WorldWideScience

Sample records for al ain-united arab

  1. The prevalence of group A streptococcal throat carriage in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K P; Ameen, A S; Nsanze, H; Bin-Othman, S; Mustafa, N

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the carrier rate of group A beta haemolytic streptococci in school children in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. One thousand and two randomly selected school children aged 5-7 years had their throats swabbed twice for both culture and direct antigen detection of group A streptococci. One hundred and fourteen children (11.3%) had both a positive antigen and culture test, while 216 (21.6%) had antigen-positive tests only and 16 (1.5%) had a positive culture only. Thus, the combination of culture and antigen detection revealed a carrier rate of 35.4% in the children examined. We conclude that in an affluent but isolated desert area on the Tropic of Cancer, group A streptococcal carriage rate is high. Antigen detection is superior to culture techniques in asymptomatic carrier studies.

  2. Determinants of Diabetes and Hypertension Control in Ambulatory Healthcare in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa M. Baynouna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available bjectives: This study aims to study determinants for the control of diabetes and hypertension in Al Ain Ambulatory Healthcare patients. Method: This is a cross sectional observational study of patients attending ambulatory healthcare centers in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates in 2009. From a yearly audit evaluating the care of patients with diabetes and hypertension, the determinants for improved diabetes and hypertension outcomes were identified from a total of 512 patients and its association with glycemic and blood pressure control were studied. Results: From all variables studied, only the clinic where the patient was treated helped predict both improved blood sugar and blood pressure control. For patients with diabetes, poor control the year before (p<0.001, the number of chronic disease clinic visits (p=0.042 and triglyceride levels (p=0.007 predicted worse control of diabetes. A predictor of poor control of blood pressure (p<0.001 for patients with hypertension was poor control of blood pressure in the year before. Conclusion: In this population, the healthcare system and the team played major roles as determinants in the control of patient’s diabetes and blood pressure more than any of the other factors examined.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Shamma J Muhairi; Mehairi, Aaesha E.; Khouri, Aysha A; Naqbi, Muna M.; Maskari, Fatima A; Kaabi, Juma Al; Dhaheri, Ayesha S Al; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shah, Syed M

    2013-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D deficiency has been studied in various adult populations, there are few data on the prevalence of this nutritional deficiency among healthy adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to examine its correlates in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in urban schools. Healthy adolescents (N=315) from a sample of 8 schools were randomly selected ...

  4. A successful chronic care program in Al Ain-United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Husaini Alhusini I

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost effective provision of quality care for chronic diseases is a major challenge for health care systems. We describe a project to improve the care of patients with the highly prevalent disorders of diabetes and hypertension, conducted in one of the major cities of the United Arab Emirates. Settings and Methods The project, using the principles of quality assurance cycles, was conducted in 4 stages. The assessment stage consisted of a community survey and an audit of the health care system, with particular emphasis on chronic disease care. The information gleaned from this stage provided feedback to the staff of participating health centers. In the second stage, deficiencies in health care were identified and interventions were developed for improvements, including topics for continuing professional development. In the third stage, these strategies were piloted in a single health centre for one year and the outcomes evaluated. In the still ongoing fourth stage, the project was rolled out to all the health centers in the area, with continuing evaluation. The intervention consisted of changes to establish a structured care model based on the predicted needs of this group of patients utilizing dedicated chronic disease clinics inside the existing primary health care system. These clinics incorporated decision-making tools, including evidence-based guidelines, patient education and ongoing professional education. Results The intervention was successfully implemented in all the health centers. The health care quality indicators that showed the greatest improvement were the documentation of patient history (e.g. smoking status and physical activity; improvement in recording physical signs (e.g. body mass index (BMI; and an improvement in the requesting of appropriate investigations, such as HbA1c and microalbuminurea. There was also improvement in those parameters reflecting outcomes of care, which included HbA1c, blood

  5. Pediatric and Youth Traffic-Collision Injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Grivna; Eid, Hani O.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC), use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. METHODS: All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds) who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and veh...

  6. Pediatric and youth traffic-collision injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Grivna

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC, use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. METHODS: All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37% followed by front impact collision (32%. 32 (13% of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170 vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23 motorcyclists a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.

  7. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  8. Struktur Nalar Arab-Islam Menurut Abid al-Jabiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faisol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Al-Jabiri’s thought renewal project focuses on epistemological critics on scientific traditional framework of Arab-Islam. This is done by analyzing sociopolitical background of the formulation process and structure of Arab-Islam’s logical reasoning, and the entire structural working mechanism of Arab’s logical reasoning. According to Al-Jabiri, Arab’s logical reasoning can be classified into three, i.e. bayani, Irfani and burhani. Bayani is a pure Arab’s logical reasoning as it is motivated by cognitive factor to interpret religious texts. Irfani becomes an alternative epistemology for bayani in providing convincing conclusions. While Burhani, is logical reasoning based on rationality. However, even though the Arab’s logical reasoning could be distinguished into those three, Al-Jabiri observes the domination of bayani on others, thus, the text and traditional authorities are always dominating Arab-Islam civilization. Consequently, Arabic Civilization is not creative-productive or poor in concepts and theories. The solution AlJabiri proposes is to apply critism spirit that have been developed in AndalusiaMaghrib, i.e. empirical rationale presented by Ibn Hazm and Al-Syatibi in Fiqh, Ibnu Ruysd in Philosophy, Ibnu Khaldun in sociology, and Ibn Madha alQurthubi in Arabic grammatical renewal.

  9. Telaah Karakteristik Tafsir Arab-Pegon Al-Ibriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Rohkmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Every time, a dialogue between the Quran and its readers happens; andthe long period process of such understanding has resulted thousands andtons of interpretation books (kitab tafsir. One of them is Tafsir al-Ibriz byK.H. Bisri Mustofa and is written in Arab Pegon (Javanese language andArabic letters. This article is discussing the characteristics of the book andits method. Using descriptive analytic and hermeneutic interpretative, the studygoes to the conclusion that the book is organized according to tahlili method,namely a method which explains Quranic verses words after words. Themeaning of the words is presented in makna gandul system (the meaning iswritten under the words while the interpretation and explanation (tafsir iswritten out of the main body text. In terms of characteristics, the way the Tafsir al-Ibriz explains the meaning of the Quran is considered as simple.The approach applied in the book  doesn’t  tend to a particular interpretation style because it combines some different styles according to the contextual meanings; and this book belongs to traditional and ma’tsur category.

  10. Ibn al-ʻArabī and Abū Yazīd al-Bistāmī

    OpenAIRE

    ABRAHAMOV, Binyamin

    2011-01-01

    Many Sufis appear in Ibn al-‛Arabī’s al-Futūhāt al-Makkiyya, a treatise in which the author puts forward his principal ideas. Abū Yazīd al-Bistāmī is mentioned in this work 143 times, more than any other Sufi. The present article seeks to examine Ibn al-‛Arabī’s attitude toward his Sufi predecessor by considering al-Bistāmi’s personality as it appears in Ibn al-‛Arabī, as well as Ibn al-‛Arabī’s views on al-Bistāmī’s Sufi practice, his presence as a model of moral conduct a...

  11. MANHAJ TADRIS AL-ADAB AL-'ARABI LI GHAIR AL-'ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Karkhi Abukhudairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The approaches and methods are used in the teaching of Arabic literature in the Arab and non-Arab universities. The Orientalists drawer since the late nineteenth century exaggerate the formal side, and freeze history, and still today. Western professors studying Arabic literature in the light of traditional concepts fixed. The purpose of this research is to present and discuss methods of teaching Arabic literature at universities in Europe and the United States of America. The researcher uses in the study the descriptive and analytical and comparative, and reached a number of conclusions from the most important being that the teaching of literature should be based on a correct understanding of the meaning of literature firstly, a thorough knowledge of the characteristics of an Arab literature secondly, and a good choice of models that are placed in the hands of students thirdly. Moreover, it poses a researcher a new approach to the teaching of Arabic literature to non-Arab Arabic literature to non-Arab aims to literary taste the development of the students' non-Arab, and focused on the basic four areas namely linguistics, history, literary criticism, and comparative literature.

  12. Arab Satellite News Journalism - The Al Jazeera Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

    providers, that have defined the scene before the arrival of these newcomers. That is, I will question whether these channels represent a decisive break with the national Arabic and transnational, Anglo-American points of view, predominant so far, including the eventual possibility of a negotiation between...

  13. Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salim Moyel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess suitability of the water quality of Shatt al-Arab River for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses. Methods: The Shatt al-Arab River was monitored on a monthly basis from July 2009 to June 2010. A water quality index (WQI was calculated to assess the suitability of water for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses during the dry season from July to December 2009 and the wet season from January until June 2010. Results: The results of the WQI showed that the lowest water quality values were scored during the dry season for all three uses of the river. Marginal water quality values were recorded for protection of aquatic life and fair (upstream to poor (downstream water quality values were recorded for irrigation uses. Moreover, the river water was not suitable for potable water supply without elaborate treatment. Conclusions: Deterioration of the Shatt al-Arab water quality has been attributed to reduced freshwater discharges from Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, low annual precipitations and an advancing salt wedge from the Arabian Gulf. However, a combination of those factors such as low riverine discharge and advancing salt wedge with a continuous discharge of agriculture, oil industry and urban point effluent has polluted the waters and fostered the decline of the Shatt al-Arab River water quality during the study period. The study indicated that application of WQIs was a useful tool to monitor and assess the overall water quality of the Shatt al-Arab River.

  14. Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Salim Moyel; Najah Aboud Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess suitability of the water quality of Shatt al-Arab River for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses. Methods:The Shatt al-Arab River was monitored on a monthly basis from July 2009 to June 2010. A water quality index (WQI) was calculated to assess the suitability of water for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses during the dry season from July to December 2009 and the wet season from January until June 2010. Results:The results of the WQI showed that the lowest water quality values were scored during the dry season for all three uses of the river. Marginal water quality values were recorded for protection of aquatic life and fair (upstream) to poor (downstream) water quality values were recorded for irrigation uses. Moreover, the river water was not suitable for potable water supply without elaborate treatment. Conclusions:Deterioration of the Shatt al-Arab water quality has been attributed to reduced freshwater discharges from Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, low annual precipitations and an advancing salt wedge from the Arabian Gulf. However, a combination of those factors such as low riverine discharge and advancing salt wedge with a continuous discharge of agriculture, oil industry and urban point effluent has polluted the waters and fostered the decline of the Shatt al-Arab River water quality during the study period. The study indicated that application of WQIs was a useful tool to monitor and assess the overall water quality of the Shatt al-Arab River.

  15. Ibn al-Quff (1233-1286 AD), a medieval Arab surgeon and physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Abū'l-Faraj ibn Ya'qūb ibn Isḥāq Ibn al-Quff al-Karakī (1233-1286 AD), best known as Ibn al-Quff in the West, was a 13(th) century Arab physician-surgeon. During his lifetime, Ibn al-Quff made some important contributions to the art of healing. He authored several books and commentaries in the field of medicine, in particular surgery. This paper aims to review Ibn al-Quff's life, career, and contributions to medical science. PMID:24585631

  16. Summer students and professor from the United Arab Emirates - from left to right : Alya Ali Binghurair, Shaikha Al Kalbani, Professor Chafia Hejase de Trad, Mariam Al Hassani, Aminah Al Abdouli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Summer students and professor from the United Arab Emirates - from left to right : Alya Ali Binghurair, Shaikha Al Kalbani, Professor Chafia Hejase de Trad, Mariam Al Hassani, Aminah Al Abdouli.

  17. AL-BALAGHAH; ANTARA PENGETAHUAN DAN DISIPLIN ILMU (PERSPEKTIF SEJARAH BAHASA DAN SASTRA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Hamid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available At first, the study of al balaghah was focused on the study of al ma’nani, that functions to remove lahn similar with nahwu.  The history of al balaghah is divided into four stages, 1 marhalah al-nasy’ah  (growth, (2 marhalah al-numuw (development, (3 marhalah al-izdizar (glory, and (4 marhalah al-dhubul (decline. In Jahiliyah era, the Arabs used al fashahah and al balaghah in their language. They were proud much on their language style in orang language, however the al-balaghah was not constructed as a field of knowledge yet. During Bani Ummaya era, there were many khitabaat, asy’ar and natsr contributing to the development al-balaghah as a field of study. Furthermore, in Bani Abbasiyyah era, al balaghah as a field of study was well formed so that mustholahaat on the discussion of balaghah was defined and well ordered. In the following era, al balaghah declined without significant development.

  18. Series of problems in Arabic algebra: The example of ʿAlī al-Sulamī

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oaks Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In his introductory book on algebra ʿAlī al-Sulamī (10th c. pays careful attention to the arrangement of his 78 worked-out problems, balancing his borrowings with his overall structure. His collection is put into context by comparing it with the problems in the books of three other early Arabic algebraists. It is shown that unlike al-Khwārizmī and Abū Kāmil, al-Sulamī orders his problems carefully. He gives a global ordering based on equation type that is an inversion of the local ordering of his predecessors, and he exhibits a local ordering that is a consequence of his appropriation of diverse problem types within his collection.

  19. Breast cancer screening awareness, knowledge, and practice among arab women in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra E Elobaid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the survival rate for this malignancy. Low participation in screening programs has been attributable to many factors including lack of knowledge. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and practices among women of screening age (≥40 years old in the city of Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 using the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM. Four out of twelve cultural and religious community centers in Al Ain city were randomly selected. Two hundred and forty seven women were interviewed. Chi Square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Despite the increase in the uptake of screening modalities in our study group, a lack of knowledge about breast cancer screening is still evident. Almost half (44.8% of women who never had a Clinical Breast Exam (CBE and 44.1% of women who never had a mammography expressed a lack of knowledge about the existence of these screening techniques. Nearly one third of the participants interpreted the presence of a breast lump incorrectly and, moreover, expressed fewer worries about the nature of the lump than would normally be expected. CONCLUSIONS: The National screening program needs to be improved and directed towards more efficient and targeted utilization of resources. Healthcare professionals play a major role in alerting women to the importance of periodic screening.

  20. The Arabic Hyperbolic Pattern 'Fa??al' in Two Recent Translations of the Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. El-Zawawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the problem of rendering the فعال'fa??al' hyperbolic pattern into English in two recent translations of the Qur'an. Due to the variety of Qur'an translations and the large amount of hyperbolic forms of Arabic verbs recorded in the Qur'an, only two translations of the Qur'an are consulted and analyzed: these two translations, namely Saheeh International Translation (1997 and Prof. Abdel-Haleem's (2004, are distinguished by the fact that they are recent and well-received. Moreover, the investigation of hyperbolic forms is confined to the Arabic formفعال    'fa??al'. The study reveals that the Saheeh translator has applied morphological shifting in many examples while Abdel-Haleem's translation exhibits a considerable amount of syntactic transposition, coupled with paraphrasing. The test of accuracy as administered here is to give a clear picture of the need to pay particular attention to hyperboles of the form examined and other ones not analyzed here for limitations of space.

  1. The Byzantines in Medieval Arabic Poetry: Abu Firas’ "Al-Rumiyyat" and the Poetic Responses of al-Qaffal and Ibn Hazm to Nicephore Phocas’ "Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna" (The Armenian Cursed Ode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar F. HERMES

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Up until the Crusades, it was al-Rūm who were universally seen by Arab writers and Arab poets in particular as the Other par excellence. Nowhere is this more conspicuous than in the sub-genre of Al-Rūmiyyat (poems about the Byzantines, namely as found in the Rūmiyyat of Abu Firas al-Hamdani(d.968, and in the poetic responses of al-Qaffal(d. 946 and Ibn Hazm(d. 1064 to what was described by several medieval Muslim chronicles as Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna (The Armenian Cursed Ode. By exploring the forgotten views of the Byzantines in medieval Arabic poetry, this article purports to demonstrate that contrary to the impression left after reading Edward Said’s groundbreaking Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient (1978 and other postcolonial studies, Orientals have not existed solely to be ‘orientalized’. Perhaps even before this came to be so, they too had ‘occidentalized’ their Euro-Christian Other(s in a way that mirrored in reverse the subject/object relationship described as Orientalism.

  2. Opportunity Costs or Costly Opportunities? The Arab Spring, Osama Bin Laden, and Al-Qaeda’s African Affiliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Wilner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  There is little doubt that Al-Qaeda faces twin challenges in the “Arab Spring” sweeping North Africa and the Middle East (MENA and in the death of Osama bin Laden in May 2011. Al-Qaeda’s violent narrative has come under immense pressure following the toppling of Arab regimes by largely secular and peaceful protest movements while the removal of bin Laden robs the organization of a charismatic and unifying figure. Yet for Al-Qaeda’s most prominent African affiliates — Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM and Somalia’s Al-Shabaab — the political upheaval sweeping the MENA region also creates opportunities for growth. And while the elimination of Al-Qaeda’s founding leader will certainly sting, bin Laden’s exit is unlikely to greatly influence AQIM’s or Al-Shabaab’s aspirations, tactics, or strategies. This paper offers a critical overview of the costs and opportunities to Al-Qaeda’s African allies in light of the Arab Spring and bin Laden’s death.

  3. Spatiotemporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study spatial and temporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River. Methods: This study was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency were measured from three sites in the river. Several fishing methods were adopted to collect fish including gill nets, cast net, electro-fishing and hook and lines. Associations between the distribution of fish species and the environmental variables were quantified by using canonical correspondence analysis. Results: The results showed that the fish assemblage consisted of 58 species representing 46 genera and 27 families belong to Osteichthyes except one (Carcharhinus leucas relate to Chondrichthyes. Number of species increased in summer and autumn months and sharply decreased in winter. Tenualosa ilisha was the most abundant species comprising 27.4% of the catch, followed by Carassius auratus (23.7% and Liza klunzingeri (10.6%. The dominance (D3 value for the main three abundant species was 61.7%. Nine species were caught for the first times from the river include eight marine. The overall values of diversity index ranged from 0.67 in March to 2.57 in October, richness index from 2.64 in January to 3.71 in September and evenness index from 0.22 in March to 0.73 in August. Conclusions: Spatially, the fish assemblages of Shatt Al-Arab River can be divided into three ecological fish guilds, namely, common species, seasonal species and occasional species.

  4. Spatiotemporal variability of ifsh assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul-Razak M Mohamed; Saddek A Hussein; Laith F Lazem

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study spatial and temporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River. Methods: This study was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency were measured from three sites in the river. Several fishing methods were adopted to collect fish including gill nets, cast net, electro-fishing and hook and lines. Associations between the distribution of fish species and the environmental variables were quantified by using canonical correspondence analysis. Results:The results showed that the fish assemblage consisted of 58 species representing 46 genera and 27 families belong to Osteichthyes except one (Carcharhinus leucas) relate to Chondrichthyes. Number of species increased in summer and autumn months and sharply decreased in winter. Tenualosa ilisha was the most abundant species comprising 27.4%of the catch, followed by Carassius auratus (23.7%) and Liza klunzingeri (10.6%). The dominance (D3) value for the main three abundant species was 61.7%. Nine species were caught for the first times from the river include eight marine. The overall values of diversity index ranged from 0.67 in March to 2.57 in October, richness index from 2.64 in January to 3.71 in September and evenness index from 0.22 in March to 0.73 in August. Conclusions:Spatially, the fish assemblages of Shatt Al-Arab River can be divided into three ecological fish guilds, namely, common species, seasonal species and occasional species.

  5. Quantifying sediment connectivity in Wadi Al-Arab (NW Jordan) using a sediment budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Pöppl, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Due to data scarcity, sediment connectivity most often only qualitatively describes the potential transfer of sediments through a landscape. However, quantitative information on sediment delivery is of special relevance for modelling approaches as well as for sustainable land and water management, especially in water scarce regions such as Jordan, where valuable water reservoirs suffer from sediment pollution. Measurements are needed to quantify sediment outputs of the different land units and to trace their pathways though the catchments. This study uses the outcomes of a multiple response sediment budget approach conducted in the Wadi al-Arab catchment in northwest Jordan (263.5 km²) to quantify sediment connectivity. The catchment shows a Mediterranean to semi arid climate and consists of carbonatic and marly geology of the Upper Cretaceous. The topography ranges from rolling hills in the East to steeper mountainous areas in the North and West were olive orchards are the main agricultural use. Soil erosion measurements in the main land use units and relevant sediment sources, such as olive orchards, agricultural fields, and natural vegetated slopes uncovered the potential ranges of soil erosion rates in these units. Furthermore, the annual sediment yield in the Wadi Al Arab water reservoir was calculated. With the extrapolation of the erosion rates of the main contributing land use units and the annual sediment amount that reaches the sink, a maximum value of lateral sediment connectivity could be quantified, reaching up to 18%. A multiple sediment fingerprint method was used to delineate the relative contribution of each measured source to the sink based on the lake sediment samples. Supported by additional 137Cs analysis of terrace samples and a survey of the Wadi bed a high longitudinal connectivity could be derived. The applied method mix allowed the quantification of lateral sediment connectivity on catchment scale and gave a comprehensive understanding of

  6. Arabic fish names gathered at the fish market in Hurghada (al-Ġardaqah) May 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe; Skaarup, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    of Egypt. This name material has been compared with other name materials for marine life in local vernacular Arabic dialects from the Red Sea region, and to a lesser extent with Classical Arabic material. Where possible, the etymology of the names, whether certain or hypothetical, has been provided....

  7. The Hands of the Pleiades: The Celestial Clock in the Classical Arabic Poetry of Dhū al-Rumma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. B.

    2011-06-01

    In the desert poetry of Dhū al-Rumma (d. 117 AH/735 CE), astronomical phenomena sometimes function as familiar celestial timepieces that indicate the poetic timeframe literally and accurately. The literary, lexical, floral and astronomical analyses of a selection from this poetry illustrate the role of the Pleiades star cluster as a celestial clock and illuminate the utility of naked-eye astronomy in interpreting Arabic poetry of the early Islamic period.

  8. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  9. The Grammatical Treatise Al-Mufaṣṣal fī ṣan‘at al-i‘rāb of Abū al-Qāsim az-Zamaḫšarī (Died 1144 A.D.) – a Masterpiece of Arab Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzki, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Abū al-Qāsim az-Zamaḫšarī’s (1075–1144) grammatical treatise Al-Mufaṣṣal fī ṣan‘at al-i‘rāb is one of the main and most acknowledged philological masterpieces of the classical Arabic. The aim of this article is to shed some light on its origin, cultural and philological background, main goals and assumptions of the author, its position in the history of studies on Arabic grammar, hitherto prevailing research output of European orientalist dealing with Al-Mufaṣṣal. It also comprises a short pr...

  10. Haematology and biochemistry values of captive sand cats (Felis margarita in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chege

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the haematology and biochemistry values of apparently healthy captive sand cats kept in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates, with a view to establishing baseline values. Methods: Blood was collected from the femoral vein using aseptic techniques, kept in a cool box and sent to laboratory for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical values using veterinary hematology and chemistry analysers (ABX ABC Vet, Horiba ABX SAS ® Montpellier, France. Results: Haematological values were within the normal ranges recorded in domestic cats and there was no statistical difference between values found in males and females. Aspartate aminotransferase values were higher (P0.05 between males and females values. Conclusions: Our results present reference ranges for haematology and biochemistry parameters in captive sand cats. These values will be important for diagnosis of various diseases and monitoring of treatments.

  11. Haematology and biochemistry values of captive sand cats (Felis margarita) in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Arshad Toosy; Judith Howlett; Ahmed Saker; John Kagira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the haematology and biochemistry values of apparently healthy captive sand cats kept in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates, with a view to establishing baseline values.Methods:Blood was collected from the femoral vein using aseptic techniques, kept in a cool box and sent to laboratory for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical values using veterinary hematology and chemistry analysers (ABX ABC Vet, Horiba ABX SAS Montpellier, France). Results: Haematological values were within the normal ranges recorded in domestic cats and there was no statistical difference between values found in males and females. Aspartate aminotransferase values were higher (P0.05) between males and females values.Conclusions:Our results present reference ranges for haematology and biochemistry parameters in captive sand cats. These values will be important for diagnosis of various diseases and monitoring of treatments.

  12. Qasmūna bint Isma'il bin Bagdalla al-Yahūdi: frammenti di poesia araba andalusa secondo le fonti arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gorgoni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish Woman Poetry in the middle-age not represent a field of study in itself because most of the evidences of women literary production had not been part of Jewish Literary Heritage. Considerable exeption, Islam represent a context in wich woman writings have been not only transmitted but also seen as a part of the literary tradition. Relating largerly upon two literary sources, the Nuzhat al-julasâ' fî ash'âr al-nisâ of Suyûti (1445-1505 and the Nafh al Tîb min ghsn al-Andalus of al-Maqqari (1578-1632 this article would like to focalise the poetical production in classical arabic of Qasmûna Bint Ismâ'îl bin Baghdalla al-Yahûdi, one of the very few Jewish Poetess lived in al- Andalus between XI-XII century. Both the sources quotes the Rayât al-mubarrizin wa-ghayât al-mumayyzîn, the Geographical, Historical and Literary work of the famous Andalusian Historian Alî Ibn Mûsa Ibn Sa'îd al Magribi al-Andalusi (1213-1286 manuscript in a large part losted.Aim is to focus the poetical production of Qasmûna Bint Ismâ'îl al Yahûdi and his transmission through Arabic Anthologies dedicated to the Arabic Literary Tradition in al-Andalus and Islam. More than her religious belonging to Islam as a religion, the main reason for the transmission of Qasmûna's collection of poems seem to be the language and the style of composition, as well as her andalusian origins. For the nature of relations between Jewish communities and Islam in the Middle Ages, arabic historiographical sources become a cross-cultural narrative setting for Jewish and Islamic History, and their study fundamental in order grasp the develop of Jewish Thought in Middle Ages. 

  13. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need ...

  14. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM), a Water Budget Model (WBM), and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM). The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  15. The Functions of Onomatopoeia in Modern English and Arabic Poetry: A Study in Selected Poems by Lawrence and al-Sayyab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham K. Al-Zubbaidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Onomatopoeia has always been a functional poetic device which enjoys a high sound significance in the poetry of many languages. In modern English and Arabic poetry alike, it proves to be vital and useful at different levels: musical, thematic and at the level of meaning. Still, the cultural difference looms large over the ways it is employed by the poets of each. The present paper investigates the employment of onomatopoeia in the poetry of D. H. Lawrence (1885-1930 and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab (1926-1964 who are chosen due to the importance they enjoy in modern English and Arabic poetry and the richness of their poems in onomatopoeias.  The conclusions reached at are in a sense related to cultural differences which govern the use of onomatopoeia for specific aims rather than for others.

  16. The Grammatical Treatise Al-Mufassal fī san‘at al-i‘rāb of Abū al-Qāsim az-Zamašarī (died 1144 A.D.) – a Masterpiece of Arab Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzki, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Abū al-Qāsim az-Zamahšarī’s (1075–1144) grammatical treatise Al-Mufassal fī san‘at al-i‘rāb is one of the main and most acknowledged philological masterpieces of the classical Arabic. The aim of this article is to shed some light on its origin, cultural and philological background, main goals and assumptions of the author, its position in the history of studies on Arabic grammar, hitherto prevailing research output of European orientalist dealing with Al-Mufassal. It also compri...

  17. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  18. ['The spirit has left the bottle': the medieval Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ: his medical work and his bizarre affiliation with twentieth-century spiritualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, N Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ, lived at the crossroads of the twelfth and the thirteenth century. His unbridled curiosity and his unquenchable thirst for knowledge of any kind brought him to far-away countries and regions and put him in contact with all sorts and conditions of people. The great Egyptian famine of the years 1200-1202 enabled him to study and examine thousands of human cadavers and skeletons at first hand. This led to a new understanding of the anatomical structure of the human body, and rejected the more or less antiquated ideas of the Greek doctor Galen of Pergamum. However, 'Abd al-Latĭf's vision was granted only a short life. After his death, his discovery sank into oblivion and as a consequence it was never again mentioned in Arabic medical manuals. From then on the Arabic physicians once more referred to the anatomical data which were developed and taught by Galen. Relatively few specimens of his remaining medical work were preserved for posterity. However, his Book of the two advices (or: K. al-Nasĭhatain) is of the utmost importance as a source for the medical thinking and the medical treatment in the late twelfth and the early thirteenth century A.D. During the years following World War I, 'Abd al-Latĭf's name reappeared within the spiritualistic movement in England. He became known as Abduhl Latif the great Persian physician and acted as a control of mediums. Until the late sixties, he practised the art of healing as the head of a medical mission somewhere in the Spheres. PMID:18447318

  19. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  20. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  1. An Unusual Inverted Saline Microbial Mat Community in an Interdune Sabkha in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter), United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Rask, Jon C.; Detweiler, Angela M.; Bebout, Brad M.; Everroad, R. Craig; Lee, Jackson Z.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Mayer, Marisa H.; Caraballo, Adrian A. L.; Kapili, Bennett; Al-Awar, Meshgan; Al-Farraj, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Salt flats (sabkha) are a recognized habitat for microbial life in desert environments and as analogs of habitats for possible life on Mars. Here we report on the physical setting and microbiology of interdune sabkhas among the large dunes in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter) in Liwa Oasis, United Arab Emirates. The salt flats, composed of gypsum and halite, are moistened by relatively fresh ground water. The result is a salinity gradient that is inverted compared to most salt flat communities with the hypersaline layer at the top and freshwater layers below. We describe and characterize a rich photosynthetically-based microbial ecosystem that is protected from the arid outside environment by a translucent salt crust. Gases collected from sediments under shallow ponds in the sabkha contain methane in concentrations as high as 3400 ppm. The salt crust could preserve biomarkers and other evidence for life in the salt after it dries out. Chloride-filled depressions have been identified on Mars and although surface flow of water is unlikely on Mars today, ground water is possible. Such a near surface system with modern groundwater flowing under ancient salt deposits could be present on Mars and could be accessed by surface rovers. PMID:26982497

  2. Effect of pollution on phytoplankton in the Ashar Canal, a highly polluted canal of the Shatt al-Arab Estuary at Basrah, Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, M.A.H. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Oceanography Dept.); Antoine, S.E.

    1983-03-01

    The effect of pollution on the phytoplankton in the Ashar Canal was studied during March and June 1976. Higher temperatures were recorded in June. The canal water was more turbid than that of the adjoining Shatt al-Arab estuary due to high algal populations and sewage disposal. The chlorosity values were remarkably high in the canal, due to sewage disposal. The flood waters in June lowered the chlorosity in both estuary and canal. Sewage disposal into the canal decreased its dissolved oxygen content. The lower oxygen values in the estuary in June were accompanied with higher temperatures. The pH values were generally higher in the estuary and were also higher in June than in March. Eighty-six algal taxa were recorded, 45 of which were diatoms. The phytoplankton in the estuary was more abundant in March, due to the increase in currents and turbidity in June. The Chlorophyta, Conjugatophyta, Myxophyta and Bacillariophyta in the estuary showed reverse seasonal trends from those of the total phytoplankton. These algae seemed to flourish during periods of high temperatures. The dense blue-green algae recorded in June is attributed to the high temperature and dissolved organic matter. The Chrysophyta recorded high populations in the estuary in March and were totally absent in June. Lower temperatures and high transparency in March might have led to their relative abundance. The total phytoplankton in the Ashar Canal followed two different seasonal trends, one resembling and the other differing from those in the estuary.

  3. An Unusual Inverted Saline Microbial Mat Community in an Interdune Sabkha in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter), United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P; Rask, Jon C; Detweiler, Angela M; Bebout, Brad M; Everroad, R Craig; Lee, Jackson Z; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Mayer, Marisa H; Caraballo, Adrian A L; Kapili, Bennett; Al-Awar, Meshgan; Al-Farraj, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Salt flats (sabkha) are a recognized habitat for microbial life in desert environments and as analogs of habitats for possible life on Mars. Here we report on the physical setting and microbiology of interdune sabkhas among the large dunes in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter) in Liwa Oasis, United Arab Emirates. The salt flats, composed of gypsum and halite, are moistened by relatively fresh ground water. The result is a salinity gradient that is inverted compared to most salt flat communities with the hypersaline layer at the top and freshwater layers below. We describe and characterize a rich photosynthetically-based microbial ecosystem that is protected from the arid outside environment by a translucent salt crust. Gases collected from sediments under shallow ponds in the sabkha contain methane in concentrations as high as 3400 ppm. The salt crust could preserve biomarkers and other evidence for life in the salt after it dries out. Chloride-filled depressions have been identified on Mars and although surface flow of water is unlikely on Mars today, ground water is possible. Such a near surface system with modern groundwater flowing under ancient salt deposits could be present on Mars and could be accessed by surface rovers.

  4. An Unusual Inverted Saline Microbial Mat Community in an Interdune Sabkha in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter, United Arab Emirates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P McKay

    Full Text Available Salt flats (sabkha are a recognized habitat for microbial life in desert environments and as analogs of habitats for possible life on Mars. Here we report on the physical setting and microbiology of interdune sabkhas among the large dunes in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter in Liwa Oasis, United Arab Emirates. The salt flats, composed of gypsum and halite, are moistened by relatively fresh ground water. The result is a salinity gradient that is inverted compared to most salt flat communities with the hypersaline layer at the top and freshwater layers below. We describe and characterize a rich photosynthetically-based microbial ecosystem that is protected from the arid outside environment by a translucent salt crust. Gases collected from sediments under shallow ponds in the sabkha contain methane in concentrations as high as 3400 ppm. The salt crust could preserve biomarkers and other evidence for life in the salt after it dries out. Chloride-filled depressions have been identified on Mars and although surface flow of water is unlikely on Mars today, ground water is possible. Such a near surface system with modern groundwater flowing under ancient salt deposits could be present on Mars and could be accessed by surface rovers.

