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Sample records for al dano genetico

  1. Influence of some exo nucleases in response to the induced genetic damage in Escherichia coli by alpha radiation; Influencia de algunas exonucleasas en respuesta al dano genetico inducido en Escherichia coli por radiacion alfa

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    Aguilar M, M

    2005-07-01

    Within the strategies with those that E. coli counts to overcome to the genetic damage there is the SOS response, a group of genes that participate in repair and/or tolerance that it confers to the bacteria major opportunities of surviving. These genes are repressed and its only are expressed when it happens genetic damage. So that this system is activated it is necessary that DNA of a band exists and in this sense the double ruptures (RDB) its are not able to induce this response unless there is a previous processing. In stumps with defects in certain genes that have to do with repair of RDB (as recO, recJ and xonA) the activity of SOS is smaller than in a wild stump what suggests that these participate in the previous processes to the activation of the response. The ionizing radiation produce among other many lesions, RDB in greater or smaller proportion, depending on the ionization capacity. A parameter to evaluate this capacity is the lineal energy transfer (LET), defined as the average energy given by unit of distance travelled. In general the LET of the corpuscular radiations is a lot but high that of the electromagnetic one, for what produces bigger quantity of ionizations inside a restricted zone and it increases by this way the probability that RDB has been generated. This work has for object to infer the participation of xonA and recJ in this response and to evaluate the damage produced by ionizing radiation of different LET (alpha particles of different energies) in a stump with all the functional repair mechanisms. Its were considered two parameters: the survival and the activity of SOS evaluated by means of the chromo test. The results indicate that the activity of these exo nucleases is necessary for the repair of RDB as well as for the processing of lesions foresaw to the activation of SOS. As for the treatment with alphas of different energies is observed that so much the survival like the activity of SOS vary as the LET of the radiation changes used due surely to the proportion of RDB that produces each one of them. It is observed that the treatments that have a smaller survival also present a smaller activation of this response. (Author)

  2. Qualidade de maçãs 'Fuji Suprema' submetidas a diferentes tipos de dano mecânico

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    Marcos Vinicius Hendges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dano mecânico por impacto, compressão e corte sobre a qualidade de maçãs 'Fuji Suprema' mantidas em condição ambiente. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle (sem dano mecânico, dano mecânico por impacto, dano mecânico por compressão e dano mecânico por corte. Os diferentes danos não influenciaram na firmeza de polpa e no ângulo 'hue' da casca. O dano por corte proporcionou frutos com menor acidez titulável, nove dias após a aplicação do dano. Frutos submetidos ao dano por impacto apresentaram maior teor de sólidos solúveis, quinze dias após a aplicação dos danos. Os danos por impacto e corte causaram o menor valor de L da polpa em todas as avaliações, evidenciando o escurecimento da polpa. Contudo, este efeito não foi observado na epiderme. Todos os frutos danificados por corteapresentaram podridão após nove dias da aplicação dos danos.De maneira geral, pode-se concluir que, nas intensidades testadas, maçãs 'Fuji Suprema' submetidas ao dano por impacto e corte apresentam prejuízos em sua qualidade, pois ocorre escurecimento da polpa no local do dano. Além disso, o dano por corte reduz a vida pós-colheita dos frutos, facilitando a ocorrência de podridões.

  3. Critérios para avaliação do dano moral e sua indenização

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    Muggiati, Juliano Rui

    2013-01-01

    O objeto do presente trabalho consiste na verificação dos critérios utilizados para avaliar o dano moral e arbitrar sua indenização. Dano moral pode ser conceituado como a injusta violação de direitos de personalidade da vítima, geralmente causando reações emocionais negativas, como vergonha, tristeza, revolta, constrangimento etc. Uma vez que o dano moral é de natureza essencialmente subjetiva, há considerável dificuldade prática em definir o quantum indenizatório. Além disso, o legislador n...

  4. O dano moral no contrato de emprego

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    Maia, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho trata do Dano Moral no Contrato de Emprego. Seu objetivo é apontar características dos atos e acontecimentos que se enquadram na condição do dano moral ocorrido durante a relação de emprego e a sua repercussão no âmbito da reparação financeira. Para isso foram examinadas a legislação, a doutrina e a jurisprudência aplicáveis a essas ocorrências. O trabalho está dividido em oito capítulos, obedecendo a uma ordem seqüencial temática, iniciando com a compree...

  5. A RESPONSABILIZAÇÃO CIVIL DO DANO AMBIENTAL FUTURO

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    Duarte, Tiago Vieira de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a análise do microssistema jurídico da responsabilidade civil do dano futuro no plano ambiental. Traz, como solução aos atuais atos humanos, a teoria do conhecimento-emancipação, esta responsável por mostrar à humanidade um repensar nas ações do homem frente ao meio ambiente, tratando-o como sujeito de direito e não de deveres. Vê-se que o meio ambiente possui uma visão antropocêntrica moderada; visto isso, a Constituição definiu o meio ...

  6. Fisiologia do dano pelo frio em ciriguela (Spondias purpurea L.

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    Martins Laesio Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a influência do estádio de maturação, temperatura e tempo de exposição na ocorrência de dano pelo frio (DF em ciriguela. Para a avaliação do estádio de maturação menos suscetível a DF, foram colhidos frutos nos estádios breaker (B, início da pigmentação amarela (IP, amarelo predominante (AP e expostos a temperaturas de 9,5 ºC, 10,5 ºC e 14,5 ºC, durante 1; 3 e 5 dias. Para a avaliação do desenvolvimento de DF em frutos no estádio AP, foram testadas 10 temperaturas, variando de 14,5 ºC a 5 ºC. Os frutos no estádio B apresentaram sintomas irreversíveis de DF a 14,5 ºC, após 3 dias, enquanto no estádio IP esses sintomas foram severos, após 5 dias. Para o estádio AP, nenhum sintoma de DF foi verificado entre 9,5 ºC e 14,5 ºC. O estádio AP apresentou índice leve de DF a 9,0 ºC, após 5 dias. A sensibilidade a baixas temperaturas e a ocorrência de DF em ciriguela foram dependentes do estádio de maturação. O estádio AP apresentou melhor adaptação a baixas temperaturas, sendo 9,5 ºC a temperatura limite na qual ciriguela pode ser armazenada sem risco de dano pelo frio (DF.

  7. Action of the chlorophyllin before genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila; Accion de la clorofilina ante el dano genetico inducido por radiacion gamma en celulas germinales de Drosophila

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    Moreno B, R

    2004-07-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) is a porphyrin of nutritious grade and soluble in water, derived of the chlorophyll. It has been reported that this pigment is a good anti mutagen since it reduces the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogenic action has also been demonstrated when it is administered itself during the induced post-initiation phase by aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. However in the last decade it has been reported that it also has promoter activity against the genetic damage induced by diverse agents like the alkyl ants of direct and indirect action, the gamma radiation and some heterocyclic amines. This effect has been observed in testing systems like Salmonella, Drosophila, rainbow trout and rodents. In the mouse spermatogonia it has been reported that it reduces the damage to the DNA but with the test of lethal dominant in Drosophila increment the damage induced by gamma radiation. The present study consisted on evaluating the effect of the CHLN in the line germinal masculine of Drosophila by means of the lethal recessive test bound to the sex (LRLS) with the stump Muller 5 and a litters system. Its were pretreated wild males with CHLN and 24 h later were irradiated with 0, 10, 20 and 40 Gy of gamma radiation immediately later were crossed with virgin females of the stump Basc and at 72 h the male was transferred to a cultivation media with three new virgin females, this process repeated three times until completing 3 litters. The F1 it was crossed among itself and in the F2 it was analysed the presence or absence of lethals. The results indicated that the CHLN per se incremented the basal frequency of damage due to the pigment can act as an agent that is inserted to the ADN causing pre mutagenic leisure. Nevertheless with the groups treated with the different doses of gamma radiation the CHLN does not present any protector action, neither promoter except in the litter I of the group treated with 20 Gy where it was observed a promoter effect of genetic damage. (Author)

  8. Action of the chlorophyllin on the genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila Melanogaster; Accion de la clorofilina sobre el dano genetico inducido por radiacion gamma en celulas germinales de Drosophila Melanogaster

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    Cruces, M.P.; Pimentel, A.E.; Moreno, A.; Moreno, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The obtained results using somatic cells, they have evidenced that the chlorophyllin (CHLN) it can act inhibiting or increasing the damage caused by different mutagens. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of the CHLN on the damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila. Two tests were used, the lost of the X chromosome and the conventional test of lethal recessive bound to the sex (LRLS); both with a system of litters. The obtained results in both essays, indicated that the CHLN doesn't reduce the damage induced by the gamma radiation in none of the cellular monitored states. (Author)

  9. Activity of the protector chlorophyllin or promoter of the genetic damage induced by the 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine; Actividad de la clorofilina protectora o promotora del dano genetico inducido por la 1,2 dimetil hidrazina

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    Guerrero M, M.G

    2004-07-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) it is a porphyrin of soluble nutritious grade in water, derived of the chlorophyll that includes in their structure a copper atom. It has been reported that this pigment can act as anti mutagen, reducing the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogen action has also been studied during the initiation phase induced for carcinogen as the aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. In contrast the reports have increased on a probable promoter activity of the CHLN on the induced genetic damage. This effect was seen for the first time before the damage induced by alkylating agents in Salmonella. Recently it has been observed with the damage induced by gamma radiation, ENU and CrO{sub 3} in somatic cells of the wing of Drosophila and in the induction of tumors for 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in mice. Presently study is evaluated the protective effect or promoter of the CHLN before the genetic damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, by means of the bioassay mutation and somatic recombination (SMART) in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster. Its were pretreated with CHLN or SAC to transheterocygotes larvas for two locus of the chromosome three mwh+/+flr{sup 3}; later on they are retarded the chronic treatment with DMH 0, 1, 2 and 3 days. It was measured the toxicity and the speed of development of the treated individuals. The wings of those adults that emerged were analyzed to register the number and the size of stains. The results indicated: differences in the viability of the individuals of the groups SAC + DMH vs CHLN + DMH only in the treated immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) that the CHLN doesn't modify the rate of the treated individuals development. The results of somatic mutation indicated that the CHLN has a protective effect only immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) however in DRT-1, 2 and 3 showed a promoter effect of genetic damage. (Author)

  10. Optimization of a water resource system expansion using the Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing methods; Optimizacion de la expansion de un sistema de recursos hidricos utilizados las metodologias del algoritmo genetico y el recocido simulado

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    Sanchez Camacho, Enrique; Andreu Alvarez, Joaquin [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2001-06-01

    Two numerical procedures, based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Simulated Annealing (SA), are developed to solve the problem of the expansion of capacity of a water resource system. The problem was divided into two subproblems: capital availability and operation policy. Both are optimisation-simulation models, the first one is solved by means of the GA and SA, in each case, while the second one is solved using the Out-of-kilter algorithm (OKA), in both models. The objective function considers the usual benefits and costs in this kind of systems, such as irrigation and hydropower benefits, costs of dam construction and system maintenance. The strength and weakness of both models are evaluated by comparing their results with those obtained with the branch and bound technique, which was classically used to solve this kind of problems. [Spanish] Un par de metodos numericos fundamentados en dos tecnicas de busqueda globales. Algoritmos Genetico (AG) y Recocido Simulado (RS), son desarrollados para resolver el problema de expansion de capacidad de un sistema de recursos hidricos. La estrategia ha sido dividir al problema en dos subproblemas: el de disponibilidad de capital y el de la politica de operacion. Ambos modelos son de optimizacion-simulacion, el primero se realiza mediante los algoritmos del RS y el AG en cada caso, en tanto que el segundo lleva a cabo a traves del algoritmo del Out-of-kilter (AOK) en los dos modelos. La funcion objetivo con que se trabaja considera los beneficios y costos mas comunes en este tipo de sistema, tales como beneficios por riego, por hidroelectricidad y costos de construccion de los embalses y mantenimiento del sistema. La potencia y debilidades delos dos modelos se evaluan mediante la comparacion con los resultados obtenidos a traves de una de las tecnicas mas usadas en este tipo de problemas: la de ramificacion y acotacion.

  11. Validação de um modelo de dano para a análise não-linear de estruturas em concreto armado - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i3.7009

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    José Julio de Cerqueira Pituba

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma discussão sobre a aplicabilidade de modelos de dano na análise não-linear física de estruturas em concreto armado, procurando, particularmente, validar a proposta de um modelo formulado recentemente por Pituba que compara as respostas numéricas obtidas com as respostas de modelos já testados, além de respostas experimentais encontradas na literatura. O modelo proposto admite o concreto como meio inicialmente isótropo e que passa a apresentar deformações plásticas, bimodularidade e anisotropia induzidas pelo dano. Já o modelo proposto por Mazars considera o concreto como meio elástico e isótropo. Em seguida, apresenta-se a formulação do modelo proposto por La Borderie, que leva em conta deformações plásticas induzidas pelo dano e mantém a característica de isotropia do material. Na segunda parte do trabalho, os modelos são empregados na análise de vigas e pórtico em concreto armado, e as respostas numéricas são confrontadas com medidas experimentais. Os resultados evidenciam o bom desempenho dos modelos de dano e, em particular, valida-se o emprego do modelo proposto por Pituba nas situações estudadas. Observa-se ainda que formulações simples de modelos de dano para o concreto podem apresentar resultados bastante satisfatórios, dando margem para possíveis aplicações na prática da Engenharia de Estruturas.

  12. Damages of spittlebug on sugarcane quality and fermentation process Danos promovidos por cigarrinha-das-raízes na qualidade da cana e processo fermentativo

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    Débora Branquinho Garcia

    2010-10-01

    promovidos pela M. fimbriolata na qualidade da cana e no processo fermentativo. Os tratamentos utilizados foram quatro níveis de danos e duas épocas de avaliações para as análises tecnológicas, e quatro níveis de danos, quatro ciclos fermentativos e duas épocas de avaliações para as análises microbiológicas com três repetições. Foram determinados Brix (sólidos solúveis, Pol (sacarose aparente, Pureza, açúcar redutor total (ART, açúcar redutor (AR, Acidez Total, pH, e teor de compostos fenólicos totais no caldo. No processo fermentativo foram realizadas análises de viabilidade celular, brotos de leveduras e concentração de bactérias. Determinaram-se açúcar redutor residual Total (ARRT, teor alcoólico nos vinhos e a eficiência da fermentação. Os tratamentos com 60% dos colmos danificados apresentaram menor média de Brix, Pol, Pureza e ART do caldo. Verificou-se aumento do AR% caldo e dos teores de compostos fenólicos totais. A viabilidade celular e de brotos foram reduzidas com o aumento dos danos provocados pela M. fimbriolata. O processo fermentativo apresentou maiores quantidades de contaminantes. Com os danos a quantidade de ARRT dos vinhos foi maior, houve redução do teor alcoólico, assim como na eficiência da fermentação. Os danos causados pela M. fimbriolata afetaram a qualidade da matéria-prima, comprometendo o processo fermentativo, além de aumentar a produção de compostos fenólicos e contaminantes.

  13. O DANO AMBIENTAL OCASIONADO PELA EXPLORAÇÃO DESENFREADA DOS RECURSOS NATURAIS

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    Dalla Rosa, Mardióli; UCS

    2011-01-01

    Observa-se, na legislação ambiental, a constante preocupação do legislador com a preservação do meio ambiente. Quando, todavia, a preservação não mais é possível, vez que o bem ambiental já foi atingido, objetiva-se então a reparação do dano causado, dando-se prioridade à reconstituição do mesmo, e, caso não seja possível, a indenização em dinheiro. O presente artigo pretende fazer uma breve análise acerca do dano ambiental, sua definição, classificações e repercussões....

  14. Politicas de reducao de danos no Brasil: contribuicoes de um programa norte-americano

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    Aline Inglez-Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a disseminação da epidemia de HIV e o controle de sua transmissão entre usuários de drogas injetáveis (UDI, estratégias de redução de danos foram incorporadas em diversos países, incluindo o Brasil. Considerando a emergência das drogas como tema central na agenda governamental, especialmente o crack, o presente artigo registra e discute as práticas observadas em um programa de pesquisa e atenção aos UDI: o UFO. Foram considerados aspectos tais como acesso e adesão do usuário, dificuldades de financiamento, sustentabilidade e avaliação de resultados. As etapas do estudo envolveram pesquisa documental, observação sistemática e entrevistas com informantes-chave. Destacamos características do UFO que poderiam contribuir para políticas de redução de danos no cenário brasileiro. O programa estudado se apresenta como um exemplo exitoso de iniciativas de redução de danos, obtendo sucesso no acesso e adesão desse grupo, favorecendo seu acesso aos serviços de saúde e prevenção de riscos associados ao uso de drogas.

  15. Fototerapia causa danos ao DNA de leucócitos mononucleares periféricos em recém-nascidos a termo Phototherapy causes DNA damage in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes in term infants

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    Ali Aycicek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se a fita de DNA de leucócitos mononucleares endógenos é alvo de fototerapia. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 65 recém-nascidos a termo com idades entre 3 e 10 dias que haviam sido expostos a fototerapia intensiva (n = 23 ou convencional (n = 23 por pelo menos 48 horas devido à icterícia neonatal, além de um grupo controle (n = 19. Dano ao DNA foi avaliado por eletroforese alcalina em gel de célula única (ensaio cometa. A capacidade antioxidante total plasmática e os níveis de estado oxidativo total também foram medidos, e a correlação entre danos ao DNA e estresse oxidativo foi investigada. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios de escores de danos ao DNA nos grupos de fototerapia intensiva e convencional foram significativamente maiores do que os do grupo controle (p 0,05. Não houve correlações significativas entre escores de danos ao DNA e bilirrubina, estado oxidante total e níveis de estresse oxidativo entre os grupos de fototerapia (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Tanto a fototerapia intensiva quanto a convencional causam danos ao DNA dos leucócitos mononucleares endógenos em recém-nascidos a termo com icterícia.OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether endogenous mononuclear leukocyte DNA strand is a target of phototherapy. METHODS: The study included 65 term infants aged between 3-10 days that had been exposed to intensive (n = 23 or conventional (n = 23 phototherapy for at least 48 hours due to neonatal jaundice, and a control group (n = 19. DNA damage was assayed by single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay. Plasma total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were also measured, and correlation between DNA damage and oxidative stress was investigated. RESULTS: Mean values of DNA damage scores in both the intensive and conventional phototherapy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (p 0.05. There were no significant correlations between DNA damage scores and

  16. O dano moral ambiental nos ordenamentos jurídicos brasileiro e argentino

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    Marchiori Neto, Daniel Lena; Gonzáles Zanella, Gabriel; de Araujo, Luiz Ernani Bonesso

    2007-01-01

    A teoria da reparação integral, calcada na responsabilidade objetiva dos prejuízos causados ao meio ambiente, é um assunto bastante discutido na doutrina e jurisprudência nacionais. Partindo desta teoria, verifica-se que o dano ambiental deve ser reparado tanto na esfera material (formada pelos elementos físicos da natureza) quanto na esfera moral (constituída pelos valores primordiais da coletividade, como o bem-estar, o direito à vida, à saúde, à dignidade, etc). Todavia, quanto ao segundo ...

  17. Efeito da coenzima Q10 nos danos oxidativos induzidos pela L-tiroxina no músculo sóleo de ratos

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    Fabiana Barreiro de Freitas Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: os músculoesqueléticos são tecidos dinâmicos que podem alterar suas características fenotípicas proporcionando melhor adaptação funcional com estímulos variados. A L-tiroxina é um hormônio produzido pela glândula tireoide e tem sido utilizada como modelo experimental para estimulação de estresse oxidativo no músculo esquelético. A coenzima Q10 é uma provitamina lipossolúvel sintetizada endogenamente e naturalmente encontrada em alimentos como carne vermelha, peixes, cereais, brócolis e espinafre. Apresenta propriedade antioxidante e tem potencial no tratamento de doenças degenerativas e neuromusculares. OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito protetor da coenzima Q10 no músculo sóleo de ratos frente aos danos oxidativos provocados pela L-tiroxina. MÉTODOS: os ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais cada: Grupo 1 controle; Grupo 2 coenzima Q10; Grupo 3 L-tiroxina e Grupo 4 coenzima Q10 e L-tiroxina. Após a eutanásia, o sangue dos animais foi colhido e foi analisada a atividade sérica das enzimas creatina quinase CK e aspartato aminotransferase AST. No homogenato do músculo sóleo foram avaliados fatores relacionados ao estresse oxidativo. RESULTADOS: a coenzima Q10 protegeu o músculo sóleo dos danos provocados pela L-tiroxina e favoreceu a manutenção da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes glutationa redutase e glutationa peroxidase, da concentração de glutationa reduzida e oxidada, além de evitar a lipoperoxidação. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados indicam que a coenzima Q10 protege o músculo sóleo de ratos dos danos oxidativos provocados pela L-tiroxina.

  18. Influência do dano físico na fisiologia pós-colheita de folhas de taioba

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    Teresa Drummond Correia Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de taioba danificadas fisicamente tornam-se amarelas e escuras na região do dano. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dano físico sobre o metabolismo pós-colheita de folhas de taioba. Para esse fim, avaliou-se o teor de clorofila e o acúmulo de compostos fenólicos solúveis em discos foliares de taioba que continham furos realizados com uma agulha em um dos lados da folha, simulando os danos sofridos no campo e transporte. O lado não danificado foi usado como tratamento controle. Para a avaliação da produção de etileno e CO2, discos foliares danificados e intactos foram infiltrados com ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano (ACC ou com água desionizada. Houve acentuada queda de clorofila nas primeiras 24 horas após a colheita, porém, o dano físico não estimulou a degradação da clorofila ou elevação da produção de etileno. Entretanto, nos discos foliares danificados e infiltrados com ACC, houve aumento transiente na produção de etileno após 4 horas da realização do dano. Essa resposta demonstra que a enzima ACC sintase não é estimulada pelo dano e a enzima ACC oxidase tem sua atividade aumentada apenas por um curto período. Em contrapartida, as folhas danificadas tiveram maior acúmulo de compostos fenólicos e elevada taxa respiratória.

  19. Seismic damage in the electrical substations of the Colima state; Dano sismico en las subestaciones electricas del estado de Colima

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    Mena H, Ulises; Lopez L, Alberto; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    la energia electrica se debio al colapso de algunos equipos de 400 kV y 230 kV de las subestaciones electricas de transmision, entre las que se encuentran Manzanillo II y Colima II. Con la experiencia adquirida en el sismo del 9 de octubre de 1995 en Manzanillo, en el que tambien se afectaron considerablemente las instalaciones y equipos de las subestaciones electricas, y como parte del proyecto de infraestructura sobre analisis de riesgo sismico de lineas vitales que se encuentra en desarrollo actualmente en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), se decidio inspeccionar las subestaciones electricas de la zona, donde se reportaron los mayores danos en las instalaciones y equipos, para analizar y determinar las causas principales de su falla.

  20. CÁLCULO DE DANO AMBIENTAL DECORRENTE DE UM DEPÓSITO DE LIXO: ESTUDO DE CASO

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    Josimar Ribeiro Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/sustinere.2014.11803O presente trabalho teve como foco principal aplicar uma metodologia capaz de estimar o dano ambiental decorrente de atividades antrópicas. Neste artigo foi utilizado como modelo a instalação de um depósito de lixo.

  1. Jurisdição democrática e a reparação de danos extrapatrimoniais ambientais

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    Augusto Antônio Fontanive Leal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por intuito demonstrar em um primeiro momento, a relevância da participação popular para a construção de um Estado de direitos do meio ambiente e a forma com que vem sendo assimilado no ordenamento brasileiro, tendo por base a democratização da jurisdição que objetiva a tutela do bem ambiental. Ao deflagrar limitações no tocante ao envolvimento da coletividade nas questões relacionadas ao meio ambiente, como a participação indireta na ação civil pública, pretende-se, em um segundo momento, demonstrar o reconhecimento de um direito à personalidade do meio ambiente em virtude de um dano moral (ou extrapatrimonial da própria coletividade, que passa a ser incluída, ainda que de forma reflexa, para a concretização do princípio da reparação integral do dano. Para tanto, a necessidade de abordar a possibilidade de indenização por danos extrapatrimoniais ambientais tendo por base uma jurisdição democrática e a reparação integral de danos causados ao meio ambiente.

  2. Depoimento sem dano: a escuta da psicanálise ou a escuta do direito?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conte, Bárbara de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O depoimento sem dano é uma prática de inquirição de crianças supostamente vitimas de abuso sexual, que está sendo introduzido no Poder Judiciário, onde o inquérito é realizado por psicólogo. Problematizo, em um primento ponto, a verdade do discurso produzido pela criança em uma situação de depoimento, buscando discutir o que se chama em psicanálise de verdade histórico - vivencial a partir do traumático do acontecimento e suas consequëncias psíquicas. Em um segundo ponto, interrogo sobre a certeza da prova e as formas de escuta e intervenção desde uma perspectiva ética do fazer do psicólogo

  3. Damage caused by capybaras in a corn Field Danos causados por capivaras em um campo de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Paschoaletto Michi de Barros Ferraz

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by capybaras in agroecossystems in Brazil has been frequently observed. The objective of this study was to describe and quantify the actual damage caused by capybaras in a corn field, aiming to get basic information on how, how much, and where these damage occur. Systematic sampling indicated that 26% of the planted area were damaged by capybaras, and the highest percentage of damage occurred on the border of the corn field (t=4.5698, p=0.0001. Damage in areas adjacent to a forest fragment was significantly higher (t=13.6198, p=0.0001, suggesting that the strategy of area utilization for feeding was related to the proximity of the resources "forest" and "water". Avoiding corn plantation in areas adjacent to forest fragments used by capybaras and, when possible, controlling capybara population may lead to a reduction of damage occurrence in agroecossystems.Danos causados por capivaras em culturas agrícolas no Brasil têm sido freqüentemente reportados. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e quantificar os danos causados por capivaras em um campo de milho, visando obter informações básicas de quanto, como e onde esse dano ocorre. Através da amostragem sistemática obteve-se que 26% da área plantada foi danificada por capivaras, sendo que a maior porcentagem dos danos localizou-se nas bordas do campo de milho (t=4.5698, p=0.0001. O dano em áreas adjacentes ao fragmento de mata foi significativamente maior do que no restante do terreno (t=13.6198, p=0.0001, sugerindo que a estratégia de utilização da área de alimentação pela capivara relaciona-se com o fator proximidade dos recursos "floresta" e "água". Evitar o plantio de milho em áreas adjacentes a fragmentos florestais utilizados por capivaras e, quando possível adotar práticas de controle populacional, podem significar a redução da ocorrência de danos causados aos agroecossistemas.

  4. Quantificação e avaliação de danos em trecho de pavimento flexível de avenidas de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Antonio Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Esta pesquisa apresenta dados sobre os danos constatados em trechos de avenidas da região Norte de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, que foram construídas com pavimento flexível, uma base de brita e uma camada de asfalto. Trata-se de um dos espaços de intensa atividade comercial e industrial, e, portanto, de movimentação de pessoas e veículos, do território municipal. Verificou-se que a maior quantidade de danos é representada por fenda ou trinca, buraco ou panela, além de remendos inadequados ou com defeito.  Diante dos dados da pesquisa, pode-se inferir que a Administração Municipal não tem ou não utiliza, com eficiência, um Sistema de Gerência de Pavimento.

  5. Os radicais livres e o dano muscular produzido pelo exercício: papel dos antioxidantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Córdova

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O exercício físico intenso e contínuo é acompanhado pela produção de radicais livres, que provocam uma alteração das membranas celulares, o que causa uma lesão acompanhada por um processo inflamatório ao nível das fibras musculares. Várias causas foram sugeridas para estas alterações, entre as quais o alto grau de estresse provocado pelo exercício, alterações da microcirculação, produção de metabólitos tóxicos e depleção intramuscular dos substratos energéticos. O rápido desenvolvimento da lesão das fibras musculares e do tecido conjuntivo é acompanhado por uma disfunção e migração de componentes intracelulares para os espaços intesticial e plasmático. O dano muscular está associado com aumentos dos níveis plasmáticos de creatinoquinase (CK e de lactato desidrogenase (LDH, o que serve como indicador do aumento da permeabilidade celular resultante. A formação de radicais livres e o desencadeamento do processo de peroxidação também contribuem para o dano muscular. Embora o papel do exercício na produção da radicais livres não esteja ainda bem esclarecido, um grande número de autores sugerem que a elevação do consumo de oxigênio durante o exercício induz a produção de radicais livres e outras substâncias oxidantes. Recentemente, na literatura foi demonstrado que as vitaminas A (beta-caroteno, E (tocoferol e C (ácido ascórbico, junto com minerais como o zinco (Zn, atuam como agentes protetores antioxidantes.

  6. Reparação extrapatrimonial dos danos ambientais à luz da Teoria da Complexidade de Edgar Morin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gonzales Zanella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pela teoria da reparação integral, verifica-se que o dano ao meio ambiente deve ser reparado tanto na esferamaterial quanto na esfera extrapatrimonial (constituída por valores primordiais, como o bem-estar, o direito à vida, à saúde,à dignidade, etc. Todavia, quanto ao segundo ponto, surge uma indagação: esses valores, quando atingidos, merecemproteção jurídica? O ordenamento jurídico brasileiro recepcionou a tese do dano extrapatrimonial ambiental? Neste sentido,o trabalho propõe uma reflexão acerca da legislação e jurisprudência nacionais, tendo como referencial teórico a Teoria daComplexidade de Edgar Morin.

  7. Evidence about chlorophyllin can function as an inhibitor or promoter of induced genetic damage by gamma radiation in Drosophila somatic cells; Evidencia de que la clorofilina puede funcionar como un inhibidor o un promotor del dano genetico inducido por radiacion gamma en celulas somaticas de Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, A.E.; Cruces, M.P.; Zimmering, S.I. [Departamento de Biologia, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The irradiation of the individuals that had been feed during 24 hours with a chlorophyllin solution at 5 % was delayed from 0 until 4 days. The protector effect of chlorophyllin persisted by 3 days and it appears to coincide with the stage when stopping the mitotic divisions in the imagal disk. Within of the same cellular population, it was demonstrated that chlorophyllin can function as an inhibitor, in the case of simple stains mwh or a potentiator in the case of twin stains and the flr type stains. It was planned an explanation for these results. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster; Evaluacion del potencial inhibidor de la protoporfirina IX (PP-IX) del dano genetico inducido por rayos gama administrados a diferentes razones de dosis en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores A, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  9. Simulação do dano causado por larvas de Oryzophagus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae a cultivares de arroz irrigado

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    Martins José Francisco da Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Oryzophagus oryzae (Costa Lima, 1936 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae é a praga-chave da cultura do arroz irrigado na Região Sul do Brasil. As larvas causam os principais danos ao cortarem drasticamente as raízes das plantas. Dois experimentos sobre simulação do dano larval foram realizados testando um equipamento cujo componente principal é uma lâmina metálica em forma de U, para corte das raízes. Raízes das cultivares BR-Irga 414 e Bluebelle, de ciclo biológico curto, e suscetíveis ao inseto e BR-Irga 410 e Dawn, de ciclo médio e resistentes, foram submetidas aos tratamentos de (1 corte artificial, com o simulador, (2 corte natural, pelas larvas e (3 sem corte, artificial ou natural, protegidas com inseticida. A simulação foi praticada na fase vegetativa das plantas, 31 dias pós-irrigação por inundação, época do pico da população larval nas raízes. Avaliaram-se dados sobre comprimento, peso de matéria seca e volume de raízes, imediatamente após a aplicação do tratamento de simulação e na pré-emissão de panículas, população larval em plantas submetidas ao dano natural, e produtividade de grãos. Na avaliação efetuada imediatamente após a simulação, em todas as cultivares, não ocorreu diferença entre índices de dano às raízes resultantes do uso do simulador e da alimentação de larvas. Na fase de pré-emissão das panículas, os índices de recuperação do sistema radicular das plantas submetidas aos danos natural e artificial, também foram similares. As cultivares de ciclo médio apresentaram maior recuperação dos tecidos radiculares e menor perda de produtividade de grãos, confirmando o maior grau de resistência a O. oryzae. Concluiu-se que o método de simulação é aplicável em pesquisas sobre resistência de arroz ao inseto, principalmente na identificação de genótipos tolerantes.

  10. Carbon dynamics with prolonged arable cropping soils in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounkpatin, Ozias; Welp, Gerhard; Amelung, Wulf

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems into agricultural land affects the atmospheric CO2 concentration whose increase contributes to global warming. In the low activity clay soils (LAC) of the tropics, farming is largely dependent on the level of soil organic carbon (SOC) for sustainable crop production. In this study, we investigated the changes in SOC in Plinthosols along a cultivation chronosequence in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso). The chronosequence consisted of undisturbed savannah (Y0) and 11 agricultural fields with short and long histories of cultivation ranging from 1-year-old cropland to 29-year-old cropland (Y29). About 14 soil profiles were described and soil composite samples were taken per horizon. Particulate organic matter (POM) was fractionated according to particle size: fraction 2000 - 250 μm (POM1), 250 μm - 53 μm (POM2), 53 μm - 20 μm (POM3), and POM1 > POM3 > POM2 carbon no matter the duration of land use. However, SOC losses occurred not only in the labile C pools but also in the stabile nonPOM fraction with increasing duration of agricultural land use. Compared to the initial carbon content in the Y0 field, about 59% of carbon content loss occurred in the POM1 (> 250 μm), 53% in the POM2 (250 - 53 μm), 52 % in the POM3 (53 - 20 μm) and 47% in the nonPOM fraction (organo-mineral associations are a key parameter for carbon stabilization, its depletion with increasing cultivation intensity suggests that the destruction of aggregates in these fields increased the vulnerability of this pool to microbial degradation. Keywords: Soil organic carbon, Plinthosols, low activity clay soil, POM

  11. Efeito do corte como dano mecânico na qualidade e na fisiologia de mamões 'golden'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Visioni Tezotto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A redução na qualidade pós-colheita do mamão deve-se em grande parte aos danos mecânicos, especialmente àqueles do tipo corte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reproduzir este dano mecânico e avaliar os efeitos do número de cortes na qualidade e na fisiologia pós-colheita de mamões 'Golden'. Os cortes foram obtidos com o uso de uma lâmina de aço de 30 mm de comprimento e 5 mm de profundidade. Os tratamentos consistiram na reprodução de 1 a 4 cortes na região mediana dos frutos. Mamões sem cortes foram utilizados como controle. Após a reprodução dos danos, os frutos foram armazenados em câmara a 22ºC e 80-90% de UR por 10 dias. As análises de qualidade foram realizadas a cada dois dias, e as fisiológicas, diariamente. Os resultados demonstraram que a firmeza, o teor de sólidos solúveis e de ácido ascórbico, a atividade respiratória e a produção de etileno foram influenciados pelo número de cortes, de forma que a perda de qualidade dos frutos foi diretamente proporcional ao número de cortes.

  12. DANOS MECÂNICOS OCASIONADOS POR SISTEMAS DOSADORES DE SEMENTES MECHANICAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY SEED METERING SYSTEMS

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    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados por cinco sistemas dosadores de sementes, em quatro culturas. Amostras das sementes foram coletadas antes e após passarem pelos sistemas dosadores e foram submetidas a testes de pureza, germinação e vigor. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados pelos sistemas dosadores empregados nas sementes de milho. Para as sementes de feijão, menores efeitos foram verificados quando da utilização dos dosadores pneumático a vácuo e copo dosador. O sistema rotor acanalado causou menores danos às sementes de arroz e os sistemas disco  horizontal perfurado e copo dosador foram os que menos danificaram as sementes de soja. O sistema dosador pneumático a vácuo ocasionou o maior índice de dano mecânico nas sementes de soja.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Semeadoras; distribuidores de sementes; rotor acanalado.

    Effects of mechanical damage caused by five seed metering systems were evaluated in four crops. Seed samples were collected before and after passing through the measuring systems and submitted to tests of purity, germination and vigor. There was no difference in the level of mechanical damage caused by the metering systems used for maize seeds. For common bean seeds, minor effects were verified when using the vacuum metering disk and the feed cup. The fluted feed system showed the best performance for rice seeds, and the horizontal perforated disk and feed cup systems exhibited the best results for soybean seeds. The vacuum metering disk system caused the highest level of mechanical damage to soybean seeds.

    KEY-WORDS: Planter machine; seed distributor; fluted feed.

  13. Propagação de danos no modelo de ising em redes de bravais e em fractais

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Carlos Argolo Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Neste trabalho estudamos, através de simulações computacionais de Monte Carlo, várias propriedades que caracterizam a propagação de danos no modelo de Ising, definido em redes de Bravais (quadrada e triangular) e na junta de Sierpinski (que é um arranjo fractal). Inicialmente, investigamos o modelo antiferromagnético na rede triangular com campo magnético uniforme, através da dinâmica de Gláuber; a fronteira crítica caótica-congelada que obtivemos coincide, dentro dos limites de precisão n...

  14. Educação sobre drogas: uma proposta orientada pela redução de danos

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Adade; Simone Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Diante do fracasso das políticas centradas na condenação do uso de drogas, este trabalho visa contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma proposta educativa informada pela contextualização dos aspectos socioculturais, econômicos e políticos desse fenômeno e pelo conceito de redução de danos (RD). Para tanto, por meio de entrevistas, investiga as visões sobre drogas e temas afins de 40 escolares dos ensinos fundamental e médio, das redes pública e privada do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Ademais, rev...

  15. Capacidade antioxidante celular da rutina frente ao dano oxidativo induzido em linhagens mutantes de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Laylson da Silva Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A rutina é um tipo de flavonoide encontrado nas plantas e de grande interesse farmacológico, já que muitas propriedades têm sido atribuídas a rutina, incluindo antialérgica, anti-inflamatória, antitumoral e principalmente antioxidante. O objetivo deste estudo foi proporcionar um maior conhecimento sobre a capacidade antioxidante celular da rutina utilizando linhagens de S. cerevisiae proficiente e deficiente em defesas antioxidantes. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae (Sodwt, Sod1∆, Sod2∆, Sod1∆Sod2∆, Cat1∆, Sod1∆Cat1∆ foram expostas as várias concentrações da rutina em três diferentes condições de tratamento (pré-tratamento, co-tratamento e pós-tratamento e assim verificar se a rutina inibe o efeito oxidativo do peróxido de hidrogênio, permitindo o aumento da sobrevivência das linhagens testadas. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a rutina diminui significativamente os danos oxidativos nas linhagens de S. cerevisiae nas condições de pré-tratamento, co-tratamento e pós-tratamento, demonstrando que a rutina apresenta uma elevada capacidade antioxidante celular, sendo importante na proteção ao estresse oxidativo induzido.Palavras-chave: Rutina. S. cerevisiae. capacidade antioxidante. ABSTRACTCellular antioxidant capacity of rutin against the oxidative damage induced in mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeRutin is a type of flavonoid found in plants and of great pharmacological interest since many properties have been attributed rutin, including antiallergic, antiinflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant primarily. The aim of this study was to provide greater insight into the cellular antioxidant capacity of rutin using strains of S. cerevisiae proficient and deficient in antioxidant defenses. The strains of S. cerevisiae (Sodwt, Sod1Δ, Sod2Δ, Sod1ΔSod2Δ, Cat1Δ, Sod1ΔCat1Δ were exposed to various concentrations of rutin in three different conditions of treatment (pre-treatment, co-treatment and post

  16. Caracterización geomorfológica de las dunas longitudinales del Istmo de Médanos, estado Falcón, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronna Camacho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza la geomorfología de dunas costeras longitudinales del Istmo de Médanos, costa noroccidental de Venezuela. La metodología consistió en consultas bibliográficas, cartográficas, fotogramétricas y satelitales, trabajos de campo y análisis sedimentológico. Los resultados indican que estas dunas están compuestas por arenas de grano fino en un 84.6%, muy bien seleccionadas en más del 60%, principalmente subangulares, con asimetría negativa predominante, distribución leptocurtica, y bajo contenido de carbonato de calcio cercano al 10%. Los datos sugieren que los sedimentos son de origen terrígeno y escasa distancia de transporte hasta el lugar de acumulación. Los vientos predominantes actuales son del noreste, con componentes direccionales secundarios que retrabajan los sedimentos generando dunas transversales, barcanas y longitudinales; las dunas longitudinales son paralelas a la dirección del viento y se presentan colonizadas por vegetación xerofítica favorecida por la inactividad de las mismas. Estas dunas se originaron probablemente por una conjunción de factores como: disponibilidad de sedimentos en una amplia llanura costera relacionada con un nivel marino regresivo, vientos fuertes y persistentes, orientación oblicua de la costa respecto a la dirección del viento, una topografía continental favorable adyacente a la playa, bajo condiciones climáticas distintas a las actuales.

  17. Controle de danos: uma opção tática no tratamento dos traumatizados com hemorragia grave Damage control: a tactical alternative for the management of exanguinating trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gustavo Parreira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O choque hemorrágico persistente cursa com alta mortalidade. Grande importância tem sido dada para o "controle de danos" como opção terapêutica nestes casos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a definição, indicações, técnicas e resultados do controle de danos no tratamento dos traumatizados com hemorragia grave. MÉTODO: Revisão bibliográfica. RESULTADOS: Como "controle de danos" entende-se a interrupção da operação antes que o choque hemorrágico alcance a sua fase irreversível, mesmo que as lesões encontradas não tenham o tratamento definitivo neste primeiro momento. Esta alternativa envolve três tempos: a operação abreviada, a recuperação na unidade de terapia intensiva e a reoperação programada. Desta forma, frente à acidose metabólica, hipotermia e coagulopatia, a operação é abreviada através do controle temporário da hemorragia e contaminação. São empregadas técnicas como o tamponamento hepático com compressas e ligadura de eventuais cotos intestinais. Na unidade de terapia intensiva são realizados o aquecimento do doente, restauração da volemia e débito cardíaco, e adequada oferta de oxigênio, além da reposição dos fatores de coagulação. Somente após a estabilização, o traumatizado é levado novamente ao centro cirúrgico para o tratamento definitivo das lesões. Trata-se de uma tática com bons resultados, mas que deve ser restrita a centros especializados, com supervisão cirúrgica contínua e recursos disponíveis para o tratamento de doentes graves. CONCLUSÃO: O controle de danos é opção prática nos casos de hemorragia grave, contudo deve ser empregado com julgamento crítico devido a complicações que podem decorrer da sua indicação.BACKGROUND: Despite the advances in the treatment of exanguinating patients, hemorrhage remains as the leading cause of early deaths. A great deal of attention has been given to "damage control" as a therapeutic alternative in this scenario. AIM: To

  18. Reparabilidade do dano ambiental no sistema da responsabilização civil: 25 anos da lei 6938/1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso Pilati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da evolução daresponsabilização civil ambiental noordenamento jurídico brasileiro. Procurasistematizar os aspectos relacionados à reparaçãodo meio ambiente, a partir de uma visãopanorâmica. Nesse passo, trata, inicialmente, dohistórico da responsabilização civil ambiental noBrasil, com enfoque para a Lei da Política Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente e para as funções daresponsabilidade civil. Em seguida, analisa o danoambiental, sua conceituação e classificação.Examina, a seguir, as formas de reparação do dano,destacando a prevalência da restauração in natura,assim como alguns julgados concernentes ao tema.Por fim, aborda – em função da sua atualidade –a questão do dano moral extrapatrimonialcoletivo, aduzindo julgados que já contemplarama sua reparabilidade.The present article deals with the evolutionof the ambient civil responsabilização in the Brazilianlegal system. Search systemize the aspects relatedto the repairing of the environment, from apanoramic vision. In this step, it treats, initially, ofthe description of the ambient civil responsabilizaçãoin Brazil, with approach for the Law of the NationalPolitics of the Environment and for the functions ofthe civil liability. After that, it analyzes the ambientdamage, its conceptualization and classification. Itexamines, to follow, the forms of repairing of thedamage, detaching the prevalence of the restorationin natura, as well as some concernentes judgeshipsto the subject. Finally, it approaches – in function ofits present time – the question of the collectiveextrapatrimonial pain and suffering, alleging judgedthat already they had contemplated its repairability.

  19. Marginalidade ou cidadania? a rede discursiva que configura o trabalho dos redutores de danos Marginality or citzenship? the discursive net that configures the work of outreach workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Caetano Nardi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A revisão bibliográfica mostra que os estudos relativos à redução de danos (RD se centram, predominantemente, na discussão das implicações de diferentes modelos de tratamento para o usuário de drogas e na redução de danos aplicada a usuários de drogas injetáveis. Porém, poucos estudos são encontrados acerca do trabalhador em RD. Neste contexto, o presente artigo propõe uma reflexão a respeito do trabalho dos redutores de danos, questionando como as formações discursivas sobre aids e drogas, na sociedade contemporânea, atravessam a subjetividade e o trabalho dos redutores, bem como sobre as possibilidades de inserção e sustentabilidade das ações em redução de danos.Scientific literature review shows that Harm Reduction (HR articles focus mainly the discussion about the implications of different drug users treatment models and the efficiency of HR with injection drug users. However, there are few studies about HR workers. In this context, the present article aims to discuss the work of outreachworkers, proposing an analysis of how the discursive formations about drugs and Aids, in contemporary society, influence the work and the subjectivity of the outreachworkers, as well as the possibilities of having "sustainable projects" as a way to include harm reduction practices in public health services.

  20. [Epidemiology and management of snake envenomations in the Dano health district, Ioba province (Burkina Faso) from 1981 to 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somé, N; Poda, J N; Guissou, I P

    2002-08-01

    A series of investigations concerning snakebites and management of envenomations was carried out from 1981 to 2000 in the medical District of Dano, Province of loba in Burkina Faso. Viper bites were more frequent than Elapid ones. The seasonal distribution of the envenomations reflected the cycle of field work and other specific activities. Care seeking within the Traditional System of Health Care (STSS) was more frequent than within the Conventional System of Health Care (SCSS). Lethality was higher at STSS level in cases of viper bites and, conversely, higher in SCSS in the cases of Elapid envenomations. This highlighted the interest in medicinal plants for treating snakebites particularly in case of neurotoxic envenomation. We classified several dozens medicinal plants within an inventory. Some of them have been studied and deemed worthy of interest. Others are used for the treatment of other types of poisoning (pesticides, plants toxic) and/or used in traditional rites. We hope to follow the Côte d'Ivoire experience such that African snake venom, neutralised by modern antivenom, might also be neutralised by the African natural resources.

  1. Avaliação de danos causados por percevejos e por lagartas em genótipos de soja de ciclos precoce e semiprecoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOURENÇÃO ANDRÉ LUIZ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os danos causados por percevejos e lagartas em cultivares e linhagens de soja de ciclos precoce e semiprecoce, em experimentos instalados em campo, na Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Preto (Instituto Agronômico, SP, nos anos agrícolas 1995/96 e 1996/97. A infestação de percevejos, com predominância de Piezodorus guildinii (West., foi mais intensa no primeiro ano. Lagartas de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hüb. ocorreram na área experimental apenas no primeiro ano. Nos genótipos de ciclo precoce (110 dias ('IAS 5', 'IAC 17', IAC 90-3395, IAC 93-345, IAC 93-386, o desfolhamento causado por A. gemmatalis variou de 11,7% ('IAC 17' a 28,3% (IAC 90-3395. Os danos causados por percevejos foram avaliados por meio de três critérios: retenção foliar, danos nas vagens e produção. As linhagens IAC 93-345, IAC 93-386 e IAC 90-3395 e a cultivar IAC 17 apresentaram os menores valores de retenção foliar e de danos nas vagens, com produção significativamente superior à da 'IAS 5' no primeiro ano. Na avaliação do germoplasma semiprecoce (120 dias ('IAC 15', 'IAC 18', 'IAC 100', IAC 93-2277, IAC 93-2738, IAC 93-3335, a cultivar IAC 100 e a linhagem IAC 93-3335 comportaram-se como resistentes a A. gemmatalis, e a cultivar IAC 15, como suscetível a essa lagarta e aos percevejos. 'IAC 18' teve produção estável nos dois anos, aproximadamente 600 g/3 m de linha, comparável às maiores médias, embora apresentasse os maiores índices de retenção foliar. Entre as linhagens, IAC 93-3335 foi menos danificada por lagartas, assim como apresentou menos danos nas vagens e produção similar à da cultivar IAC 18.

  2. Determination of the geothermal well damage from its production tests; Determinacion del dano en pozos geotermicos a partir de sus pruebas de produccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso; Izquierdo Montalvo, Georgina; Arellano Gomez, Victor [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    In this work the evolution is described that undergoes the factor of damage in a well during its productive stage, which is identifiable from the diminution in the characteristics of its production. It is mentioned that during the productive stage of wells, its declination is, in many occasions, synonymous of the damage presence. Traditionally, the damage effect is determined from the equations for analysis of the transitory tests of pressure. Nevertheless, the execution of this type of tests requires relatively long periods of time to obtain the stabilization of the well and of significant costs. By the previous facts the development of techniques to determine the damage from production tests was initiated. In this article is presented the curve-type of geothermal inflow affected by the damage, from which the value of this one in a geothermal well for the time in which its test of production is realized can be determined. A methodology is proposed to determine the damage effect in the well using the proposed curve-type and its applicability with examples of test measurements of well discharge is demonstrated in Mexican geothermal fields. From the conducted analyses it is found that the numerical value of the damage determined in selected wells increases based on the time of exploitation, which indicates a deterioration of its productive characteristics. The previous statements aid to constitute a technical endorsement for the decision making, on the pertinent actions that can be executed in the well. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la evolucion que sufre el factor de dano en un pozo durante su etapa productiva, el cual es identificable a partir de la disminucion en las caracteristicas de su produccion. Se menciona que durante la etapa productiva de los pozos, su declinacion es, en muchas ocasiones, sinonimo de la presencia de dano. Tradicionalmente, el efecto de dano se determina a partir de las ecuaciones para analisis de las pruebas transitorias de presion

  3. DANO OCUPACIONAL NA UNIDADE DE TERAPIA INTENSIVA NEONATAL: A PERCEPÇÃO DA ENFERMEIRA

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    MARIA ALVANI DIAS PEDROZA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de estudio cuantitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo, con el objetivo de conocer la percepción de las enfermeras con respecto a la influencia del desempeño en la asistencia de enfermería y en el ambiente laboral. Tuvo por escenario la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN de una maternidad escuela, en Fortaleza-CE. Recogimos los datos entre agosto y septiembre de 2004 a través de un cuestionario estructurado en parte, aplicado a 24 enfermeras activas. Verificamos que la mayor concentración de enfermeras (un 37,5% pertenece al grupo de las que ya tienen entre uno a cinco años de trabajo y que 19 (un 79% de ellas poseen otro trabajo, sometidas a una altísima carga horaria. El exceso de trabajo, el estrés y el ruido son los factores que más incomodan en el local, desencadenando el exceso de actividades y cansancio físico. Concluimos que el estrés existente en esta unidad es lo que causa mayor daño a la práctica laboral. El hecho de que esto ocurra con mucha frecuencia nos plantea una reflexión sobre las consecuencias que aporta a la salud del profesional /cuidador, mostrándonos la necesidad de mejorar las condiciones de trabajo.

