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Sample records for akt inhibitors induce

  1. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization

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    Meng, Zhen [Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Gan, Ye-Hua, E-mail: kqyehuagan@bjmu.edu.cn [Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. - Highlights: • COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, could enhance radiosensitization. • Radiation induced PTEN inactivation (phosphorylation) and AKT activation. • COX-2 inhibitor induced PTEN expression and activation, and inactivated AKT. • COX-2 inhibitor enhanced radiosensitization through activating PTEN.

  2. The novel Akt inhibitor API-1 induces c-FLIP degradation and synergizes with TRAIL to augment apoptosis independent of Akt inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ren, Hui; Yue, Ping; Chen, Mingwei; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2012-04-01

    API-1 (pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines) is a novel small-molecule inhibitor of Akt, which acts by binding to Akt and preventing its membrane translocation and has promising preclinical antitumor activity. In this study, we reveal a novel function of API-1 in regulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) levels and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, independent of Akt inhibition. API-1 effectively induced apoptosis in tested cancer cell lines including activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9. It reduced the levels of c-FLIP without increasing the expression of death receptor 4 (DR4) or DR5. Accordingly, it synergized with TRAIL to induce apoptosis. Enforced expression of ectopic c-FLIP did not attenuate API-1-induced apoptosis but inhibited its ability to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that downregulation of c-FLIP mediates enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by API-1 but is not sufficient for API-1-induced apoptosis. API-1-induced reduction of c-FLIP could be blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, API-1 increased c-FLIP ubiquitination and decreased c-FLIP stability. These data together suggest that API-1 downregulates c-FLIP by facilitating its ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Because other Akt inhibitors including API-2 and MK2206 had minimal effects on reducing c-FLIP and enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis, it is likely that API-1 reduces c-FLIP and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis independent of its Akt-inhibitory activity. 2012 AACR

  3. Modulation of curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis by PI3K inhibitor in MCF-7 cells

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    Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Thayyullathil, Faisal; Chathoth, Shahanas; Hago, Abdulkader; Patel, Mahendra; Galadari, Sehamuddin

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin has been shown to induce apoptosis in various malignant cancer cell lines. One mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis is through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase regulated Ser/Thr kinases. The active Akt regulates cell survival and proliferation; and inhibits apoptosis. In this study we found that curcumin induces apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells, as assessed by MTT assay, DNA ladder formation, PARP cleavage, p53 and Bax induction. At apoptotic inducing concentration, curcumin induces a dramatic Akt phosphorylation, accompanied by an increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which has been considered to be a pro-growth signaling molecule. Combining curcumin with PI3K inhibitor, LY290042, synergizes the apoptotic effect of curcumin. The inhibitor LY290042 was capable of attenuating curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and activation of GSK3β. All together, our data suggest that blocking the PI3K/Akt survival pathway sensitizes the curcumin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  4. Modulation of curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis by PI3K inhibitor in MCF-7 cells

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    Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Thayyullathil, Faisal; Chathoth, Shahanas; Hago, Abdulkader; Patel, Mahendra [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Galadari, Sehamuddin, E-mail: sehamuddin@uaeu.ac.ae [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-04-09

    Curcumin has been shown to induce apoptosis in various malignant cancer cell lines. One mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis is through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase regulated Ser/Thr kinases. The active Akt regulates cell survival and proliferation; and inhibits apoptosis. In this study we found that curcumin induces apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells, as assessed by MTT assay, DNA ladder formation, PARP cleavage, p53 and Bax induction. At apoptotic inducing concentration, curcumin induces a dramatic Akt phosphorylation, accompanied by an increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}), which has been considered to be a pro-growth signaling molecule. Combining curcumin with PI3K inhibitor, LY290042, synergizes the apoptotic effect of curcumin. The inhibitor LY290042 was capable of attenuating curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and activation of GSK3{beta}. All together, our data suggest that blocking the PI3K/Akt survival pathway sensitizes the curcumin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  5. Ligand-based modeling of Akt3 lead to potent dual Akt1/Akt3 inhibitor.

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    Al-Sha'er, Mahmoud A; Taha, Mutasem O

    2018-02-13

    Akt1 and Akt3 are important serine/threonine-specific protein kinases involved in G2 phase required by cancer cells to maintain cell cycle and to prevent cell death. Accordingly, inhibitors of these kinases should have potent anti-cancer properties. This prompted us to use pharmacophore/QSAR modeling to identify optimal binding models and physicochemical descriptors that explain bioactivity variation within a set of 74 diverse Akt3 inhibitors. Two successful orthogonal pharmacophores were identified and further validated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The pharmacophoric models and associated QSAR equation were applied to screen the national cancer institute (NCI) list of compounds for new Akt3 inhibitors. Six hits showed significant experimental anti-Akt3 IC 50 values, out of which one compound exhibited dual low micromolar anti-Akt1 and anti-Akt3 inhibitory profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Akt Inhibitor A-443654 Interferes with Mitotic Progression by Regulating Aurora A Kinase Expression

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    Xuesong Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Both Akt and Aurora A kinase have been shown to be important targets for intervention for cancer therapy. We report here that Compound A (A-443654, a specific Akt inhibitor, interferes with mitotic progression and bipolar spindle formation. Compound A induces G2/M accumulation, defects in centrosome separation, and formation of either monopolar arrays or disorganized spindles. On the basis of gene expression array studies, we identified Aurora A as one of the genes regulated transcriptionally by Akt inhibitors including Compound A. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway, either by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or by Compound A, dramatically inhibits the promoter activity of Aurora A, whereas the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor has little effect, suggesting that Akt might be responsible for up-regulating Aurora A for mitotic progression. Further analysis of the Aurora A promoter region indicates that the Ets element but not the Sp1 element is required for Compound A-sensitive transcriptional control of Aurora A. Overexpression of Aurora A in cells treated with Compound A attenuates the mitotic arrest and the defects in bipolar spindle formation induced by Akt inhibition. Our studies suggest that that Akt may promote mitotic progression through the transcriptional regulation of Aurora A.

  7. Optimal Classes of Chemotherapeutic Agents Sensitized by Specific Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Akt In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Yan Shi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that transduces survival signals from survival/growth factors. Deregulation and signal imbalance in cancer cells make them prone to apoptosis. Upregulation or activation of Akt to aid the survival of cancer cells is a common theme in human malignancies. We have developed small-molecule Akt inhibitors that are potent and specific. These Akt inhibitors can inhibit Akt activity and block phosphorylation by Akt on multiple downstream targets in cells. Synergy in apoptosis induction was observed when Akt inhibitors were combined with doxorubicin or camptothecin. Akt inhibitor-induced enhancement of topoisomerase inhibitor cytotoxicity was also evident in long-term cell survival assay. Synergy with paclitaxel in apoptosis induction was evident in cells pretreated with paclitaxel, and enhancement of tumor delay by paclitaxel was demonstrated through cotreatment with Akt inhibitor Compound A (A-443654. Combination with other classes of chemotherapeutic agents did not yield any enhancement of cytotoxicity. These findings provide important guidance in selecting appropriate classes of chemotherapeutic agents for combination with Akt inhibitors in cancer treatment.

  8. Protein Kinase B (Akt) Promotes Pathological Angiogenesis in Murine Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Tian, Xiao-Feng; Rong, Jun-Bo; Liu, Dan; Yi, Guo-Guo; Tan, Qian

    2011-01-01

    Akt, or protein kinase B, is an important signaling molecule that modulates many cellular processes such as cell growth, survival, and metabolism. However, the vivo roles and effectors of Akt in retinal angiogenesis are not explicitly clear. We therefore detected the expression of Akt using Western blotting or RT-PCR technologies in an animal model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, and investigated the effects of recombinant Akt on inhibiting vessels loss and Akt inhibitor on suppressing experimental retinal neovascularization in this model. We showed that in the hyperoxic phase of oxygen-induced retinopathy, the expression of Akt was greatly suppressed. In the hypoxic phase, the expression of Akt was increased dramatically. No significant differences were found in normoxic groups. Compared with control groups, administration of the recombinant Akt in the first phase of retinopathy markedly reduced capillary-free areas, while the administration of the Akt inhibitor in the second phase of retinopathy significantly decreased retinal neovascularization but capillary-free areas. These results indicate that Akt play a critical role in the pathological process (vessels loss and neovascularization) of mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, which may provide a valubale therapeutic tool for ischemic-induced retinal diseases

  9. RBL2/p130 is a direct AKT target and is required to induce apoptosis upon AKT inhibition in lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines.

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    Pentimalli, Francesca; Forte, Iris M; Esposito, Luca; Indovina, Paola; Iannuzzi, Carmelina A; Alfano, Luigi; Costa, Caterina; Barone, Daniela; Rocco, Gaetano; Giordano, Antonio

    2018-04-02

    The retinoblastoma (RB) protein family includes RB1/p105, RBL1/p107, and RBL2/p130, which are key factors in cell-cycle regulation and stand at the crossroads of multiple pathways dictating cell fate decisions. The role of RB proteins in apoptosis is controversial because they can inhibit or promote apoptosis depending on the context, on the apoptotic stimuli and on their intrinsic status, impacting on the response to antitumoral treatments. Here we identified RBL2/p130 as a direct substrate of the AKT kinase, a key antiapoptotic factor hyperactive in multiple cancer types. We showed that RBL2/p130 and AKT1 physically interact and AKT phosphorylates RBL2/p130 Ser941, located in the pocket domain, but not when this residue is mutated into Ala. We found that pharmacological inhibition of AKT, through the highly selective AKT inhibitor VIII (AKTiVIII), impairs RBL2/p130 Ser941 phosphorylation and increases RBL2/p130 stability, mRNA expression and nuclear levels in both lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines, mirroring the more extensively studied effects on the p27 cell-cycle inhibitor. Consistently, AKT inhibition reduced cell viability, induced cell accumulation in G0/G1, and triggered apoptosis, which proved to be largely dependent on RBL2/p130 itself, as shown upon RBL2/p130 silencing. AKT inhibition induced RBL2/p130-dependent apoptosis also in HEK-293 cells, in which re-expression of a short hairpin-resistant RBL2/p130 was able to rescue AKTiVIII-induced apoptosis upon RBL2/p130 silencing. Our data also showed that the combination of AKT and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) inhibitors, which converge on the re-activation of RBL2/p130 antitumoral potential, could be a promising anticancer strategy.

  10. Luteinizing hormone-induced Akt phosphorylation and androgen production are modulated by MAP Kinase in bovine theca cells

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    Fukuda Shin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theca cells play an important role in controlling ovarian steroidogenesis by providing aromatizable androgens for granulosa cell estrogen biosynthesis. Although it is well established that the steroidogenic activity of theca cells is mainly regulated by LH, the intracellular signal transduction mechanisms that regulate thecal proliferation and/or steroidogenesis remain obscure. In this study, we examined whether and how LH controls the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and androgen production in bovine theca cells. We also explored whether this LH-induced PI3K/Akt activation is modulated with other signaling pathways (i.e. PKA and MAPK. Methods Ovarian theca cells were isolated from bovine small antral follicles and were incubated with LH for various durations. Phospho-Akt and total-Akt content in the cultured theca cells were examined using Western blotting. Androstenedione levels in the spent media were determined using EIA. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses were conducted to analyze the mRNA levels of CYP17A1 and StAR in the theca cells. To examine whether Akt activity is involved in theca cell androgen production, the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 were also added to the cells. Results Akt is constitutively expressed, but is gradually phosphorylated in cultured bovine theca cells through exposure to LH. LH significantly increased androstenedione production in bovine theca cells, whereas addition of the wortmannin and LY294002 significantly decreased LH-induced androstenedione production. LH significantly increased CYP17A1 mRNA level in theca cells, whereas addition of LY294002 significantly decreased LH-induced CYP17A1 expression. Neither LH nor PI3K inhibitors alter the mRNA levels of StAR in theca cells. Although H89 (a selective inhibitor of PKA does not affect LH-mediated changes in Akt, U0126 (a potent MEK inhibitor suppressed LH-induced Akt phosphorylation, CYP17A1 expression, and androgen production in theca

  11. Inactivation of AKT Induces Cellular Senescence in Uterine Leiomyoma

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    Xu, Xiaofei; Lu, Zhenxiao; Qiang, Wenan; Vidimar, Vania; Kong, Beihua

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are a major public health problem. Current medical treatments with GnRH analogs do not provide long-term benefit. Thus, permanent shrinkage or inhibition of fibroid growth via medical means remains a challenge. The AKT pathway is a major growth and survival pathway for fibroids. We propose that AKT inhibition results in a transient regulation of specific mechanisms that ultimately drive cells into cellular senescence or cell death. In this study, we investigated specific mechanisms of AKT inhibition that resulted in senescence. We observed that administration of MK-2206, an allosteric AKT inhibitor, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated the microRNA miR-182 and several senescence-associated genes (including p16, p53, p21, and β-galactosidase), and drove leiomyoma cells into stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Moreover, induction of SIPS was mediated by HMGA2, which colocalized to senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This study provides a conceivable molecular mechanism of SIPS by AKT inhibition in fibroids. PMID:24476133

  12. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms....... The diversity and unpredictability of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms presents a challenge for developing new treatments to overcome EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Here, we show that Akt activation is a convergent feature of acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance......, across a spectrum of diverse, established upstream resistance mechanisms. Combined treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and Akt inhibitor causes apoptosis and synergistic growth inhibition in multiple EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer models. Moreover...

  13. Akt-dependent NF-κB activation is required for bile acids to rescue colon cancer cells from stress-induced apoptosis

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    Shant, Jasleen; Cheng, Kunrong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Wang Jianying; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated secondary bile acids promote human colon cancer cell proliferation by activating EGF receptors (EGFR). We hypothesized that bile acid-induced EGFR activation also mediates cell survival by downstream Akt-regulated activation of NF-κB. Deoxycholyltaurine (DCT) treatment attenuated TNF-α-induced colon cancer cell apoptosis, and stimulated rapid and sustained NF-κB nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity (detected by NF-κB binding to an oligonucleotide consensus sequence and by activation of luciferase reporter gene constructs). Both DCT-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and attenuation of TNF-α-stimulated apoptosis were dependent on EGFR activation. Inhibitors of nuclear translocation, proteosome activity, and IκBα kinase attenuated NF-κB transcriptional activity. Cell transfection with adenoviral vectors encoding a non-degradable IκBα 'super-repressor' blocked the actions of DCT on both NF-κB activation and TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Likewise, transfection with mutant akt and treatment with a chemical inhibitor of Akt attenuated effects of DCT on NF-κB transcriptional activity and TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Chemical inhibitors of Akt and NF-κB activation also attenuated DCT-induced rescue of H508 cells from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these observations indicate that, downstream of EGFR, bile acid-induced colon cancer cell survival is mediated by Akt-dependent NF-κB activation. These findings provide a mechanism whereby bile acids increase resistance of colon cancer to chemotherapy and radiation

  14. PI3K/Akt Activated by GPR30 and Src Regulates 17β-Estradiol-Induced Cultured Immature Boar Sertoli Cells Proliferation.

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    Yang, Wei-Rong; Zhu, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Xian-Zhong

    2016-05-24

    Sertoli cell (SC) is a key element in the process of spermatogenesis. Accumulating research show that estrogen plays an important role in regulating boar SC proliferation. However, it is unclear whether phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) is involved in this process. In the present study, the role of PI3K/Akt on the 17β-estradiol-induced piglet SC proliferation was explored. In addition, we also explained the roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30) and Sarcoma protein (Src) in this process. Our study demonstrated that, 17β-estradiol induced activation of PI3K in a time-dependent manner. Both G-15 (an antagonist of GPR30, 0.1 μmol/L) and PP2 (an inhibitor of Src, 2.0 μmol/L) inhibited 17β-estradiol-induced activation of PI3K, reduced SC proliferation, and decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2). We also found that 17β-estradiol induced activation of Akt in a time-dependent manner. Both LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3K) and 10-DEBC (an inhibitor of Akt) significantly reduced 17β-estradiol-induced SC proliferation and reduced mRNA and protein expression of Skp2. In addition, LY294002 inhibited 17β-estradiol-induced activation of Akt. The results indicated that 17β-estradiol regulates SC proliferation by activating PI3K/Akt. Both GPR30 and Src are involved in 17β-estradiol-induced phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt. Activation of PI3K/Akt enhances the expression of Skp2, which promotes SC proliferation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. MK-2206, an AKT Inhibitor, Promotes Caspase-Independent Cell Death and Inhibits Leiomyoma Growth

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    Sefton, Elizabeth C.; Qiang, Wenan; Serna, Vanida; Kurita, Takeshi; Wei, Jian-Jun; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (ULs), benign tumors of the myometrium, are the number one indication for hysterectomies in the United States due to a lack of an effective alternative therapy. ULs show activation of the pro-survival AKT pathway compared with normal myometrium; however, substantial data directly linking AKT to UL cell survival are lacking. We hypothesized that AKT promotes UL cell survival and that it is a viable target for inhibiting UL growth. We used the investigational AKT inhibitor MK-2206, currently in phase II trials, on cultured primary human UL and myometrial cells, immortalized leiomyoma cells, and in leiomyoma grafts grown under the kidney capsule in mice. MK-2206 inhibited AKT and PRAS40 phosphorylation but did not regulate serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase and ERK1/2, demonstrating its specificity for AKT. MK-2206 reduced UL cell viability and decreased UL tumor volumes. UL cells exhibited disruption of mitochondrial structures and underwent cell death that was independent of caspases. Additionally, mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6K phosphorylation were reduced, indicating that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling was compromised by AKT inhibition in UL cells. MK-2206 also induced autophagy in UL cells. Pretreatment of primary UL cells with 3-methyladenine enhanced MK-2206-mediated UL cell death, whereas knockdown of ATG5 and/or ATG7 did not significantly influence UL cell viability in the presence of MK-2206. Our data provide molecular evidence for the involvement of AKT in UL cell survival and suggest that AKT inhibition by MK-2206 may be a viable option to consider for the treatment of ULs. PMID:24002033

  16. Agmatine Protects Against 6-OHDA-Induced Apoptosis, and ERK and Akt/GSK Disruption in SH-SY5Y Cells.

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    Amiri, Esmat; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Moosavi, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a metabolite of dopamine is known to induce dopaminergic cell toxicity which makes that a suitable agent inducing an experimental model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Agmatine has been shown to protect against some cellular and animal PD models. This study was aimed to assess whether agmatine prevents 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cell death and if yes, then how it affects Akt/glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signals. The cells were treated with different drugs, and their viability was examined via MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay and morphological observation. Western blot studies were done to assess cleaved caspase-3, Akt/GSK-3β, and ERK proteins. 6-OHDA-induced cell death and caspase-3 cleavage, while agmatine prevented those changes. 6-OHDA also decreased the amount of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt)/Akt while increased GSK-3β activity which was prevented by agmatine. Additionally, this toxin increased pERK/ERK ratio which was averted again by agmatine. The PI3/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, impeded the changes induced by agmatine, while ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not disturb the effects of agmatine, and by itself, it preserved the cells against 6-OHDA toxicity. This study revealed that agmatine is protective in 6-OHDA model of PD and affects Akt/GSK-3β and ERK pathways.

  17. Defibrotide Stimulates Angiogenesis and Protects Endothelial Cells from Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Apoptosis via Upregulation of AKT/Bcl-xL.

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    Wang, Xiangmin; Pan, Bin; Hashimoto, Yuko; Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Xu, Kailin; Zeng, Lingyu; Ikezoe, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a life-threatening complication that can occur after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Defibrotide (DF) has been approved for the treatment of individuals with severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the European Union and the United States. However, the precise mechanisms by which DF protects endothelial cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that DF stimulated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo as assessed by vascular tube formation, scratch-wound repair and Matrigel plug assays. These effects were associated with an activation of pro-survival signalling pathways, including AKT (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and p38. More importantly, DF alleviated calcineurin inhibitor-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in parallel with upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xL), which was mediated by AKT (protein kinase B). Notably, these effects were abrogated when Bcl-xL was depleted by small interfering RNA (ribonucleic acid). In addition, DF counteracted calcineurin inhibitor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling and production of cytokines in vascular endothelial cell-derived EA.hy926 cells. Taken together, DF has pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells. DF is a potentially useful agent to prevent the development of, and treat individuals with, endothelial cell injury-related complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  18. Selective elimination of neuroblastoma cells by synergistic effect of Akt kinase inhibitor and tetrathiomolybdate.

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    Navrátilová, Jarmila; Karasová, Martina; Kohutková Lánová, Martina; Jiráková, Ludmila; Budková, Zuzana; Pacherník, Jiří; Šmarda, Jan; Beneš, Petr

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of infancy. Pathological activation of glucose consumption, glycolysis and glycolysis-activating Akt kinase occur frequently in neuroblastoma cells, and these changes correlate with poor prognosis of patients. Therefore, several inhibitors of glucose utilization and the Akt kinase activity are in preclinical trials as potential anti-cancer drugs. However, metabolic plasticity of cancer cells might undermine efficacy of this approach. In this work, we identified oxidative phosphorylation as compensatory mechanism preserving viability of neuroblastoma cells with inhibited glucose uptake/Akt kinase. It was oxidative phosphorylation that maintained intracellular level of ATP and proliferative capacity of these cells. The oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors (rotenone, tetrathiomolybdate) synergized with inhibitor of the Akt kinase/glucose uptake in down-regulation of both viability of neuroblastoma cells and clonogenic potential of cells forming neuroblastoma spheroids. Interestingly, tetrathiomolybdate acted as highly specific inhibitor of oxygen consumption and activator of lactate production in neuroblastoma cells, but not in normal fibroblasts and neuronal cells. Moreover, the reducing effect of tetrathiomolybdate on cell viability and the level of ATP in the cells with inhibited Akt kinase/glucose uptake was also selective for neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, efficient elimination of neuroblastoma cells requires inhibition of both glucose uptake/Akt kinase and oxidative phosphorylation activities. The use of tetrathiomolybdate as a mitochondrial inhibitor contributes to selectivity of this combined treatment, preferentially targeting neuroblastoma cells. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  19. oxLDL induces endothelial cell proliferation via Rho/ROCK/Akt/p27kip1 signaling: opposite effects of oxLDL and cholesterol loading.

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    Zhang, Chongxu; Adamos, Crystal; Oh, Myung-Jin; Baruah, Jugajyoti; Ayee, Manuela A A; Mehta, Dolly; Wary, Kishore K; Levitan, Irena

    2017-09-01

    Oxidized modifications of LDL (oxLDL) play a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of oxLDL-mediated cellular behavior are not completely understood. Here, we compared the effects of two major types of oxLDL, copper-oxidized LDL (Cu 2+ -oxLDL) and lipoxygenase-oxidized LDL (LPO-oxLDL), on proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Cu 2+ -oxLDL enhanced HAECs' proliferation in a dose- and degree of oxidation-dependent manner. Similarly, LPO-oxLDL also enhanced HAEC proliferation. Mechanistically, both Cu 2+ -oxLDL and LPO-oxLDL enhance HAEC proliferation via activation of Rho, Akt phosphorylation, and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27 kip1 ). Both Cu 2+ -oxLDL or LPO-oxLDL significantly increased Akt phosphorylation, whereas an Akt inhibitor, MK2206, blocked oxLDL-induced increase in HAEC proliferation. Blocking Rho with C3 or its downstream target ROCK with Y27632 significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and proliferation mediated by both Cu 2+ - and LPO-oxLDL. Activation of RhoA was blocked by Rho-GDI-1, which also abrogated oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. In contrast, blocking Rac1 in these cells had no effect on oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation or cell proliferation. Moreover, oxLDL-induced Rho/Akt signaling downregulated cell cycle inhibitor p27 kip1 Preloading these cells with cholesterol, however, prevented oxLDL-induced Akt phosphorylation and HAEC proliferation. These findings provide a new understanding of the effects of oxLDL on endothelial proliferation, which is essential for developing new treatments against neovascularization and progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. A dual-color fluorescence-based platform to identify selective inhibitors of Akt signaling.