  5. PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DI ERA POSMETODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhbib Abdul Wahab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed to answer two essential problems; (1 development map of Arabic learning method from 1990s until today which has been formulated unclearly, and (2 developing Arabic learning in posmethod era by optimilizing teacher’s strategic role in the process of Arabic learning. This article used bibliographic sources from some books and articles in scientific journal about linguistic and Arabic learning. The interpretation data of academician thought and Arabic linguistic experts was done by using historical-critical approach and content analysis for substancial interpretation. B. Kumaravadivelu concept in Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching (2003 which requires teacher to play three essential roles; pasif technician, reflective practician, and transformative intelectual is very inportant in Arabic learning in posmethod era. The principle of at-tharîqatu ahammu min al-mâddah (method is more important than content can be developed to be main principle “spirit, profesionality and strategic role of language educator is more important in teaching Arabic than the method itself”, since basically there is no most appropriate and ideal method for any goals and situation of Arabic learning.

  6. Arab satellite broadcasting, identity and arab youth

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis challenges a major theme found in Arab public discourse on youth, that the latter's consumption of television is passive in nature. Much discussion on Arab youth presupposes that the consequences of television for culture and identity are straight forward; that young people are merely passively absorbing materials that are offered. Contesting comments in Arab discourse on youth that to date have relied on unsystematic observation, this study adopts qualitative and quantitative res...

  7. The Extent to Which Teachers of Arabic Language in Al-Hisa Educational Directorate of Schools of Jordan Acquire E-Learning Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajya, Nail; Guenaga, Mari Luz

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the degree of availability for the e-teaching competencies shown by the Arabic language teachers at the district of Alhisa, in the light of the study variables: gender, School Stage and Experience. To accomplish the goals of the study the researchers prepared a questionnaire composed of 69 items that are distributed…

  8. Arabs in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐长贵

    2004-01-01

    In the eyes of many people in the United States, Arab-Americans are an invisible part of the population. Though Arab-Americans as a community have made great contributions to American society in the fields from literature to politics to medicine, many Americans know very little about Americans of Arab descent(血统).

  9. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal Halim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has even enlarged the number of Arabs and Muslims who have trained in the best institutions in the U.S. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Far from being ‘organic intellectuals’, to use Gramsci’s favorite term, who would transform Arab societies from imperialism and Western hegemony, and the impact of dependency on the so called ‘globalization,’ most Arab thinkers in the West as well as the elite in the Arab world have been party to Western capitalist interests which aim to control the Arab World. By no means denigrating the works of Isma‘il Raji al-Faruqi, Edward Said, Ghada Hashem Talhami, Halim Barakat, or the feminist Leila Ahmad, to mention some brilliant Arab intellectuals, most Arab thinkers in the West seem to have forgotten the social conditions of the Arab world that have been in acute crisis since the mid nineteenth century or from the time colonialism stepped into the Arab world. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of

  10. Arabic Words Stemming Approach Using Arabic Wordnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hamid Kreaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The big growth of the Arabic internet content in the last years has raised up the need for an effective stemming techniques for Arabic language. Arabic stemming algorithms can be ranked, according to three category, as root-based approach (ex. Khoja; stem-based approach (ex. Larkey; and statistical approach (ex. N-Garm. However, no stemming of this language is perfect: The existing stemmers have a low efficiency. In this paper, we introduce a new stemming technique for Arabic words that also solve the problem of the plural form of irregular nouns in Arabic language, which called broken plural. The proposed stem extractor provides very accurate results in comparisons with other algorithms.Consequently the search effectiveness improved.

  11. Orientalis dan Peranannya dalam Mempelajari Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiar Agustiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur’an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x’self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur’an, Al- Hadist , Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  12. Jebel Hafit and the Al Ain oases (Eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates): an integrative approach of a cultural landscape through the scope of geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Louchet, André; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Ragala, Rachid; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Fouache, Éric; Cohen, Marianne; Desruelles, Stéphane; Gramond, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    As it can be seen on satellite images, geological, and geomorphological maps, the Jebel Hafit and its foothills are a rare example of landforms developed at the transition between a compressive area in the east, i.e. the Northern Oman Mountains, and a stable cratonic platform in the west, i.e. the Arabic Platform which, from a structural point of view, represents the foreland of the previous folded domain. The mountains of Jebel Hafit formed in response to two main orogenic events in Late Cretaceous (obduction of Semail Ophiolite and associated rocks) and in the Late Eocene to Miocene (formation of foreland folds). Concerning the environment, landforms of the Jebel Hafit appears today under extreme arid climatic conditions. But, as it is evidenced by the density and variety of archaeological remains that have led to the inscription of the sites on the World Heritage List, the situation was different yesterday. It is well known that desert have changed through time, so present conditions may not necessarily be those that have moulded desert surface. This is particularly clear when we travel back by the thought from present to a more or less distant period in the past. It is therefore legitimate to study the biophysical remnants of paleo-environments, which accompany the development of human settlements and the increasing impact of societies on the environment. A particular challenge will be to discriminate clearly the effect of the active present-day climatic-driven processes (such as thermal fatigue weathering, salt weathering, wind corrasion, sporadic flooding…) and those of prehistoric times, which requires a geoarchaeological and paleoenvironmental approach of the Holocene as a whole and also before (Late Pleistocene). An important point not to be forgotten is that severe rainstorms happen on the area only at a highly variable temporal scale, especially hurricanes coming from the Indian Ocean and that may travel west of the Oman Mountains. At the level of

  13. What Has Happened to Arabs? Identity and Face Management Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zidjaly, Najma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I draw on contemporary theorizing on the concept of face (e.g., Ting-Toomey 1994, 2004; Tracy 2008) and research on Islamic and Arabic cultures and linguistic strategies (e.g., Beeman 1986; Hegland 1998; Wilce 2005; Al Zidjaly 2006) to explore the role that the Internet plays in enabling Muslim Arabs to manage or save their…

  14. Le Livre des théophanies d’Ibn ‘Arabî, introduction philosophique, commentaire et traduction annotée du Kitâb al-tajalliyât. Paris, Cerf, 2000, 392 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Lory, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Nous avons affaire ici à la traduction française d’un important ouvrage d’Ibn ‘Arabī, dont Oṯmān Yaḥyā avait fourni une édition critique (rééd. Téhéran 1988 sous le titre al-Tajalliyāt al-ilāhiyya). S.R. encadre sa traduction d’une imposante introduction, l’accompa­gne d’un appareil considérable de notes infrapaginales et la fait suivre d’une présentation systématique de la plupart des « théophanies » du texte. L’ensemble de ces commentaires contient à la fois des références bibliographiques ...

  15. The Effect of a Training Program for Arabic and English Teachers in Al-Azhar Based on the First Package of the Project Zero in Egypt on the Students' Writing Performance: An Experimental Study as a Part of the Egyptian Project Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Badea Rodwan Salama, Gomaa; Elshirbini Abdel-Fattah Al-Ashrii, Ismail Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying the necessary writing skills for the second year secondary stage students in Al-Azhar institutes through implementing the second part in the first package of the Egyptian Zero project. These skills are necessary for writing compositions for the second year in Arabic as their mother tongue and in English as a…

  16. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  17. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  18. Arabic Short Text Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Text compression permits representing a document by using less space. This is useful not only to save disk space, but more importantly, to save disk transfer and network transmission time. With the continues increase in the number of Arabic short text messages sent by mobile phones, the use of a suitable compression scheme would allow users to use more characters than the default value specified by the provider. The development of an efficient compression scheme to compress short Arabic texts is not a straight forward task. Approach: This study combined the benefits of pre-processing, entropy reduction through splitting files and hybrid dynamic coding: A new technique proposed in this study that uses the fact that Arabic texts have single case letters. Experimental tests had been performed on short Arabic texts and a comparison with the well known plain Huffman compression was made to measure the performance of the proposed schema for Arabic short text. Results: The proposed schema can achieve a compression ratio around 4.6 bits byte-1 for very short Arabic text sequences of 15 bytes and around 4 bits byte-1 for 50 bytes text sequences, using only 8 Kbytes overhead of memory. Conclusion: Furthermore, a reasonable compression ratio can be achieved using less than 0.4 KB of memory overhead. We recommended the use of proposed schema to compress small Arabic text with recourses limited.

  19. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  20. Further questions to the historiography of Arabic (but not only Arabic) mathematics from the perspective of Romance abbacus mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    which, if applied to Arabic material, might enable us to say more about the links between the Romance abbacus tradition and Arabic mu a¯mala¯t  teaching. Here I investigate a number of problem types and techniques which turn up in some but not necessarily in all of the following source types: - Romance......Since some years I have been engaged in a close reading of early Italian abbacus books and related material from the Ibero-Provençal orbit and in comparison of this material with Arabic mathematical writings. At the 7th North African Meeting on the History of Arab Mathematics in Marrakesh in 2002 I...... abbacus writings, - Byzantine writings of abbacus type, - Arabic mathematical writings of various kinds, - Sanskrit mathematical writings, in order to display the intricacies of the links between these - intricacies which force us to become aware of the shortcomings of our current knowledge, and hence...

  1. Synonymy in Jordanian Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ibrahim Salameh Alomoush

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of synonymy in Jordanian Arabic. It has been assumed that synonymy in Jordanian Arabic has partial rather than complete synonymy. This means that the abundance of Jordanian Arabic in synonyms can be attributed to a number of explanations, namely dialectical variations, the speaker’s attitude, and origin of words. The data for this study come from two main sources: written and spoken material. In accordance with the established literature on the semantics of synonymy, we have classified the corpus of the study on the basis of these parameters. The main findings reveal that total synonymy is hard to find in Jordanian Arabic, supporting the argument of many linguistic studies for the existence of partial rather than total synonymy in a language. Keywords: dialectical variations, evaluative meaning, origin of words, semantics, synonyms

  2. Coxiella-like endosymbiont in argasid ticks (Ornithodoros muesebecki) from a Socotra Cormorant colony in Umm Al Quwain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad A; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Walter, Mathias C; Kömpf, Daniela; Fischer, Silke F; Petney, Trevor; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever in domestic animals and humans. Seabirds have been implicated as possible reservoirs of this bacterium in the Arabian Gulf and in the Western Indian Ocean. Recently, Coxiella species closely related to C. burnetii was detected from ticks collected from oil rigs used as roosting areas by Socotra Cormorants (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) in the western Arabian Gulf. We collected ticks from the largest breeding colony of Socotra Cormorants in the United Arab Emirates on the eastern extreme of the species' breeding range to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii and evaluate its role as a wild reservoir. All ticks were identified as Ornithodoros muesebecki and genomic DNA was extracted from larval and nymph/adult tick pools. Multiplex PCR tests were performed targeting three C. burnetii specific genes. C. burnetii was not detected although a Coxiella-like endosymbiont was identified that was closely related to Coxiella symbionts from Ornithodoros capensis ticks. Because domestic and wild ungulates are the primary source of C. burnetii, we suggest that the presence of free-ranging, native and non-native ungulates in some off-shore islands in the Arabian Gulf could disseminate C. burnetii to seabirds. More comprehensive studies on seabird colonies are needed to better understand the diversity and prevalence of Coxiella symbionts and to establish if C. burnetii is endemic on some of these islands.

  3. Performing Arabness in Arab American Stand-up Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Selim Yasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the dramatic art of stand-up comedy. It locates Arab American stand-up comedy within a broader American humorous tradition and investigates the way Arab American performers use this art to negotiate and (reconstruct their identity. The main question in this article is the way Arab American stand-up comedians define their relationship to the Arab and the western worlds in the process of establishing their Arab American identity. Three humor theories - the relief theory, the incongruity theory, and the superiority theory - are deployed in the study to examine the representation of Arabness in selected Arab American performances. The study argues that Arab American comics minstrelize their own diasporic origin through reinscribing a range of orientalizing practices in order to claim their Americanness.

  4. Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch-El Alaoui, Lalla Khadija

    2005-01-01

    Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations, explores the US mainstream discourse on the Arabs in the 1990s in different cultural texts: academic, popular and media, including Hollywood. The project investigates how these representational practices participate in the reconfiguration of American public opinion vis-à-vis the Arabs. It also focuses on the ways in which the various discourses that produce or even invent the "Other" are undeniably li...

  5. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  6. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  7. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  8. Drug-likeness approach of 2-aminopyrimidines as histamine H3 receptor ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek B; Schreeb A; Schwed JS; Weizel L; Stark H

    2014-01-01

    Bassem Sadek,1 Annemarie Schreeb,2 Johannes Stephan Schwed,2,3 Lilia Weizel,2 Holger Stark3 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 2Biocenter, Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Johann-Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; 3Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany Abstract: A small series of compounds containi...

  9. Egyptian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are given the principal news concerning petroleum and natural gas in Egyptian Arab Republic. An important discovery of natural gas has been made in Khalda (Egyptian Arab Republic). The discovery well will be temporarily abandoned until it is connected to the egyptian pipeline system. In 1996 the south Khalda will be explored with at least two well drilling. The transit duties by the Suez canal for liquefied natural gas exports have decreased of 35%. The Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company studies a connection project of the trans saudi pipeline with the Suez mediterranean pipeline. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation will furnish 2,5 milliards of m3 per year of natural gas to Israel during 20 years. (O.L.). 2 figs

  10. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  11. Onomastique arabe et histoire sociale: Prosopographie des officiers "Ga'farides" en Al-Andalus au IVe/Xe si??cle

    OpenAIRE

    Meouak, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Este trabajo se propone discutir el inter??s de la aplicaci??n de los m??todos biogr??fico y prosopogr??fico en la historia social de al-Andalus, tomando como base y debatiendo algunos estudios sociol??gicos llevados a cabo en las ??reas de la historia moderna y de teor??a de la sociolog??a. Partiendo del an??lisis de la procedencia de la nisba de al-??a'far??, este art??culo ofrece, adem??s, la biograf??a "reconstruida" de ocho personajes que llevaron dicho apelativo y que constituyen, a ...

  12. Al-Balad as a place of heritage: problematising the conceptualisation of heritage in the context of Arab Muslim Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Shawash, J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses a problem affecting places of heritage throughout the world as represented by the case of al-Balad, the historical centre of Amman in Jordan: despite the increasing efforts expended on the conservation of built heritage, most social groups appear to be uninterested; this contradiction results in problems of neglect, dilapidation and lack of participation in its construction and representation. The research explores three possible sources of contradictions ...

  13. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    A TEACHING MANUAL FOR AN ELEMENTARY (FIRST LEVEL) COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE COURSE USES AN AUDIOLINGUAL-TO-GRAPHIC APPROACH OF INSTRUCTION, DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR PARTS. THE FIRST PART EMPHASIZES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SKILLS IN PREREADING INSTRUCTIONAL EXERCISES. PART TWO CONSISTS OF A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE…

  14. Arabic medicine and nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, G

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark Ages following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was instrumental in fostering the development of the sciences, including medicine. The quest for original manuscripts and their translation into Arabic reached its climax in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, and the dissemination of the compiled texts was facilitated by the introduction of paper from the East. Foremost among the Arabic physicians were Rhazes, Avicenna, Haly Abbas and Albucasis, who lived during the period 950-1050 AD. Their writings not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of these earlier writers. The urine was studied and the function and diseases of the kidneys described. Despite the fact that experimentation on the human body was prohibited by religion, some anatomic dissection and observation seems to have been undertaken, and the pulmonary circulation was described by Ibn Nafis. Anatomic illustrations began to appear in Arabic texts, though they did not have the detail and artistic merit of those of Vesalius. PMID:7847454

  15. The Haram al-Sharīf collection of Arabic legal documents in Jerusalem: a Mamlūk court archive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the corpus of 900 documents in the Mamlūk Haram al-Šarīf collection from the angle of archival storage. The vast majority of these documents are linked to the Jerusalem judge Šaraf al-Dīn ,Īsā b. Ġānim and to his period in office between the years 793/1391 and 797/1395. The sample of surviving documents, primarily estate inventories but also a few documents from other areas of the law within the qādī’s competence, contradicts the assumption that the Haram corpus is a systematically compiled archive of qādī records. Court certifications of real-estate sales and further transactions that are preserved for other periods within the Haram corpus are totally absent for this particular period. There is, moreover, an abundant number of documents concerning financial transactions in institutions over which the judge had jurisdiction. The necrology of the contemporary chronicler Ibn Hiğğī (d. 816/1413 opens an interesting perspective to explain the selection of documents relating to Šaraf al-Dīn, who was involved in a massive corruption case.

    Este artículo analiza el corpus de 900 documentos del Haram al-Šarīf desde la perspectiva de la conservación de archivos. En su mayoría, estos documentos están relacionados con el juez de Jerusalén Šaraf al-Dīn ʻĪsā b. Gānim y con el periodo en el que se mantuvo en el cargo, entre 793/1391 y 797/1395. La muestra de documentos estudiada, sobre todo inventarios de bienes, pero también documentos relacionados con otras áreas del derecho que pertenecen a la competencia del qādī, contradicen la hipótesis de que los documentos del corpus del Haram al-Šarīf son registros del tribunal compilados sistemáticamente en un archivo. Los certificados judiciales sobre ventas de bienes inmuebles y otras transacciones que se han conservado de otros periodos en el corpus no aparecen precisamente para el periodo que va entre los años 793/1391 y

  16. Comparative effect of garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and black seed (Nigella sativa) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Bastaki, Salim

    2011-01-01

    Naheed Amir, Amina Al Dhaheri, Najla Al Jaberi, Fatma Al Marzouqi, Salim MA BastakiDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesAbstract: Protective roles of raw and boiled garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) in comparison with black seed (Nigella sativa) on acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion in rats in vivo have been investigated. Raw or boiled Nigella sativa, gar...

  17. Borg Alexander, A comparative glossary of Cypriot Maronite Arabic (Arabic-English), with an Introductary Essay, Brill, Leiden / Boston, 2004, pp. IX-XXVIII + 486 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Arlette Roth

    2006-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage Alexander Borg parachève un ensemble de travaux qu’il a consacrés au cours des vingt dernières années à une variété d’arabe proche-oriental implantée en Chypre depuis plus d’un millénaire. Cette variété a la particularité de fonctionner à l’écart de toute influence de l’arabe écrit et sans interférences avec d’autres variétés d’arabe dialectal, ce qui lui donne, aux yeux de l’auteur, le statut d’objet scientifique idéal en matière de dialectologie arabe. L’arabe chypriote a s...

  18. Arabic Script and the Rise of Arabic Calligraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…

  19. « Seyr-e eṣṭelāḥāt-e ṣūfiyān, az Nahj al-Ḫāṣṣ-e Abū Manṣūr Eṣfahānī tā Fotūḥāt-e Ibn ‘Arabī », Ma‘āref, 16, 3 (1378/2000), pp. 3-55.

    OpenAIRE

    Fouchécour, Charles-Henri de

    2010-01-01

    Article important, sur l’histoire des lexiques du soufisme, du Nahj al-Ḫāṣṣ de Abū Manṣūr al-Iṣfahānī (ob. 418/1027) aux ouvrages d’Ibn ‘Arabī (ob. 638/1240). Celui-ci a plusieurs fois établi des lexiques de termes soufis, le plus important étant son écrit indépen­dant sur les iṣṭilāḥāt al-ṣūfiyya, dans lequel il définit environ deux cents termes. Parmi ses sources les plus importantes, Ibn ‘Arabī cite le lexique que Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad Ġazzālī avait composé pour expliquer un certain nombre de...

  20. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS REPORT IS THE TEXT FOR PART 3 AND PART 4 OF THAT COURSE. (FOR INFORMATION ON THE FIRST TWO PARTS AND SOME DETAIL ON THE OVERALL NATURE OF THE COURSE, REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 860 AND ED 003 861.) PART 3 COMPRISES A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE ARABIC ALPHABET AND THE…

  1. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  2. How Arabs Read Roman Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Mick; Meara, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Shows that native-speaking Arabic readers produce search functions that are radically different from the search functions of readers whose script uses the Roman alphabet (RAs). The processes used by Arabic readers are more akin to the processes used by RAs when searching arrays of shapes. (Author/LMO)

  3. Guide to OCR for Arabic scripts

    CERN Document Server

    Märgner, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The first book of its kind, specifically devoted to the emerging field of OCR for Arabic Scripts Presents state-of-the-art research from an international selection of pre-eminent authorities in the field Describes numerous applications of Arabic script recognition technology, from historical Arabic manuscripts to online Arabic recognition

  4. Physician participation in clinical research and trials: issues and approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sami F Shaban; Md Anwarul Azim Majumder; Sayeeda Rahman; et al

    2011-01-01

    Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sami F Shaban2, Nuzhat Rahman3, Moslehuddin Ahmed4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, Urban JA D’Souza61Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Communi...

  5. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  6. Modernist Arabic Literature and the Clash of Civilizations Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddiq Mohammad Gohor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the incorporation of western and Christian traditions, assimilated from western culture and literature in contemporary texts, written by Muslim/Arab poets and addressed to predominantly Muslim communities, in order to disrupt the clash of civilizations narrative and underline the attempt of post WWII Arab poets, led by Badr Shaker Al-Sayyab, to be engaged into trans-cultural dialogues with western masters particularly T.S Eliot. The paper argues that Arab poets, from ex-colonized countries, attempted to build bridges with the West by construction of a poetics that takes as its core the cultural/religious traditions of the European colonizers. Unlike writers from the ex-colonies, in Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and the West Indies who reconstruct western texts in order to subvert them, post WWII Arab poets integrated the religious heritage of what is traditionally categorized as an alien/hostile civilization into the Arab-Islamic literary canon.

  7. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT) System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed; Reda Abo Alez; Muhammad Taha; Gamal Tharwat

    2016-01-01

    Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT) System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the...

  8. Arab oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review explains the situation of petroleum products and gas in Arab countries. Several kinds of difficulties are exposed: too many projects, concurrence of other producers like Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Russian Federation, will be rude. New exporters (Iran, Venezuela, Nigeria, even Alaska) will appear and will want a part of market and western countries will probably diversify their tradesmen. An other point is that producers overestimate future growth of worldwide demand or underestimate the impact of more expansive gas price on this demand. Inversely if this one is too low, several projects, would not be profitable. The last point is in the concurrence between gas and petroleum products, which needs a consistent policy

  9. Effective Arabic Stemmer Based Hybrid Approach for Arabic Text Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryeme Hadni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Text pre-processing of Arabic Language is a challenge and crucial stage in Text Categorization (TCparticularly and Text Mining (TM generally. Stemming algorithms can be employed in Arabic text pre-processing to reduces words to their stems/or root.Arabic stemming algorithms can be ranked, accordingto three category, as root-based approach (ex. Khoja; stem-based approach (ex. Larkey; and statisticalapproach (ex. N-Garm.However, no stemming of this language is perfect: The existing stemmers have asmall efficiency.In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy ofstemming and therefore the accuracy of our proposedTC system, an efficient hybrid method is proposed for stemming Arabic text. The effectiveness of theaforementioned four methods was evaluated and compared in term of the F-measure of the Naïve Bayesianclassifier and the Support Vector Machine classifier used in our TC system. The proposed stemmingalgorithm was found to supersede the other stemmingones: The obtained results illustrate that using theproposed stemmer enhances greatly the performance of Arabic Text Categorization

  10. Functional or Anaphoric Control in Jordanian Arabic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haq, Fawwaz Al-Abed

    1992-01-01

    Discusses functional and anaphoric control in complex sentences (sentences with more than one verb) in Jordanian Arabic within the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. It is argued that Jordanian Arabic utilizes anaphoric rather that functional control. (18 references) (JL)

  11. Contrastive Linguistic English Phonology Vs. Arabic Phonology

    OpenAIRE

    Mona M. Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Phonology is a wide area of study in any language specially English &Arabic Language, it needs books to cover every single part of these languages. This review paper aims at providing Arab learners and English learners with stem footnotes of these two languages in area of phonology, to ease their learning of English and Arabic languages as foreign or second language, this review paper provide learners with the main differences and rules of English and Arabic languages alphabets that the resea...

  12. Arabic Heritage Language Learners: motivation, expectations, competence, and engagement in learning Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan Husseinali

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates motivation, outcome expectations, competence and engagement of Arabic heritage learners. Fifty students belonging to two distinct groups participated in this study. The first group is comprised of heritage learners coming from Arabic speaking homes (Arab HLLs) while the second group is comprised of non-Arabic speaking Muslims (Muslim HLLs). The study aims to uncover trends amongst Arabic HLLs, therefore, means for the whole group were calculated. In addition to means, ...

  13. Cystinuria in Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and genetics of cystinuria. It is expected that future development will be based on molecular and gene therapy. Until then, the therapy in cystinuric patients remains a difficult task and the goal should be the prevention of recurrences. This can be achieved by full compliance with medical regimens that result in significantly reduced urinary cystine excretion and good long term prognosis in most patients. Such measures include urinary alkalinization with potassium citrate, modest reduction of dietary sodium and maintenance of a daily urinary volume of about three liters to prevent stone recurrence in adult cystinuric patients. The use of life-long pharmacological agents with disulfide chelators should be reserved for patients who fail the general conservative therapy. Invasive surgery should be used only minimally so as to preserve renal anatomy and function. However, repeated episodes of obstructive urotherapy, frequently complicated by infection may eventually result in the need for nephrectomy, and are significantly associated with development of chronic renal failure. In Arab World we lack properly designed epidemiological studies on renal stone-disease in general, and the cystine stone in particular. We recommend a multi-center study to determine the incidence of the disease and a molecular genetic analysis of cystinuric patients and their relatives, to determine the different mutations in our population and the types of the disease both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes. (author)

  14. Labialization in Cairene Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates certain morphological categories in Cairene Arabic where the contrast between the short high vowels [i] and [u] is neutralized. The understanding of these neutralizations has direct consequences on the featural composition of different classes of segments. The analysis is formulated in the framework of the Parallel Structures Model of feature geometry, first introduced in Morén (2003, 2006, 2007 and further developed in work at CASTL. Assuming that features are language-specific but also articulatorily based, I motivate feature specifications for each participating segment and offer a straightforward autosegmental analysis of the distribution. The proposed analysis fits neatly into a constraint-based model and supports the growing body of literature claiming that representations are important even to optimality-theoretic analyses.

  15. Topical Structure in Arabic-English Interlanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    A study compared the topical structure (TS) of Arabic and English in order to determine whether Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer potential differences between Arabic and English in their English writing, or whether they use an altogether different TS indicative of developmental factors. Four sets of data were compared…

  16. The Arab Geologists' Association(AGA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WissamS.Al-Hashimi

    2004-01-01

    The Arab Geologists Association (AGA) is a non-governmental pan-Arab geological organization founded in 1975 by geological commissions, i.e., geologists unions, geological societies, representing nine Arab countries, namely, Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, Jordan,Libya, Sudan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Iraq. Organizations of geologists in Syria and Yemen joined the Association shortly after.

  17. FONOLOGI DAN MORFOLOGI BAHASA ARAB 'AMIYAH MESIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Arabic language, it is divided into two, namely Arabic fushhâ and ‘âmiyah. Arabic fushhâ used as a written language, and Arabic ‘âmiyah used as a spoken language. In daily activities, Arab people used Arabic ‘âmiyah more frequently. This is due to a fairly high level of formality that is owned by Arabic fushhâ, that should be in the spoken language is communicative, consultative, relaxed and intimate, both in term of morphological and syntactical. In the Egyptian Arabic occur in phonological and morphological differences were deemed difficult for students who only learn Arabic fushhâ. The difficulty that arises due to the ignorance of students to the differences that occur between Arabic fushhâ and Egyptian dialect. With an understanding of phonological and morphological of Arabic ‘âmiyah expected that the students of Arabic language or people who have learned fushhâ can understand-at least a few understanding-spoken language so that communication will run smoothly.

  18. Moriscos and Arabic studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegers, Gerard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay studies the contribution of Moriscos to Arabic studies. It concludes that the contributions of Moriscos in the Iberian peninsula remained modest. Some contributed actively to the knowledge of Arabic through their Arabic-Islamic learning. I show that the Mudejar convert known as Juan Andrés, who wrote one of the most influential treatises against Islam, was indeed a canon of the cathedral of Granada. I briefly discuss the contribution of Moriscos to the translations and interpretations of the Lead Books and studied their post-expulssion contribution to Arabic and Islamic studies. The last part focuses on the Dutch Republic, where, as a result of historical circumstances and contingent factors such as personal relations, Moriscos played an important role. Here, in addition to the study of the Arabic language itself, the physical sciences played a noteworthy role. This, I suggest, can be connected to the broad scope of the emergence of Arabic studies in Europe, which incorporated both the physical sciences and religion and philosophy, and an interest in North Africa itself because of developments in the physical sciences, including their application in daily life.

    Este artículo analiza la aportación de los moriscos a los estudios árabes, concluyendo que ésta fue modesta en la Península Ibérica. Algunos moriscos contribuyeron de forma activa al conocimiento del árabe a través de sus estudios sobre temas árabo-islámicos. Se demuesttra que el converso mudéjar conocido como Juan Andrés, autor de uno de los más influyentes tratados contra el Islam, fue un canónigo de la Catedral de Granada. Se aborda brevemente la cuestión de la contribución de los moriscos a la traducción e interpretación de los Libros Plúmbeos y se estudia su contribucción, con posterioridad a la expulsión, a los estudios árabes e islámicos. La última parte del trabajo se centra en Holanda (República de los Siete Países Bajos Unidos

  19. BAHASA ARAB DAN INFERIORITAS WANITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syofian Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic is one of - or perhaps only - among the most gender biased language. Symbols in the Arabic language is authentic evidence of how clearly illustrated the superiority of men over women, especially in matters i'rab (grammatical and signs. As seen from the difference dhamir (pronoun between men and women, the difference 'adad (number between men and women, and the form of words mu'rab (change and mabni (does not change between men and women and so on. Keywords : Arabic languange, Women and superiorityCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i1.47

  20. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Musiager, Abdulrahman

    2011-01-01

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical acti...

  1. The Hindu-Arabic numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David Eugene

    2004-01-01

    The numbers that we call Arabic are so familiar throughout Europe and the Americas that it can be difficult to realize that their general acceptance in commercial transactions is a matter of only the last four centuries and they still remain unknown in parts of the world.In this volume, one of the earliest texts to trace the origin and development of our number system, two distinguished mathematicians collaborated to bring together many fragmentary narrations to produce a concise history of Hindu-Arabic numerals. Clearly and succinctly, they recount the labors of scholars who have studied the

  2. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  3. Reading Arabic : legibility studies for the Arabic script

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahine, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    What is the cost of visual complexity? This dissertation sets out to determine the effect of the complexity of word formation on the legibility of Arabic and the role that vocalization plays in reading. This is carried out via a holistic approach to legibility research that combines the visual cultu

  4. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the proposed System consists of five main stages Video and Images capture, Video an d images processing, Hand Signs Construction, Classification finally Text transform ation and interpretation, this system depends on building a two datasets image features for Arabi c sign language gestures alphabets from two resources: Arabic Sign Language dictionary and gest ures from different signer's human, also using gesture recognition techniques, which allows the user to interact with the outside world. This system offers a novel technique of hand detect ion is proposed which detect and extract hand gestures of Arabic Sign from Image or video, i n this paper we use a set of appropriate features in step hand sign construction and class ification of based on different classification algorithms such as KNN, MLP, C4.5, VFI and SMO and compare these results to get better classifier.

  5. Strategy to combat obesity and to promote physical activity in Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al Hazzaa2, Aayed Al-Qahtani3, Jalila Elati4, Jasem Ramadan5, Nebal A AboulElla6, Najat Mokhtar7, Hashem A Kilani81Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2,3King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, 4National Institute of Nutrition, Tunisia; 5University of Kuwait, Kuwait; 6National Nutrition Institute, Egypt; 7Ibn Tofail University, Morocco; 8Sultan Qaboos University, OmanAbstract: Obesity has become a major public health problem in the Arab countries, creating a health and economic burden on these countries’ government services. There is an urgent need to develop a strategy for prevention and control of obesity. The third Arab Conference on Obesity and Physical Activity was held in Bahrain in January 2010, and proposed the Strategy to Combat Obesity and Promote Physical Activity in Arab Countries. This strategy provides useful guidelines for each Arab country to prepare its own strategy or plan of action to prevent and control obesity. The strategy focused on expected outcomes, objectives, indicators to measure the objectives, and action needs for 9 target areas: child-care centers for preschool children, schools, primary health care, secondary care, food companies, food preparation institutes, media, public benefit organizations, and the workplace. Follow-up and future developments of this strategy were also included.Keywords: obesity, physical activity, strategy, Arab countries

  6. Health information in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabbagh, Dina; Alsharif, Khlood; Househ, Mowafa S

    2013-01-01

    Availability of online health information in the Arab world is growing rapidly, as well as the demand for it. Today, the Arab health consumer is searching for health information that is in Arabic and is culturally relevant. The purpose of this paper is to document the various initiatives around the development of online health information in the Arab world. The paper highlights the status of online health information in Arab counties with a specific focus on Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive search of both academic and gray literature was conducted in October 2012. Google Scholar, PubMed, the Google search engines were searched. Results show that there has been an increase in the number of health information websites being created in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. Examples of some these initiatives are discussed. Future challenges to the growth of health information content in the Arab world are also discussed. PMID:23823454

  7. Biological survey of the Al Zubarah buffer zone, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe

    A survey of names of fish and other marine animals in Qatar Arabic gathered during the field season of 2012 at the Al Zubbara site.......A survey of names of fish and other marine animals in Qatar Arabic gathered during the field season of 2012 at the Al Zubbara site....

  8. Semantic Extraction of Arabic Multiword Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Meghawry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable interest has been given to Multiword Expression (MWEs identification and treatment. The identification of MWEs affects the q uality of results of different tasks heavily used in natural language processing (NLP such as p arsing and generation. Different approaches for MWEs identification have been applie d such as statistical methods which employed as an inexpensive and language independent way of finding co-occurrence patterns. Another approach relays on linguistic methods for i dentification, which employ information such as part of speech (POS filters and lexical al ignment between languages is also used and produced more targeted candidate lists. This paper presents a framework for extracting Arabic MWEs (nominal or verbal MWEs for bi-gram using hyb rid approach. The proposed approach starts with applying statistical method and then ut ilizes linguistic rules in order to enhance the results by extracting only patterns that match rele vant language rule. The proposed hybrid approach outperforms other traditional approaches.