  4. Modeling land use change impacts on water resources in a tropical West African catchment (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yira, Y.; Diekkrüger, B.; Steup, G.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impacts of land use change on water resources in the Dano catchment, Burkina Faso, using a physically based hydrological simulation model and land use scenarios. Land use dynamic in the catchment was assessed through the analysis of four land use maps corresponding to the land use status in 1990, 2000, 2007, and 2013. A reclassification procedure levels out differences between the classification schemes of the four maps. The land use maps were used to build five land use scenarios corresponding to different levels of land use change in the catchment. Water balance was simulated by applying the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) using observed discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level for model calibration and validation. Model statistical quality measures (R2, NSE and KGE) achieved during calibration and validation ranged between 0.6 and 0.9 for total discharge, soil moisture, and groundwater level, indicating a good agreement between observed and simulated variables. After a successful multivariate validation the model was applied to the land use scenarios. The land use assessment exhibited a decrease of savannah at an annual rate of 2% since 1990. Conversely, cropland and urban areas have increased. Since urban areas occupy only 3% of the catchment it can be assumed that savannah was mainly converted to cropland. The conversion rate of savannah was lower than the annual population growth of 3%. A clear increase in total discharge (+17%) and decrease in evapotranspiration (-5%) was observed following land use change in the catchment. A strong relationship was established between savannah degradation, cropland expansion, discharge increase and reduction of evapotranspiration. The increase in total discharge is related to high peak flow, suggesting (i) an increase in water resources that are not available for plant growth and human consumption and (ii) an alteration of flood risk for both the population within and

  5. Objective civil liability for work-related health damages Responsabilidade civil objetiva pelos danos à saúde do trabalhador

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    Juliane Caravieri Martins Gambá

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The environment, including that of work , is considered a basic right guaranteed by Magna Carta (article 7º, XXII, section 225, caption and article 200, VIII . The social value of work represents the pillars of Economic Order (article 170, CF and Social Order (article 193, CF, which offers full health and physical integrity protection to workers in their working environment. Thus, the question of work-related damages suffered by employees due to industrial accidents and occupational hazards must be analyzed within the work environment protection legal context , adopting the objective civil liability theory, by means of a teleologic logical-systematic interpretation of constitutional and infra-constitutional rules. This interpretation evidences the compatibility of the economic activity and the free initiative according to the Democratic State of Right, in order to build a more just and united society , thus reducing social inequalities.O meio ambiente, incluído o do trabalho, é considerado um direito fundamental, estando expressamente previsto no artigo 7º, inciso XXII, no artigo 225, caput e artigo 200, inciso VIII, todos da Carta Magna. Ademais, os valores sociais do trabalho representam pilares da Ordem Econômica (artigo 170 da CF e da Ordem Social (artigo 193 da CF, impondo plena proteção à saúde e à integridade física do trabalhador no meio ambiente onde exerce suas atividades. Desse modo, a questão da reparação dos danos sofridos pelos empregados em função dos acidentes de trabalho e das doenças ocupacionais deve ser analisada dentro do contexto jurídico da proteção ao meio ambiente do trabalho, adotando-se a teoria da responsabilidade civil objetiva, mediante uma interpretação lógico-sistemática e teleológica das normas constitucionais e infraconstitucionais. Essa interpretação evidencia a compatibilização da atividade econômica e da livre iniciativa com os fundamentos do Estado Democrático de Direito, no

  6. Vremja dano do utra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Riigikogu opositsioon hakkas koguma allkirju justiitsminister Ken-Marti Vaheri umbusaldamiseks. Rahvaliit ja Reformierakond ei pea justiitsministri võimalikku tagasiastumist koalitsiooni lagunemise põhjustajaks

  7. O dano moral no âmbito do direito de família: filhos de pais separados

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    Adauto de Almeida Tomaszewski

    1997-12-01

    parent’s children are agressivity, hasty, anxious and concentrating problems in the subjects. In addition, they get all kind of sickness and pains like headaches, stomackaches and even diabet. All of this, is a result of the insecurity feeling before the troubled separation process. Finally, thinking about all the problems involved in the divorce, and mainly that the mensal contribution is not enough to cover the children and the teens emotional treatments, it has been requisiting a indenization to compensate the negative effects that some separations can cause to divorced parent’s descendants. This can be done through a repair like moral damage.A personalidade em formação pode sofrer danos irreversíveis ou de difícil reversão ante fatos como as separações conjugais traumáticas. Elas causam aos filhos menores de casais que passam por isto uma enorme amargura. Estas apresentam geralmente, um quadro de somatização, manifestações do inconsciente, quadros clínicos, dificuldades de socialização. A pensão alimentícia, atualmente único remédio jurídico, não tem como proporcionar o conforto emocional e a segurança que só o convívio com os pais pode transmitir aos filhos. São vários os casos encontrados na psicanálise, motivados por eventos marcantes no período infanto-juvenil. Muitos demandam tratamento especializado. Verifica-se que os dois primeiros anos após a separação são os mais difíceis e as crianças em fase escolar, a partir de 6 a 7 anos, são as que apresentam maiores dificuldades de relacionamento. Os sintomas apresentados são a impulsividade, a agressividade e dificuldades na escola. Como a pensão alimentícia não tem o condão de abranger todos estes particulares, visualiza-se a possibilidade de se compensar os efeitos negativos que algumas separações conjugais trazem aos filhos, mediante o pagamento de indenização a título de danos morais.

  8. OCORRÊNCIA E DANOS DE Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1853) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) EM POMAR DE CITROS OCCURRENCE AND DAMAGE CAUSED BY Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1953) (coleoptera, cerambycidae) IN A CITRIC YARD

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Relatou-se no presente trabalho a ocorrência e os danos causados por Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1853) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) em pomar cítrico misto e sem tratos culturais, formado pelas tangerinas rio e cravo, laranjas baianinha e natal, tangor sabará e limão cravo, num total de 357 plantas. A ocorrência e os danos provocados pelas larvas foi veri...

  9. Validação de um modelo de dano para a análise não-linear de estruturas em concreto armado = Validation of a damage model for the non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio de Cerqueira Pituba

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma discussão sobre a aplicabilidade de modelos de dano na análise não-linear física de estruturas em concreto armado, procurando, particularmente, validar a proposta de um modelo formulado recentemente por Pituba que compara as respostas numéricas obtidas com as respostas de modelos já testados, além de respostasexperimentais encontradas na literatura. O modelo proposto admite o concreto como meio inicialmente isótropo e que passa a apresentar deformações plásticas, bimodularidade e anisotropia induzidas pelo dano. Já o modelo proposto por Mazars considera o concreto como meio elástico e isótropo. Em seguida, apresenta-se a formulação do modelo proposto por La Borderie, que leva em conta deformações plásticas induzidas pelo dano e mantém a característica de isotropia do material. Na segunda parte do trabalho, os modelos são empregados na análise de vigas e pórtico em concreto armado, e as respostas numéricas são confrontadas com medidas experimentais. Os resultados evidenciam o bom desempenho dos modelos de dano e, em particular, valida-se o emprego do modelo proposto por Pituba nas situações estudadas. Observa-se ainda que formulações simples de modelos de danopara o concreto podem apresentar resultados bastante satisfatórios, dando margem para possíveis aplicações na prática da Engenharia de Estruturas.This work presents a discussion on the employment of a damage model recently proposed for concrete and other damage models in the non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures. The validation of the model is obtained by the comparison between numerical responses and experimental ones. The model proposed by Pituba regards concrete as an initially isotropic medium that starts to present plastic deformations, bimodularity and anisotropy induced by the damage. The model proposed by Mazars considers concrete to be an elastic and isotropic medium. Next, the model proposed by La Borderie is

  10. Controle do inóculo inicial para redução dos danos pela podridão: 'olho-de-boi' em macieiras

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    Rosa Maria Valdebenito-Sanhueza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da redução do inóculo no controle da podridão-'olho-de-boi' (POB causada por Cryptosporiopsis sp. em maçãs e minimização de perdas. Os experimentos foram realizados em Vacaria-RS, nos ciclos 2006/07 e 2007/08. Na fase de dormência de macieiras Pink Lady®, foram aplicados os seguintes tratamentos erradicantes (dose p.i.: calda sulfocálcica (3,0%; oxicloreto de cobre (0,5%; hidróxido de cobre (0,3%; óxido cuproso (0,3% e testemunha sem pulverização. A redução do inóculo foi avaliada em solução oriunda da lavagem de ramos, gemas floríferas e frutos, semeados em meio semisseletivo. Na colheita, a incidência da POB foi avaliada em quatro categorias de frutos: caídos sob a área de projeção da copa; nas plantas; infecções latentes, e após três meses de armazenamento em câmara frigorífica. Houve relação linear positiva entre os níveis de inóculo de Cryptosporiopsis sp. em gemas e os danos por POB (R² = 0,948; P = 0,001. O uso da calda sulfocálcica possibilitou a maior redução de inóculo nas gemas, com redução em 50% dos danos totais ocasionados por POB na safra de 2006/07. Nos frutos, o inóculo apresentou um incremento linear ao longo do ciclo, sendo relativamente maior em 2007/08, onde os tratamentos erradicantes possibilitaram controle superior a 40% nos danos com benefício econômico pela redução do inóculo.

  11. Iloprost reduces colonic injury in ischemic colitis in rats Iloprosta reduz o dano colônico na colite isquêmica em ratos

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    Oguzhan Karatepe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the effects of iloprost administration in the early period of ischemic colitis and the mechanism that how these effects develop. METHODS: Thirty two Wistar albino female rats with an average weight of 220g were divided into four groups of eight rats. In group 1 the rats were given iloprost and sacrificed after 24 hours and in group 2 they were sacrificed after 24 hours without any iloprost. The rats in group 3 were administrated iloprost and sacrificed after 72 hours and in group 4 they were sacrificed at 72th hour without iloprost. The differences between the groups as tissue damage, vascularization or apoptosis were assessed statistically. RESULTS: Oxidative damage and apoptosis were less pronounced and vascularization was better developed in rats that were given iloprost and sacrificed at 24th hour later in contrast to the rats that were not treated with iloprost. But there was no statistical difference among the groups at 72th hour. CONCLUSION: Iloprost inhibited leucocyte infiltration, decreased proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced angiogenesis so that the oxidative stress and inflammatory response decreased resulting in lesser tissue damage.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da administração de iloprosta no período precoce da colite isquêmica e o mecanismo da evolução destes efeitos. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar fêmeas em torno de 220g foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de oito ratos. No grupo 1 administração de iloprosta e sacrificados após 24 horas; no grupo 2 foram sacrificados após 24 horas sem iloprosta; no grupo 3 foi administrado iloprosta e sacrificados após 72 horas; no grupo 4 foram sacrificados após 72 horas sem Iloprosta. As diferenças entre os grupos no referente a dano tecidual. vascularização ou apoptose foi apurada estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Dano oxidativo e apoptose foram menos acentuados e a vascularização foi melhor nos ratos que receberam iloprosta e sacrificados após 24

  12. Uso do teste Lercafé para a caracterização de danos em sementes de cafeeiro Characterization of injuries in coffee seeds through Lercafé test

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    João Batista Zonta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização do teste Lercafé, para estimar a germinação e caracterizar diferentes tipos de danos em sementes de cafeeiro. Utilizaram-se sementes de cafeeiro arábica cultivar Catuaí IAC 44, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: sementes sem dano, sementes com dano por secagem a 40 e 60ºC, e sementes brocadas. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação e Lercafé. Em relação aos dois tipos de danos, os resultados de germinação, estimada pelo Lercafé, apresentaram alta correlação com os obtidos pelo teste de germinação. O dano por secagem à alta temperatura caracterizou-se pelo aparecimento de manchas esverdeadas espalhadas, que atingiram parcial ou totalmente o endosperma da semente. O dano por broca caracterizou-se por uma depressão circundada por um anel de coloração verde. O teste Lercafé é eficiente para estimar a germinação e caracterizar os danos por secagem à alta temperatura e os causados por broca, em sementes de cafeeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of the Lercafé test for estimating the germination and characterizing different types of injuries in coffee seeds. Seeds of arabica coffee cultivar Catuaí IAC 44 were submitted to the following treatments: nondamaged seeds, heat damage (at 40 and 60ºC, and bug damage. Seeds were assessed by the tests of germination and Lercafé. The germination results estimated by Lercafé test had high correlation with the results from the germination test for the two types of injuries. The heat damage, by drying seeds at high temperatures, was characterized by scattered green stains, partially or totally covering the seed endosperm. A sunken lesion surrounded by a green ring characterized the damage by coffee berry borer. Lercafé test is efficient to estimate the germination and to characterize the injuries by heat and coffee berry borer, in coffee seeds.

  13. Ocorrência de afídeos causando danos em mangueira (Mangifera indica L., no Vale do São Francisco

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    FERREIRA RACHEL GONÇALVES

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaram-se em pomares de mangueiras (Mangifera indica L., no semi-árido nordestino, altas infestações de afídeos causando danos às folhas novas e brotações da planta. Diversas amostras foram coletadas, tendo sido identificadas três espécies: Aphis craccivora, Aphis gossypii e Toxoptera aurantii. As duas primeiras espécies estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez como pragas, em mangueiras, no Brasil. Espécimens de referência encontram-se depositados no Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa Semi-Árido, localizada em Petrolina-PE.

  14. Study of DNA damage induced by dental bleaching agents in vitro Estudo de danos no DNA induzidos por agentes clareadores dentais in vitro

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    Daniel Araki Ribeiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental bleaching is a simple and conservative procedure for aesthetic restoration of vital and non-vital discolored teeth. Nevertheless, a number of studies have demonstrated the risk of tissue damage from the contact of these agents with the oral mucosa. In the current study, the genotoxic potential associated with exposure to dental bleaching agents was assessed by the single cell gel (comet assay in vitro. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells in vitro were exposed to six commercial dental bleaching agents (Clarigel Gold - Dentsply; Whitespeed - Discus Dental; Nite White - Discus Dental; Magic Bleaching - Vigodent; Whiteness HP - FGM and Lase Peroxide - DMC. The results pointed out that all dental bleaching agents tested contributed to DNA damage as depicted by the mean tail moment, being the strongest effect observed with the highest dose of hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP and Lase Peroxide, at a 35% concentration. On the other hand, Magic Bleaching (Vigodent induced the lowest level of DNA breakage. Negative and positive controls displayed absence and presence of DNA-damaging, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that dental bleaching agents may be a factor that increases the level of DNA damage. A higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced higher noxious activities in the genome as detected by single cell gel (comet assay.Clareamento dental é um procedimento simples e conservador para restaurar esteticamente a cor de dentes vitais e não-vitais. Entretanto, alguns estudos têm demonstrado o risco de dano tecidual a partir do contato desses agentes com a mucosa bucal. Neste presente estudo, o potencial genotóxico associado à exposição aos agentes clareadores dentais foi avaliado pelo teste de células individualizadas em gel (teste do cometa in vitro. Células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO in vitro foram expostas a seis agentes clareadores dentais comercialmente disponíveis (Clarigel Gold - Dentsply; Whitespeed

  15. Responsabilidade Civil e Débito Conjugal: Breve Análise do Dano Imaterial pela Quebra do Dever Sexual no Direito Português e Brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Olivia Marcelo Pinto de; Universidade de Fortaleza - UNIFOR; Monteiro, Jorge Ferreira Sinde; Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Coimbra

    2013-01-01

    Partindo-se do pressuposto de que o dever sexual faz parte do rol de deveres conjugais, procura-se investigar se a sua violação constituiria um ilícito civil, passível de apreciação jurídica, especialmente no âmbito da responsabilidade civil, com a consequente apuração do dano e quantificação da respectiva indenização ao cônjuge lesado. Assim, a problemática em torno da situação apresentada refere-se à análise de quatro situações oriundas da quebra do dever sexual e a eventual possibili...

  16. Avaliação da disponibilizaçâo de Kits de redução de danos An evaluation of harm reduction Kits distrubution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Delbon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A parceria com a Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo e Organização Mundial da Saúde - KOBE Center possibilitou que a Prefeitura do Município de São Paulo investigasse as intervenções realizadas junto à população de usuários de drogas e junto aos serviços públicos municipais dirigidos a essa população, durante o período de julho de 2003 a novembro de 2004. Pesquisou-se dessa forma a implantação de estratégias de redução de danos em serviços de tratamento a usuários de drogas. A estratégia de avaliação das intervenções focou a distribuição de kits de redução de danos em serviços de tratamento da dependência química, os Centros de Atenção Psicossocial Álcool e Drogas da área temática de Saúde Mental do município de São Paulo - CAPS ad - cujos técnicos foram treinados pelos profissionais do projeto PRD Sampa, visando a implantação da Política de Redução de Danos. A introdução do conceito de redução de danos (RD nos CAPS ad fez com que se compreendesse a complexidade da tarefa e o impacto no serviço e no território de abrangência. Após tal constatação, desenharam-se treinamentos e reuniões de fortalecimento para sensibilização dos profissionais, usuários, familiares e comunidade.The PRD Sampa (the Sampa Harm Reduction Project was initiated in the Mental Health District of São Paulo to implement a harm reduction policy for drug and alcohol users in the city and reduce their exposure to sexually transmitted diseases - STDs and HIV. Sao Paulo Alcohol and Drug Psycho-social Care Centers (CAPS ad run by the Mental Health Division of Sao Paulo municipality dispatched their staff to receive professional training from PRD Sampa to implement Harm Reduction Public Policy. The study was implemented from July 2003 to November 2004 in São Paulo, in order to evaluate the interventions. The presentation of the harm reduction (HR concept at CAPS ad shed light on the complexity of

  17. Sistema de Justiça, Função Social do Contrato e a Indenização do Dano Reflexo ou por Ricochete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Peteffi da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo inicial fixara modelagem jurídica triangular típica dosdanos reflexos ou por ricochete, visando diminuira falta de clareza conceitual que o institutoapresenta. Em um segundo momento, o artigoanalisa os desenvolvimentos doutrinários e jurisprudenciaisrelacionados com a norma contidano artigo 948 do Código Civil, pois o seusuporte fático consubstancia o chamado “casoclássico”, por ser a única espécie de dano reflexofartamente desenvolvida no cenário nacional.Após estabelecer os parâmetros indenizatóriosrelacionados com o artigo 948 do Código Civil,o artigo busca novas hipóteses de danos reflexosindenizáveis, principalmente pela conexão comum dos conteúdos eficacionais típicos do princípioda função social do contrato, que flexibiliza oprincípio da relatividade dos efeitos contratuais.The article aims, initially, to set thetypical triangular legal modeling of the reflexdamage, aiming to reduce lack of conceptualclarity that the institute presents. In a secondstep, the article analyzes the doctrinal and jurisprudentialdevelopments related to the provisioncontained in art. 948 of the Civil Code,as its factual support constitutes the so-called“classic case” because it is the only kind of reflexdamage widely developed on the nationalscene. After establishing the parameters relatedto severance art. 948 of the Civil Code, the articleseeks new cases of compensable reflex damage,especially the connection to the content ofthe principle of the social function of the contract,which makes

  18. Danos em trigo causados pela infecção de Pyricularia grisea Damages in wheat caused by infection of Pyricularia grisea

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    Augusto César Pereira Goulart

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo quantificar os danos no rendimento de grãos, causados pela infecção natural da brusone (Pyricularia grisea, em diferentes cultivares e linhagens de trigo, na safra agrícola de 2004, no Município de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, isoladamente da ocorrência de outras doenças. Trabalhou-se em condições naturais e sem o emprego de fungicidas, em parcelas experimentais, na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste e em Indápolis. Após o espigamento, todas as espigas de trigo com sintomas típicos da brusone (ponto preto de infecção na ráquis foram identificadas e marcadas, em uma área de 1m². As espigas doentes e sadias foram colhidas, contadas e trilhadas separadamente. Os danos foram calculados com base na diferença entre o rendimento real e a estimativa do rendimento potencial. Os resultados mostraram que os danos e a incidência da brusone variaram de acordo com as cultivares/linhagens testadas e a região tritícola avaliada. As menores incidências da brusone foram observadas na cv. BR 18-Terena, com 27% e 42% de espigas infectadas, nos ensaios instalados na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste e em Indápolis, respectivamente. O dano médio devido à brusone, registrado nos 20 materiais testados, foi de 387kg/ha, o que representou 10,5% do rendimento de grãos, no ensaio instalado na Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste. Em Indápolis, os danos foram maiores, atingindo, em média, 609kg/ha (13,0% do rendimento de grãos. As perdas em peso por espiga foram maiores (63,4% quando a infecção foi precoce em comparação à infecção tardia (46,0%. Verificou-se que houve uma compensação das perdas causadas pela doença, através do melhor desenvolvimento de grãos produzidos abaixo do ponto de estrangulamento da ráquis. Observou-se, também, que em função das espigas brancas sobressaírem-se das demais, pode-se superestimar as perdas.This work was carried out in order to quantify the damages in wheat yield due to natural

  19. DESCRIPTION OF ULTRASTRUCTURAL DAMAGES IN FROZEN-THAWED CANINE SPERMATOZOA DESCRIÇÃO DE DANOS ULTRAESTRUTURAIS EM ESPERMATOZOIDES CANINOS CONGELADOS-DESCONGELADOS

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    Viviane Helena Chirinéa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the advances in transmission electronic microscopy (TEM, there are few studies presenting a systematic description of the canine spermatozoa and they are only focused on sperm cell heads. The goal of the present study was to describe ultrastructural appearance of canine fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, focusing on damages induced by freezing-thawing in different sperm regions. Ten ejaculates from five proven stud dogs (two ejaculates/dog were collected, evaluated, extended in Tris-egg yolk-glycerol, frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, and thawed six weeks later.  Samples were evaluated for progressive motility, morphology, and for ultrastructural analysis by TEM. Concerning to TEM, the most striking differences between fresh and frozen-thawed samples were observed over the mid-piece since the fresh spermatozoa showed a well preserved mid-piece. However, the frozen-thawed spermatozoa mid-piece showed signs of damage such as mitochondrial vacuolization. In conclusion, freezing-thawing processes using a Tris-egg yolk extender induce ultrastructural damages in head and mid-piece of canine sperm, affecting the mitochondrial ultrastructure besides.

    KEY WORDS: Cryopreservation, dog, semen, ultrastructure.
    Apesar dos avanços na microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET, existem poucos estudos apresentando uma descrição sistemática do espermatozoide canino, os quais estão focados apenas na cabeça espermática. Objetivou-se, com o presente estudo, descrever a aparência ultraestrutural do espermatozoide canino fresco e congelado-descongelado, enfocando os danos induzidos pela congelação e descongelação em diferentes regiões espermáticas. Dez ejaculados obtidos de cinco cães (dois ejaculados por cão foram coletados, avaliados e diluídos em Tris-gema-glicerol, congelados e armazenados em nitrogênio líquido, e descongelados seis semanas após. Avaliaram-se as amostras quanto à motilidade progressiva

  20. Reflexões sobre a atuação dos assistentes sociais e psicólogos junto à metodologia do Depoimento sem Dano (Reflections on the role of Social Workers and Psychologists in relation to the methodology of Testimony... Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.13i1.0004

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    Daniella Borges Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar um debate sobre a atuação dos assistentes sociais e psicólogos junto à metodologia do Depoimento sem Dano. Para a realização do estudo, recorremos a um levantamento bibliográfico e documental sobre o tema e, a partir de contatos realizados nos Conselhos Regionais de Serviço Social e Psicologia do Estado do Espírito Santo, selecionamos oito profissionais, sendo: dois juízes, um advogado, um psicólogo e quatro assistentes sociais. Os oito profissionais selecionados participaram de uma pesquisa que se realizou por meio de entrevistas e questionários. A partir da análise dos dados, foi possível verificar algumas polêmicas no que se refere à posição dos Conselhos Federais de Serviço Social e Psicologia, além do desvirtuamento do conceito de Proteção Integral previsto pelo Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. Palavras-chave: Depoimento sem dano. Criança. Adolescente. Abstract: This study aims to present a debate on the role of Social Workers and Psychologists in relation to the methodology of Testimony without Harm. To conduct the study, we undertook a bibliographic and document search on the subject and selected, from contacts made in the Regional Councils of Social Work and Psychology in the state of Espírito Santo, eight professionals, as follows: two judges, a lawyer, a psychologist and four social workers. The eight selected professionals participated in a survey constituted of interviews and questionnaires. From the analysis of the data it was possible to verify some controversies regarding the position of the Federal Councils of Social Work and Psychology and the distortion of the concept of Integral Protection provided by the Child and Adolescent Statutes.  Keywords: Testimony without harm. Child. Adolescent.

  1. Non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete plates by the boundary element method and continuum damage mechanics = Análise não-linear de placas em concreto armado pelo método dos elementos de contorno e mecânica do dano contínuo

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    Gabriela Rezende Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, non-linear analyses of reinforced concrete plates are performed by using a BEM formulation, based on Kirchhoff’s theory, which has already proved to be a robust technique to deal with plate problems. The non-linear behavior of concrete is modeled by theMazars model, which is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM and has an easy parametric identification, while the reinforcement is governed by the uniaxial elasto-plastic model with constant hardening. Initially, the different types of damage models and their parametric identification are discussed and the Mazars model is presented. Then the BEM formulation is discussed, which is based on the initial moment technique, where the remaining domain integralsare evaluated by approaching the initial moment field over internal cells. The stress distribution over the plate thickness is obtained by using a Gauss scheme in which the adopted criterion is verified ineach Gauss point defined along the plate. Then, the internal values of moments are approached by numerical integrals along the plate thickness. Finally, some numerical examples of reinforced concrete plates are analyzed, where the potentiality of the Mazars model is verified despite the difficulties of the parametric identification.Nesse trabalho são feitas análises nãolineares de placas de concreto armado,utilizando-se uma formulação do MEC (método dos elementos de contorno baseada nas hipóteses de Kirchhoff. O modelo constitutivo adotado para o concreto é o modelo proposto por Mazars baseado na Mecânica do da Dano Contínuo (MDC, sendo o comportamento não-linear das armaduras governado pelo modelo elastoplástico comencruamento isótropo. Justifica-se a escolha de tal modelo numérico pela simplicidade paramétrica do modelo de dano e pela robustez do MEC, que já provou ser eficiente na análise de placas. Inicialmente, apresenta-se uma revisão dos tipos de modelos de dano e suas implicações na identifica

  2. Danos provocados por coró-das-pastagens em plantas de eucalipto Damages caused by coró-das-pastagens in eucalypt

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    Juliana Garlet

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota tem por objetivo relatar o ataque de larvas do coró-das-pastagens, Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae, em mudas de eucalipto híbrido (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, na fazenda Bazana, município de Manoel Viana, Rio Grande do Sul. Essa praga se alimentou da casca das plantas na região do coleto, provocando “anelamento” das mudas. A mortalidade de mudas foi de 30% em 40ha. Este é o primeiro registro dos danos desse inseto em plantas de eucalipto no Brasil.This article aims to report the attack of larvae Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus hybrid ( Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, on the farm Bazana, in Manoel Viana, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This pest consumed the bark of the ground, which caused the 'girdling' of seedlings. The mortality rate was 30%, in 40ha. No previous report was found in the literature regarding the occurrence of damages of Diloboderus abderus on Eucalyptus; thus, this is the first record of the pest on Eucalyptus in Brazil.

  3. Saúde dos docentes dos cursos de strictosensu: os danos causados por imposições do processo avaliativo

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    Marcio Pascoal Cassandre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo del capitalismo provocó alteraciones en la forma de producción académica influenciando a las universidades para realizar la revisión de su propia producción. Dentro de esta concepción, los cursos stricto-sensu de las universidades son configurados a partir de las reglas propuestas por los organismos vinculados a la producción académica brasileña. Los conceptos fueron creados para demonstrar el nivel de desempeño entre los programas de maestría y doctorado de las universidades y, en este escenario, se encuentran los docentes responsables por la producción intelectual exigida para cumplir la finalidad de la educación superior, bien como, por la manutención y elevación del nivel del Programa de pos-graduación al cual pertenece. La presión ejercida sobre los docentes, como forma de atender las exigencias de los actuales métodos de evaluación, puede ser perjudicial al equilibrio físico y psíquico de estos trabajadores que necesitan presentar constantemente excelentes resultados. Frente a este cuadro, 286 docentes de cursos stricto-sensu de dos universidades públicas del Paraná fueron investigados para conocer la situación de su salud física y mental en la presente circunstancia. Los test estadísticos ANOVA e Sperman permitieron la verificación de veinte y dos (22 elementos constitutivos de las categorías de salud física y mental, satisfacción, trabajo y creencias, en comparación con las áreas de actuación y con el concepto de los cursos. Los resultados mostraran un cuadro de significativa insatisfacción en relación a la salud física y mental de docentes de determinadas áreas de conocimiento y una mayor satisfacción entre los docentes de programas que detienen el mayor concepto establecido por CAPES. Estos resultados permiten un análisis, fundamentado en la Teoría Crítica de los estudios organizacionales, sobre las situaciones en que la salud física y mental del trabajador está relacionada con

  4. Danos visuais e anatômicos causados pelo glyphosate em folhas de Eucalyptus grandis Visible and anatomic damages caused by glyphosate in Eucalyptus grandis leaves

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    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A sintomatologia é um dos principais critérios adotados para avaliar os danos causados por fatores bióticos e abióticos em plantas. Contudo, aspectos microscópicos são necessários na compreensão dos mecanismos de intoxicação e no diagnóstico precoce da injúria. Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de quatro formulações comerciais de glyphosate (Scout®, Roundup NA®, Roundup transorb® e Zapp QI® sobre a morfoanatomia foliar de seis clones de Eucalyptus grandis (UFV01, UFV02, UFV03, UFV04, UFV05 e UFV06. Após a aplicação do glyphosate na dose de 129,6 g ha-1, acompanhou-se diariamente o surgimento de sintomas, e aos 14 dias coletaram-se amostras de folhas aparentemente sadias para as análises microscópicas. Todos os clones apresentaram cloroses e necroses a partir do quarto dia de exposição, independentemente da formulação utilizada. O clone UFV04 não apresentou injúrias anatômicas. Nos demais clones, os herbicidas ocasionaram plasmólise, colapso celular, hipertrofia e formação de tecido de cicatrização, porém não foram diagnosticadas variações na espessura das folhas. Visualmente, o Roundup transorb® foi o herbicida que provocou maior intoxicação nas plantas. Anatomicamente, plantas expostas ao Roundup NA® apresentaram maior número de danos. O clone UFV06 foi o mais sensível à ação das formulações testadas, considerando-se tanto a análise visual quanto a anatômica. Os resultados confirmam o valor diagnóstico da análise visual e prognóstico da anatomia vegetal, sendo o estudo conjunto desses parâmetros fundamental para avaliar a sensibilidade entre os clones e o potencial fitotóxico de herbicidas.Symptomatology is one of the most important criteria used to determine the damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors in plants. However, microscopic aspects are needed to elucidate intoxication mechanisms and early injury diagnosis. This work aimed to evaluate the

  5. Violência sexual intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes: entre a prevenção do crime e do dano Interfamilial sexual violence against children and adolescents: between the prevention of crime and harm

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    Lygia Maria Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: compreender as representações sociais de membros do Poder Judiciário acerca da prevenção da violência sexual intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa que teve como campo de estudo as 1ª e 2ª Varas dos Crimes contra a Criança e o Adolescente, no Tribunal de Justiça de Pernambuco, com participação de 17 sujeitos (juiz, assessor, técnicos e analistas judiciários. Observação participante, entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupo focal compreenderam as técnicas para coleta de dados, que foram analisados por meio da interpretação dos sentidos. RESULTADOS: a categoria "cultura penal" emergiu dos discursos, bem como suas subcategorias: "prevenção do crime" e "prevenção do dano". CONCLUSÕES: as representações dos sujeitos revelam uma dicotomia, caracterizando o conflito entre a tradição do Poder Judiciário e o direito novo, que abrange os princípios da proteção integral e da prioridade absoluta às crianças e dos adolescentes. O conceito de prevenção da violência sexual intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes deve ser ampliado para além da mera prevenção do crime. A abordagem do problema por meio da prevenção requer que se incorpore ao Poder Judiciário uma cultura penal que abarque os princípios da proteção integral e da prioridade absoluta.OBJECTIVES: to understand the social representations of members of the judiciary regarding the prevention of interfamilial sexual violence against children and adolescents. METHODS: a qualitative approach to research that considers as its field of study the 1st and 2nd Courts on Crimes against Children and Adolescents, in the Court of Pernambuco, with the participation of 17 subjects (judge, assessor, technicians and judicial analysts. Participant Observation, semi-structured interviews and focus group were all used for data collection, from which the content was then analyzed through meaning interpretation

  6. Damages caused by Bipolaris maydis in Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia Dano causado por Bipolaris maydis em Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia

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    Gilmar Franzener

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the damage caused by Bipolaris maydis in the quantity and quality of the Tanzania grass production. Tanzania grass plants were cultivated in pots of PVC tubes (50 cm of height x 15 cm of diameter containing a mixture of soil and sand (3:1. The plants were inoculated with spore pathogen suspension containing 102, 104 and 106 conidia/mL to obtain different levels of disease. Severity and number of tillers were evaluated weekly. After four weeks, it were evaluated the weight of the fresh matter of leaves (FM, percentage of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The disease reduced significantly the plant tillering and FM after the second evaluation (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o dano causado por Bipolaris maydis (helmintosporiose na quantidade e qualidade da produção do capim Tanzânia. Plantas de capim Tanzânia foram cultivadas em vasos de tubos de PVC (50 cm de altura x 15 cm de diâmetro contendo mistura solo/areia (3:1. As plantas foram inoculadas com suspensões de esporos do patógeno com diferentes concentrações (102, 104 e 106 conídios/mL, visando obter gradiente de severidade de manchas foliares. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais da severidade e do número de perfilhos. Após quatro semanas avaliou-se o peso da matéria fresca de folhas (MF, porcentagem de matéria seca (PMS, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. A doença reduziu significativamente o perfilhamento e MF a partir da segunda avaliação (P < 0,05. Não houve correlação significativa entre as variáveis PMS, FDA e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. No entanto, houve correlação positiva (P < 0,01 e negativa (P < 0 ,05 entre PB e FDN, respectivamente, com a AACPD, como possível resultado da atividade do patógeno. Estes resultados indicam que B. maydis inibe o desenvolvimento do

  7. Método do estado local aplicado na formulação de modelos constitutivos de dano para o concreto - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i1.375

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    José Julio de Cerqueira Pituba

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda alguns fundamentos da Termodinâmica com relação aos meios contínuos particularizados para o Método do Estado Local aplicado na formulação de modelos de dano. Inicialmente, são apresentados alguns aspectos da Mecânica do Dano Contínuo, que se constitui numa ferramenta de grande aplicabilidade na modelagem macroscópica de materiais. Em seguida, o trabalho trata dos princípios da Termodinâmica dos Processos Irreversíveis. De maneira geral, o objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar a eficiência de modelos constitutivos formulados pelos fundamentos da Termodinâmica. Como exemplo da formulação abordada, é derivado um modelo constitutivo aplicado à análise de estruturas de concreto armado. As respostas numéricas obtidas com a aplicação do modelo são comparadas com uma série de respostas experimentais de vigas (biapoiadas e com diferentes taxas de armadura.

  8. Apoio territorial e equipe multirreferencial: cartografias do encontro entre o apoio institucional e a redução de danos nas ruas e redes de Campinas, SP, Brasil

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    Tadeu de Paula Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos nesta investigação os desafios da gestão do cuidado a partir de algumas ações de apoio realizadas por agentes redutores de danos em áreas de atuação de equipes de Centros de Atenção Psicossocial – álcool e outras drogas – e de unidades básicas de saúde de Campinas, SP, Brasil. Cartografamos o movimento dos usuários de drogas nas ruas e na rede de atenção à saúde. Resultaram desse processo, reflexões, questões e proposições capazes de contribuir para a (reinvenção e consolidação de arranjos de gestão em saúde, como o apoio institucional, que visam operacionalizar redes de cuidado e atenção comprometidos com a produção da vida. Um apoio que muitas vezes se coloca como um “não lugar” ativado por movimentos que são produzidos fora da estrutura de gestão, no qual os redutores de danos buscam dar passagem para a afirmação dos territórios existenciais dos usuários.

  9. Danos de Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae em frutos de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia na Amazônia Central Damage of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia fruits by Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae in Central Amazonia

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    Sidney Alberto do Nascimento Ferreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a ocorrência de Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] tinha sido constatada somente em populações naturais. Relata-se sua ocorrência em um cultivo experimental, onde se avaliou os danos de C. dubiae em frutos de camu-camu, em diferentes graus de amadurecimento, entre 1999 e 2003. Os danos causados pela larva aumentaram com o amadurecimento dos frutos, havendo maior comprometimento da polpa do fruto (30 a 90% do que das sementes (7%. A incidência desse inseto pode implicar em perdas quantitativas significativas na produção de camu-camu.In Brazil, the occurrence of Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] had only been verified in natural populations. This report describes its occurrence in an experimental cultivation, where damage of camu-camu fruits by C. dubiae at different ripening stages was evaluated between 1999 and 2003. The damage caused by the larva increased with the degree of ripening of the fruits, with greater damage of fruit pulp (30 to 90% than to seeds (7%. The incidence of this insect may cause significant quantitative losses in the camu-camu production.

  10. Danos físicos em estufas plásticas causados pelo vento em Santa Maria, RS Plastic greenhouses damaged by wind in Santa Maria, RS. Case report

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    Nereu Augusto Streck

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram observados danos físicos causados por rajadas de vento ocorridos na madrugada do dia 19/05/97 no plástico das estufas localizadas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Os valores de intensidade e direção das rajadas máximas do vento foram registradas em um anemográfo universal tipo IH 1023 a 10m de altura, instalado a aproximadamente 100m ao sul das estufas. Os danos ocorreram quando a velocidade das rajadas máximas ultrapassou 20m s-1 (72km h-1Plastic greenhouses located at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were damaged by wind on May 19th, 1997. Wind speed and direction at 10m height were measured at the Climatological Station located approximatly 100m from the greenhouses. The damage in the greenhouses occured when the maximum gusts reached up speed higher than 20m s-1 (72km h-1.

  11. Incidência de danos da broca dos ponteiros em diferentes genótipos de soja Damage incidence of the bean shoot borer on different genotypes of soybean

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    Paulo Ricardo Ebert Siqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A broca dos ponteiros Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é uma espécie potencialmente prejudicial à cultura da soja, particularmente em regiões de temperaturas mais amenas, como no Sul do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O nível de dano aos ponteiros é influenciado pela época de semeadura e varia conforme o genótipo. Na atualidade, as informações disponíveis no Brasil referentes às diferenças de ataque de C. aporema entre genótipos comerciais são escassas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os danos aos ponteiros de 18 genótipos comerciais de soja, comparados em dois grupos, conforme o grau de maturidade relativa (GMR, nos estádios fenológicos V.4, V.6, V.8, V.10, R.2 e R.4, durante o ano agrícola 2009/2010, na Região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas de ataque entre os genótipos de ciclo mais longo: a cultivar 'Fundacep 59' foi a menos atacada neste grupo e as cultivares 'Fepagro RS-10' e 'Fundacep 45 - Missões' foram os genótipos com maiores danos aos ponteiros. Constatou-se, ainda, que o nível de dano variou conforme o estádio fenológico de maneira distinta para cada genótipo, havendo cultivares com maior ataque nos estádios vegetativos e cultivares mais atacadas nos estádios reprodutivos. O monitoramento dos danos aos ponteiros identificou somente uma vez, na cultivar 'Fepagro RS-10', a necessidade de adoção de controle, por ter sido alcançado o nível de 30% de ponteiros atacados por C. aporema.The Borer moth Crocidosema aporema (Walshingham 1914 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a potentially harmful species to the soybean crops, particularly in the areas of temperate weather, like those in the southernmost section of Rio Grande do Sul State. Level of damage caused on the late crops of the season is influenced by sowing time and varies according to the genotype. Currently the available information in Brazil pertinent to the variaton on C

  12. Hydrologic-agronomic-economic model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui river reservoir system using genetic algorithms; Modelo hidrologico-agronomico-economico para la operacion optima del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui, usando algoritmos geneticos

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    Minjares-Lugo, Jose Luis; Salmon-Castelo, Roberto Fernando; Oroz-Ramos, Lucas Antonio [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico); Cruz-Medina, Isidro Roberto [Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    ano agricola 2000-2001. Los resultados obtenidos con el modelo se analizan y comparan con los resultados reales obtenidos en este ano en particular para conocer las funciones analiticas del modelo. Los resultados demuestran que este modelo es una herramienta que puede ser utilizada para optimizar y analizar la operacion del sistema de presas del Yaqui, asi como para manejar los recursos hidraulicos en el Distrito de Riego 041, seleccionado el patron de cultivos de acuerdo con sus maximos beneficios economicos y las extracciones optimas mensuales del agua disponible del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui. El modelo considera la operacion simultanea de tres presas y se aplica al Distrito de Riego 041, Rio Yaqui.

  13. Assessing the impact of climate change on water resources in a tropical West African catchment using an ensemble of CORDEX climate simulations (Dano, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yira, Yacouba; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Steup, Gero; Yaovi Bossa, Aymar

    2016-04-01

    This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on water resources in the Dano catchment (Burkina Faso, West Africa). There is now essential consensus on the importance of performing multi (climate)-model assessments in order to estimate the response of the West African climate to global change. Taking advantage of the results of the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX-Africa) project, this study evaluates climate change impacts on water resources using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) in a catchment that is potentially vulnerable to climate change and presents a low adaptive capacity. The ensemble of RCMs was first evaluated to get an estimate of the historical simulated rainfall for the catchment by comparing RCM-based simulated historical rainfall to the observed rainfall data provided by the National Meteorological Service (DGM). In general, the simulated historical rainfall agrees within some degree of variability with the observed rainfall in regard to the mean annual cycle of precipitation. However, significant biases such as a double-peaked rainy season as well as the timing of the rainy season were exhibited by individual RCMs. A statistical bias correction (Quantile mapping) was then applied to the RCM-based simulated daily rainfall for the overlapping period of 1971-2000. The results confirm the effectiveness of the applied bias correction method for rainfall. Temperature and bias corrected rainfall data from the ensemble of RCMs was used as input for the Water flow and balance Simulation Model (WaSiM) to simulate river discharge, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth. To take into account the concern of the potential alteration of the climate change signal due to bias correction, uncorrected climate data for a single RCM was also applied to the hydrological model. The simulated hydrological variables show a similar behavior under observed and bias corrected climate data for the

  14. Educação sobre drogas: uma proposta orientada pela redução de danos Education about drugs: a proposal oriented by damage reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Adade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diante do fracasso das políticas centradas na condenação do uso de drogas, este trabalho visa contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma proposta educativa informada pela contextualização dos aspectos socioculturais, econômicos e políticos desse fenômeno e pelo conceito de redução de danos (RD. Para tanto, por meio de entrevistas, investiga as visões sobre drogas e temas afins de 40 escolares dos ensinos fundamental e médio, das redes pública e privada do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Ademais, revisa o conteúdo de um jogo educativo sobre o uso indevido de drogas denominado Jogo da Onda, com base na análise documental do material. As entrevistas revelaram que a maioria dos estudantes tem uma concepção negativa das drogas ilícitas, minimiza os riscos do consumo das drogas lícitas e não considera as singularidades dos elementos envolvidos no consumo (sujeito, tipo de droga e contexto de uso. Tais achados, somados à revisão bibliográfica, orientaram a atualização do conteúdo do Jogo da Onda e a proposição de novas temáticas a serem incorporadas na nova edição do material. Em face das lacunas na formação dos educadores em relação ao tema das drogas, da escassez de recursos educativos participativos e do interesse dos estudantes em dialogar sobre o assunto, este estudo pretende fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento de ações educativas sobre drogas entre jovens, pais e educadores.In view of the failure of policies centered on the condemnation of drug abuse, this work aims at contributing to the development of an educative proposal informed by the contextualization of socio-cultural, economic and political aspects of this phenomenon, and by the concept of damage reduction (DR. For that, making use of interviews, the work investigates the views about drugs and related issues expressed by 40 students from both public and private primary and secondary education schools in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, it

  15. Efeitos de um tratamento combinado (vitamina C pré-exercício e alongamento FNP, tratamento com ultrassom pós-exercício sobre marcadores de dano muscular induzido por exercício

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    Ali Jalalvand

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Várias estratégias de recuperação têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de minimizar os sintomas da dor muscular de início tardio (DMIT. Contudo, evidências científicas que apoiem este efeito profilático (pré-exercício e terapêutico (pós-exercício de um tratamento combinado (FNP e vitamina C, ultrassom no dano muscular são inexistentes. OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos de um tratamento combinado (FNP e vitamina C, ultrassom nos marcadores bioquímicos (níveis enzimáticos e funcionais (ângulo do cotovelo, circunferência de braço, taxa de dor de dano muscular induzido por exercício. MÉTODO: Amostra randomizada controlada. LOCAL: Laboratório da Universidade. PARTICIPANTES: Alunos universitários masculinos participaram voluntariamente do estudo, o qual não reportou nenhuma dor muscular de início tardio por no mínimo seis meses antes do estudo. Posteriormente, os sujeitos foram agrupados aleatoriamente em subgrupos com mão controle e mão experimental. INTERVENÇÃO(ÕES: Programa de exercício para indução de dano muscular induzido por exercício envolvendo o teste de bíceps Scott (contração excêntrica com duas mãos. PROCEDIMENTO(S PRINCIPAL(IS: Circunferência de braço relaxado, circunferência de braço flexionado, ângulo de cotovelo em descanso, circunferência de antebraço, amplitude de movimento de cotovelo flexionado, amplitude de movimento de cotovelo estendido, dano muscular induzido por exercício, força máxima voluntária isométrica e isocinética foram registrados basal, imediatamente após exercício e 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas após exercício. RESULTADOS: O subgrupo experimental manifestou redução de sintomas de DMIT em menor amplitude de movimento de cotovelo flexionado e amplitude de movimento de cotovelo estendido, menor perda de força isométrica e isocinética voluntária máxima (P 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Este tratamento combinado foi eficiente em contração máxima voluntária isom

  16. Método do estado local aplicado na formulação de modelos constitutivos de dano para o concreto = Local state method applied on the formulation of damage constitutive models for concrete

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    José Julio de Cerqueira Pituba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda alguns fundamentos da Termodinâmica com relação aosmeios contínuos particularizados para o Método do Estado Local aplicado na formulação de modelos de dano. Inicialmente, são apresentados alguns aspectos da Mecânica do Dano Contínuo, que se constitui numa ferramenta de grande aplicabilidade na modelagemmacroscópica de materiais. Em seguida, o trabalho trata dos princípios da Termodinâmica dos Processos Irreversíveis. De maneira geral, o objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar a eficiência de modelos constitutivos formulados pelos fundamentos da Termodinâmica.Como exemplo da formulação abordada, é derivado um modelo constitutivo aplicado à análise de estruturas de concreto armado. As respostas numéricas obtidas com a aplicação do modelo são comparadas com uma série de respostas experimentais de vigas (biapoiadas ecom diferentes taxas de armadura.This work deals with some Thermodynamics principles related to continuum media that are particularized to the Local State Methodused in the formulation of damage models. Initially, some aspects of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM are discussed, which is an applicable tool for macroscopic modelling of materials. In a general way, this paper intends to show the efficiency of constitutive modelsbased on Thermodynamics principles, presenting a constitutive model applied to the analysis of reinforced concrete structures. To show the accuracy of the proposed formulation, the numerical results of a simply supported beam with different reinforcement rates are compared with its experimental data.

  17. Danos materiais causados à Saúde Pública e à sociedade decorrentes de inundações e enxurradas no Brasil, 2010-2014: dados originados dos sistemas de informação global e nacional

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    Aline Costa Minervino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este estudo apresenta uma análise de dados sobre danos materiais por desastres hidrológicos no Brasil, de 2010 a 2014. Trata-se de em estudo descritivo que contrasta os resultados de dois bancos de dados de desastre: EM-DAT (global e S2iD (nacional. A análise mostra diferenças tanto no número total de ocorrências de desastres (EM-DAT = 36; S2iD = 4070, quanto nos danos materiais resultantes (EM-DAT – R$ 9,2 bilhões; S2iD – R$ 331,4 bilhões. A análise da distribuição de eventos permite concluir que os cinco estados mais afetados por tais eventos (SC, RS, MG, SP e PR estão nas regiões sul e sudeste, condizente com achados de outros estudos. As edificações que tiverem maiores prejuízos materiais foram, nesta ordem: unidades habitacionais, obras de infraestrutura pública, instalações públicas de uso comunitário, instalações públicas prestadoras de outros serviços, instalações públicas de ensino e instalações públicas de saúde. O prejuízo a instalações pública de saúde apresentou valores elevados. Apesar das limitações de ambos, o EM-DAT e o S2iD demonstraram sua utilidade em determinar tendências sazonais e de longo prazo, bem como padrões e áreas onde se concentram riscos, auxiliando tomadores de decisão na identificação das áreas mais afetadas e vulneráveis aos desastres.

  18. Estudo genetico-clinico de glaucoma congenito primario

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Trevas Maciel-Guerra

    1989-01-01

    Resumo: O Glaucoma Congênito Primário (GCP) é uma entidade genética heterogênea, geralmente considerada distinta da Megalocórnea e do glaucoma congênito de manifestação tardia ou juvenil. A fim de detectar indicações da heterogeneidade genética do GCP a nível clínico, foram examinados 67 portadores dessa anomalia, dos quais se obtiveram dados anamnésticos e de exame oftalmológico. Os resultados da análise se segregação, bem como a alta freqüência de consangüinidade observada nessa amostra ind...

  19. Nível de dano econômico de Brachiaria plantaginea na cultura de milho irrigado Economic weed threshold (EWT of Brachiaria plantaginea in irrigated corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O nível de dano econômico (NDE consiste na quantidade de plantas daninhas que causa impacto no rendimento de grãos da cultura que justifique o custo de seu controle. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a possibilidade de utilizar experimentos de eficácia de herbicidas residuais para determinar o NDE, a partir do rendimento de grãos em relação à densidade de plantas de Brachiaria plantaginea (BRAPL que emergem após o tratamento, e avaliar o impacto do preço da cultura e do custo do controle no NDE. A densidade de BRAPL foi determinada em um experimento no qual se realizaram tratamentos químicos que possibilitaram a emergência de diferentes quantidades de plantas e, em conseqüência, vários níveis de interferência sobre a cultura do milho. A avaliação da densidade foi feita aos 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência (DAE, de forma a abranger o período crítico de prevenção da interferência. Ao final do experimento foi avaliado o rendimento de grãos da cultura do milho. A resposta da regressão entre densidade de BRAPL e rendimento de grãos de milho ajustou curvas do tipo exponencial decrescente nas avaliações realizadas aos 10 e 20 DAE e curvas do tipo logístico (sigmoidal aos 30, 40 e 50 DAE. O NDE de BRAPL em milho, com base na densidade determinada no início do período crítico de prevenção da interferência (20 DAE, considerando nível de produtividade de 10 t ha-1, variou entre 0,2 e 2,0 plantas m-2, dependendo do preço do milho e do custo do controle. O NDE determinado ao término do período crítico de interferência (50 DAE correspondeu às densidades de BRAPL de 1,5 a 13 plantas m-2. Conclui-se que o NDE de BRAPL na cultura de milho pode ser estabelecido com dados de densidade desta espécie, determinados em experimentos para testes de herbicidas residuais. Assim, o NDE previsto será adequado para situações em que se deseja decidir por aplicações de herbicidas em pós-emergência em

  20. AL Amyloidosis

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    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  1. Técnica de amostragem para comparar o dano causado pela lagarta-da-espiga, Heliothis zea (Boddie, em cultivares de milho Sampling techniques to compare the damage by Heliothis zea (Boddie in corn varieties

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    Violeta Nagai

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, realizado no Instituto Agronômico, determinou-se o tamanho da amostra para estudos de danos causados pela lagarta-da-espiga, Heliothis zea (Boddie, avaliados pelo método de Widstrom. Foram utilizados dados de dois experimentos de campo, com um cultivar resistente (Asteca Prolífico VRPE VII, um suscetível (híbrido duplo IAC Hmd 7974, o 'Maya XVI' e o híbrido simples HS 7777, em 1978/79 e 1979/80. O critério para estimar o tamanho da amostra foi de que esse tamanho permitisse detectar uma diferença de 10 ou de 20% da média geral entre médias de danos, em cultivares de milho, e avaliar o dano médio por cultivar com erro-padrão de 10 ou de 20% da média. Para definir o processo de amostragem, utilizou-se o método de componentes de variância, estimados a partir de dois modelos matemáticos. O tamanho da amostra foi bastante variável entre cultivares, sendo maior no resistente. Entre os possíveis tamanhos mínimos de amostra para detectar uma diferença de 10% da média geral entre médias de danos de tratamentos, podem ser utilizados seis blocos com quatro linhas de 24 plantas; para uma diferença de 20% de média, cinco blocos com três linhas de seis plantas são suficientes. Para estimar a média de danos por cultivar, com erro-padrão de 10% de média, são necessários sete blocos com quatro linhas de 30 plantas, no cultivar Asteca, e cinco blocos com duas linhas de 24 plantas nos cultivares Hmd 7974, HS 7777 e Maya e, com erro-padrão de 20% de média, cinco blocos de três linhas com doze plantas, no 'Asteca', e cinco blocos com duas linhas de seis plantas nos demais cultivares.A study was made to determine the sample size for research on corn resistance to corn ear worm Heliothis zea (Boddie. The damage was measured using the Widstrom centimeter scale. The criteria used to select the sample sizes were such that a difference between two treatments of ten percent or twenty percent of the overall mean should be

  2. Controle do inóculo inicial para redução dos danos pela podridão: 'olho-de-boi' em macieiras Control of initial inoculum for reducing losses by bulls' eye rot on apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Valdebenito-Sanhueza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da redução do inóculo no controle da podridão-'olho-de-boi' (POB causada por Cryptosporiopsis sp. em maçãs e minimização de perdas. Os experimentos foram realizados em Vacaria-RS, nos ciclos 2006/07 e 2007/08. Na fase de dormência de macieiras Pink Lady®, foram aplicados os seguintes tratamentos erradicantes (dose p.i.: calda sulfocálcica (3,0%; oxicloreto de cobre (0,5%; hidróxido de cobre (0,3%; óxido cuproso (0,3% e testemunha sem pulverização. A redução do inóculo foi avaliada em solução oriunda da lavagem de ramos, gemas floríferas e frutos, semeados em meio semisseletivo. Na colheita, a incidência da POB foi avaliada em quatro categorias de frutos: caídos sob a área de projeção da copa; nas plantas; infecções latentes, e após três meses de armazenamento em câmara frigorífica. Houve relação linear positiva entre os níveis de inóculo de Cryptosporiopsis sp. em gemas e os danos por POB (R² = 0,948; P = 0,001. O uso da calda sulfocálcica possibilitou a maior redução de inóculo nas gemas, com redução em 50% dos danos totais ocasionados por POB na safra de 2006/07. Nos frutos, o inóculo apresentou um incremento linear ao longo do ciclo, sendo relativamente maior em 2007/08, onde os tratamentos erradicantes possibilitaram controle superior a 40% nos danos com benefício econômico pela redução do inóculo.Aiming to evaluate strategies for the control of bull's eye rot (BER based on the reduction of initial inoculum the following fungicide treatments were applied in experimental plots established in both 2006/07 and 2007/07 seasons in Vacaria location, southern Brazil, during the plant dormancy period: lime sulfur (3,0%; b copper oxychloride (0,5%; c copper hydroxide (0,3%; and cuprous oxide (0,3%. The check treatment consisted of non sprayed plots. Branches of one and two years and floral buds were sampled and the associated inoculum recovered with a

  3. Coorte Sarar: atividade de doença, capacidade funcional e dano radiológico em pacientes com artrite reumatoide submetidos à artroplastia total de quadril e joelho

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    Bernardo Matos da Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivos:A coorte Sarar é composta por pacientes portadores de artrite reumatoide (AR e artrite idiopática juvenil (AIJ submetidos a artroplastias de quadril e joelho no hospital Sarah-Brasília. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar fatores clínicos e laboratoriais associados à atividade de doença, capacidade funcional e dano radiológico em pacientes com AR, participantes dessa coorte.Métodos:Estudo transversal, com coleta de dados em revisão de prontuário.Resultados:Foram incluídos 32 pacientes, com tempo médio de início da doença de 240 meses. Dezenove pacientes foram submetidos a ATJ e 17, a ATQ. Foi encontrada correlação positiva entre dose máxima de metotrexato (MTX durante a evolução e Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI (R = -0,46, p = 0,011 e negativa com Simplified Erosion and Narrowing Score (SENS (R = -0,58, p = 0,004. Valores de SENS foram maiores nos pacientes com fator reumatoide (FR (p = 0,005 e anticorpo antipeptídeo cíclico citrulinado 3 (anti-CCP3 positivo (p = 0,044, nos com maiores títulos de FR (p = 0,037 e anti-CCP3 (p = 0,025 e menores nos pacientes com história familiar de AR (p = 0,009. Valores de HAQ foram maiores em pacientes mais idosos (p = 0,031. Na regressão linear múltipla, somente “dose máxima de MTX” e “história familiar” permaneceram com associação significativa com SENS (r2= 0,73, p < 0,001 para ambas as variáveis. No modelo que avaliou CDAI, apenas “dose máxima de MTX” permaneceu com associação significativa (r2 = 0,35, p = 0,016.Conclusão:Na coorte Sarar, fatores clínicos e laboratoriais estiveram relacionados à atividade de doença, capacidade funcional e dano radiológico, semelhantemente a estudos que avaliaram pacientes com menor tempo de doença.