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    Aranzazú Rosado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inhibition of Akt signaling is considered one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for many cancers. However, rational target-orientated approaches to cell based drug screens for anti-cancer agents have historically been compromised by the notorious absence of suitable control cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to address this fundamental problem, we have developed BaFiso, a live-cell screening platform to identify specific inhibitors of this pathway. BaFiso relies on the co-culture of isogenic cell lines that have been engineered to sustain interleukin-3 independent survival of the parental Ba/F3 cells, and that are individually tagged with different fluorescent proteins. Whilst in the first of these two lines cell survival in the absence of IL-3 is dependent on the expression of activated Akt, the cells expressing constitutively-activated Stat5 signaling display IL-3 independent growth and survival in an Akt-independent manner. Small molecules can then be screened in these lines to identify inhibitors that rescue IL-3 dependence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BaFiso measures differential cell survival using multiparametric live cell imaging and permits selective inhibitors of Akt signaling to be identified. BaFiso is a platform technology suitable for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of IL-3 mediated survival signaling.

  1. Sulfuretin Attenuates MPP+-Induced Neurotoxicity through Akt/GSK3β and ERK Signaling Pathways

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    Ramesh Pariyar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Sulfuretin is a potent antioxidant that is reported to be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the protective effect of sulfuretin against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+-induced cell model of PD in SH-SY5Y cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Sulfuretin significantly decreased MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death, accompanied by a reduction in caspase 3 activity and polyADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage. Furthermore, it attenuated MPP+-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Consistently, sulfuretin decreased p53 expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, sulfuretin significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, and ERK. Pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and ERK abolished the cytoprotective effects of sulfuretin against MPP+. An inhibitor of GSK3β mimicked sulfuretin-induced protection against MPP+. Taken together, these results suggest that sulfuretin significantly attenuates MPP+-induced neurotoxicity through Akt/GSK3β and ERK signaling pathways in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggest that sulfuretin might be one of the potential candidates for the treatment of PD.

  2. Vorinostat synergizes with ridaforolimus and abrogates the ridaforolimus-induced activation of AKT in synovial sarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sherif S; Cranmer, Lee D

    2014-11-18

    Curative treatments for patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma (SS) do not exist, and such patients have a poor prognosis. We explored combinations of molecularly-targeted and cytotoxic agents to identify synergistic treatment combinations in SS cells. Two SS cell lines (HS-SY-II and SYO-I) were treated with single agents or combinations of molecularly targeted therapies (HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat; mTOR inhibitor, ridaforolimus) and cytotoxic agents. After 72 hours, cell viability was measured using the MTS cell proliferation assay. Combination Indices (CI) were calculated to determine whether each combination was synergistic, additive, or antagonistic. Western Blot analysis assessed alterations in total and phospho-AKT protein levels in response to drug treatment. We determined the single-agent IC50 for ridaforolimus, vorinostat, doxorubicin, and melphalan in HS-SY-II and SYO-I. Synergism was apparent in cells co-treated with ridaforolimus and vorinostat: CI was 0.28 and 0.63 in HS-SY-II and SYO-I, respectively. Ridaforolimus/doxorubicin and ridaforolimus/melphalan exhibited synergism in both cell lines. An additive effect was observed with combination of vorinostat/doxorubicin in both cell lines. Vorinostat/melphalan was synergistic in HS-SY-II and additive in SYO-I. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ridaforolimus increased pAKT-ser473 levels; this effect was abrogated by vorinostat co-treatment. The combination of ridaforolimus and vorinostat demonstrates in vitro synergism in SS. Addition of vorinostat abrogated ridaforolimus-induced AKT activation. Since AKT activation is a possible mechanism of resistance to mTOR inhibitors, adding vorinostat (or another HDAC inhibitor) may be a route to circumvent AKT-mediated resistance to mTOR inhibitors.

  3. AKT inhibitors promote cell death in cervical cancer through disruption of mTOR signaling and glucose uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Rashmi

    Full Text Available PI3K/AKT pathway alterations are associated with incomplete response to chemoradiation in human cervical cancer. This study was performed to test for mutations in the PI3K pathway and to evaluate the effects of AKT inhibitors on glucose uptake and cell viability.Mutational analysis of DNA from 140 pretreatment tumor biopsies and 8 human cervical cancer cell lines was performed. C33A cells (PIK3CAR88Q and PTENR233* were treated with increasing concentrations of two allosteric AKT inhibitors (SC-66 and MK-2206 with or without the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG. Cell viability and activation status of the AKT/mTOR pathway were determined in response to the treatment. Glucose uptake was evaluated by incubation with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG. Cell migration was assessed by scratch assay.Activating PIK3CA (E545K, E542K and inactivating PTEN (R233* mutations were identified in human cervical cancer. SC-66 effectively inhibited AKT, mTOR and mTOR substrates in C33A cells. SC-66 inhibited glucose uptake via reduced delivery of Glut1 and Glut4 to the cell membrane. SC-66 (1 µg/ml-56% and MK-2206 (30 µM-49% treatment decreased cell viability through a non-apoptotic mechanism. Decreases in cell viability were enhanced when AKT inhibitors were combined with 2-DG. The scratch assay showed a substantial reduction in cell migration upon SC-66 treatment.The mutational spectrum of the PI3K/AKT pathway in cervical cancer is complex. AKT inhibitors effectively block mTORC1/2, decrease glucose uptake, glycolysis, and decrease cell viability in vitro. These results suggest that AKT inhibitors may improve response to chemoradiation in cervical cancer.

  4. Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jintao; Zhu, Dexiao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is neurotoxic, especially in dopaminergic neurons. Long-lasting exposure to MA causes psychosis and increases the risk of Parkinson's disease. Lithium (Li) is a known mood stabilizer and has neuroprotective effects. Previous studies suggest that MA exposure decreases the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway in vivo, whereas Li facilitates the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway. Moreover, GSK3β and mTOR are implicated in the locomotor sensitization induced by psychostimulants and mTOR plays a critical role in MA induced toxicity. However, the effect of MA on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway has not been fully investigated in vitro. Here, we found that MA exposure significantly dephosphorylated Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in PC12 cells. In addition, Li remarkably attenuated the dephosphorylation effect of MA exposure on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, Li showed obvious protective effects against MA toxicity and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) suppressed the protective effects of Li. Together, MA exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in vitro, while lithium protects against MA-induced neurotoxicity via phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. - Highlights: • Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. • Methamphetamine exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. • Lithium attenuates methamphetamine-induced toxicity via phosphorylating Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

  5. Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jintao; Zhu, Dexiao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012 (China); Liu, Zengxun [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012 China (China); Sun, Jinhao, E-mail: sunjinhao@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Methamphetamine (MA) is neurotoxic, especially in dopaminergic neurons. Long-lasting exposure to MA causes psychosis and increases the risk of Parkinson's disease. Lithium (Li) is a known mood stabilizer and has neuroprotective effects. Previous studies suggest that MA exposure decreases the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway in vivo, whereas Li facilitates the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway. Moreover, GSK3β and mTOR are implicated in the locomotor sensitization induced by psychostimulants and mTOR plays a critical role in MA induced toxicity. However, the effect of MA on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway has not been fully investigated in vitro. Here, we found that MA exposure significantly dephosphorylated Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in PC12 cells. In addition, Li remarkably attenuated the dephosphorylation effect of MA exposure on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, Li showed obvious protective effects against MA toxicity and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) suppressed the protective effects of Li. Together, MA exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in vitro, while lithium protects against MA-induced neurotoxicity via phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. - Highlights: • Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. • Methamphetamine exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. • Lithium attenuates methamphetamine-induced toxicity via phosphorylating Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway.

  6. DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates low-dose X-ray irradiation (LDI)-induced Akt activation and osteoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Shi-ji [The Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215000 (China); Zhu, Li-juan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Translational Research and Therapy for Neuro-Psycho-Diseases and Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215021 (China); Zhu, Lun-qing, E-mail: xiaodongwangsz@163.com [The Center of Diagnosis and Treatment for Children’s Bone Diseases, The Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215000 (China); Zhou, Xiao-zhong, E-mail: zhouxz@suda.edu.cn [The Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • LDI increases ALP activity, promotes type I collagen (Col I)/Runx2 mRNA expression. • LDI induces DNA–PKcs activation, which is required for osteoblast differentiation. • Akt activation mediates LDI-induced ALP activity and Col I/Runx2 mRNA increase. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation is important for osteoblast differentiation. - Abstract: Low-dose irradiation (LDI) induces osteoblast differentiation, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the potential role of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA–PKcs)–Akt signaling in LDI-induced osteoblast differentiation. We confirmed that LDI promoted mouse calvarial osteoblast differentiation, which was detected by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as mRNA expression of type I collagen (Col I) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In mouse osteoblasts, LDI (1 Gy) induced phosphorylation of DNA–PKcs and Akt (mainly at Ser-473). The kinase inhibitors against DNA–PKcs (NU-7026 and NU-7441) or Akt (LY294002, perifosine and MK-2206), as well as partial depletion of DNA–PKcs or Akt1 by targeted-shRNA, dramatically inhibited LDI-induced Akt activation and mouse osteoblast differentiation. Further, siRNA-knockdown of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), also inhibited LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation as well as ALP activity increase and Col I/Runx2 expression in mouse osteoblasts. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay results demonstrated that LDI-induced DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation, which was inhibited by NU-7441 or SIN1 siRNA-knockdown in mouse osteoblasts. In summary, our data suggest that DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation-mediated Akt activation (Ser-473 phosphorylation) is required for mouse osteoblast differentiation.

  7. Characterization of AKT independent effects of the synthetic AKT inhibitors SH-5 and SH-6 using an integrated approach combining transcriptomic profiling and signaling pathway perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer Reinhold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transduction processes mediated by phosphatidyl inositol phosphates affect a broad range of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, migration and cell survival. The protein kinase AKT is one of the major effectors in this signaling network. Chronic AKT activation contributes to oncogenic transformation and tumor development. Therefore, analogs of phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PIAs were designed as new small drugs to block AKT activity for cancer treatment. Here we characterize the biological effects of the PIAs SH-5 and SH-6 in colorectal cancer cell lines. Methods Serum-starved or serum-supplemented human colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, HT29 and HCT116 were exposed to SH-5 and SH-6. AKT activation was determined by western blotting. Cell viability was assessed using a colorimetric XTT-based assay, apoptosis and cell cycle changes were monitored by FACS analysis. The dynamics of cell morphology alterations was evaluated by confocal and time-lapse microscopy. Transcriptional changes due to inhibitor treatment were analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays and RT-PCR. Results While the PIAs clearly reduce AKT phosphorylation in serum starved cells, we did not observe a significant reduction under serum supplemented conditions, giving us the opportunity to analyze AKT independent effects of these compounds. Both inhibitors induce broadly the same morphological alterations, in particular changes in cell shape and formation of intracellular vesicles. Moreover, we observed the induction of binucleated cells specifically in the SW480 cell line. Gene expression analysis revealed transcriptional alterations, which are mostly cell line specific. In accordance to the phenotype we found a gene group associated with mitosis and spindle organization down regulated in SW480 cells, but not in the other cell lines. A bioinformatics analysis using the Connectivity Map linked the gene expression pattern of the

  8. Characterization of AKT independent effects of the synthetic AKT inhibitors SH-5 and SH-6 using an integrated approach combining transcriptomic profiling and signaling pathway perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krech, Till; Thiede, Margarethe; Hilgenberg, Ellen; Schäfer, Reinhold; Jürchott, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Signal transduction processes mediated by phosphatidyl inositol phosphates affect a broad range of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, migration and cell survival. The protein kinase AKT is one of the major effectors in this signaling network. Chronic AKT activation contributes to oncogenic transformation and tumor development. Therefore, analogs of phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PIAs) were designed as new small drugs to block AKT activity for cancer treatment. Here we characterize the biological effects of the PIAs SH-5 and SH-6 in colorectal cancer cell lines. Serum-starved or serum-supplemented human colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, HT29 and HCT116 were exposed to SH-5 and SH-6. AKT activation was determined by western blotting. Cell viability was assessed using a colorimetric XTT-based assay, apoptosis and cell cycle changes were monitored by FACS analysis. The dynamics of cell morphology alterations was evaluated by confocal and time-lapse microscopy. Transcriptional changes due to inhibitor treatment were analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays and RT-PCR. While the PIAs clearly reduce AKT phosphorylation in serum starved cells, we did not observe a significant reduction under serum supplemented conditions, giving us the opportunity to analyze AKT independent effects of these compounds. Both inhibitors induce broadly the same morphological alterations, in particular changes in cell shape and formation of intracellular vesicles. Moreover, we observed the induction of binucleated cells specifically in the SW480 cell line. Gene expression analysis revealed transcriptional alterations, which are mostly cell line specific. In accordance to the phenotype we found a gene group associated with mitosis and spindle organization down regulated in SW480 cells, but not in the other cell lines. A bioinformatics analysis using the Connectivity Map linked the gene expression pattern of the inhibitor treated SW480 cells to PKC signaling. Using

  9. Pyrrolidinium fullerene induces apoptosis by activation of procaspase-9 via suppression of Akt in primary effusion lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tadashi [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Nakamura, Shigeo [Department of Chemistry, Nippon Medical School, 1-7-1 Kyonan-cho, Musashino, Tokyo 180-0023 (Japan); Ono, Toshiya; Ui, Sadaharu [Department of Biotechnology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Yagi, Syota; Kagawa, Hiroki [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Watanabe, Hisami [Center of Molecular Biosciences, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Ohe, Tomoyuki; Mashino, Tadahiko [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Seven fullerenes were evaluated in terms of their cytotoxic effects on B-lymphomas. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene induced apoptosis of KSHV-infected B-lymphoma PEL cells. • The activation of Akt is essential for PEL cell survival. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene activated caspase-9 by inactivating Akt in PEL cells. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene have potential as novel drugs for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma and is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients. In general, PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B-cells and are infected with KSHV. To evaluate potential novel anti-tumor compounds against KSHV-associated PEL, seven water-soluble fullerene derivatives were evaluated as potential drug candidates for the treatment of PEL. Herein, we discovered a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative, 1,1,1′,1′-tetramethyl [60]fullerenodipyrrolidinium diiodide, which induced apoptosis of PEL cells via a novel mechanism, the caspase-9 activation by suppressing the caspase-9 phosphorylation, causing caspase-9 inactivation. Pyrrolidinium fullerene treatment reduced significantly the viability of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected lymphoma cells, and induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-9 via procaspase-9 cleavage. Pyrrolidinium fullerene additionally reduced the Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt and Ser196 of procaspase-9. Ser473-phosphorylated Akt (i.e., activated Akt) phosphorylates Ser196 in procaspase-9, causing inactivation of procaspase-9. We also demonstrated that Akt inhibitors suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected cells. Our data therefore suggest that Akt activation is essential for cell survival in PEL and a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative induced apoptosis by activating caspase-9 via suppression of Akt in PEL cells. In addition, we evaluated

  10. Pyrrolidinium fullerene induces apoptosis by activation of procaspase-9 via suppression of Akt in primary effusion lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ono, Toshiya; Ui, Sadaharu; Yagi, Syota; Kagawa, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hisami; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Mashino, Tadahiko; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Seven fullerenes were evaluated in terms of their cytotoxic effects on B-lymphomas. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene induced apoptosis of KSHV-infected B-lymphoma PEL cells. • The activation of Akt is essential for PEL cell survival. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene activated caspase-9 by inactivating Akt in PEL cells. • Pyrrolidinium fullerene have potential as novel drugs for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma and is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients. In general, PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B-cells and are infected with KSHV. To evaluate potential novel anti-tumor compounds against KSHV-associated PEL, seven water-soluble fullerene derivatives were evaluated as potential drug candidates for the treatment of PEL. Herein, we discovered a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative, 1,1,1′,1′-tetramethyl [60]fullerenodipyrrolidinium diiodide, which induced apoptosis of PEL cells via a novel mechanism, the caspase-9 activation by suppressing the caspase-9 phosphorylation, causing caspase-9 inactivation. Pyrrolidinium fullerene treatment reduced significantly the viability of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected lymphoma cells, and induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-9 via procaspase-9 cleavage. Pyrrolidinium fullerene additionally reduced the Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt and Ser196 of procaspase-9. Ser473-phosphorylated Akt (i.e., activated Akt) phosphorylates Ser196 in procaspase-9, causing inactivation of procaspase-9. We also demonstrated that Akt inhibitors suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected cells. Our data therefore suggest that Akt activation is essential for cell survival in PEL and a pyrrolidinium fullerene derivative induced apoptosis by activating caspase-9 via suppression of Akt in PEL cells. In addition, we evaluated

  11. Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2012-01-01

    Isoorientin (ISO) is a flavonoid compound that can be extracted from several plant species, such as Phyllostachys pubescens, Patrinia, and Drosophyllum lusitanicum; however, its biological activity remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by ISO in human hepatoblastoma cancer (HepG2) cells. The results showed that ISO induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, but no toxicity in human liver cells (HL-7702) and buffalo rat liver cells (BRL-3A) treated with ISO at the indicated concentrations. ISO-induced cell death included apoptosis which characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation. ISO significantly (p < 0.01) increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased the release of cytochrome c, activated caspase-3, and enhanced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, ISO effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and increased FoxO4 expression. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of ISO. However, LY294002 markedly quenched ROS and NO generation and diminished the protein expression of heme peroxidase enzyme (HO-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, the addition of a ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) or iNOS inhibitor (N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine, dihydrochloride, 1400W) significantly diminished the apoptosis induced by ISO and also blocked the phosphorylation of Akt. These results demonstrated for the first time that ISO induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells and indicate that this apoptosis might be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and has no toxicity in normal liver cells, suggesting that ISO may have good potential as a therapeutic and chemopreventive agent for liver cancer. Highlights:

  12. TRAIL and proteasome inhibitors combination induces a robust apoptosis in human malignant pleural mesothelioma cells through Mcl-1 and Akt protein cleavages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Bao-Zhu; Chapman, Joshua; Ding, Min; Wang, Junzhi; Jiang, Binghua; Rojanasakul, Yon; Reynolds, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy closely associated with asbestos exposure and extremely resistant to current treatments. It exhibits a steady increase in incidence, thus necessitating an urgent development of effective new treatments. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) and TNFα-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), have emerged as promising new anti-MPM agents. To develop effective new treatments, the proapoptotic effects of PIs, MG132 or Bortezomib, and TRAIL were investigated in MPM cell lines NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452 and NCI-H28, which represent three major histological types of human MPM. Treatment with 0.5-1 μM MG132 alone or 30 ng/mL Bortezomib alone induced a limited apoptosis in MPM cells associated with the elevated Mcl-1 protein level and hyperactive PI3K/Akt signaling. However, whereas 10–20 ng/ml TRAIL alone induced a limited apoptosis as well, TRAIL and PI combination triggered a robust apoptosis in all three MPM cell lines. The robust proapoptotic activity was found to be the consequence of a positive feedback mechanism-governed amplification of caspase activation and cleavage of both Mcl-1 and Akt proteins, and exhibited a relative selectivity in MPM cells than in non-tumorigenic Met-5A mesothelial cells. The combinatorial treatment using TRAIL and PI may represent an effective new treatment for MPMs

  13. Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase/Akt signaling axis modulates TNF-α-induced procoagulant activity and apoptosis in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohkawara

    Full Text Available Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP functions as a signaling molecule in addition to a proteolytic enzyme. Our hypothesis was that MT1-MMP cooperates with protein kinase B (Akt in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-induced signaling pathways of vascular responses, including tissue factor (TF procoagulant activity and endothelial apoptosis, in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (ECs. TNF-α (10 ng/mL induced a decrease in Akt phosphorylation within 60 minutes in ECs. A chemical inhibitor of MMP, TIMP-2 and selective small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated suppression of MT1-MMP reversed TNF-α-triggered transient decrease of Akt phosphorylation within 60 minutes, suggesting that MT1-MMP may be a key regulator of Akt phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated ECs. In the downstream events, TNF-α increased TF antigen and activity, and suppressed the expression of thrombomodulin (TM antigen. Inhibition of Akt markedly enhanced TNF-α-induced expression of TF antigen and activity, and further reduced the expression of TM antigen. Silencing of MT1-MMP by siRNA also reversed the changed expression of TF and TM induced by TNF-α. Moreover, TNF-α induced apoptosis of ECs through Akt- and forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1-dependent signaling pathway and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB activation. Knockdown of MT1-MMP by siRNA reversed apoptosis of ECs by inhibiting TNF-α-induced Akt-dependent regulation of FoxO1 in TNF-α-stimulated ECs. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated that TNF-α induced the changes in the associations between the cytoplasmic fraction of MT1-MMP and Akt in ECs. In conclusion, we show new evidence that MT1-MMP/Akt signaling axis is a key modifier for TNF-α-induced signaling pathways for modulation of procoagulant activity and apoptosis of ECs.

  14. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  15. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Chen

    Full Text Available Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167 or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2 and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  16. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.

  17. ML-7 amplifies the quinocetone-induced cell death through akt and MAPK-mediated apoptosis on HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Shen; Deng, Sijun; Dai, Chongshan; Tang, Shusheng; Yang, Xiayun; Li, Daowen; Zhao, Kena; Xiao, Xilong

    2016-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating the combination of the quinocetone and the ML-7 in preclinical hepatocellular carcinoma models. To this end, the effect of quinocetone and ML-7 on apoptosis induction and signaling pathways was analyzed on HepG2 cell lines. Here, we report that ML-7, in a nontoxic concentration, sensitized the HepG2 cells to quinocetone-induced cytotoxicity. Also, ML-7 profoundly enhances quinocetone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cell line. Mechanistic investigations revealed that ML-7 and quinocetone act in concert to trigger the cleavage of caspase-8 as well as Bax/Bcl-2 ratio up-regulation and subsequent cleavage of Bid, capsases-9 and -3. Importantly, ML-7 weakened the quinocetone-induced Akt pathway activation, but strengthened the phosphorylation of p-38, ERK and JNK. Further treatment of Akt activator and p-38 inhibitor almost completely abolished the ML-7/quinocetone-induced apoptosis. In contrast, the ERK and JNK inhibitor aggravated the ML-7/quinocetone-induced apoptosis, indicating that the synergism critically depended on p-38 phosphorylation and HepG2 cells provoke Akt, ERK and JNK signaling pathways to against apoptosis. In conclusion, the rational combination of quinocetone and ML-7 presents a promising approach to trigger apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma, which warrants further investigation.