  9. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairy Abusyairi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to day, the materials of Arabic teaching that are developed and used widely in Indonesia in general are the teaching materials used in the madrassah in the Middle East. If the teaching material is the result of the development of amounts not so much. While the demands for innovation and the development of Arabic language teaching materials, today continues to roll, in line with the dynamics of the development of science and technology. Besides that , the demand for Arabic teaching materials that use Indonesian as the language develops in most introductory students, especially those with a general educational background. Thus, one needs to have a competence of teachers in performing their duties is developing instructional materials. Development of teaching materials a teacher is important for learning more effective, efficient, and does not deviate from the competency achieved. Arabic teaching materials can be developed through the following steps : a analysis, b design, c the writing and preparation of the material, d evaluation, e revision.

  10. United Arab Emirates Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decision making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the ...

  11. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS REPORT IS THE TEXT FOR THE FIRST TWO PARTS OF THAT COURSE. (FOR INFORMATION ON OTHER PARTS, REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 860 AND ED 003 862.) THE COURSE USES THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD FOR TEACHING WHICH ATTEMPTS TO FAMILIARIZE THE STUDENT WITH ORAL SKILLS OF A LANGUAGE BEFORE…

  12. Trip Report United Arab Emirates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A

    2004-10-06

    Keith Nakanishi and Arthur Rodgers traveled to the United Arab Emirates in February, 2004 to continue an on-going technical collaboration with UAE University and to service the two temporary LLNL seismic stations. Nakanishi and Rodgers then participated in the Gulf Seismic Forum, which was organized by LLNL and sponsored by the University of Sharjah.

  13. Ripples From The Arab World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Turmoil in the Middle East sparks global economic concerns The massive upheavals sweeping the Arab world started on January 14 this year when Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled abroad after protesters demanded he step down as thecountry’s leader.Egyptian President Hosni

  14. Syria divides the Arab left

    OpenAIRE

    Dot-Pouillard, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The violence deepens and spreads. Yet unlike Egypt and Tunisia, the Syrian revolt has not had unanimous support from the Arab left. There is a split between those who sympathise with the protestors' demands and those who fear foreign interference, both political and military

  15. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  16. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-01-01

    Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans) are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascinati...

  17. The Metaphysics of The Healing. Al-Šifā’: al-Ilāhiyyāt. A parallel English-Arabic text translated, introduced, and annotated by Michael E. Marmura, Provo, Utah, Brigham Young University - Islamic Translation Series, 2005, xxvii + 441 + 378 p. [ang

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Justine

    2007-01-01

    Cette version de la Métaphysique d’Avicenne est la quatrième traduction intégrale de l’ouvrage dans une langue occidentale, après la traduction allemande de Max J.H. Horten (1907), la version française du Père Georges C. Anawati (1978-1985), et la récente édition trilingue arabe/latin/italien de Pasquale Porro et Olga Lizzini (Bompiani, 2002). Elle constitue aussi une nouvelle édition critique du texte arabe. L’éditeur s’est largement fondé sur l’édition du Caire (1960), en intégrant la plupa...

  18. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  19. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  20. Energy planning in the Arab world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafei, A.N.

    1979-09-01

    Efficient use of energy is of interest to the energy-surplus regions as well as the energy-deficit regions. Similarly, concern about energy conservation is not confined to the industrially developed regions of the world. This article discusses energy planning from the Arab point of view. A framework for Arab energy modeling is first described. Then the application of a computer model - that of Mesarovic and Pestel - to Arab energy-planning needs is discussed and some of the results are presented. Finally, current priorities in Arab energy-modeling studies are outlined. The Appendix surveys some existing models which address regional and international energy problems.

  1. Arabic Sentiment Analysis: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Assiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most social media commentary in the Arabic language space is made using unstructured non-grammatical slang Arabic language, presenting complex challenges for sentiment analysis and opinion extraction of online commentary and micro blogging data in this important domain. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the important research works in the field of Arabic sentiment analysis. An in-depth qualitative analysis of the various features of the research works is carried out and a summary of objective findings is presented. We used smoothness analysis to evaluate the percentage error in the performance scores reported in the studies from their linearly-projected values (smoothness which is an estimate of the influence of the different approaches used by the authors on the performance scores obtained. To solve a bounding issue with the data as it was reported, we modified existing logarithmic smoothing technique and applied it to pre-process the performance scores before the analysis. Our results from the analysis have been reported and interpreted for the various performance parameters: accuracy, precision, recall and F-score.

  2. Rule Based Shallow Parser for Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of language processing approaches that compute a basic analysis of sentence structure rather than attempting full syntactic analysis is shallow syntactic parsing. It is an analysis of a sentence which identifies the constituents (noun groups, verb groups, prepositional groups, but does not specify their internal structure, nor their role in the main sentence. The only technique used for Arabic shallow parser is Support Vector Machine (SVM based approach. The problem faced by shallow parser developers is the boundary identification which is applied to ensure the generation of high accuracy system performance. Approach: The specific objective of the research was to identify the entire Noun Phrases (NPs, Verb Phrases (VPs and Prepositional Phrases (PPs boundaries in the Arabic language. This study discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. New rules were proposed to the shallow parser features up to the generation of two levels from full parse-tree. We described an implementation and evaluate the rule-based shallow parser that handles chunking of Arabic sentences. This research was based on a critical analysis of the Arabic sentences architecture. It discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect the start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. Results: The system was tested manually on 70 Arabic sentences which composed of 1776 words, with the length of the sentences between 4-50 words. The result obtained was significantly better than state of the art Arabic published results, which achieved F-scores of 97%. Conclusion: The main achievement includes the development of Arabic shallow parser based on rule-based approaches. Chunking which constitutes the main contribution is achieved on two successive stages that include grouped sequences of

  3. The Integration of Arab Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Naser I Abumustafa

    2006-01-01

    Naser I. Abumustafa presents a review of the functions, regulations, and definitions of Arab emerging stock markets, identifying the barriers and solutions to potential integration of Arab stock markets. Development (2006) 49, 81–85. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100249

  4. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks...

  5. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arrangspan>ed along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  6. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  7. PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT OF LITERARY ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-ANI, SALMAN H.; SHAMMAS, JACOB Y.

    THIS WORKBOOK IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE THE SOUND SYSTEM AND WRITING SYSTEM OF LITERARY ARABIC. THE MATERIAL IS LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND ARABIC. ACCOMPANYING TAPES FOR EACH UNIT PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH PRACTICE IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION. READING, WRITING, AND HOMEWORK EXERCISES…

  8. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  9. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy...... was perceived as a bi-product that would come about as a result of the equal amount of time and resources allocated to both Arabic and Hebrew in the curriculum. However, there are a number of challenges such as the hegemony and dominance of Hebrew, the imbalance in knowledge of the two languages among...... the teaching stuff and the parents population (the Jewish teachers and parents have little or no knowledge of Arabic while the Arab teachers and parents are virtually bilinguals), the absence of bilingual teacher-training programs and lack of bilingual teaching materials production, that have to be addressed...

  10. Using Arabic CAPTCHA for Cyber Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Alghathbar, Khaled S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alkelabi, Abdullah M.; Alajaji, Abdulaziz

    Bots are automated programs designed to make auto registrations in online services, resulting in wastage of resources and breach of web security. English based CAPTCHAs are used to prevent bots from abusing these online services. However, English based CAPTCHAs have some inherent flaws and have been broken by bots. In this paper, an Arabic text based CAPTCHA is proposed. The CAPTCHA text image is distorted with background noise. Background noise and dots in the Arabic text makes CAPTCHA hard to be broken by Arabic OCRs. The proposed scheme is useful in Arabic speaking countries and in protecting internet resources. The proposed CAPTCHA scheme is both secure and robust. Experimental results show that background noise is a good defense mechanism against OCR recognizing Arabic text.

  11. RECOGNITION OF HINDI (ARABIC HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan I. Zaghloul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of handwritten numerals has been one of the most challenging topics in image processing. This is due to its contributions in the automation process in several applications. The aim of this study was to build a classifier that can easily recognize offline handwritten Arabic numerals to support those applications that are deal with Hindi (Arabic numerals. A new algorithm for Hindi (Arabic Numeral Recognition is proposed. The proposed algorithm was developed using MATLAB and tested with a large sample of handwritten numeral datasets for different writers in different ages. Pattern recognition techniques are used to identify Hindi (Arabic handwritten numerals. After testing, high recognition rates were achieved, their ranges from 95% for some numerals and up to 99% for others. The proposed algorithm used a powerful set of features which proved to be effective in the recognition of Hindi (Arabic numerals.

  12. Text Organization and Transfer: The Case of Arab ESL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Explored the hypothesis that Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer Arabic text organization features into their English writing by examining essays written by 30 Arab ESL students and 30 non-Arab ESL students. The results indicated little evidence of transfer in either group. Implications for further research are discussed.…

  13. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  14. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  15. Arabic Heritage Language Learners: motivation, expectations, competence, and engagement in learning Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Husseinali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates motivation, outcome expectations, competence and engagement of Arabic heritage learners. Fifty students belonging to two distinct groups participated in this study. The first group is comprised of heritage learners coming from Arabic speaking homes (Arab HLLs while the second group is comprised of non-Arabic speaking Muslims (Muslim HLLs. The study aims to uncover trends amongst Arabic HLLs, therefore, means for the whole group were calculated. In addition to means, t-tests were performed to compare the two groups with regard to motivation, outcome expectations, and competence. Frequencies for engagement items for each group are provided separately. The results indicate that, on the one hand, Arabic HLLs possess a strong identity and community motivations. On the hand, their instrumental or utilitarian motivation is very weak. On the levels of skills, Arabic HLLs are more drawn to study Arabic to improve their communication skills rather than to learn about their heritage culture. In comparison to Muslim HLL, Arab HLLs perceived themselves more competent to achieve speaking proficiency than Muslim HLLs. Muslim HLLs desired to learn more about Islam and Islamic texts than Arab HLLs. The results o this study are discussed in light of classroom instruction and designing of curricula to match the needs of both groups of HLLs.

  16. Socio-political aspects of mental health practice with Arabs in the Israeli context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1948 establishment of the Israeli state, an event described by Arab peoples as "Al-Nakbah" (catastrophe), the Arab minority in Israel has experienced oppression, trauma and social exclusion; they feel defeated, disempowered and poorer. There are huge gaps in quality of life between Arab and Jewish Israelis. Such social inequities, as well as other issues such as polygamy, have been identified as risk factors for psychological distress. This situation puts the Israeli Arab, like other post-colonial peoples, in an attitude of ambivalence towards modern mental health services. On the one hand, certain forms of intervention, particularly medicinal, may improve peoples' lives. On the other, mental health services, as part of the colonial process, continue to present limited cultural sensitivity towards Arab peoples. A cultural gap leading to mistrust is a given when a non-Arab mental health provider comes into contact with an Arab client. Religious beliefs, the importance of the family and the stigma attached to mental health problems have substantial influence on the Arab's perception and reaction toward mental health problems and their treatment. The expression of conflict and negative feelings are not well accepted within Arab culture. For this reason, mental illness is often denied and kept away from professional help or expressed as a physical illness. There is also a difficulty for a male being treated by a female and for the individual to ask for help outside his family or community. Arab Muslims also generally have a tendency to resign themselves to God's care and thus may neglect or deny symptoms. Another tendency is the preference for using traditional healers and folk medicine. Other problems in mental health work are the passive attitude of the patient and the degree of authority vested in the therapist. To facilitate bridging this cultural gap, the therapist's first task is that of educating him/her self about the religious, cultural and national

  17. The identity and witness of Arab pre-Islamic Arab Christianity: The Arabic language and the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Grafton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Arab Christianity has had a unique place in the history of World Christianity. Rooted in a biblical witness, the origins and history of Arab Christianity have been largely forgotten or ignored. This is not primarily as a result of the fact that the Arab Christian historical legacy has been overcome by Islam. Rather, unlike other early Christian communities, the Bible was never translated into the vernacular of the Arabs. By the 7th century the language of the Qur’an became the primary standard of the Arabic language, which then became the written religious text of the Arabs. This article will explore the identity and witness of the Christian presence in Arabia and claims that the development of an Arabic Bible provides a unique counter-example to what most missiologists have assumed as the basis for the spread of the Christian faith as a result of the translation of the Christian scriptures into a vernacular.

  18. PROFESIONALISME DOSEN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PENGGUNAAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Hanifah

    2013-07-01

    Based on the importance of mastery the learning media for the teachers, and the importance of using media in learning, especially in Arabic learning. the author as lecturer of Arabic at the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science and also as a lecturer of arabic media learning at the Department of Arabic Education (PBA are interested to write and discuss about the professionalism of Arabic lecturer in the use of learning media, with the aim to develop the professionalism of Arabic lecturers while improving the quality of Arabic learning in the faculties of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science, especially in the department of Arabic Language Education, because this article contains the information about how to become a professional Arabic lecturer in selecting, creating and using various types of Arabic learning media.

  19. Ibn al-Haytham and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Roshdi

    2013-01-01

    Theory of Conics, Geometrical Constructions and Practical Geometry: A History of Arabic Sciences and Mathematics Volume 3, provides a unique primary source on the history and philosophy of mathematics and science from the mediaeval Arab world. The present text is complemented by two preceding volumes of A History of Arabic Sciences and Mathematics, which focused on founding figures and commentators in the ninth and tenth centuries, and the historical and epistemological development of 'infinitesimal mathematics' as it became clearly articulated in the oeuvre of Ibn al-Haytham.

  20. An Arabic report about supernova SN 1006 by Ibn Sina (Avicenna)

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Kunitzsch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present here an Arabic report about supernova 1006 (SN 1006) written by the famous Arabic scholar Ibn Sina (Lat. Avicenna, AD 980-1037), which was not discussed in astronomical literature before. The short observational report about a new star is part of Ibn Sina's book called al-Shifa', a work about philosophy including physics, astronomy, and meteorology. We present the Arabic text and our English translation. After a detailed discussion of the dating of the observation, we show that the text specifies that the transient celestial object was stationary and/or tail-less ("a star among the stars"), that it "remained for close to three months getting fainter and fainter until it disappeared", that it "threw out sparks", i.e. it was scintillating and very bright, and that the color changed with time. The information content is consistent with the other Arabic and non-Arabic reports about SN 1006. Hence, it is quite clear that Ibn Sina refers to SN 1006 in his report, given as an example for transient celesti...

  1. A Critical Review of EFL Writing Syllabus at Tertiary Level in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sadig Ezza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research into the written performance of Arab EFL learners centres for the most part upon their failure to handle a variety of assignments as prescribed by the writing syllabus.  All things considered, writing problems are primarily attributed to the students’ linguistic incompetence, immature mastery of rhetorical structure of the English text and Arabic discourse transfer (Al-Khuweileh and Al-Shoumali, 2000; Al-Hazmi and Schofield, 2007 By contrast, educational policies and teaching usually evade criticism. This study is an attempt to provide a new interpretation of learners’ writing problems. In other words, it posits that   writing problems could also be caused by the employment of outdated approaches and resources. To verify this argument, the present paper explored the existing writing courses in three Arab Universities, revealing that English Departments adopted approaches and materials   characteristic of the 1940s and  1950s. Needless to say, unless  new developments into the linguistic theory and writing pedagogy, i.e. genre analysis, contrastive rhetoric and discourse analysis, are incorporated into the existing writing syllabus, Arab EFL learners will continue to have writing problems.Keywords: writing theories, writing pedagogy, writing materials, writing syllabus, process approach, product approach

  2. Prevalence and triggers of allergic rhinitis in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboub, Bassam; Al-Hammadi, Suleiman; Prakash, Vijayshree P; Sulaiman, Nabil; Blaiss, Michael S; Redha, Abdulla Al; Vats, Deepa M

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Allergic rhinitis is a morbid condition that is frequently overlooked by patients and physicians. This type of atopy has not been adequately investigated in the United Arab Emirates. Methods This cross-sectional, population-based observational study was conducted in the seven Emirates (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al-Quwain, Ras Al-Khaimah, and Fujairah). It used the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II) to screen for allergic rhinitis in p...

  3. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  4. Aeroballistic Parameters of Arab arrows On the Medieval Tract "Arab Archery"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas W. Mitiukov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With a helping of simple mathematical models there was analyzed the ballistic information of the Arab arrow on medieval Arabic treatise "Arab archery". It is shown that there were no any errors on the text and the translation was correct, then, apparently, Arabian heavy arrow had specific design and can no to be in one quiver with the light arrows. Regarding light arrows, then, apparently, they have the typical design with coefficient of drag function cx ≈ 2, and firing was carried out to a maximum range Arabic archer with an elevation angle about 10°.

  5. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Gridach, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop the Arabic morphological automata. The proposed approach has development standardization aspect. It can be exploited by NLP applications such as syntactic and semantic analysis, information retrieval, machine translation and orthographical correction. The proposed approach is compared with Xerox Arabic Analyzer and Smrz Arabic Analyzer.

  6. The Phonetic Nature of Vowels in Modern Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yahya Bani Salameh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA. Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as informants, they also benefited from three other Jordanians and four educated Yemenis. Considering the alphabets as the written symbols used for transcribing the phones of actual pronunciation, it was found that the pronunciation of many Arabic sounds has gradually diverged from the standard.  The study also discussed several related issues including: The phonetic description of Arabic vowels, classification of Arabic vowels, types of Arabic vowels and distribution of Arabic vowels.

  7. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  8. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  9. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation. PMID:15301318

  10. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-01

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases.

  11. Detection of Plagiarism in Arabic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Bachir Menai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many language-sensitive tools for detecting plagiarism in natural language documents have been developed, particularly for English. Language-independent tools exist as well, but are considered restrictive as they usually do not take into account specific language features. Detecting plagiarism in Arabic documents is particularly a challenging task because of the complex linguistic structure of Arabic. In this paper, we present a plagiarism detection tool for comparison of Arabic documents to identify potential similarities. The tool is based on a new comparison algorithm that uses heuristics to compare suspect documents at different hierarchical levels to avoid unnecessary comparisons. We evaluate its performance in terms of precision and recall on a large data set of Arabic documents, and show its capability in identifying direct and sophisticated copying, such as sentence reordering and synonym substitution. We also demonstrate its advantages over other plagiarism detection tools, including Turnitin, the well-known language-independent tool.

  12. Syllable Structure in Rumthawi Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser N. AlBzour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating some phonological aspects of syllable structure in Rumthawi Arabic, a Levantine variety spoken in the northern region of Jordan. It basically sheds light on the OT constraint interaction that determines the surfacing onsets and codas of syllables in this dialect. The scope of this paper is more specifically confined to examining the optimal candidates that surface when the definite article morpheme is prefixed. It thus proves that OT constraints in RA interact in an interestingly distinctive way that triggers divergence and sometimes convergence with other dialects due to the parametrical ranking of these constraints in this dialect unlike some other dialects. It is hoped that this humble endeavor will give insight to many interested researchers to deeply investigate various phonological aspects of this dialect.Keywords: optimality, syllable structure, onset, coda, epenthesis, constraints, faithfulness, markedness

  13. STRATEGI PENGELOLAAN KOMPONEN PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    OpenAIRE

    Fathur Rohman

    2014-01-01

    In the field of education, teaching management is one of the most important parts to ensure the success and the effectiveness of teaching. This article aims to describe the application of teaching management in the field of Arabic language teaching. The results presented in this article is that there are some aspects that need to manage in the field of teaching Arabic language, those are: curriculum, teaching materials, students, teachers, evaluation, teaching methods, and teaching purposes.

  14. Autosomal recessive diseases among Palestinian Arabs.

    OpenAIRE

    Zlotogora, J

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of the high consanguinity rate among the Palestinian Arabs, many recessive disorders are present with a relatively high frequency. In a survey of 2000 different Palestinian Arab families who visited our genetic clinic, in 601 an autosomal recessive disease was diagnosed or strongly suspected. The distribution of these disorders was not uniform and some disorders, such as Krabbe disease, were found at high frequency in only a small part of the population. For some other disord...

  15. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  16. Digital Arabs : Representation in video games

    OpenAIRE

    Šisler, Vít

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article presents the ways in which Muslims and Arabs are represented and represent themselves in video games. First, it analyses how various genres of European and American video games have constructed the Arab or Muslim Other. Within these games, it demonstrates how the diverse ethnic and religious identities of the Islamic world have been flattened out and reconstructed into a series of soci...

  17. An Arabic framework for dyslexia training tools

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rowais, Fadwa; Wald, Mike; Wills, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Language features and cultural factors play key roles in the difficulties associated with dyslexia. Thus, addressing the combination of these elements is essential to obtain better coverage of dyslexia issues and a deeper understanding of the needs of Arabic speakers with dyslexia. There is a great deal of progress yet to be achieved in the area of Arabic dyslexia, as little is published about manifestation of dyslexia in this language. This paper presents a framework to integrate the linguis...

  18. Politics and Arab women mobilization in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élisabeth Marteu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Divided between a Palestinian identity, largely proclaimed, and a gender consciousness, currently in the process of being reformulated, the political citizenship of Arab or Palestinian women citizens of Israel must be apprehended by taking into consideration this double referent of identity. The process of formation of a “gendered” identity in this ethnic minority, already torn between an Israeli citizenship and an Arab nationality, must not be underestimated. Constituting today nearly 18 % o...

  19. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  20. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascination with ancient Middle Eastern heritage, reflects a stereotypical depiction of everything Arab, Arab American literature can be seen as the other side of this projection or stereotype. Where Hollywood dramatizes, through the busting of ancient statues for the cause of terrorism, the Arab's disregard for his own culture, novels such as Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner and Nada Awar Jarrar's Somewhere, Home set out to preserve precisely a distinct cultural heritage, and go on to celebrate the contemporaneity and complexity of diasporic Afghan and Lebanese experience.

  1. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIJAB CONCEPT IN ARAB HOUSE PASAR KLIWON SURAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Ria Hapsari Putri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab,   Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon  will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimate...

  3. AL-IZDIWAJIYYAH AL-LUGHOWIYAH FII ISTIHDHAMI AL-LUGHOH AL-‘ARABIYAH

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-01-01

    Al-Izdiwajiyyah (diglosia) is standardizing a specific language when there are two variants of language that live side by side in societal life and each variant has its own social function. Disglosia is related to the use of local languages variations of low language and high language in a community. In Arabic language, disglosia covers dialects among the speakers, for instance there are two variants of language that each has roles and functions. The use of the variant depends on the situatio...

  4. TAFSIR SEMANTIK TERHADAP SURAT AL-KAFIRUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems about the reading of al-Qur’an is always interesting to be discussed, in which the use of Arabic includes sound or ‘nash’ is acrucial factor to understand the implicit meaning of the Arabic-written texts. Al-Qur’an discusses problem based on the society’s culture. Al-Kafirun discusses not only about the normative theology but more about sociological contexts in which it tends to show transparency, fight against fanaticism and regionalism. And all of the will bring to the first process of the making of the text meaning to the situational context that creates them.

  5. ARABIC PROGRAM ON COT KALA LANGSA STREAMING RADIO SEBAGAI STRATEGI BARU PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiauddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means learn to communicate. The goal of learning Arabic by using communicative approach is to stimulate the student to be able to master both receptive and productive skill. Receptive skills includes listening and reading skill, while productive skills includes speaking and writing skills. The objective of this study is to describe the streaming radio as a strategy in Arabic learning for the student of Arabic Department at Cot Kala Langsa State Islamic Institute. The result at the study shows that the streaming radio strategy gives a good response in conducting the Arabic class. Means that streaming radio can enhance the quality of teaching and learning Arabic at this institute.

  6. Arab gene geography: From population diversities to personalized medical genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O.; Sastry, Konduru S.; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic disorders are not equally distributed over the geography of the Arab region. While a number of disorders have a wide geographical presence encompassing 10 or more Arab countries, almost half of these disorders occur in a single Arab country or population. Nearly, one-third of the genetic disorders in Arabs result from congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are also responsible for a significant proportion of neonatal and perinatal deaths in Arab populations. Strikingly, about two-thirds of these diseases in Arab patients follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. High fertility rates together with increased consanguineous marriages, generally noticed in Arab populations, tend to increase the rates of genetic and congenital abnormalities. Many of the nearly 500 genes studied in Arab people revealed striking spectra of heterogeneity with many novel and rare mutations causing large arrays of clinical outcomes. In this review we provided an overview of Arab gene geography, and various genetic abnormalities in Arab populations, including disorders of blood, metabolic, circulatory and neoplasm, and also discussed their associated molecules or genes responsible for the cause of these disorders. Although studying Arab-specific genetic disorders resulted in a high value knowledge base, approximately 35% of genetic diseases in Arabs do not have a defined molecular etiology. This is a clear indication that comprehensive research is required in this area to understand the molecular pathologies causing diseases in Arab populations. PMID:25780794

  7. 76 FR 54198 - Mahan Airways, Et al.; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges and Also Making...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... vice president for business development. Moreover, Sirjanco shares the same Dubai mailing address and..., G 22 Dubai Airport Free Zone, P.O. Box 393754, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and P.O. Box 52404, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Mohamed Abdulla Alqaz Building, Al Maktoum Street, Al Rigga,...

  8. Joint Arab project for building of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently many Arab countries have expressed their interest in adopting nuclear power for electricity generation and seawater desalination in their energy strategies and hence sought assistance from IAEA and Arab Atomic Energy Agency. The Council of the League of Arab States at the summit level encouraged member states to develop peaceful use of atomic energy in different aspects of development, especially in energy generation and to establish a cooperative Arab program in this field. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if an Arab country forms a sharing partnership with other Arab countries. The sharing can be between two or more Arab states. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. This article outlines the major direct benefits of joint nuclear Arab programme to build a Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  9. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T

  10. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T

  11. UTILIZATION OF GUM ARABIC FOR INDUSTRIES AND HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Eqbal Dauqan; Aminah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Gum Arabic, a natural polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees, is a commonly used food hydrocolloid. The highlight of this study was to review the utilization of gum Arabic for industries and human health. Gum Arabic has a unique combination of excellent emulsifying properties and low solution viscosity. These properties make gum Arabic very useful in several industries but especially in the food industry where it is used as a flavor and stabilizer of cit...

  12. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    OpenAIRE

    Fachrizal Halim

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has ...

  13. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  14. Water Security in Arab Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity issues are critical to all Nations and always been discussed at the highest levels of dialogue in organizations and governmental and international bodies. Saving water constitutes the centerpiece of most contemporary societies, given the increasing in population and scarcity of water year after year, in addition to climate change such as drought and desertification and increasing environmental pollution. All of this may lead in the future to war. Water resources has become one of the biggest challenges for future plans of the world in general and Arab region in particular. Although the volume of water on earth is estimated at about 1.5 billion cubic kilometers, but most of it (97%) is salt water found in oceans, seas and lakes . Only 3% fresh water is distributed in a manner not in conformity with the requirements of our needs. This study aims to use environmental and radioactive isotope technology to identify sources of groundwater wells and also use modern mathematical models to determine the ages of these sources. All of this leads to develop a complete and integrated system to keep the sources from depletion or pollution and develop optimal strategies for water system in desert and semi-desert States. (author)

  15. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ali Mahmoud T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  16. Faculty research productivity in six Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-10-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The study revealed a lack of capacity of HEIs to provide quality data, raising issues concerning institutional excellence and transparency. Those data which were available were analysed using a number of statistical methods. The result is that faculty research output in the Arab world is relatively low, confirming the existing notion of a lagging knowledge sector in the region. While traditional scholarship has focused on institutional factors such as budgetary allocation as one prime determinant of research productivity, this study claims that other factors need to be considered in explaining the low output, with broad implications for policy formulation. Such factors include overall satisfaction levels of academic staff, socialisation of faculty staff members into a research climate, and university mission vis-à-vis academic research. Given the distinct paucity of studies on faculty research productivity in HEIs in the Arab region, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by providing original data derived from six Arab countries. The authors aim to provide a basis for further research into this topic.

  17. Cross-Language Phonetic Interference: Arabic to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, James Emil; Port, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Compares phonetic implementation of the stop-voicing contrast produced in Arabic by Saudi Arabians and by both Americans and Saudis in English. Saudis used temporal aspects of voicing in Arabic while speaking English. This caused few communication problems, with the exception of the phoneme (p), which has no Arabic counterpart. (Author/PJM)

  18. Development and Evaluation of the Arabic Filial Piety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…

  19. An Arabic creole in Africa : the Nubi language of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner

    2003-01-01

    At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble thos

  20. The Internationalization of the Business Administration Curricula in Arab Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…

  1. The Linguistic Affiliation Constraint and Phoneme Recognition in Diglossic Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…

  2. Role of Information Technology in Digitizing Arabic Manuscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Hafizy Zohayr

    2007-01-01

    A research about using the information technology tools in digitizing the Arabic manuscripts; it begins with a brief history about the Arabic manuscripts; then it discusses using automation systems in manuscripts processing, then it shows the Arab experiments in digitizing manuscripts in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and finally talks about requirements of digitizing process.

  3. Improper Narratives: Egyptian Personal Blogs and the Arabic Notion of Adab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pepe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years several international scholars have started to move beyond the social and political effect of blogging to define blogs in terms of literary writing (See Fitzpatrick, 2006; Himmer 2004; Van Dijk, 2004. Also in the Arab world, the fact that several blogs have been turned into books and have had considerable success, has provoked a debate over the literary status of blogs: while some critics hail them as a new literary experiment, others claim that they do not have the legitimacy to be included in the category of adab (literature. This has perhaps to do with the fact that in the Arab world (as elsewhere printed books enjoy more prestige; but also with the fact that the Arab notion of adab is gradually coinciding, though still differing from the European notion of “literature”, and this defines the boundaries of the literary field. In other words, to claim that a work is “literary” because it has aspects of “literariness”, does not wholly correspond to saying that it is adabī, i.e. “literary” for Arab critics. In this article I will discuss aspects of literariness and adab-icity by means of an analysis of the blog al-Kanabah al-Ḥamrā (The Red Sofa, written by the Egyptian Bilāl Ḥusnī. The blog has been reviewed in several Egyptian newspapers and literary websites as “an interactive fiction” or a “adabī/literary and visual blog”. However, its style, contents and materiality challenge both our notion of “literature” and the Arab concept of adab.

  4. AT-TAQOBUL BAINA AL-LUGHOTAIN AL-‘ARABIYAH WAL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkis Lubis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a plain contrastive descriptive study between two languages, Arabic and Indonesian, especially the contrast between their phonetics, lexical, phonological and syntax levels. The research concludes within that there is similarity and differentiation in its phonetics, lexical, phonological and syntax systems. In phonetics we found a contrast related to consonants and vocals sounds, and also in syllable sounds. In lexical domain, there is a meaning formulated in one word in Arabic language, but in Indonesian language we found it composed of two words, for example: ?????? ????? ????? ??????, rumah sakit, makan siang, makan malam and others. In the phonology, it is found out that Arabic language is an etymological language and the Indonesian language is an affix language, and Arabic language adopt systems of masculine, feminine, singular, dual (mutsanna and plural which is different from Indonesian language. In syntax of Indonesian language, we found that the meaning is defined by the combination of the words and its position, it is based on subject combination (nominal clause, in other hand we found that the Arabic language is a syntax language (lughah mu’rabah, the meaning is defined by the syntax (al i’rab and it adopts both of nominal clause and verbal clause. Those Arabic phenomena which are not adopted by Indonesian language should be taken into account in learning and teaching Arabic Language by the Indonesians.

  5. The Intonation of Topic and Focus: Zaar (Nigeria), Tamasheq (Niger), Juba Arabic (South Sudan) and Tripoli Arabic (Libya)

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Bernard; Lux, Cécile; Manfredi, Stefano; Pereira, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    International audience A follow-up of the CorpAfroAs project, this paper presents a typologically-oriented study of the intonation of Topic and Focus in four Afroasiatic languages (Zaar, Tamasheq, Juba Arabic and Tripoli Arabic), in relation to their phonological and information structures. The different prosodic systems represented in the study - i.e. the demarcative accent system of Berber, the lexical stress system of Tripoli Arabic; the pitch accent system of Juba Arabic; and the tone ...

  6. Studying Arabic as a foreign/second language together with Arab Heritage Language Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article reports on my study of the sociocultural-interactive Strategies (SCISs) used by a mixed group of learners of Arabic at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The group consists of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (FLLs) and Arab Heritage Language Learners (AHLLs). FLLs...... questionnaire and qualitative (interviews). The major findings of the study was that the group follows the general patterns of SCISs, to ask, cooperate and communicate, and that AHLLs’ presence only partially increases and promotes the opportunities of sociocultural interaction in the learning environment....

  7. Fault detection system for Arabic language

    CERN Document Server

    Amraoui, Houda

    2012-01-01

    The study of natural language, especially Arabic, and mechanisms for the implementation of automatic processing is a fascinating field of study, with various potential applications. The importance of tools for natural language processing is materialized by the need to have applications that can effectively treat the vast mass of information available nowadays on electronic forms. Among these tools, mainly driven by the necessity of a fast writing in alignment to the actual daily life speed, our interest is on the writing auditors. The morphological and syntactic properties of Arabic make it a difficult language to master, and explain the lack in the processing tools for that language. Among these properties, we can mention: the complex structure of the Arabic word, the agglutinative nature, lack of vocalization, the segmentation of the text, the linguistic richness, etc.

  8. Writing arabic numerals in an agraphic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delazer, M; Denes, G

    1998-09-01

    We report on the writing of Arabic numerals in a patient whose alphabetical script was restricted to graphemic jargon (Schonauer & Denes, 1994). The analysis of writing errors in Arabic script over three testing sessions (4, 10, and 13 months after stroke) confirmed the separate processing of syntactic and lexical information in number production proposed by current models. The changing error pattern over time reflected some difficulties observed in developmental studies on the acquisition of Arabic numeral writing. Errors were mostly of the syntactic type and (at a certain stage) were based on the verbal form of the numerals. As reported in neuropsychological (Noel & Seron, 1995) and developmental (Power & Dal Martello, 1990; Seron & Fayol, 1994) studies, sum relations were more difficult to transcode than product relations within complex numerals. PMID:9710492

  9. Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Zaki Abdo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition (ArANSLR. It facilitates the communication between the deaf and normal people by recognizing the alphabet and numbers signs of Arabic sign language to text or speech. To achieve this target, the system able to visually recognize gestures from hand image input. The proposed algorithm uses hand geometry and the different shape of a hand in each sign for classifying letters shape by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM. Experiments on real-world datasets showed that the proposed algorithm for Arabic alphabet and numbers sign language recognition is suitability and reliability compared with other competitive algorithms. The experiment results show that the increasing of the gesture recognition rate depends on the increasing of the number of zones by dividing the rectangle surrounding the hand.