  4. Postharvest mechanical damage affects fruit quality of 'Montenegrina' and 'Rainha' tangerines Danos mecânicos na pós-colheita afetam qualidade de frutos de tangerinas 'Montenegrina' e 'Rainha'

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    Cândida Raquel Scherrer Montero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the visual and chemical quality of tangerines after mechanical damage by impacts. The tangerine cultivars Montenegrina and Rainha were submitted to different degrees of impact and evaluated for decay and oleocellosis, loss of fresh weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and ascorbic acid degradation, as well as for epicarp color changes. Experiments with three replicates and experimental units of six fruit for each cultivar were done in a completely randomized design. Impact produced qualitative internal and minor external changes on tangerines. The main modifications produced by impact on the fruit were losses of citric acid and soluble solids, which increased the solid:acid ratio, and losses of ascorbic acid. 'Montenegrina' tangerines are more susceptible to internal quality damage than 'Rainha'.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade visual e química de tangerinas, após danos mecânicos por impacto. As cultivares de tangerina 'Montenegrina' e 'Rainha' foram submetidas a diferentes graus de impacto e avaliadas quanto à oleocelose e podridão, perda de massa de matéria fresca, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e degradação do ácido ascórbico, bem como mudanças na cor do epicarpo. Os experimentos consistiram de três repetições de seis frutos, para cada cultivar, e o delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado. Os impactos produziram mudanças qualitativas internas nas tangerinas, mas as mudanças externas foram mínimas. As modificações mais importantes, produzidas por impacto nas frutas, foram as perdas de ácido cítrico e sólidos solúveis, o que aumentou a relação sólidos:acidez, e as perdas de ácido ascórbico. A tangerina da cultivar Montenegrina é mais susceptível a danos qualitativos internos do que a 'Rainha'.

  5. Augmented reality systems for weed economic thresholds applications Tecnologia de realidade ampliada para utilização com os níveis de dano econômico de plantas daninhas

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    N.R. Vidal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The augmented reality (AR technology has applications in many fields as diverse as aeronautics, tourism, medicine, and education. In this review are summarized the current status of AR and it is proposed a new application of it in weed science. The basic algorithmic elements for AR implementation are already available to develop applications in the area of weed economic thresholds. These include algorithms for image recognition to identify and quantify weeds by species and software for herbicide selection based on weed density. Likewise, all hardware necessary for AR implementation in weed science are available at an affordable price for the user. Thus, the authors propose weed science can take a leading role integrating AR systems into weed economic thresholds software, thus, providing better opportunities for science and computer-based weed control decisions.A tecnologia de realidade aumentada (AR tem aplicações em vários e diversos campos, como aeronáutica, turismo, medicina e educação. Nesta revisão, é resumido o estado atual da AR e propõe-se uma nova aplicação dela na ciência das plantas daninhas. Os elementos básicos para a implementação de algoritmos de AR já estão disponíveis para desenvolvimento de aplicações na área de níveis de dano econômico de plantas daninhas. Estes incluem algoritmos de reconhecimento de imagem, para identificar e quantificar as infestantes por espécie; e software, para a seleção de herbicidas com base na densidade de plantas daninhas. Da mesma forma, todo o hardware necessário para aplicação da AR nessa área da ciência das plantas daninhas está disponível a um preço acessível ao usuário. Assim, sugere-se que a ciência das plantas daninhas possa assumir um papel preponderante na integração dos sistemas de AR aos softwares de níveis de dano econômico de plantas daninhas nas culturas. Com isso, seria possível proporcionar melhor utilização da informática para apoio nas

  6. Effect of soil management on the white grub population and damage in soybean Efeito do manejo de solo na população e nos danos de corós em soja

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    LENITA JACOB OLIVEIRA

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of soil management systems on population of white grubs, (Phyllophaga cuyabana Moser, and on its damage in soybean, experiments were set up under no-tillage and conventional tillage (one disk plow, and a leveling disk harrow areas. Primary tillage equipment, used in other soil management systems, such as moldboard plow, disk plow, chisel plow and heavy duty disk harrow were also tested. Fluctuation of P. cuyabana population and the extent of its damage to soybean was similar under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Results comparing a range of primary tillage equipment showed that it affected soil insect populations differently, depending on the time during the season in which tillage was executed. Larval mortality could mostly be attributed to their exposure to adverse factors, soon after tillage, than to changes in soil conditions. Reduction of white grub population was more evident in plots managed by heavier equipment, such as the moldboard plow. Soil tillage could be one component within the soil pest management system in soybean, however, its use can not be generalized.Foram realizados vários experimentos para avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo na população de corós (Phyllophaga cuyabana Moser, e seus danos em soja, em áreas de plantio direto e de preparo convencional do solo (preparo primário com arado de discos e uma gradagem niveladora. Vários implementos utilizados no preparo primário de solo, como arado de aivecas, arado de discos, escarificador e grade aradora também foram avaliados. A flutuação populacional de corós e a intensidade de dano causado por eles foram similares nas áreas de plantio direto e de preparo convencional. Os implementos de preparo primário do solo afetaram a população de corós diferentemente, dependendo da época em que o preparo de solo foi executado. A mortalidade larval pode ser atribuída mais à exposição a fatores adversos logo ap

  7. VALORAÇÃO ECONÔMICA DO DANO AMBIENTAL OCASIONADO PELA EXTRAÇÃO ILEGAL DA ORQUÍDEA Cattleya granulosa NO PARQUE NATURAL DOM NIVALDO MONTE, NATAL/RN.

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    Adriana Margarida Zanbotto Ramalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A Mata Atlântica vem sendo alvo de biopirataria e coleta predatória de plantas ornamentais como orquídeas que alcançam um alto valor de mercado em função das características estéticas e beleza cênica. O Parque Natural Dom Nivaldo Monte é um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de 64 ha, inserido na Zona de Proteção Ambiental-1 (ZPA-1 do município de Natal, que vem sendo alvo deste mercado ilegal devido à extração vegetal da Cattleya granulosa, uma orquídea endêmica ameaçada de extinção. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é valorar economicamente o dano ambiental ocasionado pela extração ilegal da orquídea C. granulosa. A metodologia utilizada na pesquisa contemplou as seguintes etapas: levantamento amostral da orquídea na área em estudo; cálculo de densidade e freqüência absolutas; valoração econômica do dano ambiental associado à extração indevida; proposição de políticas públicas. Como resultado, foi observada uma densidade de 1,17 indivíduos/parcela e freqüência absoluta de 8,33%, sendo estimando 1493 indivíduos no Parque, durante o período analisado. Os serviços ambientais oferecidos por todos os indivíduos de C. granulosa a sociedade, na área estudada, representa monetariamente um valor de R$ 9.555.200,00. Assim, para manutenção destes serviços propõem-se como políticas públicas municipais para preservação da espécie: aumento da fiscalização na área, educação ambiental com a comunidade circunvizinha, cobrança de indenização ao infrator, investir na interligação da ZPA-1 com a ZPA -3 a fim de propiciar fluxo gênico entre estes fragmentos, assim como incentivar a utilização técnicas de biotecnologia vegetal como a micropropagação de clones e semeadura in vitro para reintrodução na natureza.

  8. Suscetibilidade a dano pelo frio em abacaxi 'pérola' tratado com 1-metilciclopropeno Susceptibility to chilling injury for 'pérola' pineapple treated with 1-methylcyclopropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovídio Ricardo Dantas Júnior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP na suscetibilidade ao dano pelo frio em abacaxi 'Pérola', colhido em Santa Rita-PB, na maturidade comercial. Os frutos foram tratados com 1-MCP (0; 300; 600 e 1.200 ppb, por 12 horas, sob condição ambiente e armazenados: a durante 42 dias a 10ºC, avaliados a cada 7 dias, e quando transferidos para o ambiente (25ºC e 65±5% U.R., após 21; 28; 35 e 42 dias, e também foram avaliados após sete dias; b durante 32 dias, a 7ºC, avaliados a cada 8 dias, e transferidos para o ambiente após 8; 16; 24 e 32 dias, sendo avaliados após sete dias. Em frutos mantidos a 10ºC, não se observou efeito do 1-MCP em retardar a perda de qualidade. Para frutos a 7ºC, o 1-MCP minimizou a incidência de dano pelo frio quando transferidos para a condição ambiente.This work evaluated the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on susceptibility to chilling injury (CI in 'Perola' pineapple, harvested at the commercial maturity from Santa Rita municipality, Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. Fruits were treated at room temperature with 1-MCP (0, 300, 600, and 1200 ppb for a 12-hour period and stored: a during 42 days at 10ºC, evaluated each 7 days and, when transferred to room conditions (25ºC and 65±5% R.H., followed 21, 28, 35, and 42 days, and were also evaluated after 7 days; b during 32 days at 7ºC, evaluated at 8-day intervals, transferred to room conditions followed 8, 16, 24, and 32 days, and evaluated after 7 days. For pineapple kept at 10ºC it was not observed 1-MCP effect of retarding the loss of fruit quality. For fruits stored at 7ºC, 1-MCP minimized the incidence of CI when pineapples were transferred to room conditions.

  9. O papel da L-carnitina na proteção de danos oxidativos induzidos pelo bisfenol A em fígado de rato

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Bioquímica O bisfenol A é um dos produtos químicos mais produzidos a nível global. É o monómero utilizado na síntese de plásticos de policarbonato e resinas epóxi aplicadas na produção de embalagens alimentares, garrafas de água, produtos eletrónicos, médicos e dentários. Além da sua atividade estrogénica, o bisfenol A é também um reconhecido indutor de stresse oxidativo. O composto tem sido associado a uma diversidade de complicações na saúde de animais e na pop...

  10. OCORRÊNCIA E DANOS DE Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1853 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae EM POMAR DE CITROS OCCURRENCE AND DAMAGE CAUSED BY Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1953 (coleoptera, cerambycidae IN A CITRIC YARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Relatou-se no presente trabalho a ocorrência e os danos causados por Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1853 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae em pomar cítrico misto e sem tratos culturais, formado pelas tangerinas rio e cravo, laranjas baianinha e natal, tangor sabará e limão cravo, num total de 357 plantas. A ocorrência e os danos provocados pelas larvas foi verificado “in loco”, em cada uma das plantas do pomar, contando-se as plantas e os galhos atacados, o número de larvas por galho e o diâmetro destes. Foi observado também o ciclo biológico em condições de campo e o número de ovos por fêmea dissecada. A postura é feita em fendas no galho. A média de ovos obtidos de 11 fêmeas dissecadas foi de 83, máximo de 132 e mínimo de 63. O ciclo biológico de ovo/adulto foi de 10 meses. Após a eclosão as larvas constroem galeria na região subcortical, atacando galhos com diâmetro variando entre 2 a 6 cm. A maioria dessas galerias quase atinge um andamento em torno do galho, o que provocou o secamento ou a quebra de 41,3 % dos galhos, agravado pela ação dos ventos e o peso dos frutos. A tangerina cravo apresentou 35% de plantas atacadas, baianinha 27%, natal 24%, tangor sabará 20% e tangerina rio 13%. Não foi constatada a presença de larvas no limão cravo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; Coleoptera; Compsocerus; praga.

    The present study refers to the occurrence and damage caused by Compsocerus violaceus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in a mixed citric yard, maintained without cultivation care, and composed by 357 plants, including rio and cravo tangerines, baianinha and natal oranges, tangor sabará an cravo lemon. The occurrence and damage caused by the larvae was verified in loco in

  11. Danos causados pelo Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV sobre a produção de frutos comerciais de abobrinha de moita 'Caserta' Yield loss caused by Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV on zucchini squash 'Caserta'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Segundo Giampan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ZLCV é um tospovírus encontrado com freqüência causando severos danos em cucurbitáceas. Nesse trabalho avaliaram-se os danos causados pelo ZLCV em abobrinha de moita 'Caserta', em campo na ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, onde esse vírus é freqüente. Plantas obtidas pela semeadura direta foram monitoradas periodicamente quanto à infecção pelo ZLCV por meio dos sintomas e por PTA-ELISA. Monitorou-se ainda a contaminação com Papaya ringspot virus - type W e Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, desconsiderando a produção dessas plantas. As plantas foram agrupadas em função da época de aparecimento dos sintomas do ZLCV, avaliando a produção de frutos comerciais (FC e não comerciais (FNC de cada grupo e comparando com a de plantas que permaneceram sem sintomas até o final do experimento. As plantas que apresentaram sintomas até os 23 dias após a emergência (DAE não produziram qualquer tipo de frutos. FC foram colhidos de plantas que apresentaram sintomas a partir dos 42 DAE. Mesmo assim, houve redução de 78,5 % na produção de FC. Plantas que mostraram sintomas por ocasião da última colheita (55 DAE apresentaram redução na produção de FC de 9,6 %. A infecção com o ZLCV até o início da frutificação inviabiliza a produção de FC de abobrinha de moita 'Caserta'.Zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV is a tospovirus frequently associated with severe yield loss on cucurbit crops. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the damage caused by this virus on zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Caserta under field condition. The experiment was carried out at the Campus of the College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, were ZLCV is prevalent. After germination, zucchini squash plants were periodically monitored for the presence of characteristic symptoms induced by ZLCV and PTA-ELISA for virus indexing. Infection by Papaya ringspot virus - type W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus were also monitored by

  12. Modelagem da vida de fadiga e do acúmulo de deformações permanentes em pavimentos asfálticos por meio de um modelo de dano contínuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ferreira Teixeira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    É sabido que as condições das rodovias brasileiras têm grande impacto sobre a economia nacional. Diante disso, nasce a necessidade de uma busca por métodos de análise de pavimentos que possam prever com maior precisão as falhas as quais o pavimento está submetido. Dentre os principais métodos utilizados atualmente, pode-se citar os métodos puramente empíricos e aqueles mecanístico-empíricos que fazem uso da resposta estrutural do pavimento. A aprimoração de técnicas numéricas como o Método dos Elementos Finitos (MEF ou o Método dos Elementos de Contorno (MEC tem feito com que os métodos mecanístico-empíricos ganhem cada vez mais espaço e sejam mais usados no dimensionamento de pavimentos. O presente trabalho apresenta um modelo mecanístico que considera a evolução do dano causado pelos carregamentos e, conseqüentemente, possibilita uma melhor simulação da vida de fadiga da camada asfáltica. O modelo também possibilita uma melhor modelagem do acúmulo de deformação permanente nos pavimentos através do uso da Teoria da Viscoelasticidade, permitindo assim avaliar as duas principais falhas dos pavimentos flexíveis.

  13. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    He has described at length the various methods to which the prisoners were subjected, including sleep depravation, nudity and the use of electrodes...suspects of the Riyadh bombing acknowledge their involvement on television , he was under the impression that they too had been subjugated to this... sleeping , al-Libi, al-Zawi and `Abd al-Karim managed to escape by jumping from the six-meter-tall wall of al-Ruways.38 Their breakout led to a

  14. Modificaciones en las áreas de recarga del acuífero freático en los médanos costeros de San Clemente del Tuyú, provincia de Buenos Aires Modifications to the phreatic aquifer recharge areas at the coastal dunes of San Clemente del Tuyú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Carretero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúan los efectos de las modificaciones antrópicas sobre la recarga del acuífero freático en una zona medanosa. El caso de estudio es el área de San Clemente del Tuyú, en el litoral marítimo de la provincia de Buenos Aires, en donde el uso del suelo ha generado modificaciones significativas en el ciclo hidrológico. Se plantearon tres casos de distribución de uso del suelo, se elaboraron mapas isofreáticos para los años 1976, 1987, 2006 y se estimó el volumen de agua dulce disponible al momento de cada relevamiento. Esta información fue integrada a un Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que existe una relación directa entre la evolución del uso del suelo y la cantidad de agua subterránea almacenada. La zona de médano ha reducido su distribución areal en detrimento de las zonas con urbanización, ese comportamiento se corresponde con la disminución en los volúmenes de agua dulce almacenados para esa área. A modo de conclusión puede expresarse que las modificaciones en el uso del suelo a lo largo del tiempo se reflejan en el comportamiento del acuífero freático. Estudios de detalle recientes demuestran que la urbanización trae aparejada la disminución de las posibilidades de infiltración de los excesos de agua, restringiendo las áreas de recarga natural del acuífero y por consiguiente, las reservas de agua dulce disponibles. Por lo tanto se manifiesta la necesidad de fijar áreas protegidas como reserva y zona de recarga del acuífero con normas de ordenamiento territorial que contemplen la preservación de los mecanismos de recarga natural de las aguas subterráneas.The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the anthropogenic modifications on the aquifer recharge in coastal dunes zones. The study area is San Clemente del Tuyú, at the marine littoral of the province of Buenos Aires, where the land use has generated significant modifications in the

  15. Brain tissue oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for the deleterious effect of a chronic high dose of estradiol on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats Dano oxidativo ao tecido cerebral como possível mecanismo de efeito deletério da alta dose crônica de estradiol no aprendizado e memória de ratas ooforectomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimeh Khodabandehloo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to antioxidative effects, estrogens also exert pro-oxidative actions. The effect of chronic administration of a high dose of estradiol valerate on Morris water maze tasks and brain tissues oxidative damage was investigated. The Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were treated with estradiol valerate (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Escape latency and traveled path in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were significantly higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.01 and p≪0.001. In the probe trial, the animals of the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups spent lower time in Q1 compared to Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. In Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups, the brain tissue total thiol concentration was significantly lower, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. It is concluded that administration of high exogenous levels of estradiol impairs performance and enhances oxidative stress.Além dos efeitos antioxidantes, os estrógenos também têm ação pró-oxidativa. Foi investigado o efeito da administração crônica de alta dose de valereato de estradiol no desempenho do labirinto aquático de Morris e o dano oxidativo ao tecido cerebral. Os grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est foram tratados com valereato de estradiol (4 mg/kg por 12 semanas. O tempo de latência para escapada e o caminho percorrido foram significativamente maiores nos grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est em relação aos grupos Sham e OVX (p≪0,01 e p≪0,001. No estudo probe, os animais dos grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est levaram menos tempo no Q1 em comparação aos grupos Sham e OVX (p≪0,05 e p≪0,001. Nos grupos Sham-Est e OVX-Est, a concentração total de tiol foi significativamente menor, enquanto a concentração de malondialdehydo (MDA for maior do que aquela dos grupos Sham e OVX (p≪0,05 e p≪0,001. Concluiu-se que a administração de altas doses de estradiol exógeno compromete o desempenho e aumenta o estresse oxidativo

  16. Daños tóxicos en tejidos vegetales, producidos por aguas contaminadas con arsénico en Zimapán, Hidalgo, México Danos tóxicos em tecidos vegetais, produzidos por águas contaminadas com arsênio em Zimapán, Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Según estudios realizados en el periodo de 1992-1998 en las aguas de los pozos, norias y manantiales, del municipio de Zimapán, Estado de Hidalgo, México, se corroboró que existía un incremento en el contenido de arsénico rebasando los límites máximos permisibles por la Norma Oficial Mexicana. La determinación de arsénico en las muestras de aguas se realizó por absorción atómica (AAS, mediante generador de hidruros (GH. En este estudio se utilizó el Vicia faba como un bioensayo para evaluar el daño genotóxico con la prueba de inducción de micronúcleos por exposición al agua de Zimapán, contaminada con As en células de raíces. Se utilizó como ensayo de control un agua de pozo de similares características del municipio de Pachuca, pero con contenidos de As por debajo de los límites de detección. Los resultados mostraron que el agua de esta región presenta altas concentraciones de arsénico y que puede provocar efectos genotóxicos que se manifiestan por la inducción de micronúcleos en las células meristemáticas de raíces de tejidos vegetales sensible.Estudos feitos no período de 1992-1998 nas águas dos poços da municipalidade de Zimapán, estado do Hidalgo, México, demostram o aumento na concentração de arsênio ultrapassando os limites máximos permissíveis pela norma oficial mexicana. A determinação de arsênio nas amostras de água foi feita por absorção atômica (AA, por meio do gerador de hidruros (GH. Neste estudo, o Vicia faba foi usado como bioensaio para avaliar os danos genotóxicos com o teste da indução dos micronúcleos pela exposição à água de Zimapán, contaminada com arsênio em células de raízes. Como controle, foi usada uma água com similares características, do município de Pachuca, mas com índices abaixo dos limites de detecção. Os resultados mostraram que a água desta região apresenta altas concentrações de arsênico e que os efeitos genotóxicos manifestam-se pela

  17. Nível de dano, plantas invasoras hospedeiras, inimigos naturais e controle do psilídeo da goiabeira (Triozoida sp.) no submédio São Francisco Studies of damage level, weed host plants, natural enemies and control of Triozoida sp. in guava plants at the São Francisco River Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Rabelo Barbosa; Rachel Gonçalves Ferreira; Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill; Eduardo Alves de Souza; Wellington Antonio Moreira; José Adalberto de Alencar; Francisca Nemaura Pedrosa Haji

    2003-01-01

    Com o objetivo de obter informações para implementação do Manejo Integrado do psilídeo da goiabeira, no Vale do São Francisco, realizaram-se estudos sobre nível de dano, plantas invasoras hospedeiras, seletividade e efeito do thiamethoxam 10GR e 250WG no controle de Triozoida sp. O experimento foi conduzido em Petrolina-PE, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: 1) thiamethoxam 10GR aplicado no solo; 2) thiamethoxam 250WG pulverizado semanalmente; 3) thiamethoxam 10G...

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DE DANOS Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae NO ALGODOEIRO CULTIVAR IAC-17 EVALUATION OF Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE DAMAGES IN THE COTTON PLANT IAC-17 CULTIVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria da Rocha Santos Veloso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com a finalidade de avaliar os danos causados por Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 na produção do algodoeiro, foi conduzido o presente trabalho. Foram utilizados quatro níveis de infestação artificial aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação das plantas. As avaliações foram feitas através da produção de algodão em caroço, por parcela. As diferenças na produção em plantas infestadas aos 75 e 95 dias da germinação, comparadas com a testemunha, foram estatisticamente significativas para as infestações com 1, 2 e 4 lagartas por planta. Aos 75 dias, devido ao fato de existirem poucos órgãos frutíferos, a redução na produção deu-se devido ao ataque das lagartas aos ponteiros e aos caules, com corte parcial ou total. Na infestação aos 95 dias a produção diminuiu linearmente em relação aos diferentes níveis de infestação; nesta época as lagartas mostraram preferência pelas estruturas frutíferas do algodoeiro.

    This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluate the damages provoked by Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 in cotton-plant yield. To evaluate the decrease in the cotton yield four levels of artificial infestation were used at 75 and 95 days from plant germination. The damage was evaluated on cotton seeds per plot. The differences in the yield of infested plants at 75 and 95 days from germination, when compared to the check, were statistically significant for the infestations of 1, 2 and 4 larvae per plant. At 75 days when the plants presented a low number of fruit organs, the yield decrease was due to the attack of larvae cutting partially or totally the shoots and stems. As to the infestation at 95 days the yield decreased linearly in relation to the different levels of infestation; at this time the larvae showed a preference for the fruit

  19. Mosca-dos-chifres, Haematobia irritans: comportamento e danos em vacas e bezerros Nelore antes da desmama The hornfly, Haematobia irritans: behaviour and damage caused in Nellore cows and pre-weaning calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Bianchin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o comportamentos e os danos causados pela mosca-dos-chifres em vacas e bezerros Nelore antes da desmama. Foram utilizados dois grupos de 60 animais cada um, sendo um grupo com infestação natural de moscas e o outro sem moscas, por quatro anos consecutivos. Observou-se que o número de moscas das vacas não ultrapassou a média de 80 moscas/animal, em todos os anos experimentais. A maioria das vacas (83% apresentou poucas moscas, enquanto a minoria (17% teve maior quantidade. Os bezerros foram pouco infestados pelas moscas. Chuvas acima de 100 mm em curto espaço de tempo diminuíram a infestação de moscas. O ganho de peso das vacas tratadas com inseticida (sem infestação por moscas bem como os seus bezerros foi maior do que as vacas controle, porém não foi estatisticamente significativo (P>0,05. A percentagem média de prenhez, nos quatro anos, das vacas tratadas foi 15% superior a das não tratadas e esta diferença foi causada provavelmente pela infestação de moscas nos touros.The hornfly and losses caused by it in Nellore cows and pre-weaning calves where studied, using two groups of 60 animals each, one group with a natural infestation and the other without hornfly, during four consecutive years. It was seen that the number of flies on the cows did not exceed an average of 80 flies/animal in all years of observation. The majority of the cows (83% had few flies, whereas 17% had larger numbers. The calves were infested with few flies. Rainfall in excess of 100 mm during short periods diminished fly infestation. Weight gain in the cows without flies (treated with insecticides as well as their calves was greater than in the control cows, but not statistically significant (P>0.05. Mean percentage pregnancy during the four years was 15% more in treated cows than the non-treated animals, and this difference was probably due to the infestation of the bulls.

  20. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  1. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALS Neurons' broken machinery piles up in ALS Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica Dormant viral genes may awaken to ... Dementia Information Page Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Muscular Dystrophy Information Page Myasthenia ...

  3. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: egg and damage distribution and parasitism A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: distribuição de ovos e de danos e parasitismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2003-12-01

    de frutos atacados por estrato da planta, local e número de orifícios de penetração da broca e o número e local das posturas nos frutos, incluindo ovos parasitados. Ficou evidenciada uma preferência para oviposição, e consequentemente de ataque, de S. catenifer pelo estrato superior das plantas nas duas localidades. Apesar de o local preferido para postura ser o pedúnculo, a maioria dos danos concentrou-se na parte inferior dos frutos. Parasitóides da família Trichogrammatidae foram constantes e abundantes em ambos pomares durante o período em que se realizou o estudo.

  4. Mapeando programas de redução de danos da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Mapping harm reduction programs in Greater Metropolitan Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Caetano Nardi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo mapeamos e descrevemos 11 programas/ações em redução de danos vigentes nos anos de 2004 a 2006, na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A descrição e análise se construíram por meio de entrevistas com as coordenações dos programas, de análise documental e da comparação com um mapeamento realizado em 2003. Buscou-se discutir a sustentabilidade (política, financeira e administrativa e as características de funcionamento dos programas. A análise utilizou as seguintes categorias: tipo de vínculo do programa/ação; formas de inserção nos municípios; histórico, financiamento; ações típicas; forma de contratação da equipe; existência de trabalho voluntário; recursos (humanos e financeiros; parcerias; existência de legislação municipal; e participação em espaços de representação política. Apesar da diversidade de vínculos e formas de organização dos locais analisados, algumas características são comuns, como: inserção profissional precária; dependência do trabalho voluntário para a execução das atividades; influência das mudanças de gestão municipal e estadual para a continuidade de projetos e de parcerias, assim como para a manutenção de recursos humanos e financeiros dos programas. Concluímos que estes elementos geram descontinuidade no atendimento à população.This study mapped and described 11 harm reduction interventions/programs in Greater Metropolitan Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2004-2006. Mapping was based on interviews and analysis of available documents and comparison with a previous study with data from 2003. We aimed to discuss the programs' sustainability (political, financial, and administrative and operational characteristics, based on the following categories: type of links in the program or intervention; forms of inclusion in the municipalities; background, financing; typical activities; team hiring practices

  5. Danos mecânicos em sementes de feijão Vigna, causados pelas operações na unidade de beneficiamento Mechanical damages in Vigna bean seeds caused by the operations in the seed processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Depois da colheita e debulha, as sementes de feijão são encaminhadas à usina de beneficiamento, de onde, por elevadores, são conduzidas às máquinas de pré-limpeza, limpeza, separação e classificação, tratamento e embalagem, para posterior armazenamento experimentando durante este percurso, impacto promovidos pela movimentação dos elevadores e das máquinas. Objetivando-se contribuir com o programa de controle de qualidade de sementes de feijão produzidas principalmente no estado da Paraíba, estudaram-se os impactos mecânicos sofrido pelas sementes de duas variedades de feijão Vigna com dois teores de umidade (13,5 e 7,3% depois da colheita, debulha e da passagem pelas diferentes etapas na Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba, localizada em Alagoinha, PB. Os danos decorrentes dos impactos foram analisados visualmente, empregando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, submetendo-se as médias dos fatores quantitativos a regressão na análise da variância. As sementes com umidade de 7,3% da variedade Rabo de Tatu são mais susceptíveis à quebra pelos impactos no processo e, às injúrias, elevam-se com o aumento do número de passagem das sementes pelas diferentes etapas à qual estão sujeitas, demonstrando caráter cumulativo, indicando haver relação direta entre o número de choques e seus efeitos.After harvesting and threshing the seeds of beans are taken to a seed processing plant where from by elevator are taken to machines of pre-cleaning, cleaning, separation and classification, treatment and packing for posterior storage. During this course, impacts are promoted by the movement of elevators and machines. With the objective to contribute with quality control program of bean seeds mainly produced in the Paraíba State, the mechanical impacts undergone by seeds of two varieties of Vigna bean with two moisture contents (13.5 and 7.3% were studied after harvesting, threshing

  6. Fuel cells applied to transport; Celdas de combustible aplicadas al transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas Gonzalez, Miguel [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The future demand of energy as well as the preservation of the environment have generated, in several countries, the necessity of developing alternative means for the most efficient transformation of energy that causes minimum damages to the environment. The fuel cells technology is outlined as one of the alternating means to the traditional forms of transforming the energy for residential use as well as for the automotive vehicles. At present it is in a final stage of demonstration, reason why as of year 2003 the possibility will exist on automobiles and trucks circulating normally. [Spanish] La futura demanda de energeticos asi como la preservacion del medio ambiente ha generado, en varios paises, la necesidad de desarrollar medios alternos para la transformacion mas eficiente de la energia que cause minimos danos al ambiente. La tecnologia de celdas de combustible se perfila como uno de los medios alternos a la forma tradicional de transformar la energia tanto para uso residencial como para los vehiculos automotores. En la actualidad se encuentra en una etapa final de demostracion por lo que posiblemente a partir del ano 2003 se cuente con automoviles y camiones circulando normalmente.

  7. Flutuação populacional e danos de Grapholita molesta em pomares convencional e de produção integrada de pêssego, no município de Lapa, PR Fluctuation and damage of Grapholita molesta in peach orchards for integrated production in Lapa, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental Grapholita molesta Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é uma das pragas-chave do pessegueiro no Estado do Paraná, danificando frutos e ramos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a flutuação populacional e os danos provocados por G. molesta em pomares cultivados nos sistemas de produção convencional (PC e integrada (PI no município da Lapa (PR. A área experimental foi cultivada com pessegueiro 'Chimarrita' e o monitoramento do inseto, realizado com armadilhas de feromônio do tipo Delta, no período de 2002 a 2004. Foram avaliados os danos nos frutos em três fases fenológicas do pessegueiro e a flutuação populacional da praga, relacionando-os com a tomada de decisão de controle. Mediante o monitoramento da praga, reduziu-se em 58% a aplicação de inseticidas no sistema PI em relação ao convencional, e os danos não diferiram em ambos os sistemas. Conclui-se ser possível o manejo de G. molesta em pomares cultivados no sistema de produção integrada na região de Lapa, Paraná.Larvae of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the most important pest of peaches orchards in Paraná State, causing fruit and branch damages. The objective of this research was to assess the fluctuation of G. molesta and damage caused by at three phenological phases of peach orchards managed using the conventional (CP and integrated production (IP management systems in the municipatility of Lapa, State of Paraná, Brazil, from 2002 to 2004. The experimental area was cropped with the 'Chimarrita' peach tree and the pest was monitored with Delta type pheromone traps. Fruit damage and pest fluctuation were assessed at three phenological stages of the orchard and related to the decision for control. The results showed that the monitoring permitted a 58% reduction in insecticides in the IP system compared to the conventional system. However, the damage was not significantly different between the two systems. It is concluded that

  8. Aplicação da ferramenta SWOT para avaliação das técnicas de dano ao choque térmico em materiais refratários SWOT as a tool to evaluate the thermal shock damage technique of refractory materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. G. Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A literatura indica diversos tipos de ensaios e diferentes métodos de avaliação de dano por choque térmico. Adicionalmente sabe-se que, em determinadas aplicações, esse tipo de dano é um dos principais responsáveis pela degradação do revestimento refratário. Neste contexto e buscando a melhor forma de reproduzir as condições em serviço do revestimento refratário, o presente trabalho foi realizado visando analisar qual tipo de ensaio de choque térmico e método de avaliação do dano são os mais adequados para avaliar o desempenho destes materiais. Essa análise foi baseada em uma revisão bibliográfica e resultados obtidos em laboratório, em que se comparou e avaliou as vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos mais relevantes encontrados na literatura. Por fim, com o auxilio da ferramenta SWOT foi possível verificar se o método adotado pelos autores desse trabalho é adequado para auxiliar na seleção do refratário para aplicação em calcinadores de leito fluidizado.The literature shows different tests and techniques for evaluating the thermal shock damage. Additionally, it is known that, for certain applications, this type of wear mechanism is one of the main causes of fluid flash calciner refractory degradation. Within this context and in order to find the best way to reproduce the refractory lining service conditions, this work was carried out to point out which thermal shock test and damage assessment method are more suitable to evaluate these materials. This analysis was based on a literature review and laboratory experiments, comparing and evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the most important methods available. Finally, with the support of the SWOT tool it was possible to evaluate whether the method adopted by the authors of this work is appropriated for helping the selection of the refractories for calciners application.

  9. Correlation between changes in mechanical strength and damping of a high alumina refractory castable progressively damaged by thermal shock Correlação entre alterações na resistência mecânica e no amortecimento de um concreto refratário de alta alumina com dano progressivo por choque térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. A. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to thermal shock damage is an important characteristic in refractory materials, since it determines their performance and service life in many applications. Therefore, the use of more sensitive techniques is desirable to improve the evaluation of thermal shock damage and monitoring of nucleation and propagation cracks and microcracks.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of damping change characterization to quantify thermal shock damage and to estimate the retained mechanical strength in complement to the dynamic Young's modulus test. Variations in damping and retained Young's modulus and their correlation with the mechanical strength of a high alumina refractory castable were evaluated at different thermal shock temperatures and number of cycles. The changes in damping were proportional to the retained mechanical strength, similarly to the retained Young's modulus. Changes in damping were also detected which were not indicated by the Young's modulus measurements.A resistência ao dano por choque térmico é uma característica importante dos materiais refratários visto que determina o desempenho e vida útil destes materiais em várias aplicações. Portanto é desejável a aplicação de técnicas mais sensíveis para avaliação do dano por choque térmico e monitoração da nucleação e expansão de trincas e microtrincas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial da caracterização da variação do amortecimento para quantificar o dano por choque térmico e para estimar o módulo de ruptura retido, complementarmente à caracterização do módulo de Young dinâmico. Foram estudadas as variações do amortecimento, do módulo de Young retido e a correlação destas variações com a resistência mecânica de um concreto refratário de alta alumina para distintas variações de temperatura e número de ciclos. As alterações encontradas no amortecimento foram proporcionais à resistência mecânica retida

  10. Volver al desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi, el fracaso del mercado autorregulado trajo de nueva cuenta al debate los problemas del desarrollo, lo que obliga a revisarlo críticamente, tanto como al concepto mismo para mostrar su carácter colonial, si se quiere construir caminos ajenos al neoliberal y superar los problemas que han hecho de Latinoamérica una de las regiones más desiguales del mundo.

  11. Tipos e intensidade de danos mecânicos em bananas 'prata-anã' ao longo da cadeia de comercialização Types and intensity of mechanical damages on 'prata anã' bananas along the commercialization chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Martins Maia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a maior parte da produção brasileira de banana é destinada ao mercado interno e, geralmente, é colhida, manuseada e transportada de forma deficiente e inadequada, contribuindo para perdas substanciais na fase pós-colheita. Objetivou-se identificar os tipos e a intensidade de danos mecânicos após a colheita da banana 'Prata-Anã', produzida no Município de Verdelândia (MG e embalada em caixas de papelão, madeira e plástico. Foram amostradas quatro caixas de banana 'Prata-Anã' em cada etapa da cadeia de comercialização, a saber: antes da colheita, após a primeira lavagem e pré-seleção (1ª piscina da casa de embalagem, após embalagem, após transporte e após distribuição ao mercado varejista em Montes Claros (MG, onde os frutos permaneceram em exposição para vendas por 8 horas. A porcentagem de frutos, área da casca e porcentagem da área da casca danificados aumentou ao longo da cadeia de comercialização. O uso da caixa de papelão proporcionou redução na incidência e intensidade de dano mecânico em relação aos demais tipos de embalagem. Houve alta incidência do dano por abrasão em todas as etapas da cadeia de comercialização. O dano por compressão apresentou grande importância relativa no varejo.Currently, most of the Brazilian production of banana is destined for domestic market and, generally, it is harvested, handled and carried in a deficient and inadequate form, contributing to substantial post harvest losses. This work had the objective of identifying the types and the intensity of mechanical damages after the harvest of 'Prata Anã' banana grown in Verdelândia, MG and put in cardboard, wood and plastic boxes. So, four boxes of banana were evaluated in each stage of the commercialization chain: before harvest, after the first washing and pre-selection (1st swimming pool of the packing house, after packing, after transport and distribution to the retail market in Montes Claros, MG, where

  12. Repair by weld of steam and gas turbine rotors made of Cr-Mo-V steel; Reparacion por soldadura de rotores de turbinas de vapor y de gas fabricados con aceros al Cr-Mo-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Hernandez R, Alejando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Orozco S, Julian; Banuelos P, Jose E. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this article an analysis is presented of the typical damages in steam and gas turbine rotors made of Cr-Mo-V low alloy steels. An analysis of the weldability of the Cr-Mo-V steel is carried out and a classification of the possible types of repairs of the turbine rotors is presented, starting off from the causes and ways of presentation of the faults/deterioration of the rotor materials during the operation of the turbine. With base on the damages detected in the rotor of a gas turbine of 20.65 MW, the development of the repairing technology carried out by weld in site is presented. After the repair process, the rotor was put again in operation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un analisis de los danos tipicos en rotores de turbinas de vapor y de gas fabricados con aceros de baja aleacion al Cr-Mo-V. Se lleva a cabo un analisis de la soldabilidad de los aceros al Cr-Mo-V y se presenta una clasificacion de los posibles tipos de reparaciones de los rotores de turbinas, partiendo de las causas y modos de presentacion de las fallas/deterioro del material de los rotores durante la operacion de la turbina. Con base en los danos detectados en el rotor de una turbina de gas de 20.65 MW, se presenta el desarrollo de la tecnologia de reparacion por soldadura llevada a cabo en sitio. Despues del proceso de reparacion, el rotor fue puesto nuevamente en servicio.

  13. Alles is al uitgevonden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDe voordelen van vrijhandel zijn zeer beperkt, al-thans als we de empirische schattingen van vooraanstaande economen en internationale organisaties mogen geloven. Zo worden de voordelen van liberalisatie voor de Europese Unie geraamd op ongeveer 0,5% van het bnp 1. De door het IMF gescha

  14. Gezondheid als marketinginstrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, van de L.P.L.; Berg, van den I.

    2008-01-01

    Is biologisch voedsel beter dan gangbaar? Hoe hard zijn de bewijzen daarvoor? En hoe sterk moet het bewijs zijn voordat je het als claim op een product mag zetten? In dit Biokennis bericht een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke conclusies en de mogelijkheden om biologisch te promoten als beter, neer

  15. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Symptoms and Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite ... the eyes and bladder are generally not affected. Diagnosis ALS is a difficult disease to diagnose. There ...

  16. Avaliação do índice de danos permanentes através de SLICC/ACR-DI em pacientes com mais de cinco anos de diagnóstico de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Cumulative organ damage evaluation using SLICC/ACR-DI in patients with more than five years of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Marcelina Claudio Sella

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a freqüência dos diferentes tipos de lesões irreversíveis que ocorrem em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES com mais de cinco anos de doença. MÉTODOS: noventa pacientes do sexo feminino com diagnóstico de LES há mais de cinco anos foram avaliadas quanto às lesões irreversíveis em órgãos e/ou sistemas, através da aplicação do índice de dano do Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR-DI. RESULTADOS: a média de idade das pacientes foi 38 ± 10 anos (60% da cor branca e o tempo de diagnóstico de LES foi 128 ± 59 meses; a média do número de critérios do ACR foi 7 ± 1 e a média dos escores do SLICC/ACR-DI foi 2 ± 2. Setenta e dois por cento das pacientes apresentaram SLICC/ ACR-DI > 1. Houve tendência à associação estatística entre idade atual mais avançada e presença de lesões permanentes (p=0,06. Não observamos associação estatisticamente significante entre idade na época do diagnóstico de LES, tempo de doença ou número de critérios do ACR e presença de danos permanentes (p > 0,05. Foi encontrada associação significante entre lesão discóide e presença de dano irreversível (p=0,049 e entre presença de anticorpos antidsDNA e lesão irreversível (p=0,013. Quanto aos tipos de danos permanentes, relatamos alterações cardiovasculares em 21%, dermatológicas em 21%, musculoesqueléticas em 17%, gonadais em 16%, neuropsiquiátricas em 13%, oculares em 12%, renais em 12%, vasculares periféricas em 10%, pulmonares em 6%, endócrinas em 6% e malignidades em 3% dos casos. Não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre tempo de uso de prednisona e presença de alteração irreversível (p=0,725, entretanto, houve associação estatisticamente significante entre maior dose cumulativa de prednisona e danos permanentes (p=0,013. Houve tendência à associação estatística entre menor tempo de uso de agentes

  17. Multispecies weed competition and their economic threshold on the wheat crop Interferência e nível de dano econômico de várias espécies infestantes na cultura de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gherekhloo

    2010-06-01

    experimentos para avaliar os efeitos da interferência de várias espécies daninhas sobre a produtividade e rendimento de trigo e determinar o seu nível de dano econômico (NDE sobre a cultura. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em 2002, em dois locais no Irã: na Estação de Pesquisa Agrícola (EPA da Universidade Ferdowsi, Mashhad (E1 e na EPA do Agricultural College, Shirvan (E2. Numa lavoura de trigo de 15 e 28 ha, nas Epa localizadas em E1 e E2, respectivamente, selecionaram-se áreas de 15 x 50 m como local dos experimentos. Estas áreas foram manejadas como outras partes do campo, exceto para o uso de herbicidas. No início do estádio de espigamento foram sorteados 30 pontos de coleta de 50 x 50 cm em cada local. As plantas daninhas presentes em E1 foram: Avena ludoviciana, Chenopodium album, Solanum nigrum, Stellaria holostea, Convolvulus spp., Fumaria spp., Sonchus spp., e Polygonum aviculare. No local E2 as espécies infestantes foram: A. ludoviciana, Erysimum sp., P. aviculare, Rapistrum rugosum, C. album, Salsola kali, and Sonchus sp. Equações foram ajustadas aos dados e os efeitos das densidades das espécies daninhas foram calculadas em termos de densidade interferidora total (DIT. Regressões lineares múltiplas indicaram que apenas A. ludoviciana, Convolvulus spp. e C. album, em E1; e A. ludoviciana, S. kali, and R. rugosum, em E2, tiveram efeito significativo sobre a redução da produção de trigo. NDE foi 5,23 DIT em E1 e 6,16 DIT em E2, os quais foram equivalentes a 5 plantas m-2 de A. ludoviciana ou 12 plantas m-2 de Convolvulus spp. ou 19 plantas m-2 de C. album em E1; e 6 plantas m-2 de A. ludoviciana, 13 plantas m-2 de S. kali e 27 plantas m-2 de R. rugosum em E2. Simulações de NDE utilizando vários preços de grãos de trigo e custos de controle de plantas daninhas permitiram comparar os experimentos sugerindo que uma cultura mais competitiva no local E1 em relação a E2 foi a causa da competitividade mais baixa das infestantes no primeiro

  18. Danos causados pelo impacto de queda na qualidade pós-colheita de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa Damages caused by drop impact on the postharvest quality of arracacha roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como as raízes de mandioquinha-salsa são frágeis e muito suscetíveis a ferimentos, avaliou-se os danos físicos que ocorrem nas raízes devido ao impacto de queda no manuseio pós-colheita e suas conseqüências na durabilidade do produto. As raízes foram soltas de duas alturas (45 e 90 cm e três posições de queda: horizontal; vertical com "ombro" para baixo (=distal e para cima (=proximal, simulando-se uma situação comum no beneficiamento e na comercialização. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento casualizado com três repetições de 40 raízes por parcela. Após a queda, as raízes foram examinadas individualmente, determinando-se os tipos de ferimentos (quebradas, rachaduras, rupturas, lesões superficiais em relação àquelas aparentemente intactas. A altura de queda afetou diretamente a incidência de injúrias mais graves, como quebras e rupturas. Na queda de 90 cm, a posição de soltura proximal causou 40,7% de rachaduras, 19,2% de rupturas e 22,3% de lesões superficiais; na posição distal causou 45,8% de rupturas e 23,3% de quebra nas raízes. Em outro experimento, avaliou-se a respiração, perda de matéria fresca e a deterioração em raízes submetidas à injúria por impacto de queda (90 cm e armazenadas a 5ºC e 24ºC, comparadas com testemunhas não injuriadas, em três repetições (1,5 kg raízes/parcela distribuídas ao acaso. As raízes submetidas à injúria por queda apresentaram taxas respiratórias superiores em comparação com aquelas intactas quando mantidas na mesma temperatura, e a 24ºC variou de 15,3 ml CO2 kg-1 h-1 (intactas a 34,4 ml CO2 kg-1 h-1 (injuriadas. As raízes injuriadas mantidas a 24ºC apresentaram 84% de deterioração após quatro dias, enquanto aquelas a 5ºC não apresentaram deterioração.Arracacha roots are very fragile and susceptible to mechanical damage. The postharvest handling system may cause many lesions, mainly by impacts and drops. The effect of drop impact on

  19. Avaliação de danos de insetos e de severidade de oídio em genótipos de soja Evaluation of insect damage and powdery mildew severity in soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de 24 linhagens de soja do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC em experimentos de campo em relação ao ataque de insetos e à incidência de oídio. Três experimentos, um para cada ciclo (precoce, semiprecoce e médio foram instalados nas unidades experimentais de Assis (anos agrícolas 2001/2002 e 2002/2003 e de Ribeirão Preto (2001/2002. Para os três experimentos, o delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com dez tratamentos e seis repetições. As injúrias foliares causadas por lagartas de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner foram estimadas visualmente, atribuindo-se uma porcentagem de desfolha à parcela inteira. Os danos de percevejos [Piezodorus guildinii (West. e Euschistus heros (F.] foram avaliados através da porcentagem de retenção foliar atribuída à parcela inteira e por meio da massa de grãos comerciáveis. A severidade de oídio (Microsphaera diffusa Cke. Pk. foi estimada mediante escala de notas de 1 a 5, de acordo com a intensidade dos sintomas. Considerando-se os resultados das duas localidades, entre o germoplasma de ciclo precoce destaca-se a linhagem IAC 98-4307, com baixa retenção foliar e maior produtividade em presença de percevejos. No grupo de ciclo semiprecoce, observa-se que na linhagem IAC 98-2814 não há retenção foliar, porém, maior produtividade, caracterizando-se como resistente a percevejos, embora seja o genótipo mais desfolhado por lagartas e com maiores sintomas de oídio. Entre os genótipos de ciclo médio, IAC 98-2856 tem produtividade superior em presença de altas ou baixas infestações de percevejos, indicando possuir resistência do tipo tolerância, embora apresente retenção foliar sob baixa pressão de percevejos.Performance of 24 soybean lines from the breeding program of Instituto Agronômico (IAC was evaluated under field conditions, as to attack of insects and incidence of powdery mildew. Three experiments, one for each maturity

  20. Volver al desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi...

  1. Tussentijds Toetsen als Leerstrategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, April). Tussentijds toetsen als Leerstrategie [Testing as Learning Strategy]. Presentation at the Miniconference on Assessment from the Mastersprogram Educational Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  2. Analyzing Al Qaedaism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hua

    2008-01-01

    Three major events are responsible for the rampancy today of Al Qaedaism, the doctrine of Al Qaeda, an Islam extremist organization. They are: the Anti-Soviet Afghanistan War for the birth of the group; the September 11 terrorist attacks for the spread of its extremist demagogy and the war on terror for its branches networking into alliances worldwide.Al Qaedaism aims at driving away Western forces on the Moslem lands, overthrowing local Pro-West regimes, destroying Israel and setting up a Caliphate empire. Its rampancy has resulted from a combination of diverse factors at work under specific historical conditions rather an inevitable outcome of the growth of the Islam religion.As an ideological weapon for launching Jihad to oust Western influence and topple local regimes, Al Qaedaism reflects an extremist portrayal of modern Islam society, politics, economy and culture.

  3. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to speak and write. Hawking, who has a wife and three children, once said, "The prospect of ... and arm movement. With patience, the families of patients with ALS can learn to communicate effectively with ...

  4. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou Gehrig disease; ALS; Upper and lower motor neuron disease; Motor neuron disease ... 98. Shaw PJ. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  6. Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a world leader in soft x-ray science, generates light in the wavelengths needed for examining the atomic and electronic structure of...

  7. Trauer als Biografiegenerator

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Heidemarie

    2008-01-01

    Der Tod eines Alter Ego erweist sich für Trauernde als gravierende Kontingenzerfahrung. Sie vermag das individuelle Selbstverständnis in umfassender Weise zu erschüttern, wobei sich Trauer als Schmerz von unvergleichlicher Intensität und Tiefe konstituiert. Die emotionale Erfahrung wird hierbei – nach Maßgabe psychologischer und therapeutischer Vorstellungen – zum Ausgangspunkt und zum Maßstab individueller Selbstvergewisserung. Diese Auffassung von Trauer korrespondiert mit einer allgemeinen...

  8. Der Preis als Kaufbarriere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Die Preispolitik hat eine herausragende Stellung im Marketing. Der Preis eines Produktes ist für Verbraucher ein direkter Kostenfaktor und für Unternehmen die Stellgröße im Mar-ketingmix, die den Umsatz am stärksten beeinflusst (vgl. Nieschlag et al. 2002). Wenn die Akzeptanz und der regelmäßige...... Verzehr gesunder Lebensmittel erhöht werden soll, ist es sowohl für die Verbraucherpolitik als auch für Lebensmittelproduzenten wichtig, den Ein-fluss des Preises auf die Kaufentscheidung zu verstehen. Aus Verbrauchersicht ist der Preis neben dem Geschmack die wichtigste Produkteigen-schaft beim Kauf von...... Lebensmitteln (vgl. Brunsø/Grunert 1998) und stellt eine Kaufbarrie-re für Lebensmittel mit gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften dar. Studien in den USA (vgl. Cassady et al. 2007), Frankreich (vgl. Drewnowski et al. 2004; Andrieu et al. 2005) und Deutschland (vgl. Karg et al. 2008) kommen übereinstimmend zu dem...

  9. Leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/YSZ/Al devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tsung-Her; Lin, Ruei-De; Cherng, Bo-Ruei; Cherng, Jyh-Shiarn

    2015-01-01

    The leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Al devices are investigated for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. A silicon oxide layer (450 nm) is first formed on a Si wafer by thermal oxidation. Onto it an Al bottom electrode (270 nm), a ZrO2 or YSZ nano-film (75 nm), and an Al top electrode (270 nm) are sequentially deposited by sputtering. These RRAM devices exhibit ohmic behaviors in the low-field region, while Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emissions take over in the high-field regions. Both the Schottky and trap barrier levels are decreased when monoclinic ZrO2 is replaced by cubic YSZ in the metal/oxide/metal structure. This is attributed not only to the higher symmetry crystal structure and lower binding energy of YSZ, but also to the formation of more oxygen vacancies and their re-distribution associated with yttria doping.

  10. Cuidando al adulto y al anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucero López Díaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es describir, desde el ámbito universitario, la experiencia en la aplicación de la Teoría del Déficit de Autocuidado (TDAC con la población adulta y anciana. Se explican los procesos y resultados desde la preparación docente, la conformación de la asignatura, hasta el desarrollo de la experiencia práctica en el ámbito hospitalario y de la vida cotidiana. La experiencia muestra la adecuación de la TDAC para abordar el cuidado de esta población y la necesidad de desarrollar otros estudios al respecto.