  18. EGF-Induced VEGF Exerts a PI3K-Dependent Positive Feedback on ERK and AKT through VEGFR2 in Hematological In Vitro Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Saryeddine

    Full Text Available EGFR and VEGFR pathways play major roles in solid tumor growth and progression, however, little is known about these pathways in haematological tumors. This study investigated the crosstalk between EGFR and VEGFR2 signaling in two hematological in vitro models: THP1, a human monocytic leukemia, and Raji, a Burkitt's lymphoma, cell lines. Results showed that both cell lines express EGFR and VEGFR2 and responded to EGF stimulation by activating EGFR, triggering VEGF production and phosphorylating ERK, AKT, and p38 very early, with a peak of expression at 10-20min. Blocking EGFR using Tyrphostin resulted in inhibiting EGFR induced activation of ERK, AKT, and p38. In addition, EGF stimulation caused a significant and immediate increase, within 1min, in pVEGFR2 in both cell lines, which peaked at ~5-10 min after treatment. Selective inhibition of VEGFR2 by DMH4, anti-VEGFR2 antibody or siRNA diminished EGF-induced pAKT and pERK, indicating a positive feedback exerted by EGFR-induced VEGF. Similarly, the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002, suppressed AKT and ERK phosphorylation showing that VEGF feedback is PI3K-dependent. On the other hand, phosphorylation of p38, initiated by EGFR and independent of VEGF feedback, was diminished using PLC inhibitor U73122. Moreover, measurement of intracellular [Ca2+] and ROS following VEGFR2 inhibition and EGF treatment proved that VEGFR2 is not implicated in EGF-induced Ca2+ release whereas it boosts EGF-induced ROS production. Furthermore, a significant decrease in pAKT, pERK and p-p38 was shown following the addition of the ROS inhibitor NAC. These results contribute to the understanding of the crosstalk between EGFR and VEGFR in haematological malignancies and their possible combined blockade in therapy.

  19. Membrane Type 1–Matrix Metalloproteinase/Akt Signaling Axis Modulates TNF-α-Induced Procoagulant Activity and Apoptosis in Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Koichi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuei; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2014-01-01

    Membrane type 1–matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) functions as a signaling molecule in addition to a proteolytic enzyme. Our hypothesis was that MT1-MMP cooperates with protein kinase B (Akt) in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced signaling pathways of vascular responses, including tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and endothelial apoptosis, in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (ECs). TNF-α (10 ng/mL) induced a decrease in Akt phosphorylation within 60 minutes in ECs. A chemical inhibitor of MMP, TIMP-2 and selective small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of MT1-MMP reversed TNF-α-triggered transient decrease of Akt phosphorylation within 60 minutes, suggesting that MT1-MMP may be a key regulator of Akt phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated ECs. In the downstream events, TNF-α increased TF antigen and activity, and suppressed the expression of thrombomodulin (TM) antigen. Inhibition of Akt markedly enhanced TNF-α-induced expression of TF antigen and activity, and further reduced the expression of TM antigen. Silencing of MT1-MMP by siRNA also reversed the changed expression of TF and TM induced by TNF-α. Moreover, TNF-α induced apoptosis of ECs through Akt- and forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1)-dependent signaling pathway and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activation. Knockdown of MT1-MMP by siRNA reversed apoptosis of ECs by inhibiting TNF-α-induced Akt-dependent regulation of FoxO1 in TNF-α-stimulated ECs. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated that TNF-α induced the changes in the associations between the cytoplasmic fraction of MT1-MMP and Akt in ECs. In conclusion, we show new evidence that MT1-MMP/Akt signaling axis is a key modifier for TNF-α-induced signaling pathways for modulation of procoagulant activity and apoptosis of ECs. PMID:25162582

  20. Regulation of ENaC-mediated alveolar fluid clearance by insulin via PI3K/Akt pathway in LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wang; Li, Chang-Yi; Tong, Jin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Dao-Xin

    2012-03-30

    Stimulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) increases Na(+) transport, a driving force of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) to keep alveolar spaces free of edema fluid that is beneficial for acute lung injury (ALI). It is well recognized that regulation of ENaC by insulin via PI3K pathway, but the mechanism of this signaling pathway to regulate AFC and ENaC in ALI remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin on AFC in ALI and clarify the pathway in which insulin regulates the expression of ENaC in vitro and in vivo. A model of ALI (LPS at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg) with non-hyperglycemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving continuous exogenous insulin by micro-osmotic pumps and wortmannin. The lungs were isolated for measurement of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF), total lung water content(TLW), and AFC after ALI for 8 hours. Alveolar epithelial type II cells were pre-incubated with LY294002, Akt inhibitor and SGK1 inhibitor 30 minutes before insulin treatment for 2 hours. The expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC were detected by immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. In vivo, insulin decreased TLW, enchanced AFC, increased the expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC and the level of phosphorylated Akt, attenuated lung injury and improved the survival rate in LPS-induced ALI, the effects of which were blocked by wortmannin. Amiloride, a sodium channel inhibitor, significantly reduced insulin-induced increase in AFC. In vitro, insulin increased the expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC as well as the level of phosphorylated Akt but LY294002 and Akt inhibitor significantly prevented insulin-induced increase in the expression of ENaC and the level of phosphorylated Akt respectively. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that levels of Nedd4-2 binding to ENaC were decreased by insulin via PI3K/Akt pathway. Our study demonstrated that insulin alleviated pulmonary edema and

  1. Regulation of ENaC-mediated alveolar fluid clearance by insulin via PI3K/Akt pathway in LPS-induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC increases Na+ transport, a driving force of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC to keep alveolar spaces free of edema fluid that is beneficial for acute lung injury (ALI. It is well recognized that regulation of ENaC by insulin via PI3K pathway, but the mechanism of this signaling pathway to regulate AFC and ENaC in ALI remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin on AFC in ALI and clarify the pathway in which insulin regulates the expression of ENaC in vitro and in vivo. Methods A model of ALI (LPS at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg with non-hyperglycemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving continuous exogenous insulin by micro-osmotic pumps and wortmannin. The lungs were isolated for measurement of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF, total lung water content(TLW, and AFC after ALI for 8 hours. Alveolar epithelial type II cells were pre-incubated with LY294002, Akt inhibitor and SGK1 inhibitor 30 minutes before insulin treatment for 2 hours. The expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC were detected by immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting. Results In vivo, insulin decreased TLW, enchanced AFC, increased the expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC and the level of phosphorylated Akt, attenuated lung injury and improved the survival rate in LPS-induced ALI, the effects of which were blocked by wortmannin. Amiloride, a sodium channel inhibitor, significantly reduced insulin-induced increase in AFC. In vitro, insulin increased the expressions of α-,β-, and γ-ENaC as well as the level of phosphorylated Akt but LY294002 and Akt inhibitor significantly prevented insulin-induced increase in the expression of ENaC and the level of phosphorylated Akt respectively. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that levels of Nedd4-2 binding to ENaC were decreased by insulin via PI3K/Akt pathway. Conclusions Our study

  2. PPARα induced NOS1 phosphorylation via PI3K/Akt in guinea pig antral mucous cells: NO-enhancement in Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Sawabe, Yukinori; Shimamoto, Chikao; Matsumura, Hitoshi; Inui, Toshio; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Nakahari, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    A PPARα (peroxisome proliferation activation receptor α) agonist (GW7647) activates nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) to produce NO leading to cGMP accumulation in antral mucous cells. In this study, we examined how PPARα activates NOS1. The NO production stimulated by GW7647 was suppressed by inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin) and Akt (AKT 1/2 Kinase Inhibitor, AKT-inh), although it was also suppressed by the inhibitors of PPARα (GW6471) and NOS1 (N-PLA). GW7647 enhanced the ACh (acetylcholine)-stimulated exocytosis (Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis) mediated via NO, which was abolished by GW6471, N-PLA, wortmannin, and AKT-inh. The Western blotting revealed that GW7647 phosphorylates NOS1 via phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt in antral mucous cells. The immunofluorescence examinations demonstrated that PPARα existing with NOS1 co-localizes with PI3K and Akt in the cytoplasm of antral mucous cells. ACh alone and AACOCF3, an analogue of arachidonic acid (AA), induced the NOS1 phosphorylation via PI3K/Akt to produce NO, which was inhibited by GW6471. Since AA is a natural ligand for PPARα, ACh stimulates PPARα probably via AA. In conclusion, PPARα activates NOS1 via PI3K/Akt phosphorylation to produce NO in antral mucous cells during ACh stimulation.

  3. H2O2 treatment or serum deprivation induces autophagy and apoptosis in naked mole-rat skin fibroblasts by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanmin; Li, Li; Wang, Shiyong; Yu, Chenlin; Xiao, Bang; Lin, Lifang; Cong, Wei; Cheng, Jishuai; Yang, Wenjing; Sun, Wei; Cui, Shufang

    2016-12-20

    Naked mole-rats (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) display extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Here, we examined whether autophagy contributes to the longevity of NMRs by assessing the effects of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) on autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts. Serum starvation, H2O2 treatment, and LY294002 treatment all increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and numbers of double-membraned autophagosomes and autophagic vacuoles, and decreased levels of p70S6K, p-AktSer473, and p-AktThr308. By contrast, CQ treatment decreased p70S6K, AktSer473, and AktThr308 levels. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased after 12 h of exposure to LY294002 or CQ. These data show that inhibiting the Akt pathway promotes autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, LY294002 or CQ treatment decreased caspase-3, p53, and HIF1-α levels, suggesting that serum starvation or H2O2 treatment increase autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. CQ-induced inhibition of late autophagy stages also prevented Akt activation and induced apoptosis. Finally, the HIF-1α and p53 pathways were involved in serum starvation- or H2O2-induced autophagy in NMR skin fibroblasts.

  4. Didymin Alleviates Hepatic Fibrosis Through Inhibiting ERK and PI3K/Akt Pathways via Regulation of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Didymin has been reported to have anti-cancer potential. However, the effect of didymin on liver fibrosis remains illdefined. Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in rats. The effects of didymin on liver pathology and collagen accumulation were observed by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. Serum transaminases activities and collagen-related indicators levels were determined by commercially available kits. Moreover, the effects of didymin on hepatic stellate cell apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by using rhodamine-123 dye. The expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP and the phosphorylation of the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were assessed by Western blot. Results: Didymin significantly ameliorated chronic liver injury and collagen deposition. It strongly inhibited hepatic stellate cells proliferation, induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Moreover, didymin notably attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by release of cytochrome C. Didymin significantly inhibited the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. The effects of didymin on the collagen accumulation in rats and on the biological behaviors of hepatic stellate cells were largely abolished by the specific RKIP inhibitor locostatin. Conclusion: Didymin alleviates hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways via regulation of RKIP expression.

  5. Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, exhibits antitumoral activity and induces autophagy in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Xiaoyang; Hong, Yongzhi; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Pin; Gu, Aihua; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Zhao, Peng

    2017-07-17

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, is a novel anticancer drug used for treating several types of cancers. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of ibrutinib on GBM. Cell proliferation was determined by using cell viability, colony formation, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell migratory ability was evaluated by wound healing assays and trans-well migration assays. ATG7 expression was knocked-down by transfection with Atg7-specific small interfering RNA. Overexpression of active Akt protein was achieved by transfecting the cells with a plasmid expressing constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt). Transmission electron microscopy was performed to examine the formation of autophagosomes in cells. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses were used to analyze protein expression. Tumor xenografts in nude mice and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the effect of ibrutinib on tumor growth in vivo. Ibrutinib inhibited cellular proliferation and migration, and induced apoptosis and autophagy in LN229 and U87 cells. Overexpression of the active Akt protein decreased ibrutinib-induced autophagy, while inhibiting Akt by LY294002 treatment enhanced ibrutinib-induced autophagy. Specific inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3MA) or Atg7 targeting with small interfering RNA (si-Atg7) enhanced the anti-GBM effect of ibrutinib in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that ibrutinib exerts a profound antitumor effect and induces autophagy through Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in GBM cells. Autophagy inhibition promotes the antitumor activity of ibrutinib in GBM. Our findings provide important insights into the action of an anticancer agent combining with autophagy inhibitor for malignant glioma.

  6. Morphine preconditioning confers cardioprotection in doxorubicin-induced failing rat hearts via ERK/GSK-3β pathway independent of PI3K/Akt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Shu-Fang; Jin, Shi-Yun; Wu, Hao; Wang, Bin; Wu, Yun-Xiang; Zhang, Shu-Jie; Irwin, Michael G.; Wong, Tak-Ming; Zhang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Preconditioning against myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury can be suppressed in some pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate whether morphine preconditioning (MPC) exerts cardioprotection in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced heart failure in rats and the mechanisms involved. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β pathways were examined. Normal and DOX-induced failing rat hearts were subjected to I/R injury using a Langendorff perfusion system with or without MPC or ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or ERK inhibitor (PD98059) was infused before MPC. In normal hearts, both MPC and IPC significantly reduced infarct size and the rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level caused by I/R injury. Pretreatment with wortmannin or PD98059 abrogated the protective effects of MPC and suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. In failing rat hearts, however, MPC retained its cardioprotection while IPC did not. This protective effect was abolished by PD98059 but not wortmannin. MPC increased the level of p-ERK rather than p-Akt. The phosphorylation of GSK-3β induced by MPC was reversed by PD98059 only. IPC did not elevate the expression of p-ERK, p-Akt and p-GSK-3β in failing rat hearts. We conclude that MPC is cardioprotective in rats with DOX-induced heart failure while IPC is not. The effect of MPC appears to be mediated via the ERK/GSK-3β pathway independent of PI3K/Akt. - Highlights: • Morphine and ischemic preconditioning are cardioprotective in normal rat hearts. • Ischemic preconditioning fails to confer cardioprotection in rats with heart failure. • Morphine retains cardioprotection in doxorubicin-induced heart failure. • Morphine exerts cardioprotection via the ERK/GSK-β pathway independent of PI3K/Akt.

  7. Morphine preconditioning confers cardioprotection in doxorubicin-induced failing rat hearts via ERK/GSK-3β pathway independent of PI3K/Akt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Shu-Fang; Jin, Shi-Yun; Wu, Hao; Wang, Bin; Wu, Yun-Xiang [Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Zhang, Shu-Jie [Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Irwin, Michael G.; Wong, Tak-Ming [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhang, Ye, E-mail: zhangye_hassan@aliyun.com [Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Preconditioning against myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury can be suppressed in some pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate whether morphine preconditioning (MPC) exerts cardioprotection in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced heart failure in rats and the mechanisms involved. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β pathways were examined. Normal and DOX-induced failing rat hearts were subjected to I/R injury using a Langendorff perfusion system with or without MPC or ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or ERK inhibitor (PD98059) was infused before MPC. In normal hearts, both MPC and IPC significantly reduced infarct size and the rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level caused by I/R injury. Pretreatment with wortmannin or PD98059 abrogated the protective effects of MPC and suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. In failing rat hearts, however, MPC retained its cardioprotection while IPC did not. This protective effect was abolished by PD98059 but not wortmannin. MPC increased the level of p-ERK rather than p-Akt. The phosphorylation of GSK-3β induced by MPC was reversed by PD98059 only. IPC did not elevate the expression of p-ERK, p-Akt and p-GSK-3β in failing rat hearts. We conclude that MPC is cardioprotective in rats with DOX-induced heart failure while IPC is not. The effect of MPC appears to be mediated via the ERK/GSK-3β pathway independent of PI3K/Akt. - Highlights: • Morphine and ischemic preconditioning are cardioprotective in normal rat hearts. • Ischemic preconditioning fails to confer cardioprotection in rats with heart failure. • Morphine retains cardioprotection in doxorubicin-induced heart failure. • Morphine exerts cardioprotection via the ERK/GSK-β pathway independent of PI3K/Akt.

  8. Enhancing mTOR-targeted cancer therapy by preventing mTOR/raptor inhibition-initiated, mTOR/rictor-independent Akt activation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuerong; Yue, Ping; Kim, Young Ae; Fu, Haian; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that mTOR inhibitors activate Akt while inhibiting mTOR signaling. However, the underlying mechanisms and the impact of the Akt activation on mTOR-targeted cancer therapy are unclear. The present work focused on addressing the role of mTOR/rictor in mTOR inhibitor-induced Akt activation and the impact of sustained Akt activation on mTOR-targeted cancer therapy. Thus, we have demonstrated that mTOR inhibitors increase Akt phosphorylation through a mechanism independent of mTO...

  9. Emodin negatively affects the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signalling pathway: a study on its mechanism of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Bjørling-Poulsen, Marina; Guerra, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    with inhibitors of protein kinase CK2, such as emodin, induces apoptosis and that the anti-apoptotic effect of CK2 is partially mediated by target phosphorylation and up-regulation of AKT by CK2. In the present study, a screening with selected CK2 inhibitors induced a variable response with respect to AKT down...

  10. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling is responsible for the differential susceptibility of myoblasts and myotubes to menadione-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong A; Woo, Joo Hong; Kim, Hye Sun

    2008-09-01

    In this study, it was found that undifferentiated myoblasts were more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress than differentiated myotubes. Cell death occurred with a relatively low concentration of menadione in myoblasts compared to myotubes. With the same concentration of menadione, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio decreased and nuclei containing condensed chromatin were observed in myoblasts to a greater extent than in myotubes. However, myotubes became increasingly susceptible to menadione when phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) was blocked by pre-incubation with LY294002, a PI3-K inhibitor. Actually, PI3-K activity was reduced by menadione in myoblasts but not in myotubes. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream effector of PI3-K, was inhibited in myoblasts by menadione but increased in myotubes. Both LY294002 and API-2, an Akt inhibitor, decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in menadione-exposed myotubes. These results suggest that the differential activity of PI3-K/Akt signalling is responsible for the differential susceptibility of myoblasts and myotubes to menadione-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Resistance of Akt kinases to dephosphorylation through ATP-dependent conformational plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tung O; Zhang, Jin; Rodeck, Ulrich; Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S; Spring, Maureen; Dumitru, Calin D; Myers, Valerie; Li, Xue; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M

    2011-11-15

    Phosphorylation of a threonine residue (T308 in Akt1) in the activation loop of Akt kinases is a prerequisite for deregulated Akt activity frequently observed in neoplasia. Akt phosphorylation in vivo is balanced by the opposite activities of kinases and phosphatases. Here we describe that targeting Akt kinase to the cell membrane markedly reduced sensitivity of phosphorylated Akt to dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A. This effect was amplified by occupancy of the ATP binding pocket by either ATP or ATP-competitive inhibitors. Mutational analysis revealed that R273 in Akt1 and the corresponding R274 in Akt2 are essential for shielding T308 in the activation loop against dephosphorylation. Thus, occupancy of the nucleotide binding pocket of Akt kinases enables intramolecular interactions that restrict phosphatase access and sustain Akt phosphorylation. This mechanism provides an explanation for the "paradoxical" Akt hyperphosphorylation induced by ATP-competitive inhibitor, A-443654. The lack of phosphatase resistance further contributes insight into the mechanism by which the human Akt2 R274H missense mutation may cause autosomal-dominant diabetes mellitus.

  12. Ethanol extract of seeds of Oenothera odorata induces vasorelaxation via endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP signaling through activation of Akt-eNOS-sGC pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yoom; Oh, Hyuncheol; Li, Xiang; Cho, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-27

    The vasorelaxant effect of ethanol extract of seeds of Oenothera odorata (Onagraceae) (one species of evening primroses) (ESOO) and its mechanisms involved were defined. Changes in vascular tension, guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) levels, and Akt expression were measured in carotid arterial rings from rats. Seeds of Oenothera odorata were extracted with ethanol (94%) and the extract was filtered, concentrated and stored at -70°C. ESOO relaxed endothelium-intact, but not endothelium-denuded, carotid arterial rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, ESOO increased cGMP levels of the carotid arterial rings. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact arterial rings with L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), blocked the ESOO-induced vasorelaxation and increase in cGMP levels. Nominally Ca(2+)-free but not L-typed Ca(2+) channel inhibition attenuated the ESOO-induced vasorelaxation. Thapsigargin, Gd(3+), and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, modulators of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), significantly attenuated the ESOO-induced vasorelaxation and increase in cGMP levels. Further, wortmannin, an inhibitor of Akt, attenuated the ESOO-induced vasorelaxation and increases in cGMP levels and phosphorylated Akt2 expression. K(+) channel blockade with TEA, 4-aminopyridine, and glibenclamide attenuated the ESOO-induced vascular relaxation. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that ESOO relaxes vascular smooth muscle via endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP signaling through activation of the Akt-eNOS-sGC pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Apolipoprotein CIII Reduces Proinflammatory Cytokine-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Pancreatic Islets via the Akt Prosurvival Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Juntti-Berggren, Lisa; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) is mainly synthesized in the liver and is important for triglyceride metabolism. The plasma concentration of ApoCIII is elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and in vitro ApoCIII causes apoptosis in pancreatic ß-cells in the absence of inflammatory stress...... of the survival serine-threonine kinase Akt. Inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway by the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 counteracted the antiapoptotic effect of ApoCIII on cytokine-induced apoptosis. We conclude that ApoCIII in the presence of T1D-relevant proinflammatory cytokines reduces...

