Sharpe et al. 1973 as Eggerthia catenaformis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Kandleria vitulina gen. nov., comb. nov., respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Felis, Giovanna E; Dellaglio, Franco; Castioni, Anna; Torriani, Sandra; Lawson, Paul A

    2011-10-01

    The development of molecular tools and in particular the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing has had a profound effect on the taxonomy of many bacterial groups. Gram-positive organisms that encompass the genera Lactobacillus and Clostridium within the Firmicutes are examples of taxa that have undergone major revisions based on phylogenetic information. A consequence of these reorganizations is that a number of organisms are now recognized as being misclassified. Previous studies have demonstrated that Lactobacillus catenaformis and Lactobacillus vitulinus are phylogenetically unrelated to Lactobacillus sensu stricto, being placed within the Clostridia rRNA cluster XVII. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data presented, it is proposed that L. catenaformis and L. vitulinus be reclassified in two new genera, named respectively Eggerthia gen. nov., with the type species Eggerthia catenaformis gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain DSM 20559(T) = ATCC 25536(T) = CCUG 48174(T) = CIP 104817(T) = JCM 1121(T)) and Kandleria gen. nov., with the type species Kandleria vitulina gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain LMG 18931(T) = ATCC 27783(T) = CCUG 32236(T) = DSM 20405(T) = JCM 1143(T)).

  4. ADAPTACI N AL ESPA OL DEL CUESTIONARIO VEC ET SANTE PER UE DE L ADOLESCENT (VSP-A: UNA MEDIDA GEN RICA DE CALIDAD DE VIDA PARA ADOLESCENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Serra-Sutton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: En la última década se han desarrollado diversas medidas de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud para uso exclusivo en niños/as y adolescentes. No obstante, existen pocos instrumentos de estas características adaptados en España. El Vecú et Sante Perçue de l?adolescent (VSP-A es un instrumento genérico de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud para adolescentes de 11 a 17 años desarrollado en Francia. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar al español el VSP-A, como primera fase para la obtención del cuestionario. Métodos: Se adaptó la versión del VSP-A de 39 preguntas siguiendo la metodología de traducción directa e inversa incluyendo: 2 traducciones al español, puntuación del grado de dificultad (0 min-10 máx y clasificación de equivalencia semántica y cultural, 2 reuniones y discusión en paneles de adolescentes, así como reuniones de consenso del equipo de investigación. Finalmente se realizó una traducción inversa (retro-traducción al francés y se administró la versión final pre-test en la prueba piloto. Resultados: La mayoría de las preguntas se clasificaron como equivalentes (24 sobre 39. Tras las reuniones con adolescentes se modificaron algunas preguntas. Tras la retro-traducción, 3 preguntas necesitaron cambios menores. Conclusiones: La versión española del VSP-A parece semántica y culturalmente equivalente a la versión original en francés y adecuada para adolescentes en España. La sencillez de las preguntas, los comentarios de los adolescentes y la participación de los autores originales en el proceso de adaptación ha permitido obtener una versión pre-test adecuada. La siguiente fase del estudio es la comprobación de la fiabilidad y validez. Se espera que el VSP-A sea de utilidad para medir la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en encuestas de salud o como instrumento de cribado en colegios o centros de atención primaria en nuestro medio.

  5. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en naranja y comparación del polimorfismo de microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAMs usando electroforesis de poliacrilamida y agarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flores Jaime Eduardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon las eficiencias de tres métodos de electroforesis en agarosa y poliacrilamida, usando la cámara pequeña de DNA Sequencing System y cámara grande OWL Sequi-Gen Sequencing Cell, en la detección del polimorfismo en 21 accesiones de naranja (Citrus sinensis con empleo del cebador CGA. El gel de poliacrilamida dio mejor resolución de los productos amplificados vía PCR producidos por RAMs. Este permitió una mejor detección de bandas de ADN polimórficas, lo que facilitó la identificación de la variabilidad genética. La electroforesis en agarosa puede ser más conveniente en otras aplicaciones, debido al bajo costo y fácil aplicación. El estudio de diversidad genética en naranja usando microsatélites RAMs diferenció 51 accesiones en siete grupos con 0.75 de similaridad y 0.25 de heterocigosidad, lo que revela bajo polimorfismo genético. La técnica RAMs permitió agrupar las accesiones en Comunes o Blancas, Navel y Pigmentadas o Sanguinas.

  6. Faecalicoccus acidiformans gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the chicken caecum, and reclassification of Streptococcus pleomorphus (Barnes et al. 1977), Eubacterium biforme (Eggerth 1935) and Eubacterium cylindroides (Cato et al. 1974) as Faecalicoccus pleomorphus comb. nov., Holdemanella biformis gen. nov., comb. nov. and Faecalitalea cylindroides gen. nov., comb. nov., respectively, within the family Erysipelotrichaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maesschalck, Celine; Van Immerseel, Filip; Eeckhaut, Venessa; De Baere, Siegrid; Cnockaert, Margo; Croubels, Siska; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Strains LMG 27428(T) and LMG 27427 were isolated from the caecal content of a chicken and produced butyric, lactic and formic acids as major metabolic end products. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains LMG 27428(T) and LMG 27427 were 40.4 and 38.8 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, both strains were most closely related to the generically misclassified Streptococcus pleomorphus ATCC 29734(T). Strain LMG 27428(T) could be distinguished from S. pleomorphus ATCC 29734(T) based on production of more lactic acid and less formic acid in M2GSC medium, a higher DNA G+C content and the absence of activities of acid phosphatase and leucine, arginine, leucyl glycine, pyroglutamic acid, glycine and histidine arylamidases, while strain LMG 27428 was biochemically indistinguishable from S. pleomorphus ATCC 29734(T). The novel genus Faecalicoccus gen. nov. within the family Erysipelotrichaceae is proposed to accommodate strains LMG 27428(T) and LMG 27427. Strain LMG 27428(T) ( =DSM 26963(T)) is the type strain of Faecalicoccus acidiformans sp. nov., and strain LMG 27427 ( =DSM 26962) is a strain of Faecalicoccus pleomorphus comb. nov. (type strain LMG 17756(T) =ATCC 29734(T) =DSM 20574(T)). Furthermore, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of the genus Faecalicoccus are the generically misclassified Eubacterium cylindroides DSM 3983(T) (94.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strain LMG 27428(T)) and Eubacterium biforme DSM 3989(T) (92.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strain LMG 27428(T)). We present genotypic and phenotypic data that allow the differentiation of each of these taxa and propose to reclassify these generically misnamed species of the genus Eubacterium formally as Faecalitalea cylindroides gen. nov., comb. nov. and Holdemanella biformis gen. nov., comb. nov., respectively. The type strain of Faecalitalea cylindroides is DSM 3983(T) =ATCC 27803(T) =JCM 10261(T) and that of Holdemanella biformis is DSM 3989(T

  7. GEN 300 Courses/sanptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    GEN 300 Ethics in an Academic Environment Assignment POWERPOINT ONLY GEN 300 Team Dynamics Instructions GEN 300 Effects of Technology Essay GEN 300 Research,Summary, and Paraphrase Activity GEN 300 Ethics in an Academic Environment Assignment PAPER ONLY GEN 300 Final Paper on Team Dynamics GEN 300 Student Web Scavenger Hunt GEN 300 Week 1 DQs GEN 300 Week 2 DQs GEN 300 Week 3 DQs GEN 300 Week 4 DQs GEN 300 Week 5 DQ

  8. GEN 105 Courses/sanptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    GEN 105 Assignment: Reading and Retention GEN 105 Assignment: Elevator Speech GEN 105 CheckPoint: Technological Tools GEN 105 CheckPoint: Distance Learning I GEN 105 CheckPoint: Distance Learning II GEN 105 CheckPoint: Communicating in Forums GEN 105 Week 2 Discussion Questions GEN 105 Week 4 Discussion Questions GEN 105 Week 6 Discussion Questions GEN 105 Week 8 Discussion Questions GEN 105 Assignment: University Library Article Search GEN 105 Chec...

  9. GEN 480 UOP Course Tutorial / gen480dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    GEN 480 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.gen480.com   GEN 480 Week 1 Individual Assignment Ethics Awareness Inventory GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 1 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 2 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 3 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 4 GEN 480 Week 1 Summary GEN 480 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ethics Awareness Inventory Analysis GEN 480 Week 2 Individual Assignment Professional Workplace Dilemma Paper GEN 480 Week 2 Learning Team Assignment Skills Assessment P...

  10. The role of the N-terminal segment of CCR5 in HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and the mechanism of virus adaptation to CCR5 lacking this segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabat David

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env induces membrane fusion as a result of sequential binding to CD4 and chemokine receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4. The critical determinants of CCR5 coreceptor function are the N-terminal domain (Nt and the second extracellular loop. However, mutations in gp120 adapt HIV-1 to grow on cells expressing the N-terminally truncated CCR5(Δ18 (Platt et al., J. Virol. 2005, 79: 4357–68. Results We have functionally characterized the adapted Env (designated Env(NYP using a quantitative cell-cell fusion assay. The rate of fusion with target cells expressing wild-type CCR5 and the resistance to fusion inhibitors was virtually identical for wild-type Env and Env(NYP, implying that the coreceptor affinity had not increased as a result of adaptation. In contrast, Env(NYP-induced fusion with cells expressing CCR5(Δ18 occurred at a slower rate and was extremely sensitive to the CCR5 binding inhibitor, Sch-C. Resistance to Sch-C drastically increased after pre-incubation of Env(NYP- and CCR5(Δ18-expressing cells at a temperature that was not permissive to fusion. This indicates that ternary Env(NYP-CD4-CCR5(Δ18 complexes accumulate at sub-threshold temperature and that low-affinity interactions with the truncated coreceptor are sufficient for triggering conformational changes in the gp41 of Env(NYP but not in wild-type Env. We also demonstrated that the ability of CCR5(Δ18 to support fusion and infection mediated by wild-type Env can be partially reconstituted in the presence of a synthetic sulfated peptide corresponding to the CCR5 Nt. Pre-incubation of wild-type Env- and CCR5(Δ18-expressing cells with the sulfated peptide at sub-threshold temperature markedly increased the efficiency of fusion. Conclusion We propose that, upon binding the Nt region of CCR5, wild-type Env acquires the ability to productively engage the extracellular loop(s of CCR5 – an event that triggers gp41 refolding and membrane merger

  11. GEN 200 Courses/sanptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    GEN 200 Week 1 Assignment- Map Out an Important Goal GEN 200 Week 1 DQ 1 GEN 200 Week 1 DQ 2 GEN 200 Week 2 Assignment- Communication and Collaboration Strategy Paper GEN 200 Week 2 DQ 1 GEN 200 Week 2 DQ 2 GEN 200 Week 3 Assignment- Student Web Scavenger Hunt GEN 200 Week 3 DQ 1 GEN 200 Week 3 DQ 2 GEN 200 Week 4 Assignment-Research Strategy Paper GEN 200 Week 4 DQ 1 GEN 200 Week 4 DQ 2 GEN 200 Week 5 DQ 1 GEN 200 Week 5 DQ 2 GEN 200 We...

  12. Contribuciones de la genética y la proteómica al estudio de la enfermedad de Chagas Genomic and proteomic contributions for Chagas disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa López-Ordóñez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Chagas representa uno de los problemas más importantes de salud pública en el continente americano. El conocimiento sobre el genoma y el proteoma de los agentes de esta infección es esencial para desarrollar herramientas precisas y eficaces a corto y largo plazo y prevenir la transmisión. En el presente documento se destacan los aportes que han permitido mejorar el diseño, la implementación y la eficacia de las actividades de vigilancia y control de la enfermedad. Se revisan la contribución de la información genómica o proteómica sobre la distribución geográfica de los vectores, y la diversidad y la dinámica poblacional, además de la identificación de poblaciones y especies blanco para control. Por otra parte, se analiza la forma en que el conocimiento del genoma del parásito ha contribuido al diagnóstico de la infección, el estudio de las poblaciones de Trypanosoma cruzi, el tratamiento farmacológico y la interacción del parásito con sus hospederos. Una revisión de estas contribuciones incluye los temas de investigación básica y aplicada más destacados para el futuro inmediato.Chagas disease represents one of the more significant public health problems in the Americas. Information regarding the genome and proteome of vectors and parasite, as well as their interactions, will be essential to develop specific and effective diagnostic and preventive tools. Advances that have contributed to the design, implementation, and efficacy of disease surveillance and control activities are reviewed. Genomic and proteomic information has contributed to a better understanding of vector distributions and dispersion, diversity, population dynamics, and control targets (populations and species. In addition, genomic and proteomic studies have impacted parasite diagnostics, Trypanosoma cruzi population dynamics, pharmacological treatment and knowledge of parasite-host interactions. Discussion of these contributions includes

  13. ANALYSIS OF ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS ENV GENES OF JAAGSIEKTE SHEEP RETROVIRUS%绵羊肺腺瘤内、外源性env 基因比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔汉金; 张克山; 刘永杰; 尚佑军; 吴斌; 刘湘涛

    2013-01-01

      绵羊肺腺瘤(Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma,OPA)是由绵羊肺腺瘤反转录病毒(Jaagsiekte retrovirus, JSRV)感染引起的成年绵羊的一种慢性、进行性、接触传染性肺脏疾病。env 是 JSRV 的主要毒力基因之一,而在正常羊的基因组中也存在着JSRV的内源性基因片段。为比较分析JSRV内、外源性env 的特征,本文扩增并测定了正常绵羊肺组织的内源性env 基因(Enenv),运用生物信息学技术,比较分析了其与外源性绵羊肺腺瘤病毒 JSRV21(AF105220)env 基因(Exenv)的遗传进化关系,二、三级蛋白结构和抗原表位。结果表明 Enenv 和 Exenv 核苷酸同源性为88.1%,推导的氨基酸同源性为92.0%,两者的主要差异位于 TM 区和 YXXM 基序。本结果为进一步研究 JSRVenv 基因功能提供了新线索。%Ovine pulmonary adenomatosis (OPA) is a chronic, progressive and contagious lung tumor in adult sheep, which is caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). The envelop gene plays a key role in pathogenesis of OPA. On the other hand, an important finding is that multiple copies of highly related endogenous JSRV-like proviruses have been also identified in normal sheep genome. In order to analyze the difference of envelope genes between endogenous and exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses, we amplified and sequenced env gene of enJSRV (Enenv) from lung tissue of normal sheep. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of env gene were compared with JSRV21 strain (AF105220) (Exenv) published on the GenBank using DNAstar software. Then we predicted and compared the secondary structure, tertiary structure and antigenic epitopes of env genes of enJSRV and exJSRV. The results indicated that Enenv shared 88.1%homology with Exenv at nucleotide level and 92.0% homology at amino acid level. The main difference between them was located in the transmembrane (TM) domains of the envelope protein. The cytoplasmic tail (CT

  14. Appreciating HIV-1 diversity: subtypic differences in ENV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanakaran, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shen, Tongye [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynch, Rebecca M [NON LANL; Derdeyn, Cynthia A [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M is responsible for the current AIDS pandemic and exhibits exceedingly high levels of viral genetic diversity around the world, necessitating categorization of viruses into distinct lineages, or subtypes. These subtypes can differ by around 35% in the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of the virus, which are displayed on the surface of the virion and are targets for both neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. This diversity reflects the remarkable ability of the virus to adapt to selective pressures, the bulk of which is applied by the host immune response, and represents a serious obstacle for developing an effective vaccine with broad coverage. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying biological consequences of inter-subtype diversity. Recent studies have revealed that the HIV-1 subtypes exhibit phenotypic differences that result from subtle differences in Env structure, particularly within the highly immunogenic V3 domain, which participates directly in viral entry. This review will therefore explore current research that describes subtypic differences in Env at the genetic and phenotypic level, focusing in particular on V3, and highlighting recent discoveries about the unique features of subtype C Env, which is the most prevalent subtype globally.

  15. Envíos Confianza, S.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID); S.C. Envíos Confianza

    2009-01-01

    Presentación acerca de Envíos Confianza, S.C., en el cual da a conocer su historia, misión, visión, valores, efecto de las remesas en comunidades e impacto de la crisis financiera. Además, señala la proyección para el 2009-2011.

  16. Modelos de selección genómica para caracteres cuantitativos basados en marcadores moleculares aplicados al mejoramiento de maíz

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    1. Introducción - 2. Objetivos - 2.1 Objetivos Generales - 2.2 Objetivos Específicos - 3. Materiales - 3.1. Proceso de generación de datos para selección genómica - 3.2. Datos fenotípicos - 3.3. Datos de marcadores moleculares - 4. Metodología - 4.1. Metodología para el análisis de datos fenotípicos - 4.2. Metodología para el análisis de datos moleculares - 4.2.1. Introducción a los marcadores moleculares - 4.2.2. Análisis de los marcadores moleculares - 4.3. Modelos de selección genómica ...

  17. Variabilidad del gen de la envoltura del VIH-1 en tres grupos humanos con diferentes conductas sexuales de riesgo para adquirir ITS-VIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yábar V

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la variabilidad genética del gen de la envoltura porción C2-V3-C3 (env del VIH-1 infectando grupos humanos con diferente conducta sexual de riesgo para adquirir ITS-VIH. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionaron 50 sujetos infectados con VIH-1 de los cuales 19 fueron hombres trabajadores sexuales (HTS, 8 mujeres trabajadoras sexuales (MTS y 23 sujetos heterosexuales (SH. Se realizó la extracción de ADN genómico y la amplificación del gen env por PCR. Se identificó el subtipo genético por ensayo de movilidad de heterodúplex (HMA y se confirmaron los resultados por análisis filogenético. Asimismo, se realizó el análisis de recombinación intragenética, diversidad y distancia genética en las tres poblaciones. Resultados: Se amplificó el gen env en 49 muestras (98% y se logró secuenciar el fragmento en 40 de ellas. Se observó que el 97,5% de las muestras de VIH fueron subtipo B mientras que una muestra no pudo ser clasificada filogenéticamente. Asimismo, se encontraron pequeños tramos de recombinación en el gen env de VIH en MTS (33%, HTS (43% y SH (45%. El mayor índice de diversidad de nucleótidos (Pi de env se encontró entre las muestras de VIH provenientes de SH y HTS (0,12 y 0,13 respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se encontró una mayor variabilidad genética del gen env de VIH-1 en las poblaciones de HTS y SH, sin embargo, el subtipo genético y la frecuencia de recombinación de este fragmento genético fue similar en los tres grupos estudiados.

  18. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  19. GEN 499 Courses/sanptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    GEN 499 Week 1 DQ 1 Final Research Paper Topic and Plan GEN 499 Week 1 DQ 2 Social Media GEN 499 Week 2 DQ 1 Professional Resume and Cover Letter GEN 499 Week 2 Assignment Critiquing Internet Sources GEN 499 Week 3 DQ 1 Social Capital GEN 499 Week 3 DQ 2 Federal Policy GEN 499 Week 3 Assignment Annotated Bibliography GEN 499 Week 4 DQ 1 Call to Action GEN 499 Week 4 DQ 2 Final Research Paper Progress GEN 499 Week 4 Critical Thinking Quiz GEN 499 Week 5 ...

  20. GEN 480 Courses/sanptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    GEN 480 Week 1 Individual Assignment Ethics Awareness Inventory GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 1 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 2 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 3 GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 4 GEM 480 Week 1 Summary GEN 480 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ethics Awareness Inventory Analysis GEN 480 Week 2 Individual Assignment Professional Workplace Dilemma Paper GEN 480 Week 2 Learning Team Assignment Skills Assessment Paper and Matrix GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 1 GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 2 GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 3 ...

  1. GEN 480 UOP TUTORIAL / Uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com           GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 1  GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 2  GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 3  GEN 480 Week 1 DQ 4  GEN 480 Week 1 Individual AssignmentEthics Awareness  GEN 480 Week 1 Summary  GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 1  GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 2  GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 3  GEN 480 Week 2 DQ 4  GEN 480 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ethics Awareness &...

  2. Genç Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Popülasyonunun Doğal Diş Renginin Değerlendirilmesi: Pilot çalışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahhar Ulusoy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    ÖZET

    Amaç: Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk popülasyonunun maksiler anterior dişlerinin renklerini Vitapan Classical skalasına ve CIE L*a*b* renk sistemine göre belirleyerek, cinsiyetin renk değerleri üzerine etkisini incelemektir.

    Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmaya 18-27 yaş aralığında, 43 bayan ve 43 erkek olmak üzere toplam 86 gönüllü birey katılmıştır. Maksiller sağ veya sol santral, lateral ve kanin dişlerinden VITA Easyshade Compact  (VitaZahnfabrik, BadSäckingen, Almanya spektrofotometre cihazı ile renk ölçümü yapılmış ve Vitapan Classical skalasına göre renk ve CIE L*a*b* değerleri kaydedilmiştir. Aynı bireyin santral, lateral ve kanin dişleri arasındaki CIE L*a*b* renk farkını değerlendirmek için ΔE değerleri hesaplanmıştır. Veriler istatistiksel olarak analiz edilmiştir.

    Bulgular: Bayanlar ve erkeklerin anterior dişlerinin L* değerleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunamamıştır. Ancak cinsiyet, santral ve lateral dişlerin a*; kanin dişlerinin b* değerlerinde anlamlı bir fark yaratmıştır (P<0.05. Tüm bireylerde kanin dişlerinin L* değerleri diğer dişlere kıyasla daha düşük, a* değerleri daha yüksektir. En düşük ΔE değerleri santral-lateral dişleri arasında iken en yüksek ΔE değerleri santral ve kanin dişleri arasındadır. Renk tonu genellikle A ve B gruplarında yoğunlaşmıştır.

    Sonuçlar: Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk popülasyonunun genç bireylerinde doğal diş rengi Vitapan Classical skalasına göre çoğunlukla A ve B tonlarındadır, C tonu hiç saptanamamıştır. Dişlerin renkleri cinsiyetler arasında ve aynı bireyin santral-lateral ve

  3. Predisposição genética, hereditariedade e reabsorções radiculares em Ortodontia: cuidados com interpretações precipitadas: uma análise crítica do trabalho de Al-Qawasmi et al Genetics predisposition, heredity and radicular resorption, in Orthodontics: cares with precipitated interpretations and a critical analysis of Al-Qawasmi´s work

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Consolaro; Maria Fernanda Martins-Ortiz

    2004-01-01

    O trabalho de Al-Qawasmi et al.¹, publicado em março de 2003 pelo American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, procurou estabelecer uma predisposição genética para justificar as reabsorções dentárias em Ortodontia, mas apresentou algumas limitações metodológicas e equívocos na interpretação de seus resultados. A análise criteriosa deste artigo ressalta que, na maioria, estas limitações foram mencionadas e reconhecidas pelos autores na discussão do trabalho, mas o seu resumo e...

  4. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L; Gregg, Jacob L; Hart, Lucas M; Winton, James R; Emmenegger, Eveline J; Hershberger, Paul K

    2016-07-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  5. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  6. Transcriptional and functional studies of Human Endogenous Retrovirus envelope EnvP(b) and EnvV genes in human trophoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Amandine, E-mail: amandine.vargas@voila.fr; Thiery, Maxime, E-mail: thiery.maxime@courrier.uqam.ca; Lafond, Julie, E-mail: lafond.julie@uqam.ca; Barbeau, Benoit, E-mail: barbeau.benoit@uqam.ca

    2012-03-30

    HERV (Human Endogenous Retrovirus)-encoded envelope proteins are implicated in the development of the placenta. Indeed, Syncytin-1 and -2 play a crucial role in the fusion of human trophoblasts, a key step in placentation. Other studies have identified two other HERV env proteins, namely EnvP(b) and EnvV, both expressed in the placenta. In this study, we have fully characterized both env transcripts and their expression pattern and have assessed their implication in trophoblast fusion. Through RACE analyses, standard spliced transcripts were detected, while EnvV transcripts demonstrated alternative splicing at its 3 Prime end. Promoter activity and expression of both genes were induced in forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells and in primary trophoblasts. Although we have confirmed the fusogenic activity of EnvP(b), overexpression or silencing experiments revealed no impact of this protein on trophoblast fusion. Our results demonstrate that both env genes are expressed in human trophoblasts but are not required for syncytialization.

  7. An efficiently cleaved HIV-1 clade C Env selectively binds to neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Boliar

    Full Text Available An ideal HIV-1 Env immunogen is expected to mimic the native trimeric conformation for inducing broadly neutralizing antibody responses. The native conformation is dependent on efficient cleavage of HIV-1 Env. The clade B isolate, JRFL Env is efficiently cleaved when expressed on the cell surface. Here, for the first time, we report the identification of a native clade C Env, 4-2.J41 that is naturally and efficiently cleaved on the cell surface as confirmed by its biochemical and antigenic characteristics. In addition to binding to several conformation-dependent neutralizing antibodies, 4-2.J41 Env binds efficiently to the cleavage-dependent antibody PGT151; thus validating its native cleaved conformation. In contrast, 4-2.J41 Env occludes non-neutralizing epitopes. The cytoplasmic-tail of 4-2.J41 Env plays an important role in maintaining its conformation. Furthermore, codon optimization of 4-2.J41 Env sequence significantly increases its expression while retaining its native conformation. Since clade C of HIV-1 is the prevalent subtype, identification and characterization of this efficiently cleaved Env would provide a platform for rational immunogen design.

  8. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody 8ANC195 Recognizes Closed and Open States of HIV-1 Env.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Louise; Wang, Haoqing; Gao, Han; Chen, Songye; McDowall, Alasdair W; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2015-09-10

    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) spike contains limited epitopes for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs); thus, most neutralizing antibodies are strain specific. The 8ANC195 epitope, defined by crystal and electron microscopy (EM) structures of bNAb 8ANC195 complexed with monomeric gp120 and trimeric Env, respectively, spans the gp120 and gp41 Env subunits. To investigate 8ANC195's gp41 epitope at higher resolution, we solved a 3.58 Å crystal structure of 8ANC195 complexed with fully glycosylated Env trimer, revealing 8ANC195 insertion into a glycan shield gap to contact gp120 and gp41 glycans and protein residues. To determine whether 8ANC195 recognizes the CD4-bound open Env conformation that leads to co-receptor binding and fusion, one of several known conformations of virion-associated Env, we solved EM structures of an Env/CD4/CD4-induced antibody/8ANC195 complex. 8ANC195 binding partially closed the CD4-bound trimer, confirming structural plasticity of Env by revealing a previously unseen conformation. 8ANC195's ability to bind different Env conformations suggests advantages for potential therapeutic applications.

  9. Algoritmo Genético aplicado al problema de programación en procesos tecnológicos de maquinado con ambiente Flow Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Márquez Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a las limitaciones de las técnicas de optimización convencionales, en el siguiente trabajo se presenta una metaheurística basada en un algoritmo genético (AG, para resolver problemas de programación de tipo flow shop, con el objetivo de minimizar el tiempo de finalización de todos los trabajos, más conocido como makespan. Este problema, considerado de difícil solución, es típico de la optimización combinatoria y se presenta en talleres con tecnología de maquinado, donde existen máquinas herramientas convencionales y se fabrican diferentes tipos de piezas que tienen en común una misma ruta tecnológica (orden del proceso. La solución propuesta se probó con problemas clásicos publicados por otros autores, obteniéndose resultados satisfactorios en cuanto a la calidad de las soluciones encontradas y el tiempo de cómputo empleado.

  10. Predisposición genética al sangrado durante el tratamiento con anticoagulantes orales Genetic predisposition to bleeding during treatment oral anticoagulants treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Montes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La anticoagulación conseguida durante el tratamiento con anticoagulantes orales antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK varía entre unos pacientes y otros debido a factores individuales y ambientales. La intensidad de la anticoagulación condiciona el riesgo hemorrágico. Por tanto, es probable que los pacientes especialmente sensibles a los AVK corran un riesgo hemorrágico mayor, especialmente durante las primeras semanas. En esta revisión se va a discutir el papel de una serie de polimorfismos de las enzimas involucradas en la metabolización de los AVK o en el ciclo de la vitamina K. Dos polimorfismos del citocromo P450 2C9 y uno de la enzima VKORC1 son responsables de un alto porcentaje de la variabilidad observada en la sensibilidad a los AVK. Aunque parece que dichas alteraciones genéticas se asocian con el riesgo de experimentar una hemorragia severa, confirmar este extremo requerirá estudios más amplios y mejor diseñados.The degree of anticoagulation obtained during oral anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKA varies among patients due to individual and environmental factors. The rate of anticoagulation influences the hemorrhagic risk. Therefore, it is plausible that patients specially sensitive to oral anticoagulants are at higher hemorrhagicc risk, specially during the first weeks. The role of a series of polymorphisms of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of VKA or in the vitamin K cycle are reviewed. Three polymorphisms, two in the cytochrome P450 2C9 and one in the VKORC1 enzyme, are responsible for a high portion of the variability observed in the sensitivity to AVK. Although the available literature suggests that these genetic variants could increase the risk of severe hemorrhage, larger, well designed studies are needed to confirm this notion.

  11. Tolerância de genótipos de cafeeiro ao alumínio em solução nutritiva. II. Teores de P, Ca e Al e eficiência ao P e Ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. L. Braccini

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento, em janeiro de 1994, em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do alumínio nos teores de P, Ca e Al e na eficiência ao fósforo e cálcio de nove genótipos de café, as plantas foram crescidas em solução nutritiva com 0 e 0,296 mmol L-1 de alumínio, com pH 4,0, por um período de 115 dias. Após esse período, as plantas foram divididas em folhas superiores, folhas inferiores, primeiro par de folhas totalmente expandido, caule e raízes, para a determinação da matéria seca e de concentrações de fósforo, cálcio e alumínio. A tolerância ao alumínio foi associada ao menor acúmulo de fósforo nas raízes, à menor redução na translocação desse nutriente para a parte aérea, à menor redução na absorção de cálcio e à maior eficiência no uso do fósforo e do cálcio. Foi observado grande acúmulo de alumínio nas raízes, bem como um transporte restrito do elemento para a parte aérea, para todos os genótipos de café.

  12. Das seneszenzassoziierte Gen HvS40 der Gerste

    OpenAIRE

    Trösch, Mirl

    2016-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das seneszenzassoziierte Gen HvS40 der Gerste als dual kodierendes Gen charakterisiert. Damit wurde ein solches Gen erstmals in Pflanzen beschrieben. Der alternative S40+1-Leserahmen, der den kanonischen Leserahmen im 5'-Bereich überragt, konnte auch in anderen monokotylen, jedoch nicht in dikotylen Arten gefunden werden. Das S40-Protein, das durch den kanonischen Leserahmen S40+3 kodiert wird, kann der pflanzenspezifischen Proteinfamilie DUF584 zugeordnet...

  13. Envíos de dinero a casa: Influir en el impacto de las remesas a América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2004-01-01

    Da a conocer el interés del BID, quien participa en una serie de proyectos en la región para aumentar la competencia, disminuir los costes de los envíos de remesas, promover la educación financiera y fomentar el impacto de estos fondos al ofrecer más opciones financieras para las familias de América Latina y el Caribe, quienes son receptoras de remesas.

  14. NMobTec-EnvEdu: M-Learning System for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced the implementation of a New Mobile Technologies and Environmental Education System (NMobTec-EnvEdu) designed for m-learning environments. The NMobTec-EnvEdu system has been developed to provide environmental education in a collaborative framework to undergraduate students through the Internet using mobile phones. The study…

  15. Utility of the Sindbis replicon system as an Env-targeted HIV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Rob J; Miller, Annett; Wheatley, Adam K; Campbell, Shahan M; Siebentritt, Carly; Purcell, Damian F J

    2013-04-26

    Sindbis replicon-based vaccine vectors are designed to combine the immunostimulatory properties of replicating viruses with the superior safety profile of non-replicating systems. In this study we performed a detailed assessment of Sindbis (SIN) replicon vectors expressing HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) for the induction of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in a small animal model. SIN-derived virus-like particles (VLP) elicited Env-specific antibody responses that were detectable after boosting with recombinant Env protein. This priming effect could be mediated by replicon activity alone but may be enhanced by Env attached to the surface of VLP, offering a potential advantage for this mode of replicon delivery for Env based vaccination strategies. In contrast, the Env-specific CTL responses that were elicited by SIN-VLP were entirely dependent on replicon activity. SIN-VLP priming induced more durable humoral responses than immunization with protein only. This is important from a vaccine perspective, given the intrinsic tendency of Env to induce short-lived antibody responses in the context of vaccination or infection. These results indicate that further efforts to enhance the magnitude and durability of the HIV-1 Env-specific immune responses generated by Sindbis vectors, either alone or as part of prime-boost regimens, are justified.

  16. Functional and structural characterization of EnvZ, an osmosensing histidine kinase of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Phadtare, Sangita; Inouye, Masayori

    2007-01-01

    EnvZ is an osmosensing histidine kinase located in the inner membrane, and one of the most extensively studied Escherichia coli histidine kinases. Because of its structural complexity, functional and structural studies have been quite challenging. It is a multidomain transmembrane protein consisting of 450 amino acid residues. In addition, it must form a dimer to function as a histidine kinase like all the other histidine kinases. EnvZ consists of the 115-residue periplasmic domain, two transmembrane domains (TM1 and TM2), and the cytoplasmic domain consisting of the 43-residue linker (HAMP) domain and the 228-residue kinase domain. It has been shown that the kinase domain of EnvZ, responsible for its enzymatic activities, contains all of the conserved regions of histidine kinases such as H, F, N, G1, G2, and G3 boxes. Therefore, the 271-residue cytoplasmic domain of EnvZ (termed EnvZc) has been used as a model system to establish fundamental characteristics of histidine kinases. The DNA fragment encoding EnvZc was cloned in pET vector and EnvZc was expressed and purified. It is highly soluble and retains all the enzymatic activities of EnvZ. We demonstrated that it consists of two functional domains, domain A and domain B. NMR spectroscopic studies of these two domains revealed, for the first time, the structure of a histidine kinase. Domain A is responsible for dimerization of EnvZc forming a four-helical bundle containing two alpha-helical hairpin structures, while domain B is a monomer and has an ATP-binding pocket formed by regions conserved among the histidine kinases. In this chapter, we describe functional and structural studies of EnvZc, which can be applied to characterize other histidine kinases.

  17. La responsabilidad civil derivada de los daños ocasionados al derecho al honor, a la intimidad personal y familiar y a la propia imágen

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira-Sueiro, María E.

    2011-01-01

    [Resumen] SE ANALIZA LA RESPONSABILIDAD CIVIL EN EL AMBITO ESPECIFICO DE LOS DERECHOS AL HONOR, INTIMIDAD E IMAGEN COMPARANDOLA CON EL REGIMEN COMUN DE RESPONSABILIDAD CIVIL CONTENIDO EN EL ARTICULO 1902 DEL CODIGO CIVIL.

  18. Inhibition of avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication by miRNA targeted against env.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zai-Ping; Tian, Jin; Xiao, Zhi-Guang; Meng, Qing-Wen

    2013-08-01

    No effective vaccine has been developed against the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). The genetic diversity of ALV-J might be related to the env gene, therefore, we selected conserved sequences of the env gene and designed interference sequence. In this study, microRNAs (miRNAs) were designed and synthesized, corresponding to conserved regions of the env gene. These miRNAs were cloned into the linearized eukaryotic expression vector. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into DF-1 cells. After transfection, the cells were inoculated with ALV-J. In reporter assays, the transfection efficiency is 80% by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Expression of the virus envelope glycoprotein was measured by IFA and western blotting assays. The relative expression of env gene was determined using quantitative PCR. Our results show that the mi-env 231 and mi-env 1384 could effectively suppress the replication of ALV-J with an efficiency of 68.7-75.2%. These data suggest that the miRNAs targeting the env can inhibit replication of ALV-J efficiently. This finding provides evidence that miRNAs could be used as a potential tool against ALV infection.

  19. Low Genetic Diversity Among Garlic (Allium sativum L. Accessions Detected Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Escasa Diversidad Genética entre Accesiones de Ajo (Allium sativum L. Detectada Mediante ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Paredes C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a species of vegetative propagation, showing high morphological diversity. Besides, its clones have specific adaptations to different agroclimatic regions. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 65 garlic clones collected in Chile and introduced from different countries, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Fourty random primers of 10 mers generated a total of 398 bands with an 87% of polymorphism. Each primer amplified between two and 20 bands. The size of the fragments obtained fluctuated between 3200 and 369 bp. The results showed that the clones analyzed had a genetic similarity rate of 94%. In addition, 70% of them were clustered in one major group. However, in spite of that situation several clones have different agronomic characteristicsEl ajo (Allium sativum L. es una especie de propagación vegetativa, que presenta una amplia variabilidad morfológica. Los clones de esta especie tienen una adaptación específica a diferentes regiones agroclimáticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diversidad genética existente en 65 clones de ajos colectados en Chile e introducidos desde diferentes países, utilizando RAPD (ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar. Para esta evaluación se utilizaron 40 partidores de 10-mers. Los partidores generaron entre dos y 20 bandas, observándose un alto número de patrones con bandas múltiples. Los fragmentos generados difieren en su tamaño entre 3.200 y 369 pb. Los partidores generaron 398 bandas, de las cuales un 87% fueron polimórficas. El análisis estadístico realizado detectó una similitud genética alta, de un 94% entre las accesiones evaluadas, donde aproximadamente un 70% de los clones formaron un grupo homogéneo. Sin embargo, este grupo incluye clones que presentan diferentes características agronómicas

  20. Linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica, el espectro desde la enfermedad genética al síndrome de activación macrofágica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Porras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El compromiso de la regulación de la inflamación produce activación excesiva y expansión de macrófagos y linfocitos T que desencadenan una reacción inflamatoria severa, sin vías naturales de control. Los trastornos hemofagocíticos son la traducción clínica de este proceso inflamatorio. La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica se refiere a todas las variantes de esta patología, y el síndrome de activación macrofágica, a la variante asociada con enfermedad autoinmune. Los casos primarios se asocian con la forma familiar autosómica recesiva y los secundarios con inmunodeficiencias primarias, infección, malignidad y enfermedades autoinmunes. El principal distintivo de este grupo de patologías es la proliferación agresiva de macrófagos e histiocitos que fagocitan otras células sanguíneas. La reducción en la actividad de las células NK produce un aumento en la activación y expansión de linfocitos T, los cuales producen grandes cantidades de citoquinas. Las citoquinas inducen activación de macrófagos y células dendríticas, infiltración tisular y producción de interleuquinas, lo que genera una reacción inflamatoria severa, responsable del daño tisular y de las manifestaciones clínicas. El curso clínico se caracteriza principalmente por fiebre prolongada, hepatoesplenomegalia y citopenias. Los estudios de laboratorio muestran aumento de ferritina, triglicéridos e hipofibrinogenemia. La hemofagocitosis en médula ósea está presente en más del 80% de los casos al diagnóstico. El tratamiento está dirigido contra el linfocito T y los histiocitos hiperactivados, combinando quimioterapia con inmunosupresores y, en algunos casos, trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas. Este tratamiento ha producido un cambio en la sobrevida de los pacientes. El protocolo de tratamiento HLH-2004 es una guía que estandariza el tratamiento, combinando etopósido, dexametazona y ciclosporina A. En Costa Rica se han reportado 60 casos en

  1. Comparison of the Immunogenicities of HIV-1 Mutants Based on Structural Modification of env

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-hui NIE; Chun-tao ZHANG; Hui-hui CHONG; Xue-ling WU; Chu-yu LIU; Yu WU; Chen-yan ZHAO; Lin-qi ZHANG; You-Chun WANG

    2008-01-01

    Eleven env mutants were designed and generated by site-directed mutagenesis of the regions around Nab epitopes and deletions of variable regions in env.The immunogenicities of the generated mutants were evaluated using single-cycle infection neutralization assays with two pseudoviruses and IFN-γELISPOT.Overall,five mutants(dWt,M2,M5-2,M5-1 and dM7)induced highed neutralization activities for both pseudoviruses than plasmid Wt,while only two of the mutants(dWt and M5-2)showed significant differences(P<0.05).Two mutants(M2 and dM2)induced more Env-specific T cells than plasmid Wt.Statistically however,significance was only reached for mutant M2.Thus,properly modified HIV-1 Env may have the potential to induce potent cellular and humoral immune responses.

  2. The EU energy and environmental model EFOM-ENV specified in GAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kruijk, H.

    1994-08-01

    EFOM-ENV (Energy Flow and Optimization Model - ENVironment) is an LP model which covers the complete energy system of a country. It is originally programmed in FORTRAN. At the moment the model is operational for all EU countries in projects commissioned by DG-12 of the Commission of European Communities. A GAMS (General Algebraic Modelling System) version of EFOM-ENV has been developed in order to improve the user-friendliness, flexibility and portability. The modelling language GAMS is especially developed to handle this type of large and complicated models. EFOM-ENV/GAMS provides a clear model structure to organize the massive amount of data belonging to an energy system. The capabilities to change, check and evaluate data are extended. Finally the possibility to run EFOM-ENV in different places (computers) is increased, because GAMS can be applied on mainframes, workstations (UNIX) and personal computers (MS-DOS). EFOM-ENV/GAMS is implemented for the Netherlands, Poland, Czech Republic, and Slovakia. A Hungarian version is under development. This report is an update of the first EFOM-ENV/GAMS report, and contains a model description and a user's manual. 11 figs., 23 tabs., 8 refs.

  3. GenBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 370 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or the NCBI Submission Portal. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to policies regarding sequence identifiers, an improved 16S submission wizard, targeted loci studies, the ability to submit methylation and BioNano mapping files, and a database of anti-microbial resistance genes. PMID:27899564

  4. Antibody to gp41 MPER alters functional properties of HIV-1 Env without complete neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER of envelope glycoprotein (Env subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  5. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  6. Generation of H9 T-cells stably expressing a membrane-bound form of the cytoplasmic tail of the Env-glycoprotein: lack of transcomplementation of defective HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Valerie

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract H9-T-cells do not support the replication of mutant HIV-1 encoding Env protein lacking its long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Env-CT. Here we describe the generation of a H9-T-cell population constitutively expressing the HIV-1 Env-CT protein domain anchored in the cellular membrane by it homologous membrane-spanning domain (TMD. We confirmed that the Env-TMD-CT protein was associated with cellular membranes, that its expression did not have any obvious cytotoxic effects on the cells and that it did not affect wild-type HIV-1 replication. However, as measured in both a single-round assay as well as in spreading infections, replication competence of mutant pNL-Tr712, lacking the Env-CT, was not restored in this H9 T-cell population. This means that the Env-CT per se cannot transcomplement the replication block of HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env proteins and suggests that the Env-CT likely exerts its function only in the context of the complete Env protein.

  7. Complex determinants of macrophage tropism in env of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K; Ringler, D J; Kodama, T; Desrosiers, R C

    1992-04-01

    Macrophage-tropic virus variants evolved during the course of infection of individual rhesus monkeys with cloned, non-macrophagetropic simian immunodeficiency virus. Specific changes in the envelope gene (env) were found to be primarily responsible for the dramatic increase in the ability of the virus to replicate in macrophages. Cloned viruses differing at nine amino acid positions in env exhibited a more than 100-fold difference in replicative capacity for primary cultures of rhesus monkey alveolar macrophages. At least five of the nine amino acid changes contributed to macrophage tropism. These determinants were distributed across the full length of env, including both the gp120 and gp41 products of the env gene. Furthermore, the emergence of macrophagetropic variants in vivo was associated with specific pathologic manifestations in which the macrophage is the major infected cell type. Thus, major determinants of macrophage tropism reside in env, they can be complex in nature, and the presence of macrophage-tropic virus variants in vivo can influence the disease course and disease manifestations.

  8. Genética forense no-humana

    OpenAIRE

    Peral García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo; Ripoli, María Verónica

    2015-01-01

    El presente libro nace como producto de una convocatoria para Libros de Cátedra de la Universidad Nacional de la Plata. La propuesta, avalada por la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, permitirá introducir al lector en los principales aspectos de la identificación genética de animales y/o sus productos derivados, conocer los principales métodos de genotipificación utilizados en genética forense, reconocer los lineamientos de estandarización y acreditación de los laboratorios de genética forens...

  9. DETEKSI GEN-GEN PENYANDI FAKTOR VIRULENSI PADA BAKTERI VIBRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Ayu Khairani Kadriah

    2011-04-01

    menggunakan isolat bakteri yang diisolasi dari budidaya udang windu di berbagai daerah di Sulawesi Selatan dan Jawa. Pada penelitian ini digunakan primer spesifik untuk mendeteksi gen-gen virulen toxR gene, hemolysin (vvh gene, dan GyrB gene dengan metode PCR. Dari 35 isolat yang diisolasi, 20 isolat terdeteksi memiliki gen virulensi dan 8 di antaranya memiliki dua gen virulen. Spesies bakteri yang memiliki gen virulen adalah: V.harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, dan V. campbelli

  10. Human Antibodies that Recognize Novel Immunodominant Quaternary Epitopes on the HIV-1 Env Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicar, Mark D.; Chen, Xuemin; Sulli, Chidananda; Barnes, Trevor; Goodman, Jason; Sojar, Hakimuddin; Briney, Bryan; Willis, Jordan; Chukwuma, Valentine U.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Doranz, Benjamin J.; Spearman, Paul; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) target epitopes that are formed or enhanced during mature HIV envelope formation (i.e. quaternary epitopes). Generally, it is thought that Env epitopes that induce broadly neutralizing Abs are difficult to access and poorly immunogenic because of the characteristic oligomerization, conformational flexibility, sequence diversity and extensive glycosylation of Env protein. To enhance for isolation of quaternary epitope-targeting Abs (QtAbs), we previously used HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) to bind B cells from long-term non-progressor subjects to identify a panel of monoclonal Abs. When expressed as recombinant full-length Abs, a subset of these novel Abs exhibited the binding profiles of QtAbs, as they either failed to bind to monomeric Env protein or showed much higher affinity for Env trimers and VLPs. These QtAbs represented a significant proportion of the B-cell response identified with VLPs. The Ab genes of these clones were highly mutated, but they did not neutralize common HIV strains. We sought to further define the epitopes targeted by these QtAbs. Competition-binding and mapping studies revealed these Abs targeted four separate epitopes; they also failed to compete for binding by Abs to known major neutralizing epitopes. Detailed epitope mapping studies revealed that two of the four epitopes were located in the gp41 subunit of Env. These QtAbs bound pre-fusion forms of antigen and showed differential binding kinetics depending on whether oligomers were produced as recombinant gp140 trimers or as full-length Env incorporated into VLPs. Antigenic regions within gp41 present unexpectedly diverse structural epitopes, including these QtAb epitopes, which may be targeted by the naturally occurring Ab response to HIV infection. PMID:27411063

  11. Human Antibodies that Recognize Novel Immunodominant Quaternary Epitopes on the HIV-1 Env Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Hicar

    Full Text Available Numerous broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs target epitopes that are formed or enhanced during mature HIV envelope formation (i.e. quaternary epitopes. Generally, it is thought that Env epitopes that induce broadly neutralizing Abs are difficult to access and poorly immunogenic because of the characteristic oligomerization, conformational flexibility, sequence diversity and extensive glycosylation of Env protein. To enhance for isolation of quaternary epitope-targeting Abs (QtAbs, we previously used HIV virus-like particles (VLPs to bind B cells from long-term non-progressor subjects to identify a panel of monoclonal Abs. When expressed as recombinant full-length Abs, a subset of these novel Abs exhibited the binding profiles of QtAbs, as they either failed to bind to monomeric Env protein or showed much higher affinity for Env trimers and VLPs. These QtAbs represented a significant proportion of the B-cell response identified with VLPs. The Ab genes of these clones were highly mutated, but they did not neutralize common HIV strains. We sought to further define the epitopes targeted by these QtAbs. Competition-binding and mapping studies revealed these Abs targeted four separate epitopes; they also failed to compete for binding by Abs to known major neutralizing epitopes. Detailed epitope mapping studies revealed that two of the four epitopes were located in the gp41 subunit of Env. These QtAbs bound pre-fusion forms of antigen and showed differential binding kinetics depending on whether oligomers were produced as recombinant gp140 trimers or as full-length Env incorporated into VLPs. Antigenic regions within gp41 present unexpectedly diverse structural epitopes, including these QtAb epitopes, which may be targeted by the naturally occurring Ab response to HIV infection.