  10. The new literary front: public diplomacy and the cultural politics of reading Arabic fiction in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Vron

    2011-01-01

    The novel Girls of Riyadh (Banat Al-Riyadh) by Rajaa Alsanea, published in English by Penguin in 2007, provides a valuable prism through which to examine an array of geo-political forces shaping the movement of literary texts between Anglophone and Arabic-speaking reading publics. The investigation seeks to contribute to the developing feminist scholarship on reading texts by and about Muslim women. However, rather than critique the substance of the text itself, the essay explores a wider ran...

  11. The geology of Khuff outcrop analogues in the Musandam Peninsula, United Arab Emirates and Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Florian; Martini, Rossana; Rettori, Roberto; Hillgärtner, Heiko; Cirilli, Simonetta

    2009-01-01

    A revision of the stratigraphy of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic carbonates (Bih Formation) in the Musandam Mountains near Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), clarifies the presence of deposits that are age-equivalent to the Late Permian and Early Triassic Khuff Formation. Biostratigraphic markers including benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae indicate a Permian age for the stratigraphically oldest outcrops ranging from late Wuchiapingian to late Changhsingian (K4 and K3 reser...

  12. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    , whereas fear and security concerns are often embedded in more populist debates. In the Arab Gulf region, as in many other regions, such as East Asia, this debate has taken distinctively different shapes, partially because the concept of citizenship remains a contested notion not just with regard to...... migrants, but also with regard to local populations. In addition to the contested nature of citizenship, migrants' lack of citizenship rights fulfils distinctive functions in what Saskia Sassen calls 'global cities'. This concept links the Arab world with a new phenomenon of globalized migration in which...

  13. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Akheela Khanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstedes cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstedes score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  14. Arab space in the geopolitical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is analysing the geopolitical structure and dynamics of Arab space. Based on structural analysis of social, political, cultural and spatial changes the key-problems and geopolitical features are recognized. Arab space is – more or less – the largest ‘shatter belt’ known by contemporary crises and similar processes in the near past. These are caused by inner and, even more, by outer geopolitical factors in the large regional surrounding. The western economic and military forces are perhaps loosing the role of key-factor in the area. In the near future, Asiatic powers might play a dominant role.

  15. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    CERN Document Server

    Khanum, Mohammadi Akheela; Chaurasia, Mousmi A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstede's score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  16. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Benamer, Hani T. S.; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1–9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine preva...

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIJAB CONCEPT IN ARAB HOUSE PASAR KLIWON SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Hapsari Putri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab,   Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon  will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimated retained. Therefore, in this study will be assessed the extent of the implementation of the hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon. This study used the rationalistic paradigm and purposive sampling method of data collection which Arab house aged over 50 years. Analysis of the data using the parameters: (1 the physical hijab is permanent physical elements (walls, doors, windows and mashrabbiya and non permanent physical elements (furniture and plants and (2 non physical hijab is non physical elements (behavioral or user activity .The results showed that the concept of hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon is symbolized by: (1 the physical hijab is spatial zone that separates public and private space, and (2 non physical hijab is behavior or etiquette of visiting the implementing Islamic culture. Keywords:  : islamic architecture, arab house, hijab     Abstrak Penelitian ini dimotivasi oleh kehadiran perkampungan Arab di Pasar Kliwon yang merupakan permukiman yang heterogen, terdiri dari Arab, Jawa, dan Cina dengan komunitas Arab lebih besar daripada komunitas Cina. Kehidupan multikultural yang terjadi di permukiman Arab di Pasar Kliwon akan secara langsung mempengaruhi proses  interaksi  antar  etnis.  Islam  merupakan  jalan  hidup  budaya Arab.  Rumah Arab  merupakan  produk arsitektur Islam yang mengaplikasikan hijab dan perhitungan pertahanan. Karena itulah dalam tulisan ini akan diperkirakan luasnya implementasi hijab pada rumah Arab di Pasar

  18. Perbandingan Kualitas Buku Teks Bahasa Arab Tingkat Madrasah Tsanawiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Syamsul Ma’arif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing good Arabic textbooks determines the quality of Arabic learning in the classroom . This paper aims to identify and compare the quality of the Arabic language text books at Islamic junior high school levelsseen from the aspect of content, presentation , language and graphic . The object of research is the book of D Hidayat, Maman Abdul Djalil and A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah . The results showed that all three of the Arabic language textbooks have advantages and disadvantages . In general, the Arabic text book work of A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah is better than the other two books

  19. On the Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science or why did Arabic Science Fail to Achieve the Copernican Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Ghassib

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Hegelianized version of Althusser’s concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry. A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelianism and Ptolemaism is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. This article focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.

  20. On The Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science Or Why Did Arabic Science Fail To Achieve The Copernican Revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    A Hegelian version of the concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry). A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelian philosophy and Ptolemaic science) is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. The paper focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.

  1. Andalusian astronomy: al-Zij al-Muqtabis of Ibn al-Kammâd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabás, J.; Goldstein, B. R.

    1994-12-01

    In the twelfth century the Arabic astronomer Ibn al-Kammâd, living in Islamic Spain, composed three sets of astronomical tables, called "zijes". The zijes were largely based on the work of predecessors, going back to Ptolemy on the one hand, and Hindu astronomers on the other. None of his zijes survived in the original Arabic, but a Latin manuscript contains a translation of an apparently complete zij, the "al-Zij al-Muqtabis". This paper examines the body of astronomical knowledge contained in this zij. Specifically, it is shown that one can gain valuable information on the solar theory of the Islamic astronomers from this translation. Furthermore, the theory of lunar and solar eclipses in the work is analyzed, and tables of mean planetary and solar motions are discussed. In addition, tables for the motion of the vernal equinox, star tables, and several topics of Islamic spherical astronomy are examined.

  2. A statistical study of the relative difficulty of freehand simulation of form, proportion, and line quality in Arabic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musa Alkahtani, Abdulaziz; Platt, Andrew W G

    2010-06-01

    This article compares the skill with which a large sample of Arabic writers was able to simulate different handwriting elements in two Arabic signatures. The data agree with the consensus of experts about Roman script: Form is significantly better simulated than Proportion, and Proportion is significantly better simulated than Line Quality. The fact that patterns long observed in Roman script simulation can be statistically demonstrated to exist in the simulation of Arabic signatures suggests that these may be widespread, if not universal, patterns of simulation among writing systems. This is also supported by similar results from a study of abstract characters (Leung et al. 1993), which suggests that these tendencies may even transcend linguistic writing systems. Among the Proportional elements are slant, alignment, spacing, and size. PMID:20470739

  3. The Arabic Revolt: Context, Perspectives and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Mandelc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss three interrelated topics, framed within discourses of individual and collective human rights, right of self-determination, democratic processes, people`s uprisings, and geopolitical (imbalances. First, we are interested in the situation of Western Sahara and the 37 years of ongoing Moroccan occupation; we refer to this country as Africa’s last colony. Discussion leads us to reflection of the political strategies of Sahrawis to achieve their national liberation, one of them being Gdeim Izik camp, understood by some relevant authors as the beginning of the »Arab spring«. The »Arab spring« is the second focus of our discussion. We offer a timetable and stress the context of events from the Western Sahara attempt in Gdeim Izik, popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen that ended in the resignations of their leaders and governments, civil wars in Syria and Libya, to bigger and smaller protests and their consequences in Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Mauretania, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Djibouti. We try to offer a deconstruction and reconstruction of the »Arab spring«. In the third part, we discuss the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the perspectives for solution. The conclusion reflects on the strategic, social and political implications of the »Arab spring«, the role and response of the international community, and the new global wave of resistance against political and financial elites.

  4. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  5. Automatic Arabic Hand Written Text Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Jannoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the decent development of the pattern recognition science applications in the last decade of the twentieth century and this century, text recognition remains one of the most important problems in pattern recognition. To the best of our knowledge, little work has been done in the area of Arabic text recognition compared with those for Latin, Chins and Japanese text. The main difficulty encountered when dealing with Arabic text is the cursive nature of Arabic writing in both printed and handwritten forms. An Automatic Arabic Hand-Written Text Recognition (AHTR System is proposed. An efficient segmentation stage is required in order to divide a cursive word or sub-word into its constituting characters. After a word has been extracted from the scanned image, it is thinned and its base line is calculated by analysis of horizontal density histogram. The pattern is then followed through the base line and the segmentation points are detected. Thus after the segmentation stage, the cursive word is represented by a sequence of isolated characters. The recognition problem thus reduces to that of classifying each character. A set of features extracted from each individual characters. A minimum distance classifier is used. Some approaches are used for processing the characters and post processing added to enhance the results. Recognized characters will be appended directly to a word file which is editable form.

  6. Arabic Spelling: Errors, Perceptions, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh, Hezi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated common spelling errors among first language English speakers who study Arabic at the college level. A sample of 63 students (45 males and 18 females) was asked to write texts about a variety of topics and then to answer survey questions regarding their perceptions and strategies. Their writing produced 457 spelling errors,…

  7. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  8. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, Hani T S; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2010-02-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1-9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine prevalence was 2.6-5% in Saudi Arabia and 7.9% in Qatar, while the 1-year migraine prevalence was 10.1% in Oman. The results show a migraine prevalence within that estimated worldwide. However, it is clear that epidemiological data from Arab countries are lacking, and there is disparity in the reported prevalence from Saudi Arabia when compared with its two neighbours, Qatar and Oman. Wider study adopting the same methodology in the six Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait) is needed to examine variations in headache and migraine prevalence.

  9. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  10. Arabic Phonology: An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    This book presents an acoustical and physiological Investigation of contemporary standard Arabic as spoken in Iraq. Spectrograms and X-ray sound films are used to perform the analysis for the study. With this equipment, the author considers the vowels, consonants, pharyngealized consonants, pharyngeals and glottals, duration, gemination, and…

  11. United Arab Emirates students at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months, CERN played host to more than a hundred young physicists who attended the summer student programme. However, the difference in culture has been more pronounced for some than others: among this year's attendees have been five female theoretical physics and medical physics students from the United Arab Emirates.

  12. Arabic Poetry: Guzzle a Ghazal! [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The Bedouins of ancient Arabia and Persia made poetry a conversational art form, and several poetic forms developed from the participatory nature of tribal poetry. Today in most Arab cultures, people may still experience public storytelling and spontaneous poetry challenges in the streets. The art of turning a rhyme into sly verbal sparring is…

  13. United Arab Emirates : Student Assessment 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component to improving education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders decision making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths ...

  14. Arabic Text Classification Using Support Vector Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharib, Tarek Fouad; Habib, Mena Badieh; Fayed, Zaki Taha; Zhu, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Text classification (TC) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. Arabic language is highly inflectional and derivational language which makes text mining a complex task. In this paper we applied the Support Vector Machines (SVM) model in cl

  15. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  16. Pengajaran Bahasa Arab di Pondok Pesantren Salafiyah Kalimantan Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Language, as the language of Islam religion, and also the language of the Holy Quran, obtaining a privileged position in the heart of Indonesians, especially Muslims. Due to its privileged position, the Arabic language was able to survive from its extinction since its appearance in Indonesia until now. Unfortunately, the privileged position of Arabic language is not directly proportional to its fate in various educational institutions in Indonesia, especially in East Kalimantan. The Arabic language teaching in those institutions faces very complex problems especially the lack of an integrated curriculum that can be relied upon to fulfill the needs of teaching Arabic language to non- Arabs with a better method. The current curriculum is the curriculum that does not have comprehensive programs and is not accompanied with modern teaching methods. While at the Teaching and Learning Activities stage, teaching the Arabic language is not supported by professional and competent teachers. This study aims to analyze and evaluate approaches used in teaching Arabic at some boarding school in East Kalimantan viewed from the perspective of the curriculum and methods of teaching Arabic to non- Arabs.

  17. A Content Analysis of Arabic and English Newspapers Before, During and After the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Campaign in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Elbarazi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer amongst females in the United Arab Emirates (UAE with an estimated incidence of 7.4 per 100,000 persons per year. In March 2008, the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi launched a free school-based campaign to provide all female Emirati students aged 15-17 years in the emirate of Abu Dhabi with the Human Papillomavirus vaccine (HPVV. Despite the proven efficacy of the HPVV in clinical trials, there has been limited research exploring the acceptance of this vaccine within a conservative Islamic society. The media plays a key role in changing beliefs and attitudes towards specific public health initiatives, such as vaccination programmes. The primary aim of this study was to explore the content and communication style of the UAE newspapers (both Arabic and English before, during and after the HPV vaccination programme.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on six national newspapers with the highest circulation figures in the UAE (Arabic: Al Ittihad, Al Khaleej, Emarat El Youm; English: Khaleej Times, The National, Gulf News to retrieve articles related to cervical cancer prevention from January 2000 to May 2013. One bilingual researcher (Arabic-English utilised content analysis to study the subject matter of communication in each article.Results: A total of 79 newspaper articles (N=31 Arabic were included in the study. Content analysis coding revealed five main themes: (i ‘HPV Screening or Vaccination Programmes in the UAE’ (N=30; (ii ‘Cervical Cancer Statistics in the UAE’ (N=22; (iii ‘Aetiology of Cervical Cancer and HPVV Efficacy’ (N=12; (iv ‘Cultural Sensitivity and Misconceptions Surrounding HPVV in School-Aged Females’ (e.g. promoting promiscuity (N=8; and (v ‘Cost- Effectiveness, Efficacy and Safety’ (N=7. Conclusion: The UAE media is playing an important role in raising public awareness about cervical cancer and specific governmental health

  18. A grammar of Hadari Arabic: a contrastive-typological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bahri, Khaled Waleed

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides a synchronic morphosyntactic description of the Hadari dialect, a variety of Gulf Arabic spoken in Kuwait, and presents a current documentation of this rapidly changing, under documented spoken dialect of Arabic. The description covers the basic morphology and syntax of Hadari, focusing mainly on the syntax. The description refers to Modern Standard Arabic both as a point of comparison and a point of reference when describing the spoken dialect’s morphology and syntax. Th...

  19. [Cultural heritage and audiovisual creation in the Arab world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, M

    1979-01-01

    Audiovisual creation is facing in Arab countries problems arising from the use of imported techniques in order to reconstitute or transform their own reality. Arab audiovisual producers see this technique as an easy and efficient way to reproduce reality or construct conventionally an artificial universe. Sometimes, audiovisuals have an absolute suggestion power; sometimes, these techniques are faced with total incredulity. From a diffusion point of view, audiovisuals in the Arab world have a very specific status. The effects of television, studied by western researchers in their cultural environment, are not reproduced in the same fashion in the Arab cultural world. In the Arab world, the word very often still competes successfully with the picture, even after the appearance and adoption of mass media. Finally, one must mention a very interesting situation resulting from a linguistic phenomenon which is specific to the Arab world: the existence of 2 communication languages, one noble but little used, the other dialectical but popular. In all Arab countries, the News, the most political program, is broadcasted in the classical language, despite the danger of meaning distortion in the least educated public. The reason is probably that the classical Arab language enjoys a sacred status. Arab audiovisuals are facing several obstacles to their total and autonomous realization. The contribution of the Arab audiovisual producers is relatively modest, compared to some other areas of cultural creation. Arab film-making is looking more and more for the cooperation of contemporary writers. Contemporary literature is a considerable source for the renewal of Arab audiovisual expression. A relationship between film and popular cultural heritage could be very usefully established in both directions. Audiovisuals should treat popular cultural manifestations as a global social fact on several significant levels. PMID:12261391

  20. Fourth China-Arab Friendship Conference Held in Yinchuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Fourth China-Arab Friendship Conference (CAFC) with the theme of "promoting cooperation through friendship and pursuing development through exchanges", jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) and the League of Arab States (LAS) and hosted by the People’s Government of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,was held in Yinchuan from September 13 to 14, 2012.Before the opening ceremony,Vice Premier Li Keqiang met

  1. The Arab activity in uranium exploration and recovery: pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second part of a paper given during the third Arab energy conference held in Algeria, 4 - 9 May, 1985. Information concerning uranium resources and exploration in some Arab Countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Lybia is presented. In addition to that, uranium content in phosphate rocks in the world and specially in Arab Countries is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Arabic name authority in the online environment : options and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Speirs Plettner, Martha

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the efforts for incorporating non-Roman scripts, notably Arabic, in MARC bibliographic and authority records. Arabic name authority records have been handwritten using Arabic script and filed manually in book or card catalogs since the time that it was considered important to preserve this information. After the adoption of typewriters as tools in library cataloging departments, those who only had Latin script typewriters were forced into using transliteration schemes, a...

  3. 76 FR 41757 - Mahan Airways, et al.; Modification of Temporary Denial Order To Add Zarand Aviation as a Denied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...: \\1\\ The February 25, 2011 Order was published in the Federal Register on March 7, 2011. See 76 FR.../Gatewick Aviation Services, G#22 Dubai Airport Free Zone, P.O. Box 393754, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and P.O. Box 52404, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Mohamed Abdulla Alqaz Building, Al Maktoum...

  4. The Electronic Archiving of Arab News Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Ayub Gigawy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This Research aims to present the electronic archives of Arab news agency websites and their methods of searching for and retrieving information. Also, its aim is to examine all their methods in order to find out which are the best and most practically useful ones. The research refers to the news agencies and the Internet, through the methods that users encounter in these inquires and links which present information. It concentrates on practical ways of searching for news items in both texts and pictures. The research contains tables showing the results. It presents a brief summery for each of Arab news agencies.The research comes to the conclusion that there are many things which need to be considered, and also some suggestions as to how the search for and retrieval of information might be improved

  5. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  6. Combinatorial Classification for Chunking Arabic Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriel Ben Fraj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Text parsing has always benefited from special attention since the first applications of natural languageprocessing (NLP. The problem gets worse for the Arabic language because of its specific features thatmake it quite different and even more ambiguous than other natural languages when processed. In thispaper, we discuss a new approach for chunking Arabic texts based on a combinatorial classificationprocess. It is a modular chunker that identifies the chunk heads using a combinatorial binary classificationbefore recognizing their types based on the parts-of-speech of the chunk heads, already identified. For theexperimentation, we use over than 2300 words as training data. The evaluation of the chunker consists oftwo steps and gives results that we consider very satisfactory (average accuracy of 89,60% for theclassification step and 80,46% for the full chunking process.

  7. Combinatorial Classification for Chunking Arabic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Ben Fraj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Text parsing has always benefited from special attention since the first applications of natural language processing (NLP. The problem gets worse for the Arabic language because of its specific features that make it quite different and even more ambiguous than other natural languages when processed. In this paper, we discuss a new approach for chunking Arabic texts based on a combinatorial classification process. It is a modular chunker that identifies the chunk heads using a combinatorial binary classification before recognizing their types based on the parts-of-speech of the chunk heads, already identified. For the experimentation, we use over than 2300 words as training data. The evaluation of the chunker consists of two steps and gives results that we consider very satisfactory (average accuracy of 89,60% for the classification step and 80,46% for the full chunking process.

  8. Arabic Word Recognition by Classifiers and Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadir Farah; Labiba Souici; Mokhtar Sellami

    2005-01-01

    Given the number and variety of methods used for handwriting recognition, it has been shown that there is no single method that can be called the "best". In recent years, the combination of different classifiers and the use of contextual information have become major areas of interest in improving recognition results. This paper addresses a case study on the combination of multiple classifiers and the integration of syntactic level information for the recognition of handwritten Arabic literal amounts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time either of these methods has been applied to Arabic word recognition. Using three individual classifiers with high level global features, we performed word recognition experiments. A parallel combination method was tested for all possible configuration cases of the three chosen classifiers. A syntactic analyzer makes a final decision on the candidate words generated by the best configuration scheme.The effectiveness of contextual knowledge integration in our application is confirmed by the obtained results.

  9. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  10. Chinese-Arab Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese-Arab cooperation in the field of nuclear energy launched during the second Conference of Chinese-Arab cooperation in the field of energy, which was held in Khartoum during the period of 26 to 28 January 2010, where a meeting was held between the Arab Atomic Energy Agency and the Chinese Nuclear National Committee in the framework of activating the memorandum of understanding between the League of Arab States and the Chinese National Energy Authority, which is responsible of the cooperation with the Arab countries wishing to enter the nuclear option within their strategies to diverse their sources of energy and promote their nuclear infrastructure, as well as help the Arab Atomic Energy Agency in the implementation of the Arab strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy until the year 2020 and find a mechanism for the Arab-Chinese cooperation in the field of nuclear energy. The Arab Atomic Energy Agency also proposed programs over the coming years in the fields of energy planning, nuclear safety, selection of sites, exploring of uranium, emergency preparedness and response and management of radioactive reactors.

  11. Energy Subsidies in the Arab World

    OpenAIRE

    Fattouh, Bassam; El-Katiri, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The policy of maintaining tight control of domestic energy prices has characterized the political and economic environment in most Arab countries, together with many other parts of the world, for decades. The objectives behind such a policy range from overall welfare objectives such as expanding energy access and protecting poor households’ incomes; to economic development objectives such as fostering industrial growth and smoothing domestic consumption; and to politi- cal considerations, inc...

  12. Gunpowder and Arab Firearms in Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zaky, A.

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available THERE is no certainty as to the actual date of the invention of gunpowder. The evidence that the Chinese possessed it in ancient times is not conclusive. Among the claimants of discovering gunpowder are Chinese, Indians, Greeks, Arabs, English and Germans. Who first thought of propelling a ball through a metal tube by exploding gunpowder is unknown; anyhow; it certainly was not Monk Berthold Schwartz.

    Consultar resumen en inglés.

  13. Managing instability after the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    December 11-13, 2012 Washington, D.C. - CCMR's Collaborative and Adaptive Security Initiative (CASI) convened officials from the armed forces, government civilian agencies, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, think tanks and academic institutions to a workshop discussing the political, social and security implications of the regional transition commonly referred to as the "Arab Spring". By exploring the challenges faced by the region during this transition, part...

  14. BRIGHT PROSPECT FOR CHINA- ARAB OIL COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Now is the perfect time for China and Arab League countries to cooperate more in the oil and gas sector as the development of shale gas in the United States changes the global energy business. The United States produced 180 billion cubic meters of shale gas in 2011, an amount that constituted 34 percent of the coumry's total output of natural gas. As a result, it imported less gas and liquefied natural gas.

  15. Narrating Normal: Arabs, Queers, Neoliberal Spectatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Boucai, Marc Barry

    2013-01-01

    Queer and Arab, as both social movements and signifiers of cultural difference, have shared surprisingly similar historical trajectories within American culture and politics since the late 1960's. The historical parallels become especially relevant to this project with the arrival of the 1990's, when the United States witnessed the roughly simultaneous consolidation of (1) identity politics and (2) a multicultural ideal in which difference is at once defining and irrelevant. Like other racial...

  16. Les Arabes de l'autre rive

    OpenAIRE

    Montigny, Anie

    2005-01-01

    Au Qatar, l'identification de la société globale repose sur son origine arabe, mais la population établit une discrimination selon les lieux d'origine : l'Arabie ou l'Iran. Ce clivage schématique fait référence aux hommes de statut libre par opposition à ceux qui, dans la société traditionnelle, ne l'étaient pas : les esclaves.

  17. Writer Identification of Arabic Handwritten Digits

    OpenAIRE

    Awaida, Sameh; Mahmoud, Sabri

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the identification of Arabic handwritten digits. In addition to digit identifiability, the paper presents digit recognition. The digit image is divided into grids based on the distribution of the black pixels in the image. Several types of features are extracted (viz. gradient, curvature, density, horizontal and vertical run lengths, stroke, and concavity features) from the grid segments. K-Nearest Neighbor and Nearest Mean classifiers are used. A database of 70000 of Ara...

  18. Perceptual Recognition of Arabic Literal Amounts

    OpenAIRE

    Labiba Souici Meslati; Mokhtar Sellami

    2012-01-01

    Since humans are the best readers, one of the most promising trends in automatic handwriting recognition is to get inspiration from psychological reading models. The underlying idea is to derive benefits from studies of human reading, in order to build efficient automatic reading systems. In this context, we propose a human reading inspired system for the recognition of Arabic handwritten literalamounts. Our approach is based on the McClelland and Rumelhart's neural model called IAM, which is...

  19. Emergency medicine in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, Saleh; Irfan, Furqan B; Corder, Robert F; Al Marzouqi, Μuneer Abdulla; Al Zaabi, Ahmad Hasan; Idrees, Marwa Mubarak; Abbo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been a decade since emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this short time, emergency medicine has established itself and developed rapidly in the UAE. Large, well-equipped emergency departments (EDs) are usually located in government hospitals, some of which function as regional trauma centers. Most of the larger EDs are staffed with medically or surgically trained physicians, with board-certified emergency medicine physicians serving as...

  20. Offering and hospitality in Arabic and English

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Karen; Kerkam, Z; Mansor, F; Mills, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the conventional linguistic practices involved in everyday hospitality situations. We compare offers in Arabic and English and, rather than focusing on the differences between the ways interactants in these two cultures make offers, we challenge the notion that offering is in essence differently handled in the two languages. We argue instead that we should focus just as much on the similarities between the ways offers are made, since no two cultural/linguistic groups are d...

  1. Creative Industries: Case Studies from Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes and explains empirically the economic performance of four key creative industries (the book publishing, music sound recording, film production and software industries) in five Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon). Using the Porter (Diamond) model as its theoretical background, a survey was conducted in the years 2002-03 among 242 experts, covering firm representatives, industry and government experts. The results were incorporated into five nat...

  2. Contribution to Semantic Analysis of Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Zouaghi; Mounir Zrigui; Georges Antoniadis; Laroussi Merhbene

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, an...

  3. United Arab Emirates; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This staff report on United Arab Emirates 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic policies and development. Against a backdrop of political stability, confidence has further increased, tourism has been firm, demand from expatriates from the broader region has increased, and capital inflows have strengthened amid high global liquidity. The real estate sector, which had been impaired since the 2009 crisis, has stabilized in Abu Dhabi and has started to recover in Dubai. Dubai aims to b...

  4. On the Use of Arabic Tweets to Predict Stock Market Changes in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid AlKhatib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social media users nowadays express their opinions and feelings about many event occurring in their lives. For certain users, some of the most important events are the ones related to the financial markets. An interesting research field emerged over the past decade to study the possible relationship between the fluctuation in the financial markets and the online social media. In this research we present a comprehensive study to identify the relation between Arabic financial-related tweets and the change in stock markets using a set of the most active Arab stock indices. The results show that there is a Granger Causality relation between the volume and sentiment of Arabic tweets and the change in some of the stock markets.

  5. Arabic writer identification based on diacritic's features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Natural languages like Arabic, Kurdish, Farsi (Persian), Urdu, and any other similar languages have many features, which make them different from other languages like Latin's script. One of these important features is diacritics. These diacritics are classified as: compulsory like dots which are used to identify/differentiate letters, and optional like short vowels which are used to emphasis consonants. Most indigenous and well trained writers often do not use all or some of these second class of diacritics, and expert readers can infer their presence within the context of the writer text. In this paper, we investigate the use of diacritics shapes and other characteristic as parameters of feature vectors for Arabic writer identification/verification. Segmentation techniques are used to extract the diacritics-based feature vectors from examples of Arabic handwritten text. The results of evaluation test will be presented, which has been carried out on an in-house database of 50 writers. Also the viability of using diacritics for writer recognition will be demonstrated.

  6. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Povey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these issues in a way that is contextualized in terms of the material circumstances in which women living in Diaspora communities find themselves. In doing so, I hope to reveal the complexity and dynamism of women’s activism and to take on critically, Orientalist, essentialist and racist arguments regarding the nature of Arab and Muslim women’s role in opposing war and neo-liberalism and in the struggle for gender equality. As Edward Said argues, exile forces us to “see things not simply as they are, but as they have come to be that way. Look at situations as contingent, not as inevitable, look at them as a series of historical choices made by men and women, facts of society made by human beings not as natural or God-given, therefore unchangeable, permanent, irreversible.”

  7. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  8. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  9. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  10. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease.

  11. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  12. DAUR AL-MUDARIS AL-NATHIQ BI AL-'ARABIYAH FI TARQIYAH AL-KIFAYAH AL-ITHISHALIYAH LADA AL-THULAB AL-AJANIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atna Akhiryani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to figure out the role of Arabic native lecturers in improving student's communicative competences. It was quantitative research with descriptive analysis approach. The objects were students and Arabic native lecturers at Islamic and Arabic Sciences Institute Jakarta. The result of the research shows that improving student's communicative competences could be obtained by various factors such as lesson plans, language environment, etc. An Arabic native lecturer would not play a significant role in improving student's communicative competences unless other important factors well prepared. There were some problems found when the students was taught by native lecturers like the speed of speech of native lecturers, understanding an explanation of vocabulary, Arabic local dialects, and Arabic 'amiyah which was used occasionally by native lecturers. Therefore, Arabic native lecturers were suggested to be capable in contrasting both Arabic and Indonesian languages, understanding Indonesian cultures, using Arabic fushah, and avoiding using Arabic local dialects.

  13. Efforts of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences to Enhance Nuclear Security in the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crucial contribution of educational institutions in confronting terrorism is parallel to the role played by security apparatus in its combat. This confirms the central role of universities, institutions of academic and professional training, security research organizations and sanctuaries of worship in the overall confrontation against terrorism. Unique among these universities is Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS) which has made tremendous contributions to fight against crime and terrorism through its academic endeavors. NAUSS was established in 1978 as an Arab institution specialized in security sciences to fulfill the needs of the Arab law enforcement agencies for an academic institution that promotes research in security sciences, offers graduate education programs and conduct short-term training courses, which should contribute to the prevention and control of crimes in the Arab world. NAUSS is a regional organization providing education and training in all security disciplines to students from all the 22 Arab countries. This paper will discuss the efforts made by NAUSS to enhance the nuclear security in the Arab countries. NAUSS and the IAEA organized several workshops, forums and training courses which aimed to explore and improve the nuclear security culture and awareness. In addition, NAUSS incorporates an introductory course in nuclear security into the existing graduate studies security sciences program. In collaboration with the Office of Nuclear Security, NAUSS launched a post-graduate degree programme focused on nuclear security based on IAEA guidance documents (NSS no. 12) and being used to reach the region in support of nuclear security education. This degree is currently being enhanced through integration of instructional materials from the Master of Science in Nuclear Security degree framework developed for the IAEA and the global education community by the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN). (author)

  14. The Arabs and the science of population distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-alwani, M

    1982-01-01

    Before the establishment of demography as a scientific discipline, Arab writers had developed and utilized demographic principles in their scientific writings about geography. Early Arab advances in demographic thought, especially in regard to population distribution, were discussed. (All dates were given as anno Hegira (AH), i,e., the dates accord with the Muslim calendar in which the 1st year coincides with Mohammed's flight from Mecca in 622). As early as the 2nd century Hegira, a number of historical writers mentioned population movements, and Arab rulers conducted censuses of conquered areas; however, it was not until the 3rd century Hegitpra that population distribution was treated in a scientific manner. During that century Al-Jahiz made the 1st scientific observation when he noted the importance of enviromental influences on the distribution and disposition of people, and Al-Razi noted that when people came together in large groups they divided up functions between themselves, i.e., he identified the division of labor hundreds of years before Adam Smith. Between 300-900 AH many other writers utilized demographic principles in their writings, but the major contributions to demographic thought were made by Ibn Khaldun (732-800AH) and elaborated by his followers Al-Maqrizi (766-845 AH) and Ahmed Ibn Al-Dalji (770-838 AH). Although scholars recognize the contributions of Ibn Khaldun to sociology and philosophy, little attention is paid to his writings in demography. Ign Khaldun was the 1st to recognize the importance of examining socioeconomic development from a demographic perspective. Many of his writings dealt with the impact of population on socioeconomic factors. Ibn Khaldun estimated that only 1/4 of the world's area was inhabited; modern day estimates are that 30% of the earth's surface is inhabited. He divided the inhabited areas of the then known earth into 7 regions and observed that the population was distributed unevenly in these areas. In his

  15. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  16. Exploring a Multifaceted Syllabus Design for Teaching Short Surahs of Qur’an to Novice-Non-Arabic-Speaking Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira A. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s aim is to propose a design a syllabus for the new Muslims who have recently  converted to Islam. The syllabus is multifaceted, addressing the basic linguistic, stylistic, and lexical features of 3 surahs (chapters in the holy book in addition to highlighting the most basic information a new Muslim has to know about the sacred book. These features have been presented and graded according to the needs of the students (new Muslims. Three Surahs[1] (Al Fatihah, (Al Ikhlas, and (Al Nasr will be presented in their translated and transliterated forms in relation to their original Arabic texts, so as to understand these Arabic words when students listen or try to practice them in their daily five prayers. In addition, a practicum session will be given to students in which they apply what they have learned through the first Surah (Al Fatihah.  The practicum session includes the analysis of this Surah using the main seven features presented in the theoretical section. Versions of pre and post questionnaires will be administered with the syllabus to the students to test how far they have benefited from this course.Keywords: ESP for Teaching Qur’an- Linguistic Analysis of Surahs- Stylistic Analysis of Surahs-Lexical Analysis of Surahs- Syllabus Format- Analysis of Surah (Al Fatihah,  Non-NativeArabic-Speaking-Muslims-NNASM[1]A Surah (also spelled Sura in Arabic is a “chapter of the Qur'an, traditionally arranged roughly in order of decreasing length. Each Surah is named for a word or name mentioned in one of its ayat (sections.” (Urban Dictionary, n.d. para. 1

  17. Mathematical instrumentation in fourteenth-century Egypt and Syria the illustrated treatise of Najm al-Din al-Misri

    CERN Document Server

    Charette, F

    2003-01-01

    An illustrated Arabic treatise, with an English translation and detailed commentary, on the construction of over 100 various astronomical instruments, many of which are otherwise unknown to specialists. It was composed by Najm al-Din al-Misri, a rather shadowy figure, in Cairo around 1330 CE.