  14. Lipopolysaccharide induces VCAM-1 expression and neutrophil adhesion to human tracheal smooth muscle cells: Involvement of Src/EGFR/PI3-K/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.-N.; Luo, S.-F.; Wu, C.-B.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-01-01

    In our previous study, LPS has been shown to induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) expression through MAPKs and NF-κB in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). In addition to these pathways, the non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src), EGF receptor (EGFR), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to be implicated in the expression of several inflammatory target proteins. Here, we reported that LPS-induced up-regulation of VCAM-1 enhanced the adhesion of neutrophils onto HTSMC monolayer, which was inhibited by LY294002 and wortmannin. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases including Src, PYK2, and EGFR, which were further confirmed using specific anti-phospho-Src, PYK2, or EGFR Ab, respectively, revealed by Western blotting. LPS-stimulated Src, PYK2, EGFR, and Akt phosphorylation and VCAM-1 expression were attenuated by the inhibitors of Src (PP1), EGFR (AG1478), PI3-K (LY294002 and wortmannin), and Akt (SH-5), respectively, or transfection with siRNAs of Src or Akt and shRNA of p110. LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was also blocked by pretreatment with curcumin (a p300 inhibitor) or transfection with p300 siRNA. LPS-stimulated Akt activation translocated into nucleus and associated with p300 and VCAM-1 promoter region was further confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. This association of Akt and p300 to VCAM-1 promoter was inhibited by pretreatment with PP1, AG1478, wortmannin, and SH-5. LPS-induced p300 activation enhanced VCAM-1 promoter activity and VCAM-1 mRNA expression. These results suggested that in HTSMCs, Akt phosphorylation mediated through transactivation of Src/PYK2/EGFR promoted the transcriptional p300 activity and eventually led to VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS

  15. Kaempferol alleviates ox-LDL-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of autophagy via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jianbo; Liang, Bing; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Yi; Tang, Jianyu; Shi, Gongning

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) has been reported to induce apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) and contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Kaempferol has been shown to possess antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and its possible molecular basis. The results showed that kaempferol alleviated ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. Kaempferol increased the ratio of LC3-II/I and beclin-1 level in ox-LDL-induced HUVECs. Moreover, the expression of p-Akt and p-mTOR was down-regulated after treatment with kaempferol in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs, which is similar to the effect of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or mTOR inhibitor [rapamycin (RAP)]. Besides, autophagy induced by kaempferol was enhanced by LY294002 or RAP, while kaempferol-induced autophagy was attenuated with insulin treatment, the activator of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, insulin also abated the effect of kaempferol on cell viability and apoptosis in ox-LDL-induced HUVECs. The results indicated that kaempferol alleviated ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by up-regulation of autophagy via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in human ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impairment of Akt activity by CYP2E1 mediated oxidative stress is involved in chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt plays important roles in the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and impairment of Akt activity has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Previous studies suggest that cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 plays causal roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL. We hypothesized that Akt activity might be impaired due to CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress in chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis. In this study, we found that chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis was accompanied with reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 in mice liver. Chronic ethanol exposure had no effects on the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN, and led to a slight decrease of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1 protein level. Ethanol exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE-Akt adducts, which was significantly inhibited by chlormethiazole (CMZ, an efficient CYP2E1 inhibitor. Interestingly, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC significantly attenuated chronic ethanol-induced hepatic fat accumulation and the decline of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308. In the in vitro studies, Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 (CYP2E1-HepG2 cells compared with the negative control HepG2 (NC-HepG2 cells, and 4-HNE treatment led to significant decrease of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 in wild type HepG2 cells. Lastly, pharmacological activation of Akt by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 significantly alleviated chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. Collectively, these results indicate that CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress may be responsible for ethanol-induced suppression of Akt phosphorylation and pharmacological modulation of Akt in liver may be an effective strategy for the treatment of ethanol-induced fatty liver. Keywords

  17. Suppressive effects of 17β-estradiol on tributyltin-induced neuronal injury via Akt activation and subsequent attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Fujitani, Noriko; Kawami, Tomohito; Adachi, Chika; Ishida, Atsuhiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2014-03-18

    Neuroactive steroids are reported to protect neurons from various harmful compounds; however, the protective mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, we examined the suppressive effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on tributyltin (TBT)-induced neurotoxicity. Organotypic hippocampal slices were prepared from neonatal rats and then cultured. Cell death was assayed by propidium iodide uptake. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by dihydroethidium staining. Protein phosphorylation was evaluated by immunoblotting. Pretreatment of the slices with E2 dose-dependently attenuated the neuronal injury induced by TBT. An estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182,780 abrogated these neuroprotective effects. The de novo protein synthesis inhibitors actinomycin D and cycloheximide showed no effects on the neuroprotective mechanism, indicating that a nongenomic pathway acting via the estrogen receptor may be involved in the neuroprotection conferred by E2. E2 suppressed the ROS production and lipid peroxidation induced by TBT, and these effects were almost completely canceled by ICI182,780. TBT decreased Akt phosphorylation, and this reduction was suppressed by E2. An Akt inhibitor, triciribine, attenuated the decreases in both the ROS production and neuronal injury mediated by E2. E2 enhances the phosphorylation of Akt, thereby attenuating the oxidative stress and subsequent neuronal injury induced by TBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Arctigenin, a Natural Lignan Compound, Induces Apoptotic Death of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Suppression of PI3-K/Akt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoxin; Zeng, Leping; Huang, Jufang; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yubin

    2015-04-28

    In this study, we explored the cytotoxic effects of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and check the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling. HCC cells were treated with different concentrations of arctigenin and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. Manipulating Akt signaling was used to determine its role in the action of arctigenin. Arctigenin significantly inhibited the viability of HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Arctigenin induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-9 and -3. Overexpression of a constitutively active Akt mutant blocked arctigenin-induced apoptosis. Combinational treatment with arctigenin and the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 significantly enhanced apoptosis. Arctigenin reduced the expression of Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and survivin and the phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, which were significantly reversed by overexpression of constitutively active Akt. This is the first report about the anticancer activity of arctigenin in HCC cells, which is mediated by inactivation of PI3-K/Akt signaling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells occurs through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway.

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    Wen-Xue Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative, is one of the most widely used preservatives and found in a variety of biological products. Concerns over its possible toxicity have reemerged recently due to its use in vaccines. Thimerosal has also been reported to be markedly cytotoxic to neural tissue. However, little is known regarding thimerosal-induced toxicity in muscle tissue. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of thimerosal and its possible mechanisms on mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study showed that C2C12 myoblast cells underwent inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis after exposure to thimerosal (125-500 nM for 24, 48 and 72 h. Thimerosal caused S phase arrest and induced apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometric analysis, Hoechst staining and immunoblotting. The data revealed that thimerosal could trigger the leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and that an inhibitor of caspase could suppress thimerosal-induced apoptosis. Thimerosal inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt(ser473 and survivin expression. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, inhibited Akt activity and decreased survivin expression, resulting in increased thimerosal-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells, while the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway by mIGF-I (50 ng/ml increased the expression of survivin and attenuated apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibition of survivin expression by siRNA enhanced thimerosal-induced cell apoptosis, while overexpression of survivin prevented thimerosal-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data show that the PI3K/Akt/survivin pathway plays an important role in the thimerosal-induced apoptosis in C2C12 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that in C2C12 myoblast cells, thimerosal induces S phase arrest and finally causes apoptosis via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/survivin signaling followed by activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic

  20. Polydatin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in laryngeal cancer and HeLa cells via suppression of the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Shi, Baoyuan; Li, Yanyun; Yin, Fengfang

    2017-07-01

    Polydatin (PD), a stilbene compound extracted from Polygonum cuspidatum, is suggested to possess anti-cancer activities, including inhibition of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/AKT signaling pathway plays complex roles in tumor suppression. However, the effect of PD on the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway in laryngeal cancer and HeLa cells has not been explored. MTT assay and flow cytometry showed that PD inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in Hep-2 and AMC-HN-8 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that PD inhibited the expression levels of PDGF-B and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in both cells. Treatment of PDGF-B siRNA or PDGFR inhibitor found that after the PDGF signaling was inactivated, p-AKT expression was significantly decreased in Hep-2 cells. Tumor xenograft experiment in nude mice indicated PD significantly inhibited the growth of Hep-2 cells in vivo. In conclusion, PD inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in laryngeal cancer and HeLa cells via inactivation of the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Honokiol induces autophagic cell death in malignant glioma through reactive oxygen species-mediated regulation of the p53/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Ju [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ta-Liang [Anesthetics and Toxicology Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yuan-Yun [Department of Neurosurgery, Shuang-Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Gong-Jhe [Department of Anesthesiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Hui [Anesthetics and Toxicology Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yung-Wei [Brain Disease Research Center, Taipei Medical University Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ruei-Ming, E-mail: rmchen@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Anesthetics and Toxicology Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Brain Disease Research Center, Taipei Medical University Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    Honokiol, an active constituent extracted from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, possesses anticancer effects. Apoptosis is classified as type I programmed cell death, while autophagy is type II programmed cell death. We previously proved that honokiol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of U87 MG glioma cells. Subsequently in this study, we evaluated the effect of honokiol on autophagy of glioma cells and examined the molecular mechanisms. Administration of honokiol to mice with an intracranial glioma increased expressions of cleaved caspase 3 and light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Exposure of U87 MG cells to honokiol also induced autophagy in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Results from the addition of 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, and rapamycin, an autophagy inducer confirmed that honokiol-induced autophagy contributed to cell death. Honokiol decreased protein levels of PI3K, phosphorylated (p)-Akt, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with a p53 inhibitor or transfection with p53 small interfering (si)RNA suppressed honokiol-induced autophagy by reversing downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR expressions. In addition, honokiol caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was suppressed by the antioxidant, vitamin C. Vitamin C also inhibited honokiol-induced autophagic and apoptotic cell death. Concurrently, honokiol-induced alterations in levels of p-p53, p53, p-Akt, and p-mTOR were attenuated following vitamin C administration. Taken together, our data indicated that honokiol induced ROS-mediated autophagic cell death through regulating the p53/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Exposure of mice with intracranial gliomas to honokiol induces cell apoptosis and autophagy. • Honokiol triggers autophagy of human glioma cells via the PISK/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. • P53 induces autophagy via regulating the AKT/mTOR pathway in honokiol-treated glioma cells. • ROS participates

  2. Complex formation of p65/RelA with nuclear Akt1 for enhanced transcriptional activation of NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osong; Kim, Kyung A; He, Long; Jung, Mira; Jeong, Sook Jung; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2008-01-01

    Akt1 was revealed to interact with Ki-Ras in the cytoplasm of Ki-Ras-transformed human prostate epithelial cells, 267B1/K-ras. Moreover, p65/RelA in the nucleus was found to interact with both Ki-Ras and Akt1, suggesting the nuclear translocation of Akt1:Ki-Ras complex for NF- κB activation. In support of this, compared with wild type Akt1, the dominant negative Akt1 mutant was decreased in its nuclear expression, reducing the Ki-Ras-induced NF-κB transcriptional activation. Moreover, inhibitors of Ras (sulindac sulfide and farnesyltransferase inhibitor I) or PI3K/Akt (wortmannin), reduced the amounts of Akt1 and Ki-Ras in the nucleus as well as partial NF-κB activity. The complete inhibition of Ki-Ras-induced NF-κB activation, however, could only be obtained by combined treatment with wortmannin and proteasome inhibitor-1. Accordingly, clonogenic assay showed Akt1 contribution to IκBα-mediated NF-κB activation for oncogenic cell growth by Ki-Ras. Our data suggest a crucial role of Ki-Ras:Akt1 complex in NF-κB transcriptional activation and enhancement of cell survival

  3. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  4. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  5. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Juan; Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-03-22

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1-42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1-42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

  6. Fucoxanthin prevents H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis via concurrently activating the PI3-K/Akt cascade and inhibiting the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Lin, Jia-Jia; Yu, Rui; He, Shan; Wang, Qin-Wen; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Background : As a natural carotenoid abundant in chloroplasts of edible brown algae, fucoxanthin possesses various health benefits, including anti-oxidative activity in particular. Objective : In the present study, we studied whether fucoxanthin protected against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced neuronal apoptosis. Design : The neuroprotective effects of fucoxanthin on H 2 O 2 -induced toxicity were studied in both SH-SY5Y cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. Results : Fucoxanthin significantly protected against H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. H 2 O 2 treatment led to the reduced activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt cascade and the increased activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, fucoxanthin significantly restored the altered activities of PI3-K/Akt and ERK pathways induced by H 2 O 2 . Both specific inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) significantly protected against H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal death. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of fucoxanthin against H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal death were abolished by specific PI3-K inhibitors. Conclusions : Our data strongly revealed that fucoxanthin protected against H 2 O 2 -induced neurotoxicity via concurrently activating the PI3-K/Akt cascade and inhibiting the ERK pathway, providing support for the use of fucoxanthin to treat neurodegenerative disorders induced by oxidative stress.

  7. Discovery and preclinical pharmacology of a selective ATP-competitive Akt inhibitor (GDC-0068) for the treatment of human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, James F; Xu, Rui; Bencsik, Josef R; Xiao, Dengming; Kallan, Nicholas C; Schlachter, Stephen; Mitchell, Ian S; Spencer, Keith L; Banka, Anna L; Wallace, Eli M; Gloor, Susan L; Martinson, Matthew; Woessner, Richard D; Vigers, Guy P A; Brandhuber, Barbara J; Liang, Jun; Safina, Brian S; Li, Jun; Zhang, Birong; Chabot, Christine; Do, Steven; Lee, Leslie; Oeh, Jason; Sampath, Deepak; Lee, Brian B; Lin, Kui; Liederer, Bianca M; Skelton, Nicholas J

    2012-09-27

    The discovery and optimization of a series of 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine compounds that are ATP-competitive, selective inhibitors of protein kinase B/Akt is reported. The initial design and optimization was guided by the use of X-ray structures of inhibitors in complex with Akt1 and the closely related protein kinase A. The resulting compounds demonstrate potent inhibition of all three Akt isoforms in biochemical assays and poor inhibition of other members of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase G/protein kinase C extended family and block the phosphorylation of multiple downstream targets of Akt in human cancer cell lines. Biological studies with one such compound, 28 (GDC-0068), demonstrate good oral exposure resulting in dose-dependent pharmacodynamic effects on downstream biomarkers and a robust antitumor response in xenograft models in which the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is activated. 28 is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

  8. Celecoxib Down-Regulates the Hypoxia-Induced Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF Through the PI3K/AKT Pathway in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhou Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The goal of this study was to detect the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells treated with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions and to explore the signaling mechanism involved in regulating the hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in RPE cells. Methods: D407 cells were cultured in normoxic or hypoxic conditions, with or without celecoxib or a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002. The anti-proliferative effect of celecoxib was assessed using the MTT assay. RT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA were performed to detect the levels of PI3K, phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT, HIF-1α, VEGF and COX-2. Results: Celecoxib inhibited the proliferation of RPE cells in a dose-dependent manner. Celecoxib suppressed the expression of VEGF at both the mRNA and protein levels and decreased HIF-1α protein expression. HIF-1α activation was regulated by the PI3K/AKT pathway. The celecoxib-induced down-regulation of HIF-1α and VEGF required the suppression of the hypoxia-induced PI3K/AKT pathway. However, the down-regulation of COX-2 did not occur in cells treated with celecoxib. Conclusions: The antiangiogenic effects of celecoxib in RPE cells under hypoxic conditions resulted from the inhibition of HIF-1α and VEGF expression, which may be partly mediated by a COX-2-independent, PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway.

  9. Lico A Enhances Nrf2-Mediated Defense Mechanisms against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cell Death via Akt and ERK Activation in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Lv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Licochalcone A (Lico A exhibits various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative potential and mechanisms of Lico A against tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (t-BHP- induced oxidative damage in RAW 264.7 cells. Our results indicated that Lico A significantly inhibited t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and reduced glutathione (GSH depletion but increased the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM subunit and the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC subunit genes expression. Additionally, Lico A dramatically upregulated the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which were associated with inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation, decreasing Keap1 protein expression and increasing antioxidant response element (ARE promoter activity. Lico A also obviously induced the activation of serine/threonine kinase (Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, but PI3K/Akt and ERK inhibitors treatment displayed clearly decreased levels of LicoA-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 expression, respectively. Furthermore, Lico A treatment markedly attenuated t-BHP-induced oxidative damage, which was reduced by treatment with PI3K/Akt, ERK, and HO-1 inhibitors. Therefore, Lico A might have a protective role against t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity by modulating HO-1 and by scavenging ROS via the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK/Nrf2 signaling pathways.

  10. EGF Prevents the Neuroendocrine Differentiation of LNCaP Cells Induced By Serum Deprivation: The Modulator Role of P13K/Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Martín-Orozco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to study the relationship between neuroendocrine (NE differentiation, epidermal growth factor (EGF because both have been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we used gefitinib, trastuzumab, which are inhibitors of EGF receptor (EGFR, ErbB2, respectively. EGF prevents NE differentiation induced by androgen depletion. This effect is prevented by gefitinib, which blocks the activation of EGFR, ErbB2, stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, cell proliferation induced by EGF. Conversely, trastuzumab does not inhibit the effect of EGF on EGFR phosphorylation, MAPK activity, cell proliferation, NE differentiation, although it reduces ErbB2 levels specifically, suggesting that ErbB2 is not necessary to inhibit NE differentiation. Prevention of NE differentiation by EGF is mediated by a MAPK-dependent mechanism, requires constitutive Akt activation. The abrogation of the PI3K/Akt pathway changes the role of EGF from inhibitor to inductor of NE differentiation. We show that EGFR tyrosine kinase, MAPK, PI3K inhibitors inhibit the cell proliferation stimulated by EGF but induce the acquisition of NE phenotype. Altogether, the present data should be borne in mind when designing new clinical schedules for the treatment of prostate cancer, including the use of ErbB receptors, associated signaling pathway inhibitors.

  11. TG-interacting factor transcriptionally induced by AKT/FOXO3A is a negative regulator that antagonizes arsenic trioxide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zi-Miao; Tseng, Hong-Yu; Cheng, Ya-Ling; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Huei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a multi-target drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration as the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In addition, several clinical trials are being conducted with arsenic-based drugs for the treatment of other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. However, ATO's modest clinical efficacy on some cancers, and potential toxic effects on humans have been reported. Determining how best to reduce these adverse effects while increasing its therapeutic efficacy is obviously a critical issue. Previously, we demonstrated that the JNK-induced complex formation of phosphorylated c-Jun and TG-interacting factor (TGIF) antagonizes ERK-induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21 WAF1/CIP1 ) expression and resultant apoptosis in response to ATO in A431 cells. Surprisingly, at low-concentrations (0.1–0.2 μM), ATO increased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion, involving TGIF expression, however, at high-concentrations (5–20 μM), ATO induced cell apoptosis. Using a promoter analysis, TGIF was transcriptionally regulated by ATO at the FOXO3A binding site (− 1486 to − 1479 bp) via the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway. Stable overexpression of TGIF promoted advancing the cell cycle into the S phase, and attenuated 20 μM ATO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, blockage of the AKT pathway enhanced ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis in cancer cells, but overexpression of AKT1 inhibited CDKN1A expression. Therefore, we suggest that TGIF is transcriptionally regulated by the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway, which plays a role as a negative regulator in antagonizing ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis. Suppression of these antagonistic effects might be a promising therapeutic strategy toward improving clinical efficacy of ATO. - Highlights: • ATO-induced biphasic survival responses of cancer cells depend on low- or high-concentrations. • TGIF mediates

  12. TG-interacting factor transcriptionally induced by AKT/FOXO3A is a negative regulator that antagonizes arsenic trioxide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zi-Miao; Tseng, Hong-Yu; Cheng, Ya-Ling [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bi-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Jeng [Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Huei-Sheng, E-mail: huanghs@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a multi-target drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration as the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In addition, several clinical trials are being conducted with arsenic-based drugs for the treatment of other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. However, ATO's modest clinical efficacy on some cancers, and potential toxic effects on humans have been reported. Determining how best to reduce these adverse effects while increasing its therapeutic efficacy is obviously a critical issue. Previously, we demonstrated that the JNK-induced complex formation of phosphorylated c-Jun and TG-interacting factor (TGIF) antagonizes ERK-induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}) expression and resultant apoptosis in response to ATO in A431 cells. Surprisingly, at low-concentrations (0.1–0.2 μM), ATO increased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion, involving TGIF expression, however, at high-concentrations (5–20 μM), ATO induced cell apoptosis. Using a promoter analysis, TGIF was transcriptionally regulated by ATO at the FOXO3A binding site (− 1486 to − 1479 bp) via the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway. Stable overexpression of TGIF promoted advancing the cell cycle into the S phase, and attenuated 20 μM ATO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, blockage of the AKT pathway enhanced ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis in cancer cells, but overexpression of AKT1 inhibited CDKN1A expression. Therefore, we suggest that TGIF is transcriptionally regulated by the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway, which plays a role as a negative regulator in antagonizing ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis. Suppression of these antagonistic effects might be a promising therapeutic strategy toward improving clinical efficacy of ATO. - Highlights: • ATO-induced biphasic survival responses of cancer cells depend on low- or high-concentrations. • TGIF

  13. Omentin-1 Stimulates Human Osteoblast Proliferation through PI3K/Akt Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been presumed that adipokines deriving from adipose tissue may play important roles in bone metabolism. Omentin-1, a novel adipokine, which is selectively expressed in visceral adipose tissue, has been reported to stimulate proliferation and inhibit differentiation of mouse osteoblast. However, little information refers to the effect of omentin-1 on human osteoblast (hOB proliferation. The current study examined the potential effects of omentin-1 on proliferation in hOB and the signal pathway involved. Omentin-1 promoted hOB proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Western blot analysis revealed that omentin-1 induced activation of Akt (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase downstream effector and such effect was impeded by transfection of hOB with Akt-siRNA. Furthermore, LY294002 (a selective PI3K inhibitor and HIMO (a selective Akt inhibitor abolished the omentin-1-induced hOB proliferation. These findings indicate that omentin-1 induces hOB proliferation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and suggest that osteoblast is a direct target of omentin-1.

  14. Celecoxib promotes c-FLIP degradation through Akt-independent inhibition of GSK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhen; Cao, Wei; Yue, Ping; Hao, Chunhai; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2011-10-01

    Celecoxib is a COX-2 inhibitor that reduces the risk of colon cancer. However, the basis for its cancer chemopreventive activity is not fully understood. In this study, we defined a mechanism of celecoxib action based on degradation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), a major regulator of the death receptor pathway of apoptosis. c-FLIP protein levels are regulated by ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. We found that celecoxib controlled c-FLIP ubiquitination through Akt-independent inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), itself a candidate therapeutic target of interest in colon cancer. Celecoxib increased the levels of phosphorylated GSK3, including the α and β forms, even in cell lines, where phosphorylated Akt levels were not increased. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors abrogated Akt phosphorylation as expected but had no effect on celecoxib-induced GSK3 phosphorylation. In contrast, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors abolished celecoxib-induced GSK3 phosphorylation, implying that celecoxib influenced GSK3 phosphorylation through a mechanism that relied upon PKC and not Akt. GSK3 blockade either by siRNA or kinase inhibitors was sufficient to attenuate c-FLIP levels. Combining celecoxib with GSK3 inhibition enhanced attenuation of c-FLIP and increased apoptosis. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 reversed the effects of GSK3 inhibition and increased c-FLIP ubiquitination, confirming that c-FLIP attenuation was mediated by proteasomal turnover as expected. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism through which the regulatory effects of c-FLIP on death receptor signaling are controlled by GSK3, which celecoxib acts at an upstream level to control independently of Akt.