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing HIV-1 gp41 Could Inhibit Env-Mediated Syncytium Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Geng; CHEN Yinghua

    2005-01-01

    Some monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could inhibit infection by HIV-1. In this study, four mAbs against HIV-1 gp41 were prepared in mice. All four mAbs could bind to the recombinant soluble gp41 and recognize the native envelope glycoprotein gp160 expressed on the HIV-Env+ CHO-WT cell in flow cytometry analysis. Interestingly, the results show that all four mAbs purified by affinity chromatography could inhibit HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion (syncytium formation) by 40%-60% at 10 μg/mL, which implies potential inhibitory activities against HIV-1.

  13. Molecular evolution of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Env in Thai patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samatchaya Boonchawalit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The envelope glycoproteins (Env, gp120 and gp41, are the most variable proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, and are the major targets of humoral immune responses against HIV-1. A circulating recombinant form of HIV-1, CRF01_AE, is prevalent throughout Southeast Asia; however, only limited information regarding the immunological characteristics of CRF01_AE Env is currently available. In this study, we attempted to examine the evolutionary pattern of CRF01_AE Env under the selection pressure of host immune responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood samples were collected periodically over 3 years from 15 HIV-1-infected individuals residing in northern Thailand, and amplified env genes from the samples were subjected to computational analysis. The V5 region of gp120 showed highest variability in several samples over 3 years, whereas the V1/V2 and/or V4 regions of gp120 also showed high variability in many samples. In addition, the N-terminal part of the C3 region of gp120 showed highest amino acid diversity among the conserved regions of gp120. Chronological changes in the numbers of amino acid residues in gp120 variable regions and potential N-linked glycosylation (PNLG sites are involved in increasing the variability of Env gp120. Furthermore, the C3 region contained several amino acid residues potentially under positive selection, and APOBEC3 family protein-mediated G to A mutations were frequently detected in such residues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Several factors, including amino acid substitutions particularly in gp120 C3 and V5 regions as well as changes in the number of PNLG sites and in the length of gp120 variable regions, were revealed to be involved in the molecular evolution of CRF01_AE Env. In addition, a similar tendency was observed between CRF01_AE and subtype C Env with regard to the amino acid variation of gp120 V3 and C3 regions. These results may provide important information for

  14. Predisposição genética, hereditariedade e reabsorções radiculares em Ortodontia: cuidados com interpretações precipitadas: uma análise crítica do trabalho de Al-Qawasmi et al Genetics predisposition, heredity and radicular resorption, in Orthodontics: cares with precipitated interpretations and a critical analysis of Al-Qawasmi´s work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho de Al-Qawasmi et al.¹, publicado em março de 2003 pelo American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, procurou estabelecer uma predisposição genética para justificar as reabsorções dentárias em Ortodontia, mas apresentou algumas limitações metodológicas e equívocos na interpretação de seus resultados. A análise criteriosa deste artigo ressalta que, na maioria, estas limitações foram mencionadas e reconhecidas pelos autores na discussão do trabalho, mas o seu resumo e título foram muito taxativos e conclusivos. A linguagem de estudos genéticos nem sempre é familiar a todos os clínicos e isto também requer uma análise esclarecedora à luz de uma visão mais aplicada ao cotidiano ortodôntico. Referenciar ou citar este trabalho de Al-Qawasmi et al.¹, para afirmar de forma taxativa que se demonstrou a natureza hereditária das reabsorções dentárias em Ortodontia, pode denotar falta de conhecimento sobre o assunto ou uma leitura ou compreensão apenas do seu título. Ou ainda, a citação deste trabalho como prova definitiva de associação entre hereditariedade e reabsorções dentárias em Ortodontia pode traduzir também o desejo de excluir da prática clínica a responsabilidade de planejar de forma individualizada e detalhada cada tratamento com base no conhecimento das possibilidades e limitações técnicas oferecidas pela ciência ortodôntica, bem como nas suas bases biológicas, por exemplo, valorizando a morfologia radicular e da crista óssea alveolar e o papel dos cementoblastos na proteção da superfície radicular.The study published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics last March by Al-Qawasmi et al. tried to implicate dental resorption during orthodontic treatment to genetic predisposition. The methodology used, however, presents limitations and interpretative mistakes of the results. When analyzing the article sensibly, one is able to find that

  15. Expression of feline immunodeficiency virus gag and env precursor proteins in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and their use in immunodiagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Verschoor, E.J.; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Egberink, H.F.; Hesselink, W.; Ronde, A. de

    1993-01-01

    The gag and env genes of the feline immunodeficiency virus strain UT113 were cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector. The recombinant plasmids were used to create recombinant baculoviruses that expressed either the gag or the env precursor protein in insect cells (Sf9 cells). Leader sequence cleav

  16. Repeated Vaccination of Cows with HIV Env gp140 during Subsequent Pregnancies Elicits and Sustains an Enduring Strong Env-Binding and Neutralising Antibody Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Heydarchi

    Full Text Available An important feature of a potential vaccine against HIV is the production of broadly neutralising antibodies (BrNAbs capable of potentially blocking infectivity of a diverse array of HIV strains. BrNAbs naturally arise in some HIV infected individuals after several years of infection and their serum IgG can neutralise various HIV strains across different subtypes. We previously showed that vaccination of cows with HIV gp140 AD8 trimers resulted in a high titre of serum IgG against HIV envelope (Env that had strong BrNAb activity. These polyclonal BrNAbs concentrated into the colostrum during the late stage of pregnancy and can be harvested in vast quantities immediately after calving. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged HIV gp140 vaccination on bovine colostrum IgG HIV Env-binding and BrNAb activity over subsequent pregnancies. Repeated immunisation led to a maintained high titre of HIV Env specific IgG in the colostrum batches, but this did not increase through repeated cycles. Colostrum IgG from all batches also strongly competed with sCD4 binding to gp140 Env trimer and with human-derived monoclonal VRC01 and b12 BrNAbs that bind the CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Furthermore, competition neutralisation assays using RSC3 Env gp120 protein core and a derivative CD4bs mutant, RSC3 Δ371I/P363N, showed that CD4bs neutralising antibodies contribute to the neutralising activity of all batches of purified bovine colostrum IgG. This result indicates that the high IgG titre/avidity of anti-CD4bs antibodies with BrNAb activity was achieved during the first year of vaccination and was sustained throughout the years of repeated vaccinations in the cow tested. Although IgG of subsequent colostrum batches may have a higher avidity towards the CD4bs, the overall breadth in neutralisation was not enhanced. This implies that the boosting vaccinations over 4 years elicited a polyclonal antibody response that maintained the proportion of both

  17. Repeated Vaccination of Cows with HIV Env gp140 during Subsequent Pregnancies Elicits and Sustains an Enduring Strong Env-Binding and Neutralising Antibody Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Rob J.; Gonelli, Christopher; Muller, Brian; Mackenzie, Charlene; Khoury, Georges; Lichtfuss, Marit; Rawlin, Grant; Purcell, Damian F. J.

    2016-01-01

    An important feature of a potential vaccine against HIV is the production of broadly neutralising antibodies (BrNAbs) capable of potentially blocking infectivity of a diverse array of HIV strains. BrNAbs naturally arise in some HIV infected individuals after several years of infection and their serum IgG can neutralise various HIV strains across different subtypes. We previously showed that vaccination of cows with HIV gp140 AD8 trimers resulted in a high titre of serum IgG against HIV envelope (Env) that had strong BrNAb activity. These polyclonal BrNAbs concentrated into the colostrum during the late stage of pregnancy and can be harvested in vast quantities immediately after calving. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged HIV gp140 vaccination on bovine colostrum IgG HIV Env-binding and BrNAb activity over subsequent pregnancies. Repeated immunisation led to a maintained high titre of HIV Env specific IgG in the colostrum batches, but this did not increase through repeated cycles. Colostrum IgG from all batches also strongly competed with sCD4 binding to gp140 Env trimer and with human-derived monoclonal VRC01 and b12 BrNAbs that bind the CD4 binding site (CD4bs). Furthermore, competition neutralisation assays using RSC3 Env gp120 protein core and a derivative CD4bs mutant, RSC3 Δ371I/P363N, showed that CD4bs neutralising antibodies contribute to the neutralising activity of all batches of purified bovine colostrum IgG. This result indicates that the high IgG titre/avidity of anti-CD4bs antibodies with BrNAb activity was achieved during the first year of vaccination and was sustained throughout the years of repeated vaccinations in the cow tested. Although IgG of subsequent colostrum batches may have a higher avidity towards the CD4bs, the overall breadth in neutralisation was not enhanced. This implies that the boosting vaccinations over 4 years elicited a polyclonal antibody response that maintained the proportion of both neutralising and non

  18. Kommentarer til arbejdsdokument ENV/04/27. Dokument fra "Antibiotic resistance marker genes working group"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta

    2012-01-01

    "DMU har modtaget og vurderet det fremsendte dokument ENV/04/27 og bilag (mail fra Skov- og Naturstyrelsen d. 14-10-2004) om anvendelsen af antibiotikaresistensmarkører (ARM) hos GMO. Vi har tidligere flere gange kommenteret anvendelsen af antibiotikaresistens (se f.eks. brev til Skov- og Naturst...

  19. Env sequence determinants in CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type-1 subtype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nina H; Becerril, Carlos; Giguel, Francoise; Novitsky, Vladimir; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Myron; Lockman, Shahin; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Sagar, Manish

    2012-11-25

    HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) CXCR4-using virus is isolated infrequently and is poorly characterized. Understanding HIV-1C env characteristics has implications for the clinical use of antiretrovirals that target viral entry. A total of 209 env clones derived from 10 samples with mixed CCR5-(R5), CXCR4-using (X4) or dual-tropic HIV-1C were phenotyped for coreceptor usage. Intra-patient X4 and R5 variants generally formed distinct monophyletic phylogenetic clusters. X4 compared to R5 envs had significantly greater amino acid variability and insertions, higher net positive charge, fewer glycosylation sites and increased basic amino acid substitutions in the GPGQ crown. Basic amino acid substitution and/or insertion prior to the crown are highly sensitive characteristics for predicting X4 viruses. Chimeric env functional studies suggest that the V3 loop is necessary but often not sufficient to impart CXCR4 utilization. Our studies provide insights into the unique genotypic characteristics of X4 variants in HIV-1C.

  20. Selected HIV-1 Env trimeric formulations act as potent immunogens in a rabbit vaccination model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Jansson, Marianne Bendixen

    2013-01-01

    Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence...

  1. AquaEnv: an aquatic acid–base modelling environment in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, A.F.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    AquaEnv is an integrated software package for aquatic chemical model generation focused on ocean acidification and antropogenic CO2 uptake. However, the package is not restricted to the carbon cycle or the oceans: it calculates, converts, and visualizes information necessary to describe pH, related

  2. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en naranja y comparación del polimorfismo de microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAMs usando electroforesis de poliacrilamida y azarosa Characterization of the genetic diversity in orange, and comparison of polymorphism in randomly-amplifed microsatellites (RAMs, using polyacrylamide and agarose electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon las eficiencias de tres métodos de electroforesis en agarosa y poliacrilamida, usando la cámara pequeña de DNA Sequencing System y cámara grande OWL Sequi-Gen Sequencing Cell, en la detección del polimorfismo en 21 accesiones de naranja (Citrus sinensis con empleo del cebador CGA. El gel de poliacrilamida dio mejor resolución de los productos amplificados vía PCR producidos por RAMs. Este permitió una mejor detección de bandas de ADN polimórficas, lo que facilitó la identificación de la variabilidad genética. La electroforesis en agarosa puede ser más conveniente en otras aplicaciones, debido al bajo costo y fácil aplicación. El estudio de diversidad genética en naranja usando microsatélites RAMs diferenció 51 accesiones en siete grupos con 0.75 de similaridad y 0.25 de heterocigosidad, lo que revela bajo polimorfismo genético. La técnica RAMs permitió agrupar las accesiones en Comunes o Blancas, Navel y Pigmentadas o Sanguinas.We compared the efficiency of three methods of agarose and polyacrylamide electrophoresis (using the small tank of the DNA Sequencing System and the large OWL Sequi-Gen Sequencing Cell, for the detection of polymorphism in 21 accessions of orange (Citrus sinensis, using the primer CGA. The polyacrylamide gel gave better resolution of the PCR-amplified RAM products. This method allowed better detection of polymorphic DNA bands, facilitating the identification of genetic variability. The agarose electrophoresis may be more convenient in other applications, due to its low cost and easy implementation. The study of genetic diversity in orange using RAMs separated 51 accessions into seven groups with 0.75 similarity, and 0.25 heterozygosity, revealing low genetic polymorphism. The RAMs technique grouped the accessions into “Common or White”, “Navel” and “Pigmented or “Sanguine”.

  3. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Burks, Christian; Cassidy, Maxxwell; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Cumella, Karen E.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelley, Tom A.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Ryals, Julie

    1991-01-01

    The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 56,000,000 nucleotides in 45,000 entries. The input stream of data coming into the database has largely been shifted to direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media. The data have been installed in a relational database management system and are made available in this form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media...

  4. XIAO Pei-gen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering Editor-in-chief of Chinese Herbal Medicines(CHM)Honorary director of Institute of Medicinal Plant Development,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences,Beijing100193,China Tel/Fax:+86-10-62894462 E-mail:xiaopg@public.bta.net.cn Professor XIAO Pei-gen is the founder of the Institute of Medicinal Plant Development(IMPLAD),Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences(CAMS).He is also one of the founders and leading

  5. La gens Licinia y el Nordeste peninsular. Una aproximación al estudio de las formas de propiedad y de gestión de un rico patrimonio familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berni, Piero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, either progress in landscape archaeology as well as studies on the epigraphy of production areas, have contribute to increase our volume of information. However, such headway not always has come along with an improvement in the data interpretation, in other words, in the study of the complex forms of landownership and management of resources in Roman Spain. We believed it is necessary to integrate diverse types of existent documentation sources, and we propose in the present case to study a working model focus on the gens Licinia. The importance of this gens in the Northeast of the Peninsula and the outstanding volume of information preserved allow us to put forward a series of methodological and historical reflections we judge significant.En los últimos años, tanto el progreso de la arqueología del paisaje, como especialmente el de los estudios sobre la epigrafía de la producción, han contribuido a incrementar nuestro volumen de información, aunque ello no siempre ha ido acompañado de un progreso en la interpretación de los datos, es decir, en el estudio de las complejas formas de propiedad de la tierra y de la gestión de sus recursos en la Hispania romana. Creemos necesario, por tanto, integrar en este estudio los diversos tipos de fuentes documentales existentes y proponer un modelo de trabajo centrado en el caso de la gens Licinia, cuya importancia en el Nordeste peninsular por el notable volumen de información conservada nos permite plantear algunas reflexiones metodológicas e históricas que creemos significativas.

  6. Sequencing of Gag/Env association with HIV genotyping resolution and HIV-related epidemiologic studies of HIV in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L; Wang, H W; Xu, Y; Feng, Y; Zhang, H F; Wang, K H

    2016-10-24

    HIV genotyping has led to conflicting results between laboratories. Therefore, identifying the most accurate gene combinations to sequence remains a priority. Datasets of Chinese HIV subtypes based on several markers and deposited in PubMed, Metstr, CNKI, and VIP databases between 2000 and 2015 were studied. In total, 9177 cases of amplification-positive samples from 26 provinces of China were collected and used to classify HIV subtypes based on eight individual genes or a combination thereof. CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and B were the prevalent HIV subtypes in China, accounting for 84.07% of all genotypes. Gag/Env sequencing classified a greater number of HIV subtypes compared to other genes or combination of gene fragments. The geographical distribution of Gag and Gag/Env genotypes was similar to that observed with all genetic markers. Further principal component analysis showed a significantly different geographical distribution pattern of HIV in China for HIV genotypes detected with Gag/Env, which was in line with the distribution of all HIV genotypes in China. Gag/Env sequences had the highest diversity of the eight markers studied, followed by Gag and Gag/Pol/Env; Pol/Env polymorphisms were the least divergent. Gag/Env can serve as a high-resolution marker for HIV genotyping.

  7. Análisis de la trombofilia hereditaria: contribución de factores genéticos en la predisposición al tromboembolismo venoso en la población española.

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado Garcia, Ma. Isabel

    2004-01-01

    [spa] La trombosis es una de las causas más frecuentes de morbilidad y mortalidad en las sociedades desarrolladas. Se estima una prevalencia de un 5-10% para trombosis venosa profunda (TV). La trombofilia es una enfermedad multifactorial y compleja en la que interactúan múltiples genes entre sí y a la vez con factores ambientales. Han sido descritos algunos factores de riesgo genéticos bien caracterizados que incrementan el riesgo de trombosis: deficiencia de Antitrombina (AT), deficiencia de...

  8. Análisis de la trombofilia hereditaria: contribución de factores genéticos en la predisposición al tromboembolismo venoso en la población española.

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado Garcia, Mª Isabel

    2004-01-01

    La trombosis es una de las causas más frecuentes de morbilidad y mortalidad en las sociedades desarrolladas. Se estima una prevalencia de un 5-10% para trombosis venosa profunda (TV). La trombofilia es una enfermedad multifactorial y compleja en la que interactúan múltiples genes entre sí y a la vez con factores ambientales. Han sido descritos algunos factores de riesgo genéticos bien caracterizados que incrementan el riesgo de trombosis: deficiencia de Antitrombina (AT), deficiencia de Prote...

  9. Variabilidad genética de la termosensibilidad en poblaciones de maíz nativo de México: una aportación al reto del cambio climático.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ramírez, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio se realizó para conocer la variabilidad genética del maíz nativo de diferente origen ecológico (frío, templado y subtropical) para responder ante condiciones de temperatura alta, principalmente; considerando esta como uno de los principales escenarios provocados por el cambio climático que actualmente amenaza a la diversidad del maíz nativo. La valoración del efecto de temperaturas contrastantes sobre la germinación mostró que afectaron la duración del proceso más no la ...

  10. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en naranja y comparación del polimorfismo de microsatélites amplificados al azar (rams) usando electroforesis de poliacrilamida y agarosa

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Flores Jaime Eduardo; Vásquez Amariles Herney Darío; Caicedo Arana Alvaro; Jaramillo Vásquez Juan; Arcos Alba Lucía; Muñoz Rivera Oscar Julian; Chagüeza Villarreal Yamilet; Morillo Coronado Ana Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Se compararon las eficiencias de tres métodos de electroforesis en agarosa y poliacrilamida, usando la cámara pequeña de DNA Sequencing System y cámara grande OWL Sequi-Gen Sequencing Cell, en la detección del polimorfismo en 21 accesiones de naranja (Citrus sinensis) con empleo del cebador CGA. El gel de poliacrilamida dio mejor resolución de los productos amplificados vía PCR producidos por RAMs. Este permitió una mejor detección de bandas de ADN polimórficas, lo que facilitó la identificac...

  11. Comparison of multiallelic distances for the quantification of genetic diversity in the papaya = Comparação de distâncias multi-alélicas sobre a quantificação da diversidade genética em mamão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Christine Cancela Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare multiallelic distances to quantify genetic diversity in papaya. We evaluated forty-three individuals in the S2 generation, from the backcross between F1 (Cariflora x SS783 and Cariflora, and four accessions from the UENF/Caliman GermplasmBank. Genetic distances used were Smouse and Peakall (1999, Kosman and Leonard (2005 and weighted index. Clustering among genotypes was performed using the hierarchical unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean analysis (UPGMA and projection of the distance onthe bidimensional plan. A high correlation between genetic distances was observed; however, through UPGMA group analysis, the distance determined by the weighted index provided the complete separation of 52BC1S2-08, 52BC1S2-29 and 52BC1S2-34 inbred lines. Throughprojection of distances in the plan, Kosman and Leonard (2005 coefficients and weighted allowed the differentiation of individuals in the S2 generation (52BC1S2-08, 52BC1S2-29 and 52BC1S2-34, the progenitor (‘Cariflora’ and ‘SS783’, and the four germplasm bank accessions in a different manner than the Smouse and Peakall (1999 index, which did not provide this discrimination among the accessed genotypes. We conclude that the Kosman and Leonard (2005 coefficient and weighted index are more efficient than the Smouse and Peakall (1999 algorithm on the disposition of the accessed genotypes in dendrograms and in the Cartesian axis displaying genetic similarity.O presente trabalho visou à comparação de distâncias multi-alélicas sobre a quantificação da diversidade genética em mamão. Para tanto, foram avaliados 43 indivíduos da geração S2, oriunda do retrocruzamento entre F1 dos (‘Cariflora’ x ‘SS783’ e ‘Cariflora’, e quatro acessos do Banco de Germoplasma da UENF/Caliman. As distâncias genéticas utilizadas foram: Smouse e Peakall (1999, Kosman e Leonard (2005 e índice ponderado. Posteriormente foi realizado o agrupamento entre os gen

  12. Selected HIV-1 Env trimeric formulations act as potent immunogens in a rabbit vaccination model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Heyndrickx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence of an adjuvant. METHODS: Based on in vitro neutralizing activity in serum, patients with bNAbs were selected for cloning of their HIV-1 Env. Seven stable soluble trimeric gp140 proteins were generated from sequences derived from four adults and two children infected with either clade A or B HIV-1. From one of the clade A Envs both the monomeric and trimeric Env were produced for comparison. Rabbits were immunized with soluble gp120 or trimeric gp140 proteins in combination with the adjuvant dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium/trehalose dibehenate (CAF01. Env binding in rabbit immune serum was determined using ELISAs based on gp120-IIIB protein. Neutralizing activity of IgG purified from rabbit immune sera was measured with the pseudovirus-TZMbl assay and a PBMC-based neutralization assay for selected experiments. RESULTS: It was initially established that gp140 trimers induce better antibody responses over gp120 monomers and that the adjuvant CAF01 was necessary for such strong responses. Gp140 trimers, based on HIV-1 variants from patients with bNAbs, were able to elicit both gp120IIIB specific IgG and NAbs to Tier 1 viruses of different subtypes. Potency of NAbs closely correlated with titers, and an gp120-binding IgG titer above a threshold of 100,000 was predictive of neutralization capability. Finally, peptide inhibition experiments showed that a large fraction of the neutralizing IgG was directed against the gp120 V3 region. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the strategy of reverse immunology based on selected Env sequences is promising when immunogens are delivered as stabilized trimers in CAF01 adjuvant and that the rabbit is a valuable model

  13. Joining together the volunteer and the youth tourism: An implication for Eskişehir/TurkeyGönüllü ve gençlik turizminin birlikte ele alınması: Eskişehir’e yönelik bir öneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm İlbay

    2015-07-01

    şkilidir. Bu çalışmada gönüllü ve gençlik turizmi birlikte ele alınarak, her ikisinin de temel aktörleri olarak gençler ve kurumsal yetkililerin konuyla ilgili eğilimleri incelenmesi ve uygulamaya yönelik öneri getirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, Eskişehir ilinde karma desene dayalı bir araştırma yürütülmüştür. İlk olarak, Eskişehir ilinde yaşayan 384 üniversite öğrencisinden anket tekniği ile veri derlenmiştir. İkinci olarak ise kurumsal yetkililer kapsamında yerel yönetim ve Sivil Toplum Kuruluş’larından 9 kişi ile görüşme tekniği ile veri toplanmıştır. Nicel veriler temel olarak faktör analiziyle değerlendirilirken, nitel verilerde içerik analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre, gençler arasında turizme katılım oranı çok fazla değildir, ancak gönüllü turizmine genellikle olumlu yaklaşmaktadırlar. Kurum yetkilileri de gönüllü ve gençlik turizmine olumlu yaklaşırken, destekleri daha çok kaynak sağlama bağlamındadır. Planlama ve uygulamada aracı kişi ya da kurum ihtiyacı, üniversitelerin ve yerli halkın desteği de dikkate alınması gereken diğer önemli boyutlar arasındadır. Araştırma sonuçlarına genel olarak bakıldığında, Eskişehir örneğinde gönüllü ve gençlik turizminin temel aktörleri olarak gençler ve kurum yetkilileri konuya olumlu olarak yaklaştığı görülmüş ve buna göre bir uygulama önerisi getirilmiştir.

  14. Genética molecular del alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Rey-Buitrago

    2015-01-01

    El alcoholismo es una patología psiquiátrica compleja y de origen multifactorial en la que el factor genético explica alrededor del 50 % del fenómeno. Son numerosos los genes que se han asociado a esta enfermedad, pero su aporte individual es mínimo y contradictorio. Estos genes operan a través de características intermedias como la impulsividad y la sensibilidad al alcohol, lo que hace compleja la definición del fenotipo del alcoholismo. Los estudios de asociación de SNPs, de asociación a to...

  15. Molecular analysis of a 444 bp fragment of the bovine leukaemia virus gp51 env gene reveals a high frequency of non-silent point mutations and suggests the presence of two subgroups of BLV in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmer, R; Muñoz, G; Zúñiga, J; Recabal, M

    2005-06-15

    With the aim of achieve a better understanding of the epidemiology and distribution of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in Chile, we assessed the suitability of using DNA isolated from the leukocyte fraction of bulk milk samples to carry out PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analysis. The env fragment of BLV was successfully amplified from 33 serologically positive bulk milk samples collected from different geographical areas in the south of Chile. Restriction analysis allowed to classify 17 isolates within the Australian subgroup and 16 within the Belgium subgroup. DNA sequence and multiple alignment analysis of eight Chilean isolates showed a significantly higher frequency of single and double nucleotide substitutions. Most of these mutations were non-silent, resulting in changes at the protein level in several important epitopes of gp51. The Chilean sequences and 59 BLV env sequences available at GenBank, were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis, resulting in four different clusters. The groups identified were not related to those previously defined by restriction analysis. Chilean isolates were included in two different clusters and were genetically not related to isolates collected from neighbouring countries. Considering our results we can conclude: (i) bulk milk samples are suitable to identify the presence of BLV allowing epidemiological and genetic studies to be conducted on large geographical areas; (ii) at least four different genetic groups of BLV were identified by phylogenetic analysis, with Chilean isolates included in two different sub clusters.

  16. Justicia y genética: compensando las diferencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los dilemas morales asociados a los avances científicos que en la actualidad nos exigen repensar el concepto de igualdad equitativa de oportunidades. Asimismo, se pasa revista a la discusión filosófica en torno al origen de las desventajas sociales y genéticas que permiten las desigualdades sociales.

  17. EnvMine: A text-mining system for the automatic extraction of contextual information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lorenzo Victor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For ecological studies, it is crucial to count on adequate descriptions of the environments and samples being studied. Such a description must be done in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, allowing a direct comparison between different environments that would be difficult to do otherwise. Also the characterization must include the precise geographical location, to make possible the study of geographical distributions and biogeographical patterns. Currently, there is no schema for annotating these environmental features, and these data have to be extracted from textual sources (published articles. So far, this had to be performed by manual inspection of the corresponding documents. To facilitate this task, we have developed EnvMine, a set of text-mining tools devoted to retrieve contextual information (physicochemical variables and geographical locations from textual sources of any kind. Results EnvMine is capable of retrieving the physicochemical variables cited in the text, by means of the accurate identification of their associated units of measurement. In this task, the system achieves a recall (percentage of items retrieved of 92% with less than 1% error. Also a Bayesian classifier was tested for distinguishing parts of the text describing environmental characteristics from others dealing with, for instance, experimental settings. Regarding the identification of geographical locations, the system takes advantage of existing databases such as GeoNames to achieve 86% recall with 92% precision. The identification of a location includes also the determination of its exact coordinates (latitude and longitude, thus allowing the calculation of distance between the individual locations. Conclusion EnvMine is a very efficient method for extracting contextual information from different text sources, like published articles or web pages. This tool can help in determining the precise location and physicochemical

  18. Antibodies to a conformational epitope on gp41 neutralize HIV-1 by destabilizing the Env spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Leaman, Daniel P.; Kim, Arthur S.; Torrents de La Peña, Alba; Sliepen, Kwinten; Yasmeen, Anila; Derking, Ronald; Ramos, Alejandra; de Taeye, Steven W.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Klein, Florian; Burton, Dennis R.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Poignard, Pascal; Moore, John P.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Zwick, Michael B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.

    2015-09-01

    The recent identification of three broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against gp120-gp41 interface epitopes has expanded the targetable surface on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer. By using biochemical, biophysical and computational methods, we map the previously unknown trimer epitopes of two related antibodies, 3BC315 and 3BC176. A cryo-EM reconstruction of a soluble Env trimer bound to 3BC315 Fab at 9.3 Å resolution reveals that the antibody binds between two gp41 protomers, and neutralizes the virus by accelerating trimer decay. In contrast, bnAb 35O22 binding to a partially overlapping quaternary epitope at the gp120-gp41 interface does not induce decay. A conserved gp41-proximal glycan at N88 was also shown to play a role in the binding kinetics of 3BC176 and 3BC315. Finally, our data suggest that the dynamic structure of the Env trimer influences exposure of bnAb epitopes.

  19. Aproximacions de teràpia gènica per al tractament de la diabetis mellitus centrada en la manipulació genètica del múscul esquelet

    OpenAIRE

    Mas Monteys, Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    En la present tesi es desenvolupa una nova aproximació de teràpia gènica a fí de proporcionar un nou tractament per a la diabetis mellitus de tipus 1 que millori les teràpies actuals per aquesta malaltia. Aquesta nova aproximació es basa en la manipulació genètica del múscul esquelètic per tal d'oferir una producció constitutiva d'insulina, i incrementar la captació de glucosa per aquest teixit mitjançant l'expressió del enzim hepàtic glucoquinasa. Això es recolza en el fet que el múscul és e...

  20. Properties of Sin, Gen, and SinGen clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; ur Rehman, Habib; Springborg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The structures of Sin, Gen, and SinGen clusters with up to 44 atoms have been determined theoretically using an unbiased structure-optimization method in combination with a parametrized, density-functional description of the total energy for a given structure. By analyzing the total energy in detail, particularly stable clusters are identified. Moreover, general trends in the structures are identified with the help of specifically constructed descriptors.

  1. Antibody potency relates to the ability to recognize the closed, pre-fusion form of HIV Env

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Miklos; Cupo, Albert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Sanders, Rogier W.; Wilson, Ian A.; Moore, John P.; Lee, Kelly K.

    2015-02-01

    HIV’s envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole target for neutralizing antibodies. The structures of many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in complex with truncated Env subunits or components have been reported. However, their interaction with the intact Env trimer, and the structural determinants that underlie neutralization resistance in this more native context are less well understood. Here we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange to examine the interactions between a panel of bNAbs and native-like Env trimers (SOSIP.664 trimers). Highly potent bNAbs cause only localized effects at their binding interface, while the binding of less potent antibodies is associated with elaborate changes throughout the trimer. In conjunction with binding kinetics, our results suggest that poorly neutralizing antibodies can only bind when the trimer transiently samples an open state. We propose that the kinetics of such opening motions varies among isolates, with Env from neutralization-sensitive viruses opening more frequently than Env from resistant viruses.

  2. Gen-Umwelt-Interaktionen und Gen-Umwelt-Korrelationen bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die seit Langem bestehende Frage, in welchem Ausmaß Anlage und Umwelt zu psychologischen Merkmalen und psychiatrischen Erkrankungen beitragen, wird durch Ergebnisse von Zwillingsstudien und in letzter Zeit durch Untersuchungen des Zusammenhangs zwischen molekulargenetischen Merkmalen und Umwelteinflüssen bereichert. Eine Gen-Umwelt-Interaktion liegt dann vor, wenn genetische Faktoren die Auswirkungen von Umweltbedingungen modulieren. Die Genetik kann weiters die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Exposition gegenüber bestimmten Umwelteinflüssen verändern, was als Gen- Umwelt-Korrelation bezeichnet wird. Beide Phänomene liegen aber häufig gleichzeitig vor, was eine besondere Herausforderung für die Konzeption von wissenschaftlichen Studien darstellt.

  3. HIV-1 tat promotes integrin-mediated HIV transmission to dendritic cells by binding Env spikes and competes neutralization by anti-HIV antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Monini

    Full Text Available Use of Env in HIV vaccine development has been disappointing. Here we show that, in the presence of a biologically active Tat subunit vaccine, a trimeric Env protein prevents in monkeys virus spread from the portal of entry to regional lymph nodes. This appears to be due to specific interactions between Tat and Env spikes that form a novel virus entry complex favoring R5 or X4 virus entry and productive infection of dendritic cells (DCs via an integrin-mediated pathway. These Tat effects do not require Tat-transactivation activity and are blocked by anti-integrin antibodies (Abs. Productive DC infection promoted by Tat is associated with a highly efficient virus transmission to T cells. In the Tat/Env complex the cysteine-rich region of Tat engages the Env V3 loop, whereas the Tat RGD sequence remains free and directs the virus to integrins present on DCs. V2 loop deletion, which unshields the CCR5 binding region of Env, increases Tat/Env complex stability. Of note, binding of Tat to Env abolishes neutralization of Env entry or infection of DCs by anti-HIV sera lacking anti-Tat Abs, which are seldom present in natural infection. This is reversed, and neutralization further enhanced, by HIV sera containing anti-Tat Abs such as those from asymptomatic or Tat-vaccinated patients, or by sera from the Tat/Env vaccinated monkeys. Thus, both anti-Tat and anti-Env Abs are required for efficient HIV neutralization. These data suggest that the Tat/Env interaction increases HIV acquisition and spreading, as a mechanism evolved by the virus to escape anti-Env neutralizing Abs. This may explain the low effectiveness of Env-based vaccines, which are also unlikely to elicit Abs against new Env epitopes exposed by the Tat/Env interaction. As Tat also binds Envs from different clades, new vaccine strategies should exploit the Tat/Env interaction for both preventative and therapeutic interventions.

  4. Halotalea alkalilenta gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel osmotolerant and alkalitolerant bacterium from alkaline olive mill wastes, and emended description of the family Halomonadaceae Franzmann et al. 1989, emend. Dobson and Franzmann 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Fasseas, Constantinos

    2007-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, motile, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from alkaline sludge-like wastes ('alpeorujo' or 'alperujo') of two-phase olive oil extraction is described. The strain, designated AW-7(T), is an obligate aerobe that is halotolerant (tolerating up to 15 % w/v NaCl), sugar-tolerant (tolerating up to 45 % and 60 % w/v (+)-d-glucose and maltose respectively; these are the highest concentrations tolerated by any known members of the Bacteria domain) and alkalitolerant (growing at a broad pH range of 5-11). Strain AW-7(T) is chemo-organotrophic. Ubiquinone-9 was detected in the respiratory chain of strain AW-7(T). The major fatty acids present are C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0), C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c, C(12 : 0) 3-OH and C(16 : 1)omega7c/iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain AW-7(T) showed almost equal phylogenetic distances from Zymobacter palmae (95.6 % similarity) and Carnimonas nigrificans (95.4 % similarity). In addition, low DNA-DNA relatedness values were found for strain AW-7(T) against Carnimonas nigrificans CECT 4437(T) (22.5-25.4 %) and Z. palmae DSM 10491(T) (11.9-14.4 %). The DNA G+C content of strain AW-7(T) is 64.4 mol%. Physiological and chemotaxonomic data further confirmed the differentiation of strain AW-7(T) from the genera Zymobacter and Carnimonas. Thus, strain AW-7(T) represents a novel bacterial genus within the family Halomonadaceae, for which the name Halotalea gen. nov. is proposed. Halotalea alkalilenta sp. nov. (type strain AW-7(T)=DSM 17697(T)=CECT 7134(T)) is proposed as the type species of the genus Halotalea gen. nov. A reassignment of the descriptive 16S rRNA signature characteristics of the family Halomonadaceae permitted the placement of the novel genus Halotalea into the family; in contrast, the genus Halovibrio possessed only 12 out of the 18 signature characteristics proposed, and hence it was excluded from the family Halomonadaceae.

  5. Optimization of random amplified polymorphic DNA techniques for use in genetic studies of Cuban triatominae Optimización de la técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD para su utilización en la caracterización genética de triatomíneos cubanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fraga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique is a simple and reliable method to detect DNA polymorphism. Several factors can affect the amplification profiles, thereby causing false bands and non-reproducibility of assay. In this study, we analyzed the effect of changing the concentration of primer, magnesium chloride, template DNA and Taq DNA polymerase with the objective of determining their optimum concentration for the standardization of RAPD technique for genetic studies of Cuban Triatominae. Reproducible amplification patterns were obtained using 5 pmoL of primer, 2.5 mM of MgCl2, 25 ng of template DNA and 2 U of Taq DNA polymerase in 25 µL of the reaction. A panel of five random primers was used to evaluate the genetic variability of T. flavida. Three of these (OPA-1, OPA-2 and OPA-4 generated reproducible and distinguishable fingerprinting patterns of Triatominae. Numerical analysis of 52 RAPD amplified bands generated for all five primers was carried out with unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA. Jaccard's Similarity Coefficient data were used to construct a dendrogram. Two groups could be distinguished by RAPD data and these groups coincided with geographic origin, i.e. the populations captured in areas from east and west of Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Río. T. flavida present low interpopulation variability that could result in greater susceptibility to pesticides in control programs. The RAPD protocol and the selected primers are useful for molecular characterization of Cuban Triatominae.La técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD es un método simple para detectar el polimorfismo genético del ADN. Diferentes factores afectan los perfiles de amplificación lo que se manifiesta en la presencia de bandas falsas y en la reproducibilidad del ensayo. En nuestro trabajo analizamos los cambios de la concentración de cebador, ADN molde, cloruro de magnesio y de Taq ADN polimerasa con el objetivo de determinar su

  6. El psicoanálisis como envés de la ley // Psychoanalysis as the underside of the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Winkler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El psicoanálisis se ocupa del sujeto. El restituir al sujeto en su decir verdad a partir del inconsciente (y de la palabra aparece, desde el inicio, epistemológicamente, como el envés de la ley. La ley se debe a lo público y aquél a lo privado. La distinción entre "público" y "privado" deviene, reglada, desde el Derecho Romano —primer Digesto jurídico—. Pero la praxis analítica, como política institucional, al recomponer el lazo social y presentificar la tensión entre el sujeto y el derecho, permite que el sujeto aborde lo real "haciendo uso" de la norma y que se ubique, además así, en la dimensión simbólica social de la ley. // Psychoanalysis deals with the subject. The return to the subject in saying truth as from the unconscious (and the word appears, from the beginning, as the epistemological reverse of the law. This latter is due to the public whereas psychoanalysis is due to the private. The distinction between "public" and "private" becomes, regulated, from the Roman law - first-Legal Digest. Yet, the analytical practice as an institutional policy, while rebuilding the social ties and materializing tension between the subject and the rule of law, allows the subject to dwell into the the real thing "making use" of the rule of law and placing it also in the social/ symbolic dimension of the law

  7. La genética de las poblaciones centroamericanas

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    Barrantes, Ramiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones centroamericanas no han sido objeto de muchos estudios genéticos con la excepción de análisis esporádicos de la variación entre y dentro de los grupos amerindios y de origen africano ubicados en el área. No obstante, en los últimos 15 años se efectuaron investigaciones sistemáticas en este sentido incluyendo poblaciones mestizas, particularmente las de Costa Rica y Panamá. En los amerindios se efectuaron estudios detallados de su estructura genética y las relaciones filogenéticas entre poblaciones en un contexto regional y continental. De manera general estos grupos mantienen una baja diversidad genética. Por otra parte, estimativas de la mezcla génica en la población mestiza muestran diferencias dentro y entre los distintos países del área. Al Valle Central de Costa Rica se le atribuye la condición de aislado con una supuesta constitución genética homogénea favorable para los estudios de desequilibrio de ligamiento y asociaciones con algunas enfermedades hereditarias; sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos con relación el flujo génico direccional, la amalgama de etnias y otros componentes de su estructura como la variación temporal y espacial de la consanguinidad y la migración indican una mayor heterogeneidad. Se muestran los resultados y conclusiones obtenidas y se plantean las perspectivas y tendencias al mediano plazo que vinculan los enfoques y métodos de la epidemiología y la antropología genética y el estudio genético de poblaciones.

  8. Altering an Artificial Gagpolnef Polyprotein and Mode of ENV Co-Administration Affects the Immunogenicity of a Clade C HIV DNA Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Böckl; Jens Wild; Simon Bredl; Kathrin Kindsmüller; Josef Köstler; Ralf Wagner

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 candidate vaccines expressing an artificial polyprotein comprising Gag, Pol and Nef (GPN) and a secreted envelope protein (Env) were shown in recent Phase I/II clinical trials to induce high levels of polyfunctional T cell responses; however, Env-specific responses clearly exceeded those against Gag. Here, we assess the impact of the GPN immunogen design and variations in the formulation and vaccination regimen of a combined GPN/Env DNA vaccine on the T cell responses against the variou...

  9. Complementation of diverse HIV-1 Env defects through cooperative subunit interactions: a general property of the functional trimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzwedel Karl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein mediates virus entry by catalyzing direct fusion between the virion membrane and the target cell plasma membrane. Env is composed of two subunits: gp120, which binds to CD4 and the coreceptor, and gp41, which is triggered upon coreceptor binding to promote the membrane fusion reaction. Env on the surface of infected cells is a trimer consisting of three gp120/gp41 homo-dimeric protomers. An emerging question concerns cooperative interactions between the protomers in the trimer, and possible implications for Env function. Results We extended studies on cooperative subunit interactions within the HIV-1 Env trimer, using analysis of functional complementation between coexpressed inactive variants harboring different functional deficiencies. In assays of Env-mediated cell fusion, complementation was observed between variants with a wide range of defects in both the gp120 and gp41 subunits. The former included gp120 subunits mutated in the CD4 binding site or incapable of coreceptor interaction due either to mismatched specificity or V3 loop mutation. Defective gp41 variants included point mutations at different residues within the fusion peptide or heptad repeat regions, as well as constructs with modifications or deletions of the membrane proximal tryptophan-rich region or the transmembrane domain. Complementation required the defective variants to be coexpressed in the same cell. The observed complementation activities were highly dependent on the assay system. The most robust activities were obtained with a vaccinia virus-based expression and reporter gene activation assay for cell fusion. In an alternative system involving Env expression from integrated provirus, complementation was detected in cell fusion assays, but not in virus particle entry assays. Conclusion Our results indicate that Env function does not require every subunit in the trimer to be competent for all essential activities. Through

  10. Hiv-1 genetic diversity in Argentina and early diagnosis of perinatal infection La diversidad genética del HIV-1 en la Argentina y el diagnóstico temprano de la infección perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Aulicino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 diagnosis of perinatally exposed children is usually performed by molecular biology-based methods, allowing the direct detection of the virus. Thus, HIV-1 genomic variability within and across strains plays a major role in relation to the sensitivity of these tests, often leading to misdiagnosis. We describe the performance of an in-house multiplex nested PCR (nPCR for early detection of HIV-1 infection in perinatally exposed children born in Argentina, where the percentage of diverse BF recombinants is as high as 80%. After evaluation of 1316 HIV-1 perinatally exposed children collected over a 7-year period, the specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic nPCR was of 100% and 99.2% respectively, with only two false negative cases indicating a good performance of the diagnostic nPCR in the Argentine pediatric cohort. In search of unusual HIV-1 subtypes among 22 HIV-1 infected cases presenting partial or complete HIV-1 gene amplification failure, we performed phylogenetic and recombination analysis of a vpu-env fragment in addition to gag and env Heteroduplex Mobility Assay screening. The most unusual findings included two subtypes A and a novel BC recombinant, while the majority of the strains were a variety of different BF recombinants. These results indicate the presence of novel and heterogeneous genotypes in our country and the need of continuous viral surveillance not only for diagnostic test optimization but also for the eventual implementation of a successful vaccine.El diagnóstico temprano de infección por HIV-1 en niños expuestos perinatalmente al virus se realiza con técnicas de biología molecular, detectando el virus en sangre. Por ello, la variabilidad genómica intra e inter subtipo del HIV-1 juega un rol importante en relación a la sensibilidad de estos tests. Describimos aquí la performance de una PCR multiplex anidada artesanal (nPCR, rutinariamente usada para el diagnóstico temprano de la infección por HIV-1 en

  11. Genética molecular del alcoholismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rey-Buitrago

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El alcoholismo es una patología psiquiátrica compleja y de origen multifactorial en la que el factor genético explica alrededor del 50 % del fenómeno. Son numerosos los genes que se han asociado a esta enfermedad, pero su aporte individual es mínimo y contradictorio. Estos genes operan a través de características intermedias como la impulsividad y la sensibilidad al alcohol, lo que hace compleja la definición del fenotipo del alcoholismo. Los estudios de asociación de SNPs, de asociación a todo el genoma, de expresión y epigenéticos han identificado una amplia gama de variantes genéticas y epigenéticas, blancos para los estudios de susceptibilidad, diagnóstico y tratamiento farmacológico. Actualmente se comprenden mucho más estas relaciones y el desarrollo rápido de nuevas metodologías de estudio promete continuar este proceso, así como la generación de algoritmos de diagnóstico, prevención y tratamientos más acertados y confiables.

  12. Autismo: genética Autism: genetics

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    Abha R Gupta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O autismo é um transtorno fortemente genético, com uma herdabilidade estimada de mais de 90%. Uma combinação de heterogeneidade fenotípica e o provável envolvimento de múltiplos loci que interagem entre si dificultam os esforços de descobertas de genes. Conseqüentemente, a etiologia genética dos transtornos relacionados ao autismo permanece, em grande parte, desconhecida. Nos últimos anos, a convergência entre tecnologias genômicas em rápido avanço, a finalização do projeto genoma humano e os crescentes e exitosos esforços em colaboração para aumentar o número de pacientes disponíveis para estudo conduziram às primeiras pistas sólidas sobre as origens biológicas desses transtornos. Este artigo revisará a literatura até nossos dias, resumindo os resultados de estudos de ligação genética, citogenéticos e de genes candidatos com um foco no progresso recente. Além disso, são consideradas as vias promissoras para pesquisas futuras.Autism is a strongly genetic disorder, with an estimated heritability of greater than 90%. A combination of phenotypic heterogeneity and the likely involvement of multiple interacting loci have hampered efforts at gene discovery. As a consequence, the genetic etiology of the spectrum of autism related disorders remains largely unknown. Over the past several years, the convergence of rapidly advancing genomic technologies, the completion of the human genome project, and increasingly successful collaborative efforts to increase the number of patients available for study have led to the first solid clues to the biological origins of these disorders. This paper will review the literature to date summarizing the results of linkage, cytogenetic, and candidate gene studies with a focus on recent progress. In addition, promising avenues for future research are considered.

  13. A Molecular Epidemiology Analysis of HIV in Shenzhen and HIV Env Gene Variation Replication Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin(陈琳); FENG Tiejian(冯铁建); LI Liangcheng(李良成); HE Jianfan(何建凡)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze molecular trends of the HIV epidemic in Shenzhen.Methods: Serum collected from Shenzhen AIDS patientsbetween 1992-1999 was analyzed using molecular techniques.DNA fragments of the HIV-1 Env gene were amplified bynested PCR from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclearcells (PBMCs) from these serum samples. The C2-C3 region ofthe Env gene was sequenced and analyzed. Specific high-riskbehaviors were also analyzed.Results: We found that the transmission of HIV in the citywas mainly through sexual behaviors (46.0%). There werefour HIV-1 subtypes: B', B, C and E with 6.31%, 7.95%,3.09% and 8.92% gene divergence inside each subtype inShenzhen. These results suggested that epidemic times were 6,8, 3 and 9 respectively. The main epidemic subtypes were Eand B strains. AIDS patient's antigenic variation was slightlyhigher than that of HIV infected individuals.Conclusion: Surveillance data reflect trends and theepidemic time of HIV, which will be useful for policy makersto formulate effective strategies of HIV/AIDS prevention andcontrol in Shenzhen.