  11. Fortschritt als Fortschrittsdiskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmid-Zartner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zur Erzielung gesellschaftlichen Fortschritts in demokratisch verfassten Gesellschaften soll die Möglichkeit am Fortschrittsdiskurs teilnehmen zu können für alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft als selbstverständliche Prämisse gelten. Fortschritt wird also als Bewusstseinsbildung dem Fortschritt selbst gegenüber und als Entscheidungs- und Handlungsfähigkeit auf individueller und gesellschaftlicher Ebene definiert. Dies setzt entsprechende Maßnahmen zur Befähigung dazu voraus, die alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft erfassen. Dabei ist der Bildungsbereich angesprochen, insbesondere der Schulunterricht. Neben dem in der aktuellen blidungspolitischen Debatte forcierten Fokus auf den Aspekt der Kompetenzorientierung, der hier nicht infrage gestellt wird, ist als notwendige Ergänzung ein reflexionsorientierter Schulunterricht in allen Bildungsfächern einzufordern und umzusetzen. Im Weiteren beschreibt der Text den Weg von der Brauchbarkeit zur Bedeutsamkeit von schulischem Wissen durch Relevanzreflexionsprovokationen im Schulunterricht, um Sinn und Bedeutung der vermittelten Bildungsinhalte zu verhandeln. Am Beispiel von Mathematik als Bildungsfach wird der Inhalt von reflexionsorientertem Unterricht verdeutlicht. Darüber hinaus beschreibt der Text eine Reihe von konkreten Fallbeispielen aus der aktuell versuchsweise durchgeführten Unterrichtspraxis in Mathematik.

  12. Modification of residual stress in Al-[AlBO]w/Al compound plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传海; 吴建生; 王德尊

    2001-01-01

    The application of compound parts of Al-[AlBO]w/Al not only reduces the cost of the parts but also improves its properties. However, there is a large thermal residual stress between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, and it is harmful for practical application. From the theoretical analyses and experimental results, it was found that by the compressive pre-plastic deformation perpendicular to the interface between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, the interlayer residual stress of compound parts can be reduced, while the mechanical properties of compound parts can be improved.

  13. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  14. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  15. Carta al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Burgos Zuleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La medicina al basarse generalmente en la clínica, correlacionaexámenes complementarios y organiza un diagnóstico y tratamiento, es una disciplina donde es imprescindible saber recolectar, analizar, interpretar y concretar una respuesta adecuada, es así que la información que se recibe es esencial para el desempeño médico.La certeza es una realidad que se da en algunas situaciones y enotras las probabilidades establecen conclusiones. Lo normal muchas veces se define sobre la base de criterios estadísticos, basados en riesgos poblacionales que no necesariamente se aplican al caso boliviano.

  16. Topical hepatic hypothermia plus ischemic preconditioning: analysis of bile flow and ischemic injuries after initial reperfusion in rats Hipotermia hepática tópica mais pré-condicionamento isquêmico: análise do fluxo biliar e danos isquêmicos após a reperfusão inicial em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz de Jesus Maria Grezzana Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the topical liver hypothermia and IPC combination against I/R injury after initial reperfusion. METHODS: In 32 Wistar rats, partial liver ischemia was induced for 90 minutes in normothermia (IN, ischemic preconditioning (IPC, 26ºC topical hypothermia (H and 26ºC topical hypothermia plus IPC (H+IPC. MAP, body temperature and bile flow were recorded each 15 minutes. Plasmatic injury markers and tissue antioxidant defenses were assessed after 120 minutes of reperfusion. RESULTS: MAP and body temperature remained constant during all experiment. Bile flow returned to levels similar to controls after 45 minutes of reperfusion in the H and H+IPC groups and increased significantly in comparison to the NI and IPC groups after 105 and 120 minutes. AST and ALT increased significantly in the normothermic groups in comparison to controls. TBARS levels decreased significantly in the H+IPC group in comparison to the other groups whereas Catalase levels increased significantly in the IPC group. SOD levels were significantly higher in the H group in comparison to all groups. CONCLUSION: The induction of 26ºC topical hypothermia associated or not to IPC protected the ischemic liver against ischemia/reperfusion injuries and allowed an early recovery of the hepatic function.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da hipotermia hepática tópica combinada ao pré-condicionamento isquêmico na proteção dos danos iniciais de isquemia e reperfusão. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar foram submetidos à isquemia hepática parcial durante 90 minutos em Normotermia (IN, Pré-condicionamento Isquêmico (IPC, Hipotermia a 26ºC (H e Hipotermia a 26ºC mais PCI (H+PCI. A PAM, a temperatura corporal e o fluxo biliar foram aferidos em intervalos de 15 minutos. Marcadores plasmáticos de danos hepáticos e as defesas antioxidantes foram avaliados após 120 minutos de reperfusão. RESULTADOS: A PAM e a temperatura corporal permaneceram constantes

  17. Métodos de analise dos danos da lagarta da espiga¹, em médias de gerações envolvendo IAC Maya e Zapalote Chico Method for analysis of damage of the corn earworm heliothis zea in generation means from IAC Maya and Zapalote Chico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available O milho Zapalote Chico 2451 (ZC 2451, referido na literatura como a melhor fonte de resistência à lagarta da espiga, Heliothis zea (Boddie, 1850, e o IAC Maya XII foram observados em condições de campo, juntamente com as gerações F1, e F2 resultantes do cruzamento de ambos, bem como os respectivos retrocruzamentos da população F1, para cada um dos pais, a fim de estudar métodos de análises de dados obtidos através da escala de dano revista por WIDSTROM e, conseqüentemente, fornecer subsídios para trabalhos de estudo da herança da resistência envolvendo esse cruzamento. Para analisar os dados, dividiram-se as notas de dano em quatro classes distintas agrupadas duas a duas, zero mais 1 e > 2, e zero e > 1, e aplicou-se o método do quiquadrado (c2 para verificar qual divisão melhor se ajustava. Os resultados revelaram que o grupo das classes zero mais 1 e > 2 apresentou melhor uniformidade dos dados entre as repetições dentro de cada tratamento. A análise da variância para cada classe de dano, separadamente, apresentou valores de F altamente significativos para as classes zero e zero mais 1, enquanto para as classes > 1 e > 2, os mesmos não permitiram diferenciar os tratamentos. Entre as classes zero e zero mais 1, esta última revelou maior significância e melhor precisão dos dados. O milho ZC 2451, quando comparado com a variedade IAC Maya XII, exibiu boa resistência à lagarta da espiga nas condições de Campinas (SP, resistência essa relacionada com fatores de não preferência e/ou antibiose, devido ã maior porcentagem de espigas não danificadas do ZC 2451.The line Zapalote Chico 2451 (ZC 2451 resistant to the corn earworm, Heliothis zea, the commercial synthetic Brazilian variety IAC Maya XII, the F1 and F2 obtained with their cross, and the two back crosses between the F1 and both parents, were planted in the field in a randomized block with 10 replications. The earworm damage done to the ears was graded

  18. Influência da suplementação aguda e crônica de creatina sobre marcadores enzimáticos de dano muscular de ratos sedentários e exercitados com natação Influence of short and long term creatine supplementation on enzymatic markers of muscle damage in sedentaries and exercised rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Aparecido de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da suplementação aguda (5 g.kg-1 durante uma semana e crônica (1 g.kg-1 durante quatro e oito semanas de creatina (Cr sobre as concentrações plasmáticas de Creatina Quinase (CQ, Lactato Desidrogenase (LDH e Aspartato Aminotransferase (AST, de ratos sedentários e exercitados (natação a 80% da carga máxima tolerada. Setenta e dois ratos Wistar machos (250 ± 10 g foram utilizados e divididos igualmente em quatro grupos: ratos sedentários não suplementados (CON; n = 18; ratos exercitados não suplementados (NAT; n = 18; ratos sedentários e suplementados (CRE; n = 18; ratos exercitados e suplementados (CRE + NAT; n = 18. Ao final da primeira, quarta e oitava semanas, seis animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados. Os resultados demonstraram: 1 ao final da primeira semana elevação plasmática de CQ, LDH e AST nos grupos NAT-1 e CRE+NAT-1 em relação aos grupos CON-1 e CRE-1; 2 ao final da quarta semana valores superiores para CQ e LDH somente no grupo NAT-4; e 3 ao final da oitava semana, somente os valores de AST do grupo CRE-8 diferiram dos demais. Estes achados sugerem que a suplementação de Cr: 1 não afeta o dano muscular em ratos submetidos a uma semana de treinamento físico de alta intensidade em meio aquático; 2 pode ser capaz de reduzir o dano muscular após quatro semanas de treinamento; e 3 após oito semanas de suplementação de Cr, o dano muscular parece ser atenuado pelo próprio exercício, anulando os efeito da Cr.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the short-term (5 g.kg-1 to 1 week and long-term (1 g.kg-1 to 4-8 weeks creatine supplementation (Cr on the Creatine Kinase (CK, Lactate Dehydrogenaze (LDH and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST plasmatic concentrations of sedentary and exercised (swimming to 80% of the tolerated maximum load rats. Seventy two Wistar males rats (250 ± 10 g were equally divided in four groups: sedentary rats without

  19. Interferência e nível de dano econômico de capim-arroz sobre o arroz em função do arranjo de plantas da cultura Interference and economic weed threshold (Ewt of barnyardgrass on rice as a function of crop plant arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Agostinetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Na cultura do arroz irrigado ocorrem elevadas perdas de produtividade de grãos devido à interferência de plantas daninhas, pois estas também estão adaptadas ao ambiente inundado de cultivo do cereal. Objetivou-se avaliar a interferência e determinar o nível de dano econômico de populações de capim-arroz em arroz irrigado em função do arranjo de plantas da cultura. Foi realizado um experimento em campo, com cultivo de arroz em sistema convencional. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três arranjos de plantas de arroz, cultivar BRS Pelota (17 e 32 cm e semeadura a lanço, e nove populações de capim-arroz em cada método de semeadura. O modelo de regressão não linear da hipérbole retangular estima adequadamente as perdas de produtividade do arroz irrigado na presença de plantas de capim-arroz. A cultura do arroz semeada a lanço apresenta maior habilidade competitiva com o capim-arroz em relação à semeadura em linha nos espaçamentos de 17 e 32 cm. A variável área foliar apresenta melhor ajuste ao modelo da hipérbole retangular, comparativamente às variáveis população de plantas, massa seca da parte aérea e cobertura do solo. A utilização de semeadura a lanço aumenta o nível de dano econômico, justificando a adoção de medidas de controle do capim-arroz em níveis mais elevados de população. Acréscimo na produtividade de grãos, no preço do arroz e na eficiência do herbicida e redução no custo de controle diminuem os valores do nível de dano econômico, justificando a adoção de medidas de controle em baixas populações de capim-arroz.High yield losses in irrigated rice occur due to weed interference, as weeds are also adapted to the flooded environment where the crop is cultivated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of interference and determine the economic weed threshold of populations of barnyardgrass in irrigated rice, according to crop arrangement. Thus, an experiment was

  20. Efeito de danos mecânicos, da redução de temperatura e 1-MCP no metabolismo pós-colheita de brócolis Legacy Effects of mechanical injury, temperature decreasing, and 1-MCP on the post-harvest metabolism of Legacy broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Brauer Zaicovski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O etileno acelera o metabolismo pós-colheita de brócolis, e sua síntese é induzida por danos mecânicos e pelo aumento da temperatura. Para testar esta hipótese, foram realizados 03 experimentos. No primeiro, avaliou-se o efeito do dano mecânico na produção do etileno; no segundo, estudou-se o efeito do armazenamento refrigerado; e, no terceiro, o efeito do 1-MCP no metabolismo e conservação de brócolis. Os resultados mostraram que o dano mecânico aumenta significativamente a produção do etileno, passando de 0,25 a 501,83 mL.h-1 g-1, duas horas após a aplicação do tratamento. Já, no tratamento controle, os incrementos foram menores, passando de 0,27 para 203,13 mL.h-1 g-1. Durante o armazenamento, observou-se que a deterioração ocorreu mais rapidamente no tratamento controle (20-22 °C, com intenso amarelecimento, degradação de clorofilas e formação de odor desagradável. Os brócolis armazenados a 0-2 e a 5-7 °C mantiveram boa qualidade por 12 dias. A aplicação de 1-MCP não contribuiu para prolongar a vida-de-prateleira de brócolis Legacy a 20-22 °C, não tendo havido efeito na preservação da coloração esverdeada, nem na prevenção da degradação de clorofilas.Ethylene increases the post-harvest metabolism of broccoli. The ethylene synthesis might be inducted by mechanical injury and temperature decrease. Therefore, 3 experiments were carried out to assess these hypotheses: 1 it was evaluated the mechanical injury effect on the ethylene production; 2 the effect of cold storage; and 3 effect of the 1-MCP on the broccoli metabolism and conservation. The results showed that the mechanical injury increased the ethylene production, from 0,25 to 501,83 mL.h-1 g-1, two hours after the injury occurrence. In contrast, in the control treatment the increments were lower, varying from 0,27 to 203,13 mL.h-1 g-1. During storage, the deterioration occurred more rapidly in the control treatment (20-22 °C observing yellowing

  1. Fluoride does not induce DNA breakage in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro Flúor não induz danos ao DNA em células de ovário de hamster chinês in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Araki Ribeiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride has been widely used in dentistry because it is a specific and effective caries prophylactic agent. However, excess fluoride may represent a hazard to human health, especially by causing injury to genetic material. Genotoxicity tests represent an important part of cancer research to assess the risk of potential carcinogens. In the current study, the potential DNA damage associated with exposure to fluoride was assessed by the single cell gel (comet assay in vitro. Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF at final concentration ranging from 7 to 100 µg/ml for 3 h, at 37°C. The results pointed out that NaF in all concentrations tested did not contribute to DNA damage as depicted by the mean tail moment and tail intensity. These findings are clinically important since they represent an important contribution to a correct evaluation of the potential health risk associated with the exposure to dental agents.O flúor tem sido amplamente usado na Odontologia, pois é um agente profilático efetivo e específico contra a cárie dentária. Entretanto, o flúor em excesso pode representar perigos à saúde humana, especialmente por causar agressão ao material genético. Testes de genotoxicidade representam uma importante parte da pesquisa do câncer para a avaliação de risco de possíveis carcinógenos. Neste presente estudo, danos ao DNA associados à exposição ao flúor foram avaliados pelo teste de células individualizadas em gel de agarose (teste do cometa in vitro. Células de ovário de hamster chinês foram expostas ao fluoreto de sódio (NaF nas concentrações finais de 7 a 100 µg/ml, durante 3 h, a 37°C. Os resultados mostraram que o NaF não contribuiu para os danos no DNA em todas as concentrações testadas, conforme demonstrado pelas médias do momento da cauda e da intensidade da cauda dos cometas. Esses achados são clinicamente importantes, uma vez que representam uma importante contribui

  2. Análise dos indicadores de hemorragia letal em vítimas de trauma penetrante de tronco admitidas em choque: um método objetivo para selecionar os candidatos ao "controle de danos" Assessing the risk of death due to hemorrhage in victims of penetrating trauma to the torso admitted in shock: an objective method to select candidates for damage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gustavo Parreira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os indicadores de hemorragia letal em vítimas de trauma penetrante de tronco, admitidas com hipotensão arterial sistêmica e analisar sua aplicabilidade na seleção dos candidatos ao "controle de danos". MÉTODO: Foram analisadas informações sobre 74 vítimas de ferimentos penetrantes exclusivamente de tronco, admitidas com hipotensão arterial sistêmica secundária à hemorragia, que sobreviveram até o tratamento definitivo. Os dados foram coletados prospectivamente durante dois anos. A média etária foi 29,5 + 8 anos, e 62 (83% pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Trinta e nove (52% foram vítimas de ferimentos de instrumentos perfurocortantes e 35 (47%, de ferimentos por projéteis de arma de fogo. Houve 23 óbitos (31%, 19 por hemorragia (82,6%. Os que faleceram por hemorragia foram incluídos no grupo H e os outros no grupo O. Foram comparadas diversas variáveis entre os grupos, utilizando-se o teste t de Student (controlado pelo teste de Levene e a correlação de Spearman, considerando p1.200ml. Através de um modelo de regressão logística foi possível calcular o risco de morte por hemorragia baseado na pressão arterial no início da operação e volume de concentrados de hemácias transfundido. CONCLUSÃO: A análise dos indicadores de hemorragia letal fornece dados objetivos para a indicação do "controle de danos".OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of death due to hemorrhage in patients sustaining penetrating trauma to the torso admitted in shock. METHOD: Data was prospectively collected from Dec 1996 until Dec 1998. Patients presenting penetrating wounds from clavicles to inguinal ligaments, admitted with a systolic blood pressure (SBP 2. CONCLUSION: The risk of death due to hemorrhage can be assessed objectively. Based in this information, the selection of the patients for damage control becomes more objective and reliable.

  3. Aspectos biológicos e dano de Diatraea saccharalis (fabr., 1794 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae em sorgo cultivado sob diferentes doses de nitrogênio e potássio Biological aspects and damage of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in sorghum, under different doses of nitrogen and potassium

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    Sergio Antônio de Bortoli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da adubação da cultura do sorgo Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, na biologia da broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Para isso foi utilizado sorgo da cultivar Rubi-Asgrow, plantado em vasos utilizando-se diferentes doses de fertilizantes e mantidos em casa-de-vegetação. Os tratamentos utilizados (doses de NK foram: N1 = 0-200 ppm; N2 = 50-200 ppm; N3 = 100-200 ppm; N4 = 200-200 ppm; N5 = 400-200 ppm; K1 = 200-0 ppm; K2 = 200-50 ppm; K3 = 200-100 ppm; K4 = 200-200 ppm; e K5 = 200-400 ppm. De modo geral, pode-se concluir que doses de 50 a 200 ppm de N promoveram o desenvolvimento normal das larvas de D. saccharalis, sendo que as menores porcentagens de dano foram verificadas nas menores doses; para o potássio, quanto maior a dose, menor foi o dano causado pelas lagartas, apesar de favorecer o desenvolvimento da mesma.This work was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fertilization of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, on the stem borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae biology. It was used the variety Rubi-Asgrow. The treatments were (NK doses: N1 = 0-200 ppm; N2 = 50-200 ppm; N3 = 100-200 ppm; N4 = 200-200 ppm; N5 = 400-200 ppm; K1 = 200-0 ppm; K2 = 200-50 ppm; K3 = 200-100 ppm; K4 = 200-200 ppm and K5 = 200-400 ppm. It was possible to conclude that nitrogen doses from 50 to 200 ppm provide a normal development for D. saccharalis larvae, although the lowest percentage of damage was verified with the lowest dose; while for the potassium, the highest dose favoured the caterpillars development, but less damage was observed on the plants.

  4. Ongelijkheid als beleidsvraagstuk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilterdink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Op het hoogtepunt van de hype rond het ongelijkheidsonder­zoek van Piketty presenteerde de WRR zijn verkenningHoe ongelijk is Nederland? Voor de onafhankelijke denktank is stelling nemen in een politiek vraagstuk als dat van ongelijkheid best ingewikkeld.

  5. MEMORE AL AMIKO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osmo; BULLER

    1999-01-01

    Skuis min la novajo, ke mia amiko kajkolego Dai Song’en forlais nin por iam. Lakruela fatalo foriris lin, kiam li ankoraǚ estismeze de sia laboro, plena de planoj kaj tiel ju-ha. Kun muta senpovo ni devas subii al lasenkompata trudo de la sorto, kvankam la men-so ribelas kaj rifuzas kredi ke ipovas esti vero.

  6. Abraham Kuyper als theoloog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Velema

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Men zou in Nederland de herdenking van Kuypers honderdvijftigste geboortedag hebben kunnen aangrijpen als een gelegenheid om diens theologie en diens levenswerk in kerk en samenleving te evalueren. Niemand kan ontkennen dat er in genoemde publicaties iets van een evaluatie is te vinden.

  7. Kulturmorphologie als Zivilisationskritik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2010-01-01

    Der Untergang des Abendlandes wird oft als dasjenige Werk betrachtet, das am tiefsten die national gefärbte Gegenüberstellung von Kultur und Zivilisation in der Zwischenkriegszeit geprägt und propagiert hat. Wie auch bei anderen Autoren der Konservativen Revolution, vor allem bei Thomas Mann und...

  8. Comentarios al Salto Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

  9. Calculation of interaction of AlCl, AlCl2 and AlCl3 on Al4C3 (001) Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段少飞; 陈秀敏; 杨斌; 郁青春; 徐宝强; 刘大春

    2015-01-01

    To make sure the intermediate products of the carbothermic reduction of Al2O3 process, such as Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3, and the interaction of AlCl, AlCl2, AlCl3 with Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3, respectively, thermodynamic analyses were used to study the chloride reaction production of them under the vacuum situation. The stable structures and electronic properties of AlCl, AlCl2 and AlCl3 adsorbed on Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3 were calculated by first-principles calculations by the CASTEP module in the Materials Studio program. The results show that the AlCl3 and AlCl2 molecules have decomposed on the plane of Al4C3 (001), while there are no obvious decomposition of AlCl3 and AlCl2 on Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes. The adsorption of AlCl on the Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes is stronger than that on the Al4C3(001) plane. The interaction strength of AlCl3, as well as AlCl2, with Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3 is in the sequence of Al4CO4Al2CO>Al4C3.

  10. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  11. Derecho al desarrollo y globalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Vita, Juan

    2014-01-01

    La presente disertación, que he intitulado Derecho al Desarrollo y Globalidad, consta de cuatropuntos principales:I. El derecho al desarrollo en el contexto de los derechos humanosII. La noción del derecho al desarrolloIII. El derecho al desarrollo en el marco de las llamadas generaciones de derechos humanosIV. El derecho al desarrollo y la aldea globalPalabras clave: derechos humanos, Derecho Natural, Derecho Positivo, sociedad global.

  12. Augmented Reality als Bildungsenhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Damberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Die Realität, die sich mithilfe von Datenbrillen und Smartphone Applikationen in die virtuelle Welt hinein ausdehnt, erfährt eine Form des Enhancements. Ein solches Enhancement kann unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen als Bildungsenhancement verstanden werden. Der Text befasst sich mit Formen der erweiterten Realität, ferner mit dem, um was es wesentlich bei der Bildung geht und zuletzt mit den Bedingungen, die erforderlich sind, um diesem Wesentlichen mit Hilfe von augmented reality besser zum ...

  13. Carta al editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pachajoa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Valencia et al., published a very interesting article called «Lipid profile in a group of patients with Turner’s syndrome at Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in the city of Medellín between 2000 and 2009". An article which evaluated lipid levels in patients withTurner syndrome in a Colombian clinic, the study associated results of lipid profile with karyotype and other risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  14. Religion als soziale Deutungspraxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lingen-Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: During the last decades, the topos religion transformed into a powerful category of difference, which is also relevant for educationsystems and settings. Religion as a tool to differentiate between subjects is linked with power and dominance and, thus,with ideas about the constructed identities of “the other”. With this respects, religion functions as a code to define in- andexclusions and mark “the other”, e.g. “the Muslim” in predominantly Christian societies in Europe. Critical theories on racismenable to recognize, describe and define these practices and their effects. They can provide a useful tool to question and challengeintercultural and interreligious educational approaches which potentially reproduce and, thus, strengthen cultural/religiousdifferentiations. DEUTSCH: Die Differenz- und Heterogenitätskategorie Religion hat sich in den letzten Jahren im europäischen und auch deutschsprachigenDiskursraum zu einer medial, wissenschaftlich und politisch wirkmächtigen Kategorie entwickelt. Dabei zeigt sich Religion sowohlals soziale Unterscheidungspraxis (auch in pädagogischen Arrangements, als auch als Mittel zur Identifikation und Charakterisierungbestimmter Gruppen und Individuen als religiöse Subjekte. Religion stellt in diesem Zusammenhang einen Zugehörigkeitscodedar, mit dem Personen als natio-ethno-kulturell Andere markiert werden, wie die Markierung von MuslimInnen durchAngehörige der mehrheitlich christlichen Dominanzgesellschaft zeigt. Rassismuskritische Ansätze ermöglichen es zumeist eherimplizit an Rassekonstruktionen anschließende Unterscheidungen zu erkennen und zu beschreiben, den Bedingungen ihres Wirksamwerdensnachzugehen sowie ihre Konsequenzen zu bestimmen. Eine rassismuskritische und migrationspädagogisch informierteReligionspädagogik ermöglicht AkteurInnen, weniger auf gewaltvolle Unterscheidungspraxen angewiesen zu sein undalternative Veränderungs- und Handlungsmöglichkeiten zu

  15. Avaliação do dano oxidativo ao DNA de células normais e neoplásicas da mucosa cólica de doentes com câncer colorretal Evaluation of DNA oxidative damage in normal and neoplastic cells of colonic mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lima Ribeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O estresse oxidativo ao DNA de células da mucosa cólica decorrente de radicais livres de oxigênio presentes na luz intestinal, induz mutações de genes relacionados ao controle do ciclo celular, representando um dos fenômenos iniciais da carcinogênese colorretal. A quantificação do dano oxidativo ao DNA em portadores de câncer colorretal foi pouco estudada até o momento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi mensurar os níveis de dano oxidativo ao DNA de células isoladas da mucosa cólica de doentes com câncer colorretal comparando o tecido normal e o neoplásico e correlacionando-os a variáveis anatomopatológicas. MÉTODO: Estudou-se 32 enfermos (19 mulheres com média de idade de 60,6 ± 15,5 anos, portadores de adenocarcinoma colorretal operados consecutivamente, entre 2005 e 2006. A avaliação do dano oxidativo ao DNA foi realizada pela da versão alcalina do ensaio cometa (eletroforese e gel de célula única, a partir de fragmentos de tecido cólico normal e neoplásico obtidos imediatamente após a extirpação do espécime cirúrgico. Avaliou-se a extensão das rupturas das hélices do DNA com método de intensificação de imagem, em 200 células escolhidas aleatoriamente (100 de cada amostra de tecido com o programa Komet 5.5. A mensuração da cauda obtida de cada célula (Tail Moment representava, quantitativamente, a extensão do dano oxidativo ao DNA. A análise estatística das variáveis consideradas foi realizada pelos testes t de Student, qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis, adotando-se nível de significância de 5% (pOxidative stress on mucosal cells of the colon, resulting from the action of free radicals present in the intestinal lumen, represents one of the initial phenomena in colorectal carcinogenesis, because it may induce gene mutations relating to cell cycle control. Quantification of the oxidative damage to the DNA in colorectal cancer patients has been little studied so far. OBJECTIVE: To measure the

  16. Studio genetico del Diabete MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young): approcci diagnostici in fenotipi diversi

    OpenAIRE

    Incani, Michela

    2010-01-01

    Il MODY è la forma più comune di diabete monogenico. Mutazioni nel gene GCK (MODY2) e nel gene HNF1α (MODY3) sono responsabili da sole del 70% di tutti i casi MODY. OBIETTIVO: validare in modo prospettico l’utilizzo di linee guida recentemente proposte, usando i criteri di inclusione per la selezione dei soggetti da sottoporre allo screening. METODI: Criteri di inclusione: Per GCK, iperglicemia persistente a digiuno >100 mg/dl, lieve aumento dell’HbA1c e della glicemia dopo OGTT < 54 mg/dl. ...

  17. Impacto do polimorfismo genetico da enzima conversora da angiotensina no remodelamento cardiaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Neves de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: O papel dos polimorfismos genéticos da enzima de conversão da angiotensina na insuficiência cardíaca, como preditor de desfechos ecocardiográficos, ainda não está estabelecido. é necessário identificar o perfil local para observar o impacto desses genótipos na população brasileira, sendo inédito o estudo da insuficiência cardíaca de etiologia exclusivamente não isquêmica em seguimento mais longo que 5 anos. Objetivo: Determinar a distribuição das variantes do polimorfismo genético da enzima de conversão da angiotensina e sua relação com a evolução ecocardiográfica de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca de etiologia não isquêmica. Métodos: Análise secundária de prontuários de 111 pacientes e identificação das variantes do polimorfismo genético da enzima de conversão da angiotensina, classificadas como DD (Deleção/Deleção, DI (Deleção/Inserção ou II (Inserção/Inserção. Resultados: As médias da coorte foram: seguimento de 64,9 meses, idade de 59,5 anos, 60,4% eram homens, 51,4% eram brancos, 98,2% faziam uso de betabloqueadores e 89,2% de inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina ou de bloqueador do receptor da angiotensina. A distribuição do polimorfismo genético da enzima de conversão da angiotensina foi: 51,4% de DD; 44,1% de DI; e 4,5% de II. Não se observou nenhuma diferença das características clínicas ou de tratamento entre os grupos. O diâmetro sistólico do ventrículo esquerdo final foi a única variável ecocardiográfica isolada significativamente diferente entre os polimorfismos genéticos da enzima de conversão da angiotensina: 59,2 ± 1,8 para DD versus 52,3 ± 1,9 para DI versus 59,2 ± 5,2 para II (p = 0,029. No seguimento ecocardiográfico, todas as variáveis (diferença entre a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo da última e da primeira consulta; diferença entre o diâmetro sistólico do ventrículo esquerdo da última e da primeira consulta; e diferença entre o diâmetro diastólico do ventrículo esquerdo da última e da primeira consulta diferiram entre os genótipos (p = 0,024; p = 0,002; e p = 0,021, respectivamente. Conclusão: A distribuição dos polimorfismos genéticos da enzima de conversão da angiotensina foi diferente de outros estudos com baixíssimo número de II. O genótipo DD foi associado de forma independente à pior evolução ecocardiográfica e DI ao melhor perfil ecocardiográfico (aumento da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e diminuição de diâmetros do ventrículo esquerdo.

  18. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  19. Rheocasting Al matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girot, F.A.; Albingre, L.; Quenisset, J.M.; Naslain, R.

    1987-11-01

    A development status account is given for the rheocasting method of Al-alloy matrix/SiC-whisker composites, which involves the incorporation and homogeneous distribution of 8-15 vol pct of whiskers through the stirring of the semisolid matrix melt while retaining sufficient fluidity for casting. Both 1-, 3-, and 6-mm fibers of Nicalon SiC and and SiC whisker reinforcements have been experimentally investigated, with attention to the characterization of the resulting microstructures and the effects of fiber-matrix interactions. A thin silica layer is found at the whisker surface. 7 references.

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Muscular Dystrophy Association (www.mda.org) The Les Turner ALS Foundation (www.lesturnerals.org) Back to Top ... als. Back to Top Why was incidence (new cases of ALS) not provided in the report? Date of diagnosis is needed to calculate incidence. ...

  1. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  2. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  3. AL-SIYAQ FI TARJAMAH KITAB AL-LUGHAH AL-'ARABIYAH ILA AL-LUGHAH AL-INDUNISIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devita Zuliati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the translation of 53 poems in Tata Bahasa Arab book written by Chatibul Umam, et al. in view of the context theory. This study was based on a contextual translation theory that the understanding the right and proper context of Arabic texts translated into Indonesian plays an important role in determining the quality of a translation that is easily understood, contextual and functional. The qualitative data were read using the linguistic approach and critical translation. This study concluded that the translation work of Chatibul Umam, et al. tended to be literal not based on the complete understanding of the context, internal context (linguistic context and socio-cultural context of the texts. The role of the external context of the texts is less utilized in the translation process of poetry (nazham, so that the translation of the book is neither communicative nor functional.

  4. Modeling neuronal vulnerability in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Francesco; Caroni, Pico

    2014-08-20

    Using computational models of motor neuron ion fluxes, firing properties, and energy requirements, Le Masson et al. (2014) reveal how local imbalances in energy homeostasis may self-amplify and contribute to neurodegeneration in ALS.

  5. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot project...

  6. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  7. Carta al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Maldonado Romero

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Bogotá, 01 de Agosto de 1990
    Señores
    Miembros del Consejo Editorial
    Academia Nacional de Medicina
    E.S.D.

    Señores doctores:

    Con toda consideración y respeto me permito agregar algunas anotaciones al escrito del Académico Alberto Cárdenas Escobar, aparecido en el No. 22 de Medicina, para destacar algunos aspectos de la personalidad del doctor Alberto Schweitzer galardonado con el Premio Nobel de la Paz.

    A los 30 años de edad tomó una decisión dramática: Estudiar Medicina para trabajaren el África Ecuatorial. Cuando terminó sus investigaciones sobre enfermedades tropicales y sus prácticas hospitaLarias, partió para el Gabon al pequeño pueblo de Lambarené. La tarea era desconsoladora; La atención médica había que prestarla al aire libre; iba con su esposa, como enfermera y amanuense, y no se encontraba ni un intérprete, ni un ayudante. Cuando le llegaron la medicina y el equipaje hubo que acomodarlos en un viejo gallinero abandonado; el calor era insoportable y le venían enfermos de varias millas a la redonda, a pie o en Canoas.

    Las enfermedades más difundidas eran Malaria, Disentería, estreptococias y la más mortífera, la Tripanosomiasis Gambiense, para la que empezaban a llegar medicinas nuevas eficaces y las medidas preventivas como el suministro de agua potable y enmallado de ventanas impedían muchas contaminaciones.

    Pero la que causaba mayores dificultades y trabajo era la Mycobacteriasis Anestesiante, incurable, de difícil diagnóstico, afectando a varios miembros de la misma familia, de aspecto horripilante, con complicaciones neuríticas muy dolorosas, frecuente ceguera, e invalideces y procesos erisepelatososacrotéricos, que exigían acompañante para el cambio y lavado de vendas y suministro de alimentos.

    A menos de un año de

  8. Estudo da associação entre a presença do anticorpo contra o peptídeo citrulinado cíclico e os índices de atividade de doença, de capacidade funcional e de dano estrutural, medido através da radiografia convencional e da ressonância magnética, na artrite reumatoide estabelecida

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Santuza Santos Porto

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A presença dos anticorpos antipeptídeos citrulinados cíclicos (anti-CCP) constitui importante ferramenta diagnóstica e prognóstica da artrite reumatoide (AR). De forma adicional, tem sido investigada sua relação com a atividade de doença e capacidade funcional. Objetivos: Estudar a relação entre a presença do anti-CCP e os índices de atividade da doença, de capacidade funcional e de dano estrutural, medido através de radiografia convencional (RC) e de ressonância magnética (RM), e...

  9. Konsep Hati Menurut al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryandi Ryandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam khazanah sufi, hati atau qalb adalah salah satu term sentral yang dibahas secara mendalam. Karena bagi sufi, hati adalah entitas metafisik (latifah rabbaniyyah ruhaniyyah yang dengannya manusia dapat mencapai ma’arifatullah dan mengetahui rahasia-rahasia-Nya. Salah satu sufi klasik yang mengkaji hati secara mendalam adalah Abu ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Basyar al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi (w 320 H. Ia mengkonsepsikan hati sebagai entitas metafisik universal yang terkandung di dalamnya tingkatan-tingkatan batin (maqamat al-qalb, yaitu: sadr, qalb, fu’ad, dan lubb. Pemetaan ini dimunculkan sesuai dengan fungsi linguistiknya dan penggunaannya dalam al-Qur’an dan Hadis Nabi SAW. Tiap-tiap tingkatan batin tersebut berkaitan dengan tingkatan pengetahuan, keilmuan, spiritual, dan jiwa manusia. Kaitan tersebut menunjukan bahwa qalb merupakan eksistensi ruhani manusia (al-kainunah al-ruhiyyah, yang berfungsi sebagai instrumen penyempurna bagi manusia (al-jihaz al-mutakamil li al-insan yang meliputi seluruh kekuatan dan potensi manusia: ruhani, ‘aqliyah, dan kehendak, di mana manusia dengannya dapat merasa, berpikir, mengetahui, bahkan dapat mencapai ma’rifatullah dan dekat dengan-Nya.

  10. Análise comparativa dos surtos e danos causados pelos besouros desfolhadores Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801 e Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em plantios de eucalipto

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    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Os besouros desfolhadores Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801 e Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae são pragas importantes da cultura do eucalipto. A biologia e comportamento daninho de C. ferruginea já foram caracterizados. Todavia, não existem estudos sobre o potencial de C. lurida como praga da cultura. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, de forma comparativa, os surtos e as injúrias causadas por C. ferruginea e C. lurida em plantios de eucalipto. Para isso, 202,8 mil ha de plantios clonais de eucalipto, nos Estados do Espírito Santo, da Bahia e de Minas Gerais, foram monitorados no período crítico de ocorrência (quente e chuvoso. Os surtos detectados foram caracterizados, determinando-se, por meio de amostragens, a incidência, a severidade e as populações absoluta e relativa do inseto por planta atacada. De forma geral, o comportamento daninho de C. lurida foi similar ao de C. ferruginea, em termos de época de ocorrência e tipo de injúrias causadas. Todavia, C. lurida apresentou maiores picos populacionais, em termos absolutos (insetos por planta e relativos (razão entre o número de insetos e altura das plantas atacadas, e atingiu maior proporção de área, podendo ser considerado mais daninho que C. ferruginea. O besouro C. lurida deve ser monitorado considerando os mesmos critérios. Além disso, os surtos desta nova praga poderão ser avaliados quanto ao nível crítico para controle, empregando-se as mesmas premissas adotadas para C. ferruginea. Adicionalmente aos resultados, registrou-se, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de C. lurida no Estado da Bahia, em plantas de araçá (Psidium guineense, Swartz (Myrtaceae.

  11. A previsibilidade nas condenações por danos morais: uma reflexão a partir das decisões do STJ sobre relações de consumo bancárias The predicability of moral damages lawsuits' results: a reflection based upon STJ' decisions in bank-consumer relations

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    Júlia Caiuby de Azevedo Antunes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A previsibilidade do resultado dos processos judiciais é uma das facetas do princípio da segurança jurídica, princípio este norteador do sistema jurídico pátrio. O método do livre arbitramento adotado pelo Código de Processo Civil concede ampla liberdade aos juízes na fixação do montante indenizatório por danos morais, o que pode significar que não há como prever o valor condenatório. Por outro lado, a jurisprudência pode contornar a imprevisibilidade por meio da uniformização de suas decisões. A tendência em adotar determinados critérios na quantificação do dano moral ou em limitar a indenização à determinada faixa de valores permitiria um prognóstico do resultado que será obtido com a demanda indenizatória, caso procedente. Pautada pelo objetivo de identificar como a opção legislativa do livre arbitramento é interpretada e aplicada pela jurisprudência do Superior Tribunal de Justiça, a pesquisa restringiu-se às relações de consumo bancárias, cujos valores indenizatórios foram revistos pela corte especial, em sede de recurso especial, no período de outubro de 2000 e abril de 2007. Em geral, a intervenção do Superior Tribunal de Justiça se faz sentir pela redução substancial dos valores fixados nas instâncias anteriores. Assim, o presente trabalho também põe em relevo a possibilidade de, na prática, haver um limite monetário ou tarifação dos valores indenizatórios, no âmbito da corte especial e de indagar se o suposto tabelamento pode funcionar, futuramente, como inibidor do ajuizamento de processos judiciais pelos consumidores lesados.The predictability of the lawsuits' results is one of the facets of the principle of legal certainty, wich is Brazilian legal system´s guide. The method of free quantification adopted by the Civil Procedure Code grants freedom to judges when determining the moral damages compensatory amount, what may result in not being able to predict the indemnification

  12. Dano muscular: resposta inflamatória sistêmica após ações excêntricas máximas Daño muscular: respuesta inflamatoria sistémica después de acciones excéntricas máximas Muscle damage: systemic inflammatory response after maximal eccentric actions

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    Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a resposta inflamatória induzida por grande número de ações excêntricas (AE máximas realizadas pelos flexores do cotovelo. Participaram do estudo nove homens jovens, que realizaram 35 séries de seis AE nos flexores de cotovelo, com intervalo de um minuto, utilizando um dinamômetro isocinético em uma velocidade de 210º.s-1. As variáveis mensuradas foram: a contração isométrica voluntaria máxima (CIVM, a amplitude de movimento (AM, a dor muscular de inicio tardio (DMIT, a interleucina-6 (IL-6 e o fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α. Alterações significantes foram observadas para os marcadores indiretos de dano muscular (CIVM, AM e DMIT, entretanto não houve modificações para os marcadores inflamatórios (IL-6 e TNF-α. Em conclusão, os resultados demonstraram que mesmo com alterações nos marcadores indiretos de dano muscular após a realização de um grande número de AE não foram observadas alterações na resposta inflamatória sistêmica.El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la magnitud de la respuesta inflamatoria inducida por un gran número de acciones excéntricas (AE de los flexores del codo. Han participado del estudio nueve jóvenes que llevaron a cabo 35 series de seis AE de los flexores del codo, con un intervalo de un minuto, utilizando un dinamómetro isocinético a 210º.s-1. Fueran mensurados la máxima contracción voluntaria isométrica (CIVM, la amplitud de movimiento (AM, el dolor muscular de aparición tardía (DMIT, la interleucina 6 (IL-6 y el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α. Se observaron cambios significativos para los marcadores de daño muscular (CIVM, AM y DMIT, sin embargo, no hubo cambios en los marcadores de inflamación IL-6 y TNF-α. En conclusión, los resultados indican que mismo con un gran número de AE y cambios en los marcadores indirectos de daño muscular, no se observaron cambios en la respuesta inflamatoria sist

  13. Women´s vulnerability to violence and health damages under the perspective of rural social movements Vulnerabilidad de las mujeres a la violencia y daños de salud bajo la perspectiva de los movimientos sociales rurales Vulnerabilidade das mulheres à violência e danos à saúde na perspectiva dos movimentos sociais rurais

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    Elisiane Gomes Bonfim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This text analyzes the situations of vulnerability to violence and damage to health from the perspective of women in rural settings. It appears that even with the participation in rural social movements and the struggle for better working conditions, women have greater social vulnerability in rural areas expressed by the inequality of access to state public services, as well as unequal access the labor market and land tenure, which is reflected in inequalities in health. It was observed that women were exposed to different vulnerabilities and to violence resulting in murder and other situations that affect the health and reflect inequalities of gender, race and class. It was evident that much stills needs to be modified so that the hierarchies of gender are reduced in Brazil. In this sense, it appears that both in the state, and in the Academy this is an issue that still needs to be contextualized and developed, aiming at the structuring of public policy.Este é um texto reflexivo que analisa as situações de vulnerabilidade à violência e danos à saúde na perspectiva de mulheres em cenários rurais. Constata-se que mesmo com a participação nos movimentos sociais rurais e na luta por melhores condições de trabalho, as mulheres apresentam maior vulnerabilidade social no meio rural, expressa pela desigualdade de acesso aos serviços estatais públicos, assim como a desigualdade de acesso ao mercado de trabalho e a posse da terra, que se reflete em desigualdades nas condições de saúde. Observou-se que as mulheres estiveram expostas a diferentes vulnerabilidades e à violência, resultando em assassinatos e em outras situações de comprometimento da saúde que refletem as iniqüidades de gênero, raça e classe. Evidenciou-se que muito necessita ser modificado para que as hierarquias de gênero sejam reduzidas no Brasil. Nesse sentido, constata-se que tanto no âmbito do Estado, quanto no âmbito da Academia essa é uma temática que

  14. Análise de danos de colheita de madeira em floresta tropical úmida sob regime de manejo florestal sustentado na Amazônia ocidental Analysis of logging damage in a moist tropical forest under sustained management in western Amazon

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    Alberto Carlos Martins Pinto

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar, qualificar e quantificar a intensidade de danos causados pela colheita florestal em uma área com floresta primária explorada (FPE, tendo com testemunha uma área com floresta primária não-explorada (FPNE, com 202 e 204 ha, respectivamente. Na FPNE, foram avaliados os danos decorrentes de causas naturais. As áreas de FPE e de FPNE localizam-se no município de Manicoré, Estado do Amazonas. Realizou-se o inventário utilizando o método de amostragem aleatória, em ambas as áreas. As amostragens foram executadas em dois níveis de inclusão de DAP. No nível I foram instaladas cinco parcelas de 100 x 100 m (1 ha, onde foram inventariadas todas as árvores com DAP > ou = 15 cm. No nível II, as parcelas do nível I foram divididas sistematicamente em subparcelas de 10 x 10 m (100 m², tendo sido amostradas aleatoriamente cinco subparcelas por parcela do nível I, totalizando 2.500 m², onde foram inventariados todos os indivíduos (varejões com 5,0 The objective of this work was to identify, qualify and quantify the intensity of damage from natural causes and forest harvest in a non-exploited old growth forest (FPNE and in a harvested old growth forest (FPE. The studied area is located in the counties of Manicoré, Amazon, Brazil, with an area of 204 ha of FPNE and 202 ha of FPE, respectively. The inventory was carried out applying the randomized sampling method, in both areas. Sampling collection was carried out in two levels of approach. In level I, five plots of 100 x 100 m (1 ha were established, and the individuals with DBH > or = 15 cm were evaluated. In level II, the plots of level I were systematically subdivided in subplots of 10 x 10 m (100 m², being randomly sampled only five of these per plot of level I, with an area of 2,500 m², where all the individuals between 5.0 <= DBH < 15 cm (large samplings were evaluated. The assessment of damage caused to the remaining trees indicate that only 10% of the

  15. Postharvest of ‘Fuerte’ and ‘Hass’ avocados: physical and chemical characteristics, damages and control of diseases/ Pós-colheita de abacates ‘Fuerte’ e ‘Hass’: características físicas e químicas, danos e controle de doenças

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    Maria Cecília Arruda

    Full Text Available Postharvest disease is considered an important cause of avocado depreciation during its commercialization. This work aimed to evaluate the postharvest damages and the physical chemical characteristics of avocados ‘Fuerte’ and ‘Hass’, processed at the packinghouse, and to evaluate the effect of products for postharvest disease control. The characteristics skin color, firmness, titratable acidity and soluble solids content and the incidence of the postharvest damages were evaluated periodically in avocados sampled in three different stages in a packinghouse (arrival, pallet and processed fruits after storage for 30 days at 5ºC. For diseases control, ‘Hass’ avocado were treated by immersion with the following products: azoxystrobin, benzalkonium chloride, chlorine dioxide, Ecolife®, sodium hypochlorite, imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole. In general, the highest physical chemical changes were observed in fruits collected at their arrival to the packinghouse and in processed fruits after stored for 30 days at 15 days of storage at 25°C. The rots incidence was 56,7% in ‘Fuerte’ and 75,7% in ‘Hass’. Lower incidence of rots was observed in fruits sampled at the pallet and a higher incidence in the processed fruits, after refrigerated storage. Anthracnose was the most important disease in both cultivars. The mechanical injuries increased with the processing stages; however, they did not influence the incidence of the rots. Procloraz and imazalil were the most efficient fungicides in reducing the incidence of rots. Doença pós-colheita é considerada uma importante causa de desvalorização do abacate por ocasião da comercialização. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os danos pós-colheita e as características físicas e químicas de abacates ‘Fuerte’ e ‘Hass’, beneficiados em packinghouse, e o efeito de produtos no controle pós-colheita das podridões. As características cor da casca, firmeza, acidez titulável e s

  16. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

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    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El t

  17. Neuronal damage and memory deficits after seizures are reversed by ascorbic acid? O dano neuronal e o déficit de memória após convulsões são revertidos pelo ácido ascórbico?

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    Adriana da Rocha Tomé

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid (AA in rats, against the neuronal damage and memory deficit caused by seizures. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group, ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p., AA group, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., pilocarpine group, and the association of ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p. plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before of administration of ascorbic acid (AA plus pilocarpine group. After the treatments all groups were observed for 24 h. Pilocarpine group presented seizures which progressed to status epilepticus in 75% of the animals. Pretreatment with AA led to a reduction of 50% of this rate. Results showed that pretreatment with AA did not alter reference memory when compared to a control group. In the working memory task, we observed a significant day's effect with important differences between control, pilocarpine and AA plus pilocarpine groups. Pilocarpine and AA plus pilocarpine groups had 81 and 16% of animals with brain injury, respectively. In the hippocampus of pilocarpine animals, it was detected an injury of 60%. As for the animals tested with AA plus pilocarpine, the hippocampal region of the group had a reduction of 43% in hippocampal lesion. Our findings suggest that seizures caused cognitive dysfunction and neuronal damage that might be related, at least in part, to the neurological problems presented by epileptic patients. AA can reverse cognitive dysfunction observed in rats with seizures as well as decrease neuronal injury in rat hippocampus.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito neuroprotetor do ácido ascórbico (AA, contra o dano neuronal e o déficit de memória em ratos causados pelas convulsões. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com solução salina a 0,9% (i.p., grupo controle, ácido ascórbico (500 mg/kg, i.p., grupo AA, pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, i.p., grupo pilocarpina, e a associação de ácido asc

  18. Dano de frio em limas-ácidas Tahiti, colhidas em diferentes épocas e submetidas a tratamentos térmicos e bioquímicos Cold damage in Tahiti acid limes harvested in different periods and submitted to termichal and biochemical treatments

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    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou o estabelecimento de um método efetivo e satisfatório do controle do dano de frio em limas-ácidas. Os frutos colhidos no município de Boa Vista-RR, 140 e 150 dias após a floração, apresentaram valores médios de 7,9 e 8,2 ºBrix; 6,3 e 6,0 mL de ácido cítrico.100mL de polpa-1 e pH de 2,8 e 3,0, respectivamente, nas duas colheitas. Após cada colheita, os frutos foram levados ao laboratório de Fitotecnia/UFRR, onde foram selecionados, limpos e submetidos aos tratamentos: T1 - controle; T2, T3 e T4 - condicionamento a 35ºC, por 6, 12 e 24 horas, respectivamente; T5 - aquecimento intermitente a 20ºC, por 8 horas, após 5 e 10 dias a 1ºC; T6 - aquecimento intermitente a 20ºC, por 8 horas, após 10 e 20 dias a 1ºC; T7 - ethephon a 1.500 mg.L-1; T8 - ethephon a 3.000 mg.L-1. Os tratamentos T9 ao T16, diferenciaram-se dos tratamentos T1 a T8, apenas, na data da colheita (10 dias após a primeira. O experimento foi avaliado a cada 15 dias, durante 75 dias, a 1 ± 0,5 ºC e 92 ± 5 % de UR, quanto ao dano de frio, aspecto visual, perda de massa fresca, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, SS/AT (ratio - RT, clorofila total e ácido ascórbico. O atraso na colheita não proporcionou efeito significativo algum. Todos os tratamentos, à exceção do controle e do aquecimento intermitente aos 10 e 20 dias, foram eficientes no controle do dano de frio. No entanto, o tratamento químico e o condicionamento térmico aceleraram precocemente o metabolismo dos frutos, principalmente no que concerne à perda de massa fresca e ao aspecto visual. O maior teor de clorofila total e de ácido ascórbico, bem como o melhor aspecto visual, a não-incidência de podridões e a menor perda de massa fresca foram detectadas nos frutos submetidos ao aquecimento intermitente aos 5 e 10 dias. Os SS, AT e RT estavam dentro dos padrões de qualidade e não variaram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos.The aim of this study was to

  19. Economic injury level for sugarcane caused by the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera:Cercopidae Nível de dano econômico em cana-de-açúcar causado pela cigarrinha das raízes Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera:Cercopidae

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    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål, is currently one of the most important pests of the sugarcane crop in Brazil. In spite of its economic importance, advances in the management of this pest have been limited by the lack of information on the economic injury level. In this study, the economic injury level for M. fimbriolata was estimated in a field experiment, over areas harvested in September, applying thiamethoxam at 200 g a.i. ha-1 or imidacloprid at 720 g a.i. ha-1. In one of the experiments, insecticide applications were made at pest infestation values of 4.2 (11/12/04, 7.1 (01/11/05, or 16.3 (01/18/05 insects m-1, and in experiment 2 when pest populations were 5.6 (11/12/04, 8.5 (01/11/05, or 15.3 (01/11/05 insects m-1. Control plots without insecticide were maintained. After the applications, spittlebug infestations were estimated monthly, and the experiments were harvested in September 2005. Spittlebug control with the application of insecticides resulted in stalk and sugar yield increases in relation to the control, for both experiments. Applications performed under smaller infestations resulted in higher yields than applications made under higher populations. There were no differences between insecticides in one of the experiments; in the other, however, thiamethoxan contributed to greater yield increases than imidacloprid. Insecticide applications made under lower infestations resulted in greater profits. Regression analyses allowed the estimation of the pest economic injury level to be between 2 to 3 insects m-1 for the conditions of this experiment.A cigarrinha-das-raízes, Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål, é uma das mais importantes pragas da cana-de-açúcar na região Centro-Sul do Brasil. Apesar disso, avanços na implantação de programas de manejo estão sendo limitados pela falta de informações sobre o nível de dano econômico. Neste trabalho, o nível de dano econômico de M. fimbriolata foi estimado em

  20. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

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    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  1. Porosity of porous Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two porosity models of porous Al alloys with different pore types (ball and polygon shape) were established. The experimental results coincide well with theoretical computations. The porosity of Al alloys (Prc) consists of three parts, porosity caused by preform particles (Prp), additional porosity (Pra), and porosity caused by solidification shrinkage (Prs). Prp is the main part of Prc while Pra is the key for fabricating porous Al alloys successfully in spite of its little contribution to Prc.