  18. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN DISKOVERI SEBAGAI STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erta Mahyudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching strategy is very important in Arabic Classroom. It covers design and dimension. One of the model in the instructional design is discovery learning. In teaching Arabic language discovery model called guided discovery. In this model the exposure of linguistic material is given firstly, and followed by the rule of language.

  19. Morphological Structures in Visual Word Recognition: The Case of Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Awwad, Jasmin (Shalhoub)

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the function within lexical access of the main morphemic units from which most Arabic words are assembled, namely roots and word patterns. The present study focused on the derivation of nouns, in particular, whether the lexical representation of Arabic words reflects their morphological structure and whether recognition of a…

  20. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  1. Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…

  2. Predicting Physical Activity in Arab American School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Arab American children's physical activity is virtually nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) to predict Arab American children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).…

  3. Journalism's Rewriting of History in Reporting the Arab Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    and circumstances that put Tunisia and Egypt on the Danish media’s agenda in the year before the Arab revolutions as a starting point. The central point of this comparison is to convey how journalism, while describing contemporary events of The Arab Spring, at the same time rewrites its own prior commentary...

  4. Mauritanian Arabic. Teacher's Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Raymond C.; And Others

    The teaching guide is designed to accompany a set of instructional materials in Mauritanian Arabic (Hassaniya) for Peace Corps volunteers. It provides information and techniques for language teaching in three volumes: (1) a literacy handbook--a volume of lessons on the Arabic alphabet and script; (2) a communication and culture handbook; and (3) a…

  5. Arabic Women and English Language Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkarni, Ream

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to interview Arabic women students at Spring International Language Center to record their perceptions, rationale, goals, stories, and opinions about learning English in a U.S. language school. This research was conducted to understand the purposes and goals of Arabic women who come to the United Stated to study the…

  6. Attitudes of Kuwait University Students towards Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia

    2015-01-01

    This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…

  7. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XX: Comprehension Drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The last of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. The 128 lessons in this volume contain various types of comprehension drills. Lessons 14-128 are completely in Arabic. (AMH)

  8. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  9. A Basic Course of Literary Arabic. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Salman H.; Shammas, Jacob Y.

    The material presented in this workbook, which is in preliminary form under revision, has been designed to introduce the basic aspects of the morphology and syntax of literary Arabic. It is intended to be used with and as a continuation of "The Phonology and Script of Literary Arabic," by the same authors. (See ED 012 912.) These two volumes,…

  10. Arab Animated Cartoons : Mediating and Negotiating Notions of Identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayfo, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the first critical critical study of animated cartoon production in the Arab world. From the 1930s until the recent spread of online animations, animated cartoon production in the Arab world was the privilege of individuals and institutions with strong links to academic, media and pol

  11. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...

  12. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study…

  13. An Arabic CCG approach for determining constituent types from Arabic Treebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. El-taher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting a treebank into a CCGbank opens the respective language to the sophisticated tools developed for Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG and enriches cross-linguistic development. The conversion is primarily a three-step process: determining constituents’ types, binarization, and category conversion. Usually, this process involves a preprocessing step to the Treebank of choice for correcting brackets and normalizing tags for any changes that were introduced during the manual annotation, as well as extracting morpho-syntactic information that is necessary for determining constituents’ types. In this article, we describe the required preprocessing step on the Arabic Treebank, as well as how to determine Arabic constituents’ types. We conducted an experiment on parts 1 and 2 of the Penn Arabic Treebank (PATB aimed at converting the PATB into an Arabic CCGbank. The performance of our algorithm when applied to ATB1v2.0 & ATB2v2.0 was 99% identification of head nodes and 100% coverage over the Treebank data.

  14. FAKTOR DEMOTIVASI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PERSPEKTIF SISWA MADRASAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Muhammad Saepul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation plays important role in language learning. When the language learner’s motivation is decreasing then he is being in a demotivation stage. Several previous studies in reveal that demotivation could diminish the student achievement in language skill. The phenomenon of this demotivation is rising in Arabic language learning in Indonesia’s madrasa. Using qualitative method with short essay from 105 students of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN Cianjur, this study shows two major factors that cause demotivation in Arabic learning: external and internal. Specific external factors come from: (1 complexity of Arabic language; (2 learning material and method; (3 learning facility and environment; and (4 teacher’s behavior and personality. While internal factor sources are: (1 basic skill and previous learning experience; (2 negative attitude to Arabic subject. These factors need to be considered by teacher and other stakeholder as basic reference to increase student’s motivation in Arabic learning.

  15. Handwritten Arabic Numeral Recognition using a Multi Layer Perceptron

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Nibaran; Saha, Sudip; Haque, Syed Sahidul

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten numeral recognition is in general a benchmark problem of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Compared to the problem of printed numeral recognition, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is compounded due to variations in shapes and sizes of handwritten characters. Considering all these, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is addressed under the present work in respect to handwritten Arabic numerals. Arabic is spoken throughout the Arab World and the fifth most popular language in the world slightly before Portuguese and Bengali. For the present work, we have developed a feature set of 88 features is designed to represent samples of handwritten Arabic numerals for this work. It includes 72 shadow and 16 octant features. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used here for recognition handwritten Arabic digits represented with the said feature set. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 94....

  16. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Viinanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.

  17. Acculturation and polysubstance abuse in Arab-American treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl P; Farrag, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Acculturation to U.S. culture by Latinos and Asian Americans has been associated with increased prevalence of substance abuse. However, little is known about the association between acculturation and substance use among Arab Americans, or more specifically, among Arab-American treatment clients. In 156 Arab-American male treatment clients, we found that higher levels of U.S. acculturation were positively associated with increased prevalence of polysubstance abuse. This first report on a large series of Arab-American clients also found considerable within-group variability. These results can be used to develop treatment plans and work-force training on the importance of U.S. acculturation and variability within Arab Americans.

  18. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  19. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  20. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  1. Special Education Use among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel: A Case of Minority Underrepresentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinero, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines disproportionality in special education among Israeli Arabs. Arab children are more likely than Jewish children to be placed in special education. Negev bedouin Arab children, however, are underrepresented in special education. Discusses whether a culture of disability is being fostered among the Arab citizens of Israel and whether…

  2. Water ethics perspectives in the Arab Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water ethics has only recently emerged in academic and development arenas as an independent field of professional discussion. Concerns over water conservation and adequate access to basic needs of water and sanitation pose a difficult ethical dilemma that should be addressed based on societal and ethical frame works. Issues such as water allocation and pricing, privatization of various water services and efficient water management need to be contested within an ethical framework according to principles of equity and social justice. This paper presents the basic concepts of water ethics, as well as water ethics perspectives and applications within the framework of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the Arab Region, which suffers from one of the fastest growing water deficits in the world. The deteriorating status of the water resources situation in Arab Region is no longer tolerable due to the high costs in terms of negative environmental consequences and deteriorating livelihoods of poor populations associated with lack of access to clean water and sanitation. Nevertheless, most of the national efforts for IWRM implementation in the Region have been dominated by neo-liberal economic policies stressing privatization of various water services; cost recovery through different pricing and tariffication schemes; as well as sectoral water (re)allocation. However, many negative impacts due to the shift to neo-liberal market-led economies have been surfaced throughout the developing world in the past decade and a half, especially with respect to the increased levels of poverty and worsening environmental degradation. It is, therefore, critical to adopt IWRM approaches in the region within an ethical framework that takes full consideration of all social implications regarding the poor, and that could be used as a means to achieve water-related international goals of poverty reduction. Finally, the paper also shows that there is no contradiction between Islamic

  3. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups.

  4. Health care in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, S

    1988-01-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic has health-care problems similar to other developing countries yet lacks the abundant oil reserves of its Arabian peninsula neighbors to address these problems. An ambitious 5 year health plan developed in 1977 has been impeded by a lack of material and human resources. The infant mortality rate remains one of the highest in the world, schistosomiasis drains the energy of the people, and tuberculosis and malaria remain endemic. Progress is, however, being made in health-care educational programs within Sanaa University and the Health Manpower Institutes to develop the resources of the Yemeni people to meet the health-care needs of their country. PMID:3225123

  5. Arabic Speech Pathology Therapy Computer Aided System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Benselama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns a computer aided pathological speech therapy program, based on speech models such as the hidden Markov model and artificial intelligence networks, in order to help persons, suffering from language pathologies, follow a correction learning process, with different interactive feedbacks, aiming to evaluate the degree of evolution of the illness or the therapy. We dealt with the Arabic occlusive sigmatism as a prime approach, which is the inability to pronounce the[s] or [∫]. Results obtained are satisfying and the therapy program is prepared, for autonomous use by patients, for deep analysis and verifications.

  6. Hanna David`s Book: The Gifted Arab Child In Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre KOMEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it was examined Hanna David’s Book: The Gifted Arab Child in Israel. The book focuses on Arab gifted children living in Israel. In Israel three Arab groups are living: Muslim, Christian and Druze. This book contains 7 sections. First Section: A Brief History of Education of Arabs In The State of Israel, Second Section: Characteristics of the Arab Gifted Child in Israel, Third Section: Education of the Arab Gifted Child, Fourth Section: Enrichment Programs for the Gifted in the Arab Sector, Fifth section: Description of Various Kinds of Enrichment Program for the Arab Sector, Sixth section: A Minority within a Minority: Gifted Students in the Christian, Druze and Bedouin Sectors, Seventh Section: The talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism. In this book, author gives some suggestions to reveal potential of Arab girls. Some of them are; family support, financial aid etc.

  7. Introduction: The Arab Spring in the Arabian Peninsula and its aftermath

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnefoy, Laurent; Louër, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    In the Arabian Peninsula, mobilizations in 2011 against authoritarian rulers took various shapes and followed different rationales. For that matter, Yemen, Bahrain and Oman, where mass-mobilizations took place, are very different from Qatar and the United Arab Emirates where only a small segment of intellectuals demanded reforms. Contestation also met with varying levels of success. As such, Yemen, where President ‘Alī ‘Abdallāh Ṣāliḥ was forced to resign, is again different from Bahrain wher...

  8. Representing Islam : a comparative study of the representation of "Islam" in western cinema Vs. arab cinema

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Representations of the Middle East and its people have been a large focus of debate for decades in fields from politics to the social sciences. Edward Said’s 1979 book on the theory of Orientalism further stirred discussions of the Arab world. This thesis aims to highlight portrayals of Islam and Muslims specifically in the medium of cinema. Furthermore, the following will concentrate how Islam is represented in the film ‘The Kingdom’ from Western cinema compared to the film ‘Al-Akhar’ (‘The ...

  9. New Trends in Islamic Political Parties in the Arab Spring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Burdah

    2014-12-01

    [Perkembangan mutakhir partai-partai politik Islam di sejumlah negara Arab “Musim Semi” menunjukkan adanya perubahan orientasi dan agenda baru, berupa penegasan kembali komitmen mereka terhadap nilai-nilai demokrasi, penguatan masyarakat sipil, dan adopsi prinsip-prinsip hak asasi manusia. Pada saat yang sama, mereka tampak kurang tertarik kepada agenda-agenda politik Islam lama seperti jihad bagi pendirian negara Islam dan pendirian pemerintahan Islam global di bawah satu khalifah yang tersentralisasi. Hal ini relevan terhadap kasus Partai Keadilan dan Pembangunan (Ḥizb al-‘Adālah wa’l-Tanmiyah di Maroko, Partai Kebebasan dan Keadilan (Ḥizb al-Ḥurriyyah wa’l-‘Adālah di Mesir, dan Partai Kebangkitan (Ḥizb al-Nahḍah di Tunisia. Artikel ini berupaya mengeksplorasi dan menjelaskan fakta baru ini. Berdasarkan kajian pustaka dan wawancara dengan sejumlah petinggi Partai Keadilan dan Pembangunan di Maroko, penulis berkesimpulan bahwa orientasi baru ini terjadi akibat dari gelombang demokratisasi dunia, “angin kencang musim semi” Arab yang begitu kuat, dan dinamika internal partai.

  10. Testing Legal Boundaries within Arab Media Hubs: Reporting, Law and Politics in Three Media Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysiek, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic transformation of the Arab world raises important questions about the character of structural alterations within Arab regimes. This transition has effected several changes in the legal sphere of Arab media. Rejecting the paradigm of the Arab world’s democratization, this article argues for the Arab regimes’ ability to adjust to globalization trends without a substantial loss of power. Based on empirical evidence, the legal aspects that govern media organizations within free media zo...

  11. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  12. Diacritic Oriented Arabic Information Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Saleh Aloufi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language support in search engines and operating systems is improved in recentyears. Searching in the Internet is reliable and can be compared to the excellent support forseveral other languages, including English. However, for text with diacritics there are somelimitations. For this reason, most Information retrieval (IR systems remove diacritics from textand ignore it for its complexity. Searching text with diacritics is important for some kinds ofdocuments, such as those of religious books, some newspapers and children stories. Thisresearch shows the design and development of the system that overcome the problem. Theproposed system considers diacritics. The proposed system includes the design complexity inthe retrieving algorithm rather than the information repository, which is database in this study.Also, this study analyses the results and the performance. Results are promising andperformance analysis shows methods to enhance design and increase the performance. Theproposed system can be integrated in search engines, text editors and any informationretrieval system that include Arabic text. Performance analysis of the proposed system showsthat this system is reliable. The proposed system is applied on database of Hadeeth, which isreligious book includes the prophet action and statements. The system can be applied in anykind of data repository.

  13. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  14. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  15. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  16. English to Arabic Machine Translation Based on Reordring Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of Machine Translation (MT is set accurate translation by implement a system to achieve similar result with human translates as in case the translating English to Arabic. The translation is a creative process which involves interpretation of the text that given by the translator. In addition, the translation depends on the purpose for which it meant according to context, as well as the text context includes different size and types of sentences. In addition, English words order in target language is not the same order as the Arabic source language, so the translation from English to Arabic definitely needs effort to synchronize words between English and Arabic that based on matching rules grammar between both languages. Approach: This study focuses on the existing Context Free Grammar (CFG format as well as identifying the Part Of Speech (POS for single words and reordering the CFG for reorder purpose of English structure to Arabic structure and validate the reorder CFG constructed by the algorithm. Reordering algorithm is a system for translating structured English sentence in text to structure Arabic sentence in text that runs compatibly with English/Arabic interface. English dictionary is used to translate single word consist of only word categories (POS and Bi-lingual dictionary is used to translate single word consist of only word meaning relative to categories in approach format. Results: The domain area include twenty (20 abstracts containing ninety five (95 sentences have been tested in order to verify the authenticity of computer translation algorithm and the result were compared with human translation. The results obtain shows that the reordering rules is 81.855% accuracy on a translation from English Language to Arabic using an abstract from the European Psychiatry Journal. Conclusion: Based on the achieved results, we have managed to perform the syntactic reordering within an English sentence in text

  17. Energy Poverty in the Arab World: The Case of Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam

    2011-01-01

    While much of the emphasis of the literature on energy poverty is on the prevalence of the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, little has been written about energy poverty in the Arab world. Traditionally having being seen as one of the world’s most energy rich regions, the Arab world has in recent years often been overlooked as a region which suffers severely from energy poverty itself. In 2002, about 65 million people in the Arab world had no access to electricity, and an addi...

  18. Women on the Arab labour market. Option becoming reality

    OpenAIRE

    Górak-Sosnowska, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    The key potential of Arab economies, currently rather turning into their curse, is the human capital. According to the Arab Human Development Report 2002 there are approximately 6 million entrants yearly to the Arab labour market (UNDP 2002: 10) and the labour force is expected to grow in the next 10 years to 3,4% yearly―twice as much as in other developing regions (World Bank 2003: 3). The ‘demographic gift’―the growing number of labour force and decreasing dependency ratio, might lead to ec...

  19. The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the impact of the U.S. fracking boom on U.S. oil imports, on Arab oil exports, and on the global price of crude oil. First, I investigate the extent to which this oil boom has caused Arab oil exports to the United States to decline since late 2008. Second, I examine to what extent increased U.S. exports of refined products made from domestically produced crude oil have caused Arab oil exports to the rest of the world to decline. Third, the article ...

  20. The Arab-Americans: a demographic and cultural profile

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goff, Kristy D.

    1996-01-01

    After the passage of the 1965 immigration and Naturalization Act, for the first time in U.S. history, the United States acquired a large group of immigrants from Arab Muslim countries. This immigration is so recent that relatively little is known about it. This thesis is a demographic and cultural examination of the Arab community in America. It asks, who the Arab-Americans are, where they come from, where they go in America, how they are assimilating, and how they organize and act socially, ...

  1. Arab regional systems of innovation: characteristics and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to discuss the systems of innovation in the Arab region. We explain that the two common characteristics of poor Arab regional systems of innovation is apparent from both the poor subsystems of education, S&T and R&D and ICT institutions across the Arab countries and the heavy concentration of R&D activities within both public and universities sectors and v...

  2. ArabicTutor: a Multimedia m-Learning Platform for Learning Arabic Spelling and Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Erradi, A.; Al-kailani, Lubna; Almerekhi, Hind; Nahia, Sajeda

    2012-01-01

    Internet-enabled Mobile devices are increasingly used for enhancing the learning experience particularly for language learning. They can be exploited to allow learners to access and interact with multimedia learning resources from anywhere and at any time while offering an enhanced user experience. There are many systems for English learning such as SpellingCity.com. However there aren’t many such mobile learning tools for Arabic. In this context, this paper addresses the need to leverage mob...

  3. The semantics of English Borrowings in Arabic Media Language: The case of Arab Gulf States Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the semantics of English loanwords in Arabic media language (AML. The loanword data are collected from a number of Arab Gulf states newspapers (AGSNs. They  are analyzed semantically from the points of view of semantic change, semantic domains, and the phenomenon of synonymy resulting from lexical borrowing. The semantic analysis has revealed that AML borrowings from English occur in fifteen distinctive semantic domains. Domains that are related to terms of technical and scientific nature are found ranking much higher (9% - 18% than those domains containing nontechnical elements (1% - 8% with the computer and technology category (18% is the most dominant domain. Almost all common mechanisms of semantic change (extension, restriction, amelioration, pejoration, and metaphorical extension are found at work in the context of AML borrowings. The tendency of semantic change in the overwhelming majority of AML borrowings is towards restriction.  Factors like need, semantic similarity, and factors of social and psychological considerations (e.g. prestige, taboo seem to be the potent factors at interplay in semantic change. The first two, i.e. need and semantic similarity, are the most common reasons in most types of semantic change. The problem of synonymy lies in those loanwords that have “Arabic equivalents” in the language. The study claims that this phenomenon could be attributed to the two simultaneous processes of lexical borrowing and?ištiqa:q (the modern efforts of deriving equivalent neologisms.Keywords: loanwords, semantic change, semantic domains, synonymy, Arabic media language

  4. Economic Performance Of the Arabic Book Translation Industry in Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This paper addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic performance of th...

  5. Arab Emirates: Middle East oasis of development; Emirados Arabes: o oasis do desenvolvimento no Oriente Medio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ighor Botti de; Bravo, Rafaela Gomes [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    The referred article main focus is to illustrate a parameter between the United Arab Emirates development - from its oil historic (including its peek, in the 1970's decade) - and the country preoccupation with the economic diversification, considering that the petroleum natural deposits are finite. Even though they are one of the biggest petroleum holders in the world, the country governors are already worried about the economy's future. The government proposal consists in investing their exorbitant royalties, from the oil industry, in mega constructions and 'futuristic' innovations, mainly in Dubai. According to forecasts made by the division of active and investments management from the Saudi bank National Commercial Bank (in the beginning of the year of 2008) the United Arab Emirates might become the country with the most independence in the oil and gas industry between the Gulf Cooperation Council members and that about 70% of the country's GDP, gross domestic production, will come from the non-hydrocarbon sectors. This means that the United Arab Emirates can be considered as a good example in which refers to the regional economy diversification. (author)

  6. Arab Spring vs. Zero Problems Policy Impact of the Arab Spring on Trade Expansion of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sorhun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Turkey has historically concentrated its trade with the European Union (EU it has diversified its trade markets with the neighbouring regions and different group of countries during the last decade. Among them, Arab countries have come into prominence. Especially, following the “zero problems with neighbours” policy (ZPN, pursued by Turkey since 2002, the trade volume with the Middle Eastern neighbours has increased faster than that with its traditional partners. Nevertheless so called “Arab Spring” has started to manifest its effects on this trend. It deteriorates not only the economies of the concerned countries but also Turkey’s trade expansion. This paper aims: (i to test through a gravity model the positive impacts of the ZPN policy and the negative impact of the Arab Spring on the trade expansion with the Spring Countries; and (ii to reveal the positive impact of the policy change and the negative impact of the uprising movements on the realization of trade potential by Turkey in the Spring Countries.

  7. Arabic Text Summarization Based on Latent Semantic Analysis to Enhance Arabic Documents Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Froud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Documents Clustering is an important task for obtaining good results with the traditional Information Retrieval (IR systems especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Documents clustering aim to automatically group similar documents in one cluster using different similarity/distance measures. This task is often affected by the documents length, useful information on the documents is often accompanied by a large amount of noise, and therefore it is necessary to eliminate this noise while keeping useful information to boost the performance of Documents clustering. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the impact of text summarization using the Latent Semantic Analysis Model on Arabic Documents Clustering in order to solve problems cited above, using five similarity/distance measures: Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity, Jaccard Coefficient, PearsonCorrelation Coefficient and Averaged Kullback-Leibler Divergence, for two times: without and with stemming. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed approach effectively solves the problems of noisy information and documents length, and thus significantly improve the clustering performance.

  8. ARABIC TEXT SUMMARIZATION BASED ON LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS TO ENHANCE ARABIC DOCUMENTS CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Froud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Documents Clustering is an important task for obtaining good results with the traditional Information Retrieval (IR systems especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Documents clustering aim to automatically group similar documents in one cluster using different similarity/distance measures. This task is often affected by the documents length, useful information on the documents is often accompanied by a large amount of noise, and therefore it is necessary to eliminate this noise while keeping useful information to boost the performance of Documents clustering. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the impact of text summarization using the Latent Semantic Analysis Model on Arabic Documents Clustering in order to solve problems cited above, using five similarity/distance measures: Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity, Jaccard Coefficient, Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Averaged Kullback-Leibler Divergence, for two times: without and with stemming. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed approach effectively solves the problems of noisy information and documents length, and thus significantly improve the clustering performance.

  9. AL-IZDIWAJIYYAH AL-LUGHOWIYAH FII ISTIHDHAMI AL-LUGHOH AL-‘ARABIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Al-Izdiwajiyyah (diglosia is standardizing a specific language when there are two variants of language that live side by side in societal life and each variant has its own social function. Disglosia is related to the use of local languages variations of low language and high language in a community. In Arabic language, disglosia covers dialects among the speakers, for instance there are two variants of language that each has roles and functions. The use of the variant depends on the situation. The most important characteristic of diglosia is specifying the functions of wach language variant. For high level language variant is aimed for formal situations such as religious ceremony, lectures, news, or editorials of newspaper. On the contrary, the low level language variant is commonly used in less formal situation such as daily communication in the family, chat with friends, stories in radion, and folk literature. In Arabic language, diglosia can be identified when the speaker of the language use diction commonly used for daily communication (amiyah in a formal expression (fusha, and vice versa.

  10. High-school Students’ Beliefs about Learning English and Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Meshkat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comparative study exploring Iranian high-school students’ beliefs about learning English and Arabic. Horwitz’s (1987 Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI was used to collect data from 540 high-school students. One-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to analyze the data. The MANOVA results revealed significant differences (F (5, 533 = 47.72, P =.000 between students’ beliefs about learning English and Arabic in four categories of the BALLI: foreign language aptitude, the nature of language learning, learning and communication strategies, and motivation and expectations. Students’ beliefs about the difficulty of learning English and Arabic were not significantly different. The findings might be influential in developing and designing more effective language teaching programs in high-school context.Keywords: Foreign language learning, Beliefs about language learning, BALLI, High-school students, Arabic

  11. Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidan, A A; Jalab, Hamid A; Alanazi, Hamdan O; Alnaqeib, Rami

    2010-01-01

    The ambition of a character recognition system is to transform a text document typed on paper into a digital format that can be manipulated by word processor software Unlike other languages, Arabic has unique features, while other language doesn't have, from this language these are seven or eight language such as ordo, jewie and Persian writing, Arabic has twenty eight letters, each of which can be linked in three different ways or separated depending on the case. The difficulty of the Arabic handwriting recognition is that, the accuracy of the character recognition which affects on the accuracy of the word recognition, in additional there is also two or three from for each character, the suggested solution by using artificial neural network can solve the problem and overcome the difficulty of Arabic handwriting recognition.

  12. Immigrant Arab Americans and alcohol use: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-12-01

    English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. Two years prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5 % with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0 %. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time.

  13. arTenTen: Arabic Corpus and Word Sketches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressy Arts

    2014-12-01

    The article also presents the ‘sketch grammar’ (the basis for the word sketches in detail, describes the process of building and processing the corpus, and considers the role of the corpus in additional research on Arabic.

  14. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters.

  15. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the understanding......The use of referring expressions (proper nouns, noun phrases [NPs] and pronouns) in a target language [TL] text may differ from the source language [SL] text with regard to how explicit they are: One may have a pronoun (less explicit) where the other has a proper noun (more explicit), or one may...... have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...

  16. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the understanding......The use of referring expressions (proper nouns, noun phrases [NPs] and pronouns) in a target language [TL] text may differ from the source language [SL] text with regard to how explicit they are: One may have a pronoun (less explicit) where the other has a proper noun (more explicit), or one may...... have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...

  17. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters. PMID:11640512

  18. Contribution to Semantic Analysis of Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zouaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, and the corpus. We use the measures employed in the domain of information retrieval, Harman, Croft, and Okapi combined to the Lesk algorithm, to assign the correct sense of those proposed.

  19. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  20. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Zaid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037, Rhazes (965–915, Al Zahrawi (936–1013, and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288 referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients.

  1. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  2. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    OpenAIRE

    Serghini Mansour; Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare t...

  3. Market Power versus Efficient-Structure in Arab GCC Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Muharrami, Saeed; Matthews, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of the Arab GCC banking industry in the context of the Structure-Conduct-Performance hypothesis in the period 1993-2002. The paper uses panel estimation differentiating between bank fixed effects and country fixed effects. It examines the Relative-Market-Power and the Efficient-Structure hypotheses differentiating between the two by employing a non-parametric measure of technical efficiency, and finds that the banking industry in the Arab GCC countries is ...

  4. Evaluating English to Arabic Machine Translation Using BLEU

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi; Taghreed M. Hailat; Emad M. Al-Shawakfa; Izzat M. AlSmadi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two popular machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system) used to translate English sentences into Arabic relative to the effectiveness of English to Arabic human translation. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU) method, which was adopted and implemented to achieve the main goal of this study. BLEU meth...

  5. Epidemiological profile of common haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamy, Hanan A; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S

    2013-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathies including the thalassemias and sickle cell disease are known to be prevalent inherited disorders in most Arab countries with varying prevalence rates and molecular characterisation. β-thalassemia is encountered in polymorphic frequencies in almost all Arab countries with carrier rates of 1-11 % and a varying number of mutations. The most widespread mutation in Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Tunisia and Algeria is the IVS-I-110 (G>A). In the Eastern Arabian Peninsula, the Asian Indian mutations (IVS-I-5 (G>C), codons 8/9 (+G) and IVS-I (-25 bp del)) are more common. The α-thalassemias are encountered in the majority of Arab countries in frequencies ranging from 1 to 58 % with the highest frequencies reported from Gulf countries. The (-α(3.7)) mutation is the most frequent followed by the non-deletional α2 polyadenylation signal mutation (AATAAA>AATAAG) and the α2 IVS1 5-bp deletion. The rates of sickle cell trait in Arab countries range from 0.3 to 30 %, with the Benin, the Arab-Indian and the Bantu haplotypes constituting the bulk of the haplotypes, leading to two major phenotypes; a mild one associated with the Arab-Indian and a severe one with the Benin and Bantu haplotypes. Public health approaches targeting prevention of haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries include newborn screening for sickle cell disease, and premarital screening for carriers of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. These services are still patchy and inadequate in many Arab countries recommending the upgrade of these services with strengthening of the education and training of health care providers and raising public awareness on the feasibility of prevention and care for haemoglobinopathies. PMID:23224852

  6. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  7. Arabic Instructors' Attitudes on Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Gokcora; Evrim Eveyik-Aydin

    2004-01-01

    This is a study on Arabic instructors' perceptions on some aspects of communicative language teaching. The data were gathered through an attitude scale and some focus group and one-on-one interviews in a major foreign language institute involving 96 Arabic instructors. The survey included a) the significance of grammar; b) error correction; c) pair and group work; and d) student and teacher roles dimensions of communicative language teaching. Discussion of the survey resu...

  8. Ethnic inequalities in mortality: the case of Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although nearly 112 million residents of the United States belong to a non-white ethnic group, the literature about differences in health indicators across ethnic groups is limited almost exclusively to Hispanics. Features of the social experience of many ethnic groups including immigration, discrimination, and acculturation may plausibly influence mortality risk. We explored life expectancy and age-adjusted mortality risk of Arab-Americans (AAs, relative to non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan, the state with the largest per capita population of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected about all deaths to AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan between 1990 and 2007, and year 2000 census data were collected for population denominators. We calculated life expectancy, age-adjusted all-cause, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates stratified by ethnicity and gender among AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites. Among AAs, life expectancies among men and women were 2.0 and 1.4 years lower than among non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men and women, respectively. AA men had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men due to infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and homicide. AA women had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White women due to chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite better education and higher income, AAs have higher age-adjusted mortality risk than non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites, particularly due to chronic diseases. Features specific to AA culture may explain some of these findings.

  9. Validation of the Arabic version of the asthma control test

    OpenAIRE

    Lababidi H; Hijaoui A; Zarzour M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Asthma control test (ACT) has been devised to assess the degree of asthma control in out-patients setting. The aim of this study is to validate the Arabic version of ACT. Materials and Methods: Patients completed the Arabic version of ACT during regular visit to one of two asthma specialists. Spirometry was obtained. The asthma specialist rated asthma control using a 5-point scale and indicated modification in management as step up, same or step down of asthma treatment. Results:...

  10. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  11. Regional systems of innovation in the Arab region

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to examine the existence, characteristics and implications of the regional systems of innovation in the Arab region. We examine three hypotheses, that the regional systems of innovation exist but are characterized by serious weaknesses in the Arab region compared with other world regions, that the structure of the economy has a significant effect in the pe...

  12. Immigrant workers and language formation: Gulf Pidgin Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the oil boom of the 1970s, Saudi Arabia and the countries on the western coast of the Arab Gulf, i.e. Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar, have been witnessing both a significant increase in their non-national labour force and considerable urbanization. Most of the immigrant workers come from South and South-East Asia, with smaller number of expatriates from other regions. The overwhelming majority of these foreign workers live and work i...

  13. Roman vs. Arabic Computistics in Twelfth-Century England: A Newly Discovered Source (Collatio Compoti Romani et Arabici).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, C Philipp E

    2015-01-01

    A frequently overlooked aspect of the knowledge transfer from Arabic into Latin in the twelfth century is the introduction of the Islamo-Arabic calendar, which confronted Western computists with a radically different scheme of lunar reckoning that was in some ways superior to the 19-year lunar cycle of the Roman Church. One of the earliest sources to properly discuss this new system and compare it to the old one is the anonymous Collatio Compoti Romani et Arabici, found in a manuscript from Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire. This article contains the first edition and translation of this previously unknown text, preceded by an analysis of its content and sources. As will be argued, the text was written in the second quarter of the twelfth century as a reaction to the astronomical tables of al-Khwāizmī, recently translated by Adelard of Bath, as well as to eclipse observations that had exposed the flaws of the 'Roman' computation. PMID:26415351

  14. Experiments on Automatic Recognition of Nonnative Arabic Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selouani Sid-Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic recognition of foreign-accented Arabic speech is a challenging task since it involves a large number of nonnative accents. As well, the nonnative speech data available for training are generally insufficient. Moreover, as compared to other languages, the Arabic language has sparked a relatively small number of research efforts. In this paper, we are concerned with the problem of nonnative speech in a speaker independent, large-vocabulary speech recognition system for modern standard Arabic (MSA. We analyze some major differences at the phonetic level in order to determine which phonemes have a significant part in the recognition performance for both native and nonnative speakers. Special attention is given to specific Arabic phonemes. The performance of an HMM-based Arabic speech recognition system is analyzed with respect to speaker gender and its native origin. The WestPoint modern standard Arabic database from the language data consortium (LDC and the hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK are used throughout all experiments. Our study shows that the best performance in the overall phoneme recognition is obtained when nonnative speakers are involved in both training and testing phases. This is not the case when a language model and phonetic lattice networks are incorporated in the system. At the phonetic level, the results show that female nonnative speakers perform better than nonnative male speakers, and that emphatic phonemes yield a significant decrease in performance when they are uttered by both male and female nonnative speakers.

  15. Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami

    2014-08-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.

  16. Mobile Arabchat: An Arabic Mobile-Based Conversational Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hijjawi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The conversation automation/simulation between a user and machine evolved during the last years. A number of research-based systems known as conversational agents has been developed to address this challenge. A conversational Agent is a program that attempts to simulate conversations between the human and machine. Few of these programs targeted the mobile-based users to handle the conversations between them and a mobile device through an embodied spoken character. Wireless communication has been rapidly extended with the expansion of mobile services. Therefore, this paper discusses the proposing and developing a framework of a mobile-based conversational agent called Mobile ArabChat to handle the Arabic conversations between the Arab users and mobile device. To best of our knowledge, there are no such applications that address this challenge for Arab mobile-based users. An Android based application was developed in this paper, and it has been tested and evaluated in a large real environment. Evaluation results show that the Mobile ArabChat works properly, and there is a need for such a system for Arab users.