  14. Polymorphism Trp64Arg of beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene: allelic frequencies and influence on insulin resistance in a multicenter study of Castilla-León Polimorfismo TRP64ARG del gen receptor beta 3: frecuencia alélica e influencia en la resistencia a la insulina en un estudio multicéntrico de Castilla y León

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. de Luis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The genetic variant (Trp64Arg is a missense mutation located within the beta3 adrenoreceptor (Beta3AR. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Trp64Arg polymorphism in the Beta3AR gene on insulin resistance in obese patients and the allelic distribution of this polymorphismin a geographic area of Spain. Design: A population of 264 obese patients was analyzed. A bioimpedance, blood pressure, an assessment of nutritional intake, and biochemical parameters were measured. The beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene polymorphism(Trp64Arg was genotyped. Results: Two hundred and twenty six patients (77 males/149 females (85.6% had the genotype Trp64/Trp64 (wild type group with and average age of 41.12 ± 13.1 years and 38 patients (16 males/22 females Trp64/Arg64 (14.4% (mutant type group with an average age of 40.5 ± 12.7 years. High frequencies of Arg64 allele were observed in Salamanca and Valladolid. In the mutant type group, HOMA (3.75 ± 2.77 vs 5.27 ± 5.4; p Introducción y objetivos: La variante genética (Trp64Arg es una mutación localizada en el adrenoreceptor Beta 3 (Beta3AR. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es evaluar la influencia de el polimorfismo Trp64Arg del gen de Beta3AR sobre la resistencia a la insulina en pacientes obesos, así como la distribución alélica de este polimorfismo en un área geográfica de España. Diseño: Una muestra de 264 pacientes obesos fue analizada. Se realizó una bioimpedancia, evaluación nutricional y análisis bioquímico. Se genotiparon a los pacientes en función delpolimorfismos Tr64Arg del gen adrenoreceptor-beta 3. Resultados: Un total de 227 pacientes (77 varones/149 mujeres (85,6% presentaron el genotipo Trp64/Trp64 (grupo genotipo salvaje, con una media de edad de 41,12 ± 13,1 años y un total de 38 pacientes (16 varones/22 mujeres Trp64/Arg64 (14,4% (grupo genotipo mutante con una edad media de 40,5 ± 12,7 años. Se detectó una alta frecuencia alélica (Arg64

  15. Detailed topology mapping reveals substantial exposure of the "cytoplasmic" C-terminal tail (CTT sequences in HIV-1 Env proteins at the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy surrounds the membrane topology of the HIV-1 gp41 C-terminal tail (CTT. While few studies have been designed to directly address the topology of the CTT, results from envelope (Env protein trafficking studies suggest that the CTT sequence is cytoplasmically localized, as interactions with intracellular binding partners are required for proper Env targeting. However, previous studies from our lab demonstrate the exposure of a short CTT sequence, the Kennedy epitope, at the plasma membrane of intact Env-expressing cells, the exposure of which is not observed on viral particles. To address the topology of the entire CTT sequence, we serially replaced CTT sequences with a VSV-G epitope tag sequence and examined reactivity of cell- and virion-surface Env to an anti-VSV-G monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate that the majority of the CTT sequence is accessible to antibody binding on the surface of Env expressing cells, and that the CTT-exposed Env constitutes 20-50% of the cell-surface Env. Cell surface CTT exposure was also apparent in virus-infected cells. Passive transfer of Env through cell culture media to Env negative (non-transfected cells was not responsible for the apparent cell surface CTT exposure. In contrast to the cell surface results, CTT-exposed Env was not detected on infectious pseudoviral particles containing VSV-G-substituted Env. Finally, a monoclonal antibody directed to the Kennedy epitope neutralized virus in a temperature-dependent manner in a post-attachment neutralization assay. Collectively, these results suggest that the membrane topology of the HIV gp41 CTT is more complex than the widely accepted intracytoplasmic model.

  16. 宝腾GEN-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    宝腾 GEN-2是由马来西亚宝腾汽车公司和莲花工程公司(Lotus Engineering)耗时4年共同开发的,也是宝腾收购莲花后设计的第一款新车。车名GEN-2也就是 GENRERATION 2的缩写。在 GEN-2的开发过程中,造型设计和工程设计是由宝腾公司完成的,莲花工程公司对 GEN-2进行了底盘调校,莲花设计中心(Lotus DesignStudio)完成了内饰设计。发动机则是由宝腾汽车公司开发、莲花工程公司调校的名为 Campro(Campro 是

  17. Organismos modificados genéticamente en la alimentación humana

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Fernández, Paula

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata la controversia del tema de los organismos modificados genéticamente (OMG). Se mencionan los beneficios que aporta la ingeniería genética y también los principales riesgos y preocupaciones existentes en torno al consumo de los alimentos modificados genéticamente, reportando casos de estudios que así lo constatan.Se tratan temas como seguridad alimentaria, legislación y normativas de etiquetado de estos nuevos alimentos, señalando su relación con la salud. Además, se ...

  18. Consideraciones genéticas sobre las dislipidemias y la aterosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Fernández Travieso

    2008-01-01

    La interacción entre factores genéticos y ambientales explican muchos aspectos de la aterosclerosis y las variaciones genéticas constituyen marcadores de riesgo de la enfermedad coronaria (EC), la cual ocupa el primer lugar entre las causas de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial. La predisposición familiar a padecer EC, junto al avance vertiginoso en técnicas de análisis de ADN y la disponibilidad de secuencias del genoma humano, han orientado la investigación de alteraciones genéticas re...

  19. FutureGen Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabe, Jim; Elliott, Mike

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes the comprehensive siting, permitting, engineering, design, and costing activities completed by the FutureGen Industrial Alliance, the Department of Energy, and associated supporting subcontractors to develop a first of a kind near zero emissions integrated gasification combined cycle power plant and carbon capture and storage project (IGCC-CCS). With the goal to design, build, and reliably operate the first IGCC-CCS facility, FutureGen would have been the lowest emitting pulverized coal power plant in the world, while providing a timely and relevant basis for coal combustion power plants deploying carbon capture in the future. The content of this report summarizes key findings and results of applicable project evaluations; modeling, design, and engineering assessments; cost estimate reports; and schedule and risk mitigation from initiation of the FutureGen project through final flow sheet analyses including capital and operating reports completed under DOE award DE-FE0000587. This project report necessarily builds upon previously completed siting, design, and development work executed under DOE award DE-FC26- 06NT4207 which included the siting process; environmental permitting, compliance, and mitigation under the National Environmental Policy Act; and development of conceptual and design basis documentation for the FutureGen plant. For completeness, the report includes as attachments the siting and design basis documents, as well as the source documentation for the following: • Site evaluation and selection process and environmental characterization • Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permit Application including well design and subsurface modeling • FutureGen IGCC-CCS Design Basis Document • Process evaluations and technology selection via Illinois Clean Coal Review Board Technical Report • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance for slurry-fed gasifier configuration • Process flow diagrams and heat/material balance

  20. Applications of Dredging and Beach Fills in GenCade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    based on the methodology employed in the Inlet Reservoir Model ( IRM ), which assumes that if a jetty is not present at an inlet, all of the sand...system is at equilibrium. Further details about the IRM formulation within GenCade can be found in Frey et al. (2012, 2014). Figure 13 shows the...apportionment of transported sediment it received in the IRM . The only alternative where ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-109 June 2016 10 the shoal does not

  1. Elevation of Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK3β is required for HERV-W env-mediated BDNF signaling in human U251 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chengchen; Li, Shan; Yan, Qiujin; Wang, Xiuling; Chen, Yatang; Zhou, Ping; Lu, Mengxin; Zhu, Fan

    2016-08-03

    Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) is known to be associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. Previous studies showed that overexpression of HERV-W env could induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression. In human and rat cells, BDNF-mediated signal transduction might be modulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Both BDNF and GSK3β are schizophrenia-related genes. In this paper, we investigated whether GSK3β was involved in the HERV-W env-induced expression of BDNF. We found that HERV-W env increased phosphorylation of GSK3β at Ser9 (p-GSK3β (Ser9)) and the ratio of p-GSK3β (Ser9) to total GSK3β (pW env led to a 36.2% reduction in GSK3β activity compared to control (pW env might activate the GSK3β signaling pathway in U251 cells. Further, knockdown of GSK3β reduced the expression of total GSK3β, p-GSK3β (Ser9), and the ratio of p-GSK3β (Ser9) to total GSK3β by 28.6%, 50.4%, and 30.2%, respectively (pW env-induced BDNF expression, and will hopefully improve our understanding of the role of HERV-W env in neurological and psychiatric diseases (schizophrenia, etc).

  2. HIV-1 Group P is unable to antagonize human tetherin by Vpu, Env or Nef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new subgroup of HIV-1, designated Group P, was recently detected in two unrelated patients of Cameroonian origin. HIV-1 Group P phylogenetically clusters with SIVgor suggesting that it is the result of a cross-species transmission from gorillas. Until today, HIV-1 Group P has only been detected in two patients, and its degree of adaptation to the human host is largely unknown. Previous data have shown that pandemic HIV-1 Group M, but not non-pandemic Group O or rare Group N viruses, efficiently antagonize the human orthologue of the restriction factor tetherin (BST-2, HM1.24, CD317 suggesting that primate lentiviruses may have to gain anti-tetherin activity for efficient spread in the human population. Thus far, three SIV/HIV gene products (vpu, nef and env are known to have the potential to counteract primate tetherin proteins, often in a species-specific manner. Here, we examined how long Group P may have been circulating in humans and determined its capability to antagonize human tetherin as an indicator of adaptation to humans. Results Our data suggest that HIV-1 Group P entered the human population between 1845 and 1989. Vpu, Env and Nef proteins from both Group P viruses failed to counteract human or gorilla tetherin to promote efficient release of HIV-1 virions, although both Group P Nef proteins moderately downmodulated gorilla tetherin from the cell surface. Notably, Vpu, Env and Nef alleles from the two HIV-1 P strains were all able to reduce CD4 cell surface expression. Conclusions Our analyses of the two reported HIV-1 Group P viruses suggest that zoonosis occurred in the last 170 years and further support that pandemic HIV-1 Group M strains are better adapted to humans than non-pandemic or rare Group O, N and P viruses. The inability to antagonize human tetherin may potentially explain the limited spread of HIV-1 Group P in the human population.

  3. Estructura y diversidad genética en vacas Holstein de Antioquia usando un polimorfismo del gen bGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rincon F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas del polimorfismo del intrón 3 del gen bGH y estimar algunos parámetros de estructura poblacional en ganado Holstein. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó con 1366 vacas Holstein en 120 hatos de 11 municipios del departamento de Antioquia. Se extrajo DNA por el método de Salting out y la genotipificación se realizó usando la técnica de PCR-RFLPs. La diversidad genética se determinó mediante la comparación de las heterocigosidades, El equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (HW y la diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones se realizó usando el software Arlequín 2.0 Las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas se evaluaron mediante el paquete estadístico SAS®. Resultados. Las frecuencias genotípicas encontradas fueron 0.764 (+/+, 0.223 (+/- y 0.013 (-/- y las frecuencias alélicas 0.876 (+ y 0.124 (-. No se encontraron desviaciones del Equilibrio de Hardy Weinberg en ninguna de las subpoblaciones. La diversidad genética determinada mediante la comparación de las heterocigosidades fue relativamente baja entre poblaciones pero al interior de estas no. El valor de FST de toda la población fue de 0.0068 y significativo (p<0.05, algunos FST pareados también lo fueron, tomando valores desde 0.0 a 0.13. Los estadísticos FIT y FIS no fueron significativos. Conclusiones. El gen bGH es un candidato interesante para evaluar características de importancia económica ya que no parece haber sido sometido a selección directa, presenta una variabilidad media en las poblaciones, observándose diferenciación genética significativa entre distintos municipios, producto de los diferentes sistemas de producción y acceso a las biotecnologías.

  4. Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand model (dGen) is a geospatially rich, bottom-up, market-penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) for residential, commercial, and industrial entities in the continental United States through 2050. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed dGen to analyze the key factors that will affect future market demand for distributed solar, wind, storage, and other DER technologies in the United States. The new model builds off, extends, and replaces NREL's SolarDS model (Denholm et al. 2009a), which simulates the market penetration of distributed PV only. Unlike the SolarDS model, dGen can model various DER technologies under one platform--it currently can simulate the adoption of distributed solar (the dSolar module) and distributed wind (the dWind module) and link with the ReEDS capacity expansion model (Appendix C). The underlying algorithms and datasets in dGen, which improve the representation of customer decision making as well as the spatial resolution of analyses (Figure ES-1), also are improvements over SolarDS.

  5. A critical appraisal of ATLAS9 and NextGen 5 model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, E; Chavez, M; Rodríguez, L H

    2001-01-01

    The fitting atmosphere parameters (Teff, g, and [Fe/H]) for over 300 stars in the Gunn & Striker and Jacoby et al. catalogs have been obtained relying on the Kurucz (1992) ATLAS9 and Hauschildt et al (1999) NextGen5 synthesis models. The output results are compared, and a critical appraisal of both theoretical codes is performed.

  6. Summary of CPAS Gen II Parachute Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Moore, James W.; Olson, Leah M.; Ray, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is currently under development by NASA and Lockheed Martin. Like Apollo, Orion will use a series of parachutes to slow its descent and splashdown safely. The Orion parachute system, known as the CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS), is being designed by NASA, the Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG), and Airborne Systems. The first generation (Gen I) of CPAS testing consisted of thirteen tests and was executed in the 2007-2008 timeframe. The Gen I tests provided an initial understanding of the CPAS parachutes. Knowledge gained from Gen I testing was used to plan the second generation of testing (Gen II). Gen II consisted of six tests: three singleparachute tests, designated as Main Development Tests, and three Cluster Development Tests. Gen II required a more thorough investigation into parachute performance than Gen I. Higher fidelity instrumentation, enhanced analysis methods and tools, and advanced test techniques were developed. The results of the Gen II test series are being incorporated into the CPAS design. Further testing and refinement of the design and model of parachute performance will occur during the upcoming third generation of testing (Gen III). This paper will provide an overview of the developments in CPAS analysis following the end of Gen I, including descriptions of new tools and techniques as well as overviews of the Gen II tests.

  7. Construção de um env quimérico HIV-1 / HIV-2

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Introdução: O Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA) representa, a nível mundial, um dos principais problemas de saúde pública. O agente etiológico responsável por esta pandemia é o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (VIH), que afeta 35 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. Objetivos: Construção dum env quimérico contendo a região C2, V3 e C3 do VIH-2 e as restantes do VIH-1 e reconstruç...

  8. GenLab, Laboratorio Virtual de Genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sergio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    GenLab es el nombre que tiene el software diseñado por nosotros, en el cual se modela el proceso meiótico y la fecundación en organismos diploides. El objetivo de esta aplicación es ilustrar el resultado de un cruce determinado, tratando de ser lo más ajustados a la realidad. La modelación de la reproducción sexual se realiza internamente y el GenLab se limita a presentar los resultados según el número de descendencia seleccionado para un cruce específico, esto significa que se puede escoger una gran cantidad de características para los parentales y se puede estudiar la frecuencia de estos en la descendencia. El modelo cuenta con base de datos donde están almacenados algunos de los locus de Drosophila melanogaster junto con su ubicación en centimorgans 1. EI propósito de este modelo es servir como herramienta pedagógica  y didáctica tanto en universidades como en colegios, facilitando el aprendizaje de algunos principios básicos de la genética, por lo cual puede ser usado si se cuenta con una conexión a Internet y un navegador visitando http://biologia.unal.edu.co/fidel.

  9. Specifically modified Env immunogens activate B-cell precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Andrew T; Gray, Matthew D; Dosenovic, Pia; Gitlin, Alexander D; Freund, Natalia T; Petersen, John; Correnti, Colin; Johnsen, William; Kegel, Robert; Stuart, Andrew B; Glenn, Jolene; Seaman, Michael S; Schief, William R; Strong, Roland K; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2016-02-24

    VRC01-class broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies protect animals from experimental infection and could contribute to an effective vaccine response. Their predicted germline forms (gl) bind Env inefficiently, which may explain why they are not elicited by HIV-1 Env-immunization. Here we show that an optimized Env immunogen can engage multiple glVRC01-class antibodies. Furthermore, this immunogen activates naive B cells expressing the human germline heavy chain of 3BNC60, paired with endogenous mouse light chains in vivo. To address whether it activates B cells expressing the fully humanized gl3BNC60 B-cell receptor (BCR), we immunized mice carrying both the heavy and light chains of gl3BNC60. B cells expressing this BCR display an autoreactive phenotype and fail to respond efficiently to soluble forms of the optimized immunogen, unless it is highly multimerized. Thus, specifically designed Env immunogens can activate naive B cells expressing human BCRs corresponding to precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies even when the B cells display an autoreactive phenotype.

  10. A nova genética para além da gestão de riscos e promoção da saúde: prolegômenos ao conceito de Biodesign The new genetics beyond of risk management and promotion of health: introduction to the concept of Biodesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Mariano Vilaça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nova genética apontaria para uma nova era da metamorfose do humano, que seria marcada pelo protagonismo desse na seleção e aperfeiçoamento da sua natureza. Assim, o human enhancement tornaria-se uma realidade antropotécnica tangível. Esse artigo, inserido em uma pesquisa do campo da Ethics of Enhancement Human Beings, pretende excogitar um novo conceito para compreender nuances da chamada Genetic Age até agora aparentemente negligenciadas por outros dois conceitos já disponíveis, a saber, biopolítica e biossociabilidade. Para tanto, recorremos à revisão de parte da bibliografia sobre o tema e à análise e crítica desses conceitos, os quais focalizam a temática fundamentalmente através das noções de gestão de riscos e promoção da vida saudável. O objetivo foi apontar a parcial pertinência da grade de inteligibilidade fornecida por eles para compreender a nova genética. Destarte, apresentamos o conceito de biodesign como uma alternativa complementar. Com ele, esperamos oferecer, introdutoriamente, um conceito que apreenda, sobretudo, o que as possibilidades de artificialização da vida humana representam para além de uma nova forma de gestão de riscos/promoção da saúde.The new genetics would point to a new era of metamorphosis of the human, which would be marked by the prominence of that in the selection and improvement of their nature. Thus, the Human Enhancement would become a tangible reality anthropo-technique. This paper, included a research of the field of Ethics Enhancement of Human Beings, intends excogitate a new concept to understand nuances called Genetic Age apparently overlooked by other already available, namely, Biopolitics and Biosociality. Therefore, we refer the review of the bibliography on Human Enhancement and the analysis and critique of these concepts, which focus on the issue mainly of risk management and promotion of healthy living. The objective was to identify the partial relevance of the

  11. Structural and functional studies of the HAMP domain of EnvZ, an osmosensing transmembrane histidine kinase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishii, Ryuta; Falzon, Liliana; Yoshida, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inouye, Masayori

    2007-09-07

    The HAMP domain plays an essential role in signal transduction not only in histidine kinase but also in a number of other signal-transducing receptor proteins. Here we expressed the EnvZ HAMP domain (Arg(180)-Thr(235)) with the R218K mutation (termed L(RK)) or with L(RK) connected with domain A (Arg(180)-Arg(289)) (termed LA(RK)) of EnvZ, an osmosensing transmembrane histidine kinase in Escherichia coli, by fusing it with protein S. The L(RK) and LA(RK) proteins were purified after removing protein S. The CD analysis of the isolated L protein revealed that it consists of a random structure or is unstructured. This suggests that the EnvZ HAMP domain by itself is unable to form a stable structure and that this structural fragility may be important for its role in signal transduction. Interestingly the substitution of Ala(193) in the EnvZ HAMP domain with valine or leucine in Tez1A1, a chimeric protein of Tar and EnvZ, caused a constitutive OmpC phenotype. The CD analysis of LA(RK)(A193L) revealed that this mutated HAMP domain possesses considerable secondary structures and that the thermostability of this entire LA(RK)(A193L) became substantially lower than that of LA(RK) or just domain A, indicating that the structure of the HAMP domain with the A193L mutation affects the stability of downstream domain A. This results in cooperative thermodenaturation of domain A with the mutated HAMP domain. These results are discussed in light of the recently solved NMR structure of the HAMP domain from a thermophilic bacterium (Hulko, M., Berndt, F., Gruber, M., Linder, J. U., Truffault, V., Schultz, A., Martin, J., Schultz, J. E., Lupas, A. N., and Coles, M. (2006) Cell 126, 929-940).

  12. HIV-1 Env-Specific Memory and Germinal Center B Cells in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Soldemo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Continued efforts to define the immunogenic properties of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env are needed to elicit effective antibody (Ab responses by vaccination. HIV-1 is a highly neutralization-resistant virus due to conformational and glycan shielding of conserved Ab determinants on the virus spike. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing Abs that bind poorly accessible epitope regions on Env is therefore extremely challenging and will likely require selective targeting of specific sub-determinants. To evaluate such approaches there is a pressing need for in vivo studies in both large and small animals, including mice. Currently, most mouse immunization studies are performed in the BALB/c strain; however, the C57BL/6 strain offers improved possibilities for mechanistic studies due to the availability of numerous knock-out strains on this genetic background. Here, we compared Env immunogenicity in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and found that the magnitude of the antigen-specific response was somewhat lower in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c mice by ELISA but not significantly different by B cell ELISpot measurements. We then established protocols for the isolation of single Env-specific memory B cells and germinal center (GC B cells from immunized C57BL/6 mice to facilitate future studies of the elicited response at the monoclonal Ab level. We propose that these protocols can be used to gain an improved understanding of the early recruitment of Env-specific B cells to the GC as well as the archiving of such responses in the memory B cell pool following immunization.

  13. TrafficGen Architecture Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Poisson, Jitter, and Clone . Researchers can experience an added dimension of network traffic visualization by pairing TrafficGen with the NRL Scripted...MVC Classes The top-level MVC classes control the workspace of the application, specifically the menu and the way the nodes and events are rendered...This is a container class that holds singleton instances of the view classes employed by this application. Because of the way this application is

  14. From AWE-GEN to AWE-GEN-2d: a high spatial and temporal resolution weather generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Nadav; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    A new weather generator, AWE-GEN-2d (Advanced WEather GENerator for 2-Dimension grid) is developed following the philosophy of combining physical and stochastic approaches to simulate meteorological variables at high spatial and temporal resolution (e.g. 2 km x 2 km and 5 min for precipitation and cloud cover and 100 m x 100 m and 1 h for other variables variable (temperature, solar radiation, vapor pressure, atmospheric pressure and near-surface wind). The model is suitable to investigate the impacts of climate variability, temporal and spatial resolutions of forcing on hydrological, ecological, agricultural and geomorphological impacts studies. Using appropriate parameterization the model can be used in the context of climate change. Here we present the model technical structure of AWE-GEN-2d, which is a substantial evolution of four preceding models (i) the hourly-point scale Advanced WEather GENerator (AWE-GEN) presented by Fatichi et al. (2011, Adv. Water Resour.) (ii) the Space-Time Realizations of Areal Precipitation (STREAP) model introduced by Paschalis et al. (2013, Water Resour. Res.), (iii) the High-Resolution Synoptically conditioned Weather Generator developed by Peleg and Morin (2014, Water Resour. Res.), and (iv) the Wind-field Interpolation by Non Divergent Schemes presented by Burlando et al. (2007, Boundary-Layer Meteorol.). The AWE-GEN-2d is relatively parsimonious in terms of computational demand and allows generating many stochastic realizations of current and projected climates in an efficient way. An example of model application and testing is presented with reference to a case study in the Wallis region, a complex orography terrain in the Swiss Alps.

  15. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições dos tratamentos: aléias de sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana, ingá (Inga edulis, guandu (Cajanus cajan e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e uma testemunha sem aléias. Foram avaliadas a remobilização de carbono e nitrogênio, massa de grãos, massa de mil grãos e competição interespecífica entre as cultivares de milho e as leguminosas. A produção de grãos foi maior nas parcelas com C. fairchildiana e L. leucocephala. A produtividade do híbrido de milho foi superior à da variedade em todos os tratamentos. A produtividade e a massa de mil grãos de milho não são negativamente afetadas pela distância da linha da leguminosa arbórea. Esse estudo conclui que o sistema de aléias com leguminosas arbóreas é uma alternativa importante ao manejo sustentável dos agroecossistemas no tropico úmido. Além disso, nessa região a produtividade em grãos na cultura do milho é favorecida no sistema de aléias preeestabelecidas com as leguminosas arbóreas sombreiro, ingá e leucena e pela utilização de genótipos eficientes no aproveitamento do nitrogênio, cujo sincronismo entre a liberação e a absorção do N aplicado por meio das leguminosas deve ser aprimorado.Alley cropping has been recommended as alternative land use to slash-and-burn agriculture in humid tropics. However, interespecific competition between cash crop and hedgerow can reduce this potential. This study aimed to evaluate the

  16. Gen y ética. La inocencia perdida

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Martínez, Carlos E.

    1996-01-01

    Después del lanzamiento de las bombas atómicas en agosto de 1945 en Hiroshima y Nagasaki, la ética en la ciencia se convirtió en un tema de interés público con complejas implicaciones sociales. El artículo reflexiona sobre la ética en la investigación genética, vista desde la posibilidad de mejorar la salud de los humanos al predecir o evitar enfermedades, pero también como una puerta hacia la manipulación genética, la discriminación de los débiles y los enfermos, e incluso la alteración del ...

  17. Mutagenesis of tyrosine and di-leucine motifs in the HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic domain results in a loss of Env-mediated fusion and infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claiborne Daniel T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gp41 component of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env contains a long cytoplasmic domain (CD with multiple highly conserved tyrosine (Y and dileucine (LL motifs. Studies suggest that the motifs distal to major endocytosis motif (Y712HRL, located at residues 712-715 of Env, may contribute to Env functionality in the viral life cycle. In order to examine the biological contribution of these motifs in the biosynthesis, transport, and function of Env, we constructed two panels of mutants in which the conserved Y- and LL-motifs were sequentially substituted by alternative residues, either in the presence or absence of Y712. Additional mutants targeting individual motifs were then constructed. Results All mutant Envs, when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, maintained at least WT levels of Env surface staining by multiple antibodies. The Y712 mutation (Y712C contributed to at least a 4-fold increase in surface expression for all mutants containing this change. Sequential mutagenesis of the Y- and LL-motifs resulted in a generally progressive decrease in Env fusogenicity. However, additive mutation of dileucine and tyrosine motifs beyond the tyrosine at residue 768 resulted in the most dramatic effects on Env incorporation into virions, viral infectivity, and virus fusion with target cells. Conclusions From the studies reported here, we show that mutations of the Y- and LL-motifs, which effectively eliminate the amphipathic nature of the lytic peptide 2 (LLP2 domain or disrupt YW and LL motifs in a region spanning residues 795-803 (YWWNLLQYW, just C-terminal of LLP2, can dramatically interfere with biological functions of HIV-1 Env and abrogate virus replication. Because these mutant proteins are expressed at the cell surface, we conclude that tyrosine and di-leucine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 play critical roles in HIV-1 replication that are distinct from that of

  18. Revising REACH guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment for engineered nanomaterials for aquatic ecotoxicity endpoints: recommendations from the EnvNano project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2017-01-01

    in solution”. The aim of this paper is to present the findings of the EnvNano project and through these provide the scientific background for specific recommendations on how ECHA guidance could be further improved. Key EnvNano findings such as the need to characterize dispersion and dissolution rates in stock...... be made applicable to nanomaterials. European Research Council project EnvNano—Environmental Effects and Risk Evaluation of Engineered, which ran from 2011 to 2016, took another outset by assuming that: “The behaviour of nanoparticles in suspension is fundamentally different from that of chemicals...

  19. Avances genéticos y moleculares en el estudio de trastornos mentales

    OpenAIRE

    Daisy Natalia Salamanca-Ortíz; Jorge Yamit Vergara-Vergara; Franklin Escobar-Córdoba; Álvaro Rodríguez-Gama; Jorge Eduardo Caminos- Pinzón

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente, con el aumento de la disponibilidad de técnicas para la realización de estudios genéticos, han aparecido nuevas áreas del conocimiento como la epigenética y la farmacogenética. Estas nuevas áreas han permitido esclarecer las bases genéticas implicadas en la aparición de las enfermedades que afectan al ser humano. Dada su aplicación global, la psiquiatría no ha sido ajena al alcance de estas nuevas disciplinas, lo cual se refleja en el gran número de estudios realizados a nivel mu...

  20. Receptor-induced thiolate couples Env activation to retrovirus fusion and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G Smith

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to current models of retrovirus infection, receptor binding to the surface subunit (SU of the envelope glycoprotein (Env triggers a conformational change in the transmembrane subunit (TM that mediates virus fusion to cell membranes. To understand how this occurs, we investigated the role of the receptor Tva in avian leukosis virus-A (ALV-A infection. We find that Tva binding induced the formation of a reactive thiolate on Cys38 (Cys38-S- in SU. Both chemical and genetic inactivation of Cys38-S- completely abrogated ALV fusion and infection. Remarkably, Cys38-S- does not mediate isomerization of the SU-TM disulfide bond and is not required for Tva-induced activation of TM, including pre-hairpin association with membranes and low pH assembly of helical bundles. These findings indicate that, contrary to current models, receptor activation of TM is not sufficient for ALV fusion and infection and that formation of a reactive thiolate is an additional receptor-dependent step.

  1. Production of Mucosally Transmissible SHIV Challenge Stocks from HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 01_AE env Sequences.

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    Lawrence J Tartaglia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV challenge stocks are critical for preclinical testing of vaccines, antibodies, and other interventions aimed to prevent HIV-1. A major unmet need for the field has been the lack of a SHIV challenge stock expressing circulating recombinant form 01_AE (CRF01_AE env sequences. We therefore sought to develop mucosally transmissible SHIV challenge stocks containing HIV-1 CRF01_AE env derived from acutely HIV-1 infected individuals from Thailand. SHIV-AE6, SHIV-AE6RM, and SHIV-AE16 contained env sequences that were >99% identical to the original HIV-1 isolate and did not require in vivo passaging. These viruses exhibited CCR5 tropism and displayed a tier 2 neutralization phenotype. These challenge stocks efficiently infected rhesus monkeys by the intrarectal route, replicated to high levels during acute infection, and established chronic viremia in a subset of animals. SHIV-AE16 was titrated for use in single, high dose as well as repetitive, low dose intrarectal challenge studies. These SHIV challenge stocks should facilitate the preclinical evaluation of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and other interventions targeted at preventing HIV-1 CRF01_AE infection.

  2. [Research on construction of sheep lung adenomas virus pEGFP-C1/exJSRV-env and induction of malignant transformation in NIH3T3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Zhuan-Jia; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Shu-Ying

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to construct a eukaryotic expression system for envelope gene of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, observes its localization in 293T cells, and investigates the potential in inducing malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells. By RT-PCR, the full-length cDNA of envelope gene of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (exJSRV-env) was amplified from the extract of naturally infected sheep lung. The clone of target gene was sub-cloned into eukaryotic expression system pEGFP-C1, and validated by PCR, restriction endonuclease, and sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis concerning biological function and cellular localiza tion of exJSRV-env was also performed. The recombinant clone of exJSRV-env was transfected into 293T cells and NIH3T3 cells by Lipofectamine LTX. The expression and celluar localization in 293T cells were validated by confocal microscopy. Soft agar colony formation assay was employed to test the anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3. DNA sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion with Kpn I and Hind III indicated the correct construction of the recombinant plasmid, which was named pEGFP-C1/exJSRV-env. Amino acid sequence alignment of exJSRV-env with reference sequences found 85%-100% homogeneity. A YRNM motif was discovered at the cytoplasmic tail of envelope gene, which is exclusively found in exogenous viruses. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that our clone of exJSRV-env clustered closely with pathogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses. Fluorescence microscopy indicated typical membrane localization of exJSRV-env protein. NIH3T3 cells transfected with exJSRV-env lost contact inhibition, and acquired colony forming ability in soft agar. This study indicated that envelope protein of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus can induce malignant transformation of mouse fibroblast cell NIH3T3. Discoveries of this study provide a basis for further structural and functional research on Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein.

  3. Justicia en salud y genética

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    Maria Graciela De Ortuzar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las expectativas puestas en el conocimiento genético exceden el ámbito de la medicina tradiciona, debido a que la intervención directa en la lotería natural demandaría el replanteamiento de conceptos centrales de justicia en salud: necesidades médicas, enfermedad, normalidad, e igualdad de oportunidades en el acceso a la salud. El punto en debate es sí el replanteo de dichos conceptos conlleva un cambio radical en las teorías de justicia (libertariana y/o liberal, mostrando su obsolescencia, o sí simplemente se requiere ampliar dichos conceptos claves por fallas estructurales en las mismas teorías. Como hipótesis general considero que los supuestos cuestionamientos, lejos de socavar las bases de las teorías de justicia, sólo ponen en evidencia sus viejos problemas estructurales. Por razones expositivas, dividiré la presentación tres partes. En la Primera parte, analizo la teoría libertariana, estudiando las contradicciones del modelo a través del impacto de la información genética en el seguro privado de salud. En la Segunda Parte, desarrollo la propuesta alternativa liberal rawlsianadanielsiana del modelo de seguro público, evaluando las implicaciones de la genética a partir de la crítica de su concepto biológico de enfermedad y su restricción al acceso a la salud por necesidades naturales. En la Tercera parte presento un modelo integral de necesidades y capacidades básicas, comprendiendo la prevención, el tratamiento y el mejoramiento moralmente permisible (genético y no genético.Mi aporte principal consiste en la elaboración de este modelo normativo integral de necesidades y capacidades para la regulación conjunta de la información y terapia genética con los restantes problemas de salud.

  4. Variabilidad genética en Prosopis ferox (Mimosaceae

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    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis ferox (Mimosaceae es una especie arbustiva o arbórea espinosa que se distribuye desde el Sur de Bolivia hasta el noroeste de la Argentina. En la provincia de Jujuy se encuentra a grandes alturas (entre los 2400 y los 3700 m s.m.. Existe una gran variabilidad morfológica, especialmente en cuanto a las dimensiones del fruto y la cantidad de semillas por fruto, ambas características importantes debido al uso de esta planta como forraje. Con el objeto de verificar si existe además variabilidad genética, se realizó un estudio electroforético de proteínas seminales de árboles procedentes de distintas localidades de la provincia de Jujuy. Los patrones polipeptídicos obtenidos por SDS-PAGE presentaron en total 26 bandas. Cada población se caracterizó por sus patrones de presencia-ausencia de bandas, habiéndose encontrado variabilidad intrapoblacional (polimorfismo en algunas de ellas, siendo otras genéticamente homogéneas. Los índices polimórficos en poblaciones de P. ferox son comparables a los obtenidos previamente en P. ruscifolia. La variabilidad genética interpoblacional hallada por medio del estudio electroforético de las proteínas seminales hace suponer la existencia de ecotipos

  5. The conserved dileucine- and tyrosine-based motifs in MLV and MPMV envelope glycoproteins are both important to regulate a common Env intracellular trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Vergès Sandra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrovirus particles emerge from the assembly of two structural protein components, Gag that is translated as a soluble protein in the cytoplasm of the host cells, and Env, a type I transmembrane protein. Because both components are translated in different intracellular compartments, elucidating the mechanisms of retrovirus assembly thus requires the study of their intracellular trafficking. Results We used a CD25 (Tac chimera-based approach to study the trafficking of Moloney murine leukemia virus and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Env proteins. We found that the cytoplasmic tails (CTs of both Env conserved two major signals that control a complex intracellular trafficking. A dileucine-based motif controls the sorting of the chimeras from the trans-Golgi network (TGN toward endosomal compartments. Env proteins then follow a retrograde transport to the TGN due to the action of a tyrosine-based motif. Mutation of either motif induces the mis-localization of the chimeric proteins and both motifs are found to mediate interactions of the viral CTs with clathrin adaptors. Conclusion This data reveals the unexpected complexity of the intracellular trafficking of retrovirus Env proteins that cycle between the TGN and endosomes. Given that Gag proteins hijack endosomal host proteins, our work suggests that the endosomal pathway may be used by retroviruses to ensure proper encountering of viral structural Gag and Env proteins in cells, an essential step of virus assembly.

  6. Human Ubc9 is involved in intracellular HIV-1 Env stability after trafficking out of the trans-Golgi network in a Gag dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Bohl

    Full Text Available The cellular E2 Sumo conjugase, Ubc9 interacts with HIV-1 Gag, and is important for the assembly of infectious HIV-1 virions. In the previous study we demonstrated that in the absence of Ubc9, a defect in virion assembly was associated with decreased levels of mature intracellular Envelope (Env that affected Env incorporation into virions and virion infectivity. We have further characterized the effect of Ubc9 knockdown on HIV Env processing and assembly. We found that gp160 stability in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and its trafficking to the trans-Golgi network (TGN were unaffected, indicating that the decreased intracellular mature Env levels in Ubc9-depleted cells were due to a selective degradation of mature Env gp120 after cleavage from gp160 and trafficked out of the TGN. Decreased levels of Gag and mature Env were found to be associated with the plasma membrane and lipid rafts, which suggest that these viral proteins were not trafficked correctly to the assembly site. Intracellular gp120 were partially rescued when treated with a combination of lysosome inhibitors. Taken together our results suggest that in the absence of Ubc9, gp120 is preferentially degraded in the lysosomes likely before trafficking to assembly sites leading to the production of defective virions. This study provides further insight in the processing and packaging of the HIV-1 gp120 into mature HIV-1 virions.

  7. Mapping the molecular characteristics of Brazilian human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Env (gp46 and Pol amino acid sequences for vaccine design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Mota-Miranda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the molecular pattern of all available Brazilian human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Env (n = 15 and Pol (n = 43 nucleotide sequences via epitope prediction, physico-chemical analysis, and protein potential sites identification, giving support to the Brazilian AIDS vaccine program. In 12 previously described peptides of the Env sequences we found 12 epitopes, while in 4 peptides of the Pol sequences we found 4 epitopes. The total variation on the amino acid composition was 9 and 17% for human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I and class II Env epitopes, respectively. After analyzing the Pol sequences, results revealed a total amino acid variation of 0.75% for HLA-I and HLA-II epitopes. In 5 of the 12 Env epitopes the physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that the mutations magnified the antigenicity profile. The potential protein domain analysis of Env sequences showed the loss of a CK-2 phosphorylation site caused by D197N mutation in one epitope, and a N-glycosylation site caused by S246Y and V247I mutations in another epitope. Besides, the analysis of selection pressure have found 8 positive selected sites (w = 9.59 using the codon-based substitution models and maximum-likelihood methods. These studies underscore the importance of this Env region for the virus fitness, for the host immune response and, therefore, for the development of vaccine candidates.

  8. Epistemología genética.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Vásquez, Ramiro; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

    2015-01-01

    Para recrear las ideas de Jean Piaget sobre su epistemología genética se ha visto por conveniente abordar el trabajo desde varios aspectos: abordar el problema de su significado y de lo que estudia; fundamentar su estatus de ciencia, característica central que la diferencia de otras posturas epistemológicas; probar que la psicología juega un rol importante al momento de analizar la ciencia. Del mismo modo, se estudia los métodos y procedimientos originales con los que Piaget abordó los temas ...

  9. Alimentos genéticamente alterados: transgénicos

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Se definen los términos relacionados directamente con la temática del artículo para luego citar algunas de las contradicciones de los promotores de este tipo de alimentos. Posteriormente, se mencionan los principales riesgos y preocupaciones existentes en torno al consumo de los alimentos genéticamente alterados. Además, se destacan las principales incertidumbres y cuestionamientos señalados y reconocidos por parte de diversos autores y organizaciones de profesionales en la salud, entre ellas...

  10. El uso de los tests genéticos por parte de las compañías de seguros

    OpenAIRE

    César Rodríguez Orgaz

    2011-01-01

    Se aborda la discusión en torno a la pertinencia del uso de tests genéticos por parte de las compañías de seguros. La idea que se defiende es la siguiente: si decidimos regular el recurso a los tests genéticos fuera del ámbito sanitario, que sea para hacer justicia a los derechos de terceras personas y en ningún caso por miedo a posibles discriminaciones. Se trata de llamar la atención sobre los riesgos aparejados al uso irresponsable de los datos genéticos por parte de las compañías de segur...

  11. An automated HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped virus production for global HIV vaccine trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schultz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections with HIV still represent a major human health problem worldwide and a vaccine is the only long-term option to fight efficiently against this virus. Standardized assessments of HIV-specific immune responses in vaccine trials are essential for prioritizing vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical stages of development. With respect to neutralizing antibodies, assays with HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses are a high priority. To cover the increasing demands of HIV pseudoviruses, a complete cell culture and transfection automation system has been developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The automation system for HIV pseudovirus production comprises a modified Tecan-based Cellerity system. It covers an area of 5×3 meters and includes a robot platform, a cell counting machine, a CO(2 incubator for cell cultivation and a media refrigerator. The processes for cell handling, transfection and pseudovirus production have been implemented according to manual standard operating procedures and are controlled and scheduled autonomously by the system. The system is housed in a biosafety level II cabinet that guarantees protection of personnel, environment and the product. HIV pseudovirus stocks in a scale from 140 ml to 1000 ml have been produced on the automated system. Parallel manual production of HIV pseudoviruses and comparisons (bridging assays confirmed that the automated produced pseudoviruses were of equivalent quality as those produced manually. In addition, the automated method was fully validated according to Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP guidelines, including the validation parameters accuracy, precision, robustness and specificity. CONCLUSIONS: An automated HIV pseudovirus production system has been successfully established. It allows the high quality production of HIV pseudoviruses under GCLP conditions. In its present form, the installed module enables the production of 1000 ml of virus-containing cell

  12. Bases genéticas de la formación de fisuras labiales

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Lina María; Prada-Arismendy, Jeanette; Téllez, Carolina; Castellanos, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo, es revisar la información actualizada sobre la genética de la hendidura labio palatina y los genes reportados que pueden contribuir al desarrollo de esta compleja patología.

  13. Enfermedades de base genética Genetically based diseases

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    D. González-Lamuño

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La genética constituye uno de los mayores avances científicos del siglo XX, que comienza con el redescubrimiento de las leyes de Mendel y termina con la elaboración del primer "borrador" de la secuencia completa del genoma humano. La genética utiliza diferentes estrategias de investigación, como los estudios de gemelos y de adopción, que investigan la influencia de los factores genéticos y ambientales, y las estrategias para identificar genes específicos (genética molecular. Además del importante grado de discapacidad que generan, el impacto social de las enfermedades hereditarias es enorme, por su carácter potencialmente recurrente en una misma familia y por el elevado coste socio-sanitario derivado de la enorme carga de cuidados que requiere. El diagnóstico de las enfermedades hereditarias presenta características diferenciadoras muy significativas ya que el resultado de un diagnóstico genético tiene no sólo efectos sobre el paciente sino también sobre todos los individuos emparentados. Por tanto, la unidad de estudio en el diagnóstico genético es la familia y todo proceso de diagnóstico implica una investigación familiar. También conviene tener en cuenta que los protocolos de diagnóstico se desarrollan de forma paralela a la investigación básica y generalmente están poco estandarizados. Los resultados obtenidos en los estudios genéticos y el tipo de información que se facilita al paciente y a su familia deben ser matizados dentro del proceso del "consejo genético".Genetics is one of the greatest scientific advances of the XX century, which begins with the rediscovery of Mendel’s laws and culminates in the elaboration of the first "draft" of the complete sequence of the human genome. Genetics employs different research strategies, such as the study of twins and adoption, investigating the influence of genetic and environmental factors, and strategies for identifying specific genes (molecular genetics. Besides the

  14. Single Amino Acid Substitution N659D in HIV-2 Envelope Glycoprotein (Env) Impairs Viral Release and Hampers BST-2 Antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrasne, François E.; Lombard, Catherine; Goubau, Patrick; Ruelle, Jean

    2016-01-01

    BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined. Among 32 HIV-2 ROD Env mutants tested, we demonstrated that the asparagine residue at position 659 located in the gp36 ectodomain is mandatory to exert the anti-tetherin function. Viral release assays in cell lines expressing BST-2 showed a loss of viral release ability for the HIV-2 N659D mutant virus compared to the HIV-2 wild type virus. In bst-2 inactivated H9 cells, those differences were lost. Subtilisin treatment of infected cells demonstrated that the N659D mutant was more tethered at the cell surface. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments confirmed a direct molecular link between Env and BST-2 and highlighted an inability of the mutant to bind BST-2. We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. Interestingly, viral release assays and FRET experiments indicated that a full Env cytoplasmic tail was essential in BST-2 antagonism. In HIV-2 infected cells, an efficient Env-mediated antagonism of BST-2 is operated through an intermolecular link involving the asparagine 659 residue as well as the C-terminal part of the cytoplasmic tail. PMID:27754450

  15. A pilot study comparing the development of EIAV Env-specific antibodies induced by DNA/recombinant vaccinia-vectored vaccines and an attenuated Chinese EIAV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglai; Lin, Yuezhi; Ma, Jian; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Liping; Li, Shenwei; Yang, Kai; Zhou, Jianhua; Shen, Rongxian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shao, Yiming

    2012-12-01

    Data from successful attenuated lentiviral vaccine studies indicate that fully mature Env-specific antibodies characterized by high titer, high avidity, and the predominant recognition of conformational epitopes are associated with protective efficacy. Although vaccination with a DNA prime/recombinant vaccinia-vectored vaccine boost strategy has been found to be effective in some trials with non-human primate/simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models, it remains unclear whether this vaccination strategy could elicit mature equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Env-specific antibodies, thus protecting vaccinated horses against EIAV infection. Therefore, in this pilot study we vaccinated horses using a strategy based on DNA prime/recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTTV)-vectored vaccines encoding EIAV env and gag genes, and observed the development of Env-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and p26-specific antibodies. Vaccination with DNA induced low titer, low avidity, and the predominant recognition of linear epitopes by Env-specific antibodies, which was enhanced by boosting vaccinations with rTTV vaccines. However, the maturation levels of Env-specific antibodies induced by the DNA/rTTV vaccines were significantly lower than those induced by the attenuated vaccine EIAV(FDDV). Additionally, DNA/rTTV vaccines did not elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. After challenge with a virulent EIAV strain, all of the vaccinees and control horses died from EIAV disease. These data indicate that the regimen of DNA prime/rTTV vaccine boost did not induce mature Env-specific antibodies, which might have contributed to immune protection failure.

  16. Single Amino Acid Substitution N659D in HIV-2 Envelope Glycoprotein (Env Impairs Viral Release and Hampers BST-2 Antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François E. Dufrasne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined. Among 32 HIV-2 ROD Env mutants tested, we demonstrated that the asparagine residue at position 659 located in the gp36 ectodomain is mandatory to exert the anti-tetherin function. Viral release assays in cell lines expressing BST-2 showed a loss of viral release ability for the HIV-2 N659D mutant virus compared to the HIV-2 wild type virus. In bst-2 inactivated H9 cells, those differences were lost. Subtilisin treatment of infected cells demonstrated that the N659D mutant was more tethered at the cell surface. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments confirmed a direct molecular link between Env and BST-2 and highlighted an inability of the mutant to bind BST-2. We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. Interestingly, viral release assays and FRET experiments indicated that a full Env cytoplasmic tail was essential in BST-2 antagonism. In HIV-2 infected cells, an efficient Env-mediated antagonism of BST-2 is operated through an intermolecular link involving the asparagine 659 residue as well as the C-terminal part of the cytoplasmic tail.