  2. Al versus Si competition in FeSiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarra, E. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: estibaliz.legarra@ehu.es; Apinaniz, E. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela de Ingenieria Tecnica Superior, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Plazaola, F. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jimenez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Avda. Gregorio del amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pierna, A.R. [Chemical Engineering and Environmental Department, UPV/EHU, Box 1379, 20008 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    In FeSiAl alloys, when Si substitutes for Al, important changes take place in the magnetism as well as in the structural properties. Alloys in the two composition series Fe{sub 75}Al{sub 25-x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 25) and Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30-x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 9, 15, 21, 30) were prepared by induction melting; afterwards they were crushed and then annealed in order to recover the DO{sub 3} stable phase. The deformed FeAl samples show larger lattice parameters than the ordered ones; however, this difference ({delta}a) decreases when Si substitutes for Al until it becomes zero (i.e. until the ordered samples and the deformed ones have the same lattice parameters). This trend is the same for both sample series and does not depend on the Fe content of the alloy. However, the magnetization has a different behaviour depending on the Fe content. For deformed Fe{sub 75}Al{sub 25-x}Si{sub x} alloys the saturation magnetization decreases with increasing Si content while for Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30-x}Si{sub x} deformed alloys the saturation magnetization has a plateau in which the saturation magnetization values do not vary.

  3. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  4. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  5. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  6. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de

  7. Quantum dots formed in InSb/AlAs and AlSb/AlAs heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramkin, D. S.; Rumynin, K. M.; Bakarov, A. K.; Kolotovkina, D. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Shamirzaev, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure of new self-assembled InSb/AlAs and AlSb/AlAs quantum dots grown by molecularbeam epitaxy has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The theoretical calculations of the energy spectrum of the quantum dots have been supplemented by the experimental data on the steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Deposition of 1.5 ML of InSb or AlSb on the AlAs surface carried out in the regime of atomic-layer epitaxy leads to the formation of pseudomorphically strained quantum dots composed of InAlSbAs and AlSbAs alloys, respectively. The quantum dots can have the type-I and type-II energy spectra depending on the composition of the alloy. The ground hole state in the quantum dot belongs to the heavy-hole band and the localization energy of holes is much higher than that of electrons. The ground electron state in the type-I quantum dots belongs to the indirect X XY valley of the conduction band of the alloy. The ground electron state in the type-II quantum dots belongs to the indirect X valley of the conduction band of the AlAs matrix.

  8. Identificação do dano induzido por fadiga e cura de micro trincas em compósitos cerâmicos particulados, voltados à aplicação em pavimentos flexíveis Fatigue damage induced and healing identification in particulate ceramic composites for application in flexible pavings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. G. Nunes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um dos grandes defeitos ocorrentes no pavimento, ao longo de sua vida útil, é o trincamento por fadiga. Este problema, em geral, se inicia na base do revestimento asfáltico e se propaga para a sua superfície. A caracterização das misturas asfálticas, realizada comumente no Brasil, é baseada no número de ciclos que causam a ruptura no ensaio de fadiga. No entanto, tal número não é um parâmetro mecânico, podendo variar para diferentes condições de contorno. O objetivo do presente artigo é identificar parâmetros mecânicos, referentes ao trincamento por fadiga, do compósito asfáltico com agregado sintético de argila calcinada (ASAC. Para tanto, foi utilizado um modelo viscoelástico de dano contínuo, fundamentado em trabalhos de Shapery, Kim e Lee. Os resultados com o compósito estudado (ASAC mostraram que a perda de rigidez, baseada em uma variável interna de estado, pode ser um critério de fadiga; que o ensaio pode ser realizado para um nível de tensão; a cura de microtrincas durante os períodos de não solicitação da estrutura.One of the major distresses in flexible pavings, throughout its useful life, is the fatigue cracking. This problem, in general, initiates in the base of the asphalt layer and propagates for its surface. The characterization of the asphalt mixtures, carried out in Brazil, is based on the number of cycles that cause the rupture in the fatigue test. However, such number is not a mechanical parameter, varying for different boundary conditions. The objective of the present article is to identify mechanical parameters, referring fatigue cracking, of the asphalt composite with synthetic calcinated clay aggregates (SCCA. To this end, a continuum damage viscoelastic model was used based works from Shapery, Kim and Lee. The results with the composite studied (SCCA had shown: that the loss of rigidity, based on an internal state variable, can be a fatigue criterion; that the test can be carried through

  9. Redução de danos e saúde pública: construções alternativas à política global de "guerra às drogas" Harm reduction and public health: building alternatives to global policy of "war on drugs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Passos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Redução de Danos (RD vem se consolidando como um importante movimento nacional, impulsionando a construção de uma política de drogas democrática. Neste artigo destacaremos o modo como a RD se constituiu frente aos embates com as forças totalitárias da política global de "guerra às drogas". Enfocaremos tanto aspectos internacionais quanto aspectos nacionais que confluíram para a construção de uma política antidrogas. É dentro desse cenário político que a RD vem se consolidando como uma outra política de drogas possível. Analisaremos como a inclusão dos usuários de drogas em arranjos coletivos de gestão é uma importante direção clínica e política do movimento da RD, definindo uma nova proposta de atenção em saúde. A partir desses espaços coletivos de cuidado, os usuários de drogas puderam tecer uma rede nacional de cooperação e de produção de uma luta comum.Harm Reduction (HR has been consolidated as an important national movement, promoting the building of a democratic drug policy. In this article we will highlight how HR has been shaped in the face of clashes with totalitarian forces of the "war on drugs" global policy. We will focus on both international and national aspects that came together to build an anti-drug policy. It is within this political scenario that HR is consolidating itself as a different and feasible drug policy. We intend to show the extent to which the inclusion of drug users in collective arrangements of management is an important clinical and political direction of the HD movement, defining a new proposal for health care. From these collective spaces of care, drug users have been able to weave a national network of cooperation and production of a common struggle.

  10. COMPARAÇÃO DE SISTEMAS DE COLHEITA MECANIZADA E SEMIMECANIZADA NA PERDA, DANO MECÂNICO E IMPUREZA DE GRÃOS NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. COMPARISON OF SYSTEMS OF AUTOMATED CROP AND SEMIMECHANIZED IN THE LOSS, MECHANICAL DAMAGE AND IMPURITY OF GRAINS IN THE CULTURE OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Pasqualetto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As dificuldades constatadas na colheita mecanizada do feijoeiro ainda constitui em um obstáculo para a expansão da cultura. Diante disto, o CNPAF vem se esforçando para o melhoramento da espécie buscando características adequadas à colheita mecanizada. A cultivar Safira atende a este objetivo. Neste sentido foi realizado um experimento na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Santa Helena de Goiás (GO, onde se compararam três sistemas de colheita, objetivando avaliar perdas de grãos, bem como a qualidade do produto colhido, através da análise de grãos quebrados e impurezas, na cultivar Safira. Os resultados demonstraram que a colheita mecanizada do feijoeiro para a cultivar Safira é viável. A automotriz recolhedora causa menor perda de grãos, mas o dano mecânico é elevado; a recolhedora-trilhadora apresentou perda satisfatória, apesar de exigir manuseio adequado.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Feijão; culturas anuais; mecanização agrícola.

    The mechanization of the crop of the bean still constitutes an obstacle for the expansion of the culture. Due to this fact, CNPAF is making an effort to the improvement of the species looking for favorable characteristics to the mechanized crop. The cultivar ‘Safira’ fulfills this aim. In this sense, an experiment was carried out at Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the district of Santa Helena of Goiás (GO. Three crop systems were tested in order to evaluate losses of grains and the quality of the picked product, through analysis of broken grains and sludges. The results demonstrated that the mechanized crop of bean concerning the cultivar ‘Safira’ is viable. The self-driven retirement causes a smaller loss of grains, but the mechanical damage is higher; the retirement-thrashing showed satisfactory loss, despite of requiring

  11. Chemopreventive activity of phenylalanine against damage mutagenic prompted by the acute administration of cyclophosphamide in pregnant and non-pregnant mice using the micronucleus test Atividade quimiopreventiva da fenilalanina contra danos mutagênicos pela administração aguda de ciclofosfamida em ratas grávidas e não grávidas, utilizando o teste do micronúcleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Mauro

    2010-07-01

    antimutagenicidade demonstrou porcentagens de redução de danos de 57,24% e 31,64% para G5 e G6, respectivamente, em T24, e 29,32% e 24,13% para G5 e G6, respectivamente, em T48. Nos animais prenhes a antimutagenicidade de 24 h demonstrou eficiência quimiopreventiva apenas para a menor dose (G5 e as porcentagens de redução de danos foram de 43,25% em G5 e 18,47% em G6. No momento T48 as porcentagens de redução de danos foram de 44,67% e 37,76% para G5 e G6, respectivamente.

  12. EKSKURSO AL CANGYAN-MONTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verkita; de; Li; Shijun

    1999-01-01

    La Pekina Esperanto-Asocio preskaǚ sta-rigis tradicion organizi ekskurson printempe kajaǚtune. En la pasinta jaro, ni ekskursis al In-terna Mongolio kaj habis agrablajn renkontiojnkun geesperantistoj en Huhehot kaj Baotou. i-

  13. Damages by radiation in glasses; Danos por radiacion en vidrios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, F.; Gutierrez, C.; Cisniega, G.; Flores, J.H.; Golzarri, J.I.; Espinoza, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    As a part of the works carried out to characterize the electrons beam from the Pelletron accelerator of the Mexican Nuclear Center aluminium-silicate glass samples were irradiated. The purpose of these irradiations is to cause alterations in the amorphous microstructure of the material by means of the creation of color centers. The population density of these defects, consequence to the irradiation, is function of the exposure time which varied from 1 to 30 minutes, with an electronic beam energy of 400 keV, doing the irradiations at free atmosphere. the obtained spectra are correlated by damage which the radiation produced. (Author)

  14. Dano tseu speshno sozdat TsU / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Narvas luuakse veel üks tööstuspark - Narva Tööstusala Arendus SA, mida finantseeritakse linna eelarvest ja Euroopa fondidest. Sihtasutus hakkab 100protsendiliselt kuuluma linnale. Vt. samas: Ida-Virumaa tööstuspargid investeerivad kümneid miljoneid

  15. Cementing and formation damage; Cimentacao e dano a formacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, David Soares de [PETROBRAS, BA (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bahia. Div. de Tecnicas e Operacoes

    1994-07-01

    This work presents a general perspective on cementing and formation damage. Few relative experiments to the damage to the formation, that they involve the casing activity and cementing, consider all the factors that affect these operations. So that she can analyze the contribution of a primary cementing has in the formation damage , it should be considered, also, the contribution of the drilling fluid and of the operation of the perforation. With base in experimental data of several accomplished studies, it can be concluded that a primary cementing has small, or any, contribution in the decrease of the productivity of an oil well.

  16. SURVEY, IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF INSECT INJURIES IN ORNAMENTAL TREES IN THE URBAN AREA OF GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS STATE, BRASIL LEVANTAMENTO, IDENTIFICAÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DOS DANOS DE INSETOS EM ÁRVORES ORNAMENTAIS NA ÁREA URBANA DE GOIÂNIA (GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    >P. aquatica; B. variegata; Caesalpinia sp; pest; ornamentals.

    Das 1.800 árvores ornamentais amostradas na área urbana de Goiânia, Paquira aquatica representou 62,7%, Caesalpinia sp. 15,3%, Bauhinia variegata 10%, Spathodea campanulata 6%, Terminalia catappa 3,2%, Acacia sp. 1,2%, Ponciana sp. 1,0% e outras espécies, 0,6%. As espécies de insetos mais observadas entre as árvores de P. aquatica amostradas foram Psylla floccosa (92,3%, Steirastoma breve 76,7%, Palindia detracta (63,4%, Phelypera shuppeli 43,4% e Euchroma gigantea (23,7%. As que causam maiores danos à planta são S. breve, que provoca o secamento dos troncos e galhos, e E. gigantea, cujas larvas destroem todo o sistema radicular provocando a queda da planta. Orthezia praelonga foi observada em 84,61% das árvores de B. variegata amostradas; entre 30 árvores 20% morreram após três anos e 40% no final do quarto ano; entre 50 mudas 36% secaram após um ano e 58% trinta meses após. O. praelonga foi observada em 94,6% de S. campanulata; em 32 árvores 8% secaram em um ano, 18% no segundo e o restante secou no final do terceiro ano. Icerya purchasi foi observada em 84,7% de Caesalpinia sp. amostradas; entre 48 árvores 5% secaram após seis meses, 16% dois anos após e 30% delas secaram no final do quarto ano; em 50 mudas dessa espécie, detectaram-se ataques bem intensos, 78% secaram em apenas quinze dias. Quesada gigas e Dorisiana sp. foram observadas em Acacia sp. Em Ponciana sp. foi observada a presença de algumas espécies de Scolytidae,

  17. Estimativa do nível de dano econômico de Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (hemiptera: cercopidae em cana-de-açúcar Assessment of the economic injury level of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (hemiptera: cercopidae to sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O nível de dano econômico de Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål em cana-de-açúcar foi estimado em experimento em campo, em área colhida em fim de safra (novembro, aplicando-se thiamethoxam nas doses de 150, 200 e 250g i.a.ha-1, quando as populações da praga eram de 1,8 (4/12/02, 7,6 (17/12/02 ou 12,4 cigarrinhas.m-1 (26/12/02. Parcelas testemunhas sem inseticida foram mantidas. Após as aplicações, as infestações de cigarrinha foram estimadas mensalmente e em 26/9/03 o experimento foi colhido. O controle de cigarrinha pela aplicação de inseticida resultou em incremento de produtividade de colmos e de açúcar, em relação à testemunha. Aplicações feitas sob infestações de 1,8 (04/12/02 ou 7,6 (17/12/02 resultaram em maior produtividade do que aplicações feitas com populações de 12,4 cigarrinhas.m-1. Na média, as três doses de thiamethoxam tiveram comportamento semelhante, mas houve interação entre dose e época ou infestação por ocasião das aplicações. Quando as aplicações foram feitas em 4/12/02, sob infestação de 1,8 cigarrinhas.m-1, o tratamento com thiamethoxam a 250g i.a.ha-1 resultou em produtividade de colmos e de açúcar total recuperável superior à do tratamento com 150 g i.a.ha-1, fato atribuído ao maior residual e melhor controle inicial da praga, proporcionado pela dose maior. Pela análise econômica observou-se que thiamethoxam a 250g i.a.ha-1 aplicado com infestação de 1,8 cigarrinhas.m-1 proporcionou o maior lucro, e enquanto aplicado na dose de 250g i.a.ha-1, sob infestação de 12,4 cigarrinhas.m-1, a menor receita líquida. Análises de regressão permitiram estimar o nível de dano econômico da praga, nas condições do presente experimento, entre 3 e 5 cigarrinhas.m-1.The economic injury level of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål to sugarcane was experimentally evaluated in a field area harvested at November. The inseticide thiamethoxam was applied: 150, 200 e 250 g i.a.ha-1. Applications

  18. Influence of impact and compression mechanical damage on respiration of Fuji Suprema and Royal Gala apples Influência do dano mecânico de impacto e compressão sobre a respiração de maçãs cultivares Fuji Suprema e Royal Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Salete Andreazza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of cell respiration is related to the storage potential of a horticultural product. In the case of apples the main modification during storage is the metabolization of organic acids. Mechanical damage is frequent in fruit post harvest handling and the external forces involved can accelerate the respiratory pattern of fruits leading to further losses. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of mechanical damage by impact and compressing on the respiratory pattern of Fuji Suprema and Royal Gala apples. The experiments consisted of five treatments with three repetitions of six fruit each. After the treatment application, fruit were set in closed flasks and maintained in room temperature during the CO2 determination (ml CO2 kg-1 h-1. The measurements were made with a CO2 analyzer equipped with a zircon detector. The readings were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 e 168 hours after the treatment and data were submitted to a regression analysis. There was an increase in fruit respiration after the treatment application. The respiratory profiles along the evaluated period show increase of the respiratory rate after the treatment application. The greatest increase for most treatments occurred within the first six hours after the treatment, with posterior reduction. The regression curves of the respiratory rate in function of the treatment applied showed there is an increment in the respiratory rates associated with the intensity of applied forces. The increments of respiratory rates were greater for Gala than Fuji apples and impacts produce a greater effect over the respiration than compression forces. A intensidade da respiração celular está relacionada com o potencial de armazenamento nos produtos hortícolas; no caso de maçãs, a principal modificação é a metabolização dos ácidos orgânicos. Danos mecânicos são freqüentes na pós-colheita de frutos, e estas forças externas podem acelerar o padrão respirat

  19. Controle de danos no trauma abdominal e lesões associadas: experiência de cinco anos em um serviço de emergência Damage control in abdominal trauma and associated lesions: five years experience in emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martinez Menini Stalhschmidt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Baseado no conceito de cirurgia para controle de danos (damage control, o presente estudo tem por objetivo analisar, epidemiologicamente, os pacientes submetidos a esta modalidade cirúrgica no Hospital Universitário Cajuru (HUC, em Curitiba, PR. MÉTODO: No período de Janeiro de 2001 à Março de 2005, foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes atendidos no HUC, vítimas de traumatismos diversos, sendo encontrados 39 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para controle de danos abdominal. RESULTADOS: Dos 39 prontuários de pacientes analisados, 35 foram do sexo masculino (87,74% e quatro do sexo feminino (10,26%. A idade dos pacientes variou de 4 a 73 anos, sendo sua média de 30,35 anos. Trauma penetrante ocorreu em 24 pacientes (61,54%, sendo que 18 destes (46,15% sofreram ferimentos por armas de fogo e seis (15,38%, ferimentos por arma branca. O trauma fechado ocorreu em 15 pacientes, perfazendo um total de 38,46%. O ISS (Injury Severity Score médio dos pacientes foi de 44,03. A quantidade média de hemoderivados utilizados foi de 7,2 unidades papa de hemácias e 4,95 unidades de plasma fresco. O pH médio no intraoperatório foi de 7,1 e o BE (base excess de -14,4. O intervalo de tempo médio entre o início e o término da primeira cirurgia foi de 174,18 minutos (2,9 horas, levando-se em conta outros procedimentos de emergência também efetuados como craniectomias e/ou fixação de pelve e ossos longos. Foram constatados complicações imediatas em 28 pacientes, perfazendo um total de 53,85%. A média de sobrevida foi de 20,51% (n=8 e o tempo médio de permanência na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI após a primeira cirurgia foi de 41,75 horas (n=24. A maioria dos óbitos (n=17 ocorreu nas primeiras 24 horas de internação. CONCLUSÕES: O Damage Control é de fato uma medida que aumenta a taxa de sobrevida dos pacientes gravemente traumatizados, desde que esses mesmos pacientes tenham uma estabilização dentro das primeiras

  20. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  1. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Die im 18. Jahnhundert an der Nordwestküste Katars entstandene Handelsstadt Al Zubarah bildet den Forschungsschwerpunkt des Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Projects (QIAH), das die Universität Kopenhagen in Zusammenarbeit mit der Katarischen Museumsbehörde (QMA) seit 2009 durchführt. Neben...... der archäologischen Erforschung der Stadtanlage und ihrer Elemente, stehen die Erhaltung und Präsentation des Fundortes und seiner Bauten von Anfang an ebenfalls im Fokus der Arbeiten. Auf Grundlage der Projektarbeit wurde 2011 der Antrag auf Aufnahme von Al Zubarah in die Weltkulturerbe eingereicht....... Die Stadtanlage ist ein einzigartiges Beispiel für eine planmäßig angelegte Stadt mit allen typischen Elementen einer orientalischen Stadt: Souq, Moschee, Hofhausquartiere und turmbewehrter Stadtmauer. Die Blütezeit von Al Zubarah währte nur gut 50 Jahre. 1811 wurde sie bereits wieder zerstört. Einige...

  2. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  3. Superconductivity in Al/Al2O3 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Mazilkin, A. A.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Metastable superconductivity at Tc ≈ 65 K has been observed in Al foil subjected to special oxidation process, according to the ac magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistance measurements. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed during the oxidation process between metallic aluminum and its oxide.

  4. FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Harry T

    2011-10-20

    Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis.

  5. Drogodependencia y derecho al honor

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner Navarro, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    Resulta frecuente hoy la divulgación de la drogodependencia de algunos personajes públicos en los medios que se dedican a la información social. Acudiendo a la jurisprudencia más reciente en la materia, el artículo analiza el habitual conflicto entre el derecho al honor y el derecho a la libertad de información; identifica los criterios actualmente vigentes en la protección del derecho al honor y señala el límite que la libertad de información nunca puede traspasar en la revela...

  6. Al-Qaeda Since 911

    OpenAIRE

    Brahimi, Alia

    2012-01-01

    Seconds after smiling at her local MP and shaking his hand, Roshonara Choudhry plunged a knife into his stomach. The attack on Stephen Timms in May 2010 was not the most high profile assault inspired by al- Qaeda, nor was it fatal. It did, however, offer a commentary on the changing nature of the terrorist threat since 9/11, al-Qaeda’s major impact on international relations as well as its major failure, and the intimate, perhaps inevitable, connection between the two.

  7. La neuroplasticidad aplicada al deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Me decidí a realizar la siguiente ponencia, para analizar y reconocer la importancia que implica el trabajo cognitivo en el entrenamiento deportivo. El abordaje que efectuaré, está enfocado en el desarrollo del entrenamiento cognitivo, su fundamento y el desarrollo de la neuroplasticidad. Analizaré el concepto de neuroplasticidad y neurogénesis como base al sustento teórico de la neurociencia aplicada al deporte. También remarcaré diversas metodologías prácticas, con su fundamento teóri...

  8. ¿COLOMBIA DEBE APOSTARLE AL SOFTWARE LIBRE, AL DE FUENTE ABIERTA O AL PROPIETARIO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Girón Murillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es complejo para gestores y administradores conocer las implicaciones que la adopción de modelos de desarrollo de software tendría para una región. Este artículo ofrece una evaluación de las implicaciones dinámicas que para el desarrollo de software de una región tendría el apostar de forma excluyente al software libre, al software de fuente abierta y al software propietario. Se desarrolló un modelo de simulación en Vensim de la dinámica de sistemas en donde se evaluaron 3 escenarios: uno en donde se adopta de forma excluyente el software libre, uno en donde se adopta el software propietario y uno en donde se adopta el software de fuente abierta. Se ofrecen descripciones y explicaciones de los resultados que sugieren las potencialidades de cada uno de los modelos de desarrollo evaluados.

  9. Efeito da modificação atmosférica em goiabas var. Paluma na redução de danos mecânicos em pós-colheita. = The change in atmospheric guavas var. Paluma to reduce the effect of mechanical damage in postharvest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Grigio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available No manejo pós-colheita, os frutos podem estar expostos a injúrias que depreciam sua qualidade e vida útil. Assim, avaliou-se o efeito da atmosfera modificada em goiabas var. Paluma submetidas a diferentes tipos de danos mecânicos. Depois de colhidos, os frutos foram selecionados, sanitizados e submetidos aos tratamentos: T1 (testemunha - sem injúrias nem acondicionamento em sacolas de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD; T2 - sem injúrias + PEBD; T3 - queda de 1 m + PEBD; T4 - compressão de 9 N + PEBD; T5 - queda de 1 m + compressão de 9 N + PEBD e T6 - queda de 1 m + compressão de 9 N+ sem PEBD. Os tratamentos foram frigoarmazenados a 10 ± 1 oC e 94 ± 2% de U.R. As análises da produção de CO2/etileno, atividade enzimática, pectina total/solúvel, firmeza de polpa, acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, açúcares redutores e ácido ascórbico foram realizadas a cada 10 dias de refrigeração mais um dia fora da câmara frigorífica (22 ± 1 oC e 75 ± 3% de U.R., durante 30 dias. As goiabas acondicionadas em sacolas de PEBD, não submetidos às injúrias mecânicas, apresentaram os melhores padrões de qualidade. Os frutos submetidos apenas a um tipo de injúria, quando embalados, apresentavam qualidade satisfatória em comparação aos frutos sem embalagem e não submetidos às injúrias. Na aplicação dos dois tipos de injúria,simultaneamente, o uso da embalagem não foi suficiente para reduzir a velocidade metabólica desses frutos, tornando-os inaptos à comercialização. = In the postharvest management, the fruits can be exposed to injuries that depreciated the quality and the shelf life.Thus, it was evaluated the modified atmosphere effects on guavas var. Paluma subjected to different mechanical damages. Once harvested, the fruits were selected, sanitized and submitted to the treatments T1 (control - without injuries or packaging in bags of low density polyethylene (LDPE; T2 - without injuries + LDPE bags; T3

  10. Nível de dano, plantas invasoras hospedeiras, inimigos naturais e controle do psilídeo da goiabeira (Triozoida sp. no submédio São Francisco Studies of damage level, weed host plants, natural enemies and control of Triozoida sp. in guava plants at the São Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rabelo Barbosa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de obter informações para implementação do Manejo Integrado do psilídeo da goiabeira, no Vale do São Francisco, realizaram-se estudos sobre nível de dano, plantas invasoras hospedeiras, seletividade e efeito do thiamethoxam 10GR e 250WG no controle de Triozoida sp. O experimento foi conduzido em Petrolina-PE, em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: 1 thiamethoxam 10GR aplicado no solo; 2 thiamethoxam 250WG pulverizado semanalmente; 3 thiamethoxam 10GR aplicado no solo + thiamethoxam 250WG pulverizado semanalmente; 4, 5 e 6 pulverizações com thiamethoxam 250WG quando se constatou 10, 20 e 30% de ramos infestados, respectivamente; 7, 8 e 9 thiamethoxam 10GR aplicado no solo + thiamethoxam 250WG pulverizado semanalmente quando se constatou 10, 20 e 30% de ramos danificados, respectivamente e 10 testemunha (sem inseticida. A percentagem de galhos infestados na testemunha (33,6% diferiu significativamente dos tratamentos 2 (2,8%, 3 (4,33%, 4 (19,7%, 7 (13,45%, 8 (14,50% e 9 (15,00%. Nas parcelas tratadas com thiamethoxam, a redução populacional de inimigos naturais variou de 12,5 a 39,6%, correspondendo às notas 1 e 2 na escala de seletividade (1 = atóxico (This study was conducted to increment the integrated management of Triozoida sp. (Hemiptera, Psylliidae in guava plants at the São Francisco River Valley. The damage level, weed hosts, selectivity and effect of the thiamethoxam 10GR and 250WG in the control of psylliidae were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in an irrigated area, at Petrolina, Pernambuco, in a randomized block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of: 1 thiamethoxam 10GR applied on soil; 2 thiamethoxam 250WG sprayed weekly; 3 thiamethoxam 10GR applied on soil + thiamethoxam 250WG sprayed weekly; 4; 5; 6 thiamethoxam 250WG sprayed when 10, 20 and 30% of infested branches were reached, respectively; 7; 8; 9 thiamethoxam 10GR applied on soil + thiamethoxam

  11. Inhibitory action of antioxidants (ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol on seizures and brain damage induced by pilocarpine in rats Ação inibitória de antioxidantes (ácido ascórbico e α-tocoferol nas convulsões e dano cerebral em ratos induzidos pela pilocarpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana da Rocha Tomé

    2010-06-01

    destas drogas, o presente trabalho estudou os efeitos do ácido ascórbico (250 ou 500 mg/kg, i.p. e do α-tocoferol (200 ou 400 mg/kg, i.p. sobre o comportamento e as lesões cerebrais observados após convulsões induzidas pela pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400, em ratos. As injeções de ácido ascórbico ou α-tocoferol antes da administração de pilocarpina reduzem o número de animais que convulsionam. Estes achados sugerem que os radicais livres podem induzir o desenvolvimento de lesão cerebral durante as crises epilépticas. No modelo P400, o ácido ascórbico e o α-tocoferol, diminuem significativamente os danos cerebrais. Os compostos antioxidantes podem exercer efeitos neuroprotetores, e esses resultados podem estar associados à inibição da produção de radicais livres. Estes resultados sugerem um promissor potencial terapêutico tanto para o ácido ascórbico quanto para o α-tocoferol no tratamento de doenças neurodegenerativas.

  12. Danos na produção da abobrinha de moita causados pelo Papaya ringspot virus type W e Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Damages in the zucchini squash production caused by Papaya ringspot virus type W e Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Juliani Zavaglia Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar, em condições de casa de vegetação e de campo, os danos causados pelo PRSV-W e ZYMV em abobrinha-de-moita (Cucurbita pepo cv. Caserta. As plantas em casa de vegetação foram inoculadas com os vírus individualmente e em mistura aos 12 e 22 dias após emergência (DAE e aos 5, 15 e 25 DAE no campo. Em casa de vegetação, as infecções com PRSV-W + ZYMV, PRSV-W e ZYMV, na primeira época de inoculação, ocasionaram reduções de área foliar de 39,6%, 36,8% e 12,1%, respectivamente. As massas fresca e seca também foram significativamente afetadas na primeira época de inoculação. No campo, as plantas com infecções individuais ou mistas dos potyvírus produziram frutos não comerciais em quantidades que variaram de 14 a 861 g/planta, dependendo da idade que foram inoculadas. As plantas tratadas com tampão fosfato aos 5, 15 e 25 DAE produziram em média 573 g, 937 g e 1172 g de frutos comerciais e 282 g, 221 g e 192 g de frutos não comerciais, respectivamente. A redução na massa fresca das plantas foi diretamente relacionada com a época de inoculação, com médias de 60,7% para aquelas inoculadas aos 5 DAE e de 22,7% para aquelas inoculadas aos 15 DAE. Na terceira época de inoculação não houve diferença significativa de massa fresca entre os tratamentos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage caused by PRSV-W and ZYMV on zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Caserta under greenhouse and field conditions. Plants were inoculated with the two viruses in singly and mixed inocula at 12 and 22 days after emergency (DAE for the test in the greenhouse, and at 5, 15 and 25 DAE in the field. Plants inoculated with PRSV-W + ZYMV, PRSV-W e ZYMV, at 12 DAE, under greenhouse conditions showed 39.6, 36.8 and 12.1% of reduction on leaf area, respectively, as compared to the control. Fresh and dry weight biomasses were also affected by virus infection at 12 DAE. In the field test, plants

  13. Un controesempio al Modus Ponens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vann McGee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La traduzione dell’articolo è stata resa possibile grazie al consenso dell’autore e del Journal of Philosophy. Riferimenti originali: Vann McGee (1985: “A Counterexample to Modus Ponens”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 82, No. 9 (Sep. 1985, pp. 462-47. [N.d.T.

  14. Der Nutzer als besserer Fachreferent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Scheuble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Am 9. Juli 2014 veranstaltete der VDB-Regionalverband Südwest in Kooperation mit der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek in Frankfurt am Main eine Fortbildungsveranstaltung zum Thema „Der Nutzer als besserer Fachreferent?”, die sich mit Formen von und Erfahrungen mit nutzergesteuerter Erwerbung (PDA in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken beschäftigte.

  15. Kringloop als basis van bedrijfsvoering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, van der A.

    2007-01-01

    Gerard Keurentjes bekijkt zijn bedrijf als kringloop waarin grond en koeien de spil zijn. Het gebruik van microbiotica in plaats van antibiotica past daarin perfect. Een microbioticum bestaat uit een mengsel van acht kruiden opgelost in alcohol. Onderzoek toont aan dat het de productie van witte blo

  16. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Jahre später auf einem Sechstel der ursprünglichen Siedlungsfläche wiedererrichtet und dann im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert / beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert endgültig aufgeben. Die Stadt lebt als Legende im Bewusstsein der katarischen Bevölkerung, doch der Name wird heute nicht mit der Stadtanlage sondern...

  17. MOOCs; vanwaar al die ophef?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderikx, Maartje; Kreijns, Karel

    2016-01-01

    MOOCs; vanwaar die ophef? Het nog maar zeer recente fenomeen MOOCs (massive open online courses) heeft zich in korte tijd al een onwrikbare positie weten in te nemen in het open online onderwijs. De hype rondom deze nieuwe manier van onderwijs geven bereikte zijn hoogtepunt in 2012, dat prompt werd

  18. First principles calculation of ac conductance for Al-BDT-Al and Al-Cn-Al systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ning Zhuang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We perform first-principles calculation to investigate the dynamic conductance of atomic wires of the benzenedithiol (BDT as well as carbon chains with different length in contact with two Al(100 electrodes (Al-Cn-Al. Our calculation is based on the combination of the non-equilibrium Green's function and the density functional theory. For ac conductance, there are two theories that ensures the current conservation: (1. the global formula which is a phenomenological theory that partitions the total displacement current into each leads so that the current is conserved.(2. the local formula which is a microscopic theory that includes Coulomb interaction explicitly so that the current is conserved automatically. In this work, we use the local formula to calculate the dynamic conductance, especially the emittance. We give a detailed comparison and analysis for the results obtained from two theories. Our numerical results show that the global formula overestimates the emittance by two orders of magnitude. We also obtain an inequality showing that the emittance from global formula is greater than that from local formula for real atomic structures. For Al-Cn-Al structures, the oscillatory behavior as the number of carbon chain N varies from even to odd remains unchanged when local formula is used. However, the prediction of local formula gives rise to opposite response when N is odd (inductive-like as compared with that of global formula. Therefore, one should use the local formula for an accurate description of ac transport in nanoscale structures. In addition, the ‘size effect’ of the ac emittance is analyzed and can be understood by the kinetic inductance. Since numerical calculation using the global formula can be performed in orbital space while the local formula can only be used in real space, our numerical results indicate that the calculation using the local formula is extremely computational demanding.

  19. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  20. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  1. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  2. ATSAR THARIQAH AL-QIRA'AH AL-MUTAKARRIRAH FI MAHARAH AL-KITABAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihlah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to reveal the students' writing skill, namely dictation (Imlâ’ and to analyze the use of the repeated reading technique in learning Qirâ'ah Jahriyyah, as well as to determine the effect of the use of al-Qirâ'ah al-Mutakarrirah technique on the students' skills in writing dictation. This method was used to improve students’ reading fluency at the beginners’ level, which was popularized by Samuel in 1979. This research used the experimental method through pretest and posttest control group design. The samples of the research were 44 students consisted of 22 students the experimental class and 22 students of the control class. The analysis of the data applied t-test. The results showed that the use of was significant on the students' writing skill in dictation. It was based on the tcount, 2.64, and ttable, 2.02, at the significance level of 5%. The al-Qirâ'ah al-Mutakarrirah technique was thus effectively used to develop the beginner-leveled students’ writing skill, especially dictation.

  3. Al-Ḥaqīqah al-Muwāfaqah li al-Sharī‘ah: al-Taṣāluḥ bayn al-Taṣawuf wa al-Sharī‘ah bi Nusantara fi al-Qarn al-Sādis ‘Ashr al-Mīlādī

    OpenAIRE

    Iin Suryaningsih

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the reinterpretation of waḥdat al-wujūd doctrine among Muslims of the archipelago, using the sharī‘ah approach in Sufism as suggested by Al-Būrhanpūrī (d.1620) in his work al-Haqīqah al-Muwāfaqah li al-Sharī‘ah. This work is one of the commentaries (sharḥ) from al-Tuḥfah al-Mursalah ila rūḥ al-Nabī SAW, that invited much debate among Muslims of the archipelago. Al-Būrhanpūrī’s detailed interpretation of waḥdat al-wujūd doctrine proved that the essence of the concep...

  4. Al-Anon and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, T L

    1989-01-01

    The history of Al-Anon and its current demographics are reviewed. In order to understand 12-step recovery and psychotherapy for family members of alcoholics, the concept of codependence is defined with a set of diagnostic criteria consistent with the DSM-III-R definition of personality traits and disorders. At the core of codependence are denial and an unrealistic relationship to willpower. The therapeutic implications of considering codependence as a personality disorder are explored, as are the characteristics that make codependence unique among personality disorders: the central role of denial and the existence of a self-help organization to facilitate recovery. The dynamics of working the 12 steps on codependent characteristics are outlined. A synergistic relationship between psychotherapy and the 12 steps is described. Special attention is given the emergence of Al-Anon adult children of alcoholic meetings, and the future of codependence is discussed.

  5. Relativity and Al^+ Optical Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chin-Wen; Hume, David B.; Wineland, David J.; Rosenband, Till

    2010-03-01

    We have constructed an optical clock based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al+ ion that has a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6x10-18. The frequency of the ^1S0^3P0 clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al^+ optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0x10-18. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8x10-15&-1/2circ;, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8x10-17, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock. By comparing the frequencies of the clocks, we have observed relativistic effects, such as time dilation due to velocities less than 10 m/s and the gravitational red shift from a 0.33 m height change of one of the clocks.

  6. Interaction graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    et al., 1994 [2]) and the Danos-Regnier interpretation of GoI operators as paths in proof nets (Asperti et al., 1994 [3], Danos and Regnier, 1995 [4]). We show how we can retrieve from this locative framework both a categorical semantics for Multiplicative Linear Logic (MLL) with distinct units...

  7. Wear behaviour of Al 261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mathan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al 2618 matrix material was mixed with the Silicon Nitride (Si3N4, Aluminium Nitride (AlN and Zirconium Boride (ZrB2 reinforced particles. AMC was synthesized successfully by the stir casting method with the various X-wt.% of reinforcements (X = 0,2,4,6,8. Tribological behaviour was studied in this composite with various temperature conditions. The working conditions were Temperature (°C, Load (N, Velocity (m/s and Sliding Distances (m. Before wear testing the mechanical behaviour has been analysed. EDAX was confirmed by the matrix material composition. The Al 2618 alloy and the reinforcement mixers were confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction analysis. Wear rate (mm3/m, Wear resistance (m/mm3, Specific Wear rate (m/Nm and Co-efficient of friction (μ were analysed with various conditions. The worn surfaces were analysed before and after wear testing by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Influence of process parameters and Percentage of contribution were analysed by Taguchi and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA methods. Genetic Algorithm (GA was adopted for optimizing the best and mean of the wear rate and to identify the exact influence of input parameters.

  8. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  9. Al Margen de las Cooperativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Estrada Julio

    1941-04-01

    Full Text Available El sistema Cooperativista, propiamente hablando, no viene a constituir una doctrina económica, es más bien una práctica, un modo de proceder en provecho de determinada agrupación de individuos que se asocian para defenderse de la usura del comercio y del intermediarismo parasitario. "El movimiento cooperativo es tan viejo como la revolución industrial, y ha crecido paralelamente a ella, podría decirse como una protesta en contra del sistema capitalista industrial. Generalmente se considera que tres principios fundamentales determinan su carácter distintivo. 1-Se esfuerza por dar "servido al costo" a sus miembros antes que beneficiarse del negocio con el público en general. El servicio de un grupo organizado se considera como un medio para obtener el máximum de eficacia con mínimo de desperdicio. 2-Insiste en que los beneficios pecuniarios se distribuyan al miembro como productor, después de deducir solamente el interés del capital al tipo que compite, y los salarios y jornales de los trabajadores. 3-Mantiene el control democrático del negocio por todos los participantes en él".

  10. Namadhij Min al-Fikr al-Mali fi al-Islam: Waraqah Ma’lumat Asasiyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Dasuki Kasabah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The renaissance of Islam in various countries has become new phenomenon in the global economy. At the same time it also become the challenge for the Western capitalism and Eastern socialism. This resurrection together with revised ideology and economic system is considered as the strategic solution. Frankly, Islam is the religion which has brought back the core of economy to its position proportionally. In order to get concrete and clear idea on Islamic economy, here the writer presents five books written by Muslim scholars, classic as well as contemporary. The first is Kitab al-Amwal written by Abu Ubaid bin Salam, according to Khalil Harras this book is considered as the best and the most comprehensive book of Islamic economy. The second is Kitab Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyyah written by Imam Mawardi. The third is Al-Fikr al-Mali written by Ibnu Khaldun, which has high scientific authority from other books, it is systematic as well as contextual. The fourth is al-Iradat al-‘Ammah li al-Daulah al-Islamiyyah fi Sadr al-Islam wa Tatbiqatuha al-Mu’asirah written by Monzer Kahf. The fifth is Al-Nafaqat al-‘Ammah fi Al-Islam: Dirasah Muqaranah written by Yusuf Ibrahim Yusuf. The first three authors are classics and the rest are contemporary.

  11. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The Monotheism and Jihad Group, aka The al-Zarqawi Network, aka al-Tawhid, aka Tanzim Qa`idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq,...

  12. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  13. Microstructure of interaction interface between Al-Si, Zn-Al alloys and Al2O3p/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志武; 闫久春; 吕世雄; 杨士勤

    2004-01-01

    Interaction behaviors between Al-Si, Zn-AI alloys and Al2O3p/6061AI composite at different heating temperatures were investigated. It is found that Al2O3p/6061Al composite can be wetted well by AlSi-1, AlSi-4 and Zn-Al alloys and an interaction layer forms between the alloy and composite during interaction. Little Al-Si alloys remain on the surface when they fully wet the composite and Si element in Al-Si alloy diffuses into composite entirely and assembles in the composite near the interface of Al-Si alloy/composite to form a Si-rich zone. The microstructure in interaction layer with Si penetration is still dense. Much more residual Zn-Al alloy exists on the surface of composite when it wets the composite, and porosities appear at the interface of Zn-Al alloy/composite. The penetration of elements Zn, Cu of Zn-Al alloy into composite leads to the generation of shrinkage cavities in the interaction layer and makes the microstructure of Al2 O3p/6061A1 composite loose.

  14. Investigations of Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismelseed, A. M.; Abdallah, S. B.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Widatallah, H. M.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A.; Ericsson, T.; Annersten, H.

    2016-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) have been performed on two meteorites named Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat after identifying their falling sites in the Western region of Sudan. These two meteorites are ordinary chondrites with similar mineralogy. XRD and EMPA show that the two specimens consist of primary olivine, ortho-pyroxene and later crystallising clino-pyroxene as reaction rims against plagioclase. Fe-metal phases are dominated by kamacite (≈6 wt.% Ni) and minor amounts of tetrataenite (≈52 wt.% Ni). Troilite (FeS) and alabandite (MnS) are optically observed as sulphide phases. The Mössbauer measurements at 295 and 78 K are in agreement with the above characterizations, showing at least two paramagnetic doublets which are assigned to olivine and pyroxene and magnetic sextets assigned to kamacite (hyperfine field ≈33.5 T) and troilite FeS (hyperfine field ≈31 T).

  15. Electrical conductivity of (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3-Al2O3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of contents of AlF3 and Al2O3,and temperature on electrical conductivity of (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3-Al2O3 were studied by continuously varying cell constant (CVCC) technique.The results show that the conductivities of melts increase with the increase of temperature,but by different extents.Every increasing 10 ℃ results in an increase of 1.85×10-2,1.86×10-2,1.89×10-2 and 2.20×10-2 S/cm in conductivity for the (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3 melts containing 0%,20%,24%,and 30% AlF3,respectively.An increase of every 10 ℃ in temperature results an increase about 1.89×10-2,1.94×10-2,1.95×10-2,1.99×10-2 and 2.10×10-2 S/cm for (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3-Al2O3 melts containing 0%,1%,2%,3% and 4% A12O3,respectively.The activation energy of conductance was calculated based on Arrhenius equation.Every increasing 1% of AlF3 results in a decrease of 0.019 and 0.020 S/cm in conductivity for (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AIF3 melts at 900 and 1 000 ℃,respectively.Every increase of 1% Al2O3 results in a decrease of 0.07 S/cm in conductivity for (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3-Al2O3 melts.The activation energy of conductance increases with the increase in content of AlF3 and Al2O3.

  16. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  17. Kurzwortbildungen als Merkmal der Deutschenrechtssprache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Kordić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In deutscher Rechtssprache kommen häufig die Nominalkomposita vor, die auf eineim Vergleich mit der Gemeinsprache ungewöhnliche Weise gebildet werden. Diese Wortbildungsform wird in deutschen Grammatiken unterschiedlich bestimmt: als Reduktion, Kurzwortbildung, Kontraktion bzw. Klammerform. Dieser Wortbildungstypkann mit dem Kompositum Mietblock illustriert werden, das durch Verkürzung aus Miet(wohnungsblock entstanden ist. Im Kroatischen, wo Komposition als Wortbildungstyp relativ schwach vertreten ist, ist die Bildung solcher Komposita theoretisch nur angedeutet. Da die Komposita dieses Bildungstyps in deutschen Rechtstexten stark vertreten sind, ist das Ziel dieses Beitrags, auf ihre Gebräuchlichkeit als ein für deutsche Rechtstexte charakteristisches Merkmal hinzuweisen. In der Einleitung befasstsich die Autorin mit der Begriffsbestimmung, der theoretischen Determinierung undder Abgrenzung dieser Kompositionsart von anderen Sonderfällen. Den Hauptteil der Arbeit bildet die Untersuchung der Kurzwortbildungen (Klammerformen, Reduktionen, Verschmelzungen, die dem geltenden deutschen Strafgesetzbuch von 2009 entnommensind, und ihrer kroatischen Entsprechungen. Der Beitrag hat die Aufgabe, auf Grund der gesammelten Belege die Häufigkeit und die Bildungsmuster der Komposita dieses Typs in deutscher Rechtssprache zu bestimmen und durch semantische Transformationsmuster ihren Informationswert in Bezug auf die Konstituenten festzustellen, aus denen sie gebildet wurden. Es wird auch untersucht, welche Bildungstypen ihrekroatischen Äquivalente aufweisen und ob es irgendwelche Unterschiede in ihrem informativen Wert gibt. Die Autorin bedient sich der Methode der Datensammlung, der qualitativen semantischen Analyse der Belege nach den Transformationsmodellen von Fleischer und Barz und der Synthese der Resultate. Die Resultate dieser Untersuchung sollten einen Beitrag zur Erforschung der der Rechtslinguistik im allgemeinen leisten, inbesondere im

  18. Reply to Pachai et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited by the spacing between objects. When asked to report a target's identity, observers make erroneous reports that sometimes match the identity of a nearby distractor and sometimes match a combination of target and distractor features. The classification of these errors has previously been used to support competing 'substitution' [1] or 'averaging' [2] models of the phenomenon known as 'visual crowding'. We recently proposed a single model in which both classes of error occur because observers make their reports by sampling from a biologically-plausible population of weighted responses within a region of space around the target [3]. It is critical to note that there is no probabilistic substitution or averaging process in our model; instead, we argue that neither substitution nor averaging occur, but that these are misclassifications of the distribution of reports that emerge when a population response distribution is sampled. This is a fundamentally different way of thinking about crowding, and on this basis we claim to have provided a mechanism unifying categorically distinct perceptual errors. Our goal was not to model all crowding phenomena, such as the release from crowding when target and flanks differ in color or depth [4]. Pachai et al.[5] have suggested that our model is not unifying because it inaccurately predicts perceptual performance for a particular stimulus. Although we agree that our model does not predict their data, this specific demonstration overlooks the critical aspect of the model: perceptual reports are drawn from a weighted population code. We show that Pachai et al.'s [5] own data actually provide evidence for the population code we have described [3], and we suggest a biologically-plausible analysis of their stimuli that provides a computational basis for their 'grouping' account of crowding.

  19. A melancolia em Al Berto

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Emanuele Martins de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva estudar, sob a perspectiva da melancolia, os livros Salsugem (1984) e Horto de Incêndio (1997), de Al Berto. O autor português produz escritos em que a temática da melancolia atravessa a palavra, o que justifica o debruçar-se sobre as construções textuais da poética albertiana, a fim de traçar-lhe novas possibilidades de leitura por esse ângulo. Para isso, com o intuito de compreender o discurso melancólico segue-se o embasamento teórico: de Klibansky, Panosfsky e Saxl ...

  20. Alí Caro, alarife

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Quizá el más sobresaliente sea el de Alí Caro, un alarife que a finales del siglo xv proyectó y dirigió la construcción del castillo de Coca, la obra más insigne de la arquitectura militar mudéjar del siglo xv castellano. Efectivamente, encontramos que hacia 1486 fue reclamado por don Alonso FonsecaAvellaneda, señor de las villas de Coca y Alaejos, para levantar un impresionante castillo -que, a la vez, cumpliría las funciones de palacio nobiliar- en Coca, con la ayuda de sus hermanos Yuc;...

  1. La heredad junto al llanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arias Ramírez

    1962-11-01

    Full Text Available En "La heredad junto al llanto", Carlos Palacio La verde canta todo lo elemental y simple con sobriedad y elegancia que dan mérito a su poesía. Por eso consideramos un acierto de sus editores el divulgar la obra de este joven poeta, que como dice en su introducción René Uribe Ferrer, no es conocido porque ha rehuido casi sistemáticamente la publicidad, lo cual me asegura que en este proceder hay una grande honestidad intelectual, una verdadera personalidad poética.

  2. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    OpenAIRE

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO; SUSANA COLLADO; NIEVES ROJO

    2005-01-01

    Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975), NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988) y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984), con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test), según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998) en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y ...

  3. Gettysburg: Monumento al mundo libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available En el verano del año 1958 fui invitado, por las autoridades de la Universidad de Arizona, en Tucson, a la colocación de la primera piedra de su futuro taller, construido para favorecer el desarrollo técnico del Estado. Varios alcaldes y ministros presenciaron la ceremonia, que fue muy interesante, y uno de los periodistas presentes, John Riddick, del "Tucson Daily Citizen", invitó cordialmente, a mi esposa y a mí, a atravesar, al día siguiente, la frontera mejicana, que cruzaba un vasto desierto.

  4. Al-Ḥaqīqah al-Muwāfaqah li al-Sharī‘ah: al-Taṣāluḥ bayn al-Taṣawuf wa al-Sharī‘ah bi Nusantara fi al-Qarn al-Sādis ‘Ashr al-Mīlādī

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Suryaningsih

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the reinterpretation of waḥdat al-wujūd doctrine among Muslims of the archipelago, using the sharī‘ah approach in Sufism as suggested by Al-Būrhanpūrī (d.1620 in his work al-Haqīqah al-Muwāfaqah li al-Sharī‘ah. This work is one of the commentaries (sharḥ from al-Tuḥfah al-Mursalah ila rūḥ al-Nabī SAW, that invited much debate among Muslims of the archipelago. Al-Būrhanpūrī’s detailed interpretation of waḥdat al-wujūd doctrine proved that the essence of the concept did not contradict the basic principles of Islam as contained in the Quran and Hadith. Al-Būrhanpūrī  interpreted the concept through explanations that adjusted to the audience’s competence, utilizing oral language carefully in revealing spiritual experience not easily explained, as well as employing the bases of sharī‘ah. Al-Haqīqah al-Muwāfaqah has provided the information about the explanations of interpretation tradition among the archipelago sufis.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i1.350 

  5. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan

  6. Ti_3AlC_2-Al_2O_3-TiAl_3 composite fabricated by reactive melt infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan-shan; YIN Xiao-wei; ZHANG Li-tong; LI Xiang-ming; CHENG Lai-fei

    2009-01-01

    Porous preforms were fabricated by cold-pressing process using powder mixture of TiC, TiO_2 and dextrin. After pyrolysis and sintering, Al melt was infiltrated into the porous preforms, leading to the formation of Ti_3AlC_2-Al_2O_3-TiAl_3 composite. Effects of cold-pressing pressure of preforms on microstructures and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. Synthesis mechanism and toughening mechanism of composite were also analyzed. The results shows that TiO_2 is reduced into Ti_2O_3 by carbon, the decomposition product of dextrin, which causes the spontaneous infiltration of Al melt into TiC/Ti_2O_3 preform. Then, Ti_3AlC_2-Al_2O_3-TiAl_3 composite is in-situ formed from the simultaneous reaction of Al melt with TiC and Ti_2O_3. With the increase of cold-pressing pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, the pore size distribution of the preforms becomes increasingly uniform after pre-sintering, which results in the reduction of defects, and the decrease of property discrepancy of composites. Nano-laminated Ti_3AlC_2 grains and Al_2O_3 particles make the fracture toughness of TiAl_3 increase remarkably by various toughening mechanisms including stress-induced microcrack, crack deflection and crack bridging.

  7. Ce对Al-Si-Cu合金中α(Al)-Al2Cu共晶形貌的影响%Effect of Ce on morphology ofα(Al)-Al2Cu eutectic in Al-Si-Cu alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maja VONINA; Joef MEDVED; Tonica BONINA; Franc ZUPANI

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Ce addition on the morphology of the α(Al)-Al2Cu eutectic in Al-Si-Cu alloy was investigated using thermal analysis, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam and energy dispersive analysis. The results show that the eutectic α(Al)-Al2Cu forms within small space between dendrites, silicon and AlSiFeMn plates. Eutectic Al2Cu is not lamellar but degenerated. However, Al2Cu in Ce-modified alloys is more compact. Ce partially dissolves in Al2Cu, which is a viable reason for the formation of coarser Al2Cu. The addition of Ce also increases the microhardness of theα(Al)-Al2Cu eutectic by almost 10%compared with the basic Al-Si-Cu alloy.%采用热分析、光学显微镜技术、扫描电镜技术、聚焦离子束和能量色散谱分析方法研究Ce对Al-Si-Cu合金中α(Al)-Al2Cu共晶形貌的影响。结果表明,在枝晶、硅和AlSiFeMn之间较小空间内形成了α(Al)-Al2Cu共晶。Al2Cu为非层状的不规则共晶组织。Al2Cu在经Ce改性的合金中更加致密。部分Ce溶解于Al2Cu中,这是粗晶Al2Cu形成的原因。与基体Al-Si-Cu合金相比,Ce的加入能使α(Al)-Al2Cu共晶合金的显微硬度提高约10%。

  8. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  9. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis; Mejoramiento genetico de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, M

    1992-02-15

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  10. Everyday Life with ALS: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wheelchair plus its user, and more. Van shoppers can buy from a mobility dealer or directly ... Life with ALS: A Practical Guide 65 Connect Online with the ALS Community! MDA’s free online community — ...

  11. Formaline of alternatieven als ontsmettingsmiddel voor broedeieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerhof, R.; Dijk, D.