  17. NAZHARIYAH AL-'AMIL WA TADLAFUR AL-QARA'IN INDA TAMMAM HASSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Luthfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The researcher attempts to identify the thoughts of Tamman Hassan concerning Tadhâfur al-Qarâ'in and 'Amil theories in Arabic language grammar. This research is qualitative descriptive research. The data of this reseach based on Tamman Hassan’s legacy concerning the subject of tadhafur al-qarain. This study is based upon two main subjects, namely analysis of the content of the book and compares with the thoughts of other scholars. The study concluded that the new concept devised by Tammam Hassan called tadhafur al-qarain theory. This theory rejects the concept of ‘amil from classic grammar experts in grammatical analysis and understanding of Arabic texts. Tammam Hassan then replaces the concept of ‘amil, by analysis of the link between ma’na and mabna.

  18. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies; Les Etats-Unis et les monarchie arabes du Golfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kechichian, J.A

    1999-07-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  19. Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning

    OpenAIRE

    LAMONTAGNE, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning Mark LAMONTAGNE, M.Ed. Canadore College Ontorio, CANADA ABSTRACT With the advent of globalization and the proliferation of online learning, the creation of culturally sensitive online learning environments takes on increasing importance. Online education provides new opportunities for learners from different cultural backgrounds to come tog...

  20. TAHLIL AL-AKHTHA 'INDA MUTA'ALLIMI AL-LUGHAH AL-'ARABIYAH LI AL-NAATHIQIINA BI GHAIRIHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khamis Farraj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to analyze spelling error of Arabic for non Arabic native in Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences (LIPIA, Indonesia. This study also contributes in developing curriculum of Arabic studies. The sample of this study is 117 students of Syaria Faculty who study in the first semester. They have learnt at Arabic preparation program for two years before. The spelling error which is analyzed include language style and grammar. The procedures of analysis include (1 error identification of Arabic spelling, (2 error description of Arabic spelling, (3 identification of error repetition number and (4 data analysis and findings’ interpretation.

  1. Experience – Information – Image: A Historiography of Unfolding. Arab Cinema as Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura U. Marks

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do certain images of history reach us, while others remain seemingly forgotten, in the infinite breadth of the past? Why do only certain events seem to matter? I suggest those experiences are not forgotten but enfolded. The contemporary politics of historiography can be conceptualized according to the relationship between Experience, Information, and Image; a triadic relationship I have proposed to understand the nature of the image in the information age. While Experience is infinite, the vast majority of experience lies latent. Few Images ever arise from it. In our age, those that do tend to be selected, or unfolded, by political and economic interests that deem them to be useful as Information. Nevertheless, anyone can unfold any aspect of Experience to become a public image, and artists (and others do so in order to allow other aspects of Experience to circulate, before they enfold, back into the matrix of history. I will show an animated diagram that illustrates this concept of history as a flow of unfolding and enfolding, influenced by concepts from Charles Sanders Peirce and Gilles Deleuze.   Many artworks can be illuminated by this process. My examples will be drawn from contemporary Arab cinema. In the heavily politicized Arab milieu, the Image world is constructed as a selective unfolding of only those aspects of Experience that are deemed to be useful or profitable. Some Arab filmmakers, rather than deconstruct the resulting ideological images, prefer to carry out their own unfoldings:  explicating hitherto latent events, knowledges, and sensations. Thus what official history deems merely personal, absurd, micro-events, or no events at all, becomes the stuff of a rich alternative historiography. This process characterizes the work of, among others, Joana Hadjithomas and Khalil Joreige, Nisrine Khodr, Mohammed Soueid, and Akram Zaatari (Lebanon, Azza El-Hassan, Elia Suleiman, and Sobhi Al-Zobaidi (Palestine, and Mohamad Khan

  2. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire in Arab Gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-07-01

    Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring self-reported driving style and investigating the relationship between driving behaviour and accident involvement. In spite of the fact that Arab Gulf countries have a higher road accident fatality rate compared to European countries and USA, the DBQ has not been used in Arab countries so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ, then to examine the relationships between the factors of the DBQ and accident involvement, and finally to compare DBQ scores between the two gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 1110 Qatari (263 females and 847 males) and 1286 UAE drivers (294 females and 992 males) filled a survey questionnaire including the DBQ and background information. The results showed that UAE drivers scored higher on almost all DBQ items than Qatari drivers. Surprisingly, only very small differences between men and women on the DBQ item scores were found in UAE. Factor analysis resulted in four factors, which were named as errors, pushing-speeding violations, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations. However, there were a number of differences in the factor structure of the DBQ in UAE and Qatar when compared to the theoretical four-factor structure of the DBQ. Reliabilities of some subscales were also questionably lower than in the original British data. Logistic regression analyses showed that errors, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations predicted accident involvement in Qatar but not in UAE after controlling the effect of the demographic variables (age, sex, and annual mileage).

  3. Word Use and Placement Associating Arabs and Arab-Americans with Terrorism in the American Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bizri, Siwar

    2007-01-01

    Terrorism and conflict is ongoing, and in todayâ s world it appears to be increasing, however, numerous people have blamed the swell in violence on specific sources. In regards to September 11 and similar terrorist incidents, for example, it is quite easy for the media, as well as other sources, to place responsibility in the hands of a specific group or religion. In this case, Islam, Arabs or the Middle East region seems to be connected to these violent incidents. The reality of the situ...

  4. BAHASA ARAB SEBAGAI BAHASA KEDUA (KAJIAN TEORETIS PEMEROLEHAN BAHASA ARAB PADA SISWA NON-NATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Habibi Syahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the issue of language acquisition is interesting. Acquisition as an unconscious process is important when someone acquire a language. It contrasted with learning, which is a conscious process. The process of language acquisition and language learning influences by some factors. The process of language acquisition can be viewed from the perspectives of psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic, and neurolinguistic. From neurolinguistics perspective examines the nervous system in the human brain has an important role the process of acquiring a foreign language; includes external and internal factors of the human environment. This article discusses the process of Arabic language acquisition for non-native students.

  5. Konsepsi Ibnu Jarir Al-Tabari Tentang Al-Qur’an, Tafsir Dan Ta’wil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Ismatulloh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the concept of Ibnu Jarir al-Tabari about al-Qur’an, tafsir and ta’wil. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari is an outstanding expert in the classic Islamic tradition. His knowledge in hadits, fiqh, lughah, history, and tafseer is unquestionable. This study uses an analytical descriptive design. The findings show that: Firstly, in defining al-Qur’an, al-Tabari focused on the al-Qur’an as an Arabic language text, not in other language. Secondly, al-Qur’an is written in sab’ah ahruf. It means that there are 7 different kinds of language with the same meaning. Thirdly, al-Qur’an comes from seven heaven’s door. Fourthly, there is no different word between tafseer and ta’wil. They have same meaning. These concepts are different to other concepts proposed by other ulama.

  6. Digital Vernaculars: An Investigation of Najdi Arabic in Multilingual Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Alothman, Ebtesam Saleh

    2012-01-01

    The present study is conducted within the borders of multilingual Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) . It aims at investigating the orthographic representation of Najdi Arabic in Internet Relay Chat (IRC). Along with this basic purpose, the study examines the communicative functions of multilingual practices in representing Najdi Arabic online. These practices include code-switching between languages (English-Arabic) and script-switching between scripts (Arabic-Roman). In addition, it is w...

  7. PLATFORM OF TRANSCRIPTION THE OLD ARABIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine EL MAKHFI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The old manuscripts kept in libraries are a part of the richest cultural heritage and legacy of civilizations. Digitalization is a solution for the preservation of this cultural and historical heritage, which is very difficult to handle for users. On the other hand, restriction of access to national heritage manuscript is related to the concern to preserve the manuscripts physically manipulated which contribute to their accelerated degradation, takinginto consideration these limitations on access while ensuring preservation of original manuscripts, the solution widely adopted is based partly on the digitization of this heritage manuscript, and partly on the development of management platforms and diffusion of this wealth of knowledge digitized. We propose in this paper a platform of transcription and establishment by annotating images of manuscripts, these annotations are respecting a XML model. The search in the images of a handwritten document, the rich functionality, intuitive user interface, portability, extensibility and the powerful of the XML technology all make the platform of transcription and establishment an ideal explorer for a specialists and readers of ancient Arabic manuscripts.

  8. Sentiment Analyzer for Arabic Comments System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dine Ali Hamouda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, the number of users of social network is increasing. Millions of users share opinions on different aspects of life every day. Therefore social network are rich sources of data for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. Also users have become more interested in following news pages on Facebook. Several posts; political for example, have thousands of users’ comments that agree/disagree with the post content. Such comments can be a good indicator for the community opinion about the post content. For politicians, marketers, decision makers …, it is required to make sentiment analysis to know the percentage of users agree, disagree and neutral respect to a post. This raised the need to analyze theusers’ comments in Facebook. We focused on Arabic Facebook news pages for the task of sentiment analysis. We developed a corpus for sentiment analysis and opinion mining purposes. Then, we used different machine learning algorithms – decision tree, support vector machines, and naive bayes - to develop sentiment analyzer. The performance of the system using each technique was evaluated and compared with others.

  9. Hybrid Method for Tagging Arabic Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina Tlili-Guiassa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many natural language expressions are ambiguous and need to draw on other sources of information to be interpreted. Interpretation of the word ﺗﻌﺎون to be considered as a noun or a verb depends on the presence of contextual cues. This study proposes a hybrid method of based- rules and a machine learning method for tagging Arabic words. So this method is based firstly on rules (that considered the post-position, ending of a word and patterns and then the anomaly is corrected by adopting a memory-based learning method (MBL. The memory based learning is an efficient method to integrate various sources of information and handling exceptional data in natural language processing tasks. Secondly checking the exceptional cases of rules and more information is made available to the learner for treating those exceptional cases. To evaluate the proposed method a number of experiments has been run and in order, to improve the importance of the various information in learning.

  10. Addressing the repressed needs of the Arabic client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, M

    1997-01-01

    In comparison to families in Western society, the traditional Arabic family plays a relatively greater role in providing support for adult progeny. This serves to condition adult offspring to continue to comply with the will and values of the family. Therefore, in exchange for familial support, Arabic individuals learn to repress authentic needs and emotions, and within that process they relinquish the need for self-actualization. Arabic society discourages individualism and opposes self-actualization by means of simultaneous punishment and moralization. Thus, there is a relatively greater development of the social value system (or superego) and comparatively less development of the self (or ego). In comparison to Western society, Arabic individuals continue to experience greater oppression during adulthood. Given these cultural differences, the processes of reliving and activating repressed needs and emotions, which ultimately serves to promote self-actualization, will transform intrapsychic conflicts into interpersonal and social ones. Thus, personal actions typically encouraged during Western psychotherapy are likely to produce significant social oppression. Indeed, promoting awareness of repressed needs and emotions often leads the Arabic client to become more helpless, because such wishes will rarely be socially sanctioned or satisfactorily fulfilled. Therefore, when addressing repressed needs and emotions in psychotherapy, ego strength, cultural identity, and degree of strictness of the client's family of origin must be considered. PMID:9231529

  11. Psychometric properties of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Razan; Holm, Margo B

    2013-03-01

    The Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable assessment tool that was created to assess Participation. It has been translated to several languages and adapted to different international cultures. The most recent version of this tool is the Arabic Heritage Activity Card Sort (A-ACS). The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Arabic version in Jordanian adults. Forty three Jordanian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 62 healthy adults were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the tool. The A-ACS correlated moderately with the participation index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p scores of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p score on the Arabic version of the self-report Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills (r = 0.581, p Card Sort is a valid and reliable tool for Arabic-speaking occupational therapists to use when assessing participation in Jordanian patients with MS or healthy adults. Limitations of this study include using only one diagnostic group from Jordan and examining only the Recovery and Community Versions of the tool. Future studies are needed to examine further psychometric properties for patients with different diagnoses and from different countries in the Arabic region for all three versions of the A-ACS.

  12. Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Abandah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awaits accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters have secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizing handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction approach of handwritten Arabic letters. Pre-segmented letters were first partitioned into main body and secondary components. Then moment features were extracted from the whole letter as well as from the main body and the secondary components. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm, efficient feature subsets were selected. Finally, various feature subsets were evaluated according to their classification error using an SVM classifier. Results: The proposed approach improved the classification error in all cases studied. For example, the improvements of 20-feature subsets of normalized central moments and Zernike moments were 15 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extracting and selecting statistical features from handwritten Arabic letters, their main bodies and their secondary components provided feature subsets that give higher recognition accuracies compared to the subsets of the whole letters alone.

  13. Building an Arabic Sentiment Lexicon Using Semi-supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz H.H. Mahyoub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is the process of determining a predefined sentiment from text written in a natural language with respect to the entity to which it is referring. A number of lexical resources are available to facilitate this task in English. One such resource is the SentiWordNet, which assigns sentiment scores to words found in the English WordNet. In this paper, we present an Arabic sentiment lexicon that assigns sentiment scores to the words found in the Arabic WordNet. Starting from a small seed list of positive and negative words, we used semi-supervised learning to propagate the scores in the Arabic WordNet by exploiting the synset relations. Our algorithm assigned a positive sentiment score to more than 800, a negative score to more than 600 and a neutral score to more than 6000 words in the Arabic WordNet. The lexicon was evaluated by incorporating it into a machine learning-based classifier. The experiments were conducted on several Arabic sentiment corpora, and we were able to achieve a 96% classification accuracy.

  14. Alcohol use among Arab Americans: what is the prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Arnetz, Bengt B; Fakhouri, Monty; Ventimiglia, Matthew J; Jamil, Hikmet

    2011-08-01

    Information is limited on alcohol use among Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans by reviewing existing surveys using an acculturation model. Secondary data analysis. Nationally, English-speaking immigrant Arab Americans reported lower rates of lifetime alcohol use (50.8%), past month use (26.4%) and binge drinking (10%) than the White majority group. In a state survey, self-identified English-speaking Arab Americans were less likely to report past month use (45.6%) than the White majority group but reported similar rate of binge drinking (17.0%). Locally, lifetime drinking was reported by 46.2% of the immigrants but only 13.4% of refugees fleeing war. Few databases are available to estimate alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans; the limited data suggest a drinking pattern consistent with acculturation. However, the potential influence of other factors is unknown and needs to be investigated.

  15. The Melkites and the Muslims: The Qur’ān, Christology, and Arab Orthodoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffith, Sidney H.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The earliest Chalcedonian writers to take notice of the religious ideas of the invading Arabs at the time of the Islamic conquest of the Middle East already highlighted what they viewed as wrong or confused notions about Christ on the part of the invaders. Then in the mid-eighth century, Arabic-speaking Chalcedonians in Syria/Palestine, whose adversaries would soon be calling them ‘Melkites’, were quoting the Qur’ān with a view to exploiting the probative potential of its language for apologetic purposes, especially in Christology. This article traces the continued focus on Christology and the Qur’ān in the development of Chalcedonian theology in Arabic in the works of the major writers in the early ‘Melkite’ tradition, suggesting that the ‘Melkite’ community’s engagement with the religious challenge of Islam over time issued in the emergence of a recognizeable Arab Christian Orthodoxy, which the term ‘Melkite’ came to designate.

    Durante la expansión del Islam por Oriente Medio, los primeros autores calcedonianos que tuvieron conocimiento de las ideas religiosas que los invasores árabes traían, pusieron de relieve ciertas nociones que ellos entendían como confusas o negativas sobre Cristo. A mediados del siglo VIII, los araboparlantes calcedonianos de Siria-Palestina (que pronto serían denominados «Melquitas» por sus adversarios, comenzaron a citar el Corán con la intención de explotar el potencial probatorio de la lengua para propósitos apologéticos, especialmente en Cristología. Este artículo rastrea ese enfoque en la Cristología y el Corán, que se mantiene de forma continuada en el desarrollo de la teología calcedoniana en lengua árabe, en los trabajos de los más importantes autores de la tradición melquita temprana. Este análisis nos hace pensar que ese «combate» de la comunidad melquita como reacción al desafío religioso del Islam, con el paso del tiempo, hace necesaria una ortodoxia

  16. Muassasah Dâr al-Salâm Gontor wa Dauruhâ fî T a’lîm al-ghah al-’Arabiyah li-al-Nâtiqîn bi Ghairihâ bi Ma’ad Gontor Namudhajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dihyatun Masqon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the shadow of any doubt, Islam is considered as key factor for the spreading of Arabic language all over the world. That is because of its close association with Islam, not to mention its vital role as only tool to understand the book of Islam, namely al-Qur’an. When Islam entered Indonesian archipelago, Arabic then made its way into parts of these islands and influenced a lot the language of the people known as Bahasa Indonesia. Moreover, the teaching of Arabic from that very early time took place in order to just understand and gain ability to read certain Arabic books, mainly in the field of Islamic and Arabic sciences. With the raising of the down of the twentieth century, corresponding to the 14th H, which is known in Muslim world as the age of renaissance, the teaching of Arabic took new approaches with a specific method for reforming the teaching of language skills. In this regard, Darussalam Gontor Institution, founded in 1926, took leading role in this area using modern method which enable students to understand, speak, read, and write Arabic with native speech. The motto used in this institution is: The method is more important than the material. The teacher is more important than the method. But the spirit of the teacher is the most important. Obviously the researcher found that linguistic education in Gontor focused to give the students the ability to communicate correctly and clearly, both orally or in writing. Linguistic communication should be directed the development of the four language skills simultaneously. Another factors contributed to the success of Gontor in teaching Arabic for non-native speakers are: the availability of effective positive linguistic environment, and the use of Arabic and English as well as medium of teaching and expressing.

  17. The Usability of SEEQ in Quality Evaluation of Arabic Secondary Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Muslim, M.; Arifin, Zamri

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of Arabic education in Malaysia needs to be conducted on a continuous basis to achieve the objectives of Arabic education. Student Evaluation of Education Quality (SEEQ) was proposed as one of the evaluation instruments of the quality of Arabic education. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SEEQ in the context…

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility: Challenges and Prospects for Development in Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Elasrag, Hussein

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and problems for Establishment of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Arab countries. The paper explores the nature and concept of CSR, particularly the Arab initiatives. As well as studying the activation of the corporate social responsibility role in the economic and social development of Arab countries.

  19. Race, Politics, and Arab American Youth: Shifting Frameworks for Conceptualizing Educational Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu

    2006-01-01

    Educators concerned with creating equitable school environments for Arab American students must focus on how contemporary global and national politics shape the lives of these youth and their families. Arab immigrants and Arab American citizens alike experience specific forms of racial oppression that hold implications for school curricula,…

  20. State and directions of improvement of external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Nasibova

    2015-01-01

    In this article the condition of external trade turnover and external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries based on different statistic data are analysed; the role and place of the Arab countries in external commercial relations of Azerbaijan are defined and the recommendations for the improvement of external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries are provided.

  1. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011). The study is based on a mixed...

  2. A Characterization of the Language of Iftah ya Simsim: Sociolinguistic and Educational Implications for Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Samir

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the Arabic version of "Sesame Street" addresses the choice of a simplified modern standard usage as the series' language, definition of this language variety in terms of its distinguishing linguistic characteristics, and the implications of this choice for the future of Arabic and Arabic language instruction. (Author/MSE)

  3. Toward common working tools: Arab League Documentation and Information Centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of Arab common working tools in information handling has been one of the priorities of Arab League Documentation and Information Centre (ALDOC). Problems arising from the processing of Arabic language have been progressively settled. The Tunisian experience in the elimination of transliteration is worth mentioning. (author). 17 refs

  4. Mother-Tongue Interference in the Acquisition of English Articles by L1 Arabic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyab, Rana Abid

    2016-01-01

    Native speakers of Arabic face a number of problems in their attempt to acquire the English language. One of these problems is encountered in their attempt to use English articles. According to earlier studies, learning English articles by students whose mother-tongue is Arabic is one of the most frequent and significant difficulties Arab learners…

  5. Working with Arab American Families: Culturally Competent Practice for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of Arab descent residing within the United States currently number between 1.2 million and 3.9 million. These families are characterized by considerable diversity depending upon their nationality, religion, and extent of acculturation to both Western and Arab cultures. More recently, Arab families have immigrated to the United States…

  6. De-Arabization of the Bedouin: A Study of an Inevitable Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonah, Yossi; Abu-Saad, Ismael; Kaplan, Avi

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers an assessment of the efforts to de-Arabize the Bedouin Arab youth of the Negev. We show that despite the extensive efforts to achieve this goal, they have become pronouncedly alienated from the State of Israel, and are increasingly perceiving themselves as an integral part of Israel's Palestinian Arab national minority. The…

  7. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  8. Role of the Arab Universities in Labour Education: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    Current and future prospects for workers' education in the Arab region, the relationship between Arab universities and workers' education, and the role of workers and their trade unions are discussed. In addition, examples of university activity in workers' education programs of some non-Arab countries are described. Although the climate is right…

  9. Ancient Levantine Arabic: A Reconstruction Based on the Earliest Sources and the Modern Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jallad, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the history and development of Arabic is greatly challenged by the dearth of sources. Most scholars who have undertaken this task in the past have relied almost exclusively on data from the Arabic grammatical tradition. These sources claimed that Arabic originated as the language of the Bedouin of the central and southern…

  10. The education of an industrial middle class in Arab-Islamic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Ibrahim Assad

    1993-07-01

    The absence of an industrial middle class in Arab Islamic countries has been, and still is, a major obstacle to national development. These countries, like others in the Third World, mostly inherited their systems of industrial education from former colonial or mandated powers, that is, from industrial nations, without taking into consideration the different social and socio-economic situation. A model is proposed here for a kind of industrial "university", the Djamiat Al-Sináh. The name alludes to the Mosque as a centre of common activity, and tries to express the cultural and social contexts, and the target groups, of the institution. The model relies on social and industrial evolution, and meets the urgent need of Arab societies for an alternative to Eurocentric models. In the Djamiat, a practice-oriented education is to be provided, based on principles of professional efficiency and creativity, competence and entrepreneurial initiative. The students are to become co-ordinators, organizers, technicians and industrial trainers as well as independent small businessmen. The model is understood as a contribution to the education of an industrial middle class and to the promotion of trade and industry.

  11. On the status of music and musical instruments in Arabic culture after the advent of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoštarić Ada I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article bases its arguments mainly on data found in secondary literature about the propriety of music in Arabic culture after the advent of Islam. One of the oldest sources in Arabic on the subject is Damm al-malāhī (The Condemnation of Instruments of Diversion. In it, the author, Ibn Abī al-Dunyā (823-894 condemned listening to music and musical instruments. Subsequently, many books addressed the question of whether music is illicit (ar. harām. Western scholars defined this corpus of literature as a kind of polemic about the permissibility of music and musical instruments in Islamic culture. Since there is no verse (ar. Áya in the Qur’Án which explicitly forbids or allows music, and since, at the same time, the hadīt literature abounds with contradictory statements about the practice of the prophet Muhammad regarding listening to music and musical instruments, this question continues to resurface, either in the media or on web pages specifically devoted to the issue. This topic is also quite interesting in terms of the reflexions one can encounter in the Muslim areas of the ex-Yugoslav region. At the same time, the article touches upon the special place that the Qur’ān recitation (ar. tilāwat al-Qur’ān and Islamic call to prayer (ar. adān have in Muslim communities. We often find both of them in chapters on religious music, and can, for instance, hear Gorans from Kosovo say (colloquially that one sings the call to prayer. Nevertheless, although both the Recitation and the call to prayer employ the system of maqāms found in secular forms of music, in religious Islamic circles they have never been defined as music, nor are they understood as such in Islamic public opinion. It has been said innumerable times that it is not the (listening to music per se that is forbidden, but rather the circumstances surrounding music, sometimes associated with the consumption of alcohol or similar behaviour, which leads to transgression of

  12. Evaluating English to Arabic Machine Translation Using BLEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two popular machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system used to translate English sentences into Arabic relative to the effectiveness of English to Arabic human translation. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method, which was adopted and implemented to achieve the main goal of this study. BLEU method is based on the assumptions of automated measures that depend on matching machine translators' output to human reference translations; the higher the score, the closer the translation to the human translation will be. Well known English sayings in addition to manually collected sentences from different Internet web sites were used for evaluation purposes. The results of this study have showed that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from English to Arabic.

  13. Medicine Among New Immigrants and Arab Minorities in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Seymour

    1965-01-01

    The reaction to modern medicine and the general health of the new immigrants and Arab populations of Israel are described. The material was gathered during a threemonth visit to Israel where the author participated in the medical care of these persons. While these peoples still share many of the traditional medical superstitions and practices, the new immigrants have progressed much more during the 16 years of Israel's existence. At present over 99% of Jewish women give birth in hospital, whereas only 65% of Israeli Arabs do. The infant mortality rate among the Jews in 1963 was about 21 deaths per 1000 live births, about one-half the rate for Arabs. The importance of understanding the cultural background and social conflicts of these people as a preliminary to the provision of proper medical care is stressed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14285305

  14. Semantic Feature Based Arabic Opinion Mining Using Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Alkadri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available with the increase of opinionated reviews on the web, automatically analyzing and extracting knowledge from those reviews is very important. However, it is a challenging task to be done manually. Opinion mining is a text mining discipline that automatically performs such a task. Most researches done in this field were focused on English texts with very limited researches on Arabic language. This scarcity is because there are a lot of obstacles in Arabic. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel semantic feature-based opinion mining framework for Arabic reviews. This framework utilizes the semantic of ontologies and lexicons in the identification of opinion features and their polarity. Experiments showed that the proposed framework achieved a good level of performance compared with manually collected test data.

  15. USING AUTOMATED LEXICAL RESOURCES IN ARABIC SENTENCE SUBJECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Mobarz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A common point in almost any work on Sentiment analysis is the need to identify which elements of language (words contribute to express the subjectivity in text. Collecting of these elements (sentiment words regardless the context with their polarities (positive/negative is called sentiment lexical resources or subjective lexicon. In this paper, we investigate the method for generating Sentiment Arabic lexical Semantic Database by using lexicon based approach. Also, we study the prior polarity effects of each word using our Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database on the sentence-level subjectivity and multiple machine learning algorithms. The experiments were conducted on MPQA corpus containing subjective and objective sentences of Arabic language, and we were able to achieve 76.1 % classification accuracy.

  16. ARABIC TEXT CATEGORIZATION ALGORITHM USING VECTOR EVALUATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Odeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Text categorization is the process of grouping documents into categories based on their contents. This process is important to make information retrieval easier, and it became more important due to the huge textual information available online. The main problem in text categorization is how to improve the classification accuracy. Although Arabic text categorization is a new promising field, there are a few researches in this field. This paper proposes a new method for Arabic text categorization using vector evaluation. The proposed method uses a categorized Arabic documents corpus, and then the weights of the tested document's words are calculated to determine the document keywords which will be compared with the keywords of the corpus categorizes to determine the tested document's best category.

  17. Violence among Arab elementary school pupils in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Alsana, Wisam; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Greenbaum, Charles W

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of violence in primary schools attended by Arab children in Israel and the relationship between such exposure and violent behavior among these children. Participants are 388 Arab children (aged 10 to 12 years) living in three localities in Israel. The research focuses on three of the child's roles in relation to violence: witness, victim, and perpetrator. An adapted Arabic translation of the Violence Exposure Scale-Revised is administered to children in group settings. The children report more exposure to moderate levels than to severe levels of violence. Boys are exposed to more violence as victims, and witness and perpetrate more violence than girls do. Multiple regression analysis shows that the experience of being a victim predicts violent behavior in the children, above the effects of age and gender. The limitations of the study and its implications for future research and theory development are discussed.

  18. Automatic extraction of ontological relations from Arabic text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G.H. Al Zamil

    2014-12-01

    The proposed methodology has been designed to analyze Arabic text using lexical semantic patterns of the Arabic language according to a set of features. Next, the features have been abstracted and enriched with formal descriptions for the purpose of generalizing the resulted rules. The rules, then, have formulated a classifier that accepts Arabic text, analyzes it, and then displays related concepts labeled with its designated relationship. Moreover, to resolve the ambiguity of homonyms, a set of machine translation, text mining, and part of speech tagging algorithms have been reused. We performed extensive experiments to measure the effectiveness of our proposed tools. The results indicate that our proposed methodology is promising for automating the process of extracting ontological relations.

  19. La Sociedad de la Información en los países árabes: una aproximación al análisis de indicadores socioeconómicos The Information Society in the Arab Countries: an approach to socio-economic indicators' analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Al Dwairi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo mostramos el nivel de lo que se suele llamar Sociedad de la Información en los países árabes. Se presentan los problemas que han encontrado las nuevas tecnologías para su implantación y evolución en esta zona; cuál ha sido la postura de los diferentes países frente a las posibilidades ofrecidas por Internet, desde su origen hasta la situación actual; los problemas que Internet ha tenido para desarrollarse en la región, y las diferencias que entre cada uno de estos países se pueden apreciar. Se muestra el nivel de infraestructura de las nuevas tecnologías, revelando tanto los indicadores socioeconómicos (población, densidad, renta per capita, nivel de alfabetización como los indicadores tecnológicos (líneas telefónicas, ordenadores, proveedores, servidores, usuarios. El estudio muestra el nivel de desarrollo de cada uno de los países, los cuales clasificamos en tres grandes grupos en función de su riqueza. Finalmente se muestra cómo estos grupos no son cerrados y cómo hay países que pueden incluirse en más de un grupo.The situation of Information Science in Arab Countries is described, and problems related to the implementation of new information technologies in the region, also considered, as well as the attitude of each one of these countries towards Internet. Socio-economic (population, density, per capita income, literacy and technological indicators (number of telephone lines, computers, ISPs, servers, users are presented together with the level of development of each country. These countries are divided into three different economic groups (A,B and C, but results show that such groups are not clearly delineated with respect to technological incorporation in society.

  20. OLAWSDS:An Online Arabic Web Spam Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For marketing purposes, Some Websites designers and administrators use illegal Search Engine Optimization (SEO techniques to optimize the ranking of their Web pages and mislead the search engines. Some Arabic Web pages use both content and link features, to increase artificially the rank of their Web pages in the Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs. This study represents an enhancement to previous work in this field. It includes the design and implementation of an online Arabic Web spam detection system, based on algorithms and mathematical foundations, which can detect the Arabic content and link web spam depending on the tree of the spam detection conditions, beside depending on the user’s feedback through a custom Web browser. The users can participate in making the decision about any Web page, through their feedbacks, so they judge if the Arabic Web pages in the browser are relevant for their particular queries or not. The proposed system uses the extracted content and link features from Arabic Web pages to determine whether to label each Web page as a spam or as a non-spam. This system also attempts to learn from the user’s feedback to enhance automatically its performance. Statistical analysis is adopted in this study to evaluate the proposed system. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software is used to evaluate this new system which considers the users feedbacks as dependent variables, while Arabic content and links features on the other hand are considered independent variables. The statistical analysis with the SPSS is used to apply a variety of tests, such as the test of the analysis of variance (ANOVA. ANOVA is used to show the relationships between the dependent and independent variables in the dataset, which leads to solving problems and building intelligent decisions and results.

  1. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  2. THE ROOTS OF REGRESSION IN THE ARAB WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Del Roio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the popular mobilization that placed below the existing dictatorship in Tunisia the media spread the term “Arab spring” for the series of events that followed. You can tell now how different events and with many vectors, which manifest themselves almost all the armed conflict which undermines Syria. However, the objective of this text is to provide a broad overview to suggest the explanation of strong retroactive process present in the Arab world, even with the presence of micro regions of incredible wealth.

  3. Unifying linguistic annotations and ontologies for the Arabic Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, N.; Aldhubayi, L; Al-Khalifa, H; Alqassem, Z; Atwell, ES; Dukes, K; Sawalha, M; Sharaf, M

    2012-01-01

    The WACL’2 Second Workshop on Arabic Corpus Linguistics was held in conjunction with the Corpus Linguistics 2013 conference. Following on from the successful first WACL in 2011, as well as the related LRE-REL event in 2012, WACL-2 again took place at Lancaster University. The aim of this series of workshops is to create a venue for exploring progress in the field of research into the Arabic language using corpora, from across the many areas of corpus linguistics and computational linguistics ...

  4. The tenth Arab conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference includes the paper presented at the tenth Arab conference of the peaceful uses of Nuclear Atomic Energy that is organized by AAEA (Arab Atomic Energy Agency) in cooperation with Iraqi Ministry of Science and Technology and Kurdistan government , held in Erbil (Iraq) from 12-16 December 2010. This conference consists of three volumes covering the following concepts: Analysis and Material Improvement, Soil fertility, Water Recourse Management, Nuclear Medicine and Biological Irradiation, Isotopes Production, Improvement of Plant and Animal Production, Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Safety and Security of Radiation Protection, Pest Control and Food Irradiation Processing

  5. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  6. Binge drinking among Arab/Chaldeans: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Owens, Darlene; Said, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with young Arab/Chaldeans (N = 82) from different ethno-religious groups (Chaldeans, Orthodox Christians, and Muslims) to explore the potential risk and the protective factors associated with the high level of binge (or episodic heavy) drinking among Arab/Chaldeans reported by general population surveys. Most of the participants were aware of and knowledgeable about the problem in their community. Themes identified as contributory factors consistent across ethno-religious groups included the availability of alcohol, the importance of family, conformity to group behavior, and social reasons. Differences included the context for drinking and gender roles. These findings can be used to tailor culturally appropriate interventions.

  7. The Global Financial Crisis and the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane; Loewe, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the impact of the global financial crisis on Europe, Asia and the Americas but only little on the Arab states. This article makes an early attempt to take stock of recent developments in the Arab world and offers a systematic approach to disentangle the various inter-link...... been hit by the decline in energy prices, but most of them have also mastered the crisis well thanks to substantial financial reserves. The situation is more critical however for Dubai, Iraq and Yemen....