  17. Altering an artificial Gagpolnef polyprotein and mode of ENV co-administration affects the immunogenicity of a clade C HIV DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Böckl

    Full Text Available HIV-1 candidate vaccines expressing an artificial polyprotein comprising Gag, Pol and Nef (GPN and a secreted envelope protein (Env were shown in recent Phase I/II clinical trials to induce high levels of polyfunctional T cell responses; however, Env-specific responses clearly exceeded those against Gag. Here, we assess the impact of the GPN immunogen design and variations in the formulation and vaccination regimen of a combined GPN/Env DNA vaccine on the T cell responses against the various HIV proteins. Subtle modifications were introduced into the GPN gene to increase Gag expression, modify the expression ratio of Gag to PolNef and support budding of virus-like particles. I.m. administration of the various DNA constructs into BALB/c mice resulted in an up to 10-fold increase in Gag- and Pol-specific IFNγ(+ CD8(+ T cells compared to GPN. Co-administering Env with Gag or GPN derivatives largely abrogated Gag-specific responses. Alterations in the molar ratio of the DNA vaccines and spatially or temporally separated administration induced more balanced T cell responses. Whereas forced co-expression of Gag and Env from one plasmid induced predominantly Env-specific T cells responses, deletion of the only H-2(d T cell epitope in Env allowed increased levels of Gag-specific T cells, suggesting competition at an epitope level. Our data demonstrate that the biochemical properties of an artificial polyprotein clearly influence the levels of antigen-specific T cells, and variations in formulation and schedule can overcome competition for the induction of these responses. These results are guiding the design of ongoing pre-clinical and clinical trials.

  18. Hereditariedade e suscetibilidade à reabsorção radicular em Ortodontia não se fundamentam: erros metodológicos e interpretativos repetidamente publicados podem gerar falsas verdades. Análise crítica do trabalho de Al-Qawasmi et al.² sobre a predisposição genética à reabsorção radicular de natureza ortodôntica Heredity and susceptibility to radicular resorption in Odontology do not base: methodological and interpretative repeatedly published mistakes can generate false truths. Critical analysis of Al-Qawasmi work about genetics predisposition to radicular reabsorption of orthodontic kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho de Al-Qawasmi et al.², publicado em agosto de 2003 no periódico Journal of Dental Research, procurou estabelecer um gene candidato para a hereditariedade e predisposição genética nas reabsorções dentárias em Ortodontia, mas apresentou e repetiu algumas limitações metodológicas e equívocos na interpretação de seu trabalho anterior de março de 2003¹. Nas conclusões afirmam explicitamente que os achados são preliminares e sugestivos, necessitando de confirmação por meio de estudos adicionais. Os resultados são correlacionados fundamentando-se em dados de outros autores sobre síndromes ósseas associadas a reabsorções por substituição, cervicais externas e não com as reabsorções radiculares externas apicais induzidas ortodonticamente. O gene da reabsorção radicular externa apical relacionada a tratamentos ortodônticos não foi determinado e muito menos a sua natureza hereditária. Nem tampouco, a suscetibilidade à reabsorção radicular em Ortodontia foi detectada ou provada. O trabalho analisado e os demais relacionados com o mesmo tema não conseguiram comprovar suas hipóteses porque ignoram que o primeiro passo para a reabsorção radicular externa é a destruição da camada cementoblástica e isto apenas ocorre a partir da ação de fatores locais. Analisando criticamente estes trabalhos podemos afirmar que procurar o gene da reabsorção radicular e da suscetibilidade a partir de pesquisas em mediadores e células clásticas demonstra a falta de um conhecimento completo e amplo da etiopatogenia deste importante fenômeno biológico, imprescindível para o estabelecimento da premissa dos trabalhos.The study of Al-Qawasmi et al.² published in August 2003 on Journal of Dental Research, aimed to establish a candidate gene for heritability and genetic predisposition to external root resorption in orthodontic patients. This paper, however, presents and repeated some methodological faults and equivocated

  19. Microagregación genética y geográfica de aislados del virus linfotrópico humano tipo I (HTLV-I) en zonas endémicas del suroccidente de Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe García; Mónica Chávez; Martha Cecilia Domínguez; Abraham Blank

    2009-01-01

    Con el objetivo de definir el polimorfismo de patrones de restricción (RFL) para la endonucleasa de restricción DdeI, de la región del HTLV-I de los 5181 a los 6624 nucleótidos, se amplificó un segmento de 1033 bp que incluía la porción terminal 5' del gen Pol y el dominio de superficie del gen Env (gp46) del ADN proviral de PBMC obtenido de 29 personas seropositivas para el HTLV-I provenientes de varias zonas el suroccidente de Colombia. El análisis de restricción efectuado con la endonuclea...

  20. Teleport Generation 3 (Teleport Gen 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    8596 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: September 4, 2014 Program Information Program Name Teleport Generation 3 (Teleport Gen 3) DoD Component DoD The...2015 Approved APB Component Acquisition Executive (CAE) Approved Acquisition Program Baseline (APB) dated June 15, 2015 Teleport Gen 3 2016 MAR...System Network (DISN). The DoD Teleport upgrades selected sites from the Standardized Tactical Entry Point (STEP) program, which only provides reach

  1. Overlapping cis sites used for splicing of HIV-1 env/nef and rev mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, A K; Stoltzfus, C M

    1998-12-18

    Alternative splicing is used to generate more than 30 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) spliced and unspliced mRNAs from a single primary transcript. The abundance of HIV-1 mRNAs is determined by the efficiencies with which its different 5' and 3' splice sites are used. Three splice sites (A4c, A4a, and A4b) are upstream of the rev initiator AUG. RNAs spliced at A4c, A4a, and A4b are used as mRNAs for Rev. Another 3' splice site (A5) is immediately downstream of the rev initiator. RNAs spliced at A5 are used as mRNAs for Env and Nef. In this report, primer extension analysis of splicing intermediates was used to show that there are eight branch points in this region, all of which map to adenosine residues. In addition, cis elements recognized by the cellular splicing machinery overlap; the two most 3' branch points overlap with the AG dinucleotides at rev 3' splice sites A4a and A4b. Competition of the overlapping cis sites for different splicing factors may play a role in maintaining the appropriate balance of mRNAs in HIV-1-infected cells. In support of this possibility, mutations at rev 3' splice site A4b AG dinucleotide dramatically increased splicing of the env/nef 3' splice site A5. This correlated with increased usage of the four most 3' branch points, which include those within the rev 3' splice site AG dinucleotides. Consistent with these results, analysis of a mutant in which three of the four env/nef branch points were inactivated indicated that use of splice site A5 was inhibited and splicing was shifted predominantly to the most 5' rev 3' splice site A4c with preferential use of the two most 5' branch points. Our results suggest that spliceosomes formed at rev A4a-4b, rev A4c, and env/nef A5 3' splice sites each recognize different subsets of the eight branch point sequences.

  2. Guidelines for evaluating performance of oyster habitat restoration should include tidal emersion: reply to Baggett et al.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walles, B.; Fodrie, F.J.; Nieuwhof, S.; Jewell, O.J.W; Herman, P.M.J.; Ysebaert, T.

    2016-01-01

    Baggett et al. (2015) identified a set of three universal environmental variables to be monitored for evaluating all oyster habitat restoration projects: salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Perhaps evidencing a bias toward subtidal reefs, this set of parameters omits another first-order env

  3. El problema del discurso acerca de la individualidad genética humana

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Vásquez, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Se abordó el problema filosófico acerca de la individualidad genética humana, desde un discurso ontológico. Determinándose un problema lógico, epistemológico, semiológico y ontológico, al mismo tiempo que genético. Se presenta el paralelismo entre rasgos de la individualidad señalados por la tradición filosófica clásica y su posible reformulación del discurso desde la genética humana actual. Prueba la pertinencia semiótica de Peirce - biosemiótica en el desarrollo del problema y propone un mo...

  4. Estudi comparatiu de l'estructura del gen "Adh" a vàries espècies de "Drosophila"

    OpenAIRE

    Marfany i Nadal, Gemma

    1991-01-01

    S'ha caracterizat l'estructura de la regió genòmica del gen "Adh" a quatre espècies del gènere "Drosophila", pertanyents al subgrup "obscura": "D. ambigua", "D. subobscura", "D. madeirensis" i "D. guanche" amb els objectius d'analitzar l'organització i l'evolució d'aquesta regió genòmica dins d'aquest gènere i clarificar les relacions filogenètiques d'aquestes espècies. Per assolir aquestes fites, es van construir llibreries genòmiques de cada espècie que es van crivellar amb una sonda que co...

  5. El uso de los tests genéticos por parte de las compañías de seguros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Rodríguez Orgaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la discusión en torno a la pertinencia del uso de tests genéticos por parte de las compañías de seguros. La idea que se defiende es la siguiente: si decidimos regular el recurso a los tests genéticos fuera del ámbito sanitario, que sea para hacer justicia a los derechos de terceras personas y en ningún caso por miedo a posibles discriminaciones. Se trata de llamar la atención sobre los riesgos aparejados al uso irresponsable de los datos genéticos por parte de las compañías de seguros, y se llega a la conclusión de que un uso tal compromete los derechos de terceras personas implicadas. Por último, plantearemos posibles escenarios para el futuro sobre el procesamiento de la información genética

  6. Debroyerella gen. nov. and Ulladulla gen. nov., two new lysianassoid genera (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, J K; Kilgallen, N M

    2015-02-19

    Two new genera and a new species of lysianassoid amphipods are described. Debroyerella gen. nov. is described for three Antarctic species previously assigned to the genus Cheirimedon. Ulladulla gen. nov. is described to accommodate the new species U. selje, from Australian waters. Diagnostic descriptions are given for the genera and all species are described in full.

  7. Position-specific automated processing of V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data for predicting HIV-1 tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne, Nicolas; Saliou, Adrien; Carcenac, Romain; Lefebvre, Caroline; Dubois, Martine; Cazabat, Michelle; Nicot, Florence; Loiseau, Claire; Raymond, Stéphanie; Izopet, Jacques; Delobel, Pierre

    2015-11-20

    HIV-1 coreceptor usage must be accurately determined before starting CCR5 antagonist-based treatment as the presence of undetected minor CXCR4-using variants can cause subsequent virological failure. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of HIV-1 V3 env allows to detect low levels of CXCR4-using variants that current genotypic approaches miss. However, the computation of the mass of sequence data and the need to identify true minor variants while excluding artifactual sequences generated during amplification and ultra-deep pyrosequencing is rate-limiting. Arbitrary fixed cut-offs below which minor variants are discarded are currently used but the errors generated during ultra-deep pyrosequencing are sequence-dependant rather than random. We have developed an automated processing of HIV-1 V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data that uses biological filters to discard artifactual or non-functional V3 sequences followed by statistical filters to determine position-specific sensitivity thresholds, rather than arbitrary fixed cut-offs. It allows to retain authentic sequences with point mutations at V3 positions of interest and discard artifactual ones with accurate sensitivity thresholds.

  8. [Functional analysis of Grp and Iris, the gag and env domesticated errantivirus genes, in the Drosophila melanogaster genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnovskii, P A; Kuzmin, I V; Nefedova, L N; Kima, A I

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is the only invertebrate that contains endogenous retroviruses, which are called errantiviruses. Two domesticated genes, Grp and Iris, which originate from errantivirus gag and env, respectively, have been found in the D. melanogaster genome. The functions performed by the genes in Drosophila are still unclear. To identify the functions of domesticated gag and env in the D. melanogaster genome, expression of Iris and Grp was studied in strains differing by the presence or absence of the functional gypsy errantivirus. In addition, the expression levels were measured after injection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which activate different immune response pathways, and exposure to various abiotic stress factors. The presence of functional D. melanogaster retrovirus gypsy was found to increase the Grp expression level in somatic tissues of the carcass, while exerting no effect on the Iris expression level. Activation of the immune response in D. melanogaster by bacteria Bacillus cereus increased the Grp expression level and did not affect Iris expression. As for the effects of abiotic stress factors (oxidative stress, starvation, and heat and cold stress), the Grp expression level increased in response to starvation in D. melanogaster females, and the Iris expression level was downregulated in heat shock and oxidative stress. Based on the findings, Grp was assumed to play a direct role in the immune response in D. melanogaster; Iris is not involved in immune responses, but and apparently performs a cell function that is inhibited in stress.

  9. N-Terminally Myristoylated Feline Foamy Virus Gag Allows Env-Independent Budding of Sub-Viral Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Boum Kim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Foamy viruses (FVs are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV, particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N‑terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation.

  10. Unleashing Gen Y: Marketing Mars to Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Bart D.; Hidalgo, Loretta; Kloberdanz, Cassie

    2007-01-01

    Space advocates need to engage Generation Y (born 1977-1999).This outreach is necessary to recruit the next generation of scientists and engineers to explore Mars. Space advocates in the non-profit, private, and government sectors need to use a combination of technical communication, marketing, and politics, to develop messages that resonate with Gen Y. Until now, space messages have been generated by and for college-educated white males; Gen Y is much more diverse, including as much as one third minorities. Young women, too, need to be reached. My research has shown that messages emphasizing technology, fun, humor, and opportunity are the best means of reaching the Gen Y audience of 60 million (US population is 300 million). The important things space advocates must avoid are talking down to this generation, making false promises, or expecting them to "wait their turn" before they can participate. This is the MTV generation! We need to find ways of engaging Gen Y now to build a future where human beings can live and work on the planet Mars. In addition to the messages themselves, advocates need to keep up with Gen Y' s social networking and use of iPods, cell phones, and the Internet. NASA and space advocacy groups can use these tools for "viral marketing," where young people share targeted space-related information via cell phones or the Internet because they like it. Overall, Gen Y is a socially dynamic and media-savvy group; advocates' space messages need to be sincere, creative, and placed in locations where Gen Y lives. Mars messages must be memorable!

  11. Low pH is required for avian sarcoma and leukosis virus Env-dependent viral penetration into the cytosol and not for viral uncoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Richard J O; Narayan, Shakti; Dornadula, Geethanjali; Miller, Michael D; Young, John A T

    2004-10-01

    A novel entry mechanism has been proposed for the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV), whereby interaction with specific cell surface receptors activates or primes the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), rendering it sensitive to subsequent low-pH-dependent fusion triggering in acidic intracellular organelles. However, ASLV fusion seems to proceed to a lipid mixing stage at neutral pH, leading to the suggestion that low pH might instead be required for a later stage of viral entry such as uncoating (L. J. Earp, S. E. Delos, R. C. Netter, P. Bates, and J. M. White. J. Virol. 77:3058-3066, 2003). To address this possibility, hybrid virus particles were generated with the core of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a known pH-independent virus, and with subgroups A or B ASLV Env proteins. Infection of cells by these pseudotyped virions was blocked by lysosomotropic agents, as judged by inhibition of HIV-1 DNA synthesis. Furthermore, by using HIV-1 cores that contain a Vpr-beta-lactamase fusion protein (Vpr-BlaM) to monitor viral penetration into the cytosol, we demonstrated that virions bearing ASLV Env, but not HIV-1 Env, enter the cytosol in a low-pH-dependent manner. This effect was independent of the presence of the cytoplasmic tail of ASLV Env. These studies provide strong support for the model, indicating that low pH is required for ASLV Env-dependent viral penetration into the cytosol and not for viral uncoating.

  12. Three new anascosporic genera of the Saccharomycotina: Danielozyma gen. nov., Deakozyma gen. nov. and Middelhovenomyces gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2014-05-01

    Three new non-ascosporic, ascomycetous yeast genera are proposed based on their isolation from currently described species and genera. Phylogenetic placement of the genera was determined from analysis of nuclear gene sequences for D1/D2 large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α and RNA polymerase II, subunits B1 and B2. The new taxa are: Deakozyma gen. nov., type species Deakozyma indianensis sp. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-1937, CBS 12903); Danielozyma gen. nov., type species Danielozyma ontarioensis comb. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-1246, CBS 8502); D. litseae comb. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-3246, CBS 8799); Middelhovenomyces gen. nov., type species Middelhovenomyces tepae comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-17670, CBS 5115) and M. petrohuensis comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-17663, CBS 8173).

  13. ISOLASI DAN ANALISIS GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN LELE (Clarias gariepinus Burch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Dwi Buwono

    2012-12-01

    CAGGGTGCAGTTGGAATCC-3’ dapat mengkopi sekuen gen GH lele dengan ukuran fragmen PCR sekitar 1.400 bp. Sementara amplikon gen GH American catfish (Rhamdia quelen menggunakan primer Amc-GH-F dan Amc-GH-R sebesar 1.465 bp. Hasil analisis sekuensing gen penyandi GH menggunakan program BlastP dan Genetyx versi 7.0, menunjukkan bahwa sekuen gen penyandi GH lele dumbo memiliki homologi 80% dengan sekuen GH C. gariepinus pada bank gen (no. aksesi AF 416488.1, sehingga sebagian besar sekuen gen penyandi hormon pertumbuhan ikan tersebut dapat diamplifikasi secara in vitro.

  14. ATLAS Versus NextGen Model Atmospheres: A Combined Analysis of Synthetic Spectral Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Chávez, M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.

    2004-08-01

    We carried out a critical appraisal of the two theoretical models, Kurucz' ATLAS9 and PHOENIX/NextGen, for stellar atmosphere synthesis. Our tests relied on the theoretical fit of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of 334 target stars along the whole spectral-type sequence, from the classical optical catalogs of Gunn & Stryker and Jacoby et al. The best-fitting physical parameters (Teff, logg) of stars allowed an independent calibration of the temperature and bolometric scale versus empirical classification parameters (i.e., spectral type and MK luminosity class); in addition, the comparison of the synthetic templates from the ATLAS and NextGen grids allowed us to probe the capability of the models to match spectrophotometric properties of real stars and assess the impact of the different input physics. We can sketch the following main conclusions of our analysis: (1) Fitting accuracy of both theoretical libraries drastically degrades at low Teff at which both ATLAS and NextGen models still fail to properly account for the contribution of molecular features in the observed SED of K-M stars. (2) Compared with empirical calibrations, both ATLAS and NextGen fits tend, on average, to predict slightly warmer (by 4%-8%) Teff for both giant and dwarf stars of fixed spectral type, but ATLAS provides, in general, a sensibly better fit (a factor of 2 lower σ of flux residuals) than NextGen. (3) There is a striking tendency of NextGen to label target stars with an effective temperature and surface gravity higher than that of ATLAS. The effect is especially evident for MK I-III objects for which about one in four stars is clearly misclassified by NextGen in logg. This is a consequence of some ``degeneracy'' in the solution space, partly induced by the different input physics and geometry constraints in the computation of the integrated emerging flux (ATLAS model atmospheres assume standard plane-parallel layers, while NextGen adopts, for low-gravity stars, a

  15. Zum gotischen gen. pl. auf-ë

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grošelj

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available Bekanntlich ist die got. Endung -ē eine Besonderheit, der in den übrigen germ. Sprachen nichts Vergleichbares gegenübersteht. Man nimmt wohl -allgemein an, dass es sich um eine innergot. Neuschöpfung handelt; auch ist eine idg. Endung des Gen. Pl. -ēm; linbelegt. Folgender Erklärungsversuch geht von der Annahme aus, dass die Triebkraft für dfese Neuschöpfupg in der Neigung zur Differenzierung des Maskulinums vom Femininum auf -ō (gibō : dagē zu suchen ist. Diese Neigung ist besonders im Nom. und Gen. bemerkbar.

  16. Genética y derechos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Ojero y Martínez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    [ES]La tesis se propone realizar un análisis de los temás más novedosos en ciencia genética y del estado de la cuestión relativa a los Derechos Humanos y la Genética partiendo de los textos más relevantes, tanto a nivel jurídico como meramente institucional que, como en el caso de Naciones Unidas, tanta importancia tienen en la influencia que de facto suele lograr sobre el Derecho Internacional, el Derecho de la Unión Europea y, por reflejo, indirectamente, en los Ordenamientos Jurídicos Inte...

  17. Colon Cancer on The Rise Among Gen Xers, Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon Cancer on the Rise Among Gen Xers, Millennials And an old adversary -- the obesity epidemic -- may ... their early 50s and younger -- Gen Xers and millennials -- are experiencing significant increases in colon and rectal ...

  18. VARIABILIDAD DEL GEN NUCLEAR G3PDH EN JATROPHA CURCAS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castro Guzmán

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jatrophacurcas L.es una especie nativa de América tropical; en nuestro país se ha venido utilizando principalmente como medicinal y alimenticia desde la época prehispánica. Actualmente el aceite extraído de sus semillas ha adquirido importancia internacional ya que puede ser transformado a biodiesel. El conocimiento que existe sobre la variabilidad genética de la especie es escaso. Un gen utilizado con éxito para el estudio de patrones de variación y origen de la yuca (ManihotesculentaL. y del caco (Theobromacacao L. es el gen nuclearG3pdh(Gliceraldehído3 fosfato deshidrogenasa involucrado en la fotosíntesis. Con base en ello, en este trabajo se exploró la variabilidad del gen G3pdh en individuos deJ. curcasprovenientes de 15 poblaciones de los estados de Veracruz, Campeche, Yucatán y Quintana Roo. Para obtener el gen G3pdh completo de alrededor de 1000 pares de bases, se amplificó utilizando losprimersdiseñados porStrandet al. (1997 y los dosprimersinternos reverse diseñados porOlsenySchaal(1999 para obtener segmentos más cortos, de 600 y 800 pares de bases aproximadamente. Por primera vez se amplificaron aproximadamente 500pby los resultados demuestran que el gen G3pdh es útil para analizar la variabilidad deJ. curcas, y con un importante potencial para evaluar la distribución y evolución de sus poblaciones en México, conocer las relaciones ancestro descendiente a nivel poblacional y explicar las causas de la distribución de los distintoshaplotipos.

  19. Impact of the HIV-1 env genetic context outside HR1-HR2 on resistance to the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide and viral infectivity in clinical isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatz, F.; Nijhuis, M.; Lemaire, M.; Riedijk, M.; Wensing, A.M.; Servais, J.Y.; Ham, P.M. van; Hoepelman, A.I.; Koopmans, P.P.; Sprenger, H.G.; Devaux, C.; Schmit, J.C.; Perez Bercoff, D.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance mutations to the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide emerge mainly within the drug's target region, HR1, and compensatory mutations have been described within HR2. The surrounding envelope (env) genetic context might also contribute to resistance, although to what extent and through which

  20. Impact of the HIV-1 env Genetic Context outside HR1-HR2 on Resistance to the Fusion Inhibitor Enfuvirtide and Viral Infectivity in Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatz, Franky; Nijhuis, Monique; Lemaire, Morgane; Riedijk, Martiene; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Servais, Jean-Yves; van Ham, Petra M.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Koopmans, Peter P.; Sprenger, Herman G.; Devaux, Carole; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Bercoff, Danielle Perez

    2011-01-01

    Resistance mutations to the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide emerge mainly within the drug's target region, HR1, and compensatory mutations have been described within HR2. The surrounding envelope (env) genetic context might also contribute to resistance, although to what extent and through which

  1. Increased t cell breadth and antibody response elicited in prime-boost regimen by viral vector encoded homologous siv gag/env in outbred cd1 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne Marie Carola; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background: A major obstacle for the development of HIV vaccines is the virus' worldwide sequence diversity. Nevertheless, the presence of T cell epitopes within conserved regions of the virus' structural Gag protein and conserved structures in the envelope (env) sequence raises the possibility...

  2. Yersinia pestis requires the 2-component regulatory system OmpR-EnvZ to resist innate immunity during the early and late stages of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Angéline; Lemaître, Nadine; Titecat, Marie; Merchez, Maud; Deloison, Gaspard; Ricard, Isabelle; Pradel, Elizabeth; Marceau, Michaël; Sebbane, Florent

    2014-11-01

    Plague is transmitted by fleas or contaminated aerosols. To successfully produce disease, the causal agent (Yersinia pestis) must rapidly sense and respond to rapid variations in its environment. Here, we investigated the role of 2-component regulatory systems (2CSs) in plague because the latter are known to be key players in bacterial adaptation to environmental change. Along with the previously studied PhoP-PhoQ system, OmpR-EnvZ was the only one of Y. pestis' 23 other 2CSs required for production of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. In vitro, OmpR-EnvZ was needed to counter serum complement and leukocytes but was not required for the secretion of antiphagocyte exotoxins. In vivo, Y. pestis lacking OmpR-EnvZ did not induce an early immune response in the skin and was fully virulent in neutropenic mice. We conclude that, throughout the course of Y. pestis infection, OmpR-EnvZ is required to counter toxic effectors secreted by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the tissues.

  3. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en naranja y comparación del polimorfismo de microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAMs) usando electroforesis de poliacrilamida y azarosa Characterization of the genetic diversity in orange, and comparison of polymorphism in randomly-amplifed microsatellites (RAMs), using polyacrylamide and agarose electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Yamilet Chagüeza Villarreal; álvaro Caicedo Arana; Juan Jaramillo Vásquez; Oscar Julián Muñoz Rivera; Alba Lucía Arcos; Herney Darío Vásquez Amariles; Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flores

    2009-01-01

    Se compararon las eficiencias de tres métodos de electroforesis en agarosa y poliacrilamida, usando la cámara pequeña de DNA Sequencing System y cámara grande OWL Sequi-Gen Sequencing Cell, en la detección del polimorfismo en 21 accesiones de naranja (Citrus sinensis) con empleo del cebador CGA. El gel de poliacrilamida dio mejor resolución de los productos amplificados vía PCR producidos por RAMs. Este permitió una mejor detección de bandas de ADN polimórficas, lo que facilitó la identificac...

  4. Comparación de la frecuencia alélica de 13 loci STRs de la población brasileña y española para fines de identificación humana en genética forense

    OpenAIRE

    Rigotti, Juliana Filho

    2013-01-01

    Los marcadores microsatélites son elementos extraordinariamente útiles en la identificación humana y en el mapeo genético. Además, se distribuyen ampliamente por todo el genoma y son valiosos en los casos donde existe la necesidad de analizar huesos, cabellos, manchas de sangre y otros materiales en los cuales podemos encontrar el ADN degradado o en pequeñas cantidades. La prueba del ADN constituye, actualmente, una pericia de enorme transcedencia en muchos casos judiciales, lo que ha supuest...

  5. A Comparative Phase I Study of Combination, Homologous Subtype-C DNA, MVA, and Env gp140 Protein/Adjuvant HIV Vaccines in Two Immunization Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sarah; Quinn, Killian; Greenwood, Aldona; Cope, Alethea V.; McKay, Paul F.; Hayes, Peter J.; Kopycinski, Jakub T.; Gilmour, Jill; Miller, Aleisha N.; Geldmacher, Christof; Nadai, Yuka; Ahmed, Mohamed I. M.; Montefiori, David C.; Dally, Len; Bouliotis, George; Lewis, David J. M.; Tatoud, Roger; Wagner, Ralf; Esteban, Mariano; Shattock, Robin J.; McCormack, Sheena; Weber, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There remains an urgent need for a prophylactic HIV vaccine. We compared combined MVA and adjuvanted gp140 to sequential MVA/gp140 after DNA priming. We expected Env-specific CD4+ T-cells after DNA and MVA priming, and Env-binding antibodies in 100% individuals after boosting with gp140 and that combined vaccines would not compromise safety and might augment immunogenicity. Forty volunteers were primed three times with DNA plasmids encoding (CN54) env and (ZM96) gag-pol-nef at 0, 4 and 8 weeks then boosted with MVA-C (CN54 env and gag-pol-nef) and glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant—aqueous formulation (GLA-AF) adjuvanted CN54gp140. They were randomised to receive them in combination at the same visit at 16 and 20 weeks (accelerated) or sequentially with MVA-C at 16, 20, and GLA-AF/gp140 at 24 and 28 weeks (standard). All vaccinations were intramuscular. Primary outcomes included ≥grade 3 safety events and the titer of CN54gp140-specific binding IgG. Other outcomes included neutralization, binding antibody specificity and T-cell responses. Two participants experienced asymptomatic ≥grade 3 transaminitis leading to discontinuation of vaccinations, and three had grade 3 solicited local or systemic reactions. A total of 100% made anti-CN54gp140 IgG and combining vaccines did not significantly alter the response; geometric mean titer 6424 (accelerated) and 6578 (standard); neutralization of MW965.2 Tier 1 pseudovirus was superior in the standard group (82 versus 45% responders, p = 0.04). T-cell ELISpot responses were CD4+ and Env-dominant; 85 and 82% responding in the accelerated and standard groups, respectively. Vaccine-induced IgG responses targeted multiple regions within gp120 with the V3 region most immunodominant and no differences between groups detected. Combining MVA and gp140 vaccines did not result in increased adverse events and did not significantly impact upon the titer of Env-specific binding antibodies, which were seen in 100% individuals

  6. Preserving Accuracy in GenBank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidartondo, M.I.; Bruns, T. D.; Blackwell, M.

    2008-01-01

    GenBank, the public repository for nucleotide and protein sequences, is a critical resource for molecular biology, evolutionary biology, and ecology. While some attention has been drawn to sequence errors (1), common annotation errors also reduce the value of this database. In fact, for organisms...

  7. 25 Years of GenBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to science over the last 25 years, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Library of Medicine (NLM), and NIH held ... GenBank has been a critical research tool," says NCBI Director David Lipman, "enabling much of the progress ...

  8. 77 FR 2342 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA, Next Gen Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA, Next Gen Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA, NextGen... RTCA, NextGen Advisory Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held February 3, 2012, from 9:30...

  9. Kontrolle der Expression des UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) Gens in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Hobe, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befaßt sich mit der Kontrolle des Expressionsmusters des UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) Gens von Arabidopsis thaliana. UFO wird im Sproß- und Blütenmeristemen aller Entwicklungsstadien der Pflanze exprimiert. In Blütenmeristemen agiert UFO als Kofaktor von LEAFY (LFY) bei der Aktivierung der Organidentitätsgene des zweiten und dritten Wirtels. UFO stellt also einen generellen Faktor der Musterbildung in Meristemen dar. Um regulatorische Gene, die die Expression von UFO bee...

  10. Regulation of Gag- and Env-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses in ART-Naive HIV-Infected Patients: Potential Implications for Individualized Immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Prebensen

    Full Text Available Strategies to develop a functional cure for HIV infection will likely require boosting of effector T cell responses to eliminate reactivated, latently infected cells. We have recently explored an assay for assessing antigen-specific regulation of T cell proliferation, which was related to clinical progression in untreated patients and to vaccine efficacy in two trials of therapeutic Gag-based vaccines. We here expand the same assay to further investigate regulation mediated by various inhibitory pathways. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 26 asymptomatic HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients were stimulated with Gag and Env overlapping peptide panels for 5 days. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs blocking inhibitory mediators interleukin (IL 10, transforming growth factor (TGF β, programmed death ligand (PD-L 1 and herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM were added to parallel cultures. Functional T cell regulation (FTR was defined as the difference in proliferation between stimulated cultures with and without blocking mAbs. FTR was detected in 54% of patients. Blockade of IL-10/PD-L1 and IL10/TGF-β detected all cases with Gag- and Env-associated FTR, respectively. In accordance with previous findings, isolated Env FTR was associated with higher plasma HIV RNA and lower CD4 counts, while patients with both Gag and Env FTR also had higher Gag- and Env-specific proliferative CD8+ T cell responses. There was no association between FTR and frequencies of activated regulatory T cells. In conclusion, we observed substantial heterogeneity in FTR between patients, inhibitory pathways and HIV antigens. FTR may help to individualize immunomodulation and warrants further assessment in clinical immunotherapy trials.

  11. Regulation of Gag- and Env-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses in ART-Naïve HIV-Infected Patients: Potential Implications for Individualized Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebensen, Christian; Lind, Andreas; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne-Ma; Kvale, Dag

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to develop a functional cure for HIV infection will likely require boosting of effector T cell responses to eliminate reactivated, latently infected cells. We have recently explored an assay for assessing antigen-specific regulation of T cell proliferation, which was related to clinical progression in untreated patients and to vaccine efficacy in two trials of therapeutic Gag-based vaccines. We here expand the same assay to further investigate regulation mediated by various inhibitory pathways. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 26 asymptomatic HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients were stimulated with Gag and Env overlapping peptide panels for 5 days. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) blocking inhibitory mediators interleukin (IL) 10, transforming growth factor (TGF) β, programmed death ligand (PD-L) 1 and herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) were added to parallel cultures. Functional T cell regulation (FTR) was defined as the difference in proliferation between stimulated cultures with and without blocking mAbs. FTR was detected in 54% of patients. Blockade of IL-10/PD-L1 and IL10/TGF-β detected all cases with Gag- and Env-associated FTR, respectively. In accordance with previous findings, isolated Env FTR was associated with higher plasma HIV RNA and lower CD4 counts, while patients with both Gag and Env FTR also had higher Gag- and Env-specific proliferative CD8+ T cell responses. There was no association between FTR and frequencies of activated regulatory T cells. In conclusion, we observed substantial heterogeneity in FTR between patients, inhibitory pathways and HIV antigens. FTR may help to individualize immunomodulation and warrants further assessment in clinical immunotherapy trials.

  12. HIV-1 receptor binding site-directed antibodies using a VH1-2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon Navis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs isolated from chronically HIV-1 infected individuals reveal important information regarding how antibodies target conserved determinants of the envelope glycoprotein (Env spike such as the primary receptor CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Many CD4bs-directed bNAbs use the same heavy (H chain variable (V gene segment, VH1-2*02, suggesting that activation of B cells expressing this allele is linked to the generation of this type of Ab. Here, we identify the rhesus macaque VH1.23 gene segment to be the closest macaque orthologue to the human VH1-2 gene segment, with 92% homology to VH1-2*02. Of the three amino acids in the VH1-2*02 gene segment that define a motif for VRC01-like antibodies (W50, N58, flanking the HCDR2 region, and R71, the two identified macaque VH1.23 alleles described here encode two. We demonstrate that immunization with soluble Env trimers induced CD4bs-specific VH1.23-using Abs with restricted neutralization breadth. Through alanine scanning and structural studies of one such monoclonal Ab (MAb, GE356, we demonstrate that all three HCDRs are involved in neutralization. This contrasts to the highly potent CD4bs-directed VRC01 class of bNAb, which bind Env predominantly through the HCDR2. Also unlike VRC01, GE356 was minimally modified by somatic hypermutation, its light (L chain CDRs were of average lengths and it displayed a binding footprint proximal to the trimer axis. These results illustrate that the Env trimer immunogen used here activates B cells encoding a VH1-2 gene segment orthologue, but that the resulting Abs interact distinctly differently with the HIV-1 Env spike compared to VRC01.

  13. Análisis genético de poblaciones de lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) mediante electroforesis de isoenzimas

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    1991-01-01

    X, 320 páginas, figuras, tablas. Memoria presentada para optar al grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas. Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Celular y Genética.

  14. Capítulo II: consideraciones generales sobre el mejoramiento genético de tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-01-01

    Objetivos del programa de mejoramiento genético del tomate: Los objetivos del programa de mejoramiento dependen de los problemas que se presentan en el cultivo en las diferentes zonas de Colombia, del uso que se le va a dar al fruto (mesa o industria) y especialmente de las condiciones y recursos del agricultor, procesador y consumidor.

  15. Fusion Expression of Main Function Domain of env Gene of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J and EGFP Gene in Sf9 Cells%J亚群禽白血病病毒env基因主要功能区和EGFP基因在Sf9细胞中的融合表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李拓凡; 多婷; 梁雄燕; 顾玉芳; 杨玉莹

    2015-01-01

    为获得具备良好抗原性和生物活性的J亚群禽白血病病毒(AL V-J)env基因主要功能区的表达产物,采用特异性引物分别从保存的pMD 18T-envHB2010质粒、PIRES2-EGFP中扩增ALV-J env基因主要功能区和增强型绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)基因,酶切、连接后插入pFastBac Daul载体,构建杆状病毒转移载体pFastBac Daul-env-EGFP,将其转化DH 10Bac感受态细胞制备重组杆粒Bacmid-env-EGFP,转染Sf9细胞进行真核表达.结果显示,转染了重组杆粒的Sf9细胞在倒置荧光显微镜下呈现亮绿荧光;以ALV-J单克隆抗体JE9进行Western blot检测,转染重组杆粒的Sf9细胞检测出约85 ku的条带.结果表明,目的基因在Sf9细胞中得到了良好的表达,为进一步研究ALV-J提供基础试验材料.

  16. Diversidad genética en poblaciones humanas de dos regiones colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rondón

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Estudios preliminares han mostrado la existencia de relaciones genéticas entre las poblaciones humanas del sur-occidente y las de la región andina colombiana, teniendo esto implicaciones en el grado de miscegenación de estas comunidades. No obstante el reconocimiento de este amplio proceso de mestizaje, no se tiene suficiente información que permita establecer la estructura y el grado de diversidad genética para cada región en particular y de la población colombiana en general. Objetivo: Determinar la estructura y diversidad genética presente en grupos poblacionales del centro y sur-occidente colombiano.Metodología: Se analizaron las frecuencias alélicas de 12 sistemas de microsatélites autosómicos y el tipo y frecuencia de RFLP’s de mtDNA presentes en 472 individuos de tres grupos étnicos: mestizos, indígenas y afroamericanos.Resultados: La caracterización de haplotipos de mtDNA en individuos afrodescendientes presentó 15% de marcadores típicos amerindios y 43% de africanos. El análisis de la diversidad genética mostró un índice de 0.72 en individuos Pijaos, valor cercano al índice de diversidad de la población mestiza de Cali (0.75. El análisis molecular de varianza (AMOVA a partir de los 12 STR’s, mostró que la estructuración genética no es significativa (FST de 0.032; adicionalmente se evidenció alta endogamia en la muestra mestiza de Caldas (0.43 y en la muestra indígena Coyaima (0.34.Conclusiones: Con los marcadores moleculares estudiados se estableció la estructura genética de poblaciones del sur-occidente colombiano confirmándose adicionalmente el grado de miscegenación y el flujo genético ocurrido entre diferentes grupos étnicos del centro y sur-occidente colombiano.

  17. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El t

  18. Riesgos sobre la salud de los alimentos modificados genéticamente: una revision bibliografica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Domingo Roig

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de 1999, se ha venido intensificando el debate sobre la seguridad de los alimentos modificados genéticamente, una importante y compleja área de investigación científica, la cual demanda unos estándares rigurosos. Diversos grupos, incluyendo asociaciones de consumidores y Organizaciones no Gubernamentales (ONGs han sugerido que todos los alimentos modificados genéticamente deberían ser sometidos a estudios a largo plazo con animales antes de su aprobación para el consumo humano. El principal objetivo de la presente revisión ha sido conocer cual es el estado actual de la cuestión en lo referente a los potenciales efectos adversos sobre la salud de los alimentos modificados genéticamente. Dos bases de datos, Medline y Toxline, así como una serie de direcciones de internet, han sido empleadas para la obtención de bibliografía. Aunque son numerosos los comentarios, noticias generales y cartas al Editor aparecidos en prestigiosas revistas, los artículos referentes a estudios experimentales sobre la seguridad de los alimentos modificados genéticamente son, sorprendentemente, muy escasos. Si se han obtenido resultados procedentes de la evaluación toxicológica de estos alimentos, no han sido publicados en revistas científicas y, por lo tanto, no han podido ser debidamente juzgados o contrastados.

  19. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  20. Anomalías y displasias dentarias de origen genético-hereditario Inherited dental abnormalities and dysplasias

    OpenAIRE

    J. Martín-González; B. Sánchez-Domínguez; M.L. Tarilonte-Delgado; L. Castellanos-Cosano; J.M. Llamas-Carreras; F.J. López-Frías; J.J. Segura-Egea

    2012-01-01

    Las alteraciones del desarrollo embriológico de la dentición provocan anomalías y displasias dentarias. Los factores etiopatogénicos implicados en las alteraciones del desarrollo dentario son básicamente dos: genéticos y ambientales. Según la fase del desarrollo en que afecten al órgano del esmalte y a los tejidos dentarios, aparecerán diferentes anomalías y/o displasias dentales. El control genético del desarrollo dentario se lleva a cabo mediante dos procesos: a) control de la histogénesis ...

  1. Evolución genómica por diseño molecular de levaduras industriales

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se propone una alternativa a la coyuntura actual de rechazo social frente al uso de OMGs en la industria agroalimentaria, mediante la demostración y el desarrollo de un nuevo concepto sobre el uso de las técnicas de biología molecular en la obtención de levaduras modificadas genéticamente, el concepto de Evolución Genómica mediante Diseño Molecular. La idea básica de este nuevo concepto es simple y se basa en imitar a la propia naturaleza en su const...

  2. Genètica de la variabilitat isoenzimàtica en l'avellaner: identificació varietal

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    L'estudi del polimorfisme dels isoenzims en 9 progenies d'avellaner (Corylusavellana L.), utilitzant extractes de fulla i de pol·len, ha permès establir la genèticade sis sistemes enzimàtics en aquesta espècie: aconitasa (AGO), 6-fosfogluconatdeshidrogenasa (6PGD), fosfoglucoisomerasa (PGI), fosfoglucomutasa (PGM),glutamat oxalacetat transaminasa (GOT) i malat deshidrogenasa (MDH).La variació observada s'ha pogut explicar per l'existència de 10 gens d'herènciaMendeliana: Aco-1 (4 al·lels), Ac...

  3. Los algoritmos genéticos y el método de generación y prueba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto Ojeda Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende mostrar dos paradigmas de solución de problemas en inteligencia artificial. Los algoritmos genéticos han tomado una posición destacada en los últimos tiempos y el método de generación y prueba, cuyo perfil se aproxima al fundamento de los algoritmos genéticos constituye la forma de diseño de DENDRAL, un producto ampliamente reconocido en IA. Se desea mostrar que ambos paradigmas se ubican naturalmente dentro de las expectativas de la inteligencia artificial.

  4. Safety Assurance in NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    HarrisonFleming, Cody; Spencer, Melissa; Leveson, Nancy; Wilkinson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The generation of minimum operational, safety, performance, and interoperability requirements is an important aspect of safely integrating new NextGen components into the Communication Navigation Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) system. These requirements are used as part of the implementation and approval processes. In addition, they provide guidance to determine the levels of design assurance and performance that are needed for each element of the new NextGen procedures, including aircraft, operator, and Air Navigation and Service Provider. Using the enhanced Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness for InTrail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) as an example, this report describes some limitations of the current process used for generating safety requirements and levels of required design assurance. An alternative process is described, as well as the argument for why the alternative can generate more comprehensive requirements and greater safety assurance than the current approach.

  5. Anàlisi de la mobilitat de l'estudiant universitari en el marc de l'Europa 2020 per al foment de l'ocupació i les competències genèriques. Un estudi de casos en la Universitat d'Oviedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona Cadavieco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquesta investigació analitza la percepció de l'estudiant universitari sobre els beneficis de la mobilitat estudiantil en l'Espai Europeu d'Educació Superior. Especialment atenem a l'anàlisi de competències genèriques que puguin atorgar més possibilitats en la recerca d'ocupació. Per això, abordem un estudi de casos a la Universitat d'Oviedo des d'una metodologia quantitativa prenent com a referència els objectius marcats en la iniciativa Europa 2020. Les conclusions donen resultats molt positius en competències interdisciplinars per a la recerca de feina, com ara el domini idiomàtic, el coneixement de noves societats i dels entorns professionals. 

  6. Asociación del gen bola-drb3.2 con el virus de la leucosis bovina (vlb) en ganado criollo hartón del valle

    OpenAIRE

    Posso Terranova, Andrés Mauricio; Muñoz florez, Jaime Eduardo; Giovambattista, guillermo; Alvarez Franco, Luz Angela

    2014-01-01

    En cien muestras de ganado criollo hartón del Valle (HV) del Banco de ADN del Laboratorio de genética animal de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira se determinó la presencia del VLB siguiendo la metodología PCR anidado descrita por Beier et al. (2001) y se genotipificaron los animales para el gen DRB3.2* utilizando la metodología de PCR-SBT (Sequence Based Typings) descrita por Takeshima et al. (2009). Se encontró el porcentaje de presencia del virus. Para el gen BoLA-DRB3.2* se ...

  7. Standby for the Gen-Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-08-01

    Diesel Gen-Sets are hardly romantic instruments, yet they do save lives. Humming away in the corner for back-up power or emergency generation, this compact form of power supply, keeps hospital lights on, computers going and often proves a vital, if unnoticed addition to festivals and outdoor events. And as many master engine builders have discovered, this is a rapidly growing market. (author)

  8. Genética do autismo

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalheira,Gianna; VERGANI, Naja; Brunoni,Décio

    2004-01-01

    O autismo é uma doença neuropsiquiátrica com profundas conseqüências sociofamilares. Inúmeros trabalhos investigaram pacientes e famílias com metodologia genético-clínica, citogenética e biologia molecular. Os resultados destes trabalhos apontam para um modelo multiloci com interação epistática associado à etiologia do autismo.

  9. Genética de comunidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Verdú

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre los procesos responsables del ensamblaje de las especies en comunidades ecológicas tradicionalmente han considerado a las especies como unidades de estudio. Sin embargo, dentro de las especies existe gran cantidad de variación genotípica y fenotípica que puede finalmente ser decisiva en el resultado de las interacciones con el resto de especies en la comunidad (competencia, mutualismo, etc. Recientemente se ha propuesto una nueva regla de ensamblaje de las comunidades que sugiere que la composición genética de una población afecta a la estructura y composición de la comunidad (es decir alfenotipo de la comunidad. Apoyando esta regla, varios estudios han demostrado que los cambios en la diversidad genética de poblaciones de plantas conllevan cambios predecibles en sus comunidades asociadas de herbívoros y predadores. Más allá de la visión poblacional, la nueva genética de comunidades pretende demostrar 1 que el genotipo particular de ciertos individuos es responsable del fenotipo de la comunidad, 2 que el fenotipo de la comunidad es heredable, y por lo tanto 3 que las comunidades evolucionan. Tras explicar estos tres conceptos, se discute el valor que esta aproximación puede tener desde el punto de vista de la biología de la conservación.

  10. Generic classification of the Archiborborinae (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), with a revision of Antrops Enderlein, Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kits, Joel H; Marshall, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    The Archiborborinae comprise a diverse clade of flies in the family Sphaeroceridae. We here revise the generic classification, redefining the genus Antrops Enderlein and naming 5 new genera: Boreantrops gen. nov., Coloantrops gen. nov., Maculantrops gen. nov., Photoantrops gen. nov., and Poecilantrops gen. nov. The genus Archiborborus, until recently a paraphyletic assemblage including most of the described species in the subfamily, is treated as a junior synonym of Antrops (syn. nov.) We revise the genera Antrops (53 species, including 40 sp. nov.: Antrops anovariegatus, Antrops aurantifemur, Antrops baeza, Antrops bellavista, Antrops biflavus, Antrops bucki, Antrops carpishensis, Antrops cochabamba, Antrops cochinoca, Antrops coniobaptos, Antrops coroico, Antrops cotopaxi, Antrops didactylos, Antrops diversipennis, Antrops eurus, Antrops fulgiceps, Antrops fuliginosus, Antrops guandera, Antrops guaramacalensis, Antrops inca, Antrops juninensis, Antrops mucarensis, Antrops niger, Antrops papallacta, Antrops pecki, Antrops podocarpus, Antrops quadrilobus, Antrops siberia, Antrops sierrazulensis, Antrops tachira, Antrops tequendama, Antrops tetrastichus, Antrops tumbrensis, Antrops unduavi, Antrops variegatus, Antrops versabilis, Antrops vittatus, Antrops yungas, and Antrops zongo and the following comb. nov.: Antrops annulatus (Richards), Antrops chaetosus (Richards), Antrops femoralis (Blanchard), Antrops hirtus (Bigot), Antrops maculipennis (Duda), Antrops maximus (Richards), Antrops microphthalmus (Richards), Antrops quadrinotus (Bigot), Antrops setosus (Duda), Antrops simplicimanus (Richards), Antrops nitidicollis (Becker), and Antrops orbitalis (Duda)), Coloantrops (1 species: Coloantrops daedalus, sp. nov.), Maculantrops (2 species, Maculantrops hirtipes (Macquart) comb. nov. and Maculantrops altiplanus, sp. nov.), Photoantrops (1 species: Pho-toantrops echinus sp. nov.), and Poecilantrops (10 species: Poecilantrops baorucensis, Poecilantrops boraceiensis

  11. Avances genéticos y moleculares en el estudio de trastornos mentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Natalia Salamanca-Ortíz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, con el aumento de la disponibilidad de técnicas para la realización de estudios genéticos, han aparecido nuevas áreas del conocimiento como la epigenética y la farmacogenética. Estas nuevas áreas han permitido esclarecer las bases genéticas implicadas en la aparición de las enfermedades que afectan al ser humano. Dada su aplicación global, la psiquiatría no ha sido ajena al alcance de estas nuevas disciplinas, lo cual se refleja en el gran número de estudios realizados a nivel mundial que han relacionado la presencia de variantes genéticas en los individuos con la aparición de trastornos mentales específicos. De la misma forma, otros estudios han evidenciado que la efectividad de los tratamientos farmacológicos empleados en psiquiatría se correlaciona con polimorfismos en las enzimas encargadas de metabolizar dichos medicamentos. Por lo tanto, es importante que los psiquiatras conozcan los aspectos básicos de estas relaciones para obtener mejores resultados en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales trastornos mentales.