    1997-01-01

    Formaline wordt algemeen gezien als een goed middel om broedeieren te ontsmetten. Toch geeft ontsmetting met middelen als ozon en waterstofperoxyde vaak een iets beter broedresultaat. Een eventuele verklaring hiervoor is momenteel nog niet te geven.

  12. Daño genético y exposición a plaguicidas en trabajadores agrícolas del Valle de San Quintín, Baja California, México Genetic damage and exposure to pesticides among agricultural workers from Valle de San Quintín, Baja California, México Danos genéticos e exposição a pesticidas em trabalhadores agrícolas do Vale San Quintin, Baixa California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Claudia Leyva Aguilera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes estudios muestran la capacidad de los plaguicidas para inducir daño genético (DG con diversos efectos en la salud. En el presente trabajo se estudia la genotoxicidad en residentes del valle agrícola de San Quintín, Baja California, México (VSQ. El objetivo fue determinar si la exposición laboral y ambiental a plaguicidas en la región del VSQ es un factor de DG y explorar si las mujeres son más vulnerables a dicho efecto. Se aplicó un cuestionario a 88 residentes del VSQ para determinar los factores de inclusión y exclusión del estudio, 40 aceptaron participar, 25 expuestos ocupacionalmente a plaguicidas y 15 ambientalmente expuestos, con similar número de hombres y mujeres. Todos los participantes firmaron un consentimiento informado. Se utilizó la técnica de micronúcleos (MN por bloqueo de la citocinesis en sangre periférica para evaluar el DG con la frecuencia de MN y Puentes de Cromatina en 1000 células binucleadas (CBN; se exploró la correlación del DG con el tiempo de exposición ocupacional a plaguicidas. Los hombres ambientalmente expuestos tuvieron menos DG que las mujeres con medias de MN de 8,1 (±1,83 y 13,1 (±1,7 respectivamente; en cambio, la exposición laboral afectó a los dos sexos: los hombres tuvieron una media de MN igual a 15,9 (±2,9 y en las mujeres fue 18,1 (±1,7. Se concluye que la exposición laboral a plaguicidas es un factor de DG, las mujeres mostraron mayor vulnerabilidad al DG. El tiempo de exposición laboral se relaciona directamente con el aumento del número de MN.Various studies have shown the ability of pesticides to induce genetic damage (GD that can cause health effects. In the present work, a genotoxicological study was conducted monitoring residents from the agricultural region of the San Quintin Valley (SQV, Baja California, Mexico. The objective was to determine if occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides in the region of the SQV is a factor in GD, and to

  13. Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the Jardas Al Abid area, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, northeast Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdulsamad, Esam O.

    2016-09-01

    The Upper Cenomanian-Turonian succession exposed at Jardas al'Abid area consists mainly of carbonates with siliciclastic intercalations. This succession is subdivided lithostratigraphically into: Qasr al'Abid (Late Cenomanian) and Al Baniyah (Late Cenomanian-Coniacian) formations. This sequence is relatively rich in macrofossil assemblages especially bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids with rare ammonites. Based on the first occurrence (FO) and last occurrence (LO) of some index species of these macrofossil groups, an integrated biostratigraphic framework has been constructed. The studied Cenomanian-Turonian sequence is subdivided biostratigraphically into three ammonite biozones; Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides Total Range Zone, Choffaticeras segne Total Range Zone, and Coilopoceras requienianum Total Range Zone. Based on the rest of macrofossil assemblages other than the ammonites, eight biozones were recognized; Mecaster batnensis Total Range Zone, Ceratostreon flabellatum-Neithea dutrugei Acme Zone, Costagyra olisiponensis Acme Zone, Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesicularis vesiculosa Acme Zone, Mytiloides labiatus Total Range Zone = Mecaster turonensis Acme Zone, Rachiosoma rectilineatum-Curvostrea rouvillei-Tylostoma (T.) globosum Assemblage Zone, Radiolites sp.-Apricardia? matheroni Total Range Zone, and Nerinea requieniana Total Range Zone. Most of the proposed biozones are recorded for the first time from Libya. The integration among these biozones as well as local and inter-regional correlation of the biozones have been discussed. The stage boundaries of the studied stratigraphic intervals are discussed, where the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary is delineated at the last occurrence (LO) of Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat), while the Turonian/Coniacian boundary is delineated arbitrary being agree with the LO of the Turonian fauna.

  14. Grainreifnementlimit of commercialpureAl inoculatedbyAl-Ti-C(B)masteralloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhao Wang; Xiang-fa Liu

    2015-01-01

    The grain reifnement limits of commercial pure Al inoculated by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys were studied, and the inlfuence of melting temperature on the grain reifning performance of these three master al oys was investigated using a high scope video microscope (HSVM), a ifeld-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X–ray diffraction (XRD) method. Results show that there is a grain reifnement limit of commercial pure Al reifned by these three master al oys; with the same addition level of 1.5% under the present experimental conditions, the grain reifnement limits (smal est average grain size) of commercial pure Al reifned by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys are 50 µm, 80 µm and 80 µm, respectively. In addition, with an increase in the melting temperature of the pure Al, the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-1B and Al-5Ti-0.25C master al oys decreases, but the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B changes little.

  15. Framework Al zoning in zeolite ECR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jiho; Ahn, Nak Ho; Cho, Sung June; Ren, Limin; Xiao, Feng-Shou; Hong, Suk Bong

    2014-02-25

    Rietveld analyses of the synchrotron X-ray diffraction data for various cation forms of zeolite ECR-1 have demonstrated framework Al zoning, which parallels the alternation of Al-rich maz and Al-poor mor layers. This can be further supported by notable differences in the average bond valence of its 10 crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites.

  16. Electroplating Zn-Al Alloy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The method of controlling separating anode and separating power source was used to perform orthogonal optimization for the parameters in electroplating Zn-Al alloy.The electroplating Zn-Al alloy technology was decided, in which the content of Al is about 12%-15%.

  17. Transport Properties of the Tunnel Junctions Al1-xCox/{Al1-xCox-oxide}/Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.F.Han; J. Murai; H.Kubota; Y.Ando; Q.Y.Wang; N.Tezuka; T.Miyazaki

    2000-01-01

    The oxides of Al1-xCox (x=0,0.25,0.5,0.75, and 1.0) alloys were chosen as barrier materials in this work. The tunnel junction consists of the bottom electrode Al1-xCox and the top electrode Al with an insulating layer { Al1-xCox-oxide} which was formed by natural oxidation in a baking-box at 333K. The oxidation time for forming an Al1-xCox-oxide layer on the surface of the bottom Al1-xCox layers were optimized.The resistance of Al1-xCox/{ Al1-xCox-oxide}/Al tunnel junctions varied between 101 and 106 Ω measured at 1 my and 4.2 K. The effective barrier height and width of insulating layers Al1-xCox-oxide ( x=0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 )varied between 0.6 and 2.7 eV and between 1.3 and 2.1 nm. It is shown that the thin oxide layer of Al1-xCox alloys can be chosen as barrier materials.

  18. Oxidation protection of NiCoCrAlY coatings on γ-TiAl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-min; GUO Ming-hu; KE Pei-ling; GONG Jun; SUN Chao; WEN Li-shi

    2005-01-01

    The effect of NiCoCrAlY overlay coatings on the oxidation resistance of γ-TiAl was studied at 900 ℃ in static air. To hinder the interdiffusion of the elements, the Al/Al2O3 layer was added between the coating and the alloy. The results show that the TiAl alloy exhibits poor oxidation resistance. NiCoCrAlY coating can not effectively protect the γ-TiAl substrate from high temperature oxidation because of the serious interdiffusion between the coating and the substrates. With Al/Al2O3 diffusion barrier, the NiCoCrAlY coating exhibits excellent oxidation protection on γ-TiAl alloy.

  19. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  20. Entscheidung als Häresie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Sooväli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Man könnte sagen, dass Aristoteles so etwas wie eine traditionelle und dominierende Auffassung der Entscheidung in der westlichen Philosophie gründet. Das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes ist es, diese Auffassung von Aristoteles zu entwerfen, einige ihrer wichtigsten Probleme anzusprechen, und sie damit zu kontrastieren, was ich Jacques Derridas häretische „Konzeptualisierung“ der Entscheidung nennen würde. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese häretische Thematisierung von Derrida nicht nur und einfach mit dem traditionellen aristotelischen Begriff bricht, sondern vielmehr auch zu Recht einige seiner wichtigsten Züge auf solcher Weise schärft, dass von diesem radikalisierten Standpunkt die Behandlung von Aristoteles als die Annullierung der Entscheidung zum Vorschein kommt. Es wird zudem impliziert, wie Derridas häretische Auffassung die Erneuerung der Ethik und Politik mit sich bringt.

  1. Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

    Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

  2. Friction Stir Welding of Al 5052 with Al 6061 Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Kumbhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW, a solid-state joining technique, is being extensively used in similar as well as dissimilar joining of Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, and their alloys. In the present study, friction stir welding of two aluminium alloys—AA6061 and AA5052—was carried out at various combinations of tool rotation speeds and tool traverse speeds. The transverse cross-section of the weld was used for optical as well as electron microscopy observations. The microstructural studies were used to get an indication of the extent of material mixing both at the macro- and microscales. It was observed that, at the interface region, both materials exhibited similar texture despite the nonrigorous mixing of the materials in the nugget. The extent of interdiffusion of alloying elements at the interface was studied using electron probe microanalysis. The tensile testing evaluation of these specimens showed good mechanical properties. The interdiffusion of alloying elements and development of similar orientations in the nugget could have contributed to the better tensile properties of the friction-stir-welded AA5052-AA6061 specimens.

  3. Al-Fe-Si、Al-Mn-Si与Al-Fe-Mn-Si体系热力学描述的更新%Update of Al-Fe-Si, Al-Mn-Si and Al-Fe-Mn-Si thermodynamic descriptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海林; 陈清; 杜勇; Johan BRATBERG; Anders ENGSTR(O)M

    2014-01-01

    采用Calphad方法对Al-Fe-Mn-Si四元系及其子体系进行热力学评估.首先,通过考虑文献中最新的实验研究结果以及对部分三元化合物应用新的热力学模型,修正Al-Fe-Si三系的热力学描述,显著地改善了整个成分范围内、尤其是富Al角的液相面投影图.随后,对三元化合物α-AlMnSi和β-AlMnSi采用新的模型,精修Al-Mn-Si体系富Al角的热力学描述.然后,通过模拟α-AlMnSi相在Al-Fe-Mn-Si体系中的固溶度,优化Al-Fe-Mn-Si四元系富Al角的热力学描述.在优化时,对α-AlMnSi作特殊考虑并加入限制条件,以确保其不会在Al-Fe-Si三元系中变得稳定.最后,将所获得的热力学描述加入TCAL数据库,通过一系列的相平衡计算与凝固模拟、以及与商业铝合金的实验数据的比较,对所获得的热力学描述进行全面的验证.更新后的TCAL数据库能够可靠地预测Al-Fe-Si基与Al-Fe-Mn-Si基合金中的相形成.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Flexible Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural brittleness of oxide ceramics heavily inhibits their more extensive applications. In present research, a highly flexible Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 hybrid composite was fabricated by employing plasma electrolysis oxidation to in situ grow alumina layers on Al foil, in which an outside layer of nanostructured polycrystalline oxide ceramic was composed of nanosized grains with the size of around 17 nm. Due to shear band formation, nanosized circle bubbles prolonging the crack path, grain rotation, and deformation, the fabricated Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 hybrid composite contains no observable cracks even after being bent on a cylindrical bar with a curvature of 1.5 mm. The composite exhibits alumina stiffness at the elastic stage and aluminum ductility during plastic deformation, which provides high flexibility with the well-integrated properties of the components. In a synergistic interaction, the alumina on the outside exhibited a strain of 0.33% at room temperature, which was higher than optimum value of 0.25% presented by reported most flexible oxide ceramics. With the unique characteristics and properties, the Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 composite demonstrates a great potential for various engineering applications.

  5. Cryptanalysis of Lin et al.'s Efficient Block-Cipher-Based Hash Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bozhong; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Weidong; Zheng, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hash functions are widely used in authentication. In this paper, the security of Lin et al.'s efficient block-cipher-based hash function is reviewed. By using Joux's multicollisions and Kelsey et al.'s expandable message techniques, we find the scheme is vulnerable to collision, preimage and second

  6. Magnetism of Al-substituted magnetite reduced from Al-hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum-substituted magnetite (Al-magnetite) reduced from Al-substituted hematite or goethite (Al-hematite or Al-goethite) is an environmentally important constituent of magnetically enhanced soils. In order to characterize the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite, two series of Al-magnetite samples were synthesized through reduction of Al-hematite by a mixed gas (80% CO2 and 20% CO) at 395°C for 72 h in a quartz tube furnace. Al-magnetite samples inherited the morphology of their parent Al-hematite samples, but only those transformed from Al-hematite synthesized at low temperature possessed surficial micropores, which originated from the release of structural water during heating. Surface micropores could thus serve as a practical fingerprint of fire or other high-temperature mineralogical alteration processes in natural environments, e.g., shear friction in seismic zones. In addition, Al substitution greatly affects the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite. For example, coercivity (Bc) increases with increasing Al content and then decreases slightly, while the saturation magnetization (Ms), Curie temperature (Tc), and Verwey transition temperature (Tv) all decrease with increasing Al content due to crystal defect formation and dilution of magnetic ions caused by Al incorporation. Moreover, different trends in the correlation between Tc and Bc can be used to discriminate titanomagnetite from Al-magnetite, which is likely to be important in environmental and paleomagnetic studies, particularly in soil.

  7. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION AND THERMAL STABILITY IN Cu-Al-Co AND Cu-Al-Zr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Q. Ma; C.B. Jiang; H.B. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys were explored with Co or Zr additions in Cu-Al alloys for high temperature shape memory alloys. Samples were quenched after homogenized at 850℃ for 48h. It was found that both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr show AlCu3 martensitic phase at room temperature and exhibit martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 200℃, showing the potentials for developing as high temperature shape memory alloys. Thermal cycles were performed by DSC instrument on both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys. The results show that Cu-Al-Co loses its martensitic transformation after five thermal cycles, and Cu-Al-Zr exhibits no martensitic transformation in the second thermal cycle.

  8. STUDY ON THE THERMODYNAMICS OF CuO/Al IN SITU Al2O3 REINFORCED Al MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Ma; Y.Hao; S.Z.Kou; X.N.Lu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the experiment and the thermodynamics analysis for CuO/Al system, it is founded that the compounding reaction of CuO/Al under low temperature is available. The general equation of adiabatic temperature of the system is set up, and the influence of resultant concentration and temperature on adiabatic temperature is theoretically analyzed. The values of heat effect of CuO/Al system under different temperature are also caculated.

  9. Entrevista al narrador Tommaso Pincio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Zangrilli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El autor Tommaso Pincio, seudónimo di Marco Colapietro (Roma, 1963, es sin lugar a dudas uno de los narradores de mayor proyección en el panorama literario de los últimos tiempos. Iniciada su carrera en 1999 con M., ha publicado títulos como Lo spazio sfinito (2000 y Un amore dell'altro mondo (2002, en el que narra la vida de Kurt Cobain, líder del grupo Nirvana, a través de la visión de un amigo imaginario. A estas dos novelas siguieron La ragazza che non era lei (2005, Gli alieni (2006 o Cinacittà. Memorie del mio delitto efferato (2008, ambientada en una Roma colonizada por los chinos y abandonada por los mismos romanos a causa de problemas medioambientales. Títulos como L'hotel a zero stelle (2011, un ensayo autobiográfico en el que plantea diálogos ficticios con algunos de los grandes nombres de la literatura o la más reciente Panorama (2015, le han hecho valerse un hueco provilegiado entre los nuevos narradores surgidos en estas primeras décadas de siglo. Justamente la publicación de esta última novela, Panorama, ha servido de excusa al profesor Franco Zangrilli, gran conocedor de su obra, a plantearle algunas preguntas sobre temas clave de su producción.

  10. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  11. Derecho civil : aproximaciones al derecho de personas

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Las universidades de hoy, siguiendo las últimas tendencias de docencia universitaria que proponen minimizar la participación del profesor en la tarea del aprendizaje, han trasladado al estudiante al esfuerzo de apropiarse de la información necesaria para el conocimiento de las ciencias; Sin embargo, los libros y documentos que se entregan al estudiante para que se empape de los conceptos fundamentales siguen siendo textos fríos y desapacibles cuya utilidad estaba ligada a las explicaciones pr...

  12. Fabrication of AlN-TiC/Al composites by gas injection processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huashun; CHEN Hongmei; MA Rendian; MIN Guanghui

    2006-01-01

    The fabrication of AlN-TiC/Al composites by carbon-and nitrogen-containing gas injection into Al-Mg-Ti melts was studied. It was shown that AlN and TiC particles could be formed by the in situ reaction of mixture gas (N2+C2H2+NH3) with Al-Mg-Ti melts. The condition for the formation of AlN was that the treatment temperature must be higher than 1373 K, and the amounts of AlN and TiC increased with the increase of the treatment temperature and the gas injection time.It was considered that AlN was formed by the direct reaction of Al with nitrogen-containing gas at the interface of the gas bubble and the melt. However, the mechanism of TiC formation is a combination mechanism of solution-precipitation and solid-liquid reaction.

  13. Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tijun; Li Jian; Hao Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The Al3li intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100℃ were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in flaky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure AI, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of Si on the Al3Ti morphology seemed to be greater than that of Cu. The distributions of the Al3Ti platelets were different in the different matrix composites, leading to different grain refining effects. Except for the sub-wear regime of adhesive wear, the plastic deformation induced wear was a dominant wear mechanism for all of the composites at room temperature and 100℃. Increasing the testing temperature, decreasing the Al3Ti content or the hardness of materials could enhance these two wear mechanisms, and thus increase the wear rate. The Al-Cu matrix composite had the best wear resistance, while the pure Al matrix composite showed the worst for the same Ti content. These differences or changes were attributed to the differences in materials' hardness or the strengthening effects of the Al3Ti platelets.

  14. First-principles study of the Al(001)-Al3Nb(001) interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanhong; Xu, Rui

    2017-03-01

    The adhesion, interfacial energy and bonding on fcc-Al(001)/D022-Al3Nb(001) interface were investigated using density functional calculations. Considering different terminations of Al3Nb(001) (Al+Nb-terminated and Al-terminated) and stacking sites (top-, bridge- and center-sites), six Al(001)/Al3Nb(001) models were calculated. For the models with same stacking site, Al+Nb-terminated model has larger work of adhesion (Wad) than the Al-terminated one. For the models with same termination, the work of adhesion increases, and the interface energy decreases as the order of center-sited, bridge-sited and top-sited. Al+Nb-terminated-center-sited and Al-terminated-center-sited models are more stable among six models. The interfacial bonding was discussed with analysis of valence electron density distribution and partial density of states (PDOS). The bonding is mainly contributed from Al-Nb covalent bonds and Al-Al metallic interactions.

  15. Electrodeposition of Al from a 1-butylpyrrolidine-AlCl3 ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar Pulletikurthi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 1-butylpyrrolidine to AlCl3 results in the formation of an electrolyte that is suited to Al deposition. The feasibility of electrodepositing Al from the synthesized electrolyte was investigated. Several compositions of AlCl3 and 1-butylpyrrolidine were prepared for this purpose. These mixtures show a different phase behavior at various compositions of AlCl3 and 1-butylpyrrolidine. IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy were employed to characterize the synthesized liquids. Among the prepared compositions, 1:1.2 mol ratio of 1-butylpyrrolidine:AlCl3 and the upper phase of 1:1.3 mol ratio of 1-butylpyrrolidine:AlCl3 were found to be suitable for Al electrodeposition at room temperature (RT. Uniform and thick (~µm thick layers of Al were obtained on copper at RT. Al deposition occured from the cationic species of AlCl3−xLy+ (where x≤2, y=1–2, and L=1-butylpyrrolidine in this electrolyte. This behavior is contrary to the well investigated classic AlCl3 based ionic liquids, where the deposition of Al occurs mainly from anionic Al2Cl7− ions.

  16. Groente- en fruitafvallen als veevoer : inventarisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.

    1982-01-01

    Een onderzoek wat betreft hoeveelheden, bewaring, samenstelling, verteerbaarheid en eventueel aanwezige ongewenste stoffen van de bij- en afvalprodukten van groenten en fruit als veevoer voor herkauwers

  17. Effect of Excess Al in TiO2-Al Powder Mixture and Susceptor Material on Microwave Synthesis of TiAl/Al2O3 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Radmehr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, TiAl/Al2O3 composite was synthesized from mechanically activated TiO2-Al powder mixtures using microwave heating.The initial powder mixtures were mechanically activated and pressed into cylindrical tablets and then heated in a microwave oven. The effect of different amounts of excess Al and microwave susceptor material (SiC or graphite on the ignition time and the resultant reaction products were evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis were used for characterization of the synthesized samples. XRD patterns revealed that when there was no excess Al in the initial powder mixture, the main resulting intermetallic phase would be Ti3Al with negligible amounts of TiAl, while with 10 wt% excess Al, TiAl phase could be formed in the composite product.The results also showed that microwave synthesis took place faster and more reproducible when samples were packed in the graphite powder than when placed between two SiC blocks.

  18. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  19. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  20. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-12

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  1. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  2. Respuesta inmune adaptativa al rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Franco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El rotavirus (RV es un importante patógeno humano y el estudio de la respuesta inmune específica de éste en humanos, es un buen modelo para caracterizar la respuesta inmune de la mucosa intestinal (1. Nuestros estudios han tenido como objetivo la caracterización fenotípica y funcional de las células T y B específicas de RV con énfasis importante en la expresión de marcadores de migración intestinal. Estas células son estudiadas en muestras de sangre periférica de niños y adultos recientemente infectados con RV. Los análisis se hicieron por citometría de flujo y ELISPOT. Estudio de células T: los adultos sanos presentan bajas frecuencias circulantes tanto de LT CD4+, como de LT CD8+ específicos de RV que secretan INF_ .

    Significativamente mayores porcentajes de éstas células se detectaron en adultos sintomáticos infectados por RV. Sin embargo, las frecuencias de LT específicos de RV en todos los grupos de estudio fueron muy bajas comparadas con las observadas para otros patógenos.

    Sorprendentemente, en niños sintomáticos infectados por RV se detectaron bajas frecuencias de LT CD8+ circulantes específicos de RV secretando INF-g y muy pocos o ningún LT CD4+ secretando INF-g o LT CD4+ y CD8+ al secretar IL-13 o IL4 (2,3. Esto sugiere que el RV es un inductor relativamente pobre de células T de memoria secretando estas citoquinas. Los LT circulantes CD4+ , INF-g.+ específicos de RV presentes en adultos

  3. Influence of AlN thickness on AlGaN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasakthi, M.; Juillaguet, S.; Peyre, H.; Konczewicz, L.; Baskar, K.; Contreras, S.

    2016-10-01

    AlGaN/AlN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The AlN buffer thickness was varied from 400 nm to 800 nm. The AlGaN layer thickness was 1000 nm. The crystalline quality, thickness and composition of AlGaN were determined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The threading dislocation density (TDD) was found to decrease with increase of AlN layer thickness. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was used to estimate the strain and relaxation between AlGaN and AlN. The optical properties of AlGaN layers were investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL intensities of AlGaN layers increases with increasing the AlN thickness. The surface morphology of AlGaN was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be decreased while increase of AlN thickness.

  4. Kus on al-Zarqawi? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia nädalalehe Sunday Times andmetel on Iraagi tagaotsituim mässaja, terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda liitlane Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi pärast USA raketirünnakus haavatasaamist riigist põgenenud

  5. Al-Farabi dan Filsafat Kenabian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qosim Nursheha Dzulhadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mengulas pemikiran al-Farabi tentang konsep kenabian dalam Islam. Masalah berawal dari adanya pemikiran yang menolak konsep kenabian pada umumnya dan kenabian Nabi Muhammad SAW khususnya. Sebagaimana yang dilontarkan oleh Muhammad Ahmad ibn al-Ruwandi. Ia mengatakan bahwa nabi sebenarnya tidak diperlukan manusia karena Tuhan telah mengaruniakan akal kepada manusia tanpa terkecuali. Dengan akal ini, manusia dapat mengetahui Tuhan beserta segala nikmat Nya dan dapat pula mengetahui perbuatan baik dan buruk, menerima suruhan dan larangan-Nya. Dengan demikian, nabi dengan segala fungsinya tidak diperlukan lagi. Bahkan, kitab suci pun tidak berguna untuk dibaca. Lebih berguna membaca buku filsafat Epicurus, Plato, Aristoteles, dan buku astronomi, logika, serta obat-obatan. Hal ini tentunya bertolak belakang dengan yang diajarkan dalam Islam. Beriman kepada nabi nabi merupakan hal inti dalam ajaran agama ini. Atas dasar itu al-Farabi bereaksi keras. Baginya, pandangan Ibn al-Ruwandi di atas tidak dapat dibenarkan, khususnya dari sisi akidah Islam. Sebagai al-Mu‘allim al-Tsani (Guru Kedua, karena prestasinya dalam menjelaskan dan mengulas-ulang filsafat Aristoteles, al-Farabi mengkritik secara sistematik pandangan menyimpang al-Ruwandi di atas.

  6. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  7. The role of inclusions in ALS pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. van Dis (Vera)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that primarily afflicts motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within 3 to 5 years after diagnosis. Genetic studies have uncovered multiple genetic defects causing familial forms of ALS and mutations oc

  8. Ceramic foams for Al-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luyten, J.; Vandermeulen, W.; Schutter, F. de [VITO, Materials Technology, Mol (Belgium); Simensen, C. [Sintef, Materials Technology, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys Aluminium, Lichtervelde (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The recycling of Al scrap requires an efficient purification step. In this investigation a filter technique is used to remove intermetallic compounds containing Fe, Mn and Si out of the molten Al. The paper describes the synthesis of the filters, the construction of the filter installation, and the results of the different filter tests. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Konsepsi Ibnu Jarir Al-Tabari Tentang Al-Qur’an, Tafsir Dan Ta’wil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Ismatulloh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the concept of Ibnu Jarir al-Tabari about al-Qur’an, tafsir and ta’wil. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari is an outstanding expert in the classic Islamic tradition. His knowledge in hadits, fiqh, lughah, history, and tafseer is unquestionable. This study uses an analytical descriptive design. The findings show that: Firstly, in defining al-Qur’an, al-Tabari focused on the al-Qur’an as an Arabic language text, not in other language. Secondly, al-Qur’an is written in sab’ah ahruf. It means that there are 7 different kinds of language with the same meaning. Thirdly, al-Qur’an comes from seven heaven’s door. Fourthly, there is no different word between tafseer and ta’wil. They have same meaning. These concepts are different to other concepts proposed by other ulama.

  10. Kinetic Monte Carlo of transport processes in Al/AlOx/Au-layers: Impact of defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Weiler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin films of alumina were investigated by a compact kMC-model. Experimental jV-curves from Al/AlOx/Au-junctions with plasma- and thermal-grown AlOx were fitted by simulated ones. We found dominant defects at 2.3-2.5 eV below CBM for AlOx with an effective mass mox∗=0.35 m0 and a barrier EB,Al/AlOx≈2.8 eV in agreement with literature. The parameterization is extended to varying defect levels, defect densities, injection barriers, effective masses and the thickness of AlOx. Thus, dominant charge transport processes and implications on the relevance of defects are derived and AlOx parameters are specified which are detrimental for the operation of devices.

  11. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016, 3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or...

  12. Effect of Al coating conditions on laser weldability of Al coated steel sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Han LEE; Jong-Do KIM; Jin-Seok OH; Seo-Jeong PARK

    2009-01-01

    Al coated steel sheets with excellent heat resistance, thermal reflection, and corrosion resistance are widely used in various applications. The laser weldability of the Al coated steel sheet for full penetration welding was reported. The phenomenon caused by intermixed aluminum and behavior of aluminum in the weld were investigated. Al coated steel sheets that have various thickness and coating mass were prepared for laser welding. The effects of parameters such as welding conditions and Al coating conditions were investigated. Al content mixed in the weld after laser welding was evaluated, and then a correlation between the mixed Al and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the Al-rich zones which have Fe-Al intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. The intermetallic compounds cause the decreased strength of the weld.

  13. Wallada Bint al Mustakfi entre dos culturas

    OpenAIRE

    shreen Mahmoud Al Refai

    2013-01-01

    La princesa cordobesa Wallada Bint al Mustakfi bil-lah, hija del califa al Mustakfi Muhammad Ibn Abdel Rahman Ibn Obaidil-lah Ibn Al Nasir lidin Al-lah era una poetisa estimable, a quien los grandes poetas no podían superar. Era una mujer única, guapa y decente. Mantenía una relación sentimental con el  poeta y visir Ibn Zaydún. Dicha pasión, narrada por los poemas escritos por ambos amantes, se terminó por la separación debida a los celos, también de ambos;  al poeta le gustó la voz de una e...

  14. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...... curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity...

  15. The neuropathology of FTD associated With ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Ian R A

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of a clinical overlap between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent advances in our understanding of the neuropathologic, biochemical, and genetic basis of these conditions provides evidence for a common underlying pathogenesis. The neuropathology in most cases of FTD with ALS is a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, characterized by neuronal inclusions that are immunoreactive for ubiquitin but not tau (frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions). These cases show significant pathologic overlap with clinically pure FTD and those with classic ALS. Moreover, the ubiquitinated pathologic protein in all these conditions has recently been identified as TDP-43. A number of families have been reported with autosomal dominant FTD-ALS linked to chromosome 9p and these also have TDP-43-positive frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions pathology. Together, these findings suggest that FTD-ALS is part of a clinicopathologic spectrum of disease, now identified as TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  16. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  17. Stabilization of itinerant (band) magnetism in FeAl by Ga substitution for Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.; Mazin, I. I.; Hathaway, K. B.

    2001-06-01

    Band structure calculations of FeGa{sub 1{minus}x}Al{sub x} have been performed, to further investigate the stability of ferromagnetism in FeAl. The Stoner parameter increases by about 20% at the FeGa end. This is also confirmed by our spin-polarized calculations. We conclude that Ga substitution for Al is likely to stabilize the elusive (or illusive) ferromagnetic state in FeAl. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. XAFS Study of the Al K-Edge in NaAlH4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balde, C.P.; Mijovilovich, A.E.; Koningsberger, D.C.; van der Eerden, A.M.J.; Smith, A.D.; de Jong, K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Al K-edge (1561.1 eV) XANES and EXAFS spectra of unoxidized NaAlH4, a hydrogen storage material, have been recorded in He atmosphere in a special in situ low-energy cell. The XANES spectrum of NaAlH4 is reported and compared to that of oxidized NaAlH4, thus illustrating the power of XANES spectrosco

  19. Memes als moderne Bildungsmedien: Humor als Medium pädagogischer Interaktion zur Wissenskonstruktion im Physikunterricht

    OpenAIRE

    Prescher, Thomas; Thees, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Memes stellen ein modernes Bildmedium dar. Im Beitrag wird die Frage verfolgt, ob Memes mit ihrem inhärenten Humor innerhalb des Unterrichts auch als Bildungsmedium dienen und didaktisch genutzt werden können. Dazu wird Humor als generalisiertes Kommunikationsmedium pädagogischer Interaktion beschrieben, um Memes als moderne Bildmedien - in ihrer Wirkung als humorvolle Form der affektiven und kognitiven Inkongruenzstiftung - zur Entwicklung von Fachkonzepten im Physikunterricht fassen zu könn...

  20. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  1. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, D.; Heilmaier, M.; Saage, H.; Aguilar, J.; Schmitz, G. J.; Drevermann, A.; Palm, M.; Stein, F.; Engberding, N.; Kelm, K.; Irsen, S.

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich γ-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al60Ti40 and Al62Ti38 was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al5Ti3 and h-Al2Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar γ-TiAl + r-Al2Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al60Ti40, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al62Ti38 alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al60Ti40 alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al62Ti38 material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in γ-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  2. Dakwah Kultural Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Kayu Khas Melayu Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pahlevi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berusaha mengungkap berbagai fenomena yang menggambarkan serangkaian kegiatan dakwah kultural Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang. Sehingga dapat diperoleh sejumlah informasi mengenai berbagai upaya penerapan program yang dimaksud. Penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan, pertama kontribusi Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang terhadap perkembangan metode dakwah kultural adalah dakwah melalui seni. Kedua, Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang sebagai tempat Wisata Religi yang sangat signifikan.   This research tries to reveal the various phenomenon that describe a series of cultural propaganda activities Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang. In order to obtain some informations about the efforts of the implementation of the program in question. It can be concluded, the first contribution of Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang on the development of methods of cultural propaganda is propaganda through art. Second Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang as a very significant Religious Tourism.

  3. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients.

  4. WAHDAT AL WUJUD DALAM PEMIKIRAN IBNU ARABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Halim Rofi'ie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ibnu Arabi, the Grand Master of Islam, is a great thinker whose controversial thought, wahdat al-wujud, has significantly influenced the mystiques of Islam. The meaning of wahdat al-wujud is basically two folds, i.e. that Being is the only One which exists and that the universe is merely a manifestation of the One. The One Being here refers to Allah SWT. The One covers up all the existing phenomena and functions as a resource which emanates the entire universe. In this context, He is referred to as al-Haqiqat al-Muhammadiyah. He might also be viewed as both the Universal Soul for His being the source of cosmos that governs the universe and the Universal Body for His reflecting any actions on every single micro existence that forms the universe. Furthermore, when His existence is deemed as a jauhar (jewel that face-up any occurrences, He is typically known as al-haba’. The concept of wahdat al-wujud can actually be simplified into the principle of laa maujuda illa wujud al-wahid (no existence except the Existing One, the Being. The One might reveal His own existence into different martabat or levels: Martabat Ahadiyah, Martabat Wahidiyah, and Martabat Tajalli Syuhudi. Those standing points trigger Ibnu Arabi to believe that any kinds of realities or existences are nothing but a true reflection of the One.

  5. Thermal diffusion in Ni/Al multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Two Ni/Al multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/Al(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/Al(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.

  6. Juan Goytisolo en al aule de ELE

    OpenAIRE

    Zubia Fernandez, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Al integrar en el aula de ELE artículos periodísticos sobre un determinado escritor como una práctica de expresión oral y escrita, se aproxima al alumno principiante de ELE al universo literario del autor escogido con el propósito de entrelazar la enseñanza de la lengua y la de la(s) literatura(s) en lengua española. Con este enfoque se estimula la capacidad lectora del alumno en la lengua meta ya que los textos periodísticos constituyen modelos ejemplares para este propósito d...

  7. Characterization of different-Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Al x Ga 1-x N/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with Al composition ranging from x = 0.13 to 0.36 are grown on sapphire substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The effects of Al content on crystal quality, surface morphology, optical and electrical characteristics of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been analyzed. Although high Al-content (36%) heterostructure exhibits a distinguished photoluminescence peak related to recombination between the two-dimensional electron gas and photoexcited holes (2DEG-h), its crystal quality and rough surface morphology are poor. 2DEG mobility increases with the Al content up to 26% and then it apparently decreases for high Al-content (36%) AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. The increase of sheet carrier density with the increase of Al content has been observed. A high mobility at room temperature of 2105 cm 2 /V s with a sheet carrier density of n s = 1.10 × 10 13 cm -2 , for a 26% Al-content AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been obtained, which is approaching state-of-the-art for HEMT grown on SiC. Sheet resistance as low as 274 Ω/□ has also been achieved.

  8. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  9. InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, S. O.; Sakharov, A. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Lundin, V. W.; Zavarin, E. E.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The results of development of InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on them are presented. The dependencies of the InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure properties on epitaxial growth conditions were investigated. The optimal indium content and InAlN barrier layer thicknesses of the heterostructures for HEMT s were determined. The possibility to improve the characteristics of HEMTs by in-situ passivation by Si3N4 thin protective layer deposited in the same epitaxial process was demonstrated. The InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on sapphire substrate with diameter of 100 mm were obtained with sufficiently uniform distribution of sheet resistance. The HEMTs with saturation current of 1600 mA/mm and transconductance of 230 mS/mm are demonstrated.

  10. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Al2O3/Al Laminated Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Kangming; LI Weixin; XIE Binhuan; RAO Pinggen; PENG Cheng; CHEN Dabo; WU Jianqing

    2011-01-01

    Three series of Al2O3/Al laminated ceramic matrix composites,named SPA,SPV and HP,were fabricated by different methods.SPA and SPV were prepared using Al2O3 slices and Al slurry via screen printing and subsequent heat treatment in air or vacuum.HP samples were made by hot pressing the layered stack of Al foils and Al2O3 slices.SEM and XRD were applied to analyze the microstructure and the interlayer crystal phase.The bending strength,fracture toughness and fracture work of the samples made by the three methods were measured and compared.The results show that the composites have much better toughness and higher fracture work than the Al2O3 slice.Among the samples made by the three methods,the samples made by hot pressing have the optimum mechanical performance.The displacement-load curves and fracture mechanism were analyzed.

  11. The Y-Ag-Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumenyuk, T.M.; Kuz' ma, Yu.B.; Stel' makhovych, B.M. [L' vov State Univ. (Ukraine). Dept. of Anal. Chem.

    2000-03-14

    The interaction between the components in the Y-Ag-Al system at 870 K has been studied using X-ray analysis. The phase diagram in the region up to 50 at.% of yttrium has been constructed. The limits of the solid solution regions of the binary compounds and the homogeneity ranges of the ternary ones have been determined. The crystal structures of the ternary aluminides Y{sub 3}Ag{sub 2}Al{sub 7} (Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}Al--type structure, space group R anti 3m, a=0.55422(2), c=2.6259(1) nm) and YAg{sub 0.6}Al{sub 1.4} (KHg{sub 2}-type structure, space group Imma, a=0.45399(2), b=0.71551(3), c=0.78712(4) nm) have been studied for the first time. (orig.)

  12. Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fon Abi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993, 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ∞3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al atoms and vice versa. The Ca atoms are located in the large channels of the structure.

  13. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mobile; Pike. Contiguous Counties: Alabama:...

  14. Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161094.html Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival With ALS Tobacco use ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may speed progression of Lou Gehrig's disease and ...

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Al-Salt Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-11-01

    With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-Al was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic Al content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic Al particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped Al in the salt cake.

  16. Are RENiAl hydrides metallic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, Karl; Havela, Ladislav; Prokleska, Jan; Stelmakhovych, Olha; Danis, Stanislav [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Santava, Eva [Inst. of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Miliyanchuk, Khrystyna [Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine)

    2009-09-15

    Due to hydrogenation, the crystal structure of GdNiAl distorts from hexagonal to orthorhombic. The magnetic ordering temperature decreases dramatically and the magnetic entropy of this phase transition is in good agreement with theory. LuNiAl does not change its structure type, but it was found that the electronic contribution to specific heat decreases dramatically. None of the two phases loses its metallic character. (orig.)

  17. L’impegno al tempo della globalizzazione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchini, Leonardo

    al dibattito sui rapporti (di reciproca esclusione? complementarità?) tra postmoderno e impegno e sul carattere di quest’ultimo oggi (politico? sociale? etico? ecologico? altro?). Prendendo le mosse dalle discussioni suscitate dalla presa di posizione teorica dei Wu Ming, nel mio intervento vorrei...... Romanistica», 8/2011, pgg. 129-143. Wu Ming, New Italian Epic. Letteratura, sguardo oblique, ritorno al futuro, Torino, Einaudi, 2009....

  18. Del latín al rumano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Giraldo José Joaquín

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Marius Sala, Del latín al rumano. Versión española de Valeria Neagu, París, Unión Latina - Bucarest, Univers enciclopedic, 2002. El texto se dirige al lector corriente, no especialista, y por eso el aparato técnico-bibliográfico no se presenta en el curso de la exposición.

  19. Hypermetabolism as a Risk Factor for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    hypermetabolism related to loss of TDP-43, an essential RNA binding protein implicated in ALS and Frontotemporal dementia ( FTD ), may contribute to disease...with Paget’s disease of bone and FTD (IBMPFD), it will also be interesting to test whether hypermetabolism may also be a risk factor in these...mouse strain confers leanness and protects from diet-induced obesity. Nat Genet 40(11):1354-1359, 2008. 3. Stone S, et al: TBC1D1 is a candidate

  20. Line shape diagnostics of Galactic 26Al

    CERN Document Server

    Kretschmer, K; Hartmann, D H

    2003-01-01

    The shape of the gamma-ray line from radioactive 26Al, at 1808.7 keV energy in the frame of the decaying isotope, is determined by its kinematics when it decays, typically 10^6 y after its ejection into the interstellar medium from its nucleosynthesis source. Three measurements of the line width exist: HEAO-C's 1982 value of (0+3) keV FWHM, the GRIS 1996 value of (5.4 +/- 1.3) keV FWHM, and the recent RHESSI value of (2.0 +/- 0.8) keV FWHM, suggesting either "cold", "hot", or "warm" 26Al in the ISM. We model the line width as expected from Galactic rotation, expanding supernova ejecta, and/or Wolf-Rayet winds, and predict a value below 1 keV (FWHM) with plausible assumptions about 26Al initial velocities and expansion history. Even though the recent RHESSI measurement reduces the need to explain a broad line corresponding to 540 km/s mean 26Al velocity through extreme assumptions about grain transport of 26Al or huge interstellar cavities, our results suggest that standard 26Al ejection models produce a line ...

  1. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-Al

  2. Corrosion behavior of solid solution (Ti,Al)N as a function of Al concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larijani, M.M.; Seyedi, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manouchehrian, M. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yari, M. [Engineering Department Materials, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, a series of (Ti, Al) N coatings with different Al contents were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrates by Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) method. The coatings were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates at 400 C. The coatings were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microhardness test. The XRD confirmed the transition from TiN phase to (Ti, Al) N phase and then to AlN phase with increasing Al concentration in the solid solution. It was found that with increasing Al concentration the hardness of the coatings initially increased up to a maximum value of about 30 GPa at around 32 at.% of Al and then the coating hardness decreased rapidly with further increase of Al content (Al > 32 at.%). The potentiodynamic polarization analysis was carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions to study the corrosion resistance of the coatings. From the corrosion test it can be inferred that the amount of Al atoms in the coatings plays an important role for reducing the corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Thermodynamics and surface properties of liquid Al-Ga and Al-Ge alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anusionwu, B.C. [Abdus Salam Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Owerri (Nigeria); Adebayo, G.A. [Abdus Salam Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Abeokuta (Nigeria); Madu, C.A. [Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    The surface properties of Al-Ga and Al-Ge liquid alloys have been theoretically investigated at a temperature of 1100 K and 1220 K respectively. For the Al-Ga system, the quasi chemical model for regular alloy and a model for phase segregating alloy systems were applied, while for the Al-Ge system the quasi chemical model for regular and compound forming binary alloys were applied. In the case of Al-Ga, the models for the regular alloys and that for the phase segregating alloys produced the same value of order energy and same values of thermodynamic and surface properties, while for the Al-Ge system, the model for the regular alloy reproduced better the thermodynamic properties of the alloy. The model for the compound forming systems showed a qualitative trend with the measured values of the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Ge alloy and suggests the presence of a weak complex of the form Al{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}. The surface concentrations for the alloys show that Ga manifests some level of surface segregation in Al-Ga liquid alloy while the surface concentration of Ge in Al-Ge liquid alloy showed a near Roultian behavior below 0.8 atomic fraction of Ge. (orig.)

  4. Thermodynamics and surface properties of liquid Al-Ga and Al-Ge alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusionwu, B. C.; Adebayo, G. A.; Madu, C. A.

    2009-11-01

    The surface properties of Al-Ga and Al-Ge liquid alloys have been theoretically investigated at a temperature of 1100 K and 1220 K respectively. For the Al-Ga system, the quasi chemical model for regular alloy and a model for phase segregating alloy systems were applied, while for the Al-Ge system the quasi chemical model for regular and compound forming binary alloys were applied. In the case of Al-Ga, the models for the regular alloys and that for the phase segregating alloys produced the same value of order energy and same values of thermodynamic and surface properties, while for the Al-Ge system, the model for the regular alloy reproduced better the thermodynamic properties of the alloy. The model for the compound forming systems showed a qualitative trend with the measured values of the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Ge alloy and suggests the presence of a weak complex of the form Al2Ge3. The surface concentrations for the alloys show that Ga manifests some level of surface segregation in Al-Ga liquid alloy while the surface concentration of Ge in Al-Ge liquid alloy showed a near Roultian behavior below 0.8 atomic fraction of Ge.

  5. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  6. Al4C3 Hydration Thermochemical Analysis for Burned Carbon-containing Refractories with Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YU Zhiming; FAN Liuwu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, X-ray diffractogram analysis and SEM observation of Al4 C3 formed at high temperature from carbon-containing refractories with Al have been carried out.Aluminum added to carbon-containing refractories reacts with C(s)to form Al4 C3(s) gradually during heating from 600 ℃ to 1200℃.It is considered that the interlocked structure of Al4 C3 plate crystals promotes the outstanding increase of hot modulus of rupture of carbon-containing refractories with Al. The HMOR of carbon-containing refractories added with Al additive from 0 to 5wt% increases by 2.8 times being from 6.5MPa to 18.2MPa.After a thermochemical calculation for hydration reaction processes of Al4 C3 and H2O(g), the equilibrium partial pressure chart of H2O(g)in H2O-Al4C3-Al(OH)3 system vs various temperatures has been attained . The H2O (g) partial pressure in the air needed for the Al4 C3 hydration reaction is no more than 10~18 atm at the temperature below 120℃.It is considered that the burned carbon-containing refractories with Al is extremely easy to hydrate and the cracking of burned carbon-containing refractories is generated because that the hydration expansion is 2.11 times during transforming from Al4 C3 to Al(OH)3.The fundamental measure against hydration of the refractories is to insulate the refractories from H2O(g)by various means such as pitch impregnation or other sealing materials.

  7. Cd, Cr AND Al DETERMINATION IN FISH TISSUE FROM GELADO RIVER/APA, CARAJÁS-PA FOREST = DETERMINAÇÃO DE Cd, Cr E Al EM TECIDO DE PEIXES PROVENIENTES DO RIO GELADO/APA, FLORESTA DE CARAJÁS-PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Cássio Veloso Barros

    2010-01-01

    um grande risco à saúde pública. Os elementos Al e Cr apresentaram excelentes correlações na espécie piranha. As análises estatísticas demonstram a influência da ação antrópica na região, levando a necessidade de futuros estudos para a verificação da dinâmica de correlação com outros elementos traços. As análises mostram que os elementos estão sendo absorvidos pelos peixes, e que os níveis de concentração de alguns elementos podem causar danos à saúde da população consumidora destas espécies.

  8. Prinsip Pendidikan Karakter dalam Islam: Studi Komparasi Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Burhanuddin Al-Zarnuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impelemtantion of character education that is done by the Indonesian government recently has been provoked by al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji long ago. It was proven by some written thoughts of al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They were very famous scientists in their era and widely welknown as educational experts who produced some phenomenal thoughts many people use today. Al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji lived in the era of Bani Abbasiyah monarchy, but Both of them lived in different era. Al-Ghazali was born first, then Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They had different mazhab, al-Ghazali went to the traditional principle of mazhab Syafi’I and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji went to the modern principle of mazhab Hanafi. The differences, of course, would create a different thought. Still, they might have a similar principle of Islamic character education. The thoughts of character education of al-Ghazali have been poured in the “Ayyuha Walad” focusing to the students’ character building characterized by religiously obedient, skillfull of general and religious knowledge, socially helpful, affectionate, generous, good citizen, and coloring the society. Some applicable thoughts of character education of Ayyuha al-Walad of al-Gazhali to the contemporary education are: the balance of the happiness purposes of the recent life and the life after death, qana’ah and tawakal, affectionate, caring other, patience, honesty, philanthrophy, social works, generousity, democratic, peace makers, and patriotic. Those characters are also directed in the islamic character education nowdays. So that, the thoughts of al-Ghazali positively and responsively are absorbed by the Indonesian government to build the national character widely implementing in the national curriculum based on the local wisdom and the Islamic values. In the end, the students are able to live happily based on the Islamic rules by implementing the good behavior. Similar to the al

  9. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  10. Mechanochemical Synthesis and Rapid Consolidation of Nanocrystalline 3NiAl-Al2O3 Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jin Shon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanopowders of 3NiAl and Al2O3 were synthesized from 3NiO and 5Al powders by high-energy ball milling. Nanocrystalline Al2O3 reinforced composite was consolidated by high-frequency induction-heated sintering within 3 minutes from mechanochemically synthesized powders of Al2O3 and 3NiAl. The advantage of this process is that it allows very quick densification to near theoretical density and inhibition grain growth. Nanocrystalline materials have received much attention as advanced engineering materials with improved physical and mechanical properties. The relative density of the composite was 97%. The average Vickers hardness and fracture toughness values obtained were 804 kg/mm2 and 7.5 MPa⋅m1/2, respectively.

  11. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  12. Comparison of Al electromigration in conventional Al alloy and W-plug contacts to silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, A. S.; Martin, E. P.; Alugbin, D.; Nkansah, F.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the impact of the presence of a W plug on electromigration-induced voiding of the Al alloy layer of contacts to silicon. By comparing conventional Al alloy and W-plug contacts we show that the presence of the plug does not significantly improve the intrinsic susceptibility of contacts to Al voiding despite the elimination of the Al step coverage problem. Both the conventional Al alloy and W-plug contacts degrade by drift of the Al layer with a velocity that is not influenced by the contact structure. The sheet resistance of the underlayer material of multilayer conductors plays an important role in influencing failure times since it determines the rate of resistance increase due to electromigration.

  13. Kinetic Monte Carlo of transport processes in Al/AlOx/Au-layers: Impact of defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Benedikt; Haeberle, Tobias; Gagliardi, Alessio; Lugli, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Ultrathin films of alumina were investigated by a compact kMC-model. Experimental jV-curves from Al/AlOx/Au-junctions with plasma- and thermal-grown AlOx were fitted by simulated ones. We found dominant defects at 2.3-2.5 eV below CBM for AlOx with an effective mass mox ∗= 0.35 m0 and a barrier EB ,A l /A l O x≈2.8 eV in agreement with literature. The parameterization is extended to varying defect levels, defect densities, injection barriers, effective masses and the thickness of AlOx. Thus, dominant charge transport processes and implications on the relevance of defects are derived and AlOx parameters are specified which are detrimental for the operation of devices.

  14. Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  15. Superconductivity in Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palnichenko, A.V., E-mail: paln@issp.ac.ru; Vyaselev, O.M.; Mazilkin, A.A.; Khasanov, S.S.

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface was formed by surface oxidation of Al foil. • Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistance of the interface was studied. • Superconductivity at ∼ 65 K of the Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface was observed. • The superconducting interface is instable under normal conditions. - Abstract: Metastable superconductivity at T{sub c} ≈ 65 K has been observed in Al foil subjected to special oxidation process, according to the ac magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistance measurements. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed during the oxidation process between metallic aluminum and its oxide.

  16. Protective Al2O3 scale formation on NbAl3-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doychak, J.; Hebsur, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of NbAl3 with additions of Cr and Y was studied to determine the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of these elements upon oxidation. Cr additions to the binary NbAl3 alloy of up to 6.8 at. percent reduced the scale growth rates and promoted alpha-Al2O3 formation over much longer times relative to binary NbAl3. A major effect of Cr is to form a layer of AlNbCr at the metal/scale interface, which is inherently more oxidation-resistant than the matrix alloy in the long term. Yttrium additions to a Cr-containing alloy improved the scale growth rate and adherence and changed the scale microstructure to mimic that of a typical protective Al2O3 scale.

  17. {sup 27}Al NMR studies of NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudo, H., E-mail: chudo.hiroyuki@jaea.go.j [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Haga, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Matsuda, T.D. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuoka, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    We present {sup 27}Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}(T{sub c}=4.9K). We have observed a five-line {sup 27}Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below T{sub c}. The temperature dependence of the {sup 27}Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below T{sub c}, indicating that NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2} is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd{sub 5}Al{sub 2}.

  18. Preparation of TiAl3-Al composite coating by cold spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Li; KONG Ling-yan; XIONG Tian-ying; DU Hao; LI Tie-fan

    2009-01-01

    TiAl3-Al coating was deposited on orthorhombic Ti2AlNb alloy substrate by cold spraying with the mixture of pure Al and Ti as the feedstock powder at a fixed molar ratio of 3-1 when the spraying distance, gas temperature and gas pressure for the process were 10 mm, 250 ℃ and 1.8 MPa, respectively. The as-sprayed coating was then subjected to heat treatment at 630 ℃ in argon atmosphere for 5 h at a heating rate of 3 ℃/min and an argon gas flow rate of 40 mL/min. The obtained TiAl3-Al composite coating is about 212 μm with a density of 3.16 g/cm3 and a porosity of 14.69% in general. The microhardness and bonding strength for the composite coating are HV525 and 27.12 MPa.

  19. TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillotel, E; Langlois, C; Ghiglieno, F; Leo, G; Ricolleau, C, E-mail: cyril.langlois@univ-paris-diderot.f [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, CNRS-UMR 7162 Universite Paris Diderot - Paris 7 Case courrier 7021, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-09-29

    The internal interfaces of multilayer Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides are investigated by high-angle annular-dark-field and energy-filtered scanning transmission electron microscopy, before and after partial wet oxidation of AlAs layers. Via a simple phenomenological model, the corresponding roughness parameters allow prediction of the scattering-induced waveguide optical losses, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 cm{sup -1}. We also find that Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As layers adjacent to oxidized AlAs tend to be oxidized through the interfaces, even for low Al fraction, with typical oxidation depths of 9 nm for x = 0.7 and 2 nm for x = 0.