  15. MiR-20a Induces Cell Radioresistance by Activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Lin; Ding, Yi; Li, Qi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Tongxin; Sun, Quanquan; Yang, Hua; Peng, Shunli; Wang, Wei; Chen, Longhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of miR-20a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell radioresistance, which may reveal potential strategies to improve treatment. Methods and Materials: The expression of miR-20a and PTEN were detected in HCC cell lines and paired primary tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell radiation combined with colony formation assays was administrated to discover the effect of miR-20a on radiosensitivity. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase assay were used to identify the target of miR-20a. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 was used to inhibit phosphorylation of Akt, to verify whether miR-20a affects HCC cell radioresistance through activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Results: MiR-20a levels were increased in HCC cell lines and tissues, whereas PTEN was inversely correlated with it. Overexpression of miR-20a in Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721 cells enhances their resistance to the effect of ionizing radiation, and the inhibition of miR-20a in HCCLM3 and QGY-7701 cells sensitizes them to it. PTEN was identified as a direct functional target of miR-20a for the induction of radioresistance. Overexpression of miR-20a activated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, the kinase inhibitor LY294002 could reverse the effect of miR-20a–induced radioresistance. Conclusion: MiR-20a induces HCC cell radioresistance by activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, which suggests that miR-20a/PTEN/PI3K/Akt might represent a target of investigation for developing effective therapeutic strategies against HCC

  16. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-pil; Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chung, Sung Woon; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. → PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. → Akt modulates PPAR-γ transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-γ is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-γ. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-γ was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-γ transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-γ transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-γ, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-γ might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

  17. O-GlcNAcylation regulates ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis through AKT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianhua; Gu, Jin-hua; Dai, Chun-ling; Gu, Jianlan; Jin, Xiaoxia; Sun, Jianming; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2015-09-28

    Apoptosis plays an important role in neural development and neurological disorders. In this study, we found that O-GlcNAcylation, a unique protein posttranslational modification with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), promoted apoptosis through attenuating phosphorylation/activation of AKT and Bad. By using co-immunoprecipitation and mutagenesis techniques, we identified O-GlcNAc modification at both Thr308 and Ser473 of AKT. O-GlcNAcylation-induced apoptosis was attenuated by over-expression of AKT. We also found a dynamic elevation of protein O-GlcNAcylation during the first four hours of cerebral ischemia, followed by continuous decline after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the mouse brain. The elevation of O-GlcNAcylation coincided with activation of cell apoptosis. Finally, we found a negative correlation between AKT phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation in ischemic brain tissue. These results indicate that cerebral ischemia induces a rapid increase of O-GlcNAcylation that promotes apoptosis through down-regulation of AKT activity. These findings provide a novel mechanism through which O-GlcNAcylation regulates ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis through AKT signaling.

  18. 3-Bromopyruvate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by downregulating Mcl-1 through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qian-Wen; Zhao, Su-Rong; Wu, Cheng-Zhu; Cheng, Xiu; Jiang, Chen-Chen; Jiang, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    The hexokinase inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) can inhibit glycolysis in tumor cells to reduce ATP production, resulting in apoptosis. However, as 3-BrPA is an alkylating agent, its cytotoxic action may be induced by other molecular mechanisms. The results presented here reveal that 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis is caspase independent. Further, 3-BrPA induces the generation of reactive oxygen species in MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that caspase-independent apoptosis may be induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we also demonstrated that 3-BrPA induces apoptosis through the downregulation of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The results of Mcl-1 knockdown indicate that Mcl-1 plays an important role in 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis. Further, the upregulation of Mcl-1 expression in 3-BrPA-treated MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increases cell viability. In addition, 3-BrPA treatment resulted in the downregulation of p-Akt, suggesting that 3-BrPA may downregulate Mcl-1 through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway. These findings indicate that 3-BrPA induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by downregulating Mcl-1 through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

  19. Atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotypic modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs via down-regulation the Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Baoqin; Kong, Dehui; Li, Si; Li, Chao; Wang, Huaqin; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the onset and progression of proliferative vascular diseases. In adult tissue, VSMCs exist in a physiological contractile-quiescent phenotype, which is defined by lack of the ability of proliferation and migration, while high expression of contractile marker proteins. After injury to the vessel, VSMC shifts from a contractile phenotype to a pathological synthetic phenotype, associated with increased proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. It has been demonstrated that PDGF-BB is a critical mediator of VSMCs phenotypic switch. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl l coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, exhibits various protective effects against VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin calcium on phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and the related intracellular signal transduction pathways. Treatment of VSMCs with atorvastatin calcium showed dose-dependent inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced proliferation. Atorvastatin calcium co-treatment inhibited the phenotype modulation and cytoskeleton rearrangements and improved the expression of contractile phenotype marker proteins such as α-SM actin, SM22α and calponin in comparison with PDGF-BB alone stimulated VSMCs. Although Akt phosphorylation was strongly elicited by PDGF-BB, Akt activation was attenuated when PDGF-BB was co-administrated with atorvastatin calcium. In conclusion, atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and activation of the Akt signaling pathway, indicating that Akt might play a vital role in the modulation of phenotype.

  20. TGF-β2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-β2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-β2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-β2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-β2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-β2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-β2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-β2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway

  1. Salinomycin enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells via down-regulation of AKT-dependent thymidylate synthase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Peng, Yi-Shuan; Wu, Chia-Hung; Wei, Chia-Li; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-12-15

    Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic, acts as a highly selective potassium ionophore and has anticancer activity on various cancer cell lines. Cisplatin has been proved as chemotherapy drug for advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, and increased expression of TS is thought to be associated with resistance to cisplatin. In this study, we showed that salinomycin (0.5-2μg/mL) treatment down-regulating of TS expression in an AKT inactivation manner in two NSCLC cell lines, human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma H1703 cells. Knockdown of TS using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or inhibiting AKT activity with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of salinomycin. A combination of cisplatin and salinomycin resulted in synergistic enhancement of cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-AKT, and TS expression. Overexpression of a constitutive active AKT (AKT-CA) expression vector reversed the salinomycin and cisplatin-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in salinomycin and cisplatin cotreated cells. Our findings suggested that the down-regulation of AKT-mediated TS expression by salinomycin enhanced the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells. These results may provide a rationale to combine salinomycin with cisplatin for lung cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 5-AIQ inhibits H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species scavenging and Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Jun Chul; Kang, Do-Hyun; Jang, Yong Chang [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kyu Yang [Bio-Organic Science Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon, Chungnam, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hun-Jong [Industrial Medicine Department, Chungju Hospital, Konkuk Medical School, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Seok [Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Taegu Health College, Taegu 702-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bokyung [Department of Physiology, Konkuk Medical School, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Feng, Zhong-Ping [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Shin, Hwa-Sup, E-mail: hsshin@kku.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Poly(adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme activated by DNA strand breaks and plays an important role in the tissue injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ), a PARP inhibitor, against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. 5-AIQ pretreatment significantly protected against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death, as determined by the XTT assay, cell counting, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, and Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins such as caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2. Upregulation of antioxidant enzymes such as manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase accompanied the protective effect of 5-AIQ on H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death. Our data also showed that 5-AIQ pretreatment protected H9c2 cells from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis by triggering activation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and that the protective effect of 5-AIQ was diminished by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 at a concentration that effectively abolished 5-AIQ-induced Akt and GSK-3β activation. In addition, inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β pathway by LY294002 significantly attenuated the 5-AIQ-mediated decrease in cleaved caspase-3 and Bax activation and H9c2 cell apoptosis induction. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 5-AIQ prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species production, regulating apoptosis-related proteins, and activating the Akt/GSK-3β pathway. - Highlights: ► 5-AIQ, a PARP inhibitor, decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced H9c2 cell death and apoptosis. ► 5-AIQ upregulated antioxidant Mn-SOD and catalase, while decreasing ROS production. ► 5-AIQ decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced increase in cleaved caspase-3 and Bax and decrease in Bcl2. ► 5-AIQ activated Akt and GSK-3

  3. Regulation of apoptosis-inducing factor-mediated, cisplatin-induced apoptosis by Akt

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, X; Fraser, M; Abedini, M R; Bai, T; Tsang, B K

    2008-01-01

    Cisplatin is a first-line chemotherapeutic for ovarian cancer, although chemoresistance limits treatment success. Apoptosis, an important determinant of cisplatin sensitivity, occurs via caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Activation of the protein kinase Akt, commonly observed in ovarian tumours, confers resistance to ovarian cancer cells via inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis. However, the effect of Akt on cisplatin-induced, caspase-independent apoptosis remains unclear. W...

  4. Vitamin B1 analog benfotiamine prevents diabetes-induced diastolic dysfunction and heart failure through Akt/Pim-1-mediated survival pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Rajesh G; Caporali, Andrea; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Meloni, Marco; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus will result in a new epidemic of heart failure unless novel treatments able to halt diabetic cardiomyopathy early in its course are introduced. This study aimed to determine whether the activity of the Akt/Pim-1 signaling pathway is altered at critical stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy and whether supplementation with vitamin B1 analog benfotiamine (BFT) helps to sustain the above prosurvival mechanism, thereby preserving cardiomyocyte viability and function. Untreated streptozotocin-induced type 1 or leptin-receptor mutant type 2 diabetic mice showed diastolic dysfunction evolving to contractile impairment and cardiac dilatation and failure. BFT (70 mg/kg(-1)/d(-1)) improved diastolic and systolic function and prevented left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increase and chamber dilatation in both diabetic models. Moreover, BFT improved cardiac perfusion and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. In hearts of untreated diabetic mice, the expression and activity of Akt/Pim-1 signaling declined along with O-N-acetylglucosamine modification of Akt, inhibition of pentose phosphate pathway, activation of oxidative stress, and accumulation of glycation end products. Furthermore, diabetes reduced pSTAT3 independently of Akt. BFT inhibited these effects of diabetes mellitus, thereby conferring cardiomyocytes with improved resistance to high glucose-induced damage. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and dominant-negative Akt inhibited antiapoptotic action of BFT-induced and Pim-1 upregulation in high glucose-challenged cardiomyocytes. These results show that BFT protects from diabetes mellitus-induced cardiac dysfunction through pleiotropic mechanisms, culminating in the activation of prosurvival signaling pathway. Thus, BFT merits attention for application in clinical practice.

  5. Cold stress-induced brain injury regulates TRPV1 channels and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yunen; Jin, Hongxu; Cong, Peifang; Zhang, Yubiao; Tong, Changci; Shi, Xiuyun; Liu, Xuelei; Tong, Zhou; Shi, Lin; Hou, Mingxiao

    2017-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel that interacts with several intracellular proteins in vivo, including calmodulin and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt). TRPV1 activation has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cold stress on the mouse brain and the underlying mechanisms of TRPV1 involvement. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cold stress (4°C for 8h per day for 2weeks). The behavioral deficits of the mice were then measured using the Morris water maze. Expression levels of brain injury-related proteins and mRNA were measured by western blot, immunofluorescence or RT-PCR analysis. The mice displayed behavioral deficits, inflammation and changes in brain injury markers following cold stress. As expected, upregulated TRPV1 expression levels and changes in PI3K/Akt expression were found. The TRPV1 inhibitor reduced the levels of brain injury-related proteins and inflammation. These data suggest that cold stress can induce brain injury, possibly through TRPV1 activation and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Suppression of inflammation by inhibition of TRPV1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway may be helpful to prevent cold stress-induced brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Niacin activates the PI3K/Akt cascade via PKC- and EGFR-transactivation-dependent pathways through hydroxyl-carboxylic acid receptor 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawang Sun

    Full Text Available Niacin has been demonstrated to activate a PI3K/Akt signaling cascade to prevent brain damage after stroke and UV-induced skin damage; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms for HCA2-induced Akt activation remain to be elucidated. Using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing HCA2 and A431 cells, a human epidermoid cell line with high levels of endogenous expression of functional HCA2 receptors, we first demonstrated that niacin induced a robust Akt phosphorylation at both Thr308 and Ser473 in a time-dependent fashion, with a maximal activation at 5 min and a subsequent reduction to baseline by 30 min through HCA2, and that the activation was significantly blocked by pertussis toxin. The HCA2-mediated activation of Akt was also significantly inhibited by the PKC inhibitors GF109203x and Go6983 in both cell lines, by the PDGFR-selective inhibitor tyrphostin A9 in CHO-HCA2 cells and by the MMP inhibitor GM6001 and EGFR-specific inhibitor AG1478 in A431 cells. These results suggest that the PKC pathway and PDGFR/EGFR transactivation pathway play important roles in HCA2-mediated Akt activation. Further investigation indicated that PI3K and the Gβγ subunit were likely to play an essential role in HCA2-induced Akt activation. Moreover, Immunobloting analyses using an antibody that recognizes p70S6K1 phosphorylated at Thr389 showed that niacin evoked p70S6K1 activation via the PI3K/Akt pathway. The results of our study provide new insight into the signaling pathways involved in HCA2 activation.

  7. Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Gan, Xiuguo; Liu, Xukun; An, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

  8. A combination of indol-3-carbinol and genistein synergistically induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and progression of autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Hirotsuna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemopreventive effects of dietary phytochemicals on malignant tumors have been studied extensively because of a relative lack of toxicity. To achieve desirable effects, however, treatment with a single agent mostly requires high doses. Therefore, studies on effective combinations of phytochemicals at relatively low concentrations might contribute to chemopreventive strategies. Results Here we found for the first time that co-treatment with I3C and genistein, derived from cruciferous vegetables and soy, respectively, synergistically suppressed the viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells at concentrations at which each agent alone was ineffective. The suppression of cell viability was due to the induction of a caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, the combination effectively inhibited phosphorylation of Akt followed by dephosphorylation of caspase-9 or down-regulation of XIAP and survivin, which contribute to the induction of apoptosis. In addition, the co-treatment also enhanced the induction of autophagy mediated by the dephosphorylation of mTOR, one of the downstream targets of Akt, whereas the maturation of autophagosomes was inhibited. These results give rise to the possibility that co-treatment with I3C and genistein induces apoptosis through the simultaneous inhibition of Akt activity and progression of the autophagic process. This possibility was examined using inhibitors of Akt combined with inhibitors of autophagy. The combination effectively induced apoptosis, whereas the Akt inhibitor alone did not. Conclusion Although in vivo study is further required to evaluate physiological efficacies and toxicity of the combination treatment, our findings might provide a new insight into the development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention against malignant tumors using dietary phytochemicals.

  9. Cyclic mechanical strain maintains Nanog expression through PI3K/Akt signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Rie; Akimoto, Takayuki; Hong, Zhang; Ushida, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical strain has been reported to affect the proliferation/differentiation of many cell types; however, the effects of mechanotransduction on self-renewal as well as pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells remains unknown. To investigate the effects of mechanical strain on mouse ES cell fate, we examined the expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency as well as Nanog-associated intracellular signaling during uniaxial cyclic mechanical strain. The mouse ES cell line, CCE was plated onto elastic membranes, and we applied 10% strain at 0.17 Hz. The expression of Nanog was reduced during ES cell differentiation in response to the withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF); however, two days of cyclic mechanical strain attenuated this reduction of Nanog expression. On the other hand, the cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling, which is reported as an upstream of Nanog transcription. The cyclic mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Furthermore, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, also inhibited the mechanical strain-induced increase in phospho-Akt. These findings imply that mechanical force plays a role in regulating Nanog expression in ES cells through the actin cytoskeleton-PI3K-Akt signaling. -- Highlights: ► The expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of “stemness” was reduced during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. ► Cyclic mechanical strain attenuated the reduction of Nanog expression. ► Cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling and mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor and an inhibitor of actin polymerization.

  10. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway mediates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced invasion of pancreatic cancer cells Panc-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong; Liao, Jie; Lu, YeBin; Duan, XiaoHui; Sun, WeiJia

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling has an emerging role in pancreatic cancer. However, because of the multiple effects of different BMPs, no final conclusions have been made as to the role of BMPs in pancreatic cancer. In our studies, we have focused on bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP-2) because it induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and accelerates invasion in the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. It has been reported that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mediates invasion of gastric and colon cancer cells, which is unrevealed in pancreatic cancer cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether BMP-2 mediated invasion might pass through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Our results show that expression of phosphorylation of Akt was increased by treatment with BMP-2, but not Noggin, a BMP-2 antagonist. Then pretreatment of Panc-1 cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced EMT and invasiveness. The data suggest that BMP-2 accelerates invasion of panc-1 cells via the PI3K/AKT pathway in panc-1 cells, which gives clues to searching new therapy targets in advanced pancreatic cancer.

  11. In vivo efficacy of the AKT inhibitor ARQ 092 in Noonan Syndrome with multiple lentigines-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Wang

    Full Text Available Noonan Syndrome with Multiple Lentigines (NSML, formerly LEOPARD syndrome is an autosomal dominant "RASopathy" disorder manifesting in congenital heart disease. Most cases of NSML are caused by catalytically inactivating mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP, non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11, encoding the SH2 domain-containing PTP-2 (SHP2 protein. We previously generated knock-in mice harboring the PTPN11 mutation Y279C, one of the most common NSML alleles; these now-termed SHP2Y279C/+ mice recapitulate the human disorder and develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM by 12 weeks of age. Functionally, heart and/or cardiomyocyte lysates from SHP2Y279C/+ mice exhibit increased basal and agonist-induced AKT and mTOR activities. Here, we sought to determine whether we could reverse the hypertrophy in SHP2Y279C/+ mice using ARQ 092, an oral and selective allosteric AKT inhibitor currently in clinical trials for patients with PI3K/AKT-driven tumors or Proteus syndrome. We obtained echocardiographs of SHP2Y279C/+ and wildtype (SHP2+/+ littermates, either in the presence or absence of ARQ 092 at 12, 14, and 16 weeks of age. While SHP2Y279C/+ mice developed significant left ventricular hypertrophy by 12 weeks, as indicated by decreased chamber dimension and increased posterior wall thickness, treatment of SHP2Y279C/+ mice with ARQ 092 normalized the hypertrophy in as early as 2 weeks following treatment, with hearts comparable in size to those in wildtype (SHP2+/+ mice. In addition, we observed an increase in fractional shortening (FS% in SHP2Y279C/+ mice, an effect of increased compensatory hypertrophy, which was not apparent in SHP2Y279C/+ mice treated with ARQ 092, suggesting functional improvement of HCM upon treatment with the AKT inhibitor. Finally, we found that ARQ 092 specifically inhibited AKT activity, as well as its downstream effectors, PRAS and S6RP in NSML mice. Taken together, these data suggest ARQ 092 may be a promising novel

  12. Hydrogen protects against hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in type II alveolar epithelial cells via activation of PI3K/Akt/Foxo3a signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liang, Mulin; Dang, Hongxing; Fang, Fang; Xu, Feng; Liu, Chengjun

    2018-01-08

    Oxidative stress is regarded as a key regulator in the pathogenesis of prolonged hyperoxia-induced lung injury, which causes injury to alveolar epithelial cells and eventually leads to development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Many studies have shown that hydrogen has a protective effect in a variety of cells. However, the mechanisms by which hydrogen rescues cells from damage due to oxidative stress in BPD remains to be fully elucidated. This study sought to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on hyperoxia-induced lung injury and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Primary type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) were divided into four groups: control (21% oxygen), hyperoxia (95% oxygen), hyperoxia + hydrogen, and hyperoxia + hydrogen + LY294002 (a PI3K/Akt inhibitor). Proliferation and apoptosis of AECIIs were assessed using MTS assay and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. Gene and protein expression were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and western blot analysis. Stimulation with hyperoxia decreased the expression of P-Akt, P- FoxO3a, cyclinD1 and Bcl-2. Hyperoxic conditions increased levels of Bim, Bax, and Foxo3a, which induced proliferation restriction and apoptosis of AECIIs. These effects of hyperoxia were reversed with hydrogen pretreatment. Furthermore, the protective effects of hydrogen were abrogated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. The results indicate that hydrogen protects AECIIs from hyperoxia-induced apoptosis by inhibiting apoptosis factors and promoting the expression of anti-apoptosis factors. These effects were associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. KNK437, abrogates hypoxia-induced radioresistance by dual targeting of the AKT and HIF-1α survival pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oommen, Deepu; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► KNK437, a benzylidene lactam compound, is a novel radiosensitizer. ► KNK437 inhibits AKT signaling and abrogates the accumulation of HIF-1α under hypoxia. ► KNK437 abrogates hypoxia induced resistance to radiation. -- Abstract: KNK437 is a benzylidene lactam compound known to inhibit stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs promote radioresistance and play a major role in stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). HIF-1α is widely responsible for tumor resistance to radiation under hypoxic conditions. We hypothesized that KNK437 sensitizes cancer cells to radiation and overrides hypoxia-induced radioresistance via destabilizing HIF-1α. Treatment of human cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T98G with KNK437 sensitized them to ionizing radiation (IR). Surprisingly, IR did not induce HSPs in these cell lines. As hypothesized, KNK437 abrogated the accumulation of HIF-1α in hypoxic cells. However, there was no induction of HSPs under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, the proteosome inhibitor MG132 did not restore HIF-1α levels in KNK437-treated cells. This suggested that the absence of HIF-1α in hypoxic cells was not due to the enhanced protein degradation. HIF-1α is mainly regulated at the level of post-transcription and AKT is known to modulate the translation of HIF-1α mRNA. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cells with KNK437 inhibited AKT signaling. Furthermore, down regulation of AKT by siRNA abrogated HIF-1α levels under hypoxia. Interestingly, KNK437 reduced cell survival in hypoxic conditions and inhibited hypoxia-induced resistance to radiation. Taken together, these data suggest that KNK437 is an effective radiosensitizer that targets multiple pro-survival stress response pathways.

  14. Dual Inhibition of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK Pathways Induces Synergistic Antitumor Effects in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Cells

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    Y. Linda Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG is a devastating disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR and its downstream effector pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, are frequently amplified in DIPG, and potential therapies targeting this pathway have emerged. However, the addition of targeted single agents has not been found to improve clinical outcomes in DIPG, and targeting this pathway alone has produced insufficient clinical responses in multiple malignancies investigated, including lung, endometrial, and bladder cancers. Acquired resistance also seems inevitable. Activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which shares many nodes of cross talk with the PI3K/AKT pathway, has been implicated in the development of resistance. In the present study, perifosine, a PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor, and trametinib, a MEK inhibitor, were combined, and their therapeutic efficacy on DIPG cells was assessed. Growth delay assays were performed with each drug individually or in combination. Here, we show that dual inhibition of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways synergistically reduced cell viability. We also reveal that trametinib induced AKT phosphorylation in DIPG cells that could not be effectively attenuated by the addition of perifosine, likely due to the activation of other compensatory mechanisms. The synergistic reduction in cell viability was through the pronounced induction of apoptosis, with some effect from cell cycle arrest. We conclude that the concurrent inhibition of the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways may be a potential therapeutic strategy for DIPG.

  15. Sensitization of Cancer Cells through Reduction of Total Akt and Downregulation of Salinomycin-Induced pAkt, pGSk3β, pTSC2, and p4EBP1 by Cotreatment with MK-2206

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    Ae-Ran Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MK-2206 is an inhibitor of Akt activation. It has been investigated as an anticancer drug in clinical trials assessing the potential of pAkt targeting therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify conditions that increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to MK-2206. We found that the treatment of cancer cells with a high concentration of salinomycin (Sal reduced total Akt protein levels but increased activated Akt levels. When cancer cells were cotreated with MK-2206 and Sal, both pAkt and total Akt levels were reduced. Using microscopic observation, an assessment of cleaved PARP, FACS analysis of pre-G1 region, and Hoechst staining, we found that Sal increased apoptosis of MK-2206-treated cancer cells. These results suggest that cotreatment with MK-2206 and Sal sensitizes cancer cells via reduction of both pAkt and total Akt. Furthermore, cotreatment of cancer cells with Sal and MK-2206 reduced pp70S6K, pmTOR, and pPDK1 levels. In addition, Sal-induced activation of GSK3β, TSC2, and 4EBP1 was abolished by MK-2206 cotreatment. These results suggest that cotreatment using MK-2206 and Sal could be used as a therapeutic method to sensitize cancer cells through targeting of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our findings may contribute to the development of MK-2206-based sensitization therapies for cancer patients.