  12. Diagnostico genético prenatal y aborto. Dos cuestiones de eugenesia y discriminación

    OpenAIRE

    FABIOLA VILLELA CORTÉS; Jorge E. Linares Salgado

    2012-01-01

    Los avances en genética seguidos de las nuevas tecnologías en la detección temprana de afecciones genéticas conllevan dilemas bioéticos sobre el uso adecuado de estas técnicas, la información que se le da a la mujer embarazada y la decisión que ella tomará al recibirla. Detectar a tiempo anomalías genéticas permite, en algunas ocasiones, el inicio de un tratamiento adecuado que permita que el niño por nacer no desarrolle una enfermedad discapacitante, como el caso de la fenilcetonuria, o una ...

  13. Estructura genética poblacional del gen lactoferrina bovino en vacas Holstein del departamento de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Rodríguez C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar algunos parámetros de estructura poblacional en una población Holstein del departamento de Antioquia. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó con 427 vacas de la raza Holstein pertenecientes a 5 municipios del departamento de Antioquia. La genotipificación se llevó a cabo usando la técnica de PCR-PFLPs. La Heterocigocidad observada (Ho y Heterocigocidad esperada (He, la prueba de Hardy-Weinberg (HW y la estructura y diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones se calculó mediante los parámetros F de Wright, evaluados mediante el software GENEPOP. Las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas se evaluaron con el método descrito por Hartl. Resultados. Las frecuencias genotípicas encontradas fueron 0.61, 0.34 y 0.05 para los genotipos AA, AB y BB respectivamente y las frecuencias de los alelos fueron 0.78 y 0.22 para A y B, encontrándose la población en equilibrio de HW. La heterocigocidad fue media entre poblaciones (Ho=0.368. Los valores FIS, FST y FIT de la población total fueron -0.0717, 0.0099 y -0.0611. Conclusiones. No fue posible asumir endogamia, ni exogamia en los municipios analizados, exceptuando el municipio de San Pedro de los Milagros, en cuyo caso se percibe de manera más fuerte el efecto del mejoramiento genético y la disminución de la heterocigocidad.

  14. Genética y genómica de la hipertensión arterial: una actualización

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Bello, Julián; Pérez-Méndez,Oscar; Ramírez-Fuentes,Silvestre; Carrillo-Sánchez,Silvia; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Fragoso, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    La hipertensión arterial es considerada la principal causa de riesgo para el desarrollo de infarto agudo al miocardio, falla cardiaca, arritmia ventricular, nefropatía, ceguera, entre otras. La hipertensión arterial es una enfermedad multifactorial en la que participan factores ambientales, genéticos e intrínsecos como raza y género. La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha estimado que la prevalencia de la hipertensión se incrementará drásticamente, de modo que en la próxima década será la pri...

  15. Genética en humana en Estomatología

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El creciente interés que están despertando las enfermedades genéticas dentro del contexto de la patología humana, se debe al espectacular avance que han experimentado las cada vez más complejas metodologías que con un número día a día mayor de científicos investigan los mecanismos de la herencia. Es así como novedosos estudios bioquímicos, cromosómicos y poblaciones, han permitido reconocer en muchas entidades de causalidad confusa hasta no hace mucho, una clara etiología genética. El crec...

  16. Mucopolisacaridosis II: nueva mutación patogénica en gen IDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pérez-Elizondo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La mucopolisacaridosis tipo II es una enfermedad lisosomal producida por la deficiencia de la enzima iduronato 2 sulfatasa. Es una condición infrecuente de herencia recesiva ligada al X, que puede producir importante discapacidad progresiva. El análisis molecular es una técnica útil en la confirmación diagnóstica, que además permite detección de portadores asintomáticos, brindando la oportunidad de asesoría genética. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con mucopolisacaridosis tipo II, en quien se documentó una nueva mutación patogénica en el Gen IDS.

  17. Comportamiento productivo de cerdos portadores del gen del halotano en condiciones medioambientales no controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Chiprés, David Román

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de estrés porcino es una enfermedad genética que afecta acerdos de crecimiento rápido, manifestándose con muerte súbita durante las condiciones de manejo o al sacrificio, como carne pálida, suave y exudativa. Se econoce que el síndrome de estrés porcino (PSS, el síndrome de la carne pálida suave y exudativa (PSE así como la hipertermia maligna (MH, comparten una mutación en el gen receptor de la rianodina (RYR1. Un método de diagnóstico basado en DNA y el uso de la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, permite hacer una distinción de los genotipos para el locus halotano.

  18. EL GEN PIG-A COMO INDICADOR DE MUTACIONES SOMÁTICAS In vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Monserrat PACHECO MARTÍNEZ; Elsa CERVANTES RÍOS; María Del Carmen GARCÍA RODRÍGUEZ; Alda Rocío ORTIZ MUÑIZ

    2014-01-01

    La medición cuantitativa de las mutaciones es fundamental en el campo de la mutagé - nesis ambiental. Recientemente se han descrito nuevos métodos para su valoración y para la evaluación de mutaciones inducidas por agentes químicos in vivo . Uno de ellos está basado en el análisis del fenotipo relacionado con la expresión del gen fosfatidi - linositol glicano de clase A ( PIG-A en humanos y Pig-a en roedores). Este gen está ligado al cromosoma X y es esencial para la síntesis del ancla glicos...

  19. Saber o no saber… Derecho e información genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Solar Cayón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El extraordinario desarrollo de las técnicas genéticas, con su formidable capacidad de afectación a la autonomía personal y de invasión de los derechos individuales, está teniendo un impacto profundo en el pensamiento jurídico, obligándonos a revisar algunos de los presupuestos en que se funda nuestra concepción de los derechos fundamentales. Así, el reconocimiento del derecho del individuo a no conocer sus datos genéticos parece desafiar nociones esenciales como las de autonomía y racionalidad del sujeto de derechos, vinculadas en el proyecto ilustrado de emancipación del individuo a la idea de pleno acceso al conocimiento. Sin embargo, la propia idea de “ignorancia” no resulta ajena al discurso de fundamentación de los derechos fundamentales, como prueba el papel esencial que el “velo de la ignorancia” desempeña en la revisión de la tradición liberal efectuada por John Rawls. A partir de la teoría de éste y de John Stuart Mill se indaga en los fundamentos filosóficos del derecho a no saber los datos genéticos y en sus límites, ante la existencia de posibles derechos de terceros a acceder a esa información. Asimismo, se pone de manifiesto el papel que en este nuevo contexto juega el Derecho como instancia administradora del conocimiento y de la ignorancia, ante la amenaza de un determinismo genético que parece poner en cuestión en última instancia la idea misma de libertad individual.

  20. Aconselhamento genético Genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Monteiro de Pina-Neto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão sobre aconselhamento genético (AG teve o objetivo de mostrar os conceitos atuais e os princípios filosóficos e éticos aceitos na grande maioria dos países e recomendados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, as fases do processo, seus resultados e o impacto psicológico de uma doença genética em uma família. FONTES DOS DADOS: Os conceitos apresentados são baseados em uma síntese histórica da literatura sobre AG desde a década de 1930 até o momento atual, sendo que os artigos citados representam os principais trabalhos publicados e que hoje fundamentam a teoria e a prática do AG. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O AG modernamente é definido como um processo de comunicação que trata dos problemas humanos relacionados à ocorrência de uma doença genética em uma família. É fundamental que os profissionais da saúde conheçam os aspectos psicológicos desencadeados pela doença genética e como estes aspectos podem ser manejados. Vivemos ainda na genética humana e médica uma fase de predomínio dos aspectos técnicos e científicos e de pouca ênfase no estudo das reações emocionais e dos processos de adaptação das pessoas a estas doenças, o que leva ao baixo entendimento dos clientes sobre os fatos ocorridos, com conseqüências negativas sobre a vida familiar e para a sociedade. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se pela necessidade de que as famílias com doenças genéticas sejam encaminhadas para AG e que os profissionais desta área invistam mais na humanização do atendimento, desenvolvendo mais as técnicas do AG psicológico não-diretivo.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review of genetic counseling (GC is to describe the current concepts and philosophical and ethical principles accepted by the great majority of countries and recommended by the World Health Organization, the stages of the process, its results and the psychological impact that a genetic disease has on a family. SOURCES: The concepts presented are

  1. TidGen Power System Commercialization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Christopher R. [President & CEO; McEntee, Jarlath [VP Engineering & CTO

    2013-12-30

    ORPC Maine, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (collectively ORPC), submits this Final Technical Report for the TidGen® Power System Commercialization Project (Project), partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-EE0003647). The Project was built and operated in compliance with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) pilot project license (P-12711) and other permits and approvals needed for the Project. This report documents the methodologies, activities and results of the various phases of the Project, including design, engineering, procurement, assembly, installation, operation, licensing, environmental monitoring, retrieval, maintenance and repair. The Project represents a significant achievement for the renewable energy portfolio of the U.S. in general, and for the U.S. marine hydrokinetic (MHK) industry in particular. The stated Project goal was to advance, demonstrate and accelerate deployment and commercialization of ORPC’s tidal-current based hydrokinetic power generation system, including the energy extraction and conversion technology, associated power electronics, and interconnection equipment capable of reliably delivering electricity to the domestic power grid. ORPC achieved this goal by designing, building and operating the TidGen® Power System in 2012 and becoming the first federally licensed hydrokinetic tidal energy project to deliver electricity to a power grid under a power purchase agreement in North America. Located in Cobscook Bay between Eastport and Lubec, Maine, the TidGen® Power System was connected to the Bangor Hydro Electric utility grid at an on-shore station in North Lubec on September 13, 2012. ORPC obtained a FERC pilot project license for the Project on February 12, 2012 and the first Maine Department of Environmental Protection General Permit issued for a tidal energy project on January 31, 2012. In addition, ORPC entered into a 20-year agreement with Bangor Hydro Electric

  2. Nedd4-mediated increase in HIV-1 Gag and Env proteins and immunity following DNA-vaccination of BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brad; Whitney, Stephen; Hudacik, Lauren; Galmin, Lindsey; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Cristillo, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    The late assembly domain of many viruses is critical for budding. Within these domains, encoded in viral structural proteins, are the conserved motifs PTAP, PPxY and YPxL. These sequences are the key determinants for association of viral proteins with intracellular molecules such as Tsg101, Nedd4 and AIP1/ALIX. While roles for Tsg101 and AIP1/ALIX in HIV-1 budding have been well established, less is known about the role of Nedd4. Recent studies, however, have identified a function for Nedd4-like protein in HIV-1 release. In this study, we investigated post-transcriptional changes of Nedd4 following SHIVSF162P3 infection of rhesus macaques, its role on HIV-1 p24 and gp120 levels in vitro and its potential as an immune modulator in HIV vaccination of BALB/c mice. Increased Nedd4 protein levels were noted in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following SHIVSF162P3-infection of naïve macaques. Transient co-transfection studies in 293 cells with HXB2 and Nedd4 demonstrated a Nedd4-mediated increase in p24 and gp120 levels. This increase was found to be dependent on the Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated phospholipid binding C2 domain and not ubiquitin ligase activity or HIV LTR activity. Co-transfection of Nedd4 with plasmid DNA expressing Gag or Env was further shown to augment both intracellular and extracellular Gag or Env proteins. To assess the potential of Nedd4 as an immune modulator, BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with plasmid DNA encoding HIV gag, env and Nedd4. Nedd4 co-administration was found to increase serum anti-p24 but not anti-gp120 antibodies. Nedd4 co-injection was found to have no affect on Gag- or Env-specific IFNγ but had a trend of increased Gag-specific IL-6, IL-17A and TNFα that was not seen following Env stimulation. Based on our initial findings, Nedd4-mediated changes in HIV protein levels and its potential use in HIV-1 vaccine development warrants further investigation.

  3. Nedd4-mediated increase in HIV-1 Gag and Env proteins and immunity following DNA-vaccination of BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Lewis

    Full Text Available The late assembly domain of many viruses is critical for budding. Within these domains, encoded in viral structural proteins, are the conserved motifs PTAP, PPxY and YPxL. These sequences are the key determinants for association of viral proteins with intracellular molecules such as Tsg101, Nedd4 and AIP1/ALIX. While roles for Tsg101 and AIP1/ALIX in HIV-1 budding have been well established, less is known about the role of Nedd4. Recent studies, however, have identified a function for Nedd4-like protein in HIV-1 release. In this study, we investigated post-transcriptional changes of Nedd4 following SHIVSF162P3 infection of rhesus macaques, its role on HIV-1 p24 and gp120 levels in vitro and its potential as an immune modulator in HIV vaccination of BALB/c mice. Increased Nedd4 protein levels were noted in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following SHIVSF162P3-infection of naïve macaques. Transient co-transfection studies in 293 cells with HXB2 and Nedd4 demonstrated a Nedd4-mediated increase in p24 and gp120 levels. This increase was found to be dependent on the Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated phospholipid binding C2 domain and not ubiquitin ligase activity or HIV LTR activity. Co-transfection of Nedd4 with plasmid DNA expressing Gag or Env was further shown to augment both intracellular and extracellular Gag or Env proteins. To assess the potential of Nedd4 as an immune modulator, BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with plasmid DNA encoding HIV gag, env and Nedd4. Nedd4 co-administration was found to increase serum anti-p24 but not anti-gp120 antibodies. Nedd4 co-injection was found to have no affect on Gag- or Env-specific IFNγ but had a trend of increased Gag-specific IL-6, IL-17A and TNFα that was not seen following Env stimulation. Based on our initial findings, Nedd4-mediated changes in HIV protein levels and its potential use in HIV-1 vaccine development warrants further investigation.

  4. R5 clade C SHIV strains with tier 1 or 2 neutralization sensitivity: tools to dissect env evolution and to develop AIDS vaccines in primate models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagadenahalli B Siddappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1 HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2 phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an "early," recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone [1] encoding a "late" form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to "late" SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2. After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates.

  5. GPG-NH2 acts via the metabolite αHGA to target HIV-1 Env to the ER-associated protein degradation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahlne Anders

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synthetic peptide glycyl-prolyl-glycine amide (GPG-NH2 was previously shown to abolish the ability of HIV-1 particles to fuse with the target cells, by reducing the content of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env in progeny HIV-1 particles. The loss of Env was found to result from GPG-NH2 targeting the Env precursor protein gp160 to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD pathway during its maturation. However, the anti-viral effect of GPG-NH2 has been shown to be mediated by its metabolite α-hydroxy-glycineamide (αHGA, which is produced in the presence of fetal bovine serum, but not human serum. In accordance, we wanted to investigate whether the targeting of gp160 to the ERAD pathway by GPG-NH2 was attributed to its metabolite αHGA. Results In the presence of fetal bovine serum, GPG-NH2, its intermediary metabolite glycine amide (G-NH2, and final metabolite αHGA all induced the degradation of gp160 through the ERAD pathway. However, when fetal bovine serum was replaced with human serum only αHGA showed an effect on gp160, and this activity was further shown to be completely independent of serum. This indicated that GPG-NH2 acts as a pro-drug, which was supported by the observation that it had to be added earlier to the cell cultures than αHGA to induce the degradation of gp160. Furthermore, the substantial reduction of Env incorporation into HIV-1 particles that occurs during GPG-NH2 treatment was also achieved by treating HIV-1 infected cells with αHGA. Conclusions The previously observed specificity of GPG-NH2 towards gp160 in HIV-1 infected cells, resulting in the production of Env (gp120/gp41 deficient fusion incompetent HIV-1 particles, was most probably due to the action of the GPG-NH2 metabolite αHGA.

  6. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  7. Microagregación genética y geográfica de aislados del virus linfotrópico humano tipo I (HTLV-I en zonas endémicas del suroccidente de Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe García

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de definir el polimorfismo de patrones de restricción (RFL para la endonucleasa de restricción DdeI, de la región del HTLV-I de los 5181 a los 6624 nucleótidos, se amplificó un segmento de 1033 bp que incluía la porción terminal 5' del gen Pol y el dominio de superficie del gen Env (gp46 del ADN proviral de PBMC obtenido de 29 personas seropositivas para el HTLV-I provenientes de varias zonas el suroccidente de Colombia. El análisis de restricción efectuado con la endonucleasa DdeI, reveló la existencia de tres patrones de RFLPs diferentes. El patrón I (900 y 125 pb, se observó en 34.5% (10/29 de los aislados. El patrón IIa (700, 205 y 125 pb se determinó en 51.7% (15/29. Finalmente, el patrón IIb (550, 350 y 125 pb representó 13.8% (4/29 aislados. El microagregado IIb se observó con predominio en aislados de HTLV-I del municipio de Tumaco. Los patrones I y IIa se distribuyeron con mayor frecuencia en el interior del suroccidente. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la existencia de un mecanismo de microevolución divergente de la región pol-env en los virus de las áreas analizadas.

  8. Towards an International Culture: Gen Y Students and SNS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichy, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a small-scale investigation into the Internet user behaviour of generation Y (Gen Y) students, with particular reference to social networking sites. The study adds to the literature on cross-cultural Internet user behaviour with specific reference to Gen Y and social networking. It compares how a cohort of…

  9. Gen-duplikationer - evolutionens eksperimentarium med et eksempel fra hvede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Den nyeste forskning i kornarternes fytaser viser, hvordan en gen-duplikation for 32-54 mio. år siden påvirker foderkvaliteten i dag.......Den nyeste forskning i kornarternes fytaser viser, hvordan en gen-duplikation for 32-54 mio. år siden påvirker foderkvaliteten i dag....

  10. 78 FR 8108 - NextGen Solutions Vendors Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Organization's (ICAO) Aviation System Block Upgrade (ASBU) initiative. The NextGen solutions address the ICAO... help implement ICAO-consistent NextGen solutions. The guide will highlight the U.S. producers and... to aviation system upgrades) Example: Engineering Services More information on the four ICAO...

  11. Université de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet - 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 1er décembre 2008 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Superconducting Interfaces between Insulating Oxide Prof. Jean-Marc TRISCONE / Université de Genève At interfaces between complex oxides, electronic systems with unusual properties can be generated. A striking example is the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, two good insulating perovskite oxides, which was found in 2004 to be conducting with a high mobility. We recently discovered that the ground state of this system is a superconducting condensate, with a critical temperature of about 200 mK. The characteristics observed for the superconducting transitions are consistent with a two-dimensional superconducting sheet as thin as a few nanometers. Recent field effect experiments revealed the sensitivity of the normal and superconducting states to the carrier ...

  12. Université de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 1er décembre 2008 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Superconducting Interfaces between Insulating Oxide Prof. Jean-Marc TRISCONE / Université de Genève At interfaces between complex oxides, electronic systems with unusual properties can be generated. A striking example is the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, two good insulating perovskite oxides, which was found in 2004 to be conducting with a high mobility. We recently discovered that the ground state of this system is a superconducting condensate, with a critical temperature of about 200 mK. The characteristics observed for the superconducting transitions are consistent with a two-dimensional superconducting sheet as thin as a few nanometers. Recent field effect experiments revealed the sensitivity of the normal and superconducting states to the carrier d...

  13. Correlaciones fenotípicas, ambientales y genéticas en berenjena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Araméndiz Tatis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones Turipaná de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigaciones (Corpoica (Cereté, Córdoba, Colombia -8° 31' N y 75° 58' O, a 13 m.s.n.m se estudiaron las correlaciones, ambientales y genéticas entre seis caracteres de 24 cultivares de berenjena (Solanum melongena. Para el efecto se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar con tres repeticiones y unidades experimentales de 10 m². Los resultados mostraron que las correlaciones fueron de mayor o igual magnitud que las fenotípicas, mientras que las ambientales fueron de escaso valor. El número de frutos y el rendimiento estuvieron genéticamente correlacionados (r = 0.56, P < 0.01, la longitud y la resistencia del fruto mostraron correlación genética negativa (r = -0.68, P < 0.01 y entre el rendimiento y peso de fruto la correlación fue muy baja (r = 0.04. El número de frutos y su peso de frutos se correlacionaron de manera negativa (r =-0.63, P < 0.01. El número de frutos por planta puede ser utilizado como criterio de selección para la obtención de cultivares de berenjena de altos rendimientos.

  14. Medicina Genómica Aspectos éticos, legales y sociales del Genoma Humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo E. Ávila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La Medicina Genómica es el uso de la inf ormación de los genomas y sus deriv ados (ARN, proteínas y met abolitos que permite guiar la toma de decisiones médicas, es un c omponente clave de la medicina personalizada. La Medicina Genómica permite conocer la cartografía del genoma hum ano y proporciona una valiosa información a tener en cuenta a la hora de detect ar genes implicados en ciert as enfermedades. Esto conlleva a que en la actualidad nos centremos más en la predicción de patologías que en l a prevención, por lo que la tendencia es que en el futuro la Medicina Genómica acabe desbancando a la Medicina P reventiva. El Proyecto Genoma Humano presenta diversas aplicaciones que, al no tener una clara cobert ura legal, traen consigo un nuevo paradigma con problemas éticos, sociales y legales que la comunidad científica trat a de resolver para compaginar los aspectos morales con el progreso en la investigación. El objetivo del presente trabajo es describir brevemente los aspectos éticos, legales y sociales del Genoma Humano.

  15. Efecto sedante del midazolam genérico versus innovador en ratas Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radamés Alemón-Medina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: ocho de cada diez pacientes en Terapia Intensiva del Instituto Nacional de Pediatría no obtienen el mismo efecto ansiolítico y sedante con midazolam genérico (PiSA®, que con el innovador (Dormicum, Roche® a pesar de que su biodisponibilidad es de 100%.  Objetivo: determinar diferencias significativas en el efecto sedante del midazolam genérico y del innovador administrados parenteralmente.  Material y métodos: estudio aleatorizado cruzado en 24 ratas Wistar macho distribuidas en 4 grupos (n=6. A cada individuo se le administró una dosis de 0.5 mg/kg de peso vía intraperitoneal. Se determinaron los grados de sedación mediante la escala de Salamone. Se midió la concentración del fármaco en las ampolletas de ambas marcas por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Resultados: el efecto sedante del midazolam apareció al mismo tiempo y tuvo la misma duración, ndependientemente de la marca. El efecto tiende a ser más duradero con el innovador pero sin ser estadísticamente significativo (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05. Asimismo, la mayoría de los animales llegaron al nivel 3 de sedación con ambas marcas.   Conclusión: tanto el midazolam innovador como el genérico tienen el mismo efecto sedante: aparece al mismo tiempo y tiene la misma duración.

  16. Evaluación de una intervención para el uso de tromboprofilaxis basada en el envío de alertas electrónicas a médicos residentes de primer año de dos hospitales de Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Delgado-Zapata

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la aplicación de una intervención basada en el envío de mensajes de texto y correos electrónicos dirigido a médicos residentes de medicina interna para lograr el incremento de la prescripción de tromboprofilaxis acorde a Guías de Práctica Clínica (GPC. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio tipo cuasiexperimental en los servicios de hospitalización de medicina interna de dos hospitales generales de Lima, Perú, uno seleccionado para aplicar la intervención y el otro como control. La unidad de análisis fue la hoja de prescripción médica. Se consideró que la intervención debería incrementar la prescripción acorde a GPC con respecto a la evaluación inicial y también respecto al hospital control. Resultados. Se evaluaron 394 hojas de prescripción médica, 227 (57,4% procedentes del servicio intervenido y 167 (42,4% correspondieron del control. En el servicio intervenido, inicialmente el 64,5% tuvo una prescripción acorde a GPC, para disminuir a 54,4% luego de la intervención; el sobreuso aumentó de 13,6 a 26,8%. Conclusiones. La intervención basada en el envío de mensajes de texto y correos electrónicos no tuvo impacto, observándose una tendencia al sobreuso de tromboprofilaxis posintervención.

  17. Env-2dCD4 S60C complexes act as super immunogens and elicit potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies against clinically relevant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killick, Mark A; Grant, Michelle L; Cerutti, Nichole M; Capovilla, Alexio; Papathanasopoulos, Maria A

    2015-11-17

    The ability to induce a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) response following vaccination is regarded as a crucial aspect in developing an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The bNAbs target the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) which is exposed on the virus surface, thereby preventing cell entry. To date, conventional vaccine approaches such as the use of Env-based immunogens have been unsuccessful. We expressed, purified, characterized and evaluated the immunogenicity of several unique HIV-1 subtype C Env immunogens in small animals. Here we report that vaccine immunogens based on Env liganded to a two domain CD4 variant, 2dCD4(S60C) are capable of consistently eliciting potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in New Zealand white rabbits against a panel of clinically relevant HIV-1 pseudoviruses. This was irrespective of the Env protein subtype and context. Importantly, depletion of the anti-CD4 antibodies appeared to abrogate the neutralization activity in the rabbit sera. Taken together, this data suggests that the Env-2dCD4(S60C) complexes described here are "super" immunogens, and potentially immunofocus antibody responses to a unique epitope spanning the 2dCD4(60C). Recent data from the two available anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies, Ibalizumab and CD4-Ig (and bispecific variants thereof) have highlighted that the use of these broad and potent entry inhibitors could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine targeting HIV-1. Overall, the ability of the unique Env-2dCD4(S60C) complexes to elicit potent bNAb responses has not been described previously, reinforcing that further investigation for their utility in preventing and controlling HIV-1/SIV infection is warranted.

  18. GenCade Version 1 Quick-Start Guide: How to Start a Successful GenCade Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Properly defining the inlets is a crucial part of a GenCade project and can be difficult. A user should become familiar with the Inlet Reservoir Model ( IRM ...GenCade Report 2 provide additional documentation on IRM variable names and functions. 3.9.4 Export data The data may easily be exported to a text

  19. El programa de mejora genética de Pinus pinaster en Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Zas, R; Merlo, E.

    2008-01-01

    El pino marítimo es una de las especies más importantes del sector forestal gallego. Fruto de esta importancia, desde los años 80 se lleva a cabo un programa de mejora cuyo fin último es el abastecimiento de semilla de alta calidad genética pasa su uso en repoblación. En este trabajo se revisan las actuaciones realizadas al respecto tanto en la zona costera como en el interior de Galicia. Se describe el dispositivo experimental del programa, los objetivos y la estra...

  20. Reseña del libro: Un mundo feliz de Marcela Gené

    OpenAIRE

    Farroni, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Un mundo feliz de Marcela Gené se inscribe en la cuantiosa producción existente sobre el peronismo y confirma que ha sido -y sigue siendo- un problema clave en la historiografía argentina. Este trabajo trata de recuperar un aspecto del período escasamente abordado: la “estética peronista” y la intencionalidad del peronismo de crear un conjunto de símbolos que contribuyeron a configurar su identidad y otorgarle legitimidad al movimiento. Se enmarca dentr...

  1. La figura del autor en el arte genético y transgénico

    OpenAIRE

    Matewecki, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Las prácticas artísticas contemporáneas redefinen constantemente el estatuto del arte tradicional al tensionar, por ejemplo, los límites entre el arte y la ciencia. El arte genético y el arte transgénico plantean un trabajo multidisciplinario en el que participan artistas y científicos a la vez, dando lugar así a la construcción de nuevas figuras de autor como las de artista-científico, artista-investigador, artista-técnico o científico-artista. La figura de artista se configura, según Dan...

  2. Delineamento de experimentos em genética genômica Experimental design in genetical genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Jordão de Magalhães Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Genética genômica é um termo utilizado para representar o estudo de processos genéticos controladores de caracteres fenotípicos de herança complexa, a partir da análise conjunta de informação relativa a fenótipos, estruturas de parentesco, marcadores moleculares e expressão gênica. Estudos de genética genômica são utilizados, por exemplo, para a estimação da herdabilidade de níveis de transcrição, para o mapeamento de locos controladores da expressao gênica (eQTL, do inglês expression Quantit...

  3. Innatismo y control genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Daniel Barberis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mi objetivo en este artículo es defender una elucidación reduccionista parcial del concepto de lo innato en ciencias cognitivas. En primer lugar, especifico las condiciones mínimas para una elucidación de lo innato. En segundo lugar, presento los principales enfoques que se han adoptado en la discusión, es decir, las propuestas reduccionistas, autonomistas y escépticas. Luego de ofrecer argumentos versus el escepticismo y las propuestas autonomistas, presento en detalle lo que considero es una elucidación parcial de lo innato en términos de control genético, mostrando cómo un concepto de la biología del desarrollo puede ser provechosamente utilizado para elucidar el concepto de lo innato en ciencias cognitivas. Por último, explicito las ventajas filosóficas de mi propuesta.

  4. NextGen Future Safety Assessment Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Gheorghe, Adrian; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of the next generation infrastructure systems requires solid understanding of their technical, social, political and economic aspects along with their interactions. The lack of historical data that relate to the long-term planning of complex systems introduces unique challenges for decision makers and involved stakeholders which in turn result in unsustainable systems. Also, the need to understand the infrastructure at the societal level and capture the interaction between multiple stakeholders becomes important. This paper proposes a methodology in order to develop a holistic approach aiming to provide an alternative subject-matter expert (SME) elicitation and data collection method for future sociotechnical systems. The methodology is adapted to Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) decision making environment in order to demonstrate the benefits of this holistic approach.

  5. A next-generation cleaved, soluble HIV-1 Env trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, expresses multiple epitopes for broadly neutralizing but not non-neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier W Sanders

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A desirable but as yet unachieved property of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 vaccine candidate is the ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs. One approach to the problem is to create trimeric mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein (Env spike that expose as many bNAb epitopes as possible, while occluding those for non-neutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs. Here, we describe the design and properties of soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A transmitted/founder strain, BG505. These trimers are highly stable, more so even than the corresponding gp120 monomer, as judged by differential scanning calorimetry. They are also homogenous and closely resemble native virus spikes when visualized by negative stain electron microscopy (EM. We used several techniques, including ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR, to determine the relationship between the ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to bind the soluble trimers and neutralize the corresponding virus. In general, the concordance was excellent, in that virtually all bNAbs against multiple neutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 Env were highly reactive with the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers, including quaternary epitopes (CH01, PG9, PG16 and PGT145. Conversely, non-NAbs to the CD4-binding site, CD4-induced epitopes or gp41ECTO did not react with the trimers, even when their epitopes were present on simpler forms of Env (e.g. gp120 monomers or dissociated gp41 subunits. Three non-neutralizing MAbs to V3 epitopes did, however, react strongly with the trimers but only by ELISA, and not at all by SPR and to only a limited extent by EM. These new soluble trimers are useful for structural studies and are being assessed for their performance as immunogens.

  6. Massively parallel pyrosequencing highlights minority variants in the HIV-1 env quasispecies deriving from lymphomonocyte sub-populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chillemi Giovanni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-associated cell membrane proteins acquired by HIV-1 during budding may give information on the cellular source of circulating virions. In the present study, by applying immunosorting of the virus and of the cells with antibodies targeting monocyte (CD36 and lymphocyte (CD26 markers, it was possible to directly compare HIV-1 quasispecies archived in circulating monocytes and T lymphocytes with that present in plasma virions originated from the same cell types. Five chronically HIV-1 infected patients who underwent therapy interruption after prolonged HAART were enrolled in the study. The analysis was performed by the powerful technology of ultra-deep pyrosequencing after PCR amplification of part of the env gene, coding for the viral glycoprotein (gp 120, encompassing the tropism-related V3 loop region. V3 amino acid sequences were used to establish heterogeneity parameters, to build phylogenetic trees and to predict co-receptor usage. Results The heterogeneity of proviral and viral genomes derived from monocytes was higher than that of T-lymphocyte origin. Both monocytes and T lymphocytes might contribute to virus rebounding in the circulation after therapy interruptions, but other virus sources might also be involved. In addition, both proviral and circulating viral sequences from monocytes and T lymphocytes were predictive of a predominant R5 coreceptor usage. However, minor variants, segregating from the most frequent quasispecies variants, were present. In particular, in proviral genomes harboured by monocytes, minority variant clusters with a predicted X4 phenotype were found. Conclusion This study provided the first direct comparison between the HIV-1 quasispecies archived as provirus in circulating monocytes and T lymphocytes with that of plasma virions replicating in the same cell types. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing generated data with some order of magnitude higher than any previously obtained with conventional

  7. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite; Altamiro de Souza Lima Ferraz Junior; Emanoel Gomes de Moura; Alana das Chagas Ferreira Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos c...

  8. From genetic neighbourhood to local community: Estimating a key parameter of the Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity A partir del vecindario genético al vecindario de comunidad: Estimación de un parámetro clave de la Teoría Neutral Unificada de la biodiversidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARRY J RICHARDSON

    2011-12-01

    la Teoría Neutral Unificada. Avances en el campo de la Teoría neutral de la Genética permiten calcular el tamaño de un vecindario genético en el contexto de aislamiento a través de procesos de distancia, lo cual sugiere una manera de estimar los tamaños equivalentes de una comunidad local (el vecindario de la comunidad ecológica. Ellos se deriva estimando valores de autocorrelación espacial a la distancia geográfica cero, lo cual se obtiene usando la distribución de frecuencias relativas de las especies de las muestras de campos, separadas por distintas distancias geográficas. Para demostrar los métodos propuestos, consistentes muestras de coleópteros fueron colectadas con la fumigación de 52 árboles en bosques de Nothofagus y 24 árboles en bosques de Araucaria, los cuales estaban ampliamente distribuidos en el centro sur de Chile. También se obtuvo un set de datos de 62000 coleópteros para otros propósitos. El tamaño efectivo estimado de las comunidades de coleópteros locales para cada tipo de bosque es alrededor de 12000 individuos para depredadores y 30000 individuos para fitófago/xilófagos. Por otra parte, la extensión geográfica de la comunidad de un barrio puede ser utilizados de otras maneras. En primer lugar, porque se relaciona con la distancia recorrida entre el nacimiento y la crianza, lo que proporciona información sobre los procesos de la comunidad a escala geográfica; entrega medidas de escalas donde la recolonización rápida es posible y escalas en las cuales las sobre que barreras no son fáciles de pasar en un hábitat. En segundo lugar, las réplicas de muestras geográficamente separadas por el tamaño de la comunidad de un barrio, no son independientes, representando pseudoréplicas de la metacomunidad característica.

  9. Trimeric gp120-specific bovine monoclonal antibodies require cysteine and aromatic residues in CDRH3 for high affinity binding to HIV Env

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Rob J.; Bebbington, Jonathan; Cuthbertson, Jack; Khoury, Georges; Lichtfuss, Marit; Rawlin, Grant; Purcell, Damian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We isolated HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific memory B cells from a cow that had developed high titer polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) with broad neutralizing activity after a long duration vaccination with HIV-1AD8 Env gp140 trimers. We cloned the bovine IgG matched heavy (H) and light (L) chain variable (V) genes from these memory B cells and constructed IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with either a human constant (C)-region/bovine V-region chimeric or fully bovine C and V regions. Among 42 selected Ig+ memory B cells, two mAbs (6A and 8C) showed high affinity binding to gp140 Env. Characterization of both the fully bovine and human chimeric isoforms of these two mAbs revealed them as highly type-specific and capable of binding only to soluble AD8 uncleaved gp140 trimers and covalently stabilized AD8 SOSIP gp140 cleaved trimers, but not monomeric gp120. Genomic sequence analysis of the V genes showed the third heavy complementarity-determining region (CDRH3) of 6A mAb was 21 amino acids in length while 8C CDRH3 was 14 amino acids long. The entire V heavy (VH) region was 27% and 25% diverged for 6A and 8C, respectively, from the best matched germline V genes available, and the CDRH3 regions of 6A and 8C were 47.62% and 78.57% somatically mutated, respectively, suggesting a high level of somatic hypermutation compared with CDRH3 of other species. Alanine mutagenesis of the VH genes of 6A and 8C, showed that CDRH3 cysteine and tryptophan amino acids were crucial for antigen binding. Therefore, these bovine vaccine-induced anti-HIV antibodies shared some of the notable structural features of elite human broadly neutralizing antibodies, such as CDRH3 size and somatic mutation during affinity-maturation. However, while the 6A and 8C mAbs inhibited soluble CD4 binding to gp140 Env, they did not recapitulate the neutralizing activity of the polyclonal antibodies against HIV infection. PMID:27996375

  10. Acceso a recursos genéticos y distribución de beneficios en Colombia: desafíos del régimen normativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carla Silvestri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación analiza los retos que presenta el régimen colombiano sobre acceso a recursos genéticos y distribución de beneficios mediante la utilización del método jurídico, con un enfoque descriptivo, comparativo y propositivo. El mecanismo de acceso y distribución de beneficios pretende desacelerar la pérdida de diversidad genética, entre otros fines. El marco legal se encuentra incompleto y no sistematizado. Asimismo, el procedimiento de acceso a recursos genéticos surge burocrático e ineficiente y obstaculiza así la investigación de la biodiversidad del país. Afortunadamente, la reciente simplificación del procedimiento para investigar recursos genéticos con fines no comerciales podría ayudar a resolver el mencionado problema para este tipo de proyectos. Además, la consulta previa articulada para el acceso a recursos genéticos ubicados en territorios de las comunidades indígenas y negras no garantiza la efectiva participación de aquellas. Por último, las medidas de cumplimiento establecidas, que circunscriben el control al acatamiento de la legislación colombiana y la de los países andinos, no satisfacen las disposiciones del Protocolo de Nagoya al respecto.

  11. Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parasite of Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae Lamotheoxyuris ackerti n. gen., n. comb. (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae parásito de Neotoma spp. (Rodentia: Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE FALCÓN-ORDAZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the revision of the type material of Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier & Mehra, 1959, and new specimens collected from Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, in Veracruz, Mexico, we herein to which A. ackerti is transferred as Lamotheoxyuris ackerti This new genus differs from all other genera included in 1 mouth surrounded by six lips; 2 extension of lateral alae describe a new genus (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., (Kruidener & Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Heteroxynematinae by the following main traits: reduced; and 3 lack of caudal alae.Con base en la revisión del material tipo de Aspiculuris ackerti Kruidenier y Mehra, 1959 y de nuevos ejemplares recolectados en Neotoma nelsoni Goldman, 1905 (Rodentia: Cricetidae, en Veracruz, México, se describe un nuevo género (Lamotheoxyuris n. gen., al que A. ackerti es transferido como Lamotheoxyuris ackerti (Kruidener y Mehra, 1959 n. gen., n. comb. Este nuevo género se distingue de todos los demás géneros incluidos en Heteroxynematinae por las siguientes características: 1 presencia de seis labios rodeando la boca; 2 extensión reducida del ala lateral; y 3 carencia de ala caudal.

  12. RxGen General Optical Model Prescription Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    RxGen is a prescription generator for JPL's in-house optical modeling software package called MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems), which is an expert optical analysis software package focusing on modeling optics on dynamic structures, deformable optics, and controlled optics. The objectives of RxGen are to simplify and automate MACOS prescription generations, reducing errors associated with creating such optical prescriptions, and improving user efficiency without requiring MACOS proficiency. RxGen uses MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks) as the development and deployment platform, but RxGen can easily be ported to another optical modeling/analysis platform. Running RxGen within the modeling environment has the huge benefit that variations in optical models can be made an integral part of the modeling state. For instance, optical prescription parameters determined as external functional dependencies, optical variations by controlling the in-/exclusion of optical components like sub-systems, and/or controlling the state of all components. Combining the mentioned capabilities and flexibilities with RxGen's optical abstraction layer completely eliminates the hindering aspects for requiring proficiency in writing/editing MACOS prescriptions, allowing users to focus on the modeling aspects of optical systems, i.e., increasing productivity and efficiency. RxGen provides significant enhancements to MACOS and delivers a framework for fast prototyping as well as for developing very complex controlled optical systems.

  13. Polimorfismo genético relacionado con la probabilidad de desarrollar asma ocupacional en trabajadores expuestos a isocianatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Pepe Betancourt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El desarrollo tecnológico ha traído como consecuencia el uso de sustancias químicas potencialmente perjudiciales para la salud de los trabajadores. Particularmente el uso de isocianatos ha resultado en una mayor morbilidad de patología respiratoria, especialmente el asma. Considerando que no todos los trabajadores expuestos desarrollan la enfermedad se ha propuesto un modelo de interacción gen-medioambiental, el cual trata de explicar la predisposición genética que tienen algunos individuos a desarrollar asma ocupacional y otros no. Objetivo: Conocer la evidencia científica relacionada con el polimorfismo genético y la susceptibilidad que tienen los trabajadores expuestos a isocianatos a desarrollar asma ocupacional. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión sistemática mediante una búsqueda bibliográfica utilizando las bases de datos PubMedline, así como en los repositorios Dialnet y ELSEVIER. Se extrajeron los artículos relacionados al objetivo de esta revisión, no se aplicaron filtros de temporalidad, utilizándose los siguientes descriptores: MeSH Major Topic, MeSH Terms. El periodo de búsqueda fue desde el 20 de noviembre de 2013 y finalizó el 15 de diciembre de 2013. El nivel de evidencia se estableció de acuerdo a los criterios GRADE. Resultados: Se analizaron a texto completo 42 artículos, la evidencia científica se sustentó en 11 estudios de casos-controles. Dada la complejidad del polimorfismo genético asociado con la expresión fenotípica de la enfermedad, como limitación de los estudios, los autores coinciden que el tamaño muestral no es suficientemente grande, sin embargo después de ajustar los factores de confusión los artículos encontrados tuvieron un nivel de evidencia B de GRADE. Conclusión: La genética tiene una influencia significativa en el asma ocupacional inducida por isocianatos. El peso de la susceptibilidad genética y de la interacción gen-medioambiente aún no se han

  14. Environmental impacts of consumers' choice of food products and housing. Final report of the ConsEnv project; Aterioiden ja asumisen valinnat kulutuksen ympaeristoevaikutusten ytimessae. ConsEnv-hankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, M.; Kurppa, S.; Nissinen, A.; Maekelae, J. (eds.)

    2011-06-15

    In the ConsEnv project, climate and eutrophication impacts of food consumption were assessed, and different everyday means of mitigating climate impacts of housing were studied. The life-cycle models that were used for the production of primary raw materials corresponded to average Finnish production, with the exception of imported food products, for which LCA-based specific data from the literature were used. When assessing environmental impacts of the food industry and food commerce, the study evaluated data received from specific companies (Saarioinen, HK Ruokatalo, Fazer Bakeries, Raisio and Ruokakesko). The models used for school meals were based on data received from the kitchen supplying food to the school involved in the study (Kauriala, Haemeenlinna). The impact assessments of consumers' own behaviour, that is, purchasing of food, and food storage and preparation were based on previously published data. When estimating electricity and heat consumption in the food chain, the average profile of Finnish energy production was used. According to the results, animal-based meals have a two- to three-fold climate change impact and a four- to fivefold eutrophication impact, compared to vegetarian dishes. The results also show differences between different meat and vegetable meals. In most cases, the main food ingredient of the meal has the greatest environmental impact. For some meals, the proportion of the impact of salad can be as high as one-third of the total. The relatively higher impact of rice in comparison with that of pasta is not decisive, when the total impact of the meal is taken into account. The differences between home-cooked and convenience food are mainly due to different types of raw materials used. The way of cooking and the anticipated benefits of central kitchens are not as dominant as expected in regard to climate change. The main conclusion from the study is that the greatest source of impacts of different types of meals is the

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Urosomoida agilis, and new combinations: Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov., and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasbir; Kamra, Komal

    2015-02-01

    For years, systematics of three species, Urosomoida agilis (Engelmann, 1862) Hemberger in Foissner, 1982, Urosomoida longa (Gelei and Szabados, 1950) Foissner et al., 1991 and Oxytricha lanceolata Shibuya, 1930, has remained unresolved due to lack of adequate molecular data. Though, it is known since several years that the three species are not very closely related. In the present paper, 18S rRNA gene sequences for two key species, U. agilis and U. longa, and their morphology and morphometry have been analyzed. Molecular phylogeny inferred from maximum likelihood, neighbour joining and maximum parsimony methods has adequately removed ambiguity over their systematics. In phylogenetic trees, U. agilis clustered consistently with non-stylonychine oxytrichids. Both Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata clustered consistently away from U. agilis and O. granulifera, the type species of the genera Urosomoida and Oxytricha, respectively. As a result of the current molecular phylogenetic investigation and based on previously inferred morphological and morphogenetic data it is proposed to remove Urosomoida longa and Oxytricha lanceolata from Urosomoida and incertae sedis in Oxytricha, respectively, and establish two new generic combinations, Hemiurosomoida longa gen. nov., comb. nov. and Heterourosomoida lanceolata gen. nov., comb. nov. for them.

  16. Aplicación de la Genética a la Cría de las Plantas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson J. B.

    1949-09-01

    Full Text Available La influencia de la ciencia de la genética en el arte de la cría de plantas ha sido mucho menos profunda de cuanto esperaban los primeros genetistas. Al dilucidar el mecanismo hereditario, fueron utilizados únicamente factores que originaban grandes diferencias, sin caer en la cuenta inmediata de que ellos son de pequeña importancia naturalmente o bajo la selección artificial. El progreso en el control genético de las pequeñas diferencias ha sido difícil y lento, considerando todavía muchos genetistas que los "genes" de menor categoría no valen la pena de ser investigados. Algunos principios genéticos han sido aplicados con éxito por los criadores, pero, a menudo, los intrincados principios no son totalmente comprendidos y la aplicaci6n se ha hecho con frecuencia sin apoyo experimental, basando las deducciones en observaciones generales sobre el material de cría. En relación con los métodos de cría es notable la frecuencia con que una práctica de fundamental importancia se justifica por una declaración que principia así: "Mi impresión es . .. ". Será tarea del genetista substituir la intuición del criador, por la evidencia objetiva. El objeto de este escrito consiste en revisar la aplicación de la teoría genética al cultivo del algodón en particular y bosquejar los problemas en los cuales el genetista podrá ayudar al criador.

  17. Evaluación del polimorfismo del gen leptina en bovinos en el sistema doble proposito en Chiapas, México.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La leptina es una hormona proteica de 16 KDa, compuesta de 146 aminoácidos y es sintetizada principalmente por el tejido adiposo. En el eje hipotálamo-hipófisisgonadal, la leptina juega un papel muy importante en la regulación de la reproducción de los mamíferos. La mutación del gen leptina TT está asociado con la calidad de la carne y leche en bovinos. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar las frecuencias genotípicas y alélicas del polimorfismo (SNP, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) del gen...

  18. Estudio de asociación del polimorfismo -866 G/A del gen UCP2 con obesidad en una población de Valledupar

    OpenAIRE

    Mosquera Heredia, María Isabel; Armas Daza, Lina María de; Ospino Fernández, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    La obesidad es una enfermedad multifactorial que se relaciona con estilos de vida y factores medioambientales y genéticos. Uno de los genes candidatos de la obesidad es el UCP2. Su polimorfismo -866G/A se ha asociado con obesidad en algunas poblaciones. Sin embargo, se han reportado resultados contradictorios alrededor del mundo, lo cual indica la necesidad de nuevas investigaciones al respecto. Objetivo: Analizar el polimorfismo -866G/A del gen UCP2 asociado con obesidad en adultos de la ciu...