  20. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Ping; LUO Yin-Hong; WANG Wei; ZHANG Ke-Ying; GUO Hong-Xia; GUO Xiao-Qiang; WANG Yuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established.The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically,and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out.The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated,and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained.

  1. Determination of Al Composition in Strained AlGaN Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Sheng-Qiang; WU Ming-Fang; YAO Shu-De

    2005-01-01

    @@ Alx Ga1-x N/GaN heterostructures are grown on c-sapphire with the Al composition x from 0.2 to 0.4 and thicknesses from 20nm to 30nm. The lattice parameters a and c are determined from 2θ/ω scan. The AlGaN layers are found to be under tensile strain by using x-ray diffraction. Vegard's law induces a large deviation in Al composition determination by only considering the linear relationship between one lattice parameter (a or c) and Al composition. The accurate determination of Al composition is only possible with consideration of both the lattice parameters a and c, by assuming the tetragonal distortion in the AlGaN layer. Additionally, the results obtained from x-ray diffraction are verified by Rutherford backscattering.

  2. Cryptanalysis of Xinyu et al.'s NTRU-Lattice Based Key Exchange Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Valluri, Maheswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Xinyu et al. proposed a public key exchange protocol, which is based on the NTRU-lattice based cryptography. In this paper, we show how Xinyu et al.'s NTRU-KE: A lattice based key exchange protocol can be broken, under the assumption that a man-in-the middle attack is used for extracting private keys of users who participate in the key exchange protocol.

  3. Modified Mechanism of Eutectic Silicon in Al2O3/Al-Si Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Al2O3/Al-Si alloy composite was manufactured by squeeze casting. The morphology of the eutectic silicon in the composite was observed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and the modified mechanism of eutectic silicon in the composite was approached. The alumina fiber in the composite can trigger twin during the growth of Al-Si eutectic and lead to the modification of eutectic silicon near the fiber.

  4. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  5. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  6. Compressive properties of a reaction milled NiAl-AlN composite

    OpenAIRE

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Arzt, Eduard; Luton, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Cryomilling (high intensity mechanical ball milling in a liquid nitrogen bath) of the B2 crystal structure nickel aluminide leads to a NiAl composite containing about 10 vol. % of AlN particles. This is the result of a reaction milling process, where nitrogen incorporated into the matrix during cryomilling reacts with Al during subsequent thermomechanical processing to form the composite. Compressive testing at 1300 K of such materials densified by 1505 K extrusion or isostatic pressing at 13...

  7. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Huan; Gao, Tong; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Wu, Yuying; Qian, Zhao; Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated.

  8. Microstructure and thermal stability of mechanically alloyed Al3Ti/Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建国; 魏浩岩; 黄正

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure stability of Al3Ti/Al alloy prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) was investigated in the simulating environment in which they may be used. The results show that the MA alloy possesses fine microstructure (the grain size is about 0.5  μm). After cycling loaded followed by heat exposure at 350  ℃ for 24  h, no microstructure coarsening of the alloy occurred, which means that the Al3Ti/Al alloy behaves good microstructure stability at high temperature. The compression yield strength of the alloy reaches up to 247  MPa at 350  ℃.

  9. Hydrolyzed Al(III) clusters: speciation stability of nano-Al13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Wang, Shuifeng; Huang, Chihpin; Chow, Christopher W K

    2011-01-01

    Pure nano-Al13 and aggregates at various concentrations were prepared to examine the particle size effect of coagulation with inorganic polymer flocculant. The property and stability of various species formed were characterized using Infrared, 27Al-NMR, photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and Ferron assay. Results showed that concentration and temperature exhibited different roles on the stability of Al13. The quantity of Alb species analyzed by ferron assay in the initial aging period corresponded well with that of Al13, which has been confirmed in a dimension range of 1-2 nm by PCS. Al13 solutions at high concentrations (0.5-2.11 mol/L) were observed to undergo further aggregation with aging. The aggregates with a wide particle size distribution would contribute to the disappeared/decreased Al13 basis on the 27Al-NMR spectrum, whereas a part of Al13 would still remain as Alb. At low concentrations, Al13 solution was quite stable at normal temperature, but lost its stability quickly when heating to 90 degrees C.

  10. Synthesis of core-shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  11. Hydrolyzed Al(Ⅲ) clusters: Speciation stability of nano-Al13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsheng Wang; Shuifeng Wang; Chihpin Huang; Christopher W K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Pure nano-Al13 and aggregates at various concentrations were prepared to examine the particle size effect of coagulation with inorganic polymer flocculant.The property and stability of various species formed were characterized using Infrared, 27Al-NMR,photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and Ferron assay.Results showed that concentration and temperature exhibited different roles on the stability of Al13.The quantity of Alb species analyzed by ferron assay in the initial aging period corresponded well with that of Al13, which has been confirmed in a dimension range of 1-2 nm by PCS.Al13 solutions at high concentrations (0.5-2.11 mol/L) were observed to undergo further aggregation with aging.The aggregates with a wide particle size distribution would contribute to the disappeared/decreased Al13 basis on the 27Al-NMR spectrum, whereas a part of Al13 would still remain as Alb.At low concentrations,Al13 solution was quite stable at normal temperature, but lost its stability quickly when heating to 90℃.

  12. CASTABILITY OF Al-Li-Mg AND Al-Li-Cu-Mg ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study the casting characteristics of various Al-Li alloys, which include fluidity and strengths of the alloys and their interaction with cast molds. Materials investigated are Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys with Li content of 2.5 wt%. The results show that sand molds with resin binders are good for Al-Li casting. Ceramic coatings can further reduce the metal-mold interactions. However, the permeability is also reduced by coating. The fluidity of Li-bea...

  13. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  14. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  15. Direct laser cooling Al+ ions optical clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Luo, J; Lu, Z H

    2016-01-01

    Al$^+$ ions optical clock is a very promising optical frequency standard candidate due to its extremely small blackbody radiation shift. It has been successfully demonstrated with indirect cooled, quantum-logic-based spectroscopy technique. Its accuracy is limited by second-order Doppler shift, and its stability is limited by the number of ions that can be probed in quantum logic processing. We propose a direct laser cooling scheme of Al$^+$ ions optical clocks where both the stability and accuracy of the clocks are greatly improved. In the proposed scheme, two Al$^+$ ions traps are utilized. The first trap is used to trap a large number of Al$^+$ ions to improve the stability of the clock laser, while the second trap is used to trap a single Al$^+$ ions to provide the ultimate accuracy. Both traps are cooled with a continuous wave 167 nm laser. The expected clock laser stability can reach $9.0\\times10^{-17}/\\sqrt{\\tau}$. For the second trap, in addition to 167 nm laser Doppler cooling, a second stage pulsed ...

  16. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung

  17. ‘Uluww al-Isnad dalam Periwayatan Hadis Abu Muhammad al-Husain bin Mas‘ud al-Baghawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romlah Abubakar Askar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abu Muhammad al-Husayn Ibnu Mas’ud al-Baghawi (450-516H was one of the leading scholars in Tafsir (Quran exegesis, hadith (prophetic tradition, and fiqh (Islamic legal jurisprudence in his era. He was categorized as muta’akhirūn (scholars who came later on and was instrumental in the development of these three disciplines. In the field of exegesis, he was among the scholars who used al-Ma’tsūr, (commentary stylist, relying on the verses of the Qur’an, hadith, and the statements from the followers of the tabi’īn (the followers of the followers. This can be found in his recorded work Ma’ālim al Tanzīl. In the field of hadith, he preserved the narration method and presenting a new approach by merging some patterns of hadith narration from several books of hadith in his work known as ṭarīqah al-Jam’u (combination [amalgamation] method. This pattern will not occur unless there is the existence of other transmission lines as a second chain of narration used to produce ‘uluww al-Isnād (the noble sanad or nuzūl al-Isnād (descent sanad. It is recorded in his works: al-Jam’u baina al-Ṣaḥīḥain, Sharḥ al-Sunnah and Maṣābiḥ al-Sunnah. In the field of Jurisprudence, he was amongst those mujtahidin from the Shafiee school of thought, recorded in his Majmū’ ‘al-Fatāwā, al-Kifāyah fī al-Furū’ and Kitāb al-Tahdzīb. This paper aims to examine one of al-Baghawi’s skills in sanad collection which is the uluww al-isnād and nuzūl al-isnād, recorded from his two works Ma’ālim al-Tanzīl and Syarḥ al-Sunnah. The quantitative, qualitative and comparative approach has been used in this study to give an authentic description of the terms ‘uluww al-isnād, nuzūl al-isnād from al-Baghawi. Studies have found there are many examples of uluww al-Isnād and nuzūl al-isnāds contained in the patterns of al-Baghawi’s chain of narration towards the Ṣaḥīḥayn of al-Bukhari and Muslim as the mustakhrij

  18. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  19. Analyse de Viaje al pasado: los aztecas

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Lucchinacci

    2005-01-01

    1. Présentation du logiciel Viaje al pasado: los aztecas (el perfecto simple y el imperfecto en la narración y la descripción) a été conçu par Annie Desnoyers, linguiste à l'université de Montréal et Matilde Asencio, enseignante au Cégep du Vieux Montréal (Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel []), pour un public d'étudiants d'Espagnol Langue Étrangère (ELE). Disponible en deux versions - en ligne et sous forme de cédérom -, il s'agit d'un exerciseur destiné à la pratique du passé e...

  20. Analyse de Viaje al pasado: los aztecas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Lucchinacci

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Présentation du logiciel Viaje al pasado: los aztecas (el perfecto simple y el imperfecto en la narración y la descripción a été conçu par Annie Desnoyers, linguiste à l'université de Montréal et Matilde Asencio, enseignante au Cégep du Vieux Montréal (Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel [], pour un public d'étudiants d'Espagnol Langue Étrangère (ELE. Disponible en deux versions - en ligne et sous forme de cédérom -, il s'agit d'un exerciseur destiné à la pratique du passé e...

  1. Thermal Properties of Al-50%Si Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Nishimoto; Katsuya Akamatsu; Kazuyoshi Nakao; Kazuo Ichii

    2004-01-01

    In order to prepare a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), Al-50was produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) and ingot metallurgy (I/M). P/M specimen was prepared by mechanical alloying(MA) and pulsed electric-current sintering (PECS). The microstructures of specimens were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Vickers microhardness and CTE measurements were performed. The grains in the P/M specimen were refined with increasing MA time. Primary Si and eutectic Si in the I/M specimen were remarkably refined by adding minute amounts of Sr. The CTE of P/M and I/M specimens were estimated as 7.8×10-6 and 10.7×10-6, respectively. These values were as same as a CTE of Al2O3 ceramics.

  2. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  3. Kritik Terhadap Pemikiran Tasawuf Al-Raniri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifan Nur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Al-Raniri is often positioned by some scholars as “superior” figure, which is contrasted to Hamzah Fansuri and Syamsuddin Sumaterani, and that is why they predicate him as one of pioneer of Islamic reformer in Malay- Indonesian archipelago. Anti-wujūdiyyah Sufism campaign by al-Raniri quite successful to some extent to amputate the rate of development of philosophical Sufism was brought by Fansuri and Sumaterani in the one hand, and strike off the nature of moral Sufism in the other, redeemed by bloodshed. This article discussed the “superiority” of al-Raniri’s thought of Sufism, viewed from a broader spectrum, either in relation to problems of faith or theology and politics surrounding the circumstance of his time.Keywords : Philosophical tasawuf, neo-sufism, panteism, tajalli, God’s attributeAbstrak : Al-Raniri oleh banyak kalangan seringkali diposisikan sebagai tokoh “superior” yang diperlawankan dengan Hamzah Fansuri dan Syamsuddin Sumaterani, dan itu sebabnya para ahli memberinya predikat sebagai seorang pelopor pembaru (mujaddid Islam di Nusantara. Anti tasawuf wujūdiyyah yang dikampanyekan oleh al-Raniri cukup berhasil mengamputasi laju perkembangan tasawuf falsafi yang dibawa oleh Fansuri dan Sumaterani di satu sisi, dan melancarkan laju corak tasawuf akhlaki di sisi lain, yang ditebus dengan cara pertumpahan darah. Tulisan ini mendiskusikan “superioritas” pemikiran tasawuf al-Raniri tersebut, dilihat dari spektrum yang lebih luas, baik menyangkut persoalan keyakinan atau teologi maupun politik yang mengitari situasi zamannya.Kata kunci : Tasawuf falsafi , neo-sufisme, panteisme, tajalli, sifat Tuhan

  4. Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti/Ti3Al Functionally Graded Materials under a Centrifugal Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Watanabe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of the centrifugal method (CM. Using the conventional CM techniques such as the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in-situ method, FGMs rings with gradually distributed properties could be achieved. As a more practical choice, the centrifugal mixed-powder method (CMPM was recently proposed to obtain FGMs containing nano-particles selectively dispersed in the outer surface of the fabricated parts. However, if a control of the particles morphology, compound formulas or sizes, is desired, another CM technique is favored. As a development of CMPM, our novel reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM has been presented. Using RCMPM, Al‑Al3Ti/Ti3Al FGMs with good surface properties and temperature controlled compositional gradient could be achieved. In this short review, this novel method will be discussed in detail and the effect of RCMPM processing temperature on the reinforcement particles morphology, size and distribution through the fabricated samples, will be reviewed.

  5. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani

    2005-01-01

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term 2 is 6.77% to 11.85% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.

  6. Semantische Merkmale als Mittel der Textkonstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Bračič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Im folgenden Beitrag sollen semantische Relationen unter die Lupe genommen werden, die im text dazu beitragen, dass einzelne Textkomponenten miteinander verknüpft werden. Dabei geht es hauptsächlich um Relationen, die nicht satzthematisch sind - diese sind nämlich als textuelle Koreferenzketten ausreichend untersucht worden (vgl. u.a. Bračič/Fix/Greule 2007 - sondern um jene Relationen, die als Prädikationen einzelner textgrammatischer Einheiten (Sätze vorkommen und ebenfalls gewisse geordnete Strukturierungen aufweisen.

  7. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  8. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...... the disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment...

  9. Simulations of the premelting of Al(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoltze, Per

    1990-01-01

    The premelting of Al(110) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations using the potential for Al derived from effective medium theory. We find a progressive disordering of the surface region as the bulk melting point is approached. This disorder is mediated by the formation of adatom–vacancy pairs....... Based on the calculated radial distribution function and the analytical expression for the energy, it is demonstrated that the thermodynamics of disorder and melting is reflected in the single particle properties by a decrease in the number of nearest neighbors. The Debye temperature for the surface...

  10. Del Derecho laboral al Derecho del trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Jassir, Ivan Daniel

    2011-01-01

    El Derecho Laboral hijo de la revolución industrial, calificado como el acontecimiento jurídico del siglo XX, reduce su ámbito de estudio al trabajo subordinado. Los cambios del sistema de producción superan la centralidad del contrato de trabajo subordinado a tiempo indeterminado, situación que demanda ampliación del ámbito de aplicación subjetivo y objetivo de la materia, dando paso al Derecho del Trabajo que se ocupa del trabajo en todas sus modalidades como fuente de ingreso para satisfac...

  11. Nuestra labor de mirar al otro

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Saborío, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    El estudio etnográfico que dio origen al libro que hoy presentamos, se tituló la "Etnografía del cambio educativo en el ámbito de la investigación social". Una de sus misiones fue buscar al otro, entendiéndose el otro, de aquí en adelante como director, directora, docentes, niños y niñas y padres de familia de la escuela #1, como la llamamos en la investigación antes citada.

  12. Magnetic Properties of NdAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, P.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...... the crystal-field parameters derived from the magnetic exciton spectrum measured by Houmann et al. by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The combined lambda -Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity is explained. No additional parameters are introduced....

  13. Vibrations on Al surfaces covered by sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, G. G.; Eremeev, S. V.; Borisova, S. D.; Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of a comparative study of vibrational and structural properties of the ordered (√{3}×√{3})R30∘ and c(2 × 2) phases formed by Na adatoms at room temperature on the Al(1 1 1) and Al(1 0 0) surfaces, respectively. The surface relaxation, surface phonon dispersion, and polarization of vibrational modes are calculated using the embedded-atom method. Our calculated structural parameters are in agreement with experimental and ab initio results. The obtained vibrational frequencies compare fairly well with available experimental data.

  14. Metamagnetism in Ce(Ga,Al)2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Suresh; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2002-05-01

    Effect of Al substitution on the magnetic properties of Ce(Ga1-Al)2 ( = 0, 0.1 and 0.5) system has been studied. The magnetic state of CeGa2 is found to be FM with a C of 8 K, whereas the compounds with =0.1 and 0.5 are AFM and possess N of about 9 K. These two compounds undergo metamagnetic transition and the critical fields are about 1.2 T and 0.5 T, respectively at 2 K. These variations are explained on the basis of helical spin structure in these compounds.

  15. Instability of TiC and TiAl3 compounds in Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys by addition of Al-Ti-C master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The performance of Al-Ti-C master alloy in refining Al-10Mg and A1-5Cu alloys was studied by using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis.The results indicate that there are obvious fading phenomena in both Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys with the addition of Al-5Ti-0.4C refiner which contains TiC and TiAl3 compounds.Mg element has no influence on the stability of TiC and TiAl3, while TiC particles in Al-10Mg alloy react with Al to form Al4C3 particles, resulting in the refinement fading.However, TiC particles are relatively stable in Al-5Cu alloy, while TiAl3 phase reacts with Al2Cu to produce a new phase Ti(Al, Cu)2, which is responsible for the refinement fading in Al-5Cu alloy.These indicate that the refinement fading will not occur only when both the TiC particles and TiAl3 compound of Al-Ti-C refiner are stable in Al alloys.

  16. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  17. Electronic states and spin-forbidden cooling transitions of AlH and AlF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nathan; Lane, Ian C

    2011-11-14

    The feasibility of laser cooling AlH and AlF is investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry. All the electronic states corresponding to the ground and lowest two excited states of the Al atom are calculated using multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) and the large AV6Z basis set for AlH. The smaller AVQZ basis set is used to calculate the valence electronic states of AlF. Theoretical Franck-Condon factors are determined for the A(1)Π→ X(1)Σ(+) transitions in both radicals and found to agree with the highly diagonal factors found experimentally, suggesting computational chemistry is an effective method for screening suitable laser cooling candidates. AlH does not appear to have a transition quite as diagonal as that in SrF (which has been laser cooled) but the A(1)Π→ X(1)Σ(+) transition transition of AlF is a strong candidate for cooling with just a single laser, though the cooling frequency is deep in the UV. Furthermore, the a(3)Π→ X(1)Σ(+) transitions are also strongly diagonal and in AlF is a practical method for obtaining very low final temperatures around 3 μK.

  18. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  19. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1999-10-12

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni{sub 3}Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  20. Muslih b. `Abd al-Rahman al-Maraqî : Muslikh of Mranggen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    MUSLIH b. `ABD AL-RAHMAN AL-MARAQÎ (KH. Muslikh of Mranggen) [Indonesia; 1917-1981] [Dictionnaire biographique des savants et grandes figures du monde musulman périphérique, du XIXe siècle à nos jours, Fasc. no 2. Paris: CNRS-EHESS, 1998, p. 23-24] One of the most influential Javanese teachers of t

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of AL-AL4C3 Nanocomposite by Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Sharifi, E.; Enayati, M. H.; Karimzadeh, F.

    Aluminum carbide (Al4C3) seems to be an ideal reinforcement for producing aluminum matrix composites. Al4C3 has high hardness and shear strength as well as a high melting point. The dispersion of Al4C3 particles in the matrix produces a pinning effect that reduces aluminum grain growth, which improves the mechanical properties. In this study, aluminum powders were mixed with 4.5 wt.% graphite and mechanically alloyed using a high-energy ball mill in order to produce Al-Al4C3 nanocomposite. The structural evaluation of powder particles after different milling times was studied by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. The aluminum crystallite size estimated with broadening of XRD peaks by Williamson-Hall formula. XRD results suggested that the grain size of aluminum decreased to nanometer range (30 nm) during ball milling. No Al4C3 formed during the mechanical alloying process. Milled powders were then annealed at 300-600 °C for 1 h under argon atmosphere. Annealing at temperatures higher than 300 °C led to formation of Al4C3 phase which increased as annealing temperature increased. Aluminum grain size remained in nanometer range after annealing process. The microhardness of powder particles increased after annealing. Both effects are due to the formation of nanosized Al4C3 particles.

  2. Sintering Behavior of CNT Reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouari Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling and spark plasma sintering were successfully used to produce carbon nanotube reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 nanocomposites which have potential applications in the fields of aerospace, automotive, electronics, and high precision instrumentation. Al2124 and Al6061 nanocomposite powders containing 0.5 to 2 wt.% CNTs prepared through sonication and wet ball milling were spark plasma sintered at 400, 450, and 500°C for 20 minutes under a pressure of 35 MPa. CNTs were better dispersed, and less agglomerated and had good adhesion to the matrix in composites containing 1 wt.% CNTs. The increase of CNT content to 2 wt.% led to the formation of CNT clusters which resulted in less uniform and homogenous composite powders. Almost full densification of Al6061 reinforced with CNTs was achieved at 500°C. Also, CNTs reinforced Al2124 nanocomposites reached very high densities at 500°C. Composites reinforced with 1 wt.% CNTs displayed better densification compared to composites containing 2 wt.% CNTs. The increase of CNTs content from 0.5 to 1 wt.% increased the hardness of the Al6061 and Al2124 alloys to maximum values. Further increase of CNTs content to 2 wt.% decreased the hardness to values lower than that of the monolithic alloys.

  3. Thermodynamic Assessments of Al-In-Sb and Al-In-As Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The experimental thermodynamic and phase diagram data of the Al-In-Sb and Al-In-As ternary systems were critically assessed.A set of self-consistent thermodynamic model parameters were obtained to describe the phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties of two systems.In most cases,the calculated values agree very well with the experimental data.

  4. Synthesis of TiAl-Ti2AlN composites by in-situ crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jian-feng; GAO Ji-qiang; WANG Fen

    2006-01-01

    The amorphization process during mechanical alloying (MA) was investigated for the Ti-50%/Al (mole fraction) powder mixtures with no special protection conditions. During the milling process, with the milling time prolonging, the metallic powder Ti and Al were finely mixed, gradually, aluminum completely dissolved into titanium to form an Ti(Al) hcp supersaturated solid solution, and finally, transformed to the amorphous phase after milled for about 39 h. As a result of heat treatment in hot press sintering processing for the mechanically alloyed amorphous powders in vacuum, a submicrostructure intermetallics of TiAl/Ti2AlN composite can be produced by in-situ crystallization. Furthermore, the structure evolution, phase formation and transformation during the heat treatment were also investigated by X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis. The results show that the reaction involves many transitional stages, including formation of TiAl3 and transformation into TiAl and Ti3Al. The examination show that the composite materials fabricated by this in-situ crystallization from amorphization have good mechanical properties due to fine grain size and uniform microstructure.

  5. MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical framework and phase separation of -Al2O3 at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2011-07-01

    Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. → alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).

  6. FABRICATION OF Al/Al2O3 FGM ROTATING DISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sanuddin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method of fabricating a disc made of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded materials (FGM, using a powder metallurgy manufacturing process. The aim is to develop a processing method for a rotating disc made of FGM, by stacking the slurry, layer by layer in a radial direction. A three-layer functionally graded material of Al/Al2O3 is fabricated with compositions of 10, 20, 30 vol.% Al2O3. The ceramic composition increases from the discs inner (centre to the outer. The combination of these materials can offer the ability to withstand high temperature conditions whilst maintaining strength in extreme environments.

  7. The anodic and cathodic dissolution of Al and Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P. [Laboratoire de physicochimie des surfaces, UMR7045, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Rechou, F.; Oltra, R. [Institut CARNOT de Bourgogne, Electrochimie Interfaciale-Corrosion, UMR5209, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Ogle, K., E-mail: kevin-ogle@enscp.f [Laboratoire de physicochimie des surfaces, UMR7045, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, ParisTech, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) was used to monitor the release of Al from 99.99% aluminum (1199 alloy) and Al, Mg, and Cu from 2024 Al alloy in 30 g/l NaCl electrolyte as a function of pH. The cathodic dissolution of Al was demonstrated and attributed to an increase in the pH at the interface due to the water reduction reaction. The dissolution of Mg was also observed but was a more complex function of current probably depending on the interfacial pH and the Al dissolution rate. The detachment of copper-rich particles was observed as very rapid spectroscopic emission transients (peak width < 10 ms).

  8. Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride formation of magnesium is lowered upon alloying with Al due to a slightly endothermic disproportionation reaction...

  9. The Science of al-Biruni

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Al-Biruni (973-1048) was one of the greatest scientists of all times. He was an astronomer, mathematician and philosopher, and studied physics and natural sciences. In this paper, we will discuss some of his experimental methods and some instruments he used.

  10. Control al doping Compromiso de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Prieto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento da a conocer la importante noticia de la aprobación, por parte del Comité Olímpico Internacional (COl, de un laboratorio colombiano, para el control al doping, a la vez que aprovecha la oportunidad para ampliar alguna información sobre este tema.

  11. Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    sie als Leitstrukturen für die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue...

  12. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezintă o metodă analitică pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu două roţi dinţate centrale. Se consideră mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu douăroţi dinţate solidare tip satelit, în două variante practice (multiplicator şi reductor de turaţie. Este menţionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singură roată satelit cu angrenare dublă (exterioară şiinterioară. Pe baza modelului de analiză cinetostatică a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu două roţi dinţatecentrale, în finalul lucrării se abordează o problemă practică de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea roţilor dinţate cilindrice cu dinţi curbi înhipocicloidă.

  13. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  14. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  15. Quantum Criticality in YFe2Al10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, William; Wu, Liusuo; Zaliznyak, Igor; Qiu, Yiming; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose; Aronson, Meigan

    Quantum criticality has been studied in many systems, but there are few systems where observed scaling can be unified with a critical free energy F, or where the critical exponents form the basis for QC universality classes. We have identified a new layered material YFe2Al10 that shows remarkably strong QC behavior, where the scaling properties of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat are consistent with the same F. Recent neutron scattering results paint a remarkable picture of the QC fluctuations in YFe2Al10. In contrast to classical transitions, where fluctuations are relatively long ranged and inelastic scattering is observed at a magnetic zone center, in YFe2Al10 the scattering is independent of wave vector in the critical plane, indicating that the fluctuations are spatially localized, while out of plane scattering indicates that the interplaner interactions are restricted to nearest neighbors. The dynamical susceptibility χ'' ~=E-2 , and is wholly temperature independent, indicating that E/T scaling is present, the signature of QC fluctuations. These results hint that the the criticality in YFe2Al10 is local, which until now has only been found in a few f-electron based compounds.

  16. Colombia frente al manejo del Presupuesto Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Enrique Reyes Forero

    2009-07-01

    Colombia pasa de 38 puntos en el 2007 a 46 puntos en el 2009, mejoría que no se corresponde con los múltiples escándalos de corrupción; ésta mejoría responde al manejo de tecnicismos como se intentará aclarar en el presente articulo.

  17. Creative Commons : Erfgoedinstelling als digitaal curator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Zijn Creative Commons-licenties een ver-van-mijn-bed-show voor erfgoedinstellingen? Integendeel, betoogt Esther Hoorn. De instellingen kunnen ze gebruiken als ze rechthebbende zijn. Maar belangrijker nog: door het gebruik van deze licenties te stimuleren kunnen ze een spin in het web van netwerken r

  18. Silicon Strengthened CrAlVN Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang LI; Yue-xiu QIU; Bo LI; Dong-liang ZHAO; De-en SUN; De-hui LI

    2015-01-01

    CrAlVN coatings are of good intrinsic mechanical and tribological properties but lack of strength.Silicon can provide nitride coating high strength and excellent oxidation resistance.Logically,the combination of CrAlVN and Si should provide a good candidate for dry machining.The effect of silicon content on CrAlSiVN coating′s me-chanical,tribological properties and oxidation resistance was investigated.The coatings were deposited on cemented tungsten carbide and Si wafer (100)substrates in an in-line magnetron sputtering system.Grazing incidence X-ray diffractometer,scanning electron microscopy,atomic force microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,electron probe micro-analyzer,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy were employed to charac-terize the microstructure and chemistry.Nanoindentation and ball-on-disc tribo-tester were used in characterization of the mechanical and tribological properties.Incorporating with silicon,the CrAlVN coating was strengthened (hard-ness:21.2 GPa up to 38.7 GPa);even after 2 h exposure to 700 ℃ in air,the hardness still maintains at 11.0 GPa.

  19. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  20. Bulk nanocrystalline Al prepared by cryomilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline Al was fabricated by mechanically milling at cryogenic temperature (cryomilling) and then by hot pressing in vacuum. By using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the microstructure evolution of the material during cryomilling and consolidation was investigated. With increasing the milling time, the grain size decreased sharply and reduced to 42 nm when cryomilled for 12 h. The grains had grown up, and the columnar grain was formed under the hot pressing and extrusion compared with the cryomilled powders. The grain size of as-extruded specimen was approximately 300-500 nm. The reason of high thermal stability of this bulk was attributed primarily to the Zener pinning from the grain boundary of the AlN arising from cryomilling and the solute drag of the impurity. Tensile tests show that the strength of nanocrystalline Al is enhanced with decreasing grain size. The ultimate tensile strength and tensile elongation were 173 MPa and 17.5%, respectively. It appears that the measured high strength in the cryomilled Al is related to a grain-size effect, dispersion strengthening, and dislocation strengthening.

  1. Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using wet milling in toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S., E-mail: ser105@mail.usask.ca [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdani-Rad, R. [Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787/316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manafi, S.A. [Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Production of Al nanocomposite reinforced by Fe-Al intermetallic, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using wet milling in toluene. > Production of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particles from mechanochemical reaction of Al with PCA. > Effect of second phase particles on sintering. - Abstract: Al matrix nanocomposites were produced by wet milling of Al and nano-alumina powders in a toluene media. X-ray diffraction patterns, inductively coupled plasma, carbon measurement analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that impurities introduced by decomposition of toluene and abrasion of balls and vials are uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix as Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} and Fe-Al intermetallic particles. Though producing homogenous nanocomposites, these second phase particles seem to have a retarding effect on densification of nanocomposite powders.

  2. The origin of Al(OH)(3)-rich and Al(13)-aggregate flocs composition in PACl coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jr-Lin; Huang, Chihpin; Chin, Ching-Ju M; Pan, Jill R

    2009-09-01

    The composition of hydrolyzed Al species is essential for the understanding of coagulation with Al-based coagulants. Surface characteristics of flocs formed by coagulation with two distinct polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants were identified. One commercial coagulant (PACl-C) with voluminous monomeric Al and colloidal Al(OH)(3) and a custom-made PACl (PACl-Al(13)) containing high Al(13) content were applied to destabilize kaolin particles. The flocs formed by PACl-C and PACl-Al(13) at neutral and alkaline pH ranges, respectively, were observed by FE-SEM and HR-TEM. In addition, the Al composition of these flocs was characterized by XPS and HR-XRD, and the imaging of Al(OH)(3) precipitates and Al(13) aggregates were conducted by SEM as well as tapping mode AFM in liquid system. The observations of flocs indicate that the morphology of Al(OH)(3)-rich flocs are fluffy and porous around the edge of flocs, while the Al(13)-aggregate flocs have a glossy contour and irregular structure. Both Al(OH)(3)-rich and Al(13)-aggregate flocs do not possess well-formed crystalline structure except for the Al(13)-like crystal exists in the Al(13)-aggregate flocs. Among Al(OH)(3) precipitates, colloidal Al(OH)(3) is micro-scale in size, while amorphous Al(OH)(3) is nano-scale. During the formation of Al(13) aggregates, some coiled and clustered Al(13) aggregates with smoother surface were observed. The XPS study on floc surface showed that tetrahedral (Al(IV)) /octahedral (Al(VI)) Al ratio on the surfaces of PACl-C and PACl-Al(13) flocs is 1:1.6 and 1:9.9, respectively. Of the in situ formed Al(13), almost half of Al-hydroxide precipitates on the surface of Al(OH)(3)-rich flocs possess the Al(IV) center. It also found that the irregularly aggregated Al(13) with a similar Al(13) crystalline structure subsists on the surface of Al(13)-aggregate flocs.

  3. Microscopic phase field study of the antisite defect of Ni3 Al in binary Ni-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temporal evolution feature of a microscopic phase field model is utilized to study the antisite defects of L1 2-Ni 3 Al;this is quite different from other physicist’ interests.There are mainly two points in brief.Firstly,antisite defects Ni Al and Al Ni ,which are caused by the deviation from the stoichiometric Ni 3 Al,coexist in the Ni 3 Al phase.The surplus Ni atom in the Ni-rich side is prone to substitute Al thus producing the antisite defect Ni Al that maintains the stability of the L1 2 structure.In other case,the surplus Al atom in the Al-rich side is accommodated by a Ni sublattice consequently giving rise to antisite defect Al Ni .The calculated equilibrium occupancy probability of Ni Al is much higher than that of Al Ni .This point is generally in line with other theoretical and experimental works.Additionally,both Ni Al and Al Ni have a strong negative correlation to time step during the disorder-order transformation.Since the initial value of Ni Al and Al Ni on each site of the matrix is right at the concentration that we set,we can observe the decrease process of Ni Al and Al Ni from the initial disordered high anti-structure state to their respective equilibrium state,i.e.to the result of the ordering process further coarsening.

  4. Wallada Bint al Mustakfi entre dos culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shreen Mahmoud Al Refai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La princesa cordobesa Wallada Bint al Mustakfi bil-lah, hija del califa al Mustakfi Muhammad Ibn Abdel Rahman Ibn Obaidil-lah Ibn Al Nasir lidin Al-lah era una poetisa estimable, a quien los grandes poetas no podían superar. Era una mujer única, guapa y decente. Mantenía una relación sentimental con el  poeta y visir Ibn Zaydún. Dicha pasión, narrada por los poemas escritos por ambos amantes, se terminó por la separación debida a los celos, también de ambos;  al poeta le gustó la voz de una esclava de la princesa. Eso dio rabia a la última. Movido también por los celos, Ibn Zaydún dedicó una epístola satírica al visir Ibn Abdús, que estaba enamorado de Wallada. Tal hecho también irritó a la princesa. A pesar de tener amantes y admiradores, Wallada murió sin casarse al  día 2 de safar de 480 (o 484 de la Híjira pasando los ochenta años Me han llamado la atención el carácter tan culto, independiente y liberal de aquella mujer, su relación amorosa con Ibn Zaydún que no acabó felizmente y los muchos años que vivió sin casasre. Parece que la vida de la princesa hispano-musulmana llamó también la atención de muchos escritores árabes y españoles. Prueba de ello son varias obras literarias escritas en árabe y en español sobre Wallada e Ibn Zaydún. Por consiguiente, me resulta muy interesante realizar un estudio comparativo sobre este tema averiguando si, o no, la diferencia de culturas influiría en las opiniones  de los autores sobre la vida sentimental de aquella poetisa cordobesa.

  5. Una ventana al mundo de Kafka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available

    COMENTARIO AL LIBRO " EL MUNDO PSICOLÓGICO DE KAFKA" POR EL ACADÉMICO ADOLFO DE FRANCISCO ZEA.

     

    Fui invitado en forma comedida, por el doctor Adolfo De Francisco, para comentar su obra: "El Mundo Psicológico de Kafka". Respondí que no era literato y menos crítico de Kafka. Sin embargo, acepté
    hacerlo siendo consciente de las limitaciones que me acompañan y para las que pido de todos ustedes su consideración. Tenía sí el deseo al reto de lo incógnito.
    Además sus argumentos fueron contundentes, pues se referían al compromiso con la Academia y, sin decírmelo, era también con él en nuestra historia compartida. Mis motivaciones y expectativas personales conscientes eran múltiples para sumergirme en sus ideas que mueven el espíritu desde la piel a lo trascendente, de lo interno a lo externo y viceversa, y en que cada palabra puede ser objeto de análisis profundo, pues esa es su esencia. Por ejemplo cuando el doctor De Francisco se refiere a la sublimación y a la estética, a la política, a la religiosidad, a la burguesía, al campesinado, a la nobleza, al absolutismo, al arte o a la historia, a la cosmovisión sociológica y literaria, al psicoanálisis para afrontar la realidad interna y externa, entonces el autor penetra en el mundo de la fantasía y del psiquismo, para entender el simbolismo implícito de Kafka.
    Las motivaciones personales inconscientes, pertenecen a las tendencias irracionales de hundirme en espacios complejos para luego intentar'ordenarlos; en medio está
    la contratransferencia que me une con el autor Adolfo De Francisco y otra la que se refiere a la temática kafkiana...

  6. ELECTROLYSIS OF SWINE MANURE EFFLUENTS USING THREE DIFFERENT ELECTRODES Fe-Fe, Al-Al AND Fe-Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent with high organic strength need to be treated to make it suitable for applying to crop/pasture fields, or discharging to any waterways. Electrocoagulation is a relatively simpler and cheaper technique over biological and chemical treatment methods currently used to treat high-strength industrial and municipal wastewater. The performance of an electrocoagulation system mainly depends on the pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC of the medium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD loading rates and catalytic activity of the electrodes used. In this research, a study was conducted to compare the pollutant removal efficiencies of three electrodes (Fe-Fe, Al-Al and Fe-Al with three electric current levels (500, 1000 and 2000 mA while treating swine manure effluents. The electrochemical cell consisted of two parallel rectangular plates (90×25×1.5 mm of Iron (Fe-Fe, Aluminum (Al-Al and Iron-Aluminum (Fe-Al, later on described as hybrid electrodes; immersed in a beaker with 550 mL swine effluents and powered by a Direct Current (DC supply. All studies were conducted in batches at room temperature. In general, removal efficiencies were increased with increasing current densities and electrolysis times for electrodes evaluated. Aluminum electrodes outperformed iron and hybrid (iron-aluminum electrodes in removing Total Phosphorus (TP at all current density levels tested. Overall, use of hybrid electrodes resulted in better COD removal. For the same treatment times (1200 s at higher current density (21 mA cm-2, hybrid electrodes removed about 100% COD, which are about 1.9 and 1.3 times higher than those of aluminum and iron electrodes, respectively. Iron electrodes showed the highest removal efficiency (85% for Total Organic Carbon (TOC at 21 mA cm-2 current density and 1200 s treatment time. Overall, lower Specific Electrical Energy Consumptions (SEECs per kg of Pollutants (TP, COD and TOC were estimated for the aluminum

  7. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  8. Novos conceitos em retinopatia diabética: dano neurológico versus dano vascular New concepts on diabetic retinopathy: neural versus vascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Durães Serrarbassa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A retinopatia diabética é a principal causa de cegueira legal irreversível em adultos na idade produtiva. Estima-se que o número de pessoas com risco de desenvolver perda de visão decorrente do diabetes dobre nos próximos 30 anos. Alguns estudos sugerem que alterações neurodegenerativas ocorram antes do comprometimento vascular. Essas alterações incluem aumento da apoptose neural, reatividade de células gliais, ativação microglial e metabolismo alterado do glutamato, e podem explicar algumas das deficiências funcionais que ocorrem logo após o início do diabetes, como alterações precoces no eletrorretinograma. O presente artigo de revisão visa apresentar evidências atuais que apontem a neurodegeneração como possível evento inicial da retinopatia diabética.Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of irreversible legal blindness in working-age adults. The number of people worldwide at risk of developing vision loss from diabetes is predicted to double over the next 30 years. Some elements suggest that neurodegenerative changes occur beyond vascular damage. These changes include increased apoptosis, glial cell reactivity, microglial activation, and altered glutamate metabolism, and could explain some of the functional abnormalities that begin soon after the onset of diabetes, as early changes in electroretinogram. This review article will present some evidences that point out neurodegeneration as a possible initial event in diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  10. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN B2-ORDERED NiAl BY Ni2AlTiCOMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; K. Ohishi; M. Nemoto

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes in B2-ordered NiAl containing fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. The amount of age hardening is not large as compared to the large microstructural variations during aging. TEM observations have revealed that the L21-type Ni2AlTi precipitates keep a lattice coherency with the NiAl matrix at the beginning of aging. By longer periods of aging Ni2AlTi precipitates lose their coherency and change their morphology to the globular ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered NiAl was investigated by compression tests over the temperature range of 873-1273K. The fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi was found to enhance greatly the yield strength and the high-temperature strength is comparison with that of superalloy Mar-M200.``

  11. Wetting of polycrystalline SiC by molten Al and Al-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiao-Shuang; Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Qichuan

    2014-10-01

    The wetting of α-SiC by molten Al and Al-Si alloys was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum. In the Al-SiC system, representative wetting stages were identified. The liquid spreading was initially controlled by the deoxidation of the SiC surface and then by the formation of Al4C3 at the interface. The intrinsic contact angle for molten Al on the polycrystalline α-SiC surface was suggested to be lower than 90̊ provided that the oxide films covering the Al and SiC surfaces were removed, i.e., the system is partial wetting in nature. An increase in the Si concentration in liquid Al weakened the interfacial reaction but improved the final wettability. The role of the Si addition on the wetting was presumably attributed to its segregation at the interface and the formation of strong chemical bonds with the SiC surface.

  12. Formation and stability of Al-Nd and Al-Nd-Fe metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battezzati, Livio (Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Universita di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Turin (Italy)); Baricco, Marcello (Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Universita di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Turin (Italy)); Antonione, Carlo (Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Universita di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Turin (Italy))

    1994-07-01

    Partially amorphous Al[sub 91]Nd[sub 9] and Al[sub 86]Nd[sub 9]Fe[sub 5] ribbons were prepared by melt spinning. Metastable crystalline phases were found in both alloys. Complete amorphization of Al[sub 86]Nd[sub 9]Fe[sub 5] was also achieved. Crystallization was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It occurs in two stages at 440 and 510 K for Al[sub 91]Nd[sub 9]. Al[sub 86]Nd[sub 9]Fe[sub 5] presented a eutectic crystallization at 550 K. Microscopy observations, combined with Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) analyses performed in isothermal DSC traces, showed that Al[sub 91]Nd[sub 9] transforms via growth on pre-existing crystals. Al[sub 86]Nd[sub 9]Fe[sub 5] transformed via heterogeneous nucleation on sites unevenly distributed through the ribbon. The fitting of isothermal peaks by means of the JMA equation was less satisfactory. The limits of this approach are discussed. ((orig.))

  13. Two medieval Maghreb chronicles: Al-Ḏajira Al-Saniyya y el Rawd al-Qirtas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Fernández Fonfría

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication I intend to expose my conclusions on asmall comparative study between two of the earliest Maghreb chronicles throwing information about the North African tribe of Banu Mar÷n arrival to the throne in the thirteenth century Maghreb. With these common features, allowing a more complete picture of anera, which is undoubtedly the least known of the merinid period, their beginning. The similarities and influences between them are such that there are different theories about a possiblecommon authorship. After concluding the study and subsequent analysis of these works, can be extracted that there are substantial differences on a structural and stylistic level that hinder the possible absolute identification of author of the Dhakh÷ra al-Saniyyawith the author of RawÅ al-QirÐās.

  14. Investigation Of Water Assisted Phase Transformation Process From AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Z.; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-15

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  15. An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-jabal Al-gharbi, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Manal Z M; El-Mabrouk, Khamis; Ewis, Ashraf A

    2013-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed.

  16. Pemikiran Politik al-Shawkânî dalam Fath al-Qadîr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hanafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad b. ‘Alî Muhammad b. ‘Abd Allâh al-Shawkânî al-San‘ânî. He was born in the Hijrah in Shawkân village, Yemen on Monday 28 Dhû al-Qa‘dah 1172 H and died on Tuesday, 27 Jumâd al-Akhîr 1250 H at the age about 78 years. Al-Shawkânî grew up in the San‘a city, it is the capital of the republic of Yemen now. He study first time about religion from his father, then from renowed scholars in San‘a and its surrounding, he was known as a scolar who mastered the various branches of religious sciences. Such as tafsîr, h}adîth, fiqh, us}ûl al-fiqh, history, science of kalâm, philosophy, balâghah, mant}iq etc. the main issue in this article is how political thought in the book of tafsir Fath al-Qadîr is the work of Shawkânî. At the end of article, the authors found that the intended political thinking in the study of Fath al-Qadîr is about constitutional ideas. These ideas about the constitution is limited to the concept of leadership and deliberation, the concept of the right of citizen to obtain justice, and the concept pf the right of citizens to live association and assembly

  17. Al-C/Al-N/Al涂层膜基结合强度工艺试验研究%Study on Bond Strength of Al-C/Al-N/Al Coating Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 王刚

    2012-01-01

    通过对Al-C/Al-N/Al太阳能选择性吸收涂层沉积工艺的研究,分析了该涂层膜基结合强度较差的原因,进行了不同沉积工艺条件下的涂层膜基结合强度、吸收率和热损试验,对试验结果进行了仔细的分析,优化确认在Al-C/Al-N/Al太阳能选择性吸收涂层沉积工艺基础上实施第N层充N2气体工艺,可以较好的提高涂层的膜基结合强度,同时保证涂层的吸收率和集热管的热损不发生明显的下降.%Through the study of sedimentary technology on the Al-C/Al-N/Al solar energy selective absorption coating,the authors analyzed the reason why the film-basis bond strength is weak,and took experiments on film-basis bond strength of coating,absorptivity and thermal loss under different sedimentary conditions.After analyzing the trial results,it is confirmed that practicing the N layer and N2 air technology based on sedimentary technology on the Al-C/Al-N/Al solar energy selective absorption coating can improve the film-basis bond strength of coating,and ensure the nonoccurrence of apparent decline in coating absorptivity and thermal loss of heat collecting cubes.

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of the open 3d subshell transition metal aluminides: AlV, AlCr, and AlCo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Jane M.; Brugh, Dale J.; Morse, Michael D.

    1994-10-01

    Three open 3d subshell transition metal aluminides, AlV, AlCr, and AlCo, have been investigated by resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy to elucidate the chemical bonding in these diatomic molecules. The open nature of the 3d subshell results in a vast number of excited electronic states in these species, allowing bond strengths to be measured by the observation of abrupt predissociation thresholds in a congested optical spectrum, giving D00(AlV)=1.489±0.010 eV, D00(AlCr)=2.272±0.009 eV, and D00(AlCo)=1.844±0.002 eV. At lower excitation energies the presence of discrete transitions has permitted determinations of the ground state symmetries and bond lengths of AlV and AlCo through rotationally resolved studies, giving r0` (AlV, Ω`=0)=2.620±0.004 Å and r0` (AlCo, Ω`=3)=2.3833±0.0005 Å. Ionization energies were also measured for all three species, yielding IE(AlV)=6.01±0.10 eV, IE(AlCr)=5.96±0.04 eV, and IE(AlCo)=6.99±0.17 eV. A discussion of these results is presented in the context of previous work on AlCu, AlNi, AlCa, and AlZn.

  19. In-situ synthesized (Al3Zr+Al2O3)p/A356 composites by direct melt reaction in Al-Zr-O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉涛; 李忠华; 程晓农; 戴起勋; 蔡兰

    2003-01-01

    A novel in-situ reaction system Al-Zr-O was developed. In situ Al3Zr and Al2O3 particulate reinforced A356 alloy matrix composites have been fabricated by direct melt reaction method. The results show that the maximum sizes of Al3Zr and Al2O3 particulates synthesized in the system ZrOCl2-A356 are 1 μm and 3 μm respectively, and they are well distributed in the matrix. The investigation shows that the Al3Zr crystal is in the shape of polyhedron and rectangle. There is a faceted growth phenomenon on Al3Zr crystal surface. It is firstly found that the Al3Zr crystal grows in the mechanism of twinning. The twinning plane is (1 1 4), and the twinning direction is [2 2 1]. The crystal morphology of in-situ α-Al2O3 particulate is rectangle or sphere. Furthermore, (Al3Zr+Al2O3)p/A356 composites have not only higher tensile strength at room temperature (376.2 MPa) but also higher yield strength (319.4 MPa) and higher tensile strength at elevated temperature (200 ℃) than those of the A356 alloy. The dry sliding wear test shows that the wear resistance of the (Al3Zr+Al2O3)p/A356 composites is greatly enhanced with increasing particulate volume fraction.

  20. Effect of Applied Pressure on the Joining of Combustion Synthesized Ni3Al Intermetallics with Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We focused on the surface reinforcement of ligth weight casting alloys with Ni-Al intermetallic compounds by in-situ combustion reaction to improve the surface properties of non-ferrous casting components. In our previous works, green compact of elemental Ni and Al powders were reacted to form Ni3Al intermetallic compound by SHS (Self-propagating high temperature synthesis) reaction with the heat of molten Al alloy and simultaneously bonded with Al casting alloy. But some defects such as tiny cracks and porosities were remained in the reacted compact. So we applied pressure to prevent thermal cracks and fill up the pores with liquid Al alloy by squeeze casting process. The compressed Al alloy bonded with the Ni3Al intermetallic compound was sectioned and observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The stoichiometric compositions of the intermetallics formed around the bonded interface and in the reacted compact were identified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA).Si rich layer was formed on the Al alloy side near the bonded interface by the sequential solidification of Al alloy. The porosities observed in the reacted Ni3Al compact were filled up with the liquid Al alloy. The Si particles from the molten Al alloy were detected in the pores of reacted Ni3Al intermetallic compact. The Al casting alloy and Ni3Al intermetallic compound were joined very soundly by applying pressure to the liquid Al alloy.

  1. Hardness Measurement of (TiB2-TiAl)/TiAl Symmetrically Function Gradient Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (TiB2-TiAl)/TiAl symmetrically function gradient materials (FGM) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Owing to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between TiB2 and TiAl, a compressive surface stress was introduced to the FGM by the thermal expansion mismatch. The hardness values of the uniform materials and the FGM were tested, respectively. For the FGM with a compressive surface stress, hardness is obviously superior to that of the uniform material.When the FGM was subjected to heat treatment,the hardness decreased due to a partial relaxation of the compressive surface stress.

  2. Structure of 26Al studied by one - nucleon transfer reaction 27Al(d,t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The excited states of 26Al have been produced and studied using 27Al(d,t reaction with 25 MeV deuteron as projectile. Optical model potential parameters were extracted from the measured elastic scattering angular distribution. Zero range distorted wave Born approximation analysis for the ground and 0.223 MeV states of 26Al have been done. The spectroscopic factors calculated for these states are found to be in good agreement with the previously reported values.

  3. Adherent Al2O3 scales formed on undoped NiCrAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the spalling behavior of Al2O3 scales formed on an undoped NiCrAl alloy are described. Two samples of Ni-15Cr-13Al (wt pct), one a control and the other sanded, were subjected to 25 oxidation cycles. It is observed that adherent scales formed on the sanded sample; however, the control sample had speckled, spalled scales. The data reveal that the adherent scales are caused by repeated removal of surface layers after each oxidation cycle. It is determined that interfacial segregation of sulfur influences spallation and sulfur removal increases bonding. The effect of moisture on scale adhesions is investigated.

  4. Punishment on Stage: Application of Islamic Criminal Law by Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen

    OpenAIRE

    Skjelderup, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, usually referred to as al-Shabaab (“the youth”), is mostly known as a Somali terrorist group. But since the end of 2008 it has functioned as a state power in large parts of Southern and Central Somalia. In this study I sketch out the structure and function of the legal system of the group. Over the last three years they have developed an administrative structure and a legal system which is unprecedented in the Somali conflict, which has lasted for more than 2...

  5. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...... III sublattice. From a fit to the transition energies, an empirical band gap relation for InAlGaAs is found, in the composition range relevant for growth on GaAs. The PL lines at low temperature (T = 10 K) are broadened due to random alloy fluctuations and an interface roughness of 1.1 monolayers...

  6. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guangyan; Wu, Yongzhao; Liu, Qun; Li, Rongguang; Su, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr coatings is prepared by slurry process and vacuum diffusion, and the hot corrosion behavior of the stainless steel with/without the coatings is studied under the condition of Na2SO4 film at 950 °C in air. Results show that the corrosion kinetics of stainless steel, the stainless steel with Al-Si coating and the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating follow parabolic laws in several segments. After 24 h corrosion, the sequence of the mass gain for the three alloys is the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating steel with Al-Si coating steel without any coating. The corrosion products of the three alloys are layered. Thereinto, the corrosion products of stainless steel without coating are divided into two layers, where the outside layer contains a composite of Fe2O3 and FeO, and the inner layer is Cr2O3. The corrosion products of the stainless steel with Al-Si coating are also divided into two layers, of which the outside layer mainly consists of Cr2O3, and the inner layer is mainly SiO2. The corrosion film of the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating is thin and dense, which combines well with substrate. Thereinto, the outside layer is mainly Cr2O3, and the inside layer is Al2O3. In the matrix of all of the three alloys, there exist small amount of sulfides. Continuous and protective films of Cr2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 form on the surface of the stainless steel with Al-Si and Al-Si-Cr coatings, which prevent further oxidation or sulfide corrosion of matrix metals, and this is the main reason for the much smaller mass gain of the two alloys than that of the stainless steel without any coatings in the 24 h hot corrosion process.