  8. Identification of arabic word from bilingual text using character features

    CERN Document Server

    Haboubi, Sofiene; Amiri, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the language of the script is an important stage in the process of recognition of the writing. There are several works in this research area, which treat various languages. Most of the used methods are global or statistical. In this present paper, we study the possibility of using the features of scripts to identify the language. The identification of the language of the script by characteristics returns the identification in the case of multilingual documents less difficult. We present by this work, a study on the possibility of using the structural features to identify the Arabic language from an Arabic / Latin text.

  9. ʿAbd al-Samad in Arabia: The Yemeni Years of a Shaykh from Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    R. Michael Feener

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth exploration of a previously under-utilized Arabic source for the history of Islam in Southeast Asia. This text, Al-Nafas al-Yamani was compiled in the Yemen by ʿAbd al-Rahman b. Sulayman al-Ahdal (d. 1250 H./1835 C.E.), and includes a biographical sketch of the Sumatran scholar ʿAbd al-Samad b. ʿAbd al-Rahman al-Jawi al-Palimbani. Through a close, annotated reading of that text this article develops new insights into the configuration of people and ideas popula...

  10. State of the Art in Semantic Web Search Techniques for Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaia Jwad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language has many differences from English language interms of morphology and semantic. These areas of differencemake it somehow difficult when it comes to web search inArabic. Unlike Arabic language, other languages including Latinhave substantiated amount of research in the use of semantictechnologies in processing text and information retrieval.Despite the complexity in Arabic script, some significantlycontribution has been made in the area of retrieval algorithmsand semantic web techniques which can be measured in terms ofthe accuracy. This paper therefore, examines the state of the artin the use of semantic web search techniques for the retrieval ofArabic text.

  11. Mengangkat Nilai "Zakat dengan Hati": Refleksi Fenomenologis Zakat Perusahaan Pengusaha Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haekal Reza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Bringing Up “Zakat by Heart” : Phenomenological Refl ection of Corporate Zakat by Arabic Enterpreneur. This study aims to provide a discourse on the meaning of corporate zakat in the perspective in viewing Arab ethnicity. The author uses phenomenological approach to do an interview withthe Arab ethnic entrepreneurs who already have acompany with legal status. The results of this study indicate that there are different views among the Arab ethnic entrepreneurs because of the differences in the implementation of the Arab culture it self. This study also results in the concept of ”distribution of zakat by heart”, which is full of charity and free from riya’.

  12. Languages in contact: Preliminary clues of an emergence of an Israeli Arabic variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Dekel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes from a linguistic point of view the impact of the Hebrew spoken in Israel on the Arabic spoken natively by Israeli Arabs.Two main conditions enable mutual influences between Hebrew and Arabic in Israel: -         The existence of two large groups of people speaking both languages within a single geographical area: Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs. The former are a local, dominant group; the latter are a minority group. -         The minority group is sufficiently large that changes originating in language contact become apparent in the minority language.Both Hebrew and Arabic are official languages in the state of Israel. Israeli Arabs, who are citizens of Israel and speakers of Arabic, and Israeli Jews, who are speakers of Hebrew, has daily contact in many fields of life. Many Arabs work for Hebrew-speaking employers, study in Israeli universities and colleges, or provide services to the Hebrew-speaking population. As a result, a great deal of mutual linguistic influence is observed in each language. Our data show that spoken Hebrew elements are very widespread in all linguistic fields of the Arabic spoken by Israeli Arabs, so widespread that the emergence can be identified of a new Israeli Arabic variety

  13. Syllabus Development Studies in Turkey and in the World for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language - Some Suggestion for Teaching Arabic in Primary Schools in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arabic in Turkey and in the world is rising in the last years because of some developments in Middle East. Beside this, Arabic is the language o f Holy Quran and hadiths. As it is known the non - Arab, Muslims need to learn this language in order to understand their religion. After all, of these needs, some countries opened some courses for teaching Arabic. In addition , people started to write some new materials for teaching Arabic in these courses as a foreign language. In Turkey, there are Arabic lessons in intermediate, middle and high school periods. The Education Ministry is publishing syllabus for these lessons. A s Turkey, some countries are teaching Arabic as a foreign language in their schools. In this paper, we tried to analyze the similarities and differences between the syllabuses of these countries and Turkey for teaching Arabic as a foreign language. At the end of the analyze we suggested some suggestions for teaching Arabic in primary schools in Turkey.

  14. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  15. Heritage Motivation, Identity, and the Desire to Learn Arabic in U.S. Early Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lanier Temples

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language learning has received considerable attention in recent years due to its status as a critical language, a heritage language,and a less-commonly taught language and its linguistic and sociopolitical complexity (Al-Batal, 2007; Wiley, 2007. Though the number of learners in the U.S. has increased dramatically since 2001 (Furman, Goldberg, & Lusin, 2007, much remains to be learned about learners’ various needs and desires and the role of family support, particularly for younger learners. This paper draws on findings from surveys and interviews conducted at a U.S. public school with students in grades 6-8 and their parents. Results elaborate the motivations that students from different linguistic and ethnic backgrounds and their families bring to the learning experience. In particular, this paper defines heritage learners (HLLs, foreign language learners (FLLs,and religious heritage learners (RHLs in this population and suggests implications for teaching these and other comparable learner populations.

  16. Study of Approaches to Danish-Arab Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Skrubbeltrang, Jørgen;

    This study responds to previous critique of the ‘dialogue objective’ of the Danish Arab Partnership Programme (DAPP). The ‘dialogue objective’ specifically refers to the second objective of the DAPP which is ‘to improve dialogue, understanding and cooperation between Denmark and the MENA region (...

  17. After the Arab Spring : Are Secular Parties the Answer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boduszynski, Mieczyslaw; Fabbe, Kristin; Lamont, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    After the “Arab Spring” and the initial democratic reforms in Turkey under the Justice and Development Party (AKP), why has democratic progress remained so elusive in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)? In recent years, that question has preoccupied numerous scholars, commentators, and policy m

  18. The Perception of English Modals among Arab Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al-Qudah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the acquisition of English modality among Arab learners of English as a foreign language. Specifically, the study limits itself to the perception of modal verbs as a means of expressing modality. The productive use of modal verbs were analyzed by examining written texts made by 26 fourth-year students majoring in Applied English at the University of Jordan. Moreover, the meaning and function of modal verbs were investigated by asking the subjects to explicitly determine them in given sentences. The subjects were also asked to translate these sentences into their native language in an attempt to investigate the effect of the native language on the perception of modality. The study concludes that there is a gap in the use of English modal verbs as a way of expressing modality. It was found that the differences between Arabic and English modality seems to play an integral role in the misperception of English modality among Arab learners. Other factors, like teaching methods, seem to widen the gap.Keywords: modality, modal verbs, Arabic, translation

  19. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Warsy, Arjumand S

    2011-11-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  20. National Infrastructure of Library and Information Services in Arab Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sajjadur

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of a network for library and information services in the Arab world and examines existing national library and information infrastructures in the context of the status of the national library; national bibliographic control; availability of union catalogs and indexing and abstracting services; interlibrary cooperation;…

  1. Understanding of Arab Spring with Chaos Theory - Uprising or Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkalın, Şuay Nilhan; Bölücek, Cemal Alpgiray

    `Arab Spring' can be considered as one of the most remarkable events in the history of world politics. On December 18, 2010, a Tunisian young protestor burned himself in a public square of the city. This event triggered probably one of the most chaotic and long term uprisings in the Middle East. From the day of its initiation until the present, `Arab Spring' in the Middle East created unstable political situation and several uprisings. In this chapter, we will first give general information about chaos theory, and then we will examine the `butterfly effect' created by the Tunisian young protestor and process of Arab Spring in the Middle East regarding its extend and form in those countries within the framework of chaos theory. For the first part of this chapter, the spark created by the Tunisian young protestor and its effects can be analyzed under `butterfly effect' perspective within chaos theory, arguing whether the events followed each other consecutively or randomly. The question is whether the incidents following each other have reasonable links of causality to one another, or the events defining the phenomena known as `Arab Spring' have no predictable reasons and outcomes regardless of the regional, social and political differences. The events caused the collapse of the regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya; they had very serious outcomes.

  2. School-Based Management: Arab Education System in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Romi, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the issue of school-based management (SBM) in elementary schools in the Arab education system in Israel, comparing schools experienced in SBM, schools beginning to use SBM and schools that do not use SBM. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research used a structured questionnaire to…

  3. The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey AVLT): An Arabic Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoni, Varda; Natur, Nazeh

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to adapt the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) into Arabic, to compare recall functioning among age groups (6:0 to 17:11), and to compare gender differences on various memory dimensions (immediate and delayed recall, learning rate, recognition, proactive interferences, and retroactive interferences). This…

  4. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has declined. Several pro

  5. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.H.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, E.C. van

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has de

  6. Facing the Challenges of Educational Reform in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Akkary, Rima

    2014-01-01

    This paper pinpoints and discusses key aspects of the current approaches to school reform in the Arab world against the backdrop of what is accepted as the best practice in the international literature on effective school reform and educational change. The main goal of the paper is to highlight deeply ingrained assumptions and practices that are…

  7. Entrepreneurship Education in the Arab States. Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamloumi, Jilani

    2013-01-01

    The report involves the findings of the final evaluation of the regional entrepreneurship education project in Arab States component II (2011-2012) (see ED560497), which is a joint activity between UNESCO and StratREAL Foundation. It aims to help the development of educational policies enabling the integration of entrepreneurship education within…

  8. Nuclear weapons and the Arab-Israeli conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of the clandestine Israeli nuclear arsenal for the conflict in the Middle East are studied in the light of emerging Arab reactions to it. The opportunities for European influence on the policy and programmes of this threshold state are described

  9. Culture and English Language Teaching in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between culture and English language teaching (ELT) in the Arab World. A critical question arises in terms of ELT, that is, whether to teach culture along with English. To answer such a bewildering question, this article presents related literature and studies and discusses a theoretical frame based on…

  10. Parenting Styles and Mental Health of Arab Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the parental styles and psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and the relationship between them in gifted as compared to nongifted Arab adolescents. Five scales --The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents. Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and The Psychological…

  11. From Sheikh to Terrorist? Arab Characters in American Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sommerschuh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following text provides a brief discussion on how to integrate visual materials such as the film The Wind and the Lion (1975 in the EFL classroom when discussing the use of stereotypes in Hollywood productions especially in regards to Arab culture. The ideas were gathered in a workshop during the Teacher Academy 2005 and summarized for this publication.

  12. Psychological Loneliness among Arab Students at Irbid National University, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadoumi, Khawla; Sawalha, Abdel Muhdi; Al Momani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of psychological loneliness among Arab students studying at Irbid National University, and to investigate the effect of year of study and gender of students on the level of psychological loneliness. The sample of the study consisted of 149 students, 133 males and 16 females from first, second,…

  13. Spelling Knowledge and Reading Development: Insights from Arab ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between spelling knowledge and reading skills among a group of 16 intermediate-level Arab learners of English as a second language (ESL) and a corresponding comparison group of 21 intermediate-level ESL learners in an English for academic purposes (EAP) program. A spelling task was used…

  14. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XIX: Grammatical Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The nineteenth of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. This volume is a companion to the preceding ones. It presents summaries and explanations of the major patterns which were explained and practiced in the preceding volumes. (AMH)

  15. Quality in Higher Education: United Arab Emirates Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2012-01-01

    Quality in higher education is the major concern among researchers. Managing quality in higher education in a multicultural population with different approaches is not only challenging but an uphill task. This paper will focus on quality concern in higher education keeping in view, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) perspectives. A model to maintain…

  16. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  17. Nonrandom Associations of Graphemes with Colors in Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Dingemanse, Mark; Todil, Büşra; Agameya, Amira; Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate people associate colors with letters and numbers in systematic ways. But most of these studies rely on speakers of English, or closely related languages. This makes it difficult to know how generalizable these findings are, or what factors might underlie these associations. We investigated letter-color and number-color associations in Arabic speakers, who have a different writing system and unusual word structure compared to Standard Average European languages. We also aimed to identify grapheme-color synaesthetes (people who have conscious color experiences with letters and numbers). Participants associated colors with 28 basic Arabic letters and ten digits by typing color names that best fit each grapheme. We found language-specific principles determining grapheme-color associations. For example, the word formation process in Arabic was relevant for color associations. In addition, psycholinguistic variables, such as letter frequency and the intrinsic order of graphemes influenced associations. Contrary to previous studies we found no evidence for sounds playing a role in letter-color associations for Arabic, and only a very limited role for shape influencing color associations. These findings highlight the importance of linguistic and psycholinguistic features in cross-modal correspondences, and illustrate why it is important to play close attention to each language on its own terms in order to disentangle language-specific from universal effects. PMID:27311298

  18. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  19. Ancient ports of Karnataka and their contacts with Arab countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh

    coast of India from the earliest times. The literary and archaeological evidence indicates that its sea trade extended up to Malaysia, Sumatra, and Java, Cambodia on the southeast and Arab countries Persia and Egypt on the west. The present paper deals...

  20. GILSON AND RÉMI BRAGUE ON MEDIEVAL ARABIC PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude P. Dougherty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given contemporary interest in Islam, compelled by the astounding violence perpetrated in its name, the author considers what two historians of philosophy, Étienne Gilson and Rémi Brague, writing a generation apart, have to say about medieval Arabic philosophy and the relevance of its study to our own day.

  1. Arab Women Principals' Empowerment and Leadership in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Tamar; Arar, Khalid; Azaiza, Faisal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's purpose is to tell the life-stories of four women who succeeded in forging paths to senior positions as principals in Arab schools in Israel and to describe the personal, professional and sociopolitical contexts of their principalship. Design/methodology/approach: This is part of a larger research effort that explored the…

  2. An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation of the Arabic /E/.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    Using acoustical evidence from spectrograms and physiological evidence from X-ray sound films, it appears that the most common allophone for the Arabic voiced pharyngeal fricative, at least in Iraqi, is a voiceless stop, and not a voiced fricative, as many believe. The author considers the phoneme in different environments and describes its…

  3. The Arab Spring: An Essay on Revolution and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni; Tushnet, Mark

    Approaching the concept of Islamic constitutionalism from a comparative perspective, this thought-provoking study by Antoni Abat i Ninet and Mark Tushnet uses traditional Western political theory as a lens to develop a framework for analyzing the events known as the ‘Arab Spring’. Writing...

  4. Arabic web pages clustering and annotation using semantic class features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Alghamdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage the great amount of data on Arabic web pages and to enable the classification of relevant information are very important research problems. Studies on sentiment text mining have been very limited in the Arabic language because they need to involve deep semantic processing. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to retrieve machine-understandable data with the help of a Web content mining technique to detect covert knowledge within these data. We propose an approach to achieve clustering with semantic similarities. This approach comprises integrating k-means document clustering with semantic feature extraction and document vectorization to group Arabic web pages according to semantic similarities and then show the semantic annotation. The document vectorization helps to transform text documents into a semantic class probability distribution or semantic class density. To reach semantic similarities, the approach extracts the semantic class features and integrates them into the similarity weighting schema. The quality of the clustering result has evaluated the use of the purity and the mean intra-cluster distance (MICD evaluation measures. We have evaluated the proposed approach on a set of common Arabic news web pages. We have acquired favorable clustering results that are effective in minimizing the MICD, expanding the purity and lowering the runtime.

  5. Performance Evaluation of the Arabic Language Multimedia Instruction: "Malaysian Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2008-01-01

    This Study evaluated the effectiveness of the Arabic language multimedia products existing in Malaysian markets. For the purpose of careful investigation, this research has applied blended models of the most trusted instructional design based on the field-tested theories of the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Mayer (2002), Keller…

  6. Disablement, gender, and deafhood among the Negev Arab-Bedouin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kisch

    2007-01-01

    A high incidence of deafness occurs among the native Arab inhabitants of the Negev (the southern arid region of present-day Israel). Dynamics both within the Bedouin population, as well as Bedouin encounters with state services and the Israeli-Jewish deaf community, are leading to the gradual emerge

  7. A "New Silk Road" Between China and the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The chapter reconstructs the development of new links between China and the Arab World. The links have been created from "above" and from "below", by private initiatives. This process has been facilitated by a turn to more open economic systems on both sides. The relations are closest between Chi...

  8. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag

  9. 3arabizi - When Local Arabic Meets Global English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michael BIANCHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Arabic is the official language of Jordan. Yet, English is a language of prestige among many upwardly mobile Jordanians. Sakarna (2006 dubs a hybrid language comprised of a mixture of these two languages “Englo-Arabic”. In online contexts, a similar hybrid language has emerged. Often popularly labeled “3arabizi” or “Arabish”, a blended word based on the words “Arabic” and “English”, this mixed code is the most commonly encountered form of language for composing forum messages on the popular Jordanian website, Mahjoob.com (http://www.mahjoob.com. The most striking feature of 3arabizi is that it is written in Latin script and uses arithmographemics i.e. numbers as letters to represent Arabic sounds that do not occur in English. This article presents the key orthographical features of 3arabizi and discusses its topical occurrence when compared to both Arabic and English as observable within a purposive sample of web forum messages collected from Mahjoob.com.-----Uradni jezik Jordanije je arabščina, vendar med mnogimi Jordanci, ki se vzpenjajo po družbeni lestvici, velja angleščina za jezik prestiža. Sakarna (2006 poimenuje hibridni jezik, ki je mešanica angleščine in arabščine “angloarabščina” (“Englo-Arabic”. Na internetu se je pojavil podoben hibridni jezik, ki mu pogosto pravimo “3arabizi” ali “Arabish”. To je najbolj pogosta oblika jezika na forumih priljubljene internetne strani v Jordaniji, Mahjoob.com (http://www.mahjoob.com. Najbolj vpadljiva lastnost 3arabizija je pisava, saj se uporablja latinica, določene glasove v arabščini, ki nimajo ustreznice v angleški abecedi, pa nadomeščajo številke. Članek predstavi osrednje ortografske lastnosti 3arabizija in razišče njegovo pojavnost v primeravi z arabščino in angleščino na izbranem vzorcu internetnih forumov na internetnih straneh Mahjoob.com.

  10. Le Saladin de Farah Antūn du mythe littéraire arabe au mythe politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc-Willy Deheuvels

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Une mutation importante s'est opérée dans le monde arabe entre les deux « Saladin », d'un côté le prince idéal imposant un pouvoir unitaire, l'homme du juste jihäd dont l'image s'est forgée au VII/XIIIe siècle et de l'autre côté le héros des grandes causes arabes contemporaines ; l'évolution remonte aux dernières années du siècle dernier et aux premières décennies du XXe siècle, période qui coïncide avec l'entrée de Saladin dans la littérature arabe moderne par le truchement des genres nouveaux (théâtre et fiction romanesque. C'est cette phase toute particulière de l'histoire du mythe de Saladin qu'éclaire l'article, centré sur une œuvre qui a joué un rôle important dans cette mutation : la pièce de théâtre composée en 1914 par Farah Antūn, al-Sultän Saläh al-din wa-mamlakat Urüshalim [Le Sultan Saladin et le royaume de Jérusalem]. Écriture, création et réception de la pièce sont analysées pour montrer comment naît la figure mythique autour d'un récit fondateur, et comment se construit l'image du chef vertueux, libérateur et unificateur : du prince musulman idéalisé par les sources anciennes, Farah Antūn a fait une figure mythique de type politico-héroïque proposée aux attentes du psychisme collectif du monde arabe.

  11. Changes in the political, social, and media environment and their impact on the coverage of conflict: The case of the Arab citizens in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat First

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the ways in which the Arab citizens of Israel are portrayed in the Hebrew media, with particular attention to the coverage of two violent incidents in national newspapers: the events surrounding the first Land Day (3/30/76 and the events of October 2000, which took place during the first two weeks of the Al-Aksa Intifadeh. Our purpose is twofold: 1 to examine the ways in which Israeli Arabs are portrayed in times of violent conflict that lead Jewish citizens to perceive them as threatening, and 2 to examine the means of presentation in terms of a time frame, in accordance with the view that the presentation process is dynamic, affected both socially and symbolically by a changing "reality." The research was conducted using both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of media content. Two central questions are at the heart of this research: 1. How is the "other" portrayed in the national media during the outbreak of national-ethnic conflict? In other words, how are Arab Israelis depicted in the Israeli press? 2. Has there been a difference in this representation in various newspapers throughout the years, and how can such differences be explained? We analyzed two Hebrew national newspapers - one a popular daily and the other a quality paper - and compared their coverage of the events. Our findings showed similarities in the coverage of both events in the two papers, including the use of disorder and terror frames, the identification of Israeli Arabs as the enemy and not presenting the events as civilian protest. Both papers used the voice of the establishment and the security forces as the defining voices of the coverage, while ignoring the Arab voice. The coverage was presented with the use of "us vs. them" terminology, and the Arab leaders and the reasons behind the events were de-legitimized. Nevertheless, there were some differences between the coverage of the two newspapers and the two events. These differences

  12. Pediatric versus adult kidney transplantation activity in Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the current activity of pediatric versus adult kidney transplantation activity in the Arab world. A questionnaire was mailed to all kidney transplant centers in Arab countries to collect data on the kidney transplant activity in a recent single year. Three thousand three hundred and nine kidney transplants were performed in one year, with a transplant rate of 9.5 per million populations (PMP; 298 were performed for children with a pediatric kidney transplant (PKT rate of 0.87 PMP, which is much lower than that of developed countries where it mostly ranges from 5 to 10. The pediatric share of all transplants is 9%, which is twice as high as that of European children. Kidney transplant programs in most Arab countries rely exclusively on living donors as there is a severe shortage of deceased donors. 93.5% of all transplants, combined adult and pediatric, were from living donors. Deceased transplant activity in Arab countries accounts for 14-31% of all transplants in the three countries with deceased donor programs. Of the 212 adult and pediatric transplants that were performed from deceased donors in eight countries, only 29 cases were for pediatric recipients. Deceased PKT is available in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Tunisia and Kuwait. Surprisingly, the PKT share was not better in the countries with higher overall kidney transplant rate and or in those where deceased transplant was available. PKT is still inactive in most Arab countries and mostly relies on living donors. The lack of well-developed deceased donor programs is the main issue to be addressed.

  13. Arabic Named Entity Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji F. Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Named Entity Recognition (NER is a task to identify proper names as well as temporal and numeric expressions, in an open-domain text. The NER task can help to improve the performance of various Natural Language Processing (NLP applications such as Information Extraction (IE, Information Retrieval (IR and Question Answering (QA tasks. This study discusses on the Named Entity Recognition of Arabic (NERA. The motivation is due to the lack of resources for Arabic named entities and to enhance the accuracy that has been reached in previous NERA systems. Approach: This system is designed based on neural network approach. The main task of neural network approach is to automatically learn to recognize component patterns and make intelligent decisions based on available data and it can also be applied to classify new information within large databases. The use of machine learning approach to classify NER from Arabic text based on neural network technique is proposed. Neural network approach has performed successfully in many areas of artificial intelligence. The system involves three stages: the first stage is pre-processing that cleans the collected data, the second involves converting Arabic letters to Roman alphabets and the final stage applies neural network to classify the collected data. Results: The accuracy of the system is 92 %. The system is compared with decision tree using the same data. The results showed that the neural network approach achieved better than decision tree. Conclusion: These results prove that our technique is capable to recognize named entities of Arabic texts.

  14. Difficulties of Standard Arabic Phonemes Spoken by Non-Arab Primary School Children based on Formant Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Abdul-Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study of Malaysian Arabic phoneme is rarely found which make the references work difficult. Specific guideline on Malaysian subject is not found even though a lot of acoustic and phonetics research has been done on other languages such as English, French and Chinese. Approach: This study discussed about the correct and simplest way of Arabic phonemes pronunciation in Malay accent. The International Phonetic Alphabet of Arabic chart was considered as the reference of every recorded speech samples using Malaysian children for their sound localization (makhraj point of every alphabet. The recorded sound was analysed to determine the origin of each alphabet data by measuring its formant frequencies. The consonants of Standard Arabic (SA phonemes were studied and the appropriate place of articulation of every phoneme was measured through its formant. Results: Only seven out of 25 consonants of SA phonemes of the children’s samples did not give the appropriate formants value. The formants are /kof/, [ ق], /zo/, [ ظ], /kho/, [ ,[خ /gheyn/, [ غ], /ha/, [ ح], /ain/, [ ع] & /ha/, [ح] which consider as the difficult SA to utter among Malaysian children. Conclusion/Recommendations: The values obtained are used as the reference of the database for our recognition system.

  15. Farsi/Arabic Document Image Retrieval through Sub -Letter Shape Coding for mixed Farsi/Arabic and English text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahmani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval method for explicit recognition free Farsi/Arabic document is proposed in this paper. The system can be used in mixed Farsi/Arabic and English text. The method consists of Preprocessing, word and sub_word extraction, detection and cancelation of sub_letter connectors, annotation sub_letters by shape coding, classifier of sub_letters by use of decision tree and using of RBF neural network for sub_letter recognition. The Proposed system retrieves document images by a new sub_letter shape coding scheme in Farsi/Arabic documents. In this method document content captures through sub_letter coding of words. The decision tree-based classifier partitions the sub_letters space into a number of sub regions by splitting the sub_letter space, using one topological shape features at a time. Topological shape Features include height, width, holes, openings, valleys, jags, sub_letter ascenders/descanters. Experimental results show advantages of this method in Farsi/Arabic Document Image Retrieval.

  16. PENERAPAN MODEL PAIKEM dengan MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA PERMAINAN BAHASA dalam PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Hanifah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors in learning is a teaching method. The information that the development of methods of teaching Arabic in Indonesia and Arab countries are still far behind the learning method other foreign languages, as well as negative views among students or students that Arabic is a difficult language, and scary as the specter, the authors interested in writing and review on the application of learning model PAIKEM using language games on Arabic learning, as a solution to improve the process of Arabic learning and broaden the writer as a lecturer in Arabic, as well as teachers / lecturers of Arabic and Arabic language education observers in the development of learning Arabic. PAIKEM is an abbreviation of the word Active, Innovative, Creative, Effective, and Fun. So called because it is designed for Enabling learning students, with innovative methods, and develop creativity so effective, but still fun. PAIKEM more likely, both learners and teachers are equally creative. Teacher seeks creative, tried various ways to engage all learners in Arabic learning. While students are also required creative also in interacting with their peers, teachers, and teaching materials with all the supporting equipment which in turn can increase learning outcomes. In the application of this PAIKEM, the author uses language media game, that is studying the language through games. Language game is not only an additional activity to be happy, but also the game is intended to provide an opportunity for students to apply the skills / language skills they have learned.

  17. Arabic plant names and botany in Arabic civilisation. The contribution of Peter Forsskål (1732-1763) and others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provencal, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A presentation of the state of Botany in the Classical Arabic Civilisation and of some of the main contributors to our knowledge in this field, especially Peter Forsskål.......A presentation of the state of Botany in the Classical Arabic Civilisation and of some of the main contributors to our knowledge in this field, especially Peter Forsskål....

  18. Drastic Changes in the Middle East and Future of the Arab World%Drastic Changes in the Middle East and Future of the Arab World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhichao

    2011-01-01

    The present severe turbulences in the Middle East reflect, by nature, the Arab World' s efforts in rethinking about and re-defining its own history and the destiny, serving as the Second Renaissance after the World War II for all Arab nations.

  19. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  20. Arab Spring’: The Influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and Their Vision of Islamic Finance and State (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidane Meriboute

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter analyses the Muslim Brotherhood movement (Ikhwan al-muslimin in its various guises. Born in the interwar period, this global, proselytising Islamic movement underwent a veritable resurgence, even a resurrection, in Muslim countries from the 1980s onwards. Founded in 1928 by the Egyptian Hassan al-Banna (1906–1949, the recent ‘Arab Spring’ phenomenon has given it fresh momentum. Significantly, the Muslim Brotherhood movement has taken the reins of Egypt, the most populous state in the Arab world. Wherever this movement gains a foothold, it creates its own labour unions, associations of students, doctors and workers, Islamic banking institutions, and so forth. More specifically, the chapter examines the nature of the Islamic state and the key characteristics of the politico-religious doctrine of the Muslim Brotherhood and its various offshoot Islamist parties, both in the Maghreb and elsewhere. The author sheds light on the Muslim Brotherhood’s economic, social and financial vision through an examination of the various techniques they employ with respect to Islamic finance. While the Muslim financial model is driven by considerations of social justice (‘adala ijtima’iya and the rejection of usury (riba, it is nevertheless argued that its emphasis on profit maximisation renders this model’s vision essentially capitalist. The chapter thus calls for a refocusing and adaptation of the approach of Islamic banks in order to make their financing accessible for small projects undertaken by the disenfranchised.

  1. Cold. A fairytale from Orient: Burj al Arab, the new landmark of Dubai; Kaelte. Ein Maerchen aus tausend + einer Nacht: Burj al Arab, das neue Wahrzeichen Dubais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleftheriadis, G.

    2002-10-25

    The air conditioning for this hotel plays an important role. To protect coolant water lines safely from dew water and hold down energy losses as low as possible, an elastomere insulating material has been selected. (orig/GL) [German] Der Klimatisierung des Hotels kam im unwirtlichen Wuestenklima natuerlich eine besondere Bedeutung zu. Um die Kuehlwasserleitungen der Klimaanlage sicher vor Tauwasser zu schuetzen und die Energieverluste so gering wie moeglich zu halten, wurde ein elastomerer Daemmstoff gewaehlt. (orig.)

  2. Conceptualisation des espaces sahéliens chez les auteurs arabes du Moyen Âge Conceptualization of the Sahelian spaces by the Arab authors in the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Ducène

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Si les auteurs arabes médiévaux constituent une source unique pour la connaissance des espaces sahéliens, il n’en reste pas moins que ces observateurs définissent ces régions selon les concepts géographiques ou ethniques du moment (ixe–xe siècle. Les principes directeurs de la géographie de l’époque imposent une définition mathématique et déterminent une ethnographie pour ces contrées, alors que les conditions naturelles semblent légitimer cette vision qui établit une forte différenciation entre les populations du Nord et du Sud du Sahara, ce dernier espace étant plus un lieu de transition qu’une barrière. Ces cadres une fois constitués, les informations recueillies viennent y trouver place sans entraîner une redéfinition de l’ensemble ou en préciser les contours, et ceci malgré la pénétration de l’islam et la densification des relations entre les Arabes et le bilād al-Sūdān, à partir du xiie siècle. Les toponymes se multiplient ainsi que les « observations » culturelles, celles-ci fondées sur le principe que plus le comportement s’éloigne de ce que connaît l’observateur, plus il est remarquable.The medieval Arab authors are an invaluable source for the knowledge of Sahelian spaces. However, these observers defined these lands according to geographical or ethnic concepts, fitting with the spirit of their time (9th-10th centuries. The guidelines of the medieval geography impose a mathematical definition to the space and determine an ethnography for these peoples, while natural conditions seemed to legitimate this vision, that established a huge differentiation between the populations located North and South of the Sahara. This desert was seen as a transitional space rather than a barrier. Once established, this framework didn’t move in spite of the islamization of these lands and the increasing contacts between the Arabs and the bilād al-Sūdān in the 12th century. The toponymy becomes

  3. Al-lugha al-fuṣḥâ : archéologie d’un concept « idéolinguistique »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Larcher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every French Arabicist knows that the expression al-lugha al-fuṣḥâ designates the Arabic variety that they themselves call Classical Arabic. But today, we have forgotten this expression comes from and what was its original meaning. In the first part of this paper, entitled « Theology and philology of Medieval Islam » we will recall that the expression is primarily a rewritting of ’afṣaḥ al-lughât al-‘arabiyya (« the most polished Arabic way of speaking », which designs the lughat Quraysh, to whom the Quranic language is identified on a scriptural basis and not on a linguistic one. In a second part, entitled « Ideology and Linguistics at the Modern Period » we examine how and when this medieval expression was revitalized to design what a famous Arab nationalist thinker described as a lugha muwaḥḥida wa-muwaḥḥada (« a unifying and unified language». In both cases, we will point out that the concept is at the crossroad of ideology and linguistics; a reason why we suggest to define it as ideolinguistic, on the model of sociolinguistic.

  4. Efficient Data Compression Scheme using Dynamic Huffman Code Applied on Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Ghwanmeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of an efficient compression scheme to process the Arabic language represents a difficult task. This paper employs the dynamic Huffman coding on data compression with variable length bit coding, on the Arabic language. Experimental tests have been performed on both Arabic and English text. A comparison was made to measure the efficiency of compressing data results on both Arabic and English text. Also a comparison was made between the compression rate and the size of the file to be compressed. It has been found that as the file size increases, the compression ratio decreases for both Arabic and English text. The experimental results show that the average message length and the efficiency of compression on Arabic text was better than the compression on English text. Also, results show that the main factor which significantly affects compression ratio and average message length was the frequency of the symbols on the text.

  5. Arabic Vocabulary Learning Strategies Among Non-native Speakers: A Case of IIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Hanan Mustapha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the vocabulary learning strategies used by Arabic learners of the International Islamic University Malaysia. It also compares between the Arabic and non-Arabic majoring students in the use of these strategies. The total sample of this study was 248 university students from different level of studies. They answered a ‘Vocabulary Learning Strategies Questionnaire’ by Pavicic Takac (2008 which consisted of three different components: Formal strategies, self-initiated independent strategies and incidental strategies. Results indicated that Arabic learners used a variety of vocabulary learning strategies with translation being the most widely employed. No statistically significant difference was found between the Arabic and non-Arabic majoring students. The findings provide support for helping the students to utilize their mother tongue in a fruitful way to learn new vocabularies, as well as training both groups equally on how to use these strategies efficiently.