  19. Relación de los cultivos modificados genéticamente con el ambiente y la salud de la población costarricense

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Ana M; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2014-01-01

    La ingeniería genética y los alimentos derivados de los cultivos genéticamente modificados (CGMs) han sido objeto de debate a escala mundial, como ocurre históricamente con el surgimiento de tecnologías novedosas. Se cuestiona si los CGMs son seguros al ambiente y si los productos derivados de ellos son inocuos para los consumidores. Sobre la primera de esas inquietudes, la práctica se ha orientado a estudiar caso por caso, según las propias características del CGM, para minimizar su impacto ...

  20. EPCGen2 Pseudorandom Number Generators: Analysis of J3Gen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Peinado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the cryptographic security of J3Gen, a promising pseudo random number generator for low-cost passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID tags. Although J3Gen has been shown to fulfill the randomness criteria set by the EPCglobal Gen2 standard and is intended for security applications, we describe here two cryptanalytic attacks that question its security claims: (i a probabilistic attack based on solving linear equation systems; and (ii a deterministic attack based on the decimation of the output sequence. Numerical results, supported by simulations, show that for the specific recommended values of the configurable parameters, a low number of intercepted output bits are enough to break J3Gen. We then make some recommendations that address these issues.

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK062102 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available transcriptional activator; similar to cAMP-receptor (CAP, CRP) protein: PIR Access...ion Number A26049; similar to fnr (nirR) gene product encoded by GenBank Accession Number J01608; aspartic

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK242621 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available putative transcriptional activator; similar to cAMP-receptor (CAP, CRP) protein: PIR Access...ion Number A26049; similar to fnr (nirR) gene product encoded by GenBank Accession Number J01608;

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK243655 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available putative transcriptional activator; similar to cAMP-receptor (CAP, CRP) protein: PIR Access...ion Number A26049; similar to fnr (nirR) gene product encoded by GenBank Accession Number J01608;

  4. Intención de compra de medicamentos genéricos por parte de los usuarios de Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago González Hernando

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Conocer las percepciones de los consumidores acerca del riesgo asociado al uso de medicamentos genéricos y los factores que más influyen en la intención de solicitar un genérico al médico (prescriptor y/o al farmacéutico, a fin de determinar posibles barreras o frenos a la aceptación de los mismos y obtener información que apoye la toma de decisiones de los gestores sanitarios. Métodos: Estudio sobre utilización de medicamentos centrado en la disposición de los pacientes a solicitar una EFG. En esta investigación transversal cuantitativa se entrevistó personalmente a 542 individuos, a la salida de un centro de salud o de un establecimiento de farmacia en Asturias. En el cuestionario se incluía una escala de medición del riesgo percibido en la compra de un medicamento con 15 atributos agrupados en cinco dimensiones. Asimismo se recogió información sobre la intención de consumir medicamentos genéricos y sobre las características demográficas y socioeconómicas de los entrevistados. Para el análisis de los resultados se aplicaron un análisis factorial confirmatorio, regresión múltiple y análisis univariable. El tratamiento de los datos se efectuó con los programas estadísticos EQS y SPSS. Resultados:Percepción media del riesgo (escalas de 1 a 7: funcional: 2,75; físico: 2,68; financiero: 2,19; psicológico: 1,99; social: 1,42. Factores influyentes sobre la intención de solicitar genéricos al médico: riesgo psicológico (p=0,000. Sobre la solicitud al farmacéutico: riesgo psicológico (p=0,000 y riesgo social (p=0,020. Conclusiones: Los agentes interesados en el desarrollo en el mercado de las EFG deben mantener sus esfuerzos de comunicación hacia la equiparación de los aspectos funcionales y financieros entre especialidades del fabricante y especialidades genéricas, pero no deben dejar de lado aspectos psicológicos y sociales del comportamiento de compra del consumidor.

  5. Intención de compra de medicamentos genéricos por parte de los usuarios de Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Hernando Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Conocer las percepciones de los consumidores acerca del riesgo asociado al uso de medicamentos genéricos y los factores que más influyen en la intención de solicitar un genérico al médico (prescriptor y/o al farmacéutico, a fin de determinar posibles barreras o frenos a la aceptación de los mismos y obtener información que apoye la toma de decisiones de los gestores sanitarios. Métodos: Estudio sobre utilización de medicamentos centrado en la disposición de los pacientes a solicitar una EFG. En esta investigación transversal cuantitativa se entrevistó personalmente a 542 individuos, a la salida de un centro de salud o de un establecimiento de farmacia en Asturias. En el cuestionario se incluía una escala de medición del riesgo percibido en la compra de un medicamento con 15 atributos agrupados en cinco dimensiones. Asimismo se recogió información sobre la intención de consumir medicamentos genéricos y sobre las características demográficas y socioeconómicas de los entrevistados. Para el análisis de los resultados se aplicaron un análisis factorial confirmatorio, regresión múltiple y análisis univariable. El tratamiento de los datos se efectuó con los programas estadísticos EQS y SPSS. Resultados: Percepción media del riesgo (escalas de 1 a 7: funcional: 2,75; físico: 2,68; financiero: 2,19; psicológico: 1,99; social: 1,42. Factores influyentes sobre la intención de solicitar genéricos al médico: riesgo psicológico (p=0,000. Sobre la solicitud al farmacéutico: riesgo psicológico (p=0,000 y riesgo social (p=0,020. Conclusiones: Los agentes interesados en el desarrollo en el mercado de las EFG deben mantener sus esfuerzos de comunicación hacia la equiparación de los aspectos funcionales y financieros entre especialidades del fabricante y especialidades genéricas, pero no deben dejar de lado aspectos psicológicos y sociales del comportamiento de compra del consumidor.

  6. Co-regulation of polysaccharide production, motility, and expression of type III secretion genes by EnvZ/OmpR and GrrS/GrrA systems in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Ancona, Veronica; Zhao, Youfu

    2014-02-01

    The EnvZ/OmpR and GrrS/GrrA systems, two widely distributed two-component systems in gamma-Proteobacteria, negatively control amylovoran biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora, and the two systems regulate motility in an opposing manner. In this study, we examined the interplay of EnvZ/OmpR and GrrS/GrrA systems in controlling various virulence traits in E. amylovora. Results showed that amylovoran production was significantly higher when both systems were inactivated, indicating that the two systems act as negative regulators and their combined effect on amylovoran production appears to be enhanced. In contrast, reduced motility was observed when both systems were deleted as compared to that of grrA/grrS mutants and WT strain, indicating that the two systems antagonistically regulate motility in E. amylovora. In addition, glycogen accumulation was much higher in envZ/ompR and two triple mutants than that of grrS/grrA mutants and WT strain, suggesting that EnvZ/OmpR plays a dominant role in regulating glycogen accumulation, whereas levan production was significantly lower in the grrS/grrA and two triple mutants as compared with that of WT and envZ/ompR mutants, indicating that GrrS/GrrA system dominantly controls levan production. Furthermore, both systems negatively regulated expression of three type III secretion (T3SS) genes and their combined negative effect on hrp-T3SS gene expression increased when both systems were deleted. These results demonstrated that EnvZ/OmpR and GrrS/GrrA systems co-regulate various virulence factors in E. amylovora by still unknown mechanisms or through different target genes, sRNAs, or proteins, indicating that a complex regulatory network may be involved, which needs to be further explored.

  7. Introducing AstroGen: The Astronomy Genealogy Project

    OpenAIRE

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    The Astronomy Genealogy Project ("AstroGen"), a project of the Historical Astronomy Division of the American Astronomical Society (AAS), will soon appear on the AAS website. Ultimately, it will list the world's astronomers with their highest degrees, theses for those who wrote them, academic advisors (supervisors), universities, and links to the astronomers or their obituaries, their theses when on-line, and more. At present the AstroGen team is working on those who earned doctorates with ast...

  8. Equilibrium analysis in imperfect Traders' and GenCos' market

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, J; Chitkara, P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper models the strategic behavior of traders, GenCos and ISO using the multi-leader-follower framework. The outcomes of the strategic behavior of the players have been modeled using an equilibrium problem with equilibrium constraints. From a policy perspective it is seen that allowing the GenCos to hold FTRs may be welfare enhancing under certain demand conditions and ownership patterns of transmission rights and generation assets. The proposed model has been simulated on a 3 bus system...

  9. Banque Cantonale de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Banque Cantonale de Genève

    2011-01-01

    7e Salon Immobilier BCGE le samedi 3 septembre 2011, de 8 h 30 à 13 h 00, au Centre de formation de Conches À cette occasion, les meilleurs spécialistes professionnels genevois de l’immobilier seront réunis en un seul et même lieu. Si vous le souhaitez, un conseiller spécialisé dans les financements hypothécaires évaluera vos possibilités d’investissement immobilier adaptées à votre situation personnelle. En parallèle, les plus importantes régies immobilières de Genève seront à votre disposition pour vous présenter leurs offres actuelles, ainsi que les projets immobiliers futurs et discuter avec vous de la meilleure stratégie à adopter pour trouver l’objet de vos rêves. De plus, vous aurez la possibilité...

  10. Identidad y Eponimia genérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Virgen Aldana-Zayas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de la Eponimia genérica de la flora vascular cubana que comprende el nombre dado a cada género de las plantas superiores y su relación con la formación identitaria en los estudiantes. Para ello se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de los cinc o tomos de la flora cubana y Árboles de Cuba. Se tomó una muestra de 331 géneros. Además se utilizaron otras fuentes bibliográficas para establecer los nexos entre la lingüística, la identidad y los nombres de los géneros de la flora vascular cubana. El empleo del método histórico-lógico permitió constatar que la procedencia de los nombres de los géneros puede deberse a la mitología, a la geografía y a nombres de científicos. Para la investigación se seleccionaron los nombres de los géneros dedicados a personalidades de la ciencia. Se confeccionó un Catálogo que ofrece las herramientas necesarias para que profesores y estudiantes realicen sus propias indagaciones y lleguen a conclusiones sobre los epónimos y sus potencialidades identitarias.

  11. New sequestrate fungi from Guyana: Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Amses, Kevin R; Elliott, Todd F; Obase, Keisuke; Aime, M Catherine; Henkel, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Jimtrappea guyanensis gen. sp. nov., Castellanea pakaraimophila gen. sp. nov., and Costatisporus cyanescens gen. sp. nov. are described as new to science. These sequestrate, hypogeous fungi were collected in Guyana under closed canopy tropical forests in association with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host tree genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae), and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Molecular data place these fungi in Boletaceae (Boletales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) and inform their relationships to other known epigeous and sequestrate taxa within that family. Macro- and micromorphological characters, habitat, and multi-locus DNA sequence data are provided for each new taxon. Unique morphological features and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 185 taxa across the order Boletales justify the recognition of the three new genera.

  12. Mejoramiento genético vegetal in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Gutiérrez M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El mejoramiento genético de plantas es una de las hazañas más antiguas del hombre, que inició con la domesticación de las mismas bajo condiciones controladas y la selección de aquellas capaces de proporcionar una mejor fuente de alimentos. Esto marcó una de las fases más importantes en el progreso de la humanidad, al permitirle transitar de una vida nómada e individualista a una sociedad organizada y cooperativista. Dicho mejoramiento fue fortuito y lento y permaneció como un arte y no como una ciencia hasta principios del siglo XX, luego de que las llamadas leyes de Mendel, pioneras en la explicación de los procesos de la herencia, obtuvieron reconocimiento (Briggs y Knowles, 1967. El proceso que emplea fitomejoradores ha creado un sinnúmero de variedades de plantas con el objeto de incrementar su producción, resistencia a plagas y enfermedades, y la adaptación a ambientes específicos, regiones y usos, mediante la selección de variedades cultivadas localmente, cruzadas entre sí o con las de otras áreas, o también con plantas silvestres que tengan los genes deseados. Sin embargo, obtener plantas mejoradas por estos medios resulta difícil en ocasiones por lo que se recurre a otros métodos para producir variantes útiles, tales como la selección celular, la variación somaclonal y las mutaciones inducidas, entre otros

  13. Human Endogenous Retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-Specific T-Cell Responses Are Infrequently Detected in HIV-1-Infected Subjects Using Standard Peptide Matrix-Based Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vivek M.; Hunter, Diana V.; Martin, Eric; Mujib, Shariq; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Burgers, Peter C.; Luider, Theo M.; Gyenes, Gabor; Sheppard, Neil C.; SenGupta, Devi; Tandon, Ravi; Yue, Feng-Yun; Benko, Erika; Kovacs, Colin; Nixon, Douglas F.; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    T-cell responses to human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K(HML-2) Gag and Env were mapped in HIV-1-infected subjects using 15mer peptides. Small peptide pools and high concentrations were used to maximize sensitivity. In the 23 subjects studied, only three bona fide HERV-K(HML-2)-specific responses were detected. At these high peptide concentrations, we detected false-positive responses, three of which were mapped to an HIV-1 Gag peptide contaminant. Thus, HERV-K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected by 15mer peptide mapping. PMID:22205657

  14. POLA EKSPRESI GEN ENHANCED GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN PADA EMBRIO DAN LARVA IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    OpenAIRE

    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi; Alimuddin Alimuddin; Agus Oman Sudrajat; Komar Sumantadinata; Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ekspresi sementara (transient expression) dari transgen secara in vivo menggunakan gen reporter berguna untuk mendesain konstruksi gen yang akan digunakan pada penelitian transgenesis. Gen reporter yang umum digunakan dalam penelitian ekspresi sementara transgen adalah gen GFP (green fluorescent protein). Pengamatan gen EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) pada embrio dan larva ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) ditujukan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai kema...

  15. Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov.--two new middle Cambrian hyolithids (?Mollusca) from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Martin; Fatka, Oldřich; Szabad, Michal; Micka, Václav; Marek, Ladislav

    2015-08-28

    Two new endemic genera and species of extinct group of Hyolitha, Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Buchava Formation of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic).

  16. Clonación artificial de un controlador on-line, basado en lógica difusa y algoritmos genéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ballesteros

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Algoritmos Genéticos son procedimientos adaptativos para la búsqueda de soluciones en espacios complejos, inspirados en la evolución biológica, con patrones de operaciones basados en el principio darwiniano de reproducción y supervivencia de los individuos que mejor se adaptan al entorno en que viven. En este artículo se presenta un estudio sobre los Algoritmos Genéticos y la Lógica Difusa, para desarrollar una metodología propuesta y replicar la caja negra de un controlador, utilizando procedimientos de obtención del conjunto de reglas de inferencia, agrupamiento difuso y después aplicar el desarrollo del algoritmo genético simple con algunas alteraciones, buscando el objetivo del trabajo propuesto.

  17. Proposta de análise genética de curvas de crescimento de bovinos por meio do algoritmo SAEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.M. Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se duas diferentes metodologias na avaliação genética de curvas de crescimento de animais Nelore: o algoritmo SAEM e o método Two-step. Para a implementação dessas metodologias, foram utilizados o modelo de crescimento de Brody modificado e o modelo touro. A diferença entre o SAEM e o Two-step é que o algoritmo SAEM estima simultaneamente parâmetros do modelo e efeitos genéticos e ambientais, e o método Two-step faz esse processo de estimação em duas etapas distintas. Mais ainda, o algoritmo SAEM utiliza o método de máxima verossimilhança, e o do Two-step o de máxima verossimilhança restrita. Foram obtidos, com base nas metodologias testadas, além das estimativas de efeitos fixos e parâmetros genéticos, os valores genéticos preditos para os touros avaliados. A partir dos valores genéticos preditos, foram obtidas as curvas genéticas para os touros. O algoritmo SAEM mostrou-se consistente na estimação dos efeitos fixos e na predição dos efeitos aleatórios, apresentando-se como uma alternativa viável para avaliação genética de animais Nelore.

  18. SEQ-GEN: A comprehensive multimission sequencing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Jose; Starbird, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    SEQ-GEN is a user-interactive computer program used to plan and generate a sequence of commands for spacecraft. Desired activities are specified by the user of SEQ-GEN; SEQ-GEN in turn expands these activities, deriving the spacecraft commands necessary to accomplish the desired activities. SEQ-GEN models the effects on the spacecraft of the commands, predicting the state as a function of time, flagging any conflicts and rule violations. These states, conflicts, and violations are viewable both graphically and textually at the user's request. SEQ-GEN also displays the entire sequence graphically, showing each requested activity as a bar on its graphical timeline. SEQ-GEN immediately revalidates the sequence, updating its models and calculations along with its displays based on these changes. Because it has the ability to recalculate spacecraft states immediately, the user is able to perform 'what-if' sessions easily. SEQ-GEN, a multimission tool, is adaptable to any flight project. A flight project writes its adaptation files containing project unique information including in its simplest form, only spacecraft commands. For more involved projects the adaptation files may also contain flight and mission rules, description of the spacecraft and ground models, and the definition of activities. SEQ-GEN operates at whatever level of detail the adaptation files imply. Simple adaptations are straight forward to do. There is, however, no limit to the complexity of activity definitions or of spacecraft models: both may involve unlimited logical decision points. Commands and activities may involve any number of parameters of a wide variety of data types, including integer, float, time, boolean, and character strings. SEQ-GEN will be used by the Mars Pathfinder, Cassini, and VIM (Voyager Interstellar Mission) project in an effort to speed up adaptation time and to keep sequence generation costs down. SEQ-GEN is hosted on UNIX workstations. It uses MOTIF and X for windowing

  19. Pré-melhoramento do camucamuzeiro: estudo de parâmetros genéticos e dissimilaridade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnice Maria Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O camucamuzeiro pertence à família Myrtaceae e é espécie em processo de domesticação, encontrada na forma extrativa, a partir de plantas crescendo naturalmente nas margens dos rios e lagos, ou cultivadas em pequenas áreas de terra firme. As estimativas e a compreensão dos parâmetros genéticos desta espécie são importantes para o conhecimento da estrutura genética das populações e para a inferência da diversidade genética presente, além de proporcionar subsídios para predizer os ganhos genéticos e o possível sucesso no programa de melhoramento dessa cultura. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos e a dissimilaridade genética, em acessos existentes no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de camucamuzeiro, da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Para o estudo, foram analisados 46 progênies, colhidos 40 frutos por planta matriz em completo estádio de maturação (frutos com epicarpo totalmente roxo, sendo avaliados sete caracteres morfoagronômicos: peso de fruto (g, PFR, comprimento de fruto (cm, CFR, diâmetro de fruto (cm, DFR, peso da casca (g, PCS, espessura da casca (cm, ECS, número de sementes (n, NSE, peso de sementes (g, PSE. Por meio do Programa Genes, estimaram-se os componentes de variância, herdabilidade e a variabilidade. A importância relativa de caracteres e dissimilaridades entre as progênies, bem como as correlações genéticas entres os caracteres avaliados também foram estudadas. Verificou-se que há dissimilaridade entre os acessos do BAG de camucamuzeiro e que, por causa das correlações significativas entre as variáveis, podem-se adotar métodos de seleção indireta como ferramenta auxiliar no processo de domesticação e melhoramento desta espécie.

  20. Construction and characterization of a new simian/human immunodeficiency viruses clone carrying an env gene derived from a CRF07_BC strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; YANG Gui-bo; CHEN Qi-min; LIU Qiang; MENG Zhe-feng; GENG Yun-qi; QIAO Wen-tao; SHAO Yi-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background The CRF07_BC recombinant strain has been one of the most predominantly circulated HIV-1 strains in China, it is therefore necessary and urgent to develop a relevant animal model to evaluate candidate vaccines targeting HIV-1 CRF07_BC. A highly replication-competent simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) construct containing the Chinese CRF07_BC HIV-1 env gene with the ability to infect Chinese rhesus monkeys would serve as an important tool in the development of HIV vaccines. The aim of this study was to examine whether SHIV XJDC6431 with the env fragment from a Chinese HIV-1 isolate virus could infect the human and monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), establish infection in Chinese rhesus macaque.Methods A SHIV strain was constructed by replacing the rev/env genes of SHIV KB9 with the corresponding fragment derived from the HIV-1 CRF07_BC strain. The infectious activity of the SHIV clones was determined in vitro in PBMCs from both non-human primate animals and humans. Finally, one Chinese rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) was infected with one SHIV via intravenous infusion.Results One SHIV clone designated as SHIV XJDC6431, was generated that could infect macaque and human PBMC. The virus produced from this clone also efficiently infected the CCR5-expressing GHOST cell lines, indicating that it uses CCR5 as its coreceptor. Finally, the virus was intravenously inoculated into one Chinese rhesus macaque. Eventually, the animal became infected as shown by the occurrence of viremia within 3 of infection. The viral load reached 10~5 copies of viral RNA per ml of plasma during the acute phase of infection and lasted for 10 weeks post infection. Conclusions We conclude that SHIV XJDC6431 is an R5-tropic chimeric virus, which can establish infection not only in vitro but also in vivo in the Chinese rhesus macaque. Although the animal inoculated with SHIV XJDC6431 became infected without developing a pathologic phenotype, the virus efficiently

  1. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  2. Enfoque genómico en la enfermedad cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael San Mauro-Martín

    Full Text Available Introducción: las enfermedades cardiovasculares (EC constituyen la principal causa de muerte a nivel mundial. La etiología es multifactorial, pueden influir diversos factores como la dieta, los hábitos de vida, el nivel de ejercicio físico o la carga genética. El gran número de genes implicados, así como sus diversas variantes, pueden influir sobre el riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares por medio de distintas vías. Objetivo: determinar la relación existente entre diferentes polimorfismos genéticos y el riesgo individual de EC en población infantil y adulta. Métodos: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica utilizando la base de datos PubMed. La búsqueda se limitó a un periodo de diez años y a metaanálisis realizados en humanos. Resultados: se establece relación entre el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y los siguientes polimorfismos genéticos: cromosoma 9p21, apolipoproteína A5, apolipoproteínas E2, E3 y E4, gen PPARG o PPARΥ, genes implicados en el metabolismo lipídico, gen MTHFR, citocromo P450, factor V de coagulación o factor de Leiden (FVL y gen VKORC. Conclusiones: Se han identificado un gran número de genes relacionados con la enfermedad cardiovascular. La carga genética puede influir de manera directa o indirecta sobre el riesgo cardiovascular, modificando factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular o actuando sobre la medicación empleada para tratarla.

  3. Análisis de deleciones en 15 exones situados dentro y fuera del hot spot mutacional del gen de la distrofina en pacientes con distrofia muscular de Duchenne

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca-Mendoza, Dora Janeth; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; Contreras-Bravo, Nora Constanza; Sánchez, Rossana; Herrera, Tristana; Silva, Claudia T.

    2010-01-01

    Introducción. La distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD), y su forma alélica más leve, la distrofia muscular de Becker (DMB), es una entidad de herencia recesiva ligada al X, que se presenta con debilidad muscular, pérdida progresiva de las habilidades motoras y muerte precoz. Es causada principalmente por deleciones en el gen de la distrofina, el cual contiene 79 exones.Objetivo. Realizar un análisis ampliado para evaluar la presencia de deleciones en 15 exones del gen de la distrofina situados...

  4. Estructura genética en poblaciones prehispánicas del centro de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabra, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan, a partir de nuevos datos craneométricos, las relaciones interpoblacionales y los roles relativos cumplidos por las fuerzas evolutivas sistemáticas vs las aleatorias en la diferenciación biológica de las poblaciones que ocuparon el actual territorio de Córdoba y otras que habitaron otras regiones geográfico-ecológicas de Argentina. La muestra está compuesta por 14 poblaciones, incluyendo 274 adultos masculinos, analizados en 10 variables craneofaciales. Se utiliza el análisis de componentes principales (PCA y el análisis de Relethford y Blangero (1990, basado en el modelo de Harpending y Ward (1982, para datos morfológicos. De acuerdo a este modelo, bajo presión sistemática uniforme, existe una correlación lineal y negativa entre la diversidad genética observada (en el caso de rasgos morfológicos se toma la variación fenotípica de forma análoga y la distancia genética de cada población a un hipotético antecesor común. El PCA muestra a Córdoba en una posición intermedia, cercana a San Luís y a otras poblaciones de las regiones pampeana y centro de Patagonia. El análisis de Relethford-Blangero ubica a Córdoba muy cercana al origen y sobre la línea de regresión, lo cual sugiere un tamaño poblacional grande y/o una separación reciente de la población ancestral, o bien la existencia de alto flujo genético con las poblaciones de las regiones mencionadas en el PCA.

  5. HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L. (Department of Virology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute-Seattle, WA (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS.

  6. Variabilidad genética en cepas de Plasmodium falciparum circulantes en regiones colombianas con riesgo diferente para malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Arcos Burgos

    2000-02-01

    grado de variabilidad genética de la población de P. falciparum circulante en estas regiones se utilizarán como marcadores genéticos los genes que codifican para las proteínas superficiales del merozoito 1 y 2 (MSP-1 y MSP-2 y para la proteína rica en glutamato (GLURP. Por medio de una PCR anidada se amplificarán segmentos altamente polimórficos de estos genes; variantes de las familias alélicas de MSP-1 (MAD20, K1 y RO33 y MSP-2 (FC27 e IC se amplificarán en la segunda reacción. Los productos de la PCR se analizarán por electroforesis en geles de agarosa para determinar el número de alelos para cada gen y la presencia de infección multiclonal.

  7. Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected in HIV-1-infected subjects using standard peptide matrix-based screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Jones (R. Brad); V.M. John (Vivek); D.V. Hunter (Diana); E. Martin (Eric); S. Mujib (Shariq); V. Mihajlovic (Vesna); P.C. Burgers (Peter); T.M. Luider (Theo); G. Gyenes (Gabor); N.C. Sheppard (Neil); D. SenGupta (Devi); R. Tandon (Ravi); F.-Y. Yue (Feng-Yun); W.S. Benko (William); C. Kovacs (Carrie); R. Nixon; M.A. Ostrowski (Mario)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractT-cell responses to human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K(HML-2) Gag and Env were mapped in HIV-1-infected subjects using 15mer peptides. Small peptide pools and high concentrations were used to maximize sensitivity. In the 23 subjects studied, only three bona fide HERV-K(HML-2)-specific

  8. Design and structure of two HIV-1 clade C SOSIP.664 trimers that increase the arsenal of native-like Env immunogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Jean-Philippe; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Hua, Yuanzi; Torrents de la Peña, Alba; de Taeye, Steven W; Nieusma, Travis; Cupo, Albert; Yasmeen, Anila; Golabek, Michael; Pugach, Pavel; Klasse, P J; Moore, John P; Sanders, Rogier W; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-09-22

    A key challenge in the quest toward an HIV-1 vaccine is design of immunogens that can generate a broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) response against the enormous sequence diversity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). We previously demonstrated that a recombinant, soluble, fully cleaved SOSIP.664 trimer based on the clade A BG505 sequence is a faithful antigenic and structural mimic of the native trimer in its prefusion conformation. Here, we sought clade C native-like trimers with comparable properties. We identified DU422 and ZM197M SOSIP.664 trimers as being appropriately thermostable (Tm of 63.4 °C and 62.7 °C, respectively) and predominantly native-like, as determined by negative-stain electron microscopy (EM). Size exclusion chromatography, ELISA, and surface plasmon resonance further showed that these trimers properly display epitopes for all of the major bnAb classes, including quaternary-dependent, trimer-apex (e.g., PGT145) and gp120/gp41 interface (e.g., PGT151) epitopes. A cryo-EM reconstruction of the ZM197M SOSIP.664 trimer complexed with VRC01 Fab against the CD4 binding site at subnanometer resolution revealed a striking overall similarity to its BG505 counterpart with expected local conformational differences in the gp120 V1, V2, and V4 loops. These stable clade C trimers contribute additional diversity to the pool of native-like Env immunogens as key components of strategies to induce bnAbs to HIV-1.

  9. Differential evolutionary fate of an ancestral primate endogenous retrovirus envelope gene, the EnvV syncytin, captured for a function in placentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Esnault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been co-opted for a role in placentation. They promote cell-cell fusion and are involved in the formation of a syncytium layer--the syncytiotrophoblast--at the materno-fetal interface. They were captured independently in eutherian mammals, and knockout mice demonstrated that they are absolutely required for placenta formation and embryo survival. Here we provide evidence that these "necessary" genes acquired "by chance" have a definite lifetime with diverse fates depending on the animal lineage, being both gained and lost in the course of evolution. Analysis of a retroviral envelope gene, the envV gene, present in primate genomes and belonging to the endogenous retrovirus type V (ERV-V provirus, shows that this captured gene, which entered the primate lineage >45 million years ago, behaves as a syncytin in Old World monkeys, but lost its canonical fusogenic activity in other primate lineages, including humans. In the Old World monkeys, we show--by in situ analyses and ex vivo assays--that envV is both specifically expressed at the level of the placental syncytiotrophoblast and fusogenic, and that it further displays signs of purifying selection based on analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. We further show that purifying selection still operates in the primate lineages where the gene is no longer fusogenic, indicating that degeneracy of this ancestral syncytin is a slow, lineage-dependent, and multi-step process, in which the fusogenic activity would be the first canonical property of this retroviral envelope gene to be lost.

  10. Linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica, el espectro desde la enfermedad genética al síndrome de activación macrofágica Hemophagocityc Lymphohistiocytosis: A Spectrum from the Genetic Disorder to the Macrophage Activation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Porras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El compromiso de la regulación de la inflamación produce activación excesiva y expansión de macrófagos y linfocitos T que desencadenan una reacción inflamatoria severa, sin vías naturales de control. Los trastornos hemofagocíticos son la traducción clínica de este proceso inflamatorio. La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica se refiere a todas las variantes de esta patología, y el síndrome de activación macrofágica, a la variante asociada con enfermedad autoinmune. Los casos primarios se asocian con la forma familiar autosómica recesiva y los secundarios con inmunodeficiencias primarias, infección, malignidad y enfermedades autoinmunes. El principal distintivo de este grupo de patologías es la proliferación agresiva de macrófagos e histiocitos que fagocitan otras células sanguíneas. La reducción en la actividad de las células NK produce un aumento en la activación y expansión de linfocitos T, los cuales producen grandes cantidades de citoquinas. Las citoquinas inducen activación de macrófagos y células dendríticas, infiltración tisular y producción de interleuquinas, lo que genera una reacción inflamatoria severa, responsable del daño tisular y de las manifestaciones clínicas. El curso clínico se caracteriza principalmente por fiebre prolongada, hepatoesplenomegalia y citopenias. Los estudios de laboratorio muestran aumento de ferritina, triglicéridos e hipofibrinogenemia. La hemofagocitosis en médula ósea está presente en más del 80% de los casos al diagnóstico. El tratamiento está dirigido contra el linfocito T y los histiocitos hiperactivados, combinando quimioterapia con inmunosupresores y, en algunos casos, trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas. Este tratamiento ha producido un cambio en la sobrevida de los pacientes. El protocolo de tratamiento HLH-2004 es una guía que estandariza el tratamiento, combinando etopósido, dexametazona y ciclosporina A. En Costa Rica se han reportado 60 casos en

  11. ANALISIS GEN HAEMAGGLUTININ PADA VIRUS CAMPAK LIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit Campak disebabkan oleh virus campak yang termasuk genus Morbilivirus dan Family Paramyxoviridae. Penyakit campak masih menjadi masalah kesehatan karena masih ditemukan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab terjadinya KLB tersebut diduga sebagaiakibat perbedaan antigenesitas antara strain vaksin yang digunakan dengan strain virus campak liar yang beredar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran tentang karakteristik genetik gen Haemagglutinin virus campak liar yang ada di Indonesia. Spesimen yang digunakan sebanyak 27 isolat virus penyebab KLB dari 17 propinsi selama periode tahun 2003-2010. Isolat virus dilakukan pemeriksaan secara RT-PCR dan sekuensing dengan metode Sanger. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Bioedit 7.0 dan MEGA 4.0. Hasil penelitian didapatkan perbedaan 10 asam amino antara virus campak strain vaksin CAM-70 dan virus campak liar pada posisi D416N; K424T; V451M; N455T; V466I; I473T; F476L; Y481S atau Y481N; H495N; G505D. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan karakteristik genetik antara virus campak liar di Indonesia berbeda dengan strain virus vaksin CAM-70.Kata kunci : Campak, Analisis Molekuler, Hemagglutinin, CD46AbstractMeasles is caused by virus belonging to the genus Morbilivirus and Family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is still a public health problem because outbreak of measles still found in Indonesia. Outbreak is suspected as a result of differences in antigenicity between vaccine strains used with wild-type measles virus strains circulating in Indonesia. This study aims to get genetic characteristics of wild-type measles virus haemagglutinin gene in Indonesia. The specimens were used 27 viral isolates from 17 provinces period 2003-2010. Viral isolates examined by RT-PCR and sequencing with Sanger method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.0 and MEGA 4.0 software. The results showed 10 amino acid differences

  12. Productividad acumulada y su relación genética con características reproductivas en hembras Brahman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duitama C.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar parámetros genéticos para la característica de productividad acumulada (PAC y correlaciones genéticas con edad al primer parto (EPP, intervalo entre el primero y segundo parto (IEP1 y longevidad (LONG. Materiales y métodos. Fueron usados 8584 registros de hembras Brahman, utilizando un modelo animal en análisis multi-característico con el método de máxima verosimilitud restricta, implementado en el software WOMBAT. Los modelos consideraron los efectos fijos de grupo contemporáneo, número de partos, y la covariable peso al destete del primer ternero; el único efecto aleatorio fue el genético aditivo directo. El peso al destete (P240 fue incluido para disminuir el efecto de la selección en la estimación de los componentes de varianza. Resultados. Las estimativas de heredabilidad fueron de 0.3±0.04, 0.11±0.03, 0.07±0.03 y 0.24±0.04 para EPP, IEP1, LONG y PAC respectivamente. Las correlaciones entre PAC y las otras características se presentaron de moderadas a altas y en sentido favorable. Conclusiones. PAC puede ser incluida en los programas de mejoramiento genético para Brahman, y utilizada como criterio de selección por su heredabilidad moderada y correlación genética favorable con las características reproductivas en estudio.

  13. Estudio de bioequivalencia del ibuprofeno genérico 400mg tabletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Villalva-Rojas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la biodisponibilidad de dos formulaciones de ibuprofeno 400mg tabletas, para establecer si el medicamento multifuente (genérico es bioequivalente al de referencia (Motrin® 400mg. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio abierto, randomizado, cruzado, dos periodos, con siete días de lavado, con 12 voluntarios sanos de ambos sexos, entre 21 y 48 años, quienes ingirieron una tableta del medicamento genérico o de referencia, según randomización, con 200mL de agua. Luego de ingerir el medicamento se colectó 4mL de sangre por voluntario para la cuantificación plasmática de ibuprofeno. Las muestras de plasma se analizaron por cromatografía líquida acoplada al espectrofotómetro de masas (LC-MS/MS con ionización electrospray ión negativo, aplicando monitoreo de reacción selectiva. La bioequivalencia se determinó con los parámetros farmacocinéticos de área bajo la curva AUC(0-t, AUC(0-∞ y concentración máxima (Cmax. Resultados. Según análisis estadístico, se encontraron: AUCmultifuente(0-t = 86,85 (μg*h/ mL, AUCRef.(0-t= 81,20 (μg*h/mL, AUCmultifuente(0-∞= 88,67 (μg*h/mL, AUCRef.(0-∞= 82,83(μg*h/mL, Cmαxmultifuente = 17,70 ug/mL, CmαxRef. =18,09 μg/mL, con rango de 0,93-1,24 para AUC(0-t, 0,93-1,24 para AUC(0-∞ y 0,81-1,19 para Cmax. Conclusión. Los valores encontrados de ibuprofeno están dentro de los requisitos de la OMS y la FDA, para establecer bioequivalencia (0,80-1,25, demostrándose que el ibuprofeno genérico es bioequivalente al de referencia en velocidad y cantidad de ibuprofeno absorbido en el organismo.

  14. Bases genéticas del dolor Genetic foundations of pain

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    P. Armero

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available La percepción de la sensación dolorosa es un proceso complejo en el que intervienen mútiples procesos bioquímicos bien conocidos junto con otros de integración cortical desconocidos hasta el momento. La existencia de diferencias individuales en la respuesta al estímulo doloroso es una observación bien conocida que sugiere qué factores genéticos pueden estar implicados en la modulación de la respuesta a estímulos dolorosos. Existen dos aproximaciones experimentales para estudiar la implicación del genotipo en la respuesta al estímulo doloroso, los estudios de ligamiento y los estudios de asociación. Hasta el momento los estudios de ligamiento han permitido asociar mutaciones en el gen TRKA con el síndrome de insensibilidad congénita al dolor con anhidrosis (CIPA y el gen CACNL1A4 y la migraña hemipléjica familiar (FHM. Los estudios de asociación son escasos y se han centrado principalmente en el estudio de pacientes con migraña. En este trabajo revisamos los estudios llevados a cabo hasta el momento en diferentes laboratorios y planteamos nuevas perspectivas de futuro.Perception of pain is a complex process which implies multiple biochemical pathways together with unknown processes of cortical integration. The existence of individual differences in the response to painful stimuli suggests that genetic factors can be involved in its modulation. Two different experimental approaches have been developed to study the implication of genotype in the response to pain: linkage studies and the association studies. Up to now linkage studies have allowed the association of TRKA gene mutations with the syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA and CACNL1A4 gene mutations with the familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM. Few association studies have been performed until now, and have been focused on the study of patients with migraine. Here we review the studies carried out up to now in different laboratories and suggest

  15. Genética e hanseníase

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    Bernardo Beiguelman

    Full Text Available As diferentes linhas de pesquisa utilizadas para investigar a importância dos fatores hereditários humanos na determinação da resistência/suscetibilidade à infecção pelo Mycobacterium leprae foram discutidas no presente trabalho. Uma síntese dessas abordagens permitiu analisar os resultados das investigações sobre associação da hanseníase com polimorfismos genéticos, distribuição familial da hanseníase, prevalência da hanseníase e distância genética, concordância da hanseníase em gêmeos e estudos genéticos sobre a reação de Mitsuda.

  16. Diversidad genética de Dioscorea trifida “sachapapa” de cinco cuencas hidrográficas de la amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Pérez Arévalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea trifida “sachapapa” es una de las especies promisorias amazónicas que podemos considerarla huérfana de la ciencia, por las escasas investigaciones que hay sobre esta especie. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética intra e interpoblacional de D. trifida de cinco cuencas hidrográficas de la amazonía peruana. Las hojas fueron colectadas de una colección de germoplasma y purificó el ADN con métodos estándares. El polimorfismo genético se evaluó con la técnica RAPD y los parámetros de genética poblacional fueron estimados con el programa POPGENE. Los análisis espectrofotométrico (A260/A280=1,7±0,1 y electroforético (bandas de ADN íntegras mostraron que el ADN purificado fue de alta calidad. Asimismo, la cantidad obtenida fue apropiada para estudios de diversidad genética (rendimiento promedio = 582±248 mg ADN/mg hojas. La diversidad genética intrapoblacional más alta se encontró en la cuenca del Itaya (h = 0,24±0,11 y la más baja en la cuenca del Marañón (h = 0,10±0,04. Adicionalmente, la diversidad genética interpoblacional más alta se registró entre las poblaciones de Itaya vs Ucayali (GST = 1,00, mientras que la más baja entre las poblaciones de Nanay vs Tapiche (GST = 0,07. En conclusión, D. trifida muestra variación en su diversidad genética intra e interpoblacional en las cinco cuencas hidrográficas de la amazonía peruana, siendo la cuenca del Itaya la que presenta mayor diversidad genética intrapoblacional y las poblaciones de Itaya vs Ucayali las que presentan mayor diversidad genética interpoblacional, que en parte se atribuyen al flujo de genes diferencial entre las poblaciones analizadas.

  17. Diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de Mauritia flexuosa L.f. “aguaje” de la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Angulo-Quintanilla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa es una especie vegetal amazónica que forma extensas poblaciones denominadas “aguajales”. Como los pobladores amazónicos emplean varios órganos de M. flexuosa para suplir sus necesidades y con fines comerciales, se está ejerciendo un gran impacto negativo sobre esta especie. A pesar de ello, a la fecha no se conoce la diversidad genética de esta especie en la Amazonía peruana. Consecuentemente, los planes de manejo para la especie serían limitados sin este tipo de información. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de M. flexuosa aledañas a la carretera Iquitos-Nauta. Las hojas se colectaron en seis zonas contiguas a la carretera Iquitos–Nauta. El ADN purificado con protocolos estándares fue amplificado mediante la técnica de ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD con dos cebadores aleatorios.  En total se generaron 28 amplicones RAPD (26 polimórficos y 2 monomórficos. Dentro de los aguajales la diversidad genética fue tres veces mayor (75±19 % que la diversidad genética entre las seis poblaciones de M. flexuosa (25±19 %. La diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones varió de 0,0 a 0,6. Los aguajales que se agruparon en clados en el dendrograma por su mayor similitud genética tuvieron proximidad geográfica. La similitud genética entre las poblaciones de M. flexuosa depende de la distancia geográfica, de tal manera que las poblaciones con más similitud genética están más próximas entre sí que las que tienen menos similitud genética.

  18. Diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de Mauritia flexuosa L.f. “aguaje” de la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Angulo Quintanilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa es una especie vegetal amazónica que forma extensas poblaciones denominadas “aguajales”. Como los pobladores amazónicos emplean varios órganos de M. flexuosa para suplir sus necesidades y con fines comerciales, se está ejerciendo un gran impacto negativo sobre esta especie. A pesar de ello, a la fecha no se conoce la diversidad genética de esta especie en la Amazonía peruana. Consecuentemente, los planes de manejo para la especie serían limitados sin este tipo de información. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de M. flexuosa aledañas a la carretera Iquitos-Nauta. Las hojas se colectaron en seis zonas contiguas a la carretera Iquitos–Nauta. El ADN purificado con protocolos estándares fue amplificado mediante la técnica de ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD con dos cebadores aleatorios.  En total se generaron 28 amplicones RAPD (26 polimórficos y 2 monomórficos. Dentro de los aguajales la diversidad genética fue tres veces mayor (75±19 % que la diversidad genética entre las seis poblaciones de M. flexuosa (25±19 %. La diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones varió de 0,0 a 0,6. Los aguajales que se agruparon en clados en el dendrograma por su mayor similitud genética tuvieron proximidad geográfica. La similitud genética entre las poblaciones de M. flexuosa depende de la distancia geográfica, de tal manera que las poblaciones con más similitud genética están más próximas entre sí que las que tienen menos similitud genética.

  19. Aspectos genético-quantitativos da qualidade da carne em frangos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaya Leila de Genova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos parâmetros genéticos das características de qualidade de carne de aves permite à industria avícola se adequar às exigências da indústria processadora, aumentando sua eficiência, e melhorando a aceitação da carne de frango pelo mercado consumidor. Além disso, por meio do estudo destes parâmetros, valiosas informações sobre a caracterização do fenômeno denominado PSE, que representa a carne pálida, flácida e exsudativa, podem ser obtidas, uma vez que são escassos os estudos a esse respeito em frangos. O conhecimento do comportamento genético e da relação entre os atributos da carne e outras características de interesse em frangos de corte pode favorecer o estabelecimento mais preciso e adequado das estratégias utilizadas nos programas de seleção.

  20. Diversidad genética de la población colombiana de ganado Cebú Brahman Americano Bos Indicus (Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Bravo Miguel Adriano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La raza Cebú Brahman Americano se encuentra en Colombia alrededor de 100 años. Todo ese tiempo, esta raza ha estado bajo un proceso continuo de selección artificial dirigida, reproducción endogámica, efectos de deriva genética causados por eventos fundadores, migraciones de ejemplares entre las fincas del país y animales importados desde otros países. Estos hechos hacen a esta raza interesante y particular desde el punto de vista de la genética de poblaciones. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la estructura y diversidad genética de la raza Cebú Brahman americano. Se utilizaron 162 animales registrados en la asociación colombiana de criadores de ganado cebú (ASOCEBU de 20 departamentos de Colombia. La genotipificación de los animales se llevó a cabo con el kit StockMarks® for cattle bovine genotyping de Applied Biosystems®, empleando 10 microsatélites dinucleótidos. Los resultados de los distintos análisis multivariados (Análisis de componentes principales y análisis de correspondencias múltiples, de inferencia bayesiana y distancias genéticas interindividuales, demuestran que no se presenta subestructura en la población, lo cual se explica por una alta tasa de migración de animales entre las diferentes fincas y regiones, que homogeniza las frecuencias en todo el país. Además, esta población posee un alto grado de heterocigocidad y diversidad alélica, comparado con otras razas, lo cual refleja su origen de mezcla multiracial. También se encontraron diferencias genéticas entre sexos, lo cual es causado por un proceso reproductivo diferencial, donde actúan diferentes criterios de selección entre sexos. Finalmente, al realizar un análisis de componentes principales para analizar las relaciones genéticas de Cebú Brahman americano colombiano con las razas cebuinas y taurinas, se determinó que esta raza se diferencia genéticamente de las demás razas cebuinas, debido a un aporte genético de razas taurinas

  1. A novel role of human holliday junction resolvase GEN1 in the maintenance of centrosome integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gao

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genomic stability requires accurate genome replication, repair of DNA damage, and the precise segregation of chromosomes in mitosis. GEN1 possesses Holliday junction resolvase activity in vitro and presumably functions in homology driven repair of DNA double strand breaks. However, little is currently known about the cellular functions of human GEN1. In the present study we demonstrate that GEN1 is a novel centrosome associated protein and we characterize the various phenotypes associated with GEN1 deficiency. We identify an N-terminal centrosome localization signal in GEN1, which is required and sufficient for centrosome localization. We report that GEN1 depletion results in aberrant centrosome numbers associated with the formation of multiple spindle poles in mitosis, an increased number of cells with multi-nuclei, increased apoptosis and an elevated level of spontaneous DNA damage. We find homologous recombination severely impaired in GEN1 deficient cells, suggesting that GEN1 functions as a Holliday junction resolvase in vivo as well as in vitro. Complementation of GEN1 depleted cells with various GEN1 constructs revealed that centrosome association but not catalytic activity of GEN1 is required for preventing centrosome hyper-amplification, formation of multiple mitotic spindles, and multi-nucleation. Our findings provide novel insight into the biological functions of GEN1 by uncovering an important role of GEN1 in the regulation of centrosome integrity.

  2. Diversidad genética, entre y dentro de los mayores grupos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbujani, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Varios estudios están de acuerdo cuando reportan que cerca del 85% de la diversidad del ADN autosomal y de los loci de las proteínas se debe a diferencias entre individuos dentro de la misma población, mientras que las diferencias entre los grupos de diferentes continentes son responsables de solamente 10% de la variación genética total. Estos resultados están en conflicto con nociones populares de razas humanas claramente distintas y relativamente homogéneas, y nos hacen cuestionar la utilidad de clasificaciones étnicas en diagnósticos médicos, en el campo forense y en genética farmacológica. Nuevos datos obtenidos de inserciones polimórficas de Alu y del cromosoma Y confirman los resultados previos, aunque indican una diversidad mayor en algunos (pero no todos los loci del cromosoma Y. Estos datos nos permiten investigar dos preguntas: (1 si las diferencias continentales, aunque pequeñas, son suficientemente grandes como para asignar a individuos a sus continentes basados en sus genotipos; (2 si los genotipos observados se agrupan en grupos de población o continentales cuando el origen de la muestra se ignora. Usando varios métodos estadísticos, veremos que los errores de clasificación son por lo menos de un 30% para los polimorfismos autosomales bi-alélicos, y de un 27% para el cromosoma Y. Cuatro series de datos genéticos de todo el mundo sugieren la existencia de grupos de genotipos diferentes, pero que éstos cuatro grupos no coinciden el uno con el otro. Adicionalmente, estudios de bloques de ADN del genoma humano indican que la mayor parte de dichos bloques es compartida entre los continentes, con solamente un pequeño porcentaje siendo específico a ciertos continentes. Estos resultados no indican que haya una base clara para subdividir a los humanos en grupos biológicamente definidos. Este puede no ser un problema en áreas aplicadas de genéticas, dado que los métodos rápidos para obtener genotipos individuales

  3. Introducing AstroGen: the Astronomy Genealogy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2016-12-01

    The Astronomy Genealogy Project (AstroGen), a project of the Historical Astronomy Division of the American Astronomical Society (AAS), will soon appear on the AAS website. Ultimately, it will list the world's astronomers with their highest degrees, theses for those who wrote them, academic advisors (supervisors), universities, and links to the astronomers or their obituaries, their theses when online, and more. At present the AstroGen team is working on those who earned doctorates with astronomy-related theses. We show what can be learned already, with just ten countries essentially completed.