  7. Mechanical properties and electronic structures of Fe-Al intermetallic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YaHui; Chong, XiaoYu; Jiang, YeHua; Zhou, Rong; Feng, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, the elastic properties, anisotropy properties, electronic structures, Debye temperature and stability of Fe-Al (Fe3Al, FeAl, FeAl2, Fe2Al5 and FeAl3) binary compounds were calculated. The formation enthalpy and cohesive energy of these Fe-Al compounds are negative, and show they are thermodynamically stable structures. Fe2Al5 has the lowest formation enthalpy, which shows the Fe2Al5 is the most stable of Fe-Al binary compounds. These Fe-Al compounds display disparate anisotropy due to the calculated different shape of the 3D curved surface of the Young's modulus and anisotropic index. Fe3Al has the biggest bulk modulus with the value 233.2 GPa. FeAl has the biggest Yong's modulus and shear modulus with the value 296.2 GPa and 119.8 GPa, respectively. The partial density of states, total density of states and electron density distribution maps of the binary Fe-Al binary compounds are analyzed. The bonding characteristics of these Fe-Al binary compounds are mainly combination by covalent bond and metallic bonds. Meanwhile, also exist anti-bond effect. Moreover, the Debye temperatures and sound velocity of these Fe-Al compounds are explored.

  8. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xiao Wang; Gui-xian Wang; Jing-shun Liu; Lun-yong Zhang; Wei Wang; Ze Li; Qi-xiang Wang; Jian-fei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Ni–Al powder and Ni–Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spec-troscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50μm. The morphology of the Ni–Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni–Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 parti-cles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni–Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermet-allic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 pre-cipitates and a Ni–Al–O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  9. Gate length scaling effect on high-electron mobility transistors devices using AlGaN/GaN and AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Y; Lu, C C; Chang, T; Huang, C F; Cheng, C H; Chang, L B

    2014-08-01

    Compared to AlGaN/GaN HEMT with 0.15 μm T-gate length, the AlInN/AlN/GaN one exhibits much higher current density and transconductance of 1558 mA/mm at Vd = 2 V and 330 mS/mm, respectively. The high extrinsic ft and fmax of 82 GHz and 70 GHz are extracted from AlInN/AlN/GaN HEMT. Besides, we find that the transconductance roll-off is significant in AlGaN/GaN, but largely improved in AlInN/AlN/GaN HEMT, suggesting that the high carrier density and lattice-matched epitaxial heterostructure is important to reach both large RF output power and high operation frequency, especially for an aggressively gate length scaling.

  10. The Formation of γ—AlON Spinel in the Reaction of Al2O3—AlN—MgO System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYawei; YUANRunzhang; 等

    1997-01-01

    The stabilization of γ-aluminium oxyni-tride spinel(γ-AlON) has been investigated by addition of MgO,MgAl2O4,etc.,in reaction process.The results indicated that there are wider solid solution areas near ,Al2O3-rich side in AlN-Al2O3-MgO ternary systems,The content of stabilized AlON phase in samples is related to heating temperatures,additives,etc.The lattice parameters of their AlON phases could be well describedby the equation: a0=0.7900+0.0375[MgO]+0.015[AlN](nm)

  11. Oxidation Behaviour of Sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating at 900°C in air was investigated. A dense Al2O3 layer was formed on the sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating after 200 h oxidation.However, owing to the segregation of Ni3Al during oxidation Focess at high temperature, the spinel NiAl2O4 was also formed in the Al2O3 layer. It was found that the formation of NiAl2O4had no detrimental effect on the oxidation resistance of the sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating due to the excellent adhesion shown by the Al2O3 and NiAl2O4 complex oxide scale.

  12. Environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民; 张瑞林; S.H.YU; 余瑞璜

    1996-01-01

    First,it is proposed that hydrogen atoms occupy the interstitial sites in Fe3Al and FeAl.Then the environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys is studied in the light of calculated valence electron structures and bond energy of Fe3Al and FeAl containing hydrogen atoms.From the analyses it is found that the states of metal atoms will change,in which more lattice electrons will become covalent electrons to bond with hydrogen atoms when the atomic hydrogen diffuses into the intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys,which will result in the decrease of local metallicity in Fe3Al and FeAl.Meanwhile,it is found that the crystal will easily cleave since solute hydrogen bonds with metal atoms and severely anisotropic bonds form.As a conclusion,these factors result in the environmental embrittlement of Fe3Al and FeAl.

  13. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of arc sprayed Zn-Al coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; ZHU Zi-xin; CHEN Yong-xiong; XU Bin-shi; MA Shi-ning; LI Zhuo-xin

    2004-01-01

    Cored wires and high velocity arc spraying (HVAS) technique were applied to produce high Al content Zn-Al alloy coatings on low carbon steel substrates. The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of Zn, Al and Zn-Al coatings were studied with potentiodynamic measurement in 5 % NaCl solution. Compared with pure Zn, pure Al and Zn-15Al coatings, Zn-26Al coatings show a higher corrosion resistance in salt solution. The potentiodynamic polarization tests show that the corrosion resistance of Zn-Al coatings increases as Al content is raised. Pure Al coating exhibits different electrochemical behaviors with other coatings. The corrosion initiated at the micro-pores of the coating and the underlying corrosion mechanism is very similar to that of the pitting corrosion.

  14. Properties of porous FeAlO/FeAl ceramic matrix composite influenced by mechanical activation of FeAl powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Usoltsev; S Tikhov; A Salanov; V Sadykov; G Golubkova; O Lomovskii

    2013-12-01

    Porous ceramic matrix composites FeAlO/FeAl with incorporated metal inclusions (cermets) were synthesized by pressureless method, which includes hydrothermal treatment of mechanically alloyed FeAl powder followed by calcination. Their main structural, textural and mechanical features are described. Variation of FeAl powder alloying time results in non-monotonous changes of the porosity and mechanical strength. Details of the cermet microstructure and its relation to the mechanical properties are discussed.

  15. Observable Proxies For 26 Al Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, Patrick A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ellinger, Carola I [ASU; Arnett, William D [UNIV ARIZONA

    2008-01-01

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx} 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  16. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L. [UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Lab. de Cuernavaca; Schneibel, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  17. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  18. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  19. Communication Support for People with ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beukelman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 95% of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC intervention; therefore, appropriate timing of referral for AAC assessment and intervention continues to be a most important clinical decision-making issue. AAC acceptance and use have increased considerably during the past decade. Many people use AAC until within a few weeks of their deaths.

  20. Hydrogen diffusion in Al-Li alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyalebechi, P. N.

    1990-08-01

    The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in binary Al-Li alloys containing 1,2, and 3 wt pct Li have been determined from desorption curves of samples saturated with hydrogen at 473 to 873 K. Within this temperature range, the diffusivity of hydrogen in the binary Al-Li alloys investigated has an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence and follows the equation of the general form D = DT) where D 0exp(-Q/R is the diffusion coefficient (m2/s), D 0 is the preexponential or frequency factor (m2/s), R is the gas constant (J/K mol), Q is the activation energy (J/mol), and T is absolute temperature (K). The rate of diffusion of hydrogen in aluminum decreases with increase in lithium additions. This is provisionally attributed to the stronger local binding energy between hydrogen and lithium atoms in the aluminum metal lattice.

  1. Spherical foam growth in Al alloy melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG; Jintang; HE; Deping

    2005-01-01

    Due to the demand of high-tech Al alloy foam with spherical pores, high strength and high energy-absorption capacity has become one of the research foci. The aim of this study is to ascertain the growth regularity of spherical foam in Al alloy melt. Three-dimensional packing model such as face-centered cubic is established to study the spherical foam growth. Theoretical results are compared with experimental ones, and the face-centered cubic model corresponds well with the experiment. It is reasonable to assume that the pores have the same radius, the total pore number keeps unchanged and spherical foam grows with face-centered cubic packing mode. This study presents a useful help to control the average pore radius and film thickness.

  2. [Communication with ALS patients: neurosurgical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Sawada, Jin-Ichi; Hazama, Takanori; Mochizuki, Hideki; Hirata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    By progression of the disease, motor neurons degenerate in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) eventually lose nearly all voluntary muscles in the body. They are awake and aware but cannot move or communicate (locked-in state). Since the function of the brain is preserved, one possible measure to support their communication is to interpret their motor intention by decoding (deciphering) brain signals and present it with external devices. This technology called "brain-machine interface (BMI)" is now close to clinical use in Japan and USA.In our system, we record electrocorticogram (ECoG) obtained with subudural electrodes during their motor imagery, decode it and determine the movement they intended. So far, one patient of ALS with severe paralysis, implanted with this electrodes, successfully operated the PC communication tool only by thinking.

  3. Status of the AlCap experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Litchfield, R Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The AlCap experiment is a joint project between the COMET and Mu2e collaborations. Both experiments intend to look for the lepton-flavour violating conversion $\\mu + A \\rightarrow e + A$, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in the muon stopping target are an important concern, both in terms of hit rates in tracking detectors and radiation damage to equipment. The goal of the AlCap experiment is to provide precision measurements of the products of nuclear capture on Aluminium, which is the favoured target material for both COMET and Mu2e. The results will be used for optimising the design of both conversion experiments, and as input to their simulations. Data was taken in December 2013 and is currently being analysed.

  4. The Byzantines in Medieval Arabic Poetry: Abu Firas’ "Al-Rumiyyat" and the Poetic Responses of al-Qaffal and Ibn Hazm to Nicephore Phocas’ "Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna" (The Armenian Cursed Ode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar F. HERMES

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Up until the Crusades, it was al-Rūm who were universally seen by Arab writers and Arab poets in particular as the Other par excellence. Nowhere is this more conspicuous than in the sub-genre of Al-Rūmiyyat (poems about the Byzantines, namely as found in the Rūmiyyat of Abu Firas al-Hamdani(d.968, and in the poetic responses of al-Qaffal(d. 946 and Ibn Hazm(d. 1064 to what was described by several medieval Muslim chronicles as Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna (The Armenian Cursed Ode. By exploring the forgotten views of the Byzantines in medieval Arabic poetry, this article purports to demonstrate that contrary to the impression left after reading Edward Said’s groundbreaking Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient (1978 and other postcolonial studies, Orientals have not existed solely to be ‘orientalized’. Perhaps even before this came to be so, they too had ‘occidentalized’ their Euro-Christian Other(s in a way that mirrored in reverse the subject/object relationship described as Orientalism.

  5. KISAH DZULQARNAIN DALAM AL-QUR’AN SURAT AL-KAHFI: 83-101 (Pendekatan Hermeneutik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukimin Rukimin

    2016-06-01

    ingkar hendaknya diajak bertobat dan kembali kepada keimanan dengan diperingatkan akan kekufurannya bahwa Allah akan mengazab orang-orang yang ingkar. Kata Kunci: Dzhulqarnai; al-Qu’an; hermeneutika

  6. Fabrication and properties of functionally graded NiAl/Al2O3 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Lannutti, J. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    A modified sedimentation process was used in the production of a functionally gradient material (FGM), NiAl/Al2O3. A simple finite element model was used to guide our design and fabrication efforts by estimating residual stress states as a function of composite structure. This approach could lead to tailored designs that enhance or avoid specific residual stress states. Thermal cycling tests were factored into the model to predict time dependent or steady-state internal temperature and stress profiles. Four-point bend tests were conducted to establish the mechanical load-displacement behavior of a single interlayer FGM at room temperature, 800 and 1000 K. Room temperature bend strength of the FGM was 3-4 times that of the base NiAl. At elevated temperatures, composite fracture occurred in a gradual, noncatastrophic mode involving NiAl retardation of a succession of cracks originating in the alumina face.

  7. Fabrication of high-quality submicron Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hai-Feng; Cao Wen-Hui; Zhu Xiao-Bo; Yang Hai-Fang; Yu Hong-Wei; Ren Yu-Feng; Gu Chang-Zhi; Chen Geng-Hua; Zhao Shi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions are often used in the studies of macroscopic quantum phenomena and supercon-ducting qubit applications of the Josepheon devices. In this work, we describe a convenient and reliable process using electron beam lithography for the fabrication of high-quality, submicron-sized Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions.The technique follows the well-known selective Nb etching process and produces high-quality junctions with Vm=100 mV at 2.3 K for the typical critical current density of 2.2 kA/cm2, which can be adjusted by controlling the oxygen pressure and oxidation time during the formation of the tunnelling barrier. We present the results of the temperature depen-dence of the sub-gap current and in-plane magnetic-field dependence of the critical current, and compare them with the theoretical predictions.

  8. Effect of partial melting on superplasticity ofAlNp/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AlN particulate reinforced 6061 aluminum alloy composite was fabricated by powder metallurgy method and hot-rolled after extrusion. Tensile strength and elongation at elevated temperature were measured by tensile test at initial strain rates between 10-2 s-1 and 100 s-1. The AlNp/6061Al composite exhibits an m-value of 0.42 and a maximum elongation of 450% at 863?K. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to ascertain the possibility of any partial melting in the vicinity of optimum superplastic temperature. Partial melting resulting from solute segregation at interfaces has much influence on superplasticity of the composite. It is postulated that AlNp/matrix interface sliding occurs along with grain boundary in superplastic deformation.

  9. Adherent Al2O3 scales produced on undoped NiCrAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated oxidation and polishing of high purity Ni-15Cr-13Al has dramatically changed its cyclic oxidation behavior from nonadherent to adherent. No apparent change in scale phase, morphology or interface structure occurred during this transition, dismissing any mechanism based on pegging, vacancy sink, or growth stress. The principle change that did occur was a reduction in the sulfur content from 10 ppmw to 3 ppmw after 25 cycles at 1120 C. These observations are used to support the model of Al2O3 scale adherence put forth by Smeggil et al. which claims that Al2O3 scale spallation occurs due to sulfur segregation and bond deterioration at the oxide-metal interface.

  10. Fabrication Of Al 2024/SiC Nanocomposite with Al and Cu Pure Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Composites find an important place as new advanced materials in last decades; those especially produced with nanoparticles reinforcements, attracts researchers and a number of researches were executed on this topic. In this study, Al-base 2024 alloy composites reinforced with SiC nanoparticles were fabricated and the effects of two different coating materials were investigated. Coatings were pure Al and Cu powder with constant grain particle size. The results show that the Al coating has impacts on grain size and the interface layer between reinforcement and matrix. The mechanism of formation of interface layer between SiC nanoparticles and the Al-base 2024 matrix with reinforced with Cu coated SiC particles is quite different.

  11. Die Welt als Puppenhaus. Die verzauberten Filme des Wes Anderson als Retrospektive im Kino Xenix

    OpenAIRE

    Binotto, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Nur gerade sieben Filme hat der Regisseur und Autor Wes Anderson bisher gemacht, damit aber ein einzigartiges Œuvre geschaffen. Das Xenix zeigt diese melancholischen und verspielten Kunstwerke, zusammen mit Filmen, die als Inspiration dienten.

  12. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The Monotheism and Jihad Group, aka The al-Zarqawi Network, aka al-Tawhid, aka Tanzim Qa`idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq,...

  13. 77 FR 4083 - Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Specially Designated Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ..., aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The Monotheism and Jihad Group, aka The al-Zarqawi Network, aka al-Tawhid, aka Tanzim Qa`idat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al- Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq, aka al-Qaida...

  14. Entspannung als Wirkfaktor in der manuellen Stimmbehandlung

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnert, B.; Schlasze, H; Siebertz, S; Neuschaefer-Rube, C

    2010-01-01

    Hintergrund: Verschiedene Studien sprechen für eine Wirksamkeit der Manuellen Therapien (z. B. Osteopathie) nicht nur bei der sog. "Zervikogenen Dysphonie", sondern auch bei hyperfunktionellen Dysphonien. Unsere klinische Erfahrung zeigt, dass Patienten eine manuelle Behandlung der HWS als sehr entspannend empfinden. Uns sind keine Arbeiten bekannt, die den Anteil dieser allgemeinen Entspannung am Behandlungserfolg der Manuellen Therapien untersuchen. Wir stellen eine erste Studie zum Vergle...

  15. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  16. The beta-decay of Al-22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouri, NL; Santos, FDO; Lewitowicz, M; Blank, B; Aysto, J; Canchel, G; Czajkowski, S; Dendooven, P; Emsallem, A; Giovinazzo, J; Guillet, N; Jokinen, A; Larid, AM; Longour, C; Perajarvi, K; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M

    2006-01-01

    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of Al-22 produced by the fragmentation of a Ar-36 primary beam. A beta-decay half-life of T-1/2 = 91.1 +/- 0.5ms was measured. The beta-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as beta-alpha and beta-delayed gamma-de

  17. Response to de la Iglesia et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetish, Gandhi; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael; Wood, Brian; Pontzer, Herman; Manger, Paul R; Wilson, Charles; McGregor, Ronald; Siegel, Jerome M

    2016-04-01

    We wish to respond to the commentary of de la Iglesia et al. [1]. Studies comparing sleep in different communities have different goals. One frequent goal has been to determine how sleep is affected by manipulating specific 'modern' conditions. Many studies have investigated the effect of artificial light and electronic entertainment. Such studies have clearly shown that light, particularly blue light, delays sleep onset [2]. Studying the effect of artificial light on sleep was not a goal of our study.

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C.A. [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)], E-mail: alexandc@Battelle.org; Ogden, J.S.; Risser, S.M.; Wood, Van E. [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Thermodynamic properties of the high-stability intermetallic compound nickel aluminide, NiAl, have been determined from mass-spectrometric, weight-loss effusion, and calorimetric measurements, using samples from a single preparation with a composition determined to be Ni{sub 0.986}Al{sub 1.014}. Per mole of NiAl molecules, the specific heat capacity at room temperature of 298 K is 48.54 J . K{sup -1} . mol{sup -1}, with a linear temperature dependence of +0.0104 J . K{sup -2} . mol{sup -1}. At the same temperature, the enthalpy of formation is -133.7 kJ . mol{sup -1}, the entropy is about 53.8 J . K{sup -1} . mol{sup -1} and the enthalpy difference between room temperature and absolute zero is 7.97 kJ . mol{sup -1}. The Gibbs free-energy is -130.2 kJ . mol{sup -1} at T = 298 K, with a linear temperature dependence of +5.04 J . K{sup -1} . mol{sup -1}. The Debye temperature is 452 K, while the electronic density-of-states at the Fermi-level is about 0.29 states per eV-atom. The NiAl{sup +} ions were observed in the high-temperature mass spectra. Pressures for the gas at these temperatures were estimated and used with the results of quantum-mechanical calculations of total energy, specific heat, and entropy to calculate free-energy functions for the gas. These and additional results are compared with other measurements and discussed in terms of current theories of the electronic and structural properties of the compound.

  19. Crítica al funcionalismo normativista

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El artículo gira en torno al modelo de pensamiento del funcionalismo «normativista» formulado por Günther Jakobs y de las bases metodológicas que han hecho desembocar su teoría de la pena en el ambiguo concepto del llamado «derecho penal del enemigo» como teoría de la excepción penal.

  20. Globale Entwikclung als Lernbereich in den Naturwissenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Härtig, Hendrik; Bernholt, Sascha; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Mit dem Orientierungsrahmen für den Lernbereich Globale Entwicklung wurden Anregungen gegeben, die Themen nachhaltige Entwicklung und globale Entwicklung im Unterricht in allen Schulfächern aufzugreifen. Die drei naturwissenschaftlichen Schulfächer Biologie, Chemie und Physik haben sich bislang sehr unterschiedlich auf das Thema eingelassen. In der Biologiedidaktik finden sich sowohl Forschungsarbeiten als auch Unterrichtsvorschläge; für Chemie und insbesondere Physik existieren hingegen nur ...

  1. Influence of AlF3 and hydrothermal conditions on morphologies of α-Al2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Gao-feng; WANG Jing; KANG Jian

    2008-01-01

    Homogeneous α-Al2O3 platelets were synthesized by introducing AlF3 to alumina precursor.The effects of AlF3 additive on the phase transformation and morphology of the prepared α-Al2O3 platelets were investigated.The results show that a single phase of α-Al2O3 with an average particle size of 8μm can be obtained at 900℃ with 2% AlF3 additive.The transformation temperature decreasing IS attributed to introduction of Al3+ vacancy and to the formation of intermediate compound of AlOF,which is considered to accelerate the mass transportation from transitional Al2O3 to α-Al2O3.AlF3 concentration and hydrothermal temperature can also affect the morphology of α-Al2O3.When hydrothermal temperature is 120℃,the morphology of α-Al2O3 transforms from irregular to flat hexangular platelet with increasing AlF3 concentration.As hydrothermal temperature increases,the morphology of α-Al2O3 with 2% AlF3 additive changes from polyhedron to hexangular platelet and then to vermicular.

  2. ALS1 and ALS3 gene expression and biofilm formation in Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Roudbarmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results attained indicated that there is an association between the expression of ALS1 and ALS3 genes and fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. A considerable percent of the isolates expressing the ALS1 and ALS3 genes may have contributed to their adherence to vagina and biofilm formation.

  3. Fracture toughness of Al-4%Mg/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}p composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestes, R.H. [Hewlett-Packard, Camus, WA 98607 (United States); Kamat, S.V. [Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States); Hirth, J.P. [Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

    1994-12-20

    Fracture toughness tests were carried out on Al-4%Mg/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}p composites containing different sizes and volume fractions of alumina particulates. The results indicated that the fracture toughness was dependent on the interparticle spacing provided the particulate size was below a critical size. The critical particle size corresponds to the situation wherein the energy release rate on particulate cracking is sufficient to trigger dynamic unstable crack extension. ((orig.))

  4. „Der Islam begann als Fremder, und als Fremder wird er wiederkehren“

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riexinger, Martin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb embeds in his Mukhtaṣar sīrat al-rasūl the biography of Muḥammad in an overarching vision of history that begins with Adam and ends in the Mongol period. In this cyclical concept the promulgation of Islam is followed by a relapse into shirk due to misdirected piety...

  5. Magnetism of UPtAl and UIrAl; LDA+U calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusz, Jan [Department of Electronic Structures, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: rusz@mag.mff.cuni.cz; Divis, Martin [Department of Electronic Structures, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2005-04-15

    We report on electronic structure calculations of UPtAl and UIrAl ternary uranium based intermetallic compounds. Calculations were performed in the framework of density functional theory using LDA+U exchange correlation potential. Full relaxation of U and J parameters was performed with the aim of obtaining correct total magnetic moments on uranium site. These parameters are then used in subsequent analysis of magnetic moments (including spin and orbital components) and hybridization effects.

  6. Liquidus Temperatures of System Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3 for Aluminum Electrolysis at Lower Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chen-juan; LAI Yan-qing; LI Jie; TIAN Zhong-liang; WANG Jia-wei; ZOU Zhong; LIU Ye-xiang

    2011-01-01

    Liquidus temperatures in the molten salt system Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3 of interest for aluminum electrolysis were determined by thermal analysis method.The results were presented and an empirical equation describing liquidus temperatures for primary crystallization was derived t=1003.5-0.081 ×A2.3159-5.87×B0.657-0.024×A2.22×B1.14+0.035×A2.17×B1.084,where t is the liquidus temperature in degree Celsius,A denotes the mass fraction of AlF3 in system Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3,and B denotes K3A1F6/(Na3AlF6+K3AlF6)in mass(%,the value was defined as KR in this paper).The composition limitations are 0<w(AlF3)<30%,and 0<KR<50%.The isothermal diagram of molten salt system Na3AlF6-K3A1F6-AlF3 was obtained in this composition limitation.

  7. In-situ Synthesis of Ti3AlC2/TiC-Al2O3 Composite from TiO2-Al-C System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jixin CHEN; Jialin LI; Yanchun ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    Ti3AlC2/TiC-Al2O3 composite was synthesized by a combustion reaction in TiO2-Al-C system. The effect of the compositions in raw materials on the products was investigated. Ti3AlC2/TiC-Al2O3 composite was obtained at the molar ratio of TiO2:Al:C=3.0:5.0~5.1:1.8~2.0. The reaction path for the 3TiO2-5Al-2C system was proposed. Al3Ti, Ti2O3, TiO, and δ-Al2O3 are found to be transitional phases. Finally,Ti3AlC2/TiC-Al2O3 composite forms at ~900℃ of furnace temperature. The measured Vickers hardness,fracture toughness, and flexural strength of the nearly dense sample from 3TiO2-5Al-2C are 13.3±1.1 GPa,5.8±0.3 MPa.m1/2, and 466±39 MPa, respectively.

  8. L'Hemisferic: Una ventana al mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calatrava Valls, Santiago

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Hemisféric-Planetario" building is located in the center line East-West of the "Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias" complex, flanked by two rectangular lakes, in the north and in the south, respectively. In the East side we can find a promenade between the Museum and its south lake. Nevertheless its West side is virtual. and located in the area of the "Hermanos Marista 's" viaducto The building is visited, daily, by about 3.000 people, distributed between its 8 duties. The showing room holds 321 seats, four of those for wheel-chairs. The building has a possible room of 999 people (at the same time.El edificio Hemisféric-Planetarío está situado sobre el eje Este-Oeste del complejo de la Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias; está flanqueado por dos estanques rectangulares, al Norte y al Sur, respectivamente. Por el Este, un paseo limita la parcela con el Museo y su estanque Sur. El limite Oeste, sin embargo. es virtual y se encuentra en la proyección del viaducto de Hermanos Maristas. Este edificio es visitado diariamente por unos 3.000 personas, distribuyéndose en 8 funciones. La sala de proyección dispone de 321 butacas, con posibilidad de alojar 4 sillas de ruedas. La capacidad de acogida del edificio (al mismo tiempo es de 999 personas.

  9. Diet and dietetics in al-Andalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Huetos-Solano, Maria D; García-Lorda, Pilar; Bulló, Mònica

    2006-08-01

    Al-Andalus society (711-1492) based its idea of health on the wisdom of Classical Greece, the Hippocratic-Galenic theories, as well as the Persian and Hindu cultures. The twelfth century in al-Andalus is considered to be the most prolific period for works of a scientific and technical nature. At the time, the main treatises on dietetics were written and this science reached its widest expression with such leading figures as Ibn Wāfīd, Avenzoar, Averroes and Maimonides, whose works revealed the first scientific knowledge on the nutritional processes of the human body. Diet was regarded as being essential for health and the prevention of disease. Dietary guidelines were written for different age groups, different body types and different seasons of the year. The amount of food to be ingested, the number of meals recommended and the order in which the food should be consumed were all issues that were discussed. A variety of foods were thought to have medicinal properties, some of which are known today. The diet in al-Andalus was varied and very probably made a substantial contribution to the origin of the present-day Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables, fish, lamb, poultry, nuts and spices. We also find that many of the terms in current use in diet and agriculture are a living testimony to the Arabic influence, as are many of the dishes of our varied Mediterranean gastronomy.

  10. Keanekaragaman dalam al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Chirzin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of race, language, class, and culture is a wealth; basically, it is a beautiful gift in this life. However, the reality is precesely the social conflict among the society. This article explores the issue of diversity contained in al Qur’an. Some of the key themes included: diversity as sunnatullah, diversity in unity, religious and ethnic diversity, and diversity of professions. Al Qur’an has mentioned several groups of religious believers and provided guidance association order among religious believers. Religious diversity certainly makes Muslim necessitates acknowledging and respecting other religion save Islam. Al Qur’an has mentioned also a variety of occupations based on interests, talents, expertise, and particular skills. The fragmentation and understanding diversity have caused by egoism and truth claiming of each group and individual, but no one has knowledge covering everything from different sides or corners. Above all knowledge is the Almighty owner off all knowledge. With feeling most true someone or group tends to feel the best and have the right to insult any others. That is the base of the dispute and spiritual decline. Mukmin has to preserve the noble character in association, and keep away from bad manner. Among mukmin must love each other and maintain good manners. Finally, this study is intended to promote the establishment of harmony, peace and happiness of living together.

  11. Resistencia al esfuerzo cortante en rellenos sanitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimar Andrés Sandoval-Vallejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los rellenos sanitarios son obras ingenieriles conformadas con un material específico, cuyas propiedades de resistencia al cor te pueden determinarse de manera similar a la de un material geotécnico. Este artículo presenta resultado s de un programa experimental r ealizado con el fin de obtener los paráme tros de resistencia al corte de l relleno sanitario Presidente en el Valle del Cauca (Colombia . El programa experimental involucró ensayos d e corte directo no consolidado no drenado (UU sobre muestras reconstituidas en laboratorio. L a variación del ángulo de fricción interna y de la cohesión, como una funci ón del peso específico, profundidad, y tiempo de descomposición del relleno fue evaluada. También se compararon los resu ltados con valores internacionales usados para diseñ o. Los resultados mostraron un a marcada influencia del tiempo de descom posición en la resistencia al co rte. También se encontró ciert a dependencia con la profundidad. Los parámetros de resistencia obtenidos se encuentran dentro de ran gos internacionales recomendados para diseño.

  12. Thermodynamic properties and mixing thermodynamic parameters of Ba-Al, Mg-Al, Sr-Al and Cu-Al metallic melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鉴

    2004-01-01

    Application of equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters formulated on the basis of the coexistence theory of metallic melts in Ba-Al, Mg-Al, Sr-A1 and Cu-Al melts leads to fruitful results that not only the evaluated mass action concentrations agree well with the measured activities, but also the calculated mixing thermodynamic parameters are quite coincident with the experimental values. Moreover, the calculated mass action concentrations strictly obey the mass action law. The evaluated mixing thermodynamic parameters have very fine regularity: the mixing free energy is composed of standard free formation energies of all compounds and chemical potentials of all structural units at equilibrium; the mixing enthalpy consists of standard formation enthalpies of all compounds; the mixing entropy is composed of standard entropies of all compounds and configuration entropies of all structural units at equilibrium. As the equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters formulated are widely applicable to metallic melts involving compound formation, they can be used as the second practical criterion to determine whether thermodynamic models of metallic melts are correctly formulated.

  13. Studies on Al Kidirate and Kapoeta meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismelseed, A.M. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan); Khangi, F. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan); Ibrahim, A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan); Yousif, A.A. [Coll. of Science, Sultan Qaboos Univ., Alkhoud (Oman); Worthing, M.A. [Coll. of Science, Sultan Qaboos Univ., Alkhoud (Oman); Rais, A. [Coll. of Science, Sultan Qaboos Univ., Alkhoud (Oman); Elzain, M.E. [Coll. of Science, Sultan Qaboos Univ., Alkhoud (Oman); Brooks, C.K. [Coll. of Science, Sultan Qaboos Univ., Alkhoud (Oman); Sutherland, H.H. [Coll. of Science, Sultan Qaboos Univ., Alkhoud (Oman)

    1994-11-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy (20-300 K), magnetic susceptibility measurements (77-350 K), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on two meteorite samples: one from an old fall (Kapoeta) and another from a very recent fall (Al Kidirate). The two specimens differ in their mineralogy. Chondrules appear to be absent in Kapoeta and it is probably a pyroxene-plagioclase achondrite with ferrohypersthene as the most abundant mineral. On the other hand, the Al Kidirate meteorite is an ordinary chondrite and the specimen consists of olivine, orthopyroxene, troilite and kamacite. The Moessbauer measurements confirm the above characterization, showing a paramagnetic doublet for the Kapoeta sample and at least two paramagnetic doublets and magnetic sextets for the Al Kidirate specimens. The former were assigned to Fe in pyroxene sites, while the latter was assigned to Fe in pyroxene, olivine, Fe-S and Fe-Ni alloys. The difference in the mineralogy of the two meteorites has also been reflected in the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility. The magnetization and the hyperfine interaction parameters will be discussed in relation to the mineralogy. (orig.)

  14. De la vigilancia convencional al monitoreo participativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Breilh

    Full Text Available La necesidad de transformar el monitoreo de la salud de un instrumento funcional al sistema dominante de poder en una herramienta del poder colectivo, y de negociación del desarrollo de la salud laboral y el bienestar, implica la urgente transformación de la vieja vigilancia epidemiológica en un monitoreo participativo. Debe superarse el sistema convencional de información en salud, que observa fundamentalmente los "factores de enfermedad" y sus efectos mórbidos aislados, invisibilizando los procesos de determinación integrales. Este trabajo analiza el proceso de derrota de los derechos sociales y laborales, lo cual sitúa el desafío planteado en un escenario de profundo retroceso social y asalto a los derechos conquistados por los/as trabajadores/as en años de lucha. Con el propósito de esclarecer dicho argumento, al autor comienza contrastando los modelos de vigilancia clásicos, algunas propuestas transicionales, hasta arribar al monitoreo participativo. La aplicación de la categoría "perfil epidemiológico" permite sistematizar los dominios y dimensiones del monitoreo y establecer los sujetos sociales de esa mirada crítica e intercultural del pueblo sobre su salud, mediante la construcción de una matriz de procesos críticos.

  15. Evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in Al-Haram Al-Nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Boquellah, Nahla; Kaff, Nadia Al; Ahmadi, Majid Al

    2017-01-01

    Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method. Thirty five genera and fifty eight species were identified. The most recovered bacterial genera were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Dermacoccus with 32.47%, 18.18%, 12.85%, and 11.23%, respectively. Fifty nine isolates of fungi were molecularly identified. Aspergillus species had the highest percentage (78%). The other fungal genera identified (Alternaria triticina, Emericella nidulans, Emericella striata, Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium minioluteum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum) had less than 5% frequency. In places such as Al-Haram Al-Nabawi, a large and crowded public (millions) exist especially during pilgrimages and Ramadan, thus, exposure to microorganisms is high. On the other hand, microorganism infectivity depends on many factors including their virulence, landing site, and person's immunity. For those reasons, many aspects should be considered to avoid aerosol contaminants.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Al/p-CuInAlSe2 Thin Film Schottky Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Parihar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Al/p-CuInAlSe2 polycrystalline schottky diodes fabricated by flash evaporation method were undertaken for their electrical analysis at room temperature. Diode parameters of the undertaken diodes were then derived from the current-voltage (I-V as well as capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics. It has been observed that the schottky barrier height deduced from the room temperature I-V is lower to that obtained from the C-V characteristics and is attributed to the fact that I-V analysis includes both the image force and dipole lowering effects and is also reduced by the tunneling and leakage currents. The slope variation of the frequency dependent C – 2-V characteristics for the Al/p-CuInAlSe2 Schottky diode at varying frequency values from 50 kHz to 1 MHz suggests a large density of slow traps or interface states at the M-S junction. As emerging from the parameters values energy band diagram of Al and P-CuInAlSe2 has been reconstructed.

  17. Preparation of Al- AlN Bonded Corundum Based Refractories by in-situ Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Boquan; FANG Binxiang; ZHANG Wenjie

    2008-01-01

    The Al-AlN bonded corundum based refractories was synthesized with the starting materials of fused alu-mina and metallic aluminium in nitrogen atmosphere through in-situ reaction. The study indicated that with the addition of 14% metallic aluminium (13% of Al powder and 1% of Al fiber) , the material nitridized at 1 100 ℃ for 3 h has excellent physical properties. It is found that a massive quantity of AlN in the forms of both whiskers" and hexagon pellet particles is formed, and a large quantity of Al remained in the matrix. This multiple bonding system resulted in the excellent me-chanical properties of the material. It is also found that the hydration tendency of the prepared material is inhib-ited, and the material exhibited excellent thermal shock resistance. The nature of protective oxidation of the bonding system is characterized. Thus, this material may become a new candidate of carbon-free sliding plate material for continuous casting.

  18. A comparative wear study on Al-Li and Al-Li/SiC composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, S. Cem; Karslioglu, Ramazan; Akbulut, Hatem

    2013-12-01

    Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (Al-8090) alloy and Al-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an Al2O3 ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms-1 and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the Al-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the Al-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the Al-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.

  19. Nanoindentation studies of ex situ AlN/Al metal matrix nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fale, Sandeep; Likhite, Ajay; Bhatt, Jatin, E-mail: jatinbhatt@mme.vnit.ac.in

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Formation of in-situ phases nucleated on AlN particles strengthens the matrix. • Formation of in-situ phases increases with AlN content in nanocomposites. • Stronger in-situ phases results in increased hardness and modulus of elasticity. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Aluminium nitride (AlN) powder is dispersed in different weight ratio in Aluminum matrix to fabricate metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) using ex situ melt metallurgy process. The synthesized Al–AlN nanocomposites are studied for phase analysis using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and for hardness behavior using microindentation and nanoindentation tests. Quantitative analysis of the oxide phases is calculated from thermodynamic data and mass balance equation using elemental data obtained from energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. Role of oxide phases in association with AlN particles is investigated to understand the mechanical behavior of composites using nanoindentation tester. Load–displacement profile obtained from nanoindentation test reveals distribution of oxide phases along with AlN particle and their effect on indent penetration.

  20. Evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in Al-Haram Al-Nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud M. Alananbeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method. Thirty five genera and fifty eight species were identified. The most recovered bacterial genera were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Dermacoccus with 32.47%, 18.18%, 12.85%, and 11.23%, respectively. Fifty nine isolates of fungi were molecularly identified. Aspergillus species had the highest percentage (78%. The other fungal genera identified (Alternaria triticina, Emericella nidulans, Emericella striata, Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium minioluteum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum had less than 5% frequency. In places such as Al-Haram Al-Nabawi, a large and crowded public (millions exist especially during pilgrimages and Ramadan, thus, exposure to microorganisms is high. On the other hand, microorganism infectivity depends on many factors including their virulence, landing site, and person’s immunity. For those reasons, many aspects should be considered to avoid aerosol contaminants.

  1. TEM characterization of Al-C-Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites produced by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Beltran, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Gallegos-Orozco, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Estrada-Guel, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Bejar-Gomez, L. [Universidad Mich. de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edif. ' W' , C.U., C.P. 58000, Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Espinosa-Magana, F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)]. E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-05-31

    Novel Al-based composites (Al-C-Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) obtained by mechanical milling (MM), were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Analyses of composites were carried out in both, the as-milled and the as-sintered conditions. C nanoparticles were found in the as-milled condition and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers were found in as-sintered products, as determined by EELS. C and Cu react with Al to crystallize in Al{sub 3}C{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}Cu structures, respectively.

  2. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal. Población y muestra: 30 adolescentes embarazadas asistentes al Programa, el muestreo por conveniencia. Se utilizó la encuesta y la observación directa, previa autorización del Director de la empresa. Resultados: Caracterización de la población: predominó la edad de 15 a 19 años (adolescencia tardía, uniones libres, baja escolaridad debido a la deserción escolar, ingreso económico menor al salario mínimo legal vigente. Aspectos Biológicos: la menarquía a temprana edad (9 a 14 años, y en ella la mitad de los embarazos. La mayoría de los segundos embarazos terminaron en parto, la minoría en cesárea y aborto. La captación para los controles prenatales fue tardía, algunas no cumplieron con las citas programadas. Aspectos Psicológicos: inestabilidad con la pareja al enterarse del embarazo, tuvieron soporte familiar moral y económico, abandonaron sus estudios y presentaron malestares como estrés, depresión y tristeza. Aspectos Sociales: predominó la convivencia con la familia extensa. Hubo aceptación en el colegio y en los amigos. Discusión y Conclusiones: Se plantean estrategias para disminuir estos aspectos: elaboración de una cartilla sobre “Cuidado de la adolescente embarazada”, creación de espacios de reflexión, jornadas lúdicas educativas, entre otros. (Rev Cuid 2012; 3(3:385-93.Palabras clave: Embarazo en Adolescencia, Bienestar Materno, Atención Prenatal. (Fuente: De

  3. Study on Interface between Sub-micron Particles and Matrix n Al2O3p/Al Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructural characteristic of 1070Al matrix composites reinforced by 0.15 μm Al2O3 particles whose volume fraction was 40% was investigated by TEM and HREM. The results showed that the interface between the matrix and reinforcements was clean and bonded well, without any interfacial reaction products. There were some preferential crystallographic orientation relationships between Al matrix and Al2O3 particle because of the lattice imperfection on the surface of Al2O3 particles.

  4. Motivasi Berpikir Menurut al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Andriyani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kitab Suci Al-Qur’an merupakan kitab Allah yang diturunkan kepada umat manusia sebagai petunjuk bagi kita semua, yang mana diturunkan kepada umat Nabi Muhammad Saw mulai dari berabad-abad yang lalu, hingga sampai sekarang ini. Al-Qur’an di dalamnya banyak sekali mengandung isyarat ilmiah yang berguna bagi umat manusia. Oleh karena itu, sebagai makhluk Allah yang dikarunia akal pikiran, sudah seharusnya menjadi tugas kita untuk mengungkap apa yang ada di dalam al-Qur’an yang menjadi isyarat ilmiah bagi kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan. Al-Qur’an banyak memberikan motivasi bagi umat manusia, terutama motivasi berpikir. Berpikir adalah olah kerja otak yang yang berfungsi mencari hakekat dari sesuatu. Namun, dalam al-Qur’an berpikir juga tidak semuanya dilakukan oleh akal pikiran, melainkan juga dapat dilakukan dengan hati. Ketika mengkaji lebih dalam mengenai berpikir, maka akan didapatkan beberapa lafadz yang mempunyai pengertian yang sama, yaitu berpikir. Seperti lafadz nazara, tadabbara atau tadabbur, tafakkara atau tafakkur, faqiha atau fiqh atau tafaqquh, tazakkara, dan faham. Semua yang disebutkan di atas adalah mempunyai pengertian yang hampir sama. Membangkitkan motivasi berpikir dalam mengkaji ayat-ayat al-Qur’an sangatlah bermanfaat dalam menambah wawasan, dan juga dapat menambah keimanan kita kepada Allah Swt. Beberapa penemuan yang ada pada saat sekarang ini merupakan bukti dari kebenaran al-Qur’an, isyarat ilmiahnya dapat dibuktikan dengan beberapa penemuan di bidang ilmu pengetahuan.   The Holy Qur'an is a book of God revealed to mankind as a guide for all of us, which was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad's people from many centuries ago until now. The Qur'an contains a lot of useful scientific cue for mankind. Therefore, as a creature of Allah endowed with a mind, it should be our duty to reveal what is in the Qur’an becomes the scientific cue to the advancement of knowledge. The Holy Qur'an has provided motivation for

  5. Deutsch als "leicht zu erlernende Fremdsprache"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz, Gunde

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to encourage the search for accessible language features and teaching and learning facilitators which can ease the way into German as a Foreign Language (DaF.The paper begins with a terminological discussion, followed by a first model of the most important factors concerning the initial entry into FL territory. After a short review on previous work in this area, I consider methods for utilising knowledge of accessible language features and teaching and learning facilitators. Finally, suspected facilitating features - which have come to light through research as well as classroom observations – are exemplified. These, however, are to be understood as working hypotheses and thus still 'under construction'.Through this paper, I would like to invite other researchers to consider a new perspective on DaF with the intention of changing the status quo:"Applied linguistics is not simply a matter of matching up findings about language with pre-existing problems but of using findings to explore how the perception of problems might be changed. It may be that when problems are reformulated from a different point of view they become more amenable to solution. This changed perception may then, in turn, have implications for linguistics." (Cook : 2003: 10My goal will have been achieved when the focus of this paper becomes a motivation for improving DaF teaching ("problems [...] become more amenable to solution" - and, should it lead to "implications for linguistics", so much the better.Ziel dieses Beitrages ist, eine umfassende Suche nach leichten Stellen und Erleichterungen beim Zugang zum Deutschen als fremder Sprache anzuregen.Nach Begriffsklärung und einem ersten Vorschlag zu den für die Zugänglichkeit einer Sprache ausschlaggebenden Faktoren (1 sowie einem kurzen Überblick über Fundstücke zum Thema (2 steht die Rolle der praktischen Umsetzung von Erkenntnissen als Hauptinstrument für den Bereich der Erleichterungen und

  6. Estudio de genes de susceptibilidad no-"HLA" implicados en artritis reumatoide en población española

    OpenAIRE

    Perdigones Borderías, Nieves

    2011-01-01

    La artritis reumatoide (AR) es una enfermedad auto-inmune inflamatoria crónica que afecta aproximadamente al 1% de la población europea y norteamericana. Aunque la causa última de la enfermedad todavía no ha sido determinada, se sabe que existen factores genéticos y ambientales implicados en el desarrollo y la severidad de la enfermedad. nuestro trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de la base genetica de la AR en población espanola, ya que propone la asociacion de nuevos factores geneticos de s...

  7. Studies of Al metabolism in animal by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangNa-Xiu; ZhuHan-Min; 等

    1997-01-01

    The correlation between Al metabolism and senile dementia in animal has been studied by AMS(accelerator mass spectrometry).Three groups of laboratory rats were fed with normal food.food with high Al content,and with enriched Ca and Mg together with high Al,respectively for six to eight months.Mapping test was made to recored th degree of wisdom degeneration.Half of the rats were sacrificed and Al contents in various organs were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy.The rest were injected with 26Al,killed after 5,10,15,25,and 35d and 26Al contents measured by AMS.The distribution of Al as well as the correlation among the accumulation of 26Al,and the existed Al content and dementia was studied.

  8. Effect of the composition of Al-Li alloys on the quantitative relation between the δ'(Al3Li), S1(Al2MgLi), and T1(Al2CuLi) phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Grushin, I. A.; Knyazev, M. I.; Khokhlatova, L. B.; Alekseev, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Al-Li alloys are considered. A quantitative approach to the determination of the ratio of the fractions of the binary and ternary intermetallic phases in Al-Mg(Cu)-Li alloys is developed on the basis of chemical and phase composition balance equations and the experimentally measured lattice parameter of the α solid solution. The ratio of the fractions of the δ'(Al3Li) and S1(T1) phases in Al-Mg(Cu)-Li alloys is shown to be determined by the ratio of the mole fractions of Li and Mg(Cu). Equations are proposed for calculating the weight fractions of the S1(Al2MgLi), T1(Al2CuLi) and δ'(Al3Li) phases in domestic and foreign Al-Mg-Li alloys 1420, 1424, 5090 and Al-Cu-Li alloys 1440, 1460, 1461, 1441, 1469, 2090, 2095, 8090, and Weldalite 049.

  9. High-efficiency of AlInGaN/Al(In)GaN-delta AlGaN quantum wells for deep-ultraviolet emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Hosni; Ridene, Said

    2016-10-01

    Band structure and optical gain properties of AlInGaN/AlInGaN-delta-AlGaN quantum wells for deep-ultraviolet light emitting and lasers diodes with wavelength λ ∼229 nm and TE-polarized optical gain peak intensity ∼1.7 times larger than the conventional AlInN-delta-GaN was proposed and investigated in this work. The active region is made up of 20 Å staggered Al0.89In0.03Ga0.08N/Al0.8In 0.01Ga0.19N layers with a 3 Å Al0.46Ga0.54N delta layer. The use of the quaternary AlInGaN well layer permits the independent control of the band gap and the lattice parameter, so that the internal electric field induced by polarizations can be reduced and interband transition energy increases. Therefore, we can predict that the optical performance of the AlInGaN-delta-AlGaN is more convenient for an emission in the deep-ultraviolet than that of the conventional AlInN-delta-GaN-based quantum wells.

  10. Gaussian density-functional study for small neutral (Al n ), positive (Al{/n +}) and negative (Al{/n -}) aluminium clusters ( n=2 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaminici, Patrizia; Russo, Nino; Toscano, Marirosa

    1995-12-01

    The structures and properties of Al n , Al{/n +}, Al{/n -} ( n=1,5) clusters have been investigated by using the Linear Combination of Gaussian Type Orbitals (LCGTO) method, considering Local (LSD) and Non Local (NLSD) Spin Density Approximations and employing a Model Core Potential (MCP) that allows the explicit treatment of 3 s 2 3 p 1 valence electrons. For each system different geometrical structures and electronic states have been considered. For Al3, Al{3/+}, Al{3/-} the most stable geometry proved to be the equilateral triangle ( D 3 h ). Al4 and Al{4/+} prefer the rhombus ( D 2 h ) structure, while the corresponding anion prefers the square ( D 4 h ) one. The trapezoidal form ( C 2 v ) is the most stable isomer for Al5, Al{5/+} and Al{5/-} clusters. The analysis of vibrational frequencies shows that these structures are minima in the potential energy surface. The binding energies ( D e), the adiabatic ionization potentials (IP) and electron affinities (EA), the chemical potentials or absolute hardnesses (η) and electronegativities (χ) have been computed. Results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and the previous high level theoretical computations.

  11. Effect of nitrogen incorporation into Al-based gate insulators in AlON/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Takahiro; Ito, Joyo; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2016-10-01

    The superior physical and electrical properties of aluminum oxynitride (AlON) gate dielectrics on AlGaN/GaN substrates in terms of thermal stability, reliability, and interface quality were demonstrated by direct AlON deposition and subsequent annealing. Nitrogen incorporation into alumina was proven to be beneficial both for suppressing intermixing at the insulator/AlGaN interface and reducing the number of electrical defects in Al2O3 films. Consequently, we achieved high-quality AlON/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with improved stability against charge injection and a reduced interface state density as low as 1.2 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. The impact of nitrogen incorporation into the insulator will be discussed on the basis of experimental findings.

  12. AlGaN nanocolumns and AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ulloa, J.M.; Calleja, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Calleja, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jahn, U.; Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    This work reports on the characterization of hexagonal, single crystal AlGaN nanocolumns with diameters in the range of 30 to 100 nm grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The change of the flux ratio between the Al and the total III-element controls the alloy composition. The Al composition trend versus the Al flux is consistent both with the E{sub 2} phonon energy values measured by inelastic light scattering and the luminescence emission peaks position. High quality low dimensional AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN heterostructures with five GaN quantum discs, 2 and 4 nm thick, embedded into the AlGaN columns, were designed in order to study the quantum confinement effects. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Al-Ca and Al-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyong June [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, Al-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and Al-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The Al-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. Al-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of Al + Ca microstructures to Al + various Al-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.

  14. RESEARCH ON ELECTROCHROMIC PROPERTIES OF Al2O3/ B-Al-NiO-BASED FILM%Al2O3/B-Al-Nio薄膜电致变色性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼贤春; 周学东; 曾涛

    2009-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了B-Al-Nio和Al2O3/B-Al-NiO复合薄膜.采用扫描电镜,电化学测试和透过率测试分析Al2O3薄膜并对B-Al-NiO的变色性能和稳定性进行分析和表征.结果表明Al2O3薄膜对NiO基薄膜的变色效果影响不大,同时有效提高NiO基薄膜的稳定性.

  15. Mechanism and kinetics analysis of AlN combustion synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永挺; 张宇民; 赫晓东; 刘长青

    2004-01-01

    Mechanism of AlN combustion synthesis was studied by DSC analysis and "quenching" experiment of combustion wave. In preheating region, Al powder melted at 660 ℃ and became spherical because of surface tension. In reaction region, Al volatilized rapidly at 1 000 ℃ and Al vapor reacted with N2 to form AlN, which nucleated and grew on the surface of AlN formed precedently as a diluent. Based on the experiment analysis,kinetics equations and modeling were established. Analysis showed the dramatic effect of temperature, aluminum particle size and nitrogen pressure on the reaction speed.

  16. Tolerancia al co en celdas de combustible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBIAN HOYOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El entendimiento completo del proceso de adsorción y posterior oxidación de moléculas de CO en platino es de fundamental importancia para el desarrollo de celdas de combustible poliméricas que operan a baja temperatura. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de las cinco estrategias experimentales más importantes en la búsqueda de mejorar la tolerancia al CO: disminución del potencial de inicio de la reacción de oxidación, reducción de la cantidad de CO adsorbido, utilización de pequeñas cantidades de oxígeno en la corriente de alimentación al ánodo, aumento de la temperatura de operación y limpieza del CO a la entrada. Aunque se han desarrollado catalizadores bastante promisorios (PtMo y PdAu, todavía se sigue considerando a la mezcla Pt-Ru como el catalizador anódico más eficiente para combustibles que contienen 10 ppm de CO o más. La estrategia de inyectar oxígeno al ánodo parece promisoria pero requiere el desarrollo de nuevas membranas más resistentes y de la implementación de condiciones más seguras de operación de la celda. El diseño estructural de ánodos especiales con múltiples capas soportando catalizadores específicos para cada tipo de combustible puede ser una estrategia muy atractiva.

  17. Altern als Widerstand Aging as Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.Gullette’s cultural studies based analysis Aged by Culture is marked by great personal engagement and motivated by political goals, as are her two previous texts that deal with aging: Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 and Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997. Both the urgency as well as the resistance that Gullette, who defines herself as an “age critic,” postulates as a moral and political necessity are addressed in the two parts of the text: “Cultural Urgencies” and “Theorizing Age Resistantly.” Whereas Gullette had already introduced the concept “aged by culture” in Declining to Decline, now she has placed it at the center of her examination. On the one hand, the book is devoted to a sociopolitical analysis of the USA; on the other hand, it develops a theory of resistance to age discrimination.

  18. 76 FR 78717 - In the Matter of the Designation of Saleh al-Qarawi also known as Saleh Al Qarawi also known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Matter of the Designation of Saleh al-Qarawi also known as Saleh Al Qarawi also known as Saleh Abudullah Saleh Al Qarawi also known as Saleh bin Abdullah al-Qarawi also known as Akhuk al Saghir also known as Fawakeh also known as Mootasem also known as Abu Yahya Al Qarawi also known as Najm Al-Kheir as...

  19. Del mito creacionista al mito futurista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Uhía

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La primera foto tomada a la Tierra desde el espacio, en 1946, es uno de los signos de la reprogramación mitológica que está afectando la percepción actual de las ciencias y las artes. Esta reprogramación opone a Dios como artífice y al artista como dios creador: un superhumano tecnólogo y un artista administrador de la Tierra. Se repasa en esta reprogramación el papel de las academias de arte, de las revoluciones científicas, del arte de vanguardia y del arte pop.

  20. Derecho humano al agua en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrón Cisneros, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    En el Ecuador existe un proceso histórico de concentración y acaparamiento del agua. La política de ajuste estructural llevó a que empresas de servicios de agua potable sean privatizadas. La constitución del 2008 modificó el marco normativo para el agua en el país, se reconoce el derecho humano al agua, los derechos de la naturaleza, el manejo exclusivo público y comunitario y su no privatización. El proceso de reorganización institucional y de construcción de la nueva propuesta de ley de ...