  6. The use of parentheses in Arabic translated and non-translated texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussein Ali Yehia Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at comparing the functions of parentheses in Arabic translated and non-translated texts. The study is carried out across genres; it includes texts from science, medicine, education, computers, and literary criticism. The texts constitute two corpora: a monolingual comparable corpus and bilingual parallel corpus. The monolingual comparable corpus is used to identify differences between Arabic translated and non-translated language in the uses of parentheses. The findings are then tested against a bilingual parallel corpus consisting of original English texts and their translations into Arabic. The study looks at the qualitative and quantitative differences between the uses of parentheses in translated and non-translated Arabic. Furthermore, the paper does not deal only with translation anomalies, but focuses as well on correct parallels. The paper can be seen then as a guide on the uses of parentheses in Arabic and in translation between Arabic and English.

  7. al-Ghabbân Ali Ibrâhîm, Les deux routes syrienne et égyptienne de pèlerinage au nord-ouest de l’Arabie Saoudite, Le Caire, Institut français d’archéologie orientale, Textes arabes et études islamiques 44/1, 2011, 759 p., 290 fig.

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Imbert

    2012-01-01

    La toute récente publication des travaux du chercheur saoudien Ali Ibrâhîm al-Ghabbân, dans les collections de l’IFAO, est un événement scientifique qu’il convient de marquer d’une pierre blanche. Voilà enfin mis à la disposition du public un ouvrage en français traitant d’archéologie et d’épigraphie islamiques sur les terres du Royaume d’Arabie Saoudite. Il serait inexact de dire que les ouvrages saoudiens sur l’archéologie d’époque islamique font défaut ; bien au contraire, le royaume conna...

  8. PENTINGNYA BUKU AJAR YANG BERKUALITAS DALAM MENINGKATKAN EFEKTIVITAS PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    OpenAIRE

    Umi Hanifah

    2015-01-01

    One of the dominant factors in learning (including learning Arabic) is the textbook. Therefore, knowing the quality of the book and the book conformity with the competence of learners is very important to be known by educators. To find out how important the role of textbook quality in improving the effectiveness of learning the Arabic language, the author as one of the Arabic language lecturer in the Faculty of Science and Teaching MT UIN Sunan Ampel, interested in writin...

  9. Quantity and quality of obesity-related research in Arab countries: assessment and comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Ansam F Sawalha

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a serious worldwide medical condition, considered by some researchers as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. The main objective of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of obesity-related research from Arab countries and compare it with that from non-Arab Middle Eastern countries. Methods Original scientific articles or reviews published by Arab countries about obesity up until 2011 were screened using the ISI Web of Science da...

  10. Osteoporosis is a neglected health priority in Arab World: a comparative bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Ansam F Sawalha; Ghanim, Mustafa A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an important health problem with serious consequences. Evaluation of osteoporosis scientific output from Arab countries has not been explored and there are few internationally published reports on research activity about osteoporosis. The main objectives of this study were to analyze the research output originating from Arab countries and 3 Middle Eastern non-Arab countries, particularly Israel, Turkey and Iran in the field of osteoporosis. Original scientific articles or revi...

  11. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a communication from the Charge d'Affaires a.i. of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to the Agency, attaching the text of a joint letter on Peace and Security signed by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The communication and, as requested therein, the attached text, submitted in both Arabic and English, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  12. GREENSTONE OPEN SOURCE DIGITAL LIBRARY SOFTWARE IN THE CONTEXT OF ARABIC CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan Elaiess

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore Greenstone open source digital library software which considered to be one of most essential open-source Content Management Systems (CMSs) that are available for use in creating, organizing, and managing Arabic content on the Internet. It focuses on the appropriateness of the system for Arabic content from different perspectives, such as its ability to support the Arabic language and to sustain and maintain different file formats. It also aims to examine Gr...

  13. The language of racism. Textual testimonies of Jewish-Arab hostility in the Israeli Academia

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Heger; Saba Tufaha

    2015-01-01

    The persistent Jewish Arab conflict is present in every aspect of life in Israeli society and its echoes penetrate the everyday reality of higher educational institutions. Feelings of mutual hostility among Arab and Jewish students, faculty and administration are common experiences on Israeli campuses. This article analyzes two textual expressions of this mutual resentment which were circulated in 2011 in Tel Hai College, Israel. One of the texts was produced by Muslim Arab student associatio...

  14. Sexist Language in Arabic: The Case of Qatar University Academic and Administrative Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Al Easa, Noor Sultan

    1996-01-01

    This study discusses the impact of possible sex-based differences in Arabic. It deals with the awareness and recognition of sexist attitudes in Arabic. A special questionnaire was prepared for this purpose. The first part of the questionnaire posits fives questions with answer choices which reflect respondents' attitudes towards Arabic as a sexist language. The second part includes eight statements which are rated on the part of respondents as sexist in certain degrees an...

  15. A Study of Sindhi Related and Arabic Script Adapted languages Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hakro, Dil Nawaz; Talib, A. Z.; Bhatti, Zeeshan; Moja, G. N.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of publications are available for the Optical Character Recognition (OCR). Significant researches, as well as articles are present for the Latin, Chinese and Japanese scripts. Arabic script is also one of mature script from OCR perspective. The adaptive languages which share Arabic script or its extended characters; still lacking the OCRs for their language. In this paper we present the efforts of researchers on Arabic and its related and adapted languages. This survey is organ...

  16. ʿAbd al-Samad in Arabia: The Yemeni Years of a Shaykh from Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Feener, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth exploration of a previously under-utilized Arabic source for the history of Islam in Southeast Asia. This text, Al-Nafas al-Yamani was compiled in the Yemen by Abd al-Rahman b. Sulayman al-Ahdal (d. 1250 H./1835 C.E.), and includes a biographical sketch of the Sumatran scholar Abd al- Samad b. Abd al-Rahman al-Jawi al-Palimbani. Through a close, annotated reading of that text this article develops new insights into the configuration of people and ideas populati...

  17. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.

  18. Integrated Machine Learning Techniques for Arabic Named Entity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir AbdelRahman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition (NER task has become essential to improve the performance of many NLP tasks. Its aim is to endeavor a solution to boost accurately the identification of extracted named entities. This paper presents a novel solution for Arabic Named Entity Recognition (ANER problem. The solution is an integration approach between two machine learning techniques, namely bootstrapping semi-supervised pattern recognition and Conditional Random Fields (CRF classifier as a supervised technique. The paper solution contributions are the exploit of pattern and word semantic fields as CRF features, the adventure of utilizing bootstrapping semisupervised pattern recognition technique in Arabic Language, and the integration success to improve the performance of its components. Moreover, as per to our knowledge, this proposed integration has not been utilized for NER task of other natural languages. Using 6-fold cross-validation experimental tests, the solution is proved that it outperforms previous CRF sole work and LingPipe tool.

  19. Autopsy in Islam and current practice in Arab Muslim countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A

    2014-03-01

    Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy.

  20. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliya Alia Malek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks which resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75% and Egypt (20%, resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbours and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. In contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976, was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Y. pestis from the Arab Maghreb.

  1. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  2. Revealing the superior perceptibility of words in Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Almabruk, Abubaker A A

    2010-01-01

    When alphabetic stimuli are presented very briefly, people perceive real words better than nonwords. It is generally accepted that this word superiority effect reflects the efficiency of visual word perception. However, much of what is known about this effect comes from research conducted in languages using the Latin alphabet (eg English, French, Italian), and little is known about whether alphabetic languages with visual properties fundamentally different from Latinate languages also produce word superiority effects. We report an experiment in which stimuli (words, illegal nonwords, and pseudowords) were presented in Arabic, which is a cursive script, read from right to left. The findings revealed advantages for words over pseudowords and illegal nonwords, and for pseudowords over illegal nonwords, indicating that the superiority effects reported for Latinate languages are also observed in Arabic. Implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in word recognition are discussed. PMID:20465177

  3. Promoting Arab and Israeli cooperation: peacebuilding through health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Harvey; Abdeen, Ziad; Abdeen, Hani; Aber, Phil; Al-Masri, Mohammad; Attias, Joseph; Avraham, Karen B; Carmi, Rivka; Chalin, Catherine; El Nasser, Ziad; Hijazi, Manaf; Jebara, Rema Othman; Kanaan, Moien; Pratt, Hillel; Raad, Firas; Roth, Yehudah; Williams, A Paul; Noyek, Arnold

    This article describes a positive experience in building Arab and Israeli cooperation through health initiatives. Over the past 10 years Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian health professionals have worked together through the Canada International Scientific Exchange Program (CISEPO). In the initial project, nearly 17,000 Arab and Israeli newborn babies were tested for early detection of hearing loss, an important health issue for the region. The network has grown to address additional needs, including mother-child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and youth health. Our guiding model emphasises two goals: project-specific outcomes in health improvement, and broader effects on cross-border cooperation. Lessons learned from this experience and the model provide direction for ways that health professionals can contribute to peacebuilding. PMID:15811462

  4. Yemen: A Mirror to the Future of the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Kronenfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic, political, and religious rifts make Yemen one of the most complex arenas in the Middle East, even more so following the eruption of the Arab Spring, which in November 2011 ended the 33-year regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. The disintegration of the delicate political balance Saleh created has brought Yemen to the brink of an abyss with competing elites, ethnic revolts, separatists, external intervention and fundamentalist terrorism threatening to divide the country while hindering the new regime’s attempts to build a new political order and establish stability. Currently, the future of Yemen is still unclear, but the developments and processes it is undergoing may provide us with insights about possible scenarios in other Middle Eastern countries in the post-Arab Spring era.

  5. SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN FOUR ARAB COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; El Nayal, Mayssah A

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to explore the sex and cultural differences in satisfaction with life between undergraduate men and women recruited from four Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Qatar (N = 1,322); ages ranged from 18 to 27 years. The participants responded to the Arabic version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Egyptian and Lebanese women obtained significantly higher mean scores on satisfaction with life than did their male counterparts, whereas there were no significant sex differences in the Kuwaiti and Qatari samples. For men, the Qatari and Kuwaiti samples obtained the high mean scores on satisfaction with life, whereas the Egyptian and Lebanese samples obtained the low mean scores. For women, the Qatari sample had the higher mean score, whereas the Egyptian sample obtained the lowest mean score. The results were explained in light of the positive association between gross domestic product and satisfaction with life.

  6. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  7. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011. The study is based on a mixed quantitative and qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying patterns of news reporting of the Arab Spring. The investigation looks into whether temporal developments of the Arab revolutions, the level of journalistic presence in the region, and national differences influence Danish press coverage of the Arab Spring. The findings indicate that media coverage of the Arab Spring points in different directions. On the one hand there has been a remarkable increase in media attention to the Middle East in purely quantitative terms. On the other hand the study finds that a number of traditional media patterns persist, not least in relation to media perceptions of Islam and democracy, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the ability to reform the Arab world from the inside.

  8. Cultural Technology Acceptance Model for Consumers’ Acceptance of Arabic E-Commerce Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar (Mohammad Ali Al-Qudah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the factors affecting consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites and to propose a cultural technology acceptance model for consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites. The proposed model was built based on, technology acceptance model, trust, perceived risk and Hofstede’s cultural values as moderators between trust and perceived risk and purchase intention. In addition, Arabic language from literature review was added. Based on these theories and concepts, this study identifies the factors affecting consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites.

  9. Lexicon Reduction for Urdu/Arabic Script Based Character Recognition: A Multilingual OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Naz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic script character recognition is challenging task due to complexity of the script and huge number of ligatures. We present a method for the development of multilingual Arabic script OCR (Optical Character Recognition and lexicon reduction for Arabic Script and its derivative languages. The objective of the proposed method is to overcome the large dataset Urdu and similar scripts by using GCT (Ghost Character Theory concept. Arabic and its sibling script languages share the similar character dataset i.e. the character set are difference in diacritic and writing styles like Naskh or Nasta?liq. Based on the proposed method, the lexicon for Arabic and Arabic script based languages can be minimized approximately up to 20 times. The proposed multilingual Arabic script OCR approach have been evaluated for online Arabic and its derivative language like Urdu using BPNN. The result showed that proposed method helps to not only the reduction of lexicon but also helps to develop the Multilanguage character recognition system for Arabic Script.

  10. After the arab spring: the problem of freedom of religion

    OpenAIRE

    Mario G. Losano

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 “Arab Spring” arouses, in Western societies, expectations that often do not take into account the real context of the Islamic countries. As a matter of fact, the Western Secular tradition frequently obstructs the understanding of the strong religious feeling that pervades the social reality of the Islamic world, even if in a non-uniform way: the modernists, traditionalists and fundamentalists’ school of thoughts have a different idea of the modern Islamic State. In order to clarify t...

  11. Prosodic constituent structure and anticipatory pharyngealisation in Libyan Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Maiteq, Tareq Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study examines anticipatory pharyngealisation (i.e., emphasis) in Libyan Arabic, across a hierarchy of prosodic boundary levels (syllable vs. word vs. phonological phrase vs. intonation phrase ‘IP’) in order to quantify the magnitude, and identify the planned domain of anticipatory pharyngealisation. The acoustic manifestation of pharyngealisation is lowering in the second formant (F2) in pharyngealised contexts compared to their plain cognates. To investigate speech pr...

  12. Boards of directors and bank performance in United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    齋藤, 純; Saito, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an empirical analysis about corporate governance of financial institutions in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of the structure of board of directors on the performance of these institutions. To examine the effect of control exerted by particular families on bank management, we estimated models where the dependent variable is return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE), independent variables are board of directors v...

  13. ARACORE: AN ARABIC LEARNING OBJECT METADATA FOR INDEXING LEARNING RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khalifa, Hend; Davis, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    In the era of information systems globalization the need to have educational metadata to index and describe digital learning resources for easy searching, retrieving and reusing them quickly and efficiently is becoming an essential research topic in learning technologies discipline. In this paper we will present a brief overview of metadata standards, protocols and application profiles. Then we will discuss the issues related to the need for an Arabic learning object metadata. Also we will ur...

  14. Romanian Words of Arabic Origin: Scientific and Technical Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Rata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 141 Romanian words of Arabic origin acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into Romanian. Most entered one or more of the Romance languages before entering Romanian. To qualify for this list, a word must be reported in etymology dictionaries as having descended from Arabic. Words associated with the Islamic religion are omitted. Archaic and rare words are also omitted. Given the nature of the journal in which the paper is to be published, the author selected for analysis only about 126 terms belonging to the scientific and technical vocabulary: Adobe, alambic, albatros, alcalin, alchimie, alcool, alfalfa, algebră, algoritm, alidadă, alizarină, amalgam, ambră, anil, antimoniu, azimuth, azur, benjoin, bezoar, bor, cafea, calibre, camfor, carat, carciofoi, caric, cârmâz, carob, chimie, cifru, coton, curcuma, cuşcuş, erg, falafel, fanfară, felucă, fenec, gazelă, gerbil, girafă, halva, hamada, humus, iasomie, jar, julep, kaliu, lac, lămâie, lazurit, liliac, lime, marcasit, masicot, mizenă, muson, nadir, natriu, papagal, rachetă, realgar, sabkha, safari, şah, sandarac, şaorma, şerbet, sirop, sodium, şofran, sorbet, spanac, sumac, tabac, tahân, taifun, talc, tamarin(d, tangerină, tar, tară, tarhon, tarif, tasă, ţechin, ton, varan, zahăr, zenith, zero, zircon, etc. Some of them are obsolescent, but a large number are in everyday use and have been so well assimilated into Romanian that they have produced other words through derivation and composition, or they have acquired new meanings.

  15. State of Corporate Governance in Arab Countries: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the state of corporate governance as a major factor affecting the growth performance of the private sector in MENA countries. For this purpose both country-specific assessments, carried out by World Bank-IMF teams (so-called ROSC’s assessments) and focus-group discussions that took place in four regional conferences have been synthesized. Strengths and weaknesses of corporate governance in selected Arab countries have been highlighted. One major key find...

  16. Arabs and Persians beyond the Geopolitics of the Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The formation of states, the definition of their interests and the mechanisms ­ education, socialization in the armed forces, nationalists' writings, print and electronic media ­ that served to create and spreand national ideas must be examined if one is to understand the form that the relations between Arabs and Iranians is currently taking. Indeed these relations owe much to these two factors ­ state- and nation-building- and much less to the Medes or Persians, Sunnis or Shi'ites, Ot...

  17. Assembling a Revolution: Graffiti, Cairo and the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    John Lennon

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines the ways revolutionary desire was articulated and interpreted through graffiti in Cairo, Egypt during the Arab Spring and its immediate aftermath. For writers in Cairo, graffiti was one of many in a constellation of resistances that undermined everyday life in Hosni Mubarak’s Egypt and the SCAF-controlled interim government. Ordinary surfaces of the city were illegally marked, displaying revolutionary potentiality by allowing the seemingly powerless rhetorical openings of ...

  18. Arabic Sign Language (ArSL) Recognition System Using HMM

    OpenAIRE

    Aliaa A. A. Youssif; Amal Elsayed Aboutabl; Heba Hamdy Ali

    2011-01-01

    Hand gestures enabling deaf people to communication during their daily lives rather than by speaking. A sign language is a language which, instead of using sound, uses visually transmitted gesture signs which simultaneously combine hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms, lip-patterns, body movements and facial expressions to express the speaker's thoughts. Recognizing and documenting Arabic sign language has only been paid attention to recently. There have been few attempts ...

  19. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical suppor...

  20. Overt and Null Subject Pronouns in Jordanian Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Al-Momani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining the role that morphology plays in allowing and/or motivating sentences in Jordanian Arabic (hereafter JA to be formed with or without subject pronouns. It also aims at giving a comprehensive and descriptive presentation of the distribution of overt and null subject pronouns in JA, and tries to determine to what extent there is optionality in its system.Keywords: null subject pronouns, overt subjects, pro-drop languages, verbal inflectional morphology

  1. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF FEMALE LEADERSHIP IN THE ARAB WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud A. Elgamal

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to explore and assess the rise of female leaders in the Arab World and their\\ strategies for success. Several scholars in the area of leadership have projected the beginning of a new leadership paradigm with increasing numbers of female leaders. The premise is that female leaders are more in tune with the transformational leadership paradigm. In addition, they have the most effective dimensions of the transactional style. The study sample included 101 female lead...

  2. Women Candidates and Arab Media: Challenging Conservatism in Bahraini Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Otaibi, May Al

    2011-01-01

    Women have yet to enter to Bahrain’s parliament despite being permitted to run for some years. With its king promoting social and economic change, the media has portrayed positive images of Arab women as professionals against a backdrop of religious conservatism. The communications strategy adopted by some women candidates to attain election to parliament and the response of the local media are analysed utilizing content analysis. Despite some variation of coverage, the media in this Persian ...

  3. The differential impact of women's pariticipation in the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlow, Sasha J.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Arab Spring protests in 2011 uprooted regimes, challenged authoritarian leaders, and provided protesters new tools for mobilization. The use of social media and the involvement of women in public protests indicated changing protest repertoires and movement demographics in many countries. When women protested in 2011, they mobilized both physically and virtually. Assessing the influence women exert in social movements through social...

  4. English to Arabic Machine Translation Based on Reordring Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan A. Mohammed; Mohd. J. Ab Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The purpose of Machine Translation (MT) is set accurate translation by implement a system to achieve similar result with human translates as in case the translating English to Arabic. The translation is a creative process which involves interpretation of the text that given by the translator. In addition, the translation depends on the purpose for which it meant according to context, as well as the text context includes different size and types of sentences. In addition, En...

  5. Teaching writing in Arabic to raise students’ environmental awareness attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Aceng Rahmat

    2015-01-01

    This model of material development for teaching writing is based on the genre approach. The aim of teaching, in addition to improving the ability of writing, is also to improve the students’ awareness attitude toward the environment. Learning Arabic through the genre approach gives the emphasis on the language use in accordance with the functions of language. The model of teaching material development integrates the knowledge of writing, written material and caring attitude. The techniques us...

  6. Arabic-speaking students' primary care experiences in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amel Ibrahim; Cameron, Shona; Dickson, Caroline; Mountain, Kristina

    2010-02-01

    Internationalisation of the higher education sector has resulted in greater ethnic and cultural diversity within the student population throughout the UK and European Union. There is limited knowledge about the burden of poor health and health care utilisation among minority ethnic groups in higher education. Scottish health policy is directed toward proactive care delivered within primary care settings. The community of one university in Scotland was chosen to explore the perceptions of accessibility and acceptability of primary care among one minority group, namely Arabic speakers. The research methodology was of an exploratory descriptive design, with a convenience sample of Arabic speakers studying at one university. Quantitative and qualitative data were provided by 20 respondents. A questionnaire elicited demographic data and information about any primary care services used, while semi-structured interviews gathered more in-depth data. Participants were generally satisfied with primary health services. The majority were satisfied with the availability of a healthcare professional of their preferred gender, and their communication with and attitudes of healthcare professionals, as well as the health information provided. Recommendations include greater availability of written information in Arabic, and further research concerning cultural competence for healthcare professionals.

  7. Arabic Sign Language (ArSL Recognition System Using HMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa A. A.Youssif

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hand gestures enabling deaf people to communication during their daily lives rather than by speaking. A sign language is a language which, instead of using sound, uses visually transmitted gesture signs which simultaneously combine hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms, lip-patterns, body movements and facial expressions to express the speaker's thoughts. Recognizing and documenting Arabic sign language has only been paid attention to recently. There have been few attempts to develop recognition systems to allow deaf people to interact with the rest of society. This paper introduces an automatic Arabic sign language (ArSL recognition system based on the Hidden Markov Models (HMMs. A large set of samples has been used to recognize 20 isolated words from the Standard Arabic sign language. The proposed system is signer-independent. Experiments are conducted using real ArSL videos taken for deaf people in different clothes and with different skin colors. Our system achieves an overall recognition rate reaching up to 82.22%.

  8. A Proposed Hybrid Technique for Recognizing Arabic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F Bahgat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical character recognition systems improve human-machine interaction and are urgently required for many governmental and commercial departments. A considerable progress in the recognition techniques of Latin and Chinese characters has been achieved. By contrast, Arabic Optical Character Recognition (AOCR is still lagging although the interest and research in this area is becoming more intensive than before. This is because the Arabic is a cursive language, written from right to left, each character has two to four different forms according to its position in the word, and most characters are associated with complementary parts above, below, or inside the character. The process of Arabic character recognition passes through several stages; the most serious and error-prone of which are segmentation, and feature extraction & classification. This research focuses on the feature extraction and classification stage, being as important as the segmentation stage. Features can be classified into two categories; Local features, which are usually geometric, and Global features, which are either topological or statistical. Four approaches related to the statistical category are to be investigated, namely: Moment Invariants, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, Run Length Matrix, and Statistical Properties of Intensity Histogram. The paper aims at fusing the features of these methods to get the most representative feature vector that maximizes the recognition rate.

  9. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priehodová, Edita; Abdelsawy, Abdelhay; Heyer, Evelyne; Cerný, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood, occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that either had started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but also had experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. In Arabia, LP is associated with mutation -13,915*G and not, as in Europe, with -13,910*T or, as in Africa, with -13,907*G and -14,010*C. We show here that, in Arabia, -13,915*G frequency conforms to a partial clinal pattern and that this specific mutation has likely been spread from Arabia to Africa only recently from the sixth century AD onward by nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) looking for new pastures. Arabic populations in Africa that still maintain a nomadic way of life also have more -13,915*G variants and fewer sub-Saharan L-type mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; this observation matches archaeological and historical records suggesting that the migration of Arabic pastoralists was accompanied by gradual sedentarization that allowed for admixture with the local African population.

  10. The Sīmiyā’ in Al-Andalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Coullaut Cordero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sīmiyā’ is an Arabic word that uses to be translated as ‘white magic’ or ‘natural magic’. In fact, the so-called “science of al-Sīmiyā’” is a kind of magic well known in the Arab world since the Middle Ages. In this paper, after a short revision of the different etymologies suggested for this word, we discuss the definitions given to the this magical science by classic authors, namely Šhihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (s. XIII, Ibn Jaldūn (s. XIV and Hāyŷī Jalīfa (s. XVII, remarking the differences in their definitions.After that, we analyze the meaning, basic concepts and practice of the sīmiyā’ in al-Andalus, as exposed in the book entitled Kanz al-‘ulūm wa-l-durr al-manzūm, written by the sufi author Muhammad b. ‘Alī Ibn Tūmart al-Andalusī (s. XIII- XIV, what lead us to relatesufism with the practice of occult sciences in the Islamic world.

  11. Exposure to metals and congenital anomalies: A biomonitoring study of pregnant Bedouin-Arab women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Bedouin-Arab population in Israel comprises a low socio-economic society in transition. Smoking among males and consanguineous marriages are frequent. A previous study showed elevated rates of major malformations within groups from this population residing near an industrial park, where high ambient values of arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) were detected, compared to groups living in remote localities. Objectives: We estimated the extent of exposure to metals in pregnant Bedouin-Arab women in relation to congenital malformations. Methods: We collected maternal urine samples from 140 Bedouin women who gave birth in a local hospital. Patient medical history, type of marriage (consanguineous or non-consanguineous), and parental exposure history were collected by interview and medical records. Results: Aluminum (Al) was detected in 37 women (26.4%), cadmium (Cd) in 2 (1.4%), As in 10 (7.1%), and Ni in 1 woman (0.7%). The detected rate of Cd exposure was low, though more than 92% of the fathers reported smoking. Concentrations of Al were higher for women residing within 10 km of the local industrial park (Prevalence Ratio (PR) = 1.12, p-value = 0.012) or who reported using a wood burning stove (PR = 1.37, p-value = 0.011) and cooking over an open fire (PR = 1.16, p-value = 0.076). Exposure to Al was adversely associated with minor anomalies (OR = 3.8, p-value = 0.046) after adjusting for history of abortions (OR = 6.1, p-value = 0.007). Fetuses prenatally exposed to As were born prematurely (p-value = 0.001) and at lower weights (pv = 0.023). Conclusions: The study population of pregnant women is exposed to high levels of metals mainly of household origin. Our findings may be generalized to similar populations in developing countries. - Highlights: • Almost a third of the pregnant women had a detectable metal in their urine. • Aluminum and Arsenic were the most prevalent metals in urine. • The study investigates pregnant women exposed to a hazardous

  12. Exposure to metals and congenital anomalies: A biomonitoring study of pregnant Bedouin-Arab women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakis, Isabella [Environmental Epidemiology Department, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem (Israel); Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Department of Public Health, The Ashkelon Academic College, Ashkelon (Israel); Landau, Daniella [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Department of Neonatology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Yitshak-Sade, Maayan [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Clinical Research Center, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Hershkovitz, Reli [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ultrasound Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Rotenberg, Michal [Laboratory of Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Sarov, Batia [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Grotto, Itamar [Environmental Epidemiology Department, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem (Israel); Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Public Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem (Israel); Novack, Lena, E-mail: novack@bgu.ac.il [Faculty of Health Science, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2015-06-01

    Background: The Bedouin-Arab population in Israel comprises a low socio-economic society in transition. Smoking among males and consanguineous marriages are frequent. A previous study showed elevated rates of major malformations within groups from this population residing near an industrial park, where high ambient values of arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) were detected, compared to groups living in remote localities. Objectives: We estimated the extent of exposure to metals in pregnant Bedouin-Arab women in relation to congenital malformations. Methods: We collected maternal urine samples from 140 Bedouin women who gave birth in a local hospital. Patient medical history, type of marriage (consanguineous or non-consanguineous), and parental exposure history were collected by interview and medical records. Results: Aluminum (Al) was detected in 37 women (26.4%), cadmium (Cd) in 2 (1.4%), As in 10 (7.1%), and Ni in 1 woman (0.7%). The detected rate of Cd exposure was low, though more than 92% of the fathers reported smoking. Concentrations of Al were higher for women residing within 10 km of the local industrial park (Prevalence Ratio (PR) = 1.12, p-value = 0.012) or who reported using a wood burning stove (PR = 1.37, p-value = 0.011) and cooking over an open fire (PR = 1.16, p-value = 0.076). Exposure to Al was adversely associated with minor anomalies (OR = 3.8, p-value = 0.046) after adjusting for history of abortions (OR = 6.1, p-value = 0.007). Fetuses prenatally exposed to As were born prematurely (p-value = 0.001) and at lower weights (pv = 0.023). Conclusions: The study population of pregnant women is exposed to high levels of metals mainly of household origin. Our findings may be generalized to similar populations in developing countries. - Highlights: • Almost a third of the pregnant women had a detectable metal in their urine. • Aluminum and Arsenic were the most prevalent metals in urine. • The study investigates pregnant women exposed to a hazardous

  13. Humanism and exile as subjects in the poetry of Bilind al-Ḥaydarī

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Adnan

    2003-01-01

    Bilind al-Ḥaydarī (belend means “proud,” “high” in Kurdish) is an Iraqi Kurdish poet considered as the first among the precursors of the new free verse forms in Arabic poetry that appeared in Iraq after the Second World War.

  14. ABÛ KABÎR AL-HUDHALÎ, Zuhayra ! Quatre poèmes à sa fille sur la vieillesse et la mort, édition bilingue, traduits de l’arabe, présentés et annotés par Pierre LARCHER, collection La petite bibliothèque de Sindbad, Paris et Arles, Sindbad/Actes Sud, 2014, 76 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rodica Firanescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La parution (2014 du volume Zuhayra !, le quatrième d’une série (Larcher, 2000, 2004, 2012, vient non seulement élargir ce que nous avons appelé « le “corpus Larcher” à caractère personnel et distinctif (par l’ampleur ou le nombre des poèmes traduits, la qualité de la traduction et le style de présentation qui recouvre la majeure partie du territoire que la poésie arabe d’avant l’Islam a acquis dans la littérature, non pas “de”, mais “en” langue française » (Firanescu, 2013 : 271, mais au...

  15. Performance of the Arabic Book Translation Industry in Selected Arab Countries: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi-Arabia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This research project addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic p...

  16. Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark LAMONTAGNE

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning Mark LAMONTAGNE, M.Ed. Canadore College Ontorio, CANADA ABSTRACT With the advent of globalization and the proliferation of online learning, the creation of culturally sensitive online learning environments takes on increasing importance. Online education provides new opportunities for learners from different cultural backgrounds to come together, learn, expand their knowledge, share ideas, and develop passion for their vocation. Emerging models of how communities work, such as Communities of Practice (CoPs are being increasingly used to understand how online communities might grow and develop. Schwen & Hara (2003 outline 4 stages of design necessary to ensure that CoPs are properly designed for an online environment: phase 1 Possible Design Interventions, phase 2 Analysis, phase 3 Design and, phase 4 Evaluation and Revision. Phase 1 and phase 2 of this design model are considered in this study, in light of Etienne Wenger’s (2002 elements of a Community of Practice: domain, community and practice. These elements are considered in order to gauge the degree to which they can be applied in an Arab educational culture. The investigation focuses on College-level education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, and the government-supported Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT system. By analyzing faculty perceptions related to the students’ propensity to adopt Community of Practice elements into their educational culture, we can provide guidance for the design of online learning that supports a cross-cultural Community of Practice, specifically as it relates to phase 1 and phase 2 of Schwen and Hara’s design structure.

  17. Management of Water Demand in Arab Countries Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Shayboub Ali Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The alarming increase in the scarcity of water in various parts of the world. Scarcity of water in the Arab countries is not a new phenomenon—although population growth and economic development exacerbate the scarcity. Therefore, it is useful to examine how the problem has been dealt with during millennia of experience in the Arab world. Water is a main issue in many countries especially in those Arab countries; it has focused a global attention on the need for a stronger and more appropriate water resource management and availability solutions. With about 170 million people in 17 countries suffering from water scarcity and about 275 million in 9 countries having "water stresses" conditions, it becomes imperative for nations to come up with more focused and direct measures that would address and stem this resource scarcity. Water sustainability needs a balance between demand and availability. The main objective of this paper is the application of these concepts to Arabs countries. Water demand management is about achieving a reduction in the use of water resources, normally through increased efficiency of water application. The management of water resources was not explicitly included in the past from thirty-five years in all most of those countries normative system partly because water was believed to be a free good in mind, and was not accepted to have a price to pay to use it. This work contributed to a low efficiency of water use and waste of it, and water prices are often well below levels needed to cover the costs of the system. Moreover, this contributes to a worse quality of water, and, as quality of water decrease, the management of water resources becomes more challenging and the need to integrate water quality into an overall water resources management grows. The main goal of this paper is showing, how Geographical Information Systems (GIS can be used to support infrastructure planners and analyst on water demand of a local area in

  18. [Some glass instruments of Arabic alchemy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    From an as yet unpublished collection, kept in the Linden Museum, Stuttgart, of some 20 Islamic glass items, 12 objects with an alchemical background have been selected and studied in detail. The most important items are two alchemical still heads which, according to an alchemical manuscript of al-Kindī, a significant 9th century Arabian philosopher, natural scientist, mathematician, physician and musician, are identified as still heads for the watersteam distillation of camphor in particular. Additionally the publication presented here features a medical utensil (probably recent), a measuring jug, a funnel, a mortar, a pestle, a test tube most probably 19th century and four small bottles--probably for perfume. Most of the objects originate in Iran, but some are from Egypt, Afghanistan and Palestine and date mainly from the 9th to the 13th century AD. Some misinterpretations and ambiguities to be found in the literature have been corrected and eliminated. PMID:20336929

  19. La traduction en arabe des déterminants français : étude contrastive

    OpenAIRE

    Saada, Mahmoud,

    2014-01-01

    Arabic language is morphologically poorer in determiners than French. This could pose some translation problems. The objective of this work is thus to help translators and those who are involved in teaching/learning translation to overcome these difficulties. Based on a corpus made of a French text and its translation into Arabic, this contrastive study compares the determination systems of French and Arabic. It studies French determiners and their equivalents in Arabic, comments them and for...

  20. Effects of Arab American Discrimination Post 9/11 in the Contexts of the Workplace and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Daraiseh, Isra

    2012-01-01

    What is an Arab? What is an Arab American? Are these ethnicities subject to negative treatment by others? Why is it important to recognize these differences in the treatment of Arab Americans and, in particular, in the realm of the workplace and in education? When preparing this literature review, I found little research on the effects of such discrimination on Arab American students. The research I did find indicates that it leads to poor academic performance and self-fulfilling prophecies. ...