  4. Genética, saúde e sociedade

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    O documentário apresenta quatro projetos de pesquisa realizados pelo Instituto de GenéticaMédica Populacional (INAGEMP) em diferentes regiões do país.As atividades mencionadasrepresentam uma amostra do trabalho do INAGEMP, que se estruturou de modo a colocar agenética médica populacional na prática ao associar pesquisa e atenção em saúde parapopulações afetadas por doenças com forte componente genético em sua etiologia.

  5. Biotecnologia aplicada ao melhoramento genético do cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro mediante técnicas convencionais é trabalhoso e demorado. A biotecnologia oferece estratégias alternativas para auxiliar na multiplicação e no desenvolvimento de novas variedades com resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos, melhor qualidade de bebida e maturação mais uniforme dos frutos. As técnicas de cultura de tecidos têm possibilitado a obtenção de grande número de plantas e a garantia da uniformidade genética do material. O emprego de marcadores mo...

  6. Craniostenose em gêmeos: estudo genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Carlos Pereira

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência de formas clínicas diversas de craniostenose em gêmeos de sexo diferente. A menina apresentava obliteração completa da sutura coronaria e dos dois terços anteriores da sutura sagital; no menino a sutura sagital era a única afetada. O estudo genético mostrou que a craniostenose independe de aberrações cromossômicas, indicando ser transmitida por gens recessivos raros de natureza autossômica.

  7. Valor genético estimado y qtl que afecta el porcentaje de sólidos totales en la raza bovina gyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Además de todos los progresos que ha representado el mejoramiento genético animal clásico, este presenta algunas limitaciones como en algunos casos donde el fenotipo no se expresa en el individuo. Con el advenimiento de las enzimas de restricción, del secuenciamiento y de la amplificación del ADN, fue posible el uso de marcadores moleculares asociados con loci de características cuantitativas (QTL, como herramienta que auxilia y perfecciona el mejoramiento genético animal por medio de la selección asistida por marcadores (MAS, lo que aumenta el mérito genético para características de difícil medida, baja heredabilidad y limitadas por el sexo. La raza bovina gyr se caracteriza por su rusticidad y adaptación al trópico, y presenta una buena producción de leche para los países tropicales, por lo que es fundamental en la conformación de la raza gyrholando (5/8holstein y 3/8 gyr. El propósito del presente estudio fue complementar el análisis cuantitativo con la genética molecular, en el mejoramiento genético de la característica porcentaje de sólidos totales en la razagyr en Brasil. Catorce familias (toros gyr con 657 hijas fueron analizadas, siendo el promedio 0,095 % y la desviación estándar 0,1923 del valor genético estimadopara porcentaje de sólidos totales. Al utilizar 27 marcadores microsatélites en el análisis a travésde las 14 familias para porcentaje de sólidos totales en el cromosoma 6, un QTL fue identificado con P< 0,05 y F = 2,34 en la posición 58 cm, próximo al marcador MNB-208 (60,21 cm. Al emplear las familias3 y 4, las más significativas, el mismo QTL fue identificado con P < 0,01 y F = 7,61, pero en la posición 58 cm, próximo al marcador MNB-208.

  8. Análisis de la estructura genética en una muestra poblacional de Bucaramanga, departamento de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Hincapié

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El fenómeno de sub-estructura en las poblaciones ha tenido desde hace varios años un abordaje amplio, que se enfocó, entre otros, en la identificación y cuantificación de la mezcla étnica presente en estudios de mapeo asociativo, para comprobar la asociación de marcadores polimórficos en el desarrollo de enfermedades comunes complejas, como responsable de falsos positivos. No obstante el reconocimiento de este problema, no se tiene suficiente información genética en el contexto nacional ni local que permita determinar la posible diferenciación de subgrupos poblacionales en cada región en particular.Objetivo: Determinar la estructura genética en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Bucaramanga, a partir del análisis de 19 marcadores microsatélites autosómicos en distintos subgrupos poblacionales.Metodología: De la base de datos del Laboratorio de Genética Humana de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 350 muestras de ADN, y se amplificaron 19 marcadores autosómicos Short Tandem Repeat mediante los «kits Powerplex® 16 y FFFL (Promega».Resultados: En el análisis de equilibrio Hardy Weinberg, no se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en 18 de 19 marcadores Short Tandem Repeat autosómicos analizados en la población de Bucaramanga. El único marcador que mostró no estar en equilibrio Hardy Weinberg en la población de Bucaramanga fue el F13B (valor de significancia de p=0.00264, después de aplicar la corrección de Bonferroni.Discusión: Las poblaciones representadas en los seis estratos socioeconómicos mostraron alta diversidad genética intragrupos, que ratificó una alta variabilidad entre los individuos de la ciudad de Bucaramanga, acorde con el bajo valor de FST entre distintos grupos, determinado en el análisis molecular de varianza con base en frecuencias alélicas observadas para los 19 Short Tandem Repeat analizados.Conclusión: La alta

  9. Análisis de la estructura genética en una muestra poblacional de Bucaramanga, departamento de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Hincapié

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El fenómeno de sub-estructura en las poblaciones ha tenido desde hace varios años un abordaje amplio, que se enfocó, entre otros, en la identificación y cuantificación de la mezcla étnica presente en estudios de mapeo asociativo, para comprobar la asociación de marcadores polimórficos en el desarrollo de enfermedades comunes complejas, como responsable de falsos positivos. No obstante el reconocimiento de este problema, no se tiene suficiente información genética en el contexto nacional ni local que permita determinar la posible diferenciación de subgrupos poblacionales en cada región en particular. Objetivo: Determinar la estructura genética en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Bucaramanga, a partir del análisis de 19 marcadores microsatélites autosómicos en distintos subgrupos poblacionales. Metodología: De la base de datos del Laboratorio de Genética Humana de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 350 muestras de ADN, y se amplificaron 19 marcadores autosómicos Short Tandem Repeat mediante los «kits Powerplex® 16 y FFFL (Promega». Resultados: En el análisis de equilibrio Hardy Weinberg, no se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en 18 de 19 marcadores Short Tandem Repeat autosómicos analizados en la población de Bucaramanga. El único marcador que mostró no estar en equilibrio Hardy Weinberg en la población de Bucaramanga fue el F13B (valor de significancia de p=0.00264, después de aplicar la corrección de Bonferroni. Discusión: Las poblaciones representadas en los seis estratos socioeconómicos mostraron alta diversidad genética intragrupos, que ratificó una alta variabilidad entre los individuos de la ciudad de Bucaramanga, acorde con el bajo valor de FST entre distintos grupos, determinado en el análisis molecular de varianza con base en frecuencias alélicas observadas para los 19 Short Tandem Repeat analizados. Conclusión: La alta

  10. Viability of thin wall tube forming of ATF FeCrAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Fabrication of thin walled tubing of FeCrAl alloys is critical to its success as a candidate enhanced accident tolerant fuel cladding material. Alloys that are being investigated are Generation I and Generation II FeCrAl alloys produced at ORNL and an ODS FeCrAl alloy, MA-956 produced by Special Metals. Gen I and Gen II FeCrAl alloys were provided by ORNL and MA-956 was provided by LANL (initially produced by Special Metals). Three tube development efforts were undertaken. ORNL led the FeCrAl Gen I and Gen II alloy development and tube processing studies through drawing tubes at Rhenium Corporation. LANL received alloys from ORNL and led tube processing studies through drawing tubes at Century Tubing. PNNL led the development of tube processing studies on MA-956 through pilger processing working with Sandvik Corporation. A summary of the recent progress on tube development is provided in the following report and a separate ORNL report: ORNL/TM-2015/478, “Development and Quality Assessments of Commercial Heat Production of ATF FeCrAl Tubes”.

  11. Viability of thin wall tube forming of ATF FeCrAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Fabrication of thin walled tubing of FeCrAl alloys is critical to its success as a candidate enhanced accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Alloys that are being investigated are Generation I and Generation II FeCrAl alloys produced at ORNL and an ODS FeCrAl alloy, MA-956 produced by Special Metals. Gen I and Gen II FeCrAl alloys were provided by ORNL and MA-956 was provided by LANL (initially produced by Special Metals). Three tube development efforts were undertaken. ORNL led the FeCrAl Gen I and Gen II alloy development and tube processing studies through drawing tubes at Rhenium Corporation. LANL received alloys from ORNL and led tube processing studies through drawing tubes at Century Tubing. PNNL led the development of tube processing studies on MA-956 through pilger processing working with Sandvik Corporation. A summary of the recent progress on tube development is provided in the following report and a separate ORNL report: ORNL/TM-2015/478, “Development and Quality Assessments of Commercial Heat Production of ATF FeCrAl Tubes”.

  12. Divergência genética em genótipos de girassol Genetic divergence in sunflower genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perito Amorim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma investigação sobre a diversidade genética entre 15 genótipos de girassol, por meio de 12 características agronômicas, foi implementada no Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, Brasil. Análises de variância univariada e multivariada revelaram diferenças entre os genótipos. A distância generalizada de Mahalanobis indicou um alto grau de divergência genética. Os genótipos foram agrupados em três grupos. As características início do florescimento, 50% do florescimento, número de folhas e altura da inserção do capítulo contribuíram com grande parte da divergência genética observada. Por meio desses resultados, é possível identificar materiais divergentes e com características agronômicas complementares para o desenvolvimento de novos cultivares superiores.An investigation about the genetical diversity among fifteen sunflower genotypes using twelve agronomical characteristics was implanted at the Agronomic Institute, Campinas Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance revealed the presence of differences among the genotypes. The generalized distance of Mahalanobis indicated the presence of genetic diversity. The genotypes were grouped into tree clusters. Among the investigated characteristics, the beginning of flowering, 50% flowering, leaf number and head height of chapter insertion exhibited high contribution towards genetic divergence. Through these studies it is possible to identify divergent material with further agronomical features for the development of new superior sunflower cultivars.

  13. Anemia Falciforme: Um Problema Nosso. Uma abordagem bioética sobre a nova genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Diniz

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa uma das ações educativas adotadas pelo Ministério da Saúde no campo das hemoglobinopatias: o folheto informativo Anemia Falciforme: Um Problema Nosso. O objetivo é discutir as premissas e os valores morais que se encontram associados a iniciativas no campo da educação genética, tendo as políticas públicas sobre anemia falciforme no Brasil como estudo de caso. A análise mostra que o conteúdo do folheto oscila entre políticas de prevenção para doenças e promoção de direitos fundamentais, uma característica da nova genética. Além disso, o excesso de informação biomédica especializada no folheto dificulta sua divulgação em massa. Os resultados encontrados foram discutidos à luz do debate bioético contemporâneo sobre a nova genética.

  14. Relaciones genéticas en localidades de Salta, Argentina: ¿qué reflejan las medidas de distancia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeza, María V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de datos de once STRs autosómicos se calcularon diferentes coeficientes de distancia genética en cinco poblaciones de la provincia de Salta y se elaboraron los dendrogramas correspondientes. Cuando se incorporaron datos de la bibliografía, se amplió el análisis a 16 poblaciones (siete de la provincia y nueve de diferentes regiones del país, reduciéndose a 9 el número de loci comunes utilizados en la estimación de las diferentes medidas de distancia. Las representaciones gráficas no reflejaron las vinculaciones esperadas en función de sus proximidades geográficas, pues hubo una amplia gama de asociaciones, reflejando inconsistencias mutuas. De acuerdo al test de Mantel, no existe correlación con la matriz de distancia geográfica en cada caso (0,23 < r < 0,40 con niveles de significación que variaron entre 0,22 y 0,98, por lo que las distancias genéticas no tuvieron relación con la proximidad geográfica entre poblaciones. Tampoco existió correlación entre STRs y otros marcadores genéticos para localidades de la provincia (r = 0,10163; t = 2,3918, p = 0,9916

  15. Epidemiologia genética: epidemiologia, genética ou nenhuma das anteriores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Gonçalves

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available No esforço de contribuir para melhor entendimento da identidade da Epidemiologia Genética, são revistas sua concepção, campo de atuação, métodos e técnicas pertinentes e algumas instâncias de aplicação. Entendendo-a como a área de interesse dos fatores genéticos das doenças e suas interações ambientais, apresenta-se seu campo de atuação como constituído por dois segmentos: um descritivo, que lida com conhecimento da distribuição de tais afecções em famílias e populações, seu impacto a nível do coletivo e sua vigilância epidemiológica, bem como o estudo de seus determinantes; o segundo, caracterizado pela intervenção, refere-se às respectivas medidas preventivas. Em que pese possível limitação pela não-consideração de todas as situações existentes, particular atenção é destinada à revisão de métodos e técnicas que possam ser convergentemente aplicados, a partir de procedimentos genéticos e epidemiológicos. Entre eles, destacam-se como estudos de casos tanto metodologias laboratoriais (como os dermatóglifos quanto quantitativos, como cálculo de herdabilidade e análise multivariada. Alguns objetos de estudo são tomados como instância de aplicação, por contarem com investigações específicas em nosso meio: a hanseníase, o hidrargirismo e a esquizofrenia.In an attempt to contribute to a better undestanding of the identity of Genetic Epidemiology, we review its conception, its field of influence, its appropriate methods and techniques and, at last, some of its applications. Genetic Epidemiology involves the study of genetic factors acting on diseases and on their environmental interactions. These includes two major areas: a descriptive one, related to the distribution of such conditions in families and populations, to the epidemiologic surveillance and to the study of determinants; and another characterized by intervention, which is related to preventive measures. Because of the dificulty in

  16. Identificación de los polimorfismos G1 y G8 del gen GDF9 en ovinos criollos Araucanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Paz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la especie ovina se han descrito una serie de polimorfismos en genes de efecto mayor relacionados con la actividad reproductiva. Las mutaciones ubicadas en el gen de efecto mayor GDF9 se han asociado con el incremento de la tasa ovulatoria y el tamaño de la camada. GDF9 es un factor celular secretado por el ovocito y es miembro de la familia de factores de crecimiento transformante (TGF-β localizado en el cromosoma 5 ovino. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar la presencia de los polimorfismos en los sitios G1 y G8 en el gen GDF9 en ovinos criollos Araucanos. Se extrajo el ADN de 100 muestras sanguíneas para posteriormente determinar la presencia de las mutaciones utilizando la técnica PCR-RFLP. Fue amplificada una región de 462 pb correspondiente al exón 1, la cuál fue digerida con la enzima de restricción HhaI, el siguiente fragmento amplificado fue de 139 pb correspondiente al exón 2, siendo digerido con la enzima Ddel. Se identificó la presencia del polimorfismo G1 con una frecuencia genotípica del 0,56 (genotipo GG, 0,44 (genotipo GA y una frecuencia alélica de 0,78 para el alelo (G y 0,22 para el alelo (A. No se detectó la presencia de polimorfismo G8. Este es el primer reporte de este polimorfismo en ovinos en Chile que podría servir como un marcador genético de prolificidad para la selección de ovinos criollos Araucanos.

  17. Bases Genéticas de la Ataxia Espinocerebelosa tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Almaguer Mederos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda la genética clásica y molecular de la ataxia espinocerebelosa tipo 2, enfermedad neuro degenerativa que alcanza las mayores tasas de prevalencia e incidencia del mundo en Holguín, y que constituye un serio problema de salud. Desde el descubrimiento de la mutación causal de la enfermedad en 1996, se han obtenido avances significativos en la comprensión de los mecanismos moleculares involucrados en el proceso patológico, y en sus implicaciones clínicas. Tales hallazgos han permitido el desarrollo de modelos celulares y animales de la enfermedad, que constituyen herramientas indispensables para la búsqueda de alternativas terapéuticas orientadas al tratamiento de las personas afectadas.

  18. De la Polisemia de los Conceptos.El concepto Gen como caso Particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Constanza Melo Salcedo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La discusión en torno a los conceptos involucra a filósofos, psicólogos, filósofos, científicos y, en los últimos años, didactas de las ciencias. Este debate es tan relevante por el creciente disenso entre la comunidad científica respecto a la posibilidad de la verdad y de la objetividad en las ciencias y la relación con los conceptos. En el siguiente artículo se discutirá la noción de concepto y, especialmente, la del concepto de gen, sobre el que se pretende mostrar un breve estudio de su desarrollo histórico (en la biología que permite identificar diversos significados que responden al contexto explicativo de los distintos episodios y sucesos históricos que tuvieron lugar en el siglo XX.

  19. A Virtual Reality Framework to Optimize Design, Operation and Refueling of GEN-IV Reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwan-uddin; Nick Karancevic; Stefano Markidis; Joel Dixon; Cheng Luo; Jared Reynolds

    2008-04-23

    many GEN-IV candidate designs are currently under investigation. Technical issues related to material, safety and economics are being addressed at research laboratories, industry and in academia. After safety, economic feasibility is likely to be the most important crterion in the success of GEN-IV design(s). Lessons learned from the designers and operators of GEN-II (and GEN-III) reactors must play a vital role in achieving both safety and economic feasibility goals.

  20. Daño genómico como biomarcador de la enfermedad renal crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Corredor Mancilla, Zuray Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) se define como la pérdida progresiva de la tasa de filtración glomerular, que se traduce en el deterioro de la función renal a largo plazo. Los pacientes con ERC tienen una alta incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular y cáncer, probablemente originados por la elevada inestabilidad genómica de los propios pacientes. Esto junto con la acumulación de compuestos pro-inflamatorios y pro-oxidantes, originados por la propia enfermedad y por el estrés oxidativo al qu...

  1. Intervención obligada de terceros : La intervención obligada genérica

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Adolfo Armando

    2016-01-01

    Para la formulación de nuestra tesis partimos de la necesidad de determinar el campo abarcado por la intervención obligada de terceros de derecho procesal en su aspecto genérico, instituto que elegimos como objeto de nuestro estudio. Establecemos al efecto y en primer lugar, un límite geográfico ya que solamente consideramos en el derecho comparado extranjero las doctrinas y legislación de Alemania, Italia y España, así como la sudamericana; en el derecho argentino los antecedentes nacionales...

  2. Trazabilidad genética en ganado bovino: Estudio comparativo de la eficacia de microsatélites y SNPs.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Fernández, Arianne; Rodellar Penella, Clementina; Zaragoza Fernández, María Pilar

    2011-01-01

    La crisis de confianza de los consumidores relacionada con la producción animal y la producción de carne, ha supuesto una creciente sensibilización de todos los sectores en los temas relacionados con la seguridad alimentaria. En este sentido la trazabilidad se ha convertido en una herramienta fundamental al servicio de la calidad alimentaria. En la presente memoria se propone el establecimiento de un sistema de trazabilidad genética basado en marcadores de ADN. Se ha realizado un estudio comp...

  3. GenSVM: a generalized multiclass support vector machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.J. van den Burg (Gerrit); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTraditional extensions of the binary support vector machine (SVM) to multiclass problems are either heuristics or require solving a large dual optimization problem. Here, a generalized multiclass SVM is proposed called GenSVM. In this method classification boundaries for a K-class proble

  4. Le CERN, chance ou risque pour Genève

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano; Wenninger, Horst; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    Le CERN, Chance ou Risque pour Gen?ve? D?bat public contradictoire organis? avec le soutien de la Tribune de Gen?ve Lieu: Salle II, CICG,15 Rue de Varemb?. Date: Lundi 19 octobre 1998, 20h00 D?roulement de la soir?e: 1. Ouverture M. Ren? KÏchlin, Pr?sident du Grand Conseil M. Luciano Maiani, Directeur g?n?ral d?sign? du CERN 2. Introduction: Un regard critique sur le CERN (? d?signer) Le projet LHC (Manfred Buhler Broglin CERN) 3. D?bat th?matique men? par le mod?rateur (Marco Cattaneo, r?dacteur en chef de la Tribune de Gen?ve) entre trois representants de lÕopinion publique (Ren? Longet, d?put? socialiste; Yves de Pr?ville, physicien; Jacques Mirenowicz, chercheur) et trois repr?sentants du Cern (Horst Wenninger, Directeur de la Recherche/Technique, CERN; Manfred Buhler Broglin, Administra-teur du projet LHC, CERN; Maurice Bourquin, Professeur de Physique ? l'Universit? de Gen?ve et D?l?gu? de la Suisse au Conseil du CERN). Les th?mes abord?s seront: Ð A quoi sert le CERN? Ð Quel est lÕimpact ?conomiqu...

  5. A New Parent Generation: Meet Mr. and Mrs. Gen X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Slowly but surely, Generation Xers have been taking over from Baby Boomers as the majority of parents in elementary and secondary education. Gen-X parents and Boomer parents belong to two neighboring generations, each possessing its own location in history and its own peer personality. They are similar in some respects, but clearly different in…

  6. Meet Mr. and Mrs. Gen X: A New Parent Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Slowly but surely, Generation Xers have been taking over from Baby Boomers as the majority of parents in elementary and secondary education. In the early 1990s, Gen Xers began joining parent-teacher associations in the nation's elementary schools. Around 2005, they became the majority of middle school parents. By the fall of 2008, they took over…

  7. GenOVa: a computer program to generate orientational variants

    OpenAIRE

    Cayron, Cyril

    2007-01-01

    A computer program called GenOVa, written in Python, calculates the orientational variants, the operators (special types of misorientations between variants) and the composition table associated with a groupoid structure. The variants can be represented by three-dimensional shapes or by pole figures.

  8. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  9. GenBank blastn search result: AK064582 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064582 002-112-F03 AY007820.1 Daucus carota ATPase8 (ATP8) gene, ATP8-Sp1b allele, complete cds; chimeric... ATPase9 (ATP9) gene, ATP9-Sp3 allele, complete cds; and chimeric ATPase6 (ATP6) gen

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK241821 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e for comparative gene identification transcript 94 (CGI-94), complete sequence. PRI 5e-40 1 ... ...3A3 gene for 60kDa splicing factor 3a subunit 3, the FHL3 gene for four and a half LIM domains 3 and the gen

  11. GenBank blastx search result: AK241192 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e for comparative gene identification transcript 94 (CGI-94), complete sequence. PRI 1e-114 1 ... ...3A3 gene for 60kDa splicing factor 3a subunit 3, the FHL3 gene for four and a half LIM domains 3 and the gen

  12. GenBank blastx search result: AK058467 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ome 1p34.2-36.11 Contains the 3' end of the KPNA6 gene for karyopherin alpha 6 (importin alpha 7), a novel g...ene (DKFZp451J0118), a novel gene (MGC1203) a novel gene, a novel gene (FLJ10547), a novel gene, a novel gen

  13. 78 FR 28940 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA NextGen... of the RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES: The meeting will be held June 4, 2013 from...

  14. 78 FR 5860 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA NextGen... meeting of the RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES: The meeting will be held February 7,...

  15. 78 FR 54509 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Next Gen Advisory Committee (NAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA NextGen... of the RTCA NextGen Advisory Committee (NAC). DATES: The meeting will be held September 19, 2013...

  16. Mapeo genético en camarón blanco litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Erazo Maldonado, Edna Constanza

    2002-01-01

    Mapeo genético en camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei Se presenta el primer mapa genético de Litopenaeus vannamei basado en la técnica de AFLPs a partir de una familia proveniente de un cruce comercial y con la información genética de un solo progenitor y 42 hijos.

  17. A Novel Role of Human Holliday Junction Resolvase GEN1 in the Maintenance of Centrosome Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, M.; Danielsen, Jannie Michaela Rendtlew; Wei, L.-Z.;

    2012-01-01

    but not catalytic activity of GEN1 is required for preventing centrosome hyper-amplification, formation of multiple mitotic spindles, and multi-nucleation. Our findings provide novel insight into the biological functions of GEN1 by uncovering an important role of GEN1 in the regulation of centrosome integrity...

  18. Soluciones científicas al problema del hambre. Organismos genéticamente modificados

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Según datos del Banco Mundial, en los últimos años se han producido aumentos en la producción de alimentos por habitante en todas las áreas geográficas, con excepción del Sahel. La humanidad está mejor alimentada que nunca y la proporción de hambrientos ha disminuido, De acuerdo con la FAO, el número de personas con hambre estricta en Africa, Asia y América del Sur pasó de 935 millones en 1970 a 730 millones en 1990, a pesar de que en esas regiones casi se duplicó la población. Aun así, esto ...

  19. Covariance of charged amino acids at positions 322 and 440 of HIV-1 Env contributes to coreceptor specificity of subtype B viruses, and can be used to improve the performance of V3 sequence-based coreceptor usage prediction algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Cashin

    Full Text Available The ability to determine coreceptor usage of patient-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains is clinically important, particularly for the administration of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc. The envelope glycoprotein (Env determinants of coreceptor specificity lie primarily within the gp120 V3 loop region, although other Env determinants have been shown to influence gp120-coreceptor interactions. Here, we determined whether conserved amino acid alterations outside the V3 loop that contribute to coreceptor usage exist, and whether these alterations improve the performance of V3 sequence-based coreceptor usage prediction algorithms. We demonstrate a significant covariant association between charged amino acids at position 322 in V3 and position 440 in the C4 Env region that contributes to the specificity of HIV-1 subtype B strains for CCR5 or CXCR4. Specifically, positively charged Lys/Arg at position 322 and negatively charged Asp/Glu at position 440 occurred more frequently in CXCR4-using viruses, whereas negatively charged Asp/Glu at position 322 and positively charged Arg at position 440 occurred more frequently in R5 strains. In the context of CD4-bound gp120, structural models suggest that covariation of amino acids at Env positions 322 and 440 has the potential to alter electrostatic interactions that are formed between gp120 and charged amino acids in the CCR5 N-terminus. We further demonstrate that inclusion of a "440 rule" can improve the sensitivity of several V3 sequence-based genotypic algorithms for predicting coreceptor usage of subtype B HIV-1 strains, without compromising specificity, and significantly improves the AUROC of the geno2pheno algorithm when set to its recommended false positive rate of 5.75%. Together, our results provide further mechanistic insights into the intra-molecular interactions within Env that contribute to coreceptor specificity of subtype B HIV-1 strains, and demonstrate that incorporation

  20. Los usuarios ante los alimentos genéticamente modificados y su información en el etiquetado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Itxaso Sebastian-Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analizar la opinión que los usuarios tienen sobre alimentos genéticamente modificados y su información en el etiquetado. MÉTODOS : Realizada revisión sistemática de la literatura científica sobre los alimentos transgénicos y el etiquetado a partir de la consulta de las bases de datos bibliográficas: Medline (vía PubMed, EMBASE, ISI-Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL y AGRICOLA. Los descriptores seleccionados fueron: «organisms, genetically modified » y «food labeling». La búsqueda se realizó desde la primera fecha disponible hasta junio de 2012, seleccionando los artículos pertinentes escritos en inglés, portugués y castellano. RESULTADOS : Se seleccionaron 40 artículos. En todos ellos, se debía haber realizado una intervención poblacional enfocada al conocimiento de los consumidores sobre los alimentos genéticamente modificados y su necesidad, o no, de incluir información en el etiquetado. El consumidor expresa su preferencia por el producto no-genéticamente modificado, y apunta que está dispuesto a pagar algo más por él, pero, en definitiva compra el artículo que está a mejor precio en un mercado que acoge las nuevas tecnologías. En 18 artículos la población se mostraba favorable a su etiquetado obligatorio y seis al etiquetado voluntario; siete trabajos demostraban el poco conocimiento de la población sobre los transgénicos y, en tres, la población subestimó la cantidad que consumía. En todo caso, se observó la influencia del precio del producto genéticamente modificado. CONCLUSIONES : La etiqueta debe ser homogénea y aclarar el grado de tolerancia en humanos de alimentos genéticamente modificados en comparación con los no modificados. Asimismo, debe dejar claro su composición, o no, de alimento genéticamente modificado y la forma de producción de estos artículos de consumo. La etiqueta también debe ir acompañada de un sello de certificación de una agencia

  1. Reação de genótipos de soja ao alumínio em hidroponia e no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luiz Augusto Copati

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os genótipos de soja BR86-5974, BR86-7396, Dourados, Doko RC, EMGOPA 305, IAC-9, BR-9 (Savana, UFV-1, UFV-9 e UFV Araguaia em relação à tolerância ao alumínio (Al em hidroponia e em solo. Na solução com Al foi medido o comprimento radicular. Em solo com 49% de saturação de Al avaliou-se área foliar, altura de planta, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, produção de matéria seca, produção de grãos e índice de colheita. Os genótipos BR86-7396 e IAC-9 são os de maior tolerância ao Al, e UFV-1 mostrou o pior desempenho. Houve correlação significativa entre alongamento radicular e produção de grãos (r = 0,705, área foliar (r = 0,645 e produção de matéria seca (r = 0,634. Isto indica que experimentos em hidroponia e solo são igualmente eficientes na seleção de soja tolerante ao alumínio. A variabilidade detectada sugere que o conjunto de genótipos de soja possui ampla variabilidade genética, o que é desejável em programas de melhoramento com o objetivo de elevar estabilidade de produção no Cerrado.

  2. Variabilidade genética e herança da tolerância à toxicidade do alumínio em aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNCHEZ-CHACÓN CARLOS DANILO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e um genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L. do programa de melhoramento da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliados quanto à reação ao alumínio (Al tóxico em solução nutritiva. Os níveis de Al testados foram 5, 10, 15, 20 e 30 g kJ-1, e o recrescimento da raiz foi medido depois de 48 horas sob a ação do metal. A variabilidade fenotípica foi observada a partir de 10 g kJ-1; em 20 g kJ-1 foram discriminados genótipos tolerantes e sensíveis. As bases genéticas da tolerância ao Al foram estudadas nas gerações P1, P2, F1 e F2, em nove cruzamentos entre genótipos tolerantes x sensíveis. Foi observado nas populações segregantes que a tolerância foi condicionada por um gene, de efeito dominante. A herdabilidade no sentido amplo foi moderada a elevada, permitindo que a seleção de indivíduos homozigotos tolerantes possa ser realizada em gerações precoces, acompanhada de teste de progênie. Por ser um método de relativa facilidade e rapidez, a seleção de germoplasma tolerante ao Al pode ser parte integrante da rotina dos programas de melhoramento de aveia.

  3. Viral RNA levels and env variants in semen and tissues of mature male rhesus macaques infected with SIV by penile inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Fieni

    Full Text Available HIV is shed in semen but the anatomic site of virus entry into the genital secretions is unknown. We determined viral RNA (vRNA levels and the envelope gene sequence in the SIVmac 251 viral populations in the genital tract and semen of 5 adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta that were infected after experimental penile SIV infection. Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 1-9 weeks after infection and the monkeys were necropsied eleven weeks after infection. The axillary lymph nodes, testes, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles were collected and vRNA levels and single-genome analysis of the SIVmac251 env variants was performed. At the time of semen collection, blood vRNA levels were between 3.09 and 7.85 log10 vRNA copies/ml plasma. SIV RNA was found in the axillary lymph nodes of all five monkeys and in 3 of 5 monkeys, all tissues examined were vRNA positive. In these 3 monkeys, vRNA levels (log10 SIVgag copies/ug of total tissue RNA in the axillary lymph node (6.48 ± 0.50 were significantly higher than in the genital tract tissues: testis (3.67 ± 2.16; p<0.05, epididymis (3.08 ± 1.19; p<0.0001, prostate (3.36 ± 1.30; p<0.01, and seminal vesicle (2.67 ± 1.50; p<0.0001. Comparison of the SIVmac251 env viral populations in blood plasma, systemic lymph node, and genital tract tissues was performed in two of the macaques. Visual inspection of the Neighbor-Joining phylograms revealed that in both animals, all the sequences were generally distributed evenly among all tissue compartments. Importantly, viral populations in the genital tissues were not distinct from those in the systemic tissues. Our findings demonstrate striking similarity in the viral populations in the blood and male genital tract tissues within 3 months of penile SIV transmission.

  4. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  5. El desarrollo de la investigación en genética en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Isaza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante la última década la genética y la biología molecular en Colombia han dado un gran salto en su desarrollo. Al revisar las convocatorias nacionales de salud que realiza anualmente el Ministerio de Protección Social a través de Colciencias es posible visualizarlo. Al dar una breve mirada a las cifras estadísticas desde el año 2000, encontramos que el país muestra un claro aumento de la capacidad científica y el recurso humano para investigación en salud, reflejado en el incremento del número de proyectos presentados en cada convocatoria y el aumento considerable en la inversión del país para financiar investigación en salud, llegando en el año 2008 a la cifra de 28,000 millones de pesos.En el año 2000 se presentaron para evaluación a Colciencias 133 proyectos y se aprobaron para ejecución solamente 43 por un monto de 1,585 millones de pesos, mientras que en el 2007 se presentaron 690 y aprobados 103 por un monto de 21,223 millones de pesos. Este año se han presentado 711 proyectos que se encuentran actualmente en evaluación y se dispone de 28,000 millones para financiación. Estas cifras muestran un incremento de siete veces en el número de propuestas y un crecimiento de cerca de 27 veces en el presupuesto durante los últimos 7 años. Es muy claro que los proyectos seleccionados son cada vez de mayor impacto para la salud de los colombianos y ahora entre 20% y 30% de las propuestas presentadas en la modalidad nacional, incluyen temas relacionados con genética o utilizan herramientas de biología molecular. Sin embargo, este porcentaje es mucho menor en la convocatoria regional, lo que muestra una concentración de científicos con preparación en genética y biología molecular en las principales ciuda-des del Colombia, que es lo que se ha denominado el triángulo de oro de la ciencia en Colombia (Medellín, Bogotá y Cali. Es interesante ver los desarrollos de la genética molecular para el estudio de las

  6. El desarrollo de la investigación en genética en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Isaza

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante la última década la genética y la biología molecular en Colombia han dado un gran salto en su desarrollo. Al revisar las convocatorias nacionales de salud que realiza anualmente el Ministerio de Protección Social a través de Colciencias es posible visualizarlo. Al dar una breve mirada a las cifras estadísticas desde el año 2000, encontramos que el país muestra un claro aumento de la capacidad científica y el recurso humano para investigación en salud, reflejado en el incremento del número de proyectos presentados en cada convocatoria y el aumento considerable en la inversión del país para financiar investigación en salud, llegando en el año 2008 a la cifra de 28,000 millones de pesos. En el año 2000 se presentaron para evaluación a Colciencias 133 proyectos y se aprobaron para ejecución solamente 43 por un monto de 1,585 millones de pesos, mientras que en el 2007 se presentaron 690 y aprobados 103 por un monto de 21,223 millones de pesos. Este año se han presentado 711 proyectos que se encuentran actualmente en evaluación y se dispone de 28,000 millones para financiación. Estas cifras muestran un incremento de siete veces en el número de propuestas y un crecimiento de cerca de 27 veces en el presupuesto durante los últimos 7 años. Es muy claro que los proyectos seleccionados son cada vez de mayor impacto para la salud de los colombianos y ahora entre 20% y 30% de las propuestas presentadas en la modalidad nacional, incluyen temas relacionados con genética o utilizan herramientas de biología molecular. Sin embargo, este porcentaje es mucho menor en la convocatoria regional, lo que muestra una concentración de científicos con preparación en genética y biología molecular en las principales ciudades del Colombia, que es lo que se ha denominado el triángulo de oro de la ciencia en Colombia (Medellín, Bogotá y Cali. Es interesante ver los desarrollos de la genética molecular para el estudio de las

  7. Análisis de la Variabilidad Genética entre treinta accesiones de tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet usando marcadores moleculares ISSR

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    Michelle C. Chirinos-Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar el análisis de variabilidad genética inter-accesión de treinta accesiones de tarwi (L. mutabilis Sweet pertenecientes al Banco de Germoplasma del Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria (INIA. Se extrajo el ADN de 300 plantas, se construyeron bulks, se estandarizó el protocolo de amplificación de los marcadores moleculares Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR, de los cuales se eligió a los más polimórficos y nítidos para corrida en gel de acrilamida. Encontrándose 255 bandas con 8 iniciadores ISSR. El análisis de la variabilidad genética con estos iniciadores comprobó una alta variabilidad genética de las muestras en estudio. Observándose también un polimorfismo relativamente alto para una especie autógama como L. mutabilis. Finalmente los fenogramas mostraron una relación con la ubicación geográfica, posiblemente debido al flujo génico in situ debido al intercambio o venta de semillas en ferias o mercados aledaños a la zona de colecta.

  8. El uso de alteraciones genéticas en la estratificación por riesgo del mieloma múltiple

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    Esteban Braggio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios genéticos han alcanzado un papel central en el estudio del mieloma múltiple (MM, al convertirse en un componente crítico en la estratificación basada en el riesgo de la enfermedad. Se han hecho grandes esfuerzos para identificar cambios genéticos que puedan predecir el resultado clínico e incluirlos en la práctica clínica diaria. La hibridización in situ fluorescente (FISH es todavía la técnica genética más utilizada en la práctica clínica, mayormente debido a su sencilla implementación y su simplicidad para el análisis de datos. El advenimiento de la genómica (hibridización genómica comparativa, secuenciación exónica o genómica completa y del transcriptoma de alta resolución (perfiles de expresión de genes - GEP y secuenciación de ARNm proveen un análisis exhaustivo de los ya definidos factores pronósticos genéticos y son herramientas útiles para la identificación de potenciales nuevos marcadores pronósticos de enfermedad en el clon tumoral de MM. Más aún, GEP ha sido exitosamente implementado en MM como una herramienta de estratificación de riesgo, siendo la de mayor poder de discriminación de resultados. De todas maneras, algunos aspectos técnicos y logísticos complejos (necesidad de una elevada purificación del clon tumoral, costo de los ensayos y complejidad en los análisis de los datos deben ser considerados antes de la incorporación definitiva de estas tecnologías de alto rendimiento dentro de los ensayos clínicos de rutina. Hasta entonces, FISH continúa siendo la herramienta estándar para la detección de anormalidades genéticas y de valoración pronóstico de enfermedad.

  9. Análisis de la estructura genética poblacional a partir de polimorfismos de genes asociados con la regulación de la presión arterial en una muestra de Bucaramanga, Colombia

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    Francisco Javier León

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available   Introducción: A pesar que cerca del 40% de la variabilidad en la presión arterial es explicada por factores genéticos, la identificación de genes asociados a la hipertensión arterial esencial es difícil en poblaciones constituidas por individuos con antecedentes genéticos diferentes; en esta circunstancia se debe determinar si la población está sub-estructurada porque esto puede sesgar los estudios de asociación con esta enfermedad.Objetivo: Determinar la estructura genética de la población de Bucaramanga a partir de polimorfismos genéticos asociados con la regulación de la presión arterial: 448G>T, 679C>T y 1711C>T del gen de la quinasa 4 del receptor dopaminérgico acoplado a proteína G y Glu298Asp, -786T>C y el VNTR del intrón 4 del gen de la sintasa de óxido nítrico endotelial.Metodología: Se estudió una muestra de 552 individuos no relacionados mediante análisis de polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción. Se calcularon las frecuencias alélicas, haplotípicas y genotípicas, se determinó el equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg y se realizó un análisis molecular de varianza para determinar la estructura genética.Resultados: Se identificaron 38 haplotipos siendo GCCTG4b el más frecuente (21.2%. El polimorfismo más diverso fue el 448G>T con una frecuencia de heterocigotos del 49.9%. Los seis polimorfismos se encontraron en equilibrio genético y no se evidenció estructura genética poblacional (FST  = 0,0038.Conclusión: La población estudiada no presenta subestructura genética y los polimorfismos analizados se encontraron en equilibrio genético, lo que indica que la población se mezcla aleatoriamente y no existen subgrupos que puedan afectar los resultados de estudios de asociación.  

  10. Delineamento de experimentos em genética genômica Experimental design in genetical genomics

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    Guilherme Jordão de Magalhães Rosa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Genética genômica é um termo utilizado para representar o estudo de processos genéticos controladores de caracteres fenotípicos de herança complexa, a partir da análise conjunta de informação relativa a fenótipos, estruturas de parentesco, marcadores moleculares e expressão gênica. Estudos de genética genômica são utilizados, por exemplo, para a estimação da herdabilidade de níveis de transcrição, para o mapeamento de locos controladores da expressao gênica (eQTL, do inglês expression Quantitative Trait Loci, e para o estudo de redes regulatórias. Genética genômica geralmente envolve experimentos com microarrays, os quais são ainda bastante caros e trabalhosos, limitando o tamanho amostral e conseqüentemente o poder estatístico de tais estudos. Desta maneira, é essencial que tais experimentos sejam otimizados do ponto de vista do delineamento, a partir de criteriosa escolha das amostras (indivíduos a serem utilizadas, e do controle rigoroso dos vários fatores que podem afetar as variáveis-resposta de interesse. Outro ponto fundamental na condução de tais experimentos refere-se à marcação das amostras de mRNA com os fluoróforos e ao pareamento das mesmas em cada lâmina de microarray, os quais devem ser cuidadosamente planejados para que não haja confundimento entre estes efeitos e os fatores biológicos de interesse. Nesta apresentação serão discutidas algumas estratégias para o planejamento de estudos de genética genômica, incluindo a seleção de indivíduos objetivando-se a maximização da dissimilaridade genética ou do número de eventos de recombinação, bem como a condução eficiente dos ensaios com microarrays para diferentes objetivos experimentais.Genetical genomics experiments combine information on phenotypic traits, molecular markers and gene expression to study the genetic mechanisms governing variation in complex traits. Such studies can be used, for example, to estimate

  11. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Paul Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  12. Expresión del gen esp (enterococcus surface protein de enterococcus faecalis en un modelo in vitro de dientes extraídos

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    E. Covo Morales

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la presencia y expresión del gen esp en cepas clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis a partir de un modelo in vitro de dientes extraídos. Métodos: Se diseñó un sistema in vitro para evaluar la formación del biofilm mediante microscopía de fluorescencia y la expresión del gen esp. El sistema estuvo constituido por un diente humano previamente extraído, cortado y preparado que proporcionó, mediante su conducto radicular, una superficie adecuada para la formación del biofilm por parte de E. faecalis. El sistema dispuso de una cámara anaerobia que permitió el crecimiento de la bacteria en el caldo de cultivo y evitó su contaminación con otros microorganismos. Esta cámara estuvo constituida por un tubo de micro centrifuga estéril, cortado y unido por el extremo inferior al extremo apical del diente seccionado. Resultados: Los resultados que se obtuvieron tanto por microscopia de fluorescencia como por RT-PCR permitieron cuantificar el nivel de expresión del gen esp en las bacterias durante su crecimiento y formando el biofilm en la superficie de los conductos radiculares. Todas las cepas evaluadas presentan el gen esp. Sin embargo, el biofilm de la cepa CC02 expresó el gen esp cuatro veces más en comparación al gen esp de la cepa de referencia. Conclusión: La expresión del gen esp podría estar asociada con la formación de biofilm en E. faecalis y la adherencia a superficies abióticas. Podría convertirse en una diana terapéutica prometedora en los programas de control de infecciones persistentes por Enterococcus spp. asociados a la presencia de biofilm.

  13. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de genótipos de aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata D.C.

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    Maria Inês Sucupira Maciel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a aceroleira, decorrente principalmente da propagação por sementes, tem dado origem a plantios comerciais cujos frutos apresentam parâmetros de qualidade diferenciados. Características físico-químicas de frutos de 18 genótipos de aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata DC. do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - UFRPE foram avaliados. O rendimento em polpa variou de 41,06% (PL 40 a 72,54% (PL 43 e, com exceção do genótipo PL 37, os demais apresentaram frutos com teores de ácido ascórbico superiores a 1000 mg.100 g-1. O genótipo PL 39 destacou-se por apresentar o maior teor de ácido ascórbico (1667 mg.100 g-1, SST e flavonóis (15,04 mg.100 g-1, além de elevado teor de antocianinas, sendo, portanto, o mais promissor. Os frutos do genótipo PL 34 revelaram o maior valor de SST/ATT, indicando ser o mais doce

  14. Paring Down HIV Env: Design and Crystal Structure of a Stabilized Inner Domain of HIV-1 gp120 Displaying a Major ADCC Target of the A32 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, William D; Gohain, Neelakshi; Veillette, Maxime; Chapleau, Jean-Philippe; Orlandi, Chiara; Visciano, Maria L; Ebadi, Maryam; DeVico, Anthony L; Fouts, Timothy R; Finzi, Andrés; Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena

    2016-05-03

    Evidence supports a role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) toward transitional epitopes in the first and second constant (C1-C2) regions of gp120 (A32-like epitopes) in preventing HIV-1 infection and in vaccine-induced protection. Here, we describe the first successful attempt at isolating the inner domain (ID) of gp120 as an independent molecule that encapsulates the A32-like region within a minimal structural unit of the HIV-1 Env. Through structure-based design, we developed ID2, which consists of the ID expressed independently of the outer domain and stabilized in the CD4-bound conformation by an inter-layer disulfide bond. ID2 expresses C1-C2 epitopes in the context of CD4-triggered full-length gp120 but without any known neutralizing epitope present. Thus, ID2 represents a novel probe for the analysis and/or selective induction of antibody responses to the A32 epitope region. We also present the crystal structure of ID2 complexed with mAb A32, which defines its epitope.

  15. HIV-1 Env DNA vaccine plus protein boost delivered by EP expands B- and T-cell responses and neutralizing phenotype in vivo.

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    Kar Muthumani

    Full Text Available An effective HIV vaccine will most likely require the induction of strong T-cell responses, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs, and the elicitation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC. Previously, we demonstrated the induction of strong HIV/SIV cellular immune responses in macaques and humans using synthetic consensus DNA immunogens delivered via adaptive electroporation (EP. However, the ability of this improved DNA approach to prime for relevant antibody responses has not been previously studied. Here, we investigate the immunogenicity of consensus DNA constructs encoding gp140 sequences from HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C and D in a DNA prime-protein boost vaccine regimen. Mice and guinea pigs were primed with single- and multi-clade DNA via EP and boosted with recombinant gp120 protein. Sera were analyzed for gp120 binding and induction of neutralizing antibody activity. Immunization with recombinant Env protein alone induced low-titer binding antibodies with limited neutralization breath. In contrast, the synthetic DNA prime-protein boost protocol induced significantly higher antibody binding titers. Furthermore, sera from DNA prime-protein boost groups were able to neutralize a broader range of viruses in a panel of tier 1 clade B viruses as well as multiple tier 1 clade A and clade C viruses. Further investigation of synthetic DNA prime plus adaptive EP plus protein boost appears warranted.

  16. Use of a high resolution melting (HRM assay to compare gag, pol, and env diversity in adults with different stages of HIV infection.

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    Matthew M Cousins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional assessment of HIV incidence relies on laboratory methods to discriminate between recent and non-recent HIV infection. Because HIV diversifies over time in infected individuals, HIV diversity may serve as a biomarker for assessing HIV incidence. We used a high resolution melting (HRM diversity assay to compare HIV diversity in adults with different stages of HIV infection. This assay provides a single numeric HRM score that reflects the level of genetic diversity of HIV in a sample from an infected individual. METHODS: HIV diversity was measured in 203 adults: 20 with acute HIV infection (RNA positive, antibody negative, 116 with recent HIV infection (tested a median of 189 days after a previous negative HIV test, range 14-540 days, and 67 with non-recent HIV infection (HIV infected >2 years. HRM scores were generated for two regions in gag, one region in pol, and three regions in env. RESULTS: Median HRM scores were higher in non-recent infection than in recent infection for all six regions tested. In multivariate models, higher HRM scores in three of the six regions were independently associated with non-recent HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The HRM diversity assay provides a simple, scalable method for measuring HIV diversity. HRM scores, which reflect the genetic diversity in a viral population, may be useful biomarkers for evaluation of HIV incidence, particularly if multiple regions of the HIV genome are examined.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of env, gag, and tat genes of HIV type 1 detected among the injecting drug users in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Ranajoy; Sengupta, Satarupa; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Saha, M K; Chakrabarti, Sekhar

    2006-12-01

    A recent occurrence of HIV-1 seropositivity among a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Darjeeling, a hilly district in northern West Bengal, revealed overall 11.8% HIV seroprevalence. Our study based on env (C2-V3), gag (p24-p7), and tat (exon-1) genomic regions of HIV-1 detected among this population showed that Darjeeling IDU sequences belonged to subtype C. Interestingly, the IDU sequences from Darjeeling were again found to be closer to the C strains from Manipur, a northeastern state in India, which is linked to the Golden Triangle via the Manipur-Myanmar border, rather than the IDU C sequences from Nepal, a neighboring country of India. The outgroup reference strains from different sites of IDU-driven epidemics in the world like Russia, Vietnam, Thailand, and Spain belonged to the nonsubtype C group and formed separate clusters from the subtype C cluster in our analysis. These results indicate a rapid spread of HIV-1 by possible drug trafficking along international boundaries, which might also help in the invasion of HIV-1 among IDUs of Darjeeling through the Manipur-Myanmar border of India.