  16. AKT is a therapeutic target in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I; Huang, Z; Wen, Q; Stankiewicz, M J; Gilles, L; Goldenson, B; Schultz, R; Diebold, L; Gurbuxani, S; Finke, C M; Lasho, T L; Koppikar, P; Pardanani, A; Stein, B; Altman, J K; Levine, R L; Tefferi, A; Crispino, J D

    2013-09-01

    The majority of patients with BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) harbor mutations in JAK2 or MPL, which lead to constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT, PI3K and ERK signaling pathways. JAK inhibitors by themselves are inadequate in producing selective clonal suppression in MPN and are associated with hematopoietic toxicities. MK-2206 is a potent allosteric AKT inhibitor that was well tolerated, including no evidence of myelosuppression, in a phase I study of solid tumors. Herein, we show that inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling by MK-2206 affected the growth of both JAK2V617F- or MPLW515L-expressing cells via reduced phosphorylation of AKT and inhibition of its downstream signaling molecules. Moreover, we demonstrate that MK-2206 synergizes with ruxolitinib in suppressing the growth of JAK2V617F-mutant SET2 cells. Importantly, MK-2206 suppressed colony formation from hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with primary myelofibrosis and alleviated hepatosplenomegaly and reduced megakaryocyte burden in the bone marrows, livers and spleens of mice with MPLW515L-induced MPN. Together, these findings establish AKT as a rational therapeutic target in the MPNs.

  17. Protective effect of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor PJ34 on mitochondrial depolarization-mediated cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves attenuation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase-2 and protein kinase B/Akt activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radnai Balazs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-E-4-arylidene-3-isochromanone (IK11 was previously described to induce apoptotic death of A431 tumor cells. In this report, we investigated the molecular action of IK11 in the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line to increase our knowledge of the role of poly (ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP, protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK activation in the survival and death of tumor cells and to highlight the possible role of PARP-inhibitors in co-treatments with different cytotoxic agents in cancer therapy. Results We found that sublethal concentrations of IK11 prevented proliferation, migration and entry of the cells into their G2 phase. At higher concentrations, IK11 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2, and substantial loss of HepG2 cells. ROS production appeared marginal in mediating the cytotoxicity of IK11 since N-acetyl cysteine was unable to prevent it. However, the PARP inhibitor PJ34, although not a ROS scavenger, strongly inhibited both IK11-induced ROS production and cell death. JNK2 activation seemed to be a major mediator of the effect of IK11 since inhibition of JNK resulted in a substantial cytoprotection while inhibitors of the other kinases failed to do so. Inhibition of Akt slightly diminished the effect of IK11, while the JNK and Akt inhibitor and ROS scavenger trans-resveratrol completely protected against it. Conclusions These results indicate significant involvement of PARP, a marginal role of ROS and a pro-apoptotic role of Akt in this system, and raise attention to a novel mechanism that should be considered when cancer therapy is augmented with PARP-inhibition, namely the cytoprotection by inhibition of JNK2.

  18. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom Su [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yun [Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyo-Jin [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun, E-mail: omslee@wku.ac.kr [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    ), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2.

  19. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-01-01

    ), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2

  20. A novel PKB/Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, effectively inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and protein synthesis in isolated rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Liu, Yang; Jacobs, Roxane; Rider, Mark H

    2012-10-01

    PKB (protein kinase B), also known as Akt, is a key component of insulin signalling. Defects in PKB activation lead to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, whereas PKB overactivation has been linked to tumour growth. Small-molecule PKB inhibitors have thus been developed for cancer treatment, but also represent useful tools to probe the roles of PKB in insulin action. In the present study, we examined the acute effects of two allosteric PKB inhibitors, MK-2206 and Akti 1/2 (Akti) on PKB signalling in incubated rat soleus muscles. We also assessed the effects of the compounds on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen and protein synthesis. MK-2206 dose-dependently inhibited insulin-stimulated PKB phosphorylation, PKBβ activity and phosphorylation of PKB downstream targets (including glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β, proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa and Akt substrate of 160 kDa). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activity were also decreased by MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation with high doses of MK-2206 (10 μM) inhibited insulin-induced p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1) phosphorylation associated with increased eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) phosphorylation. In contrast, Akti only modestly inhibited insulin-induced PKB and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling, with little or no effect on glucose uptake and protein synthesis. MK-2206, rather than Akti, would thus be the tool of choice for studying the role of PKB in insulin action in skeletal muscle. The results point to a key role for PKB in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

  1. Loss of Smad4 in colorectal cancer induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil through activating Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Zhang, B; Chen, X; Bae, S; Singh, K; Washington, M K; Datta, P K

    2014-02-18

    Higher frequency of Smad4 inactivation or loss of expression is observed in metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) leading to unfavourable survival and contributes to chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanism of how Smad4 regulates chemosensitivity of CRC is unknown. We evaluated how the loss of Smad4 in CRC enhanced chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using two CRC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Immunoblotting with cell and tumour lysates and immunohistochemical analyses with tissue microarray were performed. Knockdown or loss of Smad4 induced tumorigenicity, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and 5-FU resistance. Smad4 expression in mouse tumours regulated cell-cycle regulatory proteins leading to Rb phosphorylation. Loss of Smad4 activated Akt pathway that resulted in upregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w, and Survivin. Suppression of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway by LY294002 restored chemosensitivity of Smad4-deficient cells to 5-FU. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in Smad4-deficient cells might also lead to chemoresistance. Low levels of Smad4 expression in CRC tissues correlated with higher levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-w and with poor overall survival as observed in immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays. Loss of Smad4 in CRC patients induces resistance to 5-FU-based therapy through activation of Akt pathway and inhibitors of this pathway may sensitise these patients to 5-FU.

  2. Neuronal Orphan G-Protein Coupled Receptor Proteins Mediate Plasmalogens-Induced Activation of ERK and Akt Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shamim Hossain

    Full Text Available The special glycerophospholipids plasmalogens (Pls are enriched in the brain and reported to prevent neuronal cell death by enhancing phosphorylation of Akt and ERK signaling in neuronal cells. Though the activation of Akt and ERK was found to be necessary for the neuronal cells survival, it was not known how Pls enhanced cellular signaling. To answer this question, we searched for neuronal specific orphan GPCR (G-protein coupled receptor proteins, since these proteins were believed to play a role in cellular signal transduction through the lipid rafts, where both Pls and some GPCRs were found to be enriched. In the present study, pan GPCR inhibitor significantly reduced Pls-induced ERK signaling in neuronal cells, suggesting that Pls could activate GPCRs to induce signaling. We then checked mRNA expression of 19 orphan GPCRs and 10 of them were found to be highly expressed in neuronal cells. The knockdown of these 10 neuronal specific GPCRs by short hairpin (sh-RNA lentiviral particles revealed that the Pls-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was inhibited in GPR1, GPR19, GPR21, GPR27 and GPR61 knockdown cells. We further found that the overexpression of these GPCRs enhanced Pls-mediated phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in cells. Most interestingly, the GPCRs-mediated cellular signaling was reduced significantly when the endogenous Pls were reduced. Our cumulative data, for the first time, suggest a possible mechanism for Pls-induced cellular signaling in the nervous system.

  3. Isorhynchophylline Protects PC12 Cells Against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

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    Yan-Fang Xian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ has been implicated as a critical cause of Alzheimer’s disease. Isorhynchophylline (IRN, an oxindole alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, exerts neuroprotective effect against Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. However, the exact mechanism for its neuroprotective effect is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective action of IRN against Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells. Pretreatment with IRN significantly increased the cell viability, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in Aβ25–35-treated cells. IRN treatment was able to enhance the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β. Lithium chloride blocked Aβ25–35-induced cellular apoptosis in a similar manner as IRN, suggesting that GSK-3β inhibition was involved in neuroprotective action of IRN. Pretreatment with LY294002 completely abolished the protective effects of IRN. Furthermore, IRN reversed Aβ25–35-induced attenuation in the level of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (p-CREB and the effect of IRN could be blocked by the PI3K inhibitor. These experimental findings unambiguously suggested that the protective effect of IRN against Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells was associated with the enhancement of p-CREB expression via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  4. Isorhynchophylline Protects PC12 Cells Against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Chen, Jian-Nan; Su, Zi-Ren; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Ip, Paul Siu-Po

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ) has been implicated as a critical cause of Alzheimer's disease. Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, exerts neuroprotective effect against Aβ 25–35-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. However, the exact mechanism for its neuroprotective effect is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective action of IRN against Aβ 25–35-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Pretreatment with IRN significantly increased the cell viability, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in Aβ 25–35-treated cells. IRN treatment was able to enhance the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β). Lithium chloride blocked Aβ 25–35-induced cellular apoptosis in a similar manner as IRN, suggesting that GSK-3β inhibition was involved in neuroprotective action of IRN. Pretreatment with LY294002 completely abolished the protective effects of IRN. Furthermore, IRN reversed Aβ 25–35-induced attenuation in the level of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) and the effect of IRN could be blocked by the PI3K inhibitor. These experimental findings unambiguously suggested that the protective effect of IRN against Aβ 25–35-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells was associated with the enhancement of p-CREB expression via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. PMID:24319473

  5. Icariin Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Pathway in PC-12 Cells

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    Dongdong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and shows promise in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of icariin against amyloid beta protein fragment 25–35 (Aβ25–35 induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that icariin dose-dependently increased cell viability and decreased Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis, as assessed by MTT assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Results of western blot analysis revealed that the selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed icariin-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that the protective effects of icariin are associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. LY294002 also blocked the icariin-induced downregulation of proapoptotic factors Bax and caspase-3 and upregulation of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 in Aβ25–35-treated PC12 cells. These findings provide further evidence for the clinical efficacy of icariin in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  6. Crocin prevents retinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wen-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xin-Guang

    2013-02-01

    Crocin is a pharmacologically active component of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and has been reported to be useful in the treatment of neuronal damage. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of crocin on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after retinal ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, and our results show that crocin acts through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Retinal IR injury was induced by raising the intraocular pressure of Sprague-Dawley rats to 110 mmHg for 60 min. The neuroprotective effect of crocin was determined by quantifying the surviving RGCs and apoptotic RGCs following IR injury by means of retrograde labelling and TUNEL staining, respectively. The phosphorylated AKT protein level was determined by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. To determine the extent to which the PI3K/AKT pathway contributes to the neuroprotective effect of crocin, experiments were also performed using the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Compared with the IR + vehicle group, crocin (50 mg/kg) treatment enhanced RGC survival by approximately 36% and decreased RGC apoptosis by 44% after retinal IR injury. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT pathway was activated by crocin in the ganglion cell layer after retinal IR injury. Intravitreal injection of LY294002 blocked the neuroprotective effect of crocin on IR-induced RGC death. In conclusion, crocin prevents retinal IR-induced apoptosis of RGCs by activating the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyclic mechanical strain maintains Nanog expression through PI3K/Akt signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells

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    Horiuchi, Rie [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Akimoto, Takayuki, E-mail: akimoto@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Hong, Zhang [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Ushida, Takashi [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Mechanical strain has been reported to affect the proliferation/differentiation of many cell types; however, the effects of mechanotransduction on self-renewal as well as pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells remains unknown. To investigate the effects of mechanical strain on mouse ES cell fate, we examined the expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency as well as Nanog-associated intracellular signaling during uniaxial cyclic mechanical strain. The mouse ES cell line, CCE was plated onto elastic membranes, and we applied 10% strain at 0.17 Hz. The expression of Nanog was reduced during ES cell differentiation in response to the withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF); however, two days of cyclic mechanical strain attenuated this reduction of Nanog expression. On the other hand, the cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling, which is reported as an upstream of Nanog transcription. The cyclic mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Furthermore, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, also inhibited the mechanical strain-induced increase in phospho-Akt. These findings imply that mechanical force plays a role in regulating Nanog expression in ES cells through the actin cytoskeleton-PI3K-Akt signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of 'stemness' was reduced during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic mechanical strain attenuated the reduction of Nanog expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling and mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor and an inhibitor of actin polymerization.

  8. Tanshinone IIA protects PC12 cells from β-amyloid(25-35)-induced apoptosis via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huimin; Mao, Shanping; Mao, Shanpin; Wei, Jiajun; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Mingmin

    2012-06-01

    For the aging populations of any nation, Dementia is becoming a primary problem and Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) is the most common type. However, until now, there is no effective treatment for AD. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) has been reported for neuroprotective potential to against amyloid β peptides (Aβ)-induced cytotoxicity in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12, which is widely used as AD research model, but the mechanism still remains unclear. To investigate the effect of Tan IIA and the possible molecular mechanism in the apoptosis of PC12 cells, we induced apoptosis in PC12 cells with β-amyloid(25-35), and treated cells with Tan IIA. After 24 h treatment, we found that Tan IIA increased the cell viability and reduced the number of apoptotic cells induced by Aβ(25-35). However, neuroprotection of Tan IIA was abolished by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Meanwhile, Treatment with lithium chloride, a phosphorylation inhibitor of GSK3β, which is a downstream target of PI3K/Akt, can block Aβ(25-35)-induced cell apoptosis in a Tan IIA-like manner. Our findings suggest that Tan IIA is an effective neuroprotective agent and a viable candidate in AD therapy and PI3K/Akt activation and GSK3β phosphorylation are involved in the neuroprotection of Tan IIA.

  9. The CYP2E1 inhibitor DDC up-regulates MMP-1 expression in hepatic stellate cells via an ERK1/2- and Akt-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Cong, Min; Xu, Youqing; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong

    2013-06-05

    DDC (diethyldithiocarbamate) could block collagen synthesis in HSC (hepatic stellate cells) through the inhibition of ROS (reactive oxygen species) derived from hepatocyte CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E1). However, the effect of DDC on MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1), which is the main collagen degrading matrix metalloproteinase, has not been reported. In co-culture experiments, we found that DDC significantly enhanced MMP-1 expression in human HSC (LX-2) that were cultured with hepatocyte C3A cells either expressing or not expressing CYP2E1. The levels of both proenzyme and active MMP-1 enzyme were up-regulated in LX-2 cells, accompanied by elevated enzyme activity of MMP-1 and decreased collagen I, in both LX-2 cells and the culture medium. H2O2 treatment abrogated DDC-induced MMP-1 up-regulation and collagen I decrease, while catalase treatment slightly up-regulated MMP-1 expression. These data suggested that the decrease in ROS by DDC was partially responsible for the MMP-1 up-regulation. ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), Akt (protein kinase B) and p38 were significantly activated by DDC. The ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and Akt inhibitor (T3830) abrogated the DDC-induced MMP-1 up-regulation. In addition, a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) improved MMP-1 up-regulation through the stimulation of ERK1/2. Our data indicate that DDC significantly up-regulates the expression of MMP-1 in LX-2 cells which results in greater MMP-1 enzyme activity and decreased collagen I. The enhancement of MMP-1 expression by DDC was associated with H2O2 inhibition and coordinated regulation by the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways. These data provide some new insights into treatment strategies for hepatic fibrosis.

  10. Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through blocking PDK1–AKT interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xian-Ying; Chen, Wei; Fan, Jun-Ting; Song, Ran; Wang, Lu; Gu, Yan-Hong; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xue-Feng; Tan, Ning-Hua; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we examined the effects of a natural cyclopeptide RA-V on human breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. RA-V significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 cells and murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. In addition, RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase cascade. Further study showed that RA-V dramatically inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, RA-V disrupted the interaction between PDK1 and AKT in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, RA-V-induced apoptosis could be enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor or attenuated by over-expression of AKT in all the three kinds of breast cancer cells. Taken together, this study shows that RA-V, which can induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, exerts strong anti-tumor activity against human breast cancer. The underlying anti-cancer mechanism of RA-V is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. - Highlights: ► Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and PDK1 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. ► Its mechanism is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT

  11. Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through blocking PDK1–AKT interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xian-Ying; Chen, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Fan, Jun-Ting [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Song, Ran; Wang, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Gu, Yan-Hong [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zeng, Guang-Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Shen, Yan; Wu, Xue-Feng [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Tan, Ning-Hua, E-mail: nhtan@mail.kib.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China)

    2013-02-15

    In the present paper, we examined the effects of a natural cyclopeptide RA-V on human breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. RA-V significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 cells and murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. In addition, RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase cascade. Further study showed that RA-V dramatically inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, RA-V disrupted the interaction between PDK1 and AKT in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, RA-V-induced apoptosis could be enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor or attenuated by over-expression of AKT in all the three kinds of breast cancer cells. Taken together, this study shows that RA-V, which can induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, exerts strong anti-tumor activity against human breast cancer. The underlying anti-cancer mechanism of RA-V is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. - Highlights: ► Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and PDK1 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. ► Its mechanism is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT.

  12. Calmodulin-mediated activation of Akt regulates survival of c-Myc-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Tushar B; Coticchia, Christine M; Dickson, Robert B

    2004-09-10

    c-Myc-overexpressing mammary epithelial cells are proapoptotic; their survival is strongly promoted by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We now demonstrate that EGF-induced Akt activation and survival in transgenic mouse mammary tumor virus-c-Myc mouse mammary carcinoma cells are both calcium/calmodulin-dependent. Akt activation is abolished by the phospholipase C-gamma inhibitor U-73122, by the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and by the specific calmodulin antagonist W-7. These results implicate calcium/calmodulin in the activation of Akt in these cells. In addition, Akt activation by serum and insulin is also inhibited by W-7. EGF-induced and calcium/calmodulin-mediated Akt activation occurs in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mouse and human mammary epithelial cells, independent of their overexpression of c-Myc. These results imply that calcium/calmodulin may be a common regulator of Akt activation, irrespective of upstream receptor activator, mammalian species, and transformation status in mammary epithelial cells. However, only c-Myc-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma cells (but not normal mouse mammary epithelial cells) undergo apoptosis in the presence of the calmodulin antagonist W-7, indicating the vital selective role of calmodulin for survival of these cells. Calcium/calmodulin-regulated Akt activation is mediated directly by neither calmodulin kinases nor phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase). Pharmacological inhibitors of calmodulin kinase kinase and calmodulin kinases II and III do not inhibit EGF-induced Akt activation, and calmodulin antagonist W-7 does not inhibit phosphotyrosine-associated PI-3 kinase activation. Akt is, however, co-immunoprecipitated with calmodulin in an EGF-dependent manner, which is inhibited by calmodulin antagonist W-7. We conclude that calmodulin may serve a vital regulatory function to direct the localization of Akt to the plasma membrane for its activation by PI-3 kinase.

  13. TNF-α promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TNF-α induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. ► MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression. ► Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression. ► SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-α. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-α promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-α-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-α-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-α promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  14. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: Jqin710@vip.sina.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yao, Jin, E-mail: dryaojin@yahoo.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  15. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta, E-mail: etta@bgu.ac.il

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  16. Role of Growth Arrest and DNA Damage–inducible α in Akt Phosphorylation and Ubiquitination after Mechanical Stress-induced Vascular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumegha; Sammani, Saad; Wang, Ting; Boone, David L.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Dudek, Steven M.; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: The stress-induced growth arrest and DNA damage–inducible α (GADD45a) gene is up-regulated by mechanical stress with GADD45a knockout (GADD45a−/−) mice demonstrating both increased susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and reduced levels of the cell survival and vascular permeability signaling effector (Akt). However, the functional role of GADD45a in the pathogenesis of VILI is unknown. Objectives: We sought to define the role of GADD45a in the regulation of Akt activation induced by mechanical stress. Methods: VILI-challenged GADD45a−/− mice were administered a constitutively active Akt1 vector and injury was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts and protein levels. Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (EC) were exposed to 18% cyclic stretch (CS) under conditions of GADD45a silencing and used for immunoprecipitation, Western blotting or immunofluoresence. EC were also transfected with mutant ubiquitin vectors to characterize site-specific Akt ubiquitination. DNA methylation was measured using methyl-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Measurements and Main Results: Studies exploring the linkage of GADD45a with mechanical stress and Akt regulation revealed VILI-challenged GADD45a−/− mice to have significantly reduced lung injury on overexpression of Akt1 transgene. Increased mechanical stress with 18% CS in EC induced Akt phosphorylation via E3 ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–mediated Akt K63 ubiquitination resulting in Akt trafficking and activation at the membrane. GADD45a is essential to this process because GADD45a-silenced endothelial cells and GADD45a−/− mice exhibited increased Akt K48 ubiquitination leading to proteasomal degradation. These events involve loss of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinating enzyme that normally removes K48 polyubiquitin chains bound to Akt thus promoting Akt K63 ubiquitination. Loss of GADD45a

  17. Preclinical rationale for PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors as therapy for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgeel, Shirish M; Wozniak, Antoinette

    2013-07-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) are frequently observed in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), occurring in about 40% to 60% of never-smokers and in about 17% of patients with adenocarcinomas. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib, have transformed therapy for patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and have proved superior to chemotherapy as first-line treatment for this patient group. Despite these benefits, there are currently 2 key challenges associated with EGFR inhibitor therapy for patients with NSCLC. First, only 85% to 90% of patients with the EGFR mutation derive clinical benefit from EGFR TKIs, with the remainder demonstrating innate resistance to therapy. Second, acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs inevitably occurs in patients who initially respond to therapy, with a median duration of response of about 10 months. Mutant EGFR activates various subcellular signaling cascades, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which demonstrates maintained activity in a variety of TKI-resistant cancers. Given the fundamental role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in tumor oncogenesis, proliferation, and survival, PI3K pathway inhibitors have emerged as a possible solution to the problem of EGFR TKI resistance. However resistance to EGFR TKIs is associated with considerable heterogeneity and complexity. Preclinical experiments investigating these phenomena suggest that in some patients, PI3K inhibitors will have to be paired with other targeted agents if they are to be effective. This review discusses the preclinical data supporting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitor combinations in EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC from the perspective of the various agents currently being investigated in clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Akt enhances the chemopreventive effects of topical rapamycin in mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christie; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Petricoin, Emmanuel; Calvert, Valerie; Einspahr, Janine G.; Dickinson, Jesse; Stratton, Steven P.; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S.; Bowden, G. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin, (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared to those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared to controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared to vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  19. CSK negatively regulates nerve growth factor induced neural differentiation and augments AKT kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Nandini; Howell, Brian W.; De, Pradip K.; Durden, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    Src family kinases are involved in transducing growth factor signals for cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types. The activity of all Src family kinases (SFKs) is controlled by phosphorylation at their C-terminal 527-tyrosine residue by C-terminal SRC kinase, CSK. There is a paucity of information regarding the role of CSK and/or specific Src family kinases in neuronal differentiation. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, blocked NGF-induced activation of SFKs and obliterated neurite outgrowth. To confirm a role for CSK and specific isoforms of SFKs in neuronal differentiation, we overexpressed active and catalytically dead CSK in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. CSK overexpression caused a profound inhibition of NGF-induced activation of FYN, YES, RAS, and ERK and inhibited neurite outgrowth, NGF-stimulated integrin-directed migration and blocked the NGF-induced conversion of GDP-RAC to its GTP-bound active state. CSK overexpression markedly augmented the activation state of AKT following NGF stimulation. In contrast, kinase-dead CSK augmented the activation of FYN, RAS, and ERK and increased neurite outgrowth. These data suggest a distinct requirement for CSK in the regulation of NGF/TrkA activation of RAS, RAC, ERK, and AKT via the differential control of SFKs in the orchestration of neuronal differentiation

  20. Escin activates AKT-Nrf2 signaling to protect retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kaijun [Eye Center, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Ophthalmology, Hangzhou (China); Jiang, Yiqian [The First People Hospital of Xiaoshan, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Wei; Ma, Jian [Eye Center, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Ophthalmology, Hangzhou (China); Chen, Min, E-mail: eyedrchenminzj@163.com [Eye Center, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of Ophthalmology, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-12-25

    Here we explored the anti-oxidative and cytoprotective potentials of escin, a natural triterpene-saponin, against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. We showed that escin remarkably attenuated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced death and apoptosis of established (ARPE-19) and primary murine RPE cells. Meanwhile, ROS production and lipid peroxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were remarkably inhibited by escin. Escin treatment in RPE cells resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by transcription of anti-oxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes, including HO-1, NQO-1 and SRXN-1. Knockdown of Nrf2 through targeted shRNAs/siRNAs alleviated escin-mediated ARE gene transcription, and almost abolished escin-mediated anti-oxidant activity and RPE cytoprotection against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Reversely, escin was more potent against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} damages in Nrf2-over-expressed ARPE-19 cells. Further studies showed that escin-induced Nrf2 activation in RPE cells required AKT signaling. AKT inhibitors (LY294002 and perifosine) blocked escin-induced AKT activation, and dramatically inhibited Nrf2 phosphorylation, its cytosol accumulation and nuclear translocation in RPE cells. Escin-induced RPE cytoprotection against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was also alleviated by the AKT inhibitors. Together, these results demonstrate that escin protects RPE cells from oxidative stress possibly through activating AKT-Nrf2 signaling.