  18. POLA EKSPRESI GEN ENHANCED GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN PADA EMBRIO DAN LARVA IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

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    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2016-04-01

    menggunakan gen reporter berguna untuk mendesain konstruksi gen yang akan digunakan pada penelitian transgenesis. Gen reporter yang umum digunakan dalam penelitian ekspresi sementara transgen adalah gen GFP (green fluorescent protein. Pengamatan gen EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein pada embrio dan larva ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus ditujukan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai kemampuan promoter -aktin ikan mas dalam mengendalikan ekspresi gen EGFP. Gen EGFP diintroduksikan ke dalam sperma ikan patin siam menggunakan metode elektroporasi. Sperma yang telah dielektroporasi digunakan untuk membuahi sel telur ikan patin siam. Pengamatan ekspresi gen EGFP dilakukan setiap enam jam dimulai dari embrio fase 2 sel sampai larva. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, gen EGFP terekspresi pada fase embrio dan larva ikan patin siam. Puncak ekspresi gen EGFP terjadi pada fase neurula dan menurun pada fase larva. Berdasarkan penelitian ini maka ikan patin siam transgenik telah berhasil dibentuk dan promoter -aktin ikan mas terbukti aktif dalam mengarahkan ekspresi gen asing (GFP di dalam tubuh ikan patin siam.

  19. Complete epitopes for vaccine design derived from a crystal structure of the broadly neutralizing antibodies PGT128 and 8ANC195 in complex with an HIV-1 Env trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Leopold; Torrents de la Peña, Alba; Deller, Marc C; Garces, Fernando; Sliepen, Kwinten; Hua, Yuanzi; Stanfield, Robyn L; Sanders, Rogier W; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-10-01

    The HIV-1 envelope gp160 glycoprotein (Env) is a trimer of gp120 and gp41 heterodimers that mediates cell entry and is the primary target of the humoral immune response. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 have revealed multiple epitopes or sites of vulnerability, but mapping of most of these sites is incomplete owing to a paucity of structural information on the full epitope in the context of the Env trimer. Here, a crystal structure of the soluble BG505 SOSIP gp140 trimer at 4.6 Å resolution with the bNAbs 8ANC195 and PGT128 reveals additional interactions in comparison to previous antibody-gp120 structures. For 8ANC195, in addition to previously documented interactions with gp120, a substantial interface with gp41 is now elucidated that includes extensive interactions with the N637 glycan. Surprisingly, removal of the N637 glycan did not impact 8ANC195 affinity, suggesting that the antibody has evolved to accommodate this glycan without loss of binding energy. PGT128 indirectly affects the N262 glycan by a domino effect, in which PGT128 binds to the N301 glycan, which in turn interacts with and repositions the N262 glycan, thereby illustrating the important role of neighboring glycans on epitope conformation and stability. Comparisons with other Env trimer and gp120 structures support an induced conformation for glycan N262, suggesting that the glycan shield is allosterically modified upon PGT128 binding. These complete epitopes of two broadly neutralizing antibodies on the Env trimer can now be exploited for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  20. Diversidad genética en cerdos criollos mexicanos con genes candidatos asociados a características productivas

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    Alejandro Antonio González Sarabia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la variabilidad, diversidad y distancias genéticas entre cerdos criollos, Pelón Mexicano (CPM y Cuinos (CC, con Yorkshire, cuanto a los genes candidatos CAST, DECR1, HAL, HFABP4, LEP, LIPE, MCR4, MYOG, RN y CHX, a través de analysis por PCR-RFLP. Se evaluaron 180 cerdos: 59 CPM, 65 CC y 56 Yorkshire. Se analizaron las frecuencias génicas y genotípicas, heterocigosidad, distancias genéticas y árboles filogenéticos entre grupos raciales. Para CAST, DECR1, HFABP4, LEP, MCR4 y CHX las frecuencias génicas y genotípicas fueron diferentes al comparar las tres razas. En LIPE, los CC fueron iguales a los Yorkshire; en cuanto a MYOG, los CPM fueron iguales a los Yorkshire. No hubo diferencias entre poblaciones criollas y Yorkshire en las frecuencias génicas y genotípicas para HAL y RN. Los cerdos Yorkshire presentaron mayor frecuencia en alelos favorables para CAST, LIPE, MCR4 y MYOG, menor frecuencia de DECR1, HFABP4, CHX, y moderada en LEP. La heterocigosidad promedio para todos los genes fue mayor en CPM (0,42±0,05 y similar en CC (0,33±0,06 y Yorkshire (0,35±0,05. Al calcular distancias genéticas con todos los genes, los CC se encuentran más distantes de los Yorkshire.

  1. Expresión transitoria del gen GUS en caña de azúcar usando Agrobacterium tumefaciens

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    Martha Liliana Bonilla Betancourt

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se desarrolló una metodología de transformación genética mediante Agrobacterium tumefaciens en cultivares colombianos de caña de azúcar. La transformación se evaluó mediante la expresión del gen GUS. Callos embriogénicos y explantes meristemáticos de los genotipos CC85-92, CC84-75 y CC87-505 se transformaron usando tres cepas (AGL-1, LBA4404 y EHA105 con el plásmido pCambia 1305.2 y dos (EHA105 y LBA4404 con pCambia 2301. Se usó el medio de infiltración (IM con acetosiringona y se evaluó el tiempo de cocultivo y la densidad óptica de la bacteria al momento de la inducción. Los genotipos mostraron respuesta diferencial con las combinaciones cepa-plásmido: obtuvieron mayor expresión del gen GUS cuando el genotipo CC85-92 se transformó con la cepa AGL-1-pCambia 1305.2. CC84-75 y CC87-505 mostraron mayor expresión cuando se transformaron con la cepa EHA105-pCambia 1305.2. Mayor eficiencia en la expresión se obtuvo cuando la bacteria se indujo en IM después de siete días de cocultivo y cuando la densidad óptica de la bacteria fue de 0.2(600nm al momento de la inducción. Se demostró superioridad de los explantes en la eficiencia de transformación.

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity in the Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia based on ISSR genetic markers Avaliação da diversidade genética em Oliva Russa (Elaeagnus angustifolia com base em marcadores genéticos ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadat Asadiar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elaeagnus is a Eurasian tree with 77 species worldwide. In this study, ISSR markers were used to establish the level of genetic relationships and polymorphism across nine genotypes of Elaeagnus angustifolia collected from 9 different regions of West Azarbaijan province. The ISSR analysis with 11 anchored primers also generated 116 scorable loci, of which 92 were polymorphic (79.3%. The estimated Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.44 to 0.76 for the ISSR markers. Cluster analysis was carried out, based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA and the dendrogram drawn with the help of the NTSYSpc 2.02 software. The analysis revealed 5 main clusters for the ISSR data. According to our results, there is a relatively high genetic distance across E. angustifolia genotypes in the West Azarbaijan province of Iran. Furthermore, it could be inferred that ISSR markers are suitable tools for the evaluation of genetic diversity and relationships within the Elaeagnus genus.A Elaeagnus é uma árvore da Eurásia com 77 espécies em todo o mundo. Neste estudo, marcadores ISSR foram usados para estabelecer o nível de relações genéticas e polimorfismo entre nove genótipos de Elaeagnus angustifolia, coletados em 9 diferentes regiões da província do Azerbaijão Ocidental. A análise ISSR, com 11 primers ancorados, também gerou 116 loci contáveis, dos quais 92 polimórficos (79,3%. O coeficiente de similaridade de Jaccard estimado, variou de 0,44 a 0,76 para os marcadores ISSR. A análise de agrupamento foi realizada com base no Método não-ponderado de pares não-agrupados, com médias aritméticas (UPGMA, e a dendrograma elaborada com a ajuda do software NTSYSpc 2.02. A análise revelou cinco grupos principais para os dados ISSR. De acordo com nossos resultados, há uma distância genética relativamente alta entre genótipos de E. angustifolia na província de Azarbaijan Ocidental no Iran. Além disso, pode

  3. Estimación de la repetitividad y selección genética de árboles de cacao aromático con material genético de EE-INIA-San Martin y de la UC de Lebuaf, en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Oliva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de cacao, es una de las actividades más importantes en la Amazonía Peruana. Su base genética estásustentada en la introducción de clones mejorados, por lo que el potencial genético local que están en losbancos de germoplasmano está siendo bien utilizados debido al limitado estudio en mejoramiento genético.Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo estimar la repetibilidad para la selección genética de árboles con altorendimiento de granos de cacao aromático. El análisis de selección genética fue ejecutado con el softwareSELEGEN REML/BLUP, en una data de 3 años de evaluación de rendimiento de granos kg/árbol, pesopromedio de granos (g y peso promedio de mazorcas (kg en el banco de Germoplasma de INIA-San Martin yUnidad de Conservación de Lebuaf SAC. La repetibilidad individual para rendimiento de granos/árbol y pesopromedio de granos fue moderada con (0,52 y (0,30 respectivamente, lo que no ocurrió con el pesopromedio de la mazorca que fue baja con (0,24. La variable con mayor estabilidad fue el rendimiento degranos/árbol, quien arrojo en 3 cosechas 0,77, propiciando una exactitud selectiva de 0,88. Genotipossuperiores pueden ser seleccionados con precisión con 4 a 5 cosechas. La selección y clonación de los 20mejores genotipos o árboles selectos deberán propiciar una ganancia genética de 112%, elevando laproductividad media anual de granos por árbol de 1,24 kg/árbol a 1,54kg/árbol.

  4. Estimación mediante RAPD's de la diversidad genética en Guadua en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio M. Juan Diego

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Mediante RAPD's se analizaron 120 muestras foliares de 12 biotipos de Guadua angustifolia Kunth clasificados morfológicamente, procedentes de la cuenca del río Cauca, en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia, para determinar diversidad genética. El ADN se extrajo mediante el protocolo modificado de Dellaporta (1983. Se emplearon los cebadores; OPF-12, OPG-19, OPN-19 y OPP-16 con mayor número de bandas polimórficas. El índice de Shannon (HT = 0.4556 ± 0.1849 señaló diversidad genética total alta y diversidad entre los biotipos y al interior de ellos. El Índice de estructura genética (Gst = 0.5200 e Indice de migración efectiva (Nm = 0.4615 definieron biotipos bien diferenciados. El análisis de similaridad conformó tres grupos a un coeficiente de 0.64. El grupo G1 incluyó los biotipos Curvado, Rayada frecuente, Amarilla Playón, Rayada ancha, Rayada escasa, Convexa, Amarilla, Hembra, Verde irregular y algunos individuos de verde alta. El grupo G2, Verde alta y Macho. El grupo G3, Rayada negra. El estudio molecular agrupó los individuos de forma similar al estudio morfológico, con excepción de los individuos del biotipo Hembra.

    Palabras claves: Guadua angustifolia, caracterización molecular, variación genética.

  5. Evaluación genética del recurso animal de los sistemas de producción de bovinos en doble propósito en Colombia / Genetic evaluation of dual purpose production systems in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Galeano Rivera, Adriana Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar el verdadero potencial genético del recurso animal disponible en los sistemas de producción bovina de doble propósito del trópico bajo colombiano, se evaluaron los registros de producción de leche por lactancia (Kg), peso al destete (Kg), intervalo entre partos (d) e Índice de Vaca, de 1.687 hembras reproductoras, durante los años 1998 y 2007. Se empleó un modelo animal mixto que incluyó los efectos genéticos aleatorios del animal, el medio ambiente permanente y ...

  6. Diagnóstico genético preimplantacional (DGP): Revisión de la metodología y de las aplicaciones clínicas actuales.

    OpenAIRE

    CARMONA SERRANO, CRISTINA MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El diagnóstico genético preimplantacional (DGP) es una forma de diagnóstico temprano que se desarrolló gracias a la aparición de las técnicas de reproducción asistida que hoy conocemos como la Fecundación In Vitro (FIV) y la Inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides (ICSI). Este diagnóstico nos permite de forma precoz detectar mediante estudios genéticos enfermedades monogénicas, anomalías cromosomales así como determinar el sexo de los embriones antes de transferirlos al útero y ...

  7. Caracterización de las bases genético-moleculares y ambientales relacionadas con la variabilidad interindividual en la respuesta a ANTI-TNF en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal.

    OpenAIRE

    Lacruz Guzmán, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: investigar la relación entre la respuesta a los tratamientos anti-TNF en pacientes con EII y factores genéticos y ambientales. Método: estudio longitudinal de todos los pacientes con EII de un Hospital Universitario, en tratamiento con terapias anti-TNF. La respuesta al tratamiento se determinó mediante el uso del cuestionario CDAI (enfermedad de Crohn), y la determinación de las concentraciones séricas de proteína C reactiva. Los factores genéticos y bioquímicos se estudiaron me...

  8. Aplicación de herramientas moleculares para la detección y caracterización genética de Toxoplasma gondii en muestras de pacientes con sida

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Fernández, Yenisey

    2013-01-01

    Con el objetivo de contribuir al diagnóstico y caracterización genética de Toxoplasma gondii en pacientes con sida, se aplicaron herramientas moleculares para la detección e identificación de los genotipos de este parásito, directamente a partir de muestras clínicas. De esta forma, se optimizaron tres protocolos de PCR y PCR anidada para el gen B1 de T. gondii, se evaluaron diferentes métodos de extracción de ADN para muestras de LCR, sangre y orina; y se identificaron los protocolos más efic...

  9. GENLAB, Laboratorio Virtual de Genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García S.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available GenLab es el nombre que tiene el software diseñado por nosotros en el cual se modela el pro-ceso meiótico y la fecundación en organismos diploides. El objetivo de esta aplicación es el deilustrar el cruce de un resultado determinado, tratando de ser lo más ajustados a la realidad.La modelación de la reproducción sexual se realiza internamente y el GenLab se limita a presen-tar los resultados según el número de la descendencia seleccionado, para un cruce específico,esto significa que se puede escoger una gran cantidad de características para los parentalesy se puede estudiar la frecuencia de estos en la descendencia.

  10. Dissimilaridade genética entre genótipos de aveia Genetic dissimilarity among oat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Dezoito genótipos de aveia foram testados quanto à dissimilaridade genética, com e sem o controle de moléstias da parte aérea. As variáveis avaliadas foram rendimento de grãos desaristados, peso de mil grãos, peso do hectolitro, estatura de planta e dias da emergência à floração. Foram empregados análises por variáveis canônicas e técnicas de agrupamento por meio dos métodos de otimização de Tocher e o método hierárquico do vizinho mais próximo, tendo como medida de dissimilaridade a distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Pelos resultados, constatou-se significativa dissimilaridade genética entre os genótipos, indicando a existência de variabilidade para os caracteres avaliados. O método de Tocher e o método do vizinho mais próximo permitiram a separação dos genótipos em grupos distintos, possibilitando a identificação de futuros genitores que possam ser utilizados em cruzamentos artificiais que produzam progênies com maior heterose. Os caracteres que mais contribuíram para a dissimilaridade genética foram o peso do hectolitro e a estatura de planta.Eighteen oat genotypes were tested for genetic dissimilarity, with and without shoot disease control. The evaluated variables were grain yield, weight of one thousand grains, test weight, plant stature and days from emergence to flowering. Cannonical variables and clustering methods by Tocher's optimization test and the hierarchical method of nearest neighbor were employed, having as a measure of dissimilarity the general distance of Mahalanobis. The results showed a significant genetic dissimilarity among the genotypes, indicating the presence of genetic variability for the evaluated traits. Tocher's and nearest neighbor methods allowed the separation of genotypes in distinct groups, enabling the identification of potential parents for artificial crosses to obtain progenies with higher heterosis. The major traits contributing to genetic dissimilarity in our study

  11. Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. n. sp., a putative monocotyledon angiosperm from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohr

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (northeast Brazil contains plant remains, here described as Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. and n. sp., consisting of shoot fragments with jointed trifurcate axes, each axis bearing a single amplexicaul serrate leaf at the apex. The leaves show a flabellate acrodromous to parallelodromous venation pattern, with several primary, secondary and higher order cross-veins. This very unique fossil taxon shares many characters with monocots. However, this fossil taxon exhibits additional features which point to a partly reduced, and specialized plant, which probably enabled this plant to grow in (seasonally dry, even salty environments. In der unterkretazischen Cratoformation (Nordostbrasilien sind Pflanzenfossilien erhalten, die hier als Trifurcatia flabellata n. gen. n. sp. beschrieben werden. Sie bestehen aus trifurcaten Achsen, mit einem apikalen amplexicaulen fächerförmigen serraten Blatt. Diese Blätter zeigen eine flabellate bis acrodrome-paralellodrome Aderung mit Haupt- und Nebenadern und transversale Adern 3. Ordnung. Diese Merkmale sind typisch für Monocotyledone. Allerdings weist dieses Taxon einige Merkmale auf, die weder bei rezenten noch fossilen Monocotyledonen beobachtet werden. Sie müssen als besondere Anpassungen an einen (saisonal trockenen und vielleicht übersalzenen Lebensraum dieser Pflanze interpretiert werden. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050121

  12. Amplificación del gen hsp18 para la detección de Mycobacterium leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Calderón E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediante PCR se amplificó un fragmento de 360 pb del gen hsp18, que codifica al antígeno proteico de 18kDa de M. leprae, a partir de una biopsia de un paciente con diagnóstico baciloscópico, histopatológico y clínico de lepra. Además, se evaluaron tejidos embebidos en parafina (fijados en formol y ADN de otras micobacterias para determinar la especificidad, sensibilidad y confiabilidad del método. El ensayo de PCR amplificó clara y satisfactoriamente ADN de M. leprae procedente de la biopsia del paciente, pero fue incapaz de amplificar usando ADN purificado a partir de tejidos embebidos en parafina. No se observaron productos de amplificación al utilizar ADN genómico de varias micobacterias tales como M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. kansasii, M. scrofulaceum, M. avium entre otras, así como de otras bacterias. Este sistema puede considerarse como una alternativa para la identificación de pacientes infectados con M. leprae orientando el esfuerzo para determinar la prevalencia oculta de la enfermedad mediante la identificación de casos asintomáticos con capacidad de transmisión de bacilos.

  13. New species of Monepidosis Mamaev, 1966 and Antipodosis gen. nov., a closely related genus from New Zealand (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Jaschhof

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Monepidosis Mamaev, 1966, a Holarctic genus of Porricondylinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, are described: M. heterocera sp. nov. from Sweden and Germany, M. scepteroides sp. nov. from Sweden, and M. shikokuensis sp. nov. from Japan. A new porricondyline genus, Antipodosis gen. nov., is introduced for eight new species from New Zealand, named A. australis gen. et sp. nov., A. elongata gen. et sp. nov., A. granvillensis gen. et sp. nov., A. pureora gen. et sp. nov., A. rakiura gen. et sp. nov., A. rotoiti gen. et sp. nov., A. rotoroa gen. et sp. nov., and A. waipapa gen. et sp. nov. Male genitalic morphology indicates that Monepidosis and Antipodosis gen. nov. are closely related, together forming the Monepidosis group of genera, which stands out from the other Porricondylini. Monepidosis spatulata Spungis, 2006, a species originally described from Latvia and Lithuania, is for the first time reported to occur in Sweden.

  14. The GenABEL Project for statistical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssen, Lennart C; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Aulchenko, Yurii S

    2016-01-01

    Development of free/libre open source software is usually done by a community of people with an interest in the tool. For scientific software, however, this is less often the case. Most scientific software is written by only a few authors, often a student working on a thesis. Once the paper describing the tool has been published, the tool is no longer developed further and is left to its own device. Here we describe the broad, multidisciplinary community we formed around a set of tools for statistical genomics. The GenABEL project for statistical omics actively promotes open interdisciplinary development of statistical methodology and its implementation in efficient and user-friendly software under an open source licence. The software tools developed withing the project collectively make up the GenABEL suite, which currently consists of eleven tools. The open framework of the project actively encourages involvement of the community in all stages, from formulation of methodological ideas to application of software to specific data sets. A web forum is used to channel user questions and discussions, further promoting the use of the GenABEL suite. Developer discussions take place on a dedicated mailing list, and development is further supported by robust development practices including use of public version control, code review and continuous integration. Use of this open science model attracts contributions from users and developers outside the "core team", facilitating agile statistical omics methodology development and fast dissemination.

  15. Variabilidad genética del crecimiento en progenies selectas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Heredabilidad en sentido estricto (h2, correlación genética intra-clase (Γ2 IC y componentes de varianza para la altura, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP y volumen del fuste, a los siete años de edad después de la plantación, fueron analizados en dos ensayos de progenie de Pinus radiata establecidos en el sur de Chile, en orden a examinar la variabilidad genética del crecimiento en una generación avanzada de la especie. Estos ensayos incluyeron árboles provenientes de propagación vegetativa y generativa. Las heredabilidades fueron estimadas para los árboles originados de semillas, y mostraron los siguientes valores: altura, 0.08-0.13; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0-0.13; volumen del fuste, 0-0.09. Los valores de la correlación genética intra-clase, estimados para el grupo de árboles originados de propagación vegetativa, fueron moderados a bajos (Γ2 IC: altura, 0.1-0.11; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0.01-0.05; volumen del fuste, 0.03-0.06. No obstante la presencia de heredabilidades y correlaciones moderadas para algunas características y, la variación relativamente limitada entre grupos de árboles reflejan la fuerte selección realizada a las progenies. En general, los árboles provenientes de estacas presentaron una tendencia a la menor variación intra-genotípica, y evidenciaron magnitudes relativas de las varianzas debida al grupo (σ2 G mayores a las varianzas familiares (σ2 F, en cuatro de seis caracteres evaluados, indicando una tendencia a la mayor homogeneidad en el crecimiento, característica común de la propagación vegetativa.

  16. Variabilidad genética del crecimiento en progenies selectas de Pinus radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Heredabilidad en sentido estricto (h2, correlación genética intra-clase (Γ2IC y componentes de varianza para la altura, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP y volumen del fuste, a los siete años de edad después de la plantación, fueron analizados en dos ensayos de progenie de Pinus radiata establecidos en el sur de Chile, en orden a examinar la variabilidad genética del crecimiento en una generación avanzada de la especie. Estos ensayos incluyeron árboles provenientes de propagación vegetativa y generativa. Las heredabilidades fueron estimadas para los árboles originados de semillas, y mostraron los siguientes valores: altura, 0.08-0.13; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0-0.13; volumen del fuste, 0-0.09. Los valores de la correlación genética intra-clase, estimados para el grupo de árboles originados de propagación vegetativa, fueron moderados a bajos (Γ2IC: altura, 0.1-0.11; diámetro a la altura del pecho, 0.01-0.05; volumen del fuste, 0.03-0.06. No obstante la presencia de heredabilidades y correlaciones moderadas para algunas características y, la variación relativamente limitada entre grupos de árboles reflejan la fuerte selección realizada a las progenies. En general, los árboles provenientes de estacas presentaron una tendencia a la menor variación intra-genotípica, y evidenciaron magnitudes relativas de las varianzas debida al grupo (σ2G mayores a las varianzas familiares (σ2F, en cuatro de seis caracteres evaluados, indicando una tendencia a la mayor homogeneidad en el crecimiento, característica común de la propagación vegetativa.

  17. Bromatological characterization of maize genotypes for silage=Caracterização bromatológica de genótipos de milho para silagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bertoncelli

    2012-10-01

    realizada quando as plantas apresentavam estádio pastoso a farináceo, ensiladas em microssilos de PVC de 100 mm, e desensilados após 60 dias. Verificou-se que as diferentes bases genéticas, bem como genótipos de diferentes texturas não influenciam na indicação de genótipos de milho. Os genótipos de milho do ciclo precoce-normal comportam-se de maneira similar para a maioria das características avaliadas, exceto para o diâmetro de colmo e matéria seca do colmo. Além disso, os genótipos de milho têm características indicadas para a produção de silagem de qualidade.

  18. Modelo para la determinación de los marcadores genéticos de la respuesta inmunitaria en poblaciones colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond J. Yunis

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Basados en nuestra experiencia, es posible estudiar factores genéticos del complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad (CMH en varias enfermedades inmunológicas, o también factores genéticos que influyen en la falta de respuesta inmunitaria a vacunas como la hepatitis B. Los alelos de diferentes loci del CMH sirven por sí mismos para identificar riesgos para enfermedades o falta de respuesta a vacunas. El bloque de genes del CMH, que pueden existir al nivel de la población, en desequilibrio de enlace genético, es un mayor marcador para estudiar la susceptibilidad genética a enfermedades como las atopías así como también la falta de respuesta a vacunas. Nosotros proponemos que un estudio inmunogenético de poblaciones colombianas, podría utilizarse como control para identificar susceptibilidad genética para el desarrollo de atopías a los ácaros del polvo y a los hongos (mohos, que son alergenos comunes en Colombia. También, la existencia de una gran susceptibilidad para la hepatitis delta en la región norte de Colombia, indica que un estudio inmunogenético de identificación de haplotipos colombianos asociados con la falta de respuesta a la vacuna contra la hepatitis B serían muy útiles.

    La identificación de individuos que no responden a vacunas comunes, sugeriría que ellos son más susceptibles a adquirir la hepatitis. En consecuencia, será necesario desarrollar otras vacunas con diferentes ntígenos para proteger a esa población.

  19. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  20. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio Solano Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la 'escoba de bruja' en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presen- ta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cer- canas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Trans- cribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evi- dente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de

    0.6143 y un Indice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a

    alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  1. Saúde coletiva, nova genética e a eugenia de mercado Collective health, the new genetics, and market eugenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida Cardoso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com os constantes avanços das técnicas de manipulação genética, o campo da saúde coletiva passou a lidar com a possibilidade de surgimento de uma ênfase genômica reducionista, para além das influências sócio-culturais. Nestas circunstâncias, o foco principal das intervenções em saúde coletiva voltar-se-ia para a abordagem genômica de "indivíduos" e suas "famílias" em detrimento de seu consagrado objeto - "populações". Assim, seria deslocada a prioridade central dos esforços (e recursos para reduzir o adoecimento em função das desigualdades sócio-econômicas. Ao lado dos benefícios dos conhecimentos genéticos, há a possibilidade de surgimento de novas práticas eugênicas a partir da disponibilização de testagens genéticas no mercado, com vistas à aquisição pelos indivíduos interessados, desde que estes sejam capazes de atuarem como respectivos agentes de consumo.Due to constant advances in genetic manipulation, the field of public health is faced with the possible emergence of a reductionist genomic emphasis, beyond socio-cultural influences. Under such circumstances, the main focus of public health interventions would shift towards a genomic approach to "individuals" and their "families", to the detriment of their consecrated object - "populations", thereby moving away from the current central priority of efforts (and resources aimed at reducing ill-health due to socioeconomic inequalities. Even admitting the benefits of genetic knowledge, a new eugenic practice may emerge from the availability of genetic tests on the marketplace aimed at individuals that can afford to consume them.

  2. Análisis de la diversidad genética de 21 aislamientos del hongo Moniliophthora roreri basado en marcadores RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Gutarra Castillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar la diversidad genética de 21 aislamientos del hongo que afecta al cultivo del cacao, Moniliophthora roreri, en tres zonas cacaoteras del Perú (Tocache, Mariscal Cáceres y Leoncio Prado. Métodos: Se utilizó 14 iniciadores RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA polimórficos y una pareja de oligonucleótidos, los que fueron empleados bajo condiciones de amplificación estandarizadas. Con los datos obtenidos se construyó un dendograma utilizando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el algoritmo UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Arithmetic Average. La estructura genética fue estimada en función del análisis molecular de variancia (AMOVA y la diversidad mediante los índices de Shannon y Nei. Resultados: Fueron conseguidas 59 bandas RAPD con un 73% de polimorfismo. El dendograma obtenido a un índice de similitud de 0,70, claramente dividió los individuos en tres grupos. El análisis de la diversidad genética mostró altos valores en las zonas estudiadas de acuerdo con el índice de Shannon (0,3936 y de Nei (0,2622, con mayor riqueza en Leoncio Prado. Estas zonas presentan alta variabilidad, y según el AMOVA realizado: 88% entre accesiones por zona y solo 12% entre zonas. Conclusiones: Existe más de un grupo genético de Moniliophthora roreri en la Amazonía del Perú. Estos grupos, provenientes del Ecuador, pudieron haber ingresado por el intercambio de semillas y/o de forma natural por medio de los ríos en común y estarían originando nuevos grupos genéticos locales.

  3. Crescimento de genótipos de frangos tipo caipira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Veloso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivou-se com este trabalho comparar o padrão de crescimento, mediante ajustes das respectivas curvas de crescimento por modelos não lineares, bem como estudar o desenvolvimento de cortes de carcaça em relação ao peso da carcaça em diferentes genótipos de frangos tipo caipira. Foram utilizados 840 pintos de um dia, machos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, dos seguintes genótipos da linhagem Redbro: Caboclo, Carijó, Colorpak, Gigante Negro, Pesadão Vermelho, Pescoço Pelado e Tricolor. As aves foram alojadas em 28 boxes, sendo 30 aves/boxe, em galpão de alvenaria com acesso a um piquete de 45m², com quatro repetições. O peso corporal individual dos frangos foi medido ao nascer, aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 e 84 dias de idade. Para a determinação das curvas de crescimento do peso corporal das aves, os dados coletados foram avaliados por meio dos modelos não lineares: Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, Richards e von Bertalanffy. Foi empregado o PROC NLIN do SAS, utilizando-se o método interativo de Gauss-Newton. Os critérios usados para escolha do modelo de melhor ajuste da curva de crescimento foram o coeficiente de determinação, o desvio padrão assintótico, o desvio médio absoluto dos resíduos e o índice assintótico. As análises para obtenção dos coeficientes alométricos foram realizadas por meio do PROC GLM do SAS para os genótipos Carijó, Colorpak, Pesadão Vermelho, Pescoço Pelado e Tricolor. Foram avaliados os pesos da carcaça, do peito, das coxas, das sobrecoxas, das pernas e das asas das aves abatidas aos 85 dias de idade. Apenas as equações propostas por Gompertz, von Bertalanffy e Logístico atingiram a convergência, e o modelo proposto por von Bertalanffy foi o mais adequado para descrever o crescimento dos genótipos de frangos caipiras. Todos os cortes avaliados apresentaram crescimento tardio em relação ao peso da carcaça em genótipos de frangos tipo caipira.

  4. Pantanalinema gen. nov. and Alkalinema gen. nov.: novel pseudanabaenacean genera (Cyanobacteria) isolated from saline-alkaline lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Andreote, Ana Paula Dini; Malone, Camila Francieli Silva; Sant'Anna, Célia Leite; Barbiero, Laurent; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The genus Leptolyngbya Anagnostidis & Komárek (1988) was described from a set of strains identified as 'LPP-group B'. The morphology within this group is not particularly informative and underestimates the group's genetic diversity. In the present study, two new pseudanabaenacean genera related to Leptolyngbya morphotypes, Pantanalinema gen. nov. and Alkalinema gen. nov., are described under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants, based on a polyphasic approach. Pantanalinema gen. nov. (type species Pantanalinema rosaneae sp. nov.) has sheaths and trichomes with slight gliding motility, which distinguish this genus from Alkalinema gen. nov. (type species Alkalinema pantanalense sp. nov.), which possesses trichomes arranged in an ornate (interwoven) pattern. 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains of Pantanalinema and Alkalinema exhibited low identity to each other (≤91.6 %) and to other sequences from known pseudanabaenacean genera (≤94.3 and 93.7 %, respectively). In a phylogenetic reconstruction, six sequences from strains of Pantanalinema and four from strains of Alkalinema formed two separate and robust clades (99 % bootstrap value), with the genera Oculatella and Phormidesmis, respectively, as the closest related groups. 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences and secondary structures of strains of Pantanalinema and Alkalinema did not correspond to any previous descriptions. The strains of Pantanalinema and Alkalinema were able to survive and produce biomass at a range of pH (pH 4-11) and were also able to alter the culture medium to pH values ranging from pH 8.4 to 9.9. These data indicate that cyanobacterial communities in underexplored environments, such as the Pantanal wetlands, are promising sources of novel taxa.

  5. 对嗜T淋巴细胞病毒Ⅰ型重组env的研究%Study on the expression of recombinant antigen env in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type into prokaryotic vector I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆华; 王梅芬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of recombinant antigen env in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Methods The target gene of HTLV-I env were analyzed and selected, cloned into prokaryotic vector pQE80L and identified it through PCR and restriction methods. Then the expressed recombinant env protein antigen was induced and purified by affinity chromatography. Western—blot method was adapted to test the activity of the recombinant env antigen expressed by prokaryotic, and ELISA method was adapted to test its specificity. Results The positive recombinants pQE80L-env was selected through PCR amplification and restriction. SDS-PAGE suggested the relative molecular mass of the recombinant protein was approximately 25KDa,which was in line with the expected molecular weight,and Western-blot showed an obvious specific band at 25KDa. The transfected cells were cultured for 48h,then the corresponding SDS-PAGE indicated the relative molecular mass of the recombinant protein was approximately 27KDa,which coincided with the expected molecular weight,and Western-blot revealed an obvious specific band at 27KDa. The reference sera of normal, HIV-positive and HTLV- II -positive people were all detected negative, while HTLV- I -positive people was strongly positive. Conclusion 5915-6545nt area of HTLV-I env gene can be cloned into prokaryotic and eukaryotic vector to express the specific recombinant antigen HTLV-I. There are no significant differences between the two antigens,and it holds the potential to be used as test kits.%目的 探讨人类嗜T淋巴细胞病毒( Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus,HTLV)I型重组env抗原的表达.方法 分析和选择HTLV-Ⅰ env目的基因,将目的基因片段分别克隆人原核表达载体pQE80L,PCR和酶切鉴定重组子,诱导并亲和层析纯化表达重组env蛋白抗原,Western-blot检测重组env蛋白抗原活性,ELISA方法测试重组env蛋白抗原的特异性.结果 PCR扩增和酶切筛

  6. Cosmosperma polyloba gen. et sp. nov., a seed plant from the Upper Devonian of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Meng, Meicen; Xue, Jinzhuang; Liu, Tuo; Guo, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Seed plants with ovules were abundant in the Late Devonian of Euramerica and they contribute significantly to our understanding of their early history. However, coeval ovules have been scarce in other regions of the world. Specimens of the seed plant Cosmosperma polyloba gen. et sp. nov. Wang et al. were recently obtained from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Wutong Formation, at Fanwan Village, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China. This new seed plant has cupulate ovules, the uniovulate cupules with up to 16 distal segments and with minute spines on the outer surface, synangiate pollen organs bearing six to eight microsporangia fused only at the base, and planate and highly dissected pinnules in alternate arrangement. It differs from other Devonian seed plants mainly in the organization and position of the uniovulate and ornamented cupule, and in the highly dissected pinnules. Cosmosperma Wang et al. represents the first Devonian ovules recovered from China or eastern Asia and further illustrates the diversity of early spermatophytes. As for the Late Devonian seed plants, it is suggested that the pollen organs are synangiate and simple in organization, and the branches and leaves are generally planate.

  7. Worldwide genetic features of HIV-1 Env α4β7 binding motif: the Local Dissemination Impact of the LDI tripeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Sabrina H.; Soares, Esmeralda A.; Sprinz, Eduardo; Arthos, James; Machado, Elizabeth S.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-1 gp120 binds to integrin α4β7, a homing receptor of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissues. This interaction is mediated by the LDI/V tripeptide encoded in the V2-loop. This tripeptide mimics similar motifs in MAdCAM and VCAM, the natural ligands of α4β7. In this study we explored the association of V2-loop LDI/V mimotopes with transmission routes and patterns of disease progression in HIV-infected adult and pediatric patients. HIV-1 env sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database were included in the analyses. Methodology HIV-1 V2-loop sequences generated from infected adults and infants from South and Southeast Brazil, and also retrieved from the Los Alamos Database, were assessed for α4β7 binding tripeptide composition. Chi-Square/Fisher’s Exact test and Mann Whitney U-test were used for tripeptide comparisons. Shannon entropy was assessed for conservancy of the α4β7 tripeptide mimotope. Results We observed no association between the tripeptide composition or conservation and virus transmission route or disease progression. However, LDI was linked to successful epidemic dissemination of HIV-1 subtype C in South America, and further to other expanding non-B subtypes in Europe and Asia. In Africa, subtypes showing increased LDV prevalence evidenced an ongoing process of selection towards LDI expansion, an observation also extended to subtype B in the Americas and Western Europe. Conclusions The V2-loop LDI mimotope was conserved in HIV-1C from South America and other expanding subtypes across the globe, which suggests that LDI may promote successful dissemination of HIV at local geographic levels by means of increased transmission fitness. PMID:26569174

  8. Evaluation of moisture and heat transport in the fast-response building-resolving urban transport code QUIC EnvSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kevin A.

    QUIC EnvSim (QES) is a complete building-resolving urban microclimate modeling system developed to rapidly compute mass, momentum, and heat transport for the design of sustainable cities. One of the more computationally intensive components of this type of modeling system is the transport and dispersion of scalars. In this paper, we describe and evaluate QESTransport, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) scalar transport model. QESTransport makes use of light-weight methods and modeling techniques. It is parallelized for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), utilizing NVIDIA's OptiX application programming interfaces (APIs). QESTransport is coupled with the well-validated QUIC Dispersion Modeling system. To couple the models, a new methodology was implemented to efficiently prescribe surface flux boundary conditions on both vertical walls and flat surfaces. In addition, a new internal boundary layer parameterization was introduced into QUIC to enable the representation of momentum advection across changing surface conditions. QESTransport is validated against the following three experimental test cases designed to evaluate the model's performance under idealized conditions: (i) flow over a step change in moisture, roughness, and temperature, (ii) flow over an isolated heated building, and (iii) flow through an array of heated buildings. For all three cases, the model is compared against published simulation results. QESTransport produces velocity, temperature, and moisture fields that are comparable to much more complex numerical models for each case. The code execution time performance is evaluated and demonstrates linear scaling on a single GPU for problem sizes up to 4.5 x 4.5 km at 5 m grid resolution, and is found to produce results at much better than real time for a 1.2 x 1.2 km section of downtown Salt Lake City, Utah.

  9. El envío de indios americanos a la Península Ibérica: aspectos legales (1492-1542

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban MIRA CABALLOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este presente artículo ofrecemos por primera vez una sistematización sobre la legislación existente en torno a la trata de indios americanos con destino a los mercados esclavistas de la Península Ibérica. Se trata sin duda de un trabajo sumamente novedoso que aporta nueva luz a un aspecto de la Historia Moderna de España que ha pasado casi desapercibido hasta la fecha para la historiografía más reciente. La conclusión principal que se puede extraer de este trabajo es la negativa de la Corona -salvo en los dubitativos momentos iniciales- a que se trajesen indios esclavos a la Península. No obstante, esta legislación prohibitiva sólo sirvió para que los envíos se ralentizaran sin erradicar totalmente una trata que siempre encontró las formas de continuar de una manera más o menos fraudulenta.ABSTRACT: For the first time the present article offers us a systematization about the existing laws concerning the American indians trade with the Iberian Peninsula slaves markets. Undoubtledly, it consists of an extremely original work which casts light on one aspect of the Spanish early modern history that has gone unnoticed to the recent historiography. The main conclusion to be drawn from this work is the Crown's denial for the Indian slaves to be brought, except for the doubts arisen at the beginning. This prohibitive laws only served to slow down the slave shipment without eradicate this practice that always founds to continue new forms, more or less fraudulent.

  10. The Madagascan endemic myrmicine ants related to Eutetramorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): taxonomy of the genera Eutetramorium Emery, Malagidris nom. n., Myrmisaraka gen. n., Royidris gen. n., and Vitsika gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Barry; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-04-24

    The monophyletic group of myrmicine ant genera related to Eutetramorium is described and its taxonomy is documented. The group is endemic in Madagascar and contains five genera: Eutetramorium Emery, 1899 (3 species, 1 of which is new); Malagidris nom. n., a replacement name for Brunella Forel, 1917, junior homonym of Brunella Smith, G.W. 1909 (Crustacea) (6 species, 5 of which are new); Myrmisaraka gen. n. (2 species, both new); Royidris gen. n. (15 species, 11 of which are new); Vitsika gen. n. (14 species, all of which are new). Keys to the worker caste are provided for all genera, and provisional keys to known males are given for Malagidris and Vitsika.

  11. GenBank blastx search result: AK061858 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 29) and Als splice variant 2 (Als) genes, partial cds; Als splice variant 1 (Als), TCE2 (Tce2), NDK3-like pr...otein (Ndk3), and TCE4 (Tce4) genes, complete cds; and TCE5 (Tce5) gene, partial cds.|ROD ROD 1e-39 +3 ...

  12. GenBank blastx search result: AK287750 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ein (Rsp29) and Als splice variant 2 (Als) genes, partial cds; Als splice variant 1 (Als), TCE2 (Tce2), NDK3...-like protein (Ndk3), and TCE4 (Tce4) genes, complete cds; and TCE5 (Tce5) gene, partial cds. ROD 0.0 0 ...

  13. GenBank blastx search result: AK058388 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 29) and Als splice variant 2 (Als) genes, partial cds; Als splice variant 1 (Als), TCE2 (Tce2), NDK3-like pr...otein (Ndk3), and TCE4 (Tce4) genes, complete cds; and TCE5 (Tce5) gene, partial cds.|ROD ROD 6e-35 +2 ...

  14. Frecuencia de la mutación 35delG del gen GJB2 (conexina 26) en una muestra de escolares sordos de Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Arancibia S,Margarita; Ramírez N,Roxana; Farfán R,Corina; Acuña P.,Mónica; Cifuentes O,Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Se estima que 1 de cada 1.000 niños presenta hipoacusia severa al nacimiento o en los primeros meses de vida y el 50% de las hipoacusias congénitas se relacionan con el gen de la conexina 26 (GJB2). En poblaciones caucásicas la variante patogénica 35delG del gen GJB2, que es la más frecuente, se encuentra en 30°% de los pacientes con hipoacusia congénita no sindrómica. En Chile, la frecuencia de esta variante en escolares sordos no está descrita. Objetivos: Estimar la frecuencia...

  15. Detección de una mutación puntual en el gen receptor Ryanodina (Ryr 1 en cerdos criollos colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Y Hernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de estrés porcino (PSS es una enfermedad hereditaria monogénica recesiva relacionada con el gen receptor ryanodina (Ryr1. Utilizando PCR-SSCP y PCR-RFLP se tipificaron genéticamente 14 individuos de cerdos comerciales con el rasgo sindactilia (Casco de Mula-CM, 21 San Pedreños -SP y 100 Zungos- ZN. Las razas CM y SP tuvieron las mismas frecuencias alélicas (F(H = 0.79 y F(h = 0.21, mientras que en los cerdos ZN no se encontró el alelo recesivo (h. La heterocigosidad (He fue de 0.28% para los cerdos CM y 0.23% para los SP. La He para la muestra poblacional fue de 0.066.

  16. A Frequency Diverse Gen2 RFID System with Isolated Continuous Wave Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chin Liu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The “Gen2” specification for UHF passive RFID systems released by EPCglobal has become an intense research interest. A Gen2 tag derives its power from the RF wave emitted by a Gen2 RFID reader and responds its modulated backscatter signals to the reader. Due to the large propagation loss, the accessible range of a Gen2 tag is hence limited. Moreover, the readability of a Gen2 tag is often influenced by the multipath fading problem. In order to mitigate the problems, a multi-carrier UHF passive RFID system utilizing the frequency diverse backscatter ability of a Gen2 tag is proposed in a prior work. In this work, a thorough analysis of the system is given. Especially, the appropriate powers of the transceiver and CWEs are derived to make the system more feasible in practical applications.

  17. Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a new genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Denman, Sandra; Venter, Stephanus N; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial isolates from oak trees in Spain and Britain, showing symptoms of bark canker and Acute Oak Decline (AOD), respectively, were examined by a polyphasic approach. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes, revealed that the isolates were separated into two genetic groups according to their origin. Their closest phylogenetic relative was Brenneria quercina, the causal agent of drippy nut disease of oak, which clustered distant to the other species of the genus Brenneria. MLSA data for species of the genera Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya, Erwinia, Pantoea and Samsonia confirmed the polyphyletic nature of the genus Brenneria and indicated synonymy of Dickeya dadantii and Dickeya dieffenbachiae. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed this synonymy and also revealed DNA-DNA relatedness values of 58-73% between the new oak isolates and B. quercina. Phenotypic and/or chemotaxonomic methods allowed B. quercina and the two genetic groups of new oak isolates to be discriminated from other recognized species of the genus Brenneria and from members of the closely related genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Samsonia. Based on the data obtained, the following taxonomic proposals are made: (1) reclassification of B. quercina as the type species of a novel genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)=CCUG 48867(T)=CFBP 3617(T)=CIP 105201(T)=DSM 4561(T)=ICMP 1845(T)), (2) classification of the oak isolates as Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG26264(T)=NCPPB 4490(T)) and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 26267(T)=NCPPB 4481(T)) and leading to the automatic creation of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)), (3) emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, and (4) reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as

  18. REGENERASI DAN PERBANYAKAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii HASIL TRANSFORMASI GEN SUPEROKSIDA DISMUTASE (MaSOD)

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Suryati; Hidayah Triana; Utut Widiastuti; Andi Tenriulo

    2017-01-01

    Transformasi gen superoxide dismutase (MaSOD) pada rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii menggunakan Agrobacterium tumefacient telah dilakukan secara in vitro. Transformasi gen MaSOD ke dalam genom rumput laut diharapkan dapat mengurangi cekaman oksidatif terutama yang disebabkan oleh perubahan suhu, salinitas, dan cemaran logam di perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk regenerasi rumput laut hasil introduksi gen MaSOD dan non-transgenik pada labu kultur. Regenerasi dan perbanyakan rumput laut ...

  19. Arctocypris fuhrmanni, n. gen., n. sp. (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Eucypridinae) from Spitsbergen (Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovski, Trajan K; Scharf, Burkhard; Keyser, Dietmar

    2016-01-14

    Material from Spitsbergen (Norway) collected by Spitzenberger (1996) was reinvestigated. A new genus Arctocypris and a new species Arctocypris. fuhrmanni n. gen. n. sp. are described in the present paper. A key to the genera of the subfamily Eucypridinae is provided. At the moment Arctocypris n. gen. comprises four species: Arctocypris arctica (Olofsson, 1918) comb. nov.; A. dulcifons (Diebel & Pietrzeniuk, 1969) comb. nov.; A. foveata (Delorme, 1968) comb. nov. and Arctocypris fuhrmanni n. gen., n. sp.

  20. Gen 2对智能标签打印技术的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斑马公司

    2008-01-01

    @@ 从Gen 2(Class 1 Generation 2 UHF Air Interface Protocol,第二代UHF空中接口协议)技术规范批准到符合Gen 2标准的标签广泛上市,按ISO、EPCglobal Class 0、第一代(Gen 1)和专有协议制作的数以百万计的RFID标签将要投人使用.