  1. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  2. Atorvastatin enhances neurite outgrowth in cortical neurons in vitro via up-regulating the Akt/mTOR and Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Sui, Hai-juan; Dong, Yan; Ding, Qi; Qu, Wen-hui; Yu, Sheng-xue; Jin, Ying-xin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether atorvastatin can promote formation of neurites in cultured cortical neurons and the signaling mechanisms responsible for this effect. Methods: Cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons were incubated with atorvastatin (0.05–10 μmol/L) for various lengths of time. For pharmacological experiments, inhibitors were added 30 min prior to addition of atorvastatin. Control cultures received a similar amount of DMSO. Following the treatment period, phase-contrast digital images were taken. Digital images of neurons were analyzed for total neurite branch length (TNBL), neurite number, terminal branch number, and soma area by SPOT Advanced Imaging software. After incubation with atorvastatin for 48 h, the levels of phosphorylated 3-phosphoinoside-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), phospho-Akt, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the cortical neurons were evaluated using Western blotting analyses. Results: Atorvastatin (0.05–10 μmol/L) resulted in dose-dependent increase in neurite number and length in these neurons. Pretreatment of the cortical neurons with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors LY294002 (30 μmol/L) and wortmannin (5 μmol/L), Akt inhibitor tricribine (1 μmol/L) or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (100 nmol/L) blocked the atorvastatin-induced increase in neurite outgrowth, suggesting that atorvastatin promoted neurite outgrowth via activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Atorvastatin (10 μmol/L) significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated PDK1, Akt and mTOR in the cortical neurons, which were prevented by LY294002 (30 μmol/L). Moreover, atorvastatin (10 μmol/L) stimulated the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70S6K, the substrates of mTOR, in the cortical neurons. In addition, atorvastatin (10 μmol/L) significantly increased the phosphorylated GSK-3β level in the cortical

  3. Akt regulates drug-induced cell death through Bcl-w downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Michela; Quintavalle, Cristina; Zanca, Ciro; De Rienzo, Assunta; Romano, Giulia; Acunzo, Mario; Puca, Loredana; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Croce, Carlo M; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2008-01-01

    Akt is a serine threonine kinase with a major role in transducing survival signals and regulating proteins involved in apoptosis. To find new interactors of Akt involved in cell survival, we performed a two-hybrid screening in yeast using human full-length Akt c-DNA as bait and a murine c-DNA library as prey. Among the 80 clones obtained, two were identified as Bcl-w. Bcl-w is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the regulation of cellular survival, and that is up-regulated in different human tumors, such as gastric and colorectal carcinomas. Direct interaction of Bcl-w with Akt was confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequently, we addressed the function of this interaction: by interfering with the activity or amount of Akt, we have demonstrated that Akt modulates the amount of Bcl-w protein. We have found that inhibition of Akt activity may promote apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-w protein and the consequential reduction in interaction of Bcl-w with pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Our data provide evidence that Bcl-w is a new member of the Akt pathway and that Akt may induce anti-apoptotic signals at least in part through the regulation of the amount and activity of Bcl-w.

  4. Fibronectin and laminin promote differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into insulin producing cells through activating Akt and ERK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Shih-Hwa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Islet transplantation provides a promising cure for Type 1 diabetes; however it is limited by a shortage of pancreas donors. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs offer renewable cells for generating insulin-producing cells (IPCs. Methods We used a four-stage differentiation protocol, containing neuronal differentiation and IPC-conversion stages, and combined with pellet suspension culture to induce IPC differentiation. Results Here, we report adding extracellular matrix proteins (ECM such as fibronectin (FN or laminin (LAM enhances pancreatic differentiation with increases in insulin and Glut2 gene expressions, proinsulin and insulin protein levels, and insulin release in response to elevated glucose concentration. Adding FN or LAM induced activation of Akt and ERK. Blocking Akt or ERK by adding LY294002 (PI3K specific inhibitor, PD98059 (MEK specific inhibitor or knocking down Akt or ERK failed to abrogate FN or LAM-induced enhancement of IPC differentiation. Only blocking both of Akt and ERK or knocking down Akt and ERK inhibited the enhancement of IPC differentiation by adding ECM. Conclusions These data prove IPC differentiation by MSCs can be modulated by adding ECM, and these stimulatory effects were mediated through activation of Akt and ERK pathways.

  5. ErbB2 regulates NHEJ repair pathway by affecting erbB1-triggered IR-induced Akt activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Peter Rodemann, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have already reported that erbBl-PI3K-AKT signaling is an important pathway in regulating radiation sensitivity and DNA double strand break repair of human tumor cells. In the present study using small interfering RNA and pharmacological inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines we investigated the role of Aktl on radiation-induced DNA-PKcs activity and DNA-double strand break (DNA-DSB) repair. Likewise, the function of erbB2 as hetrodimerization partner of erbBl in radiation-induced Akt activity and regulation of DNA-dsb repair through DNA-PKcs was evaluated. In A549 and H460 transfected with AKTl-siRNA radiation-induced phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs the key enzyme regulating NHEJ repair pathway was markedly inhibited. In both cell lines downregulation of Aktl led to a significant enhancement of residual DNA-DSB, i.e. impaired DNA-DSB repair. Interestingly, in cells transfected with DNA-PKcs-siRNA a lack of effect of AKTl-siRNA on enhancement of residual DNA-DSBs was observed. This results indicate that Aktl regulates NHEJ repair in a DNA-PKcs dependent manner

  6. Down-regulation of Akt by methanol extracts of Impatiens balsamina L. promotes apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kwon, Ki-Han; Choi, BuYoung; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2015-07-01

    The apoptotic activity of methanol extracts of Impatiens balsamina L. (MEIB) and related mechanisms in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells have been systematically investigated. The effects of MEIB on human OSCC cell lines were investigated using trypan blue exclusion assay, MTS assay, Western blot, 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Live/Dead assay, Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and promoter assay. MEIB decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in HSC-4 cells. Higher levels of p-Akt expression were observed in OSCC than in normal oral mucosa (NOM), and it correlated with poor survival of the patients. MEIB dephosphorylated p-Akt and decreased Akt expression through proteasome-dependent degradation. LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) decreased p-Akt and Akt, resulting in enhancing MEIB-induced apoptosis. MEIB down-regulated the expression level of survivin protein at the transcriptional level and YM155 (survivin inhibitor) decreased survivin, which facilitated MEIB-induced apoptosis. MEIB and LY294002 significantly increased Bax, thereby inducing the conformational change, mitochondrial translocation, and oligomerization. In addition, MEIB-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in OSC-20, another human OSCC cells were mediated by regulating Akt and it downstream targets, survivin and Bax. These results suggest that MEIB may serve as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of human OSCC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exosomes promote cetuximab resistance via the PTEN/Akt pathway in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Qu, J; Che, X; Fan, Y; Hou, K; Guo, T; Deng, G; Song, N; Li, C; Wan, X; Qu, X; Liu, Y

    2017-11-13

    Cetuximab is widely used in patients with metastatic colon cancer expressing wildtype KRAS. However, acquired drug resistance limits its clinical efficacy. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by various cell types. Tumor cell-derived exosomes participate in many biological processes, including tumor invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. In this study, exosomes derived from cetuximab-resistant RKO colon cancer cells induced cetuximab resistance in cetuximab-sensitive Caco-2 cells. Meanwhile, exosomes from RKO and Caco-2 cells showed different levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phosphor-Akt. Furthermore, reduced PTEN and increased phosphorylated Akt levels were found in Caco-2 cells after exposure to RKO cell-derived exosomes. Moreover, an Akt inhibitor prevented RKO cell-derived exosome-induced drug resistance in Caco-2 cells. These findings provide novel evidence that exosomes derived from cetuximab-resistant cells could induce cetuximab resistance in cetuximab-sensitive cells, by downregulating PTEN and increasing phosphorylated Akt levels.

  8. Apatinib Inhibits Angiogenesis Via Suppressing Akt/GSK3β/ANG Signaling Pathway in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Jin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most lethal human malignancies, and there is no efficient method to slow its process. Apatinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, has been confirmed for its efficacy and safety in the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma patients. However, the effects of Apatinib in ATC are still unknown. Methods: In this study, we explored the effects and mechanisms of Apatinib on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro and in vitro in ATC cells. Angiogenesis antibodies array was utilized to detect the expression of angiogenesis-related genes after Apatinib treatment in ATC cells. In addition, we used Akt activator, Akt inhibitor and GSK3β inhibitor to further study the mechanism for how Apatinib suppressed angiogenesis. Results: Apatinib treatment could suppress the growth of ATC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner via inducing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Apatinib treatment decreased the expression of angiogenin (ANG and inhibited angiogenesis of ATC cells in vitro and in vitro. We further confirmed that recombinant human ANG (rhANG significantly abrogated Apatinib-mediated anti-angiogenic ability in ATC cells. Additionally, Apatinib treatment decreased the level of p-Akt and p-GSK3β. Moreover, the Apatinib-mediated decrease of ANG and anti-angiogenic ability were partly reversed when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib can be enhanced in the presence of Akt inhibitor, and the inhibition of GSK3β attenuated the anti-angiogenic ability of Apatinib. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Apatinib treatment inhibited tumor growth, and Apatinib-induced suppression of Akt/GSK3β/ANG signaling pathway may play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis in ATC, supporting a potential therapeutic approach for using Apatinib in the treatment of ATC.

  9. Largazole, a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin, E-mail: Salah.Ahmed@utoledo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States); Riegsecker, Sharayah; Beamer, Maria; Rahman, Ayesha; Bellini, Joseph V. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States); Bhansali, Pravin; Tillekeratne, L.M. Viranga [Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of largazole (LAR), a marine-derived class I HDAC inhibitor, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. LAR (1–5 μM) had no adverse effect on the viability of RA synovial fibroblasts. Among the different class I HDACs screened, LAR (0.5–5 μM) inhibited the constitutive expression of HDAC1 (0–30%). Surprisingly, LAR increased class II HDAC [HDAC6] by ∼ 220% with a concomitant decrease in HDAC5 [30–58%] expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. SAHA (5 μM), a pan-HDAC inhibitor, also induced HDAC6 expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. Pretreatment of RA synovial fibroblasts with LAR further enhanced TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. However, LAR inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-2 activity in RA synovial fibroblasts by 35% when compared to the TNF-α-treated group. Further, the addition of HDAC6 specific inhibitor Tubastatin A with LAR suppressed TNF-α + LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and completely blocked MMP-2 activity, suggesting a role of HDAC6 in LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. LAR also enhanced TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-AKT expression, but inhibited the expression of phospho-JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 in RA synovial fibroblasts. These results suggest that LAR activates p38 and Akt pathways and influences class II HDACs, in particular HDAC6, to enhance some of the detrimental effects of TNF-α in RA synovial fibroblasts. Understanding the exact role of different HDAC isoenzymes in RA pathogenesis is extremely important in order to develop highly effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of RA. - Highlights: • Largazole enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. • Largazole upregulates class II HDAC (HDAC6) in RA synovial fibroblasts. • Largazole also induces the expression of phospho-p38

  10. UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts by increasing intracellular levels of ROS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ae Jeong; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Bae, Sun Sik; Yun, Jeanho

    2009-01-01

    Akt/PKB plays a pivotal role in cell survival and proliferation. Previously, we reported that UV-irradiation induces extensive cell death in Akt2 -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) while Akt1 -/- MEFs show cell cycle arrest. Here, we find that Akt1 -/- MEFs exhibit phenotypic changes characteristics of senescence upon UV-irradiation. An enlarged and flattened morphology, a reduced cell proliferation and an increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) staining indicate that Akt1 -/- MEFs undergo premature senescence after UV-irradiation. Restoring Akt1 expression in Akt1 -/- MEFs suppressed SA β-gal activity, indicating that UV-induced senescence is due to the absence of Akt1 function. Notably, levels of ROS were rapidly increased upon UV-irradiation and the ROS scavenger NAC inhibits UV-induced senescence of Akt1 -/- MEFs, suggesting that UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1 -/- MEFs by modulating intracellular levels of ROS. In conjunction with our previous work, this indicates that different isoforms of Akt have distinct function in response to UV-irradiation.

  11. Icariin Prevents H2O2-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rat Nucleus Pulposus Intervertebral Disc Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Chen, Sheng; Zheng, Dong; Shao, Zengwu; Liang, Hang; Hu, Hongzhi

    2017-01-01

    Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum. This study investigated the mechanism by which icariin prevents H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. NP cells were isolated from the rat intervertebral disc and they were divided into five groups after 3 passages: (A) blank control; (B) 200  μ M H 2 O 2 ; (C) 200  μ M H 2 O 2 + 20  μ M icariin; (D) 20  μ M icariin + 200  μ M H 2 O 2 + 25  μ M LY294002; (E) 200  μ M H 2 O 2 + 25  μ M LY294002. LY294002 is a selective inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. NP cell viability, apoptosis rate, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and the expression of AKT, p-AKT, p53, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 were estimated. The results show that, compared with the control group, H 2 O 2 significantly increased NP cell apoptosis and the level of intracellular ROS. Icariin pretreatment significantly decreased H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis and intracellular ROS and upregulated p-Akt and BCL-2 and downregulated caspase-3 and Bax. LY294002 abolished the protective effects of icariin. Our results show that icariin can attenuate H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat nucleus pulposus cells and PI3K/AKT pathway is at least partly included in this protection effect.

  12. Akt regulates drug-induced cell death through Bcl-w downregulation.

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    Michela Garofalo

    Full Text Available Akt is a serine threonine kinase with a major role in transducing survival signals and regulating proteins involved in apoptosis. To find new interactors of Akt involved in cell survival, we performed a two-hybrid screening in yeast using human full-length Akt c-DNA as bait and a murine c-DNA library as prey. Among the 80 clones obtained, two were identified as Bcl-w. Bcl-w is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the regulation of cellular survival, and that is up-regulated in different human tumors, such as gastric and colorectal carcinomas. Direct interaction of Bcl-w with Akt was confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequently, we addressed the function of this interaction: by interfering with the activity or amount of Akt, we have demonstrated that Akt modulates the amount of Bcl-w protein. We have found that inhibition of Akt activity may promote apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-w protein and the consequential reduction in interaction of Bcl-w with pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Our data provide evidence that Bcl-w is a new member of the Akt pathway and that Akt may induce anti-apoptotic signals at least in part through the regulation of the amount and activity of Bcl-w.

  13. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Fan, Jia; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-01-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling involved in Cr

  14. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

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    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Fan, Jia; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling involved in Cr

  15. δ-Tocopherol inhibits receptor tyrosine kinase-induced AKT activation in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2016-11-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies and supported by animal studies with vitamin E forms, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol (δ-T). Several recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-tocopherol, however, yielded disappointing results. Whether vitamin E prevents or promotes cancer is a serious concern. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of the different forms of tocopherols would enhance our understanding of this topic. In this study, we demonstrated that δ-T was the most effective tocopherol form in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. By profiling the effects of δ-T on the cell signaling using the phospho-kinase array, we found that the most inhibited target was the phosphorylation of AKT on T308. Further study on the activation of AKT by EGFR and IGFR revealed that δ-T attenuated the EGF/IGF-induced activation of AKT (via the phosphorylation of AKT on T308 induced by the activation of PIK3). Expression of dominant active PIK3 and AKT in prostate cancer cell line DU145 in which PIK3, AKT, and PTEN are wild type caused the cells to be reflectory to the inhibition of δ-T, supporting that δ-T inhibits the PIK3-mediated activation of AKT. Our data also suggest that δ-T interferes with the EGF-induced EGFR internalization, which leads to the inhibition of the receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of AKT. In summary, our results revealed a novel mechanism of δ-T in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, supporting the cancer preventive activity δ-T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Vitamin B1 Analog Benfotiamine Prevents Diabetes-Induced Diastolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure Through Akt/Pim-1–Mediated Survival Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Meloni, Marco; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus will result in a new epidemic of heart failure unless novel treatments able to halt diabetic cardiomyopathy early in its course are introduced. This study aimed to determine whether the activity of the Akt/Pim-1 signaling pathway is altered at critical stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy and whether supplementation with vitamin B1 analog benfotiamine (BFT) helps to sustain the above prosurvival mechanism, thereby preserving cardiomyocyte viability and function. Methods and Results Untreated streptozotocin-induced type 1 or leptin-receptor mutant type 2 diabetic mice showed diastolic dysfunction evolving to contractile impairment and cardiac dilatation and failure. BFT (70 mg/kg−1/d−1) improved diastolic and systolic function and prevented left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increase and chamber dilatation in both diabetic models. Moreover, BFT improved cardiac perfusion and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. In hearts of untreated diabetic mice, the expression and activity of Akt/Pim-1 signaling declined along with O-N-acetylglucosamine modification of Akt, inhibition of pentose phosphate pathway, activation of oxidative stress, and accumulation of glycation end products. Furthermore, diabetes reduced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation independently of Akt. BFT inhibited these effects of diabetes mellitus, thereby conferring cardiomyocytes with improved resistance to high glucose-induced damage. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and dominant-negative Akt inhibited antiapoptotic action of BFT and Pim-1 upregulation in high glucose-challenged cardiomyocytes. Conclusions These results show that BFT protects from diabetes mellitus-induced cardiac dysfunction through pleiotropic mechanisms, culminating in the activation of prosurvival signaling pathway. Thus, BFT merits attention for application in clinical practice. PMID:20107192

  17. Trimetazidine Protects Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Against Hypoxia and Serum Deprivation Induced Apoptosis by Activation of Akt

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    Xuhe Gong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation is a promising therapy for cardiac repair. However, the efficacy is limited by the poor viability of MSCs in the infarcted heart. Recent findings have implicated that trimetazidine (TMZ enhanced the survival of the stem cells under various conditions. However, as the stem cells in these studies were animal-derived, little information is available about the effects of TMZ on human MSCs. Herein, we propose that TMZ may protect human MSCs against apoptosis induced by Hypoxia/Serum deprivation (H/SD. Methods: Human umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs from Wharton's jelly were pretreated with 10µM TMZ of H/SD with or without the Akt inhibitor LY294002. The morphological changes were assessed using Hoechst 33342. Apoptosis was evaluated via Annexin V/PI staining; and apoptosis-related proteins were detected using Western-blot. Protein chip technology was used to screen for differences between the cell supernatants. Results: TMZ had a significant protective effect against H/SD-induced apoptosis, accompanied by an increase in Bcl-2 and p-Akt. The TMZ-mediated anti-apoptotic effect on MSCs could be attenuated by treatment with LY294002. Moreover, protein chip assays showed that TMZ treatment increased the paracrine functions of MSCs. Conclusion: Trimetazidine protects human UC-MSCs from H/SD-induced apoptosis via the Akt pathway and may therefore be a potentially useful therapeutic adjunct for transplanting MSCs into damaged heart after myocardial infarction.

  18. Glucose-induced lipid deposition in goose primary hepatocytes is dependent on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway

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    Han Chunchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that fatty liver formation in overfed geese was accompanied by PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway activation and changes in plasma glucose concentrations. Here, we show that glucose acts in goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. We observed that glucose increased lipogenesis, decreased fatty acid oxidation and increased very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Co-treatment with glucose and inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235 decreased the levels of factors involved in lipogenesis and increased the levels of factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. These findings show that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway decreased glucose-induced lipogenesis, inhibited the downregulation of fatty acid oxidation by glucose and increased the upregulation of VLDL-TG assembly and secretion by glucose. The results presented herein provide further support for the role of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in lipid metabolism as we showed that in goose primary hepatocytes, glucose acts through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-dependent pathway to stimulate lipid deposition by increasing lipogenesis and decreasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion.

  19. Proteasome inhibitors activate autophagy involving inhibition of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway as an anti-oxidation defense in human RPE cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingrong Tang

    Full Text Available The two major intracellular protein degradation systems, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS and autophagy, work collaboratively in many biological processes including development, apoptosis, aging, and countering oxidative injuries. We report here that, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE, ARPE-19 cells, proteasome inhibitors, clasto-lactacystinβ-lactone (LA or epoxomicin (Epo, at non-lethal doses, increased the protein levels of autophagy-specific genes Atg5 and Atg7 and enhanced the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3 from LC3-I to its lipidative form, LC3-II, which was enhanced by co-addition of the saturated concentration of Bafilomycin A1 (Baf. Detection of co-localization for LC3 staining and labeled-lysosome further confirmed autophagic flux induced by LA or Epo. LA or Epo reduced the phosphorylation of the protein kinase B (Akt, a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in ARPE-19 cells; by contrast, the induced changes of autophagy substrate, p62, showed biphasic pattern. The autophagy inhibitor, Baf, attenuated the reduction in oxidative injury conferred by treatment with low doses of LA and Epo in ARPE-19 cells exposed to menadione (VK3 or 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE. Knockdown of Atg7 with siRNA in ARPE-19 cells reduced the protective effects of LA or Epo against VK3. Overall, our results suggest that treatment with low levels of proteasome inhibitors confers resistance to oxidative injury by a pathway involving inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and activation of autophagy.

  20. Black rice extract protected HepG2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death via ERK1/2 and Akt activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaemin; Ham, Hyeonmi; Sung, Jeehye; Kim, Younghwa; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Jeom-Sig; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of black rice extract (BRE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Methanolic extract from black rice was evaluated for the protective effect on TBHP-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. Several biomarkers that modulate cell survival and death including reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3 activity, and related cellular kinases were determined. RESULTS TBHP induced cell death and apoptosis by a rapid increase in ROS generation and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, TBHP-induced oxidative stress resulted in a transient ERK1/2 activation and a sustained increase of JNK1/2 activation. While, BRE pretreatment protects the cells against oxidative stress by reducing cell death, caspase-3 activity, and ROS generation and also by preventing ERKs deactivation and the prolonged JNKs activation. Moreover, pretreatment of BRE increased the activation of ERKs and Akt which are pro-survival signal proteins. However, this effect was blunted in the presence of ERKs and Akt inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that activation of ERKs and Akt pathway might be involved in the cytoprotective effect of BRE against oxidative stress. Our findings provide new insights into the cytoprotective effects and its possible mechanism of black rice against oxidative stress. PMID:24741394

  1. Fisetin inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced migration of ARPE-19 cells by suppression of AKT activation and Sp1-dependent MMP-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Yong-Syuan; Wang, Kai; Chien, Hsiang-Wen; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2017-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) can result in abnormal migration of RPE cells. Fisetin is a naturally occurring compound that has been reported to have antitumor effects, but its effects on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell migration and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Effects of fisetin on EGF-induced cell viability and migration were examined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and in vitro migration assays. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) expression and activation of specificity protein-1 (Sp1) and protein kinase B (AKT) in ARPE-19 cells treated with EGF and with or without fisetin. Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to examine Sp1 transcription activity and MMP-9 binding activity. Fisetin did not affect ARPE-19 cell viability and significantly inhibited the EGF-induced migration capacity of ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, fisetin exerted an antimigratory effect and suppressed MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression. Treatment with EGF induced phosphorylation of AKT and expression of MMP-9 and Sp1. Fisetin combined with LY294002 (an inhibitor of AKT) prevented the EGF-induced migration involved in downregulation of Sp1 and MMP-9 expression. Luciferase and ChIP assays suggested that fisetin remarkably decreased the EGF-induced transcription activity of MMP-9 and Sp1 and inhibited EGF-mediated Sp1 from directly binding to the MMP-9 promoter in ARPE-19 cells. Fisetin inhibited EGF-induced cell migration via modulation of AKT/Sp1-dependent MMP-9 transcriptional activity. Therefore, fisetin may be a potential agent in the treatment of migratory PVR diseases.

  2. Dexamethasone (DEX induces Osmotic stress transcription factor 1 (Ostf1 through the Akt-GSK3β pathway in freshwater Japanese eel gill cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Chow

    2013-03-01

    Osmosensing and osmoregulatory processes undertaken in gills of euryhaline fish are coordinated by integrative actions of various signaling molecules/transcriptional factors. Considerable numbers of studies report the hyper- and hypo-osmoregulatory functions of fish gills, by illustrating the process of gill cell remodeling and the modulation of the expression of ion channels/transporters. Comparatively mechanistic information relayed from signal integration to transcriptional regulation in mediating gill cell functions has not yet been elucidated. In this study we demonstrate the functional links from cortisol stimulation, to Akt activation, to the expression of the transcriptional factor, Ostf1. Using the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, dexamethasone (DEX, Ostf1 expression is found to be activated via glucocorticoid receptor (GR and mediated by the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway. Pharmacological experiments using kinase inhibitors reveal that the expression of Ostf1 is negatively regulated by Akt activation. The inhibition of PI3K or Akt activities, by the specific kinase inhibitors (wortmannin, LY294002 or SH6, stimulates Ostf1 expression, while a reduction of GSK3β activity by LiCl reduces Ostf1 expression. Collectively, our report for the first time indicates that DEX can induce Ostf1 via GR, with the involvement of the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway in primary eel gill cell cultures. The data also suggest that Ostf1 may play different roles in gill cell survival during seawater acclimation.

  3. Synemin promotes AKT-dependent glioblastoma cell proliferation by antagonizing PP2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Aaron; Davis, Nathan; Paul, Madhumita; Orr, A Wayne; Skalli, Omar

    2012-04-01

    The intermediate filament protein synemin is present in astrocyte progenitors and glioblastoma cells but not in mature astrocytes. Here we demonstrate a role for synemin in enhancing glioblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic survival, as synemin RNA interference decreased both behaviors by inducing G1 arrest along with Rb hypophosphorylation and increased protein levels of the G1/S inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Akt involvement was demonstrated by decreased phosphorylation of its substrate, p21(Cip1), and reduced Akt catalytic activity and phosphorylation at essential activation sites. Synemin silencing, however, did not affect the activities of PDPK1 and mTOR complex 2, which directly phosphorylate Akt activation sites, but instead enhanced the activity of the major regulator of Akt dephosphorylation, protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A). This was accompanied by changes in PP2A subcellular distribution resulting in increased physical interactions between PP2A and Akt, as shown by proximity ligation assays (PLAs). PLAs and immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that synemin and PP2A form a protein complex. In addition, treatment of synemin-silenced cells with the PP2A inhibitor cantharidic acid resulted in proliferation and pAkt and pRb levels similar to those of controls. Collectively these results indicate that synemin positively regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation by helping sequester PP2A away from Akt, thereby favoring Akt activation.

  4. MicroRNA-29b regulates TGF-β1-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition of retinal pigment epithelial cells by targeting AKT2

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    Li, Min; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Ding; Wang, Fang, E-mail: milwang_122@msn.com

    2016-07-15

    The role of microRNA (miRNA) in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) progression has not been studied extensively, especially in retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is the main reason for formation of PVR. In this study, we first investigated the miRNA expression profile in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) mediated EMT of ARPE-19 cells. Among the five changed miRNAs, miR-29b showed the most significant downregulation. Enhanced expression of miR-29b could reverse TGF-β1 induced EMT through targeting Akt2. Akt2 downregulation could inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-29b in ARPE-19 cells directly triggered EMT process, which characterized by the phenotypic transition and the upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and downregulation of E-cadherin and zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) with increased cell migration. Akt2-shRNA also inhibited miR-29 inhibitor-induced EMT process. These data indicate that miR-29b plays an important role in TGF-β1-mediated EMT in ARPE-19 cells by targeting Akt2. - Highlights: • MiR-29b expression is decreased in TGF-β1-induced EMT of ARPE-19 cells. • MiR-29b inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells. • MiR-29b inhibitor induces EMT in ARPE-19 cells. • Akt2 is the target for miR-29b. • Downregulation of Akt2 prevents TGF-β1-induced EMT of ARPE-19 cells.

  5. Akt phosphorylation is essential for nuclear translocation and retention in NGF-stimulated PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Le Xuan Nguyen; Choi, Joung Woo; Lee, Sang Bae; Ye, Keqiang; Woo, Soo-Dong; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2006-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits Akt translocation into the nucleus, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Here, we describe that Akt phosphorylation can promote the nuclear translocation of Akt and is necessary for its nuclear retention. Overexpression of Akt-K179A, T308A, S473A-mutant failed to show either nuclear translocation or nuclear Akt phosphorylation, whereas expression of wild-type counterpart elicited profound Akt phosphorylation and induced nuclear translocation under NGF stimulation. Employing the PI3K inhibitor and a variety of mutants PI3K, we showed that nuclear translocation of Akt was mediated by activation of PI3K, and Akt phosphorylation status in the nucleus required PI3K activity. Thus the activity of PI3K might contribute to the nuclear translocation of Akt, and that Akt phosphorylation is essential for its nuclear retention under NGF stimulation conditions

  6. Icotinib, a potent and specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits growth of squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 through negatively regulating AKT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cai, Peifen; Fang, Xianying; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Gu, Yanhong

    2013-06-01

    Icotinib is a potent and specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In this study, we reported that icotinib had the antitumor activity on human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 in vitro. Meanwhile, adhesion to fibronectin and expression of integrin α3 and β1 were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment of icotinib. Moreover, icotinib induced cell cycle arrested and affected expression of various cell cycle related proteins in squamous cancer cell line A431, whereas it did not cause apoptosis. Furthermore, icotinib remarkably down-regulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) though blocking the interaction between 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and AKT in A431 cells. Taken together, it is shown that the small molecular compound, icotinib, has an anti-squamous cell carcinoma activity in vitro and its antitumor mechanism is associated with the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. These results provide a novel strategy for anti-squamous cell carcinoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. PI3K/Akt/GSK3β induced CREB activation ameliorates arsenic mediated alterations in NMDA receptors and associated signaling in rat hippocampus: Neuroprotective role of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pranay; Dhuriya, Yogesh K; Kumar, Vivek; Srivastava, Akriti; Gupta, Richa; Shukla, Rajendra K; Yadav, Rajesh S; Dwivedi, Hari N; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2018-04-30

    Protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced NMDA receptor dysfunctions and PI3K/Akt/ GSK3β signalling in hippocampus has been investigated in vivo and in vitro. Exposure to sodium arsenite (in vivo - 20 mg/kg, body weight p.o. for 28 days; in vitro - 10 μM for 24 h) and curcumin (in vivo - 100 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 28 days; in vitro - 20 μM for 24 h) was carried out alone or simultaneously. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated sodium arsenite induced alterations in the levels of NMDA receptors, its receptor subunits and synaptic proteins - pCaMKIIα, PSD-95 and SynGAP both in vivo and in vitro. Decreased levels of BDNF, pAkt, pERK1/2, pGSK3β and pCREB on sodium arsenite exposure were also protected by curcumin. Curcumin was found to decrease sodium arsenite induced changes in hippocampus by modulating PI3K/Akt/GSK3β neuronal survival pathway, known to regulate various cellular events. Treatment of hippocampal cultures with pharmacological inhibitors for ERK1/2, GSK3β and Akt individually inhibited levels of CREB and proteins associated with PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. Simultaneous treatment with curcumin was found to improve sodium arsenite induced learning and memory deficits in rats assessed by water maze and Y-maze. The results provide evidence that curcumin exercises its neuroprotective effect involving PI3K/Akt pathway which may affect NMDA receptors and downstream signalling through TrKβ and BDNF in arsenic induced cognitive deficits in hippocampus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. AKT/SGK-sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3 in the regulation of L-selectin and perforin expression as well as activation induced cell death of T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavsar, Shefalee K.; Merches, Katja; Bobbala, Diwakar; Lang, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Akt/SGK dependent phosphorylation of GSK3α,β regulates T lymphocytes. ► T cells from mice expressing Akt/SGK insensitive GSK3α,β (gsk3 KI ) release less IL-2. ► CD4 + cells from gsk3 KI mice express less CD62L. ► CD8 + cells from gsk3 KI mice are relatively resistant to activation induced cell death. ► Perforin expression is enhanced in gsk3 KI T cells. -- Abstract: Survival and function of T-lymphocytes critically depends on phosphoinositide (PI) 3 kinase. PI3 kinase signaling includes the PKB/Akt and SGK dependent phosphorylation and thus inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase GSK3α,β. Lithium, a known unspecific GSK3 inhibitor protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The present study explored, whether Akt/SGK-dependent regulation of GSK3 activity is a determinant of T cell survival and function. Experiments were performed in mutant mice in which Akt/SGK-dependent GSK3α,β inhibition was disrupted by replacement of the serine residue in the respective SGK/Akt-phosphorylation consensus sequence by alanine (gsk3 KI ). T cells from gsk3 KI mice were compared to T cells from corresponding wild type mice (gsk3 WT ). As a result, in gsk3 KI CD4 + cells surface CD62L (L-selectin) was significantly less abundant than in gsk3 WT CD4 + cells. Upon activation in vitro T cells from gsk3 KI mice reacted with enhanced perforin production and reduced activation induced cell death. Cytokine production was rather reduced in gsk3 KI T cells, suggesting that GSK3 induces effector function in CD8 + T cells. In conclusion, PKB/Akt and SGK sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3α,β is a potent regulator of perforin expression and activation induced cell death in T lymphocytes.

  9. The HSP90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG) synergizes with cisplatin and induces apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines via the Akt/XIAP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui, Takashi; Morishima, Kazue; Saito, Shin; Sakuma, Yuji; Fujii, Hirofumi; Hosoya, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Niki, Toshiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2014-02-01

    Although cisplatin (CDDP) is a key drug in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), acquired chemoresistance remains a major problem. Combination therapy may represent one strategy to overcome this resistance. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is known to be overexpressed in several types of cancer cells, and its inhibition by small molecules, either alone or in combination, has shown promise in the treatment of solid malignancies. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic effects of combining CDDP with the HSP90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG) on two CDDP-resistant human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines, KYSE30 and KYSE150. The results obtained demonstrated the synergistic inhibitory effects of CDDP and 17-AAG on the growth of KYSE30 and KYSE150 cells. Cell growth and cell number were more effectively reduced by the combined treatment with CDDP and 17-AAG than by the treatment with either CDDP or 17-AAG alone. Western blotting revealed that the combined action of CDDP and 17-AAG cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3, which demonstrated that the reduction in both cell growth and cell number was mediated by apoptosis. Time-course experiments showed that reduction in X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and phosphorylated Akt were concomitant with apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrate that 17-AAG synergizes with CDDP and induces apoptosis in CDDP-resistant ESCC cell lines, and also that modulation of the Akt/XIAP pathway may underlie this synergistic effect. Combination therapy with CDDP and an HSP90 inhibitor may represent a promising strategy to overcome CDDP resistance in ESCC.

  10. PTEN gene and phosphorylation of Akt protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-lin HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate PTEN gene expression and the Akt phosphorylation of protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast, to initially reveal the relation between PTEN gene and the Akt phosphorylated proteins to LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation mechanism. Methods: BrdU experiments was performed to evaluate the LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation,  RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis were used to analyze the PTEN gene expression and Western blot was performed to analyze Akt phosphorylated protein expression. Results: PTEN mRNA level of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 with LPS simulation for 24h and 72h , and there were no significant difference between the experimental group and control group the experimental group and control group (P>0.05 . PTEN protein expression levels of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 , at 72h, and PTEN mRNA levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h,12h and 24h(p>0.05. Phosphorylation Akt protein level (relative to total Akt protein was significantly higer than the control group (P<0.05 at 24h and 72h, and phosphorylation Akt protein levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h and 12h (P>0.05 .Conclusion: PTEN gene and phosphorylation Akt protein involve in LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation signal transduction pathway.

  11. Autophagy participates in isoliquiritigenin-induced melanin degradation in human epidermal keratinocytes through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibo; Zeng, Biyun; Pan, Yi; Huang, Pan; Wang, Chang

    2018-01-01

    Melanin is the pigment responsible for the color of human skin and hair. Melanin serves as a double-edge sword which can exert both protective and spot-causing effects on skin. Although melanin has an important role in protecting the skin against UV damage, an excessive or uneven melanin production can lead to the formation of freckles and age spots. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been reported to inhibit melanin synthesis; however, its role in melanin degradation remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the detailed function of ISL in melanin degradation in human epidermal keratinocytes. Since autophagy has been reported to be related to melanin degradation, we also examined the activation of autophagy by ISL treatment in keratinocytes by measurement of autophagy-related proteins, ATG7, LC3 and p62. Moreover, si-ATG7-induced ATG7 knockdown and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA decreased LC3 II protein levels and increased PMEL17, p62 and melanin levels in HaCaT cells, which could be partially reversed by ISL treatment, indicating that autophagy participated in melanin degradation. The decreased p-AKT and p-mTOR proteins upon ISL treatment indicated the involvement of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in ISL-induced melanin degradation. Taken together, we demonstrated that autophagy participates in ISL-induced melanin degradation in human epidermal keratinocytes through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. The E3 ubiquitin ligases β-TrCP and FBXW7 cooperatively mediates GSK3-dependent Mcl-1 degradation induced by the Akt inhibitor API-1, resulting in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hui; Koo, Junghui; Guan, Baoxiang; Yue, Ping; Deng, Xingming; Chen, Mingwei; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2013-11-22

    The novel Akt inhibitor, API-1, induces apoptosis through undefined mechanisms. The current study focuses on revealing the mechanisms by which API-1 induces apoptosis. API-1 rapidly and potently reduced the levels of Mcl-1 primarily in API-1-senstive lung cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 protected cells from induction of apoptosis by API-1. API-1 treatment decreased the half-life of Mcl-1, whereas inhibition of the proteasome with MG132 rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. API-1 decreased Mcl-1 levels accompanied with a rapid increase in Mcl-1 phosphorylation (S159/T163). Moreover, inhibition of GSK3 inhibited Mcl-1 phosphorylation and reduction induced by API-1 and antagonized the effect of API-1 on induction of apoptosis. Knockdown of either FBXW7 or β-TrCP alone, both of which are E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in Mcl-1 degradation, only partially rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. However, double knockdown of both E3 ubiquitin ligases enhanced the rescue of API-1-induced Mcl-1 reduction. API-1 induces GSK3-dependent, β-TrCP- and FBXW7-mediated Mcl-1 degradation, resulting in induction of apoptosis.

  13. Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating arachidonic acid metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Wang, Yuzhong; Zheng, Hao; Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Zhang, Jing; Falck, John R.; Guo, Austin M.; Yue, Jiang; Peng, Renxiu; Yang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and its downstream pathways have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in growth control of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen from licorice, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating multiple key enzymes in AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. Isoliquiritigenin diminished cell viability, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and clonogenic ability in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells, and induced apoptosis as evidenced by an analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and hoechst staining. Furthermore, isoliquiritigenin inhibited mRNA expression of multiple forms of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and decreased secretion of their products, including prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), without affecting COX-1, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ). In addition, it downregulated the levels of phospho-PI3K, phospho-PDK (Ser 241 ), phospho-Akt (Thr 308 ), phospho-Bad (Ser 136 ), and Bcl-x L expression, thereby activating caspase cascades and eventually cleaving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conversely, the addition of exogenous eicosanoids, including PGE 2 , LTB 4 and a 20-HETE analog (WIT003), and caspase inhibitors, or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Notably, isoliquiritigenin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice, together with decreased intratumoral levels of eicosanoids and phospho-Akt (Thr 308 ). Collectively, these data suggest that isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in

  14. Opposing effects of PI3K/Akt and Smad-dependent signaling pathways in NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID activated gene-1 (NAG-1 is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily. NAG-1 plays remarkable multifunctional roles in controlling diverse physiological and pathological processes including cancer. Like other TGF-β family members, NAG-1 can play dual roles during cancer development and progression by negatively or positively modulating cancer cell behaviors. In glioblastoma brain tumors, NAG-1 appears to act as a tumor suppressor gene; however, the precise underlying mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In the present study, we discovered that overexpression of NAG-1 induced apoptosis in U87 MG, U118 MG, U251 MG, and T98G cell lines via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, but not in A172 and LN-229 cell lines. NAG-1 could induce the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and Smad2/3 in all six tested glioblastoma cell lines, except Smad3 phosphorylation in A172 and LN-229 cell lines. In fact, Smad3 expression and its phosphorylation were almost undetectable in A172 and LN-229 cells. The PI3K inhibitors promoted NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis, while siRNAs to Smad2 and Smad3 decreased the apoptosis rate. NAG-1 also stimulated the direct interaction between Akt and Smad3 in glioblastoma cells. Elevating the level of Smad3 restored the sensitivity to NAG-1-induced apoptosis in A172 and LN-229 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that PI3K/Akt and Smad-dependent signaling pathways display opposing effects in NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis.

  15. Tamoxifen enhances erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity through down-regulating AKT-mediated thymidine phosphorylase expression in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chiu, Hsien-Chun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Huang, Yi-Jhen; Wo, Ting-Yu; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Tamoxifen is a triphenylethylene nonsteroidal estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist used worldwide as an adjuvant hormone therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of tamoxifen-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is an enzyme of the pyrimidine salvage pathway which is upregulated in cancers. In this study, tamoxifen treatment inhibited cell survival in two NSCLC cells, H520 and H1975. Treatment with tamoxifen decreased TP mRNA and protein levels through AKT inactivation. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vectors significantly rescued the decreased TP protein and mRNA levels in tamoxifen-treated NSCLC cells. In contrast, combination treatment with PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) and tamoxifen further decreased the TP expression and cell viability of NSCLC cells. Knocking down TP expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of TP enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of tamoxifen. Erlotinib (Tarceva, OSI-774), an orally available small molecular inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, is approved for clinical treatment of NSCLC. Compared to a single agent alone, tamoxifen combined with erlotinib resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, and reduced TP protein levels. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating tamoxifen and erlotinib for the treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fisetin inhibits epidermal growth factor–induced migration of ARPE-19 cells by suppression of AKT activation and Sp1-dependent MMP-9 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Yong-Syuan; Wang, Kai; Chien, Hsiang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) can result in abnormal migration of RPE cells. Fisetin is a naturally occurring compound that has been reported to have antitumor effects, but its effects on epidermal growth factor (EGF)–induced cell migration and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Methods Effects of fisetin on EGF-induced cell viability and migration were examined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and in vitro migration assays. Reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) expression and activation of specificity protein-1 (Sp1) and protein kinase B (AKT) in ARPE-19 cells treated with EGF and with or without fisetin. Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to examine Sp1 transcription activity and MMP-9 binding activity. Results Fisetin did not affect ARPE-19 cell viability and significantly inhibited the EGF-induced migration capacity of ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, fisetin exerted an antimigratory effect and suppressed MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression. Treatment with EGF induced phosphorylation of AKT and expression of MMP-9 and Sp1. Fisetin combined with LY294002 (an inhibitor of AKT) prevented the EGF-induced migration involved in downregulation of Sp1 and MMP-9 expression. Luciferase and ChIP assays suggested that fisetin remarkably decreased the EGF-induced transcription activity of MMP-9 and Sp1 and inhibited EGF-mediated Sp1 from directly binding to the MMP-9 promoter in ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions Fisetin inhibited EGF-induced cell migration via modulation of AKT/Sp1–dependent MMP-9 transcriptional activity. Therefore, fisetin may be a potential agent in the treatment of migratory PVR diseases. PMID:29296070

  17. Paris saponin-induced autophagy promotes breast cancer cell apoptosis via the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhan-Zhi; Li, Man-Mei; Deng, Peng-Fei; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Lei; Lu, Xue-Ping; Hu, Liu-Bing; Chen, Zui; Jie, Hui-Yang; Wang, Yi-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Zhong

    2017-02-25

    Paris saponins possess anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects. However, the anticancer effect of Paris saponins has not been well elucidated and the mechanisms underlying the potential function of Paris saponins in cancer therapy are needed to be further identify. In this study, we report that saponin compounds isolated from Paris polyphylla exhibited antitumor activity against breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Paris saponin XA-2 induced apoptosis in both cell lines, as evidenced by the activation of caspases and cleavage of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The ability of XA-2 to induce autophagy was confirmed by acridine orange staining, accumulation of autophagosome-bound Long chain 3 (LC3)-II, and measurement of autophagic flux. XA-2-induced autophagy was observed to promote apoptosis by the combined treatment of breast cancer cell lines with XA-2 and autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, respectively. Moreover, we report a decrease in the levels of Akt/mTOR signaling pathway proteins, such as the phosphorylated forms of Akt, mTOR, P70S6K, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1). Taken together, these results provide important insights explaining the anticancer activity of Paris saponins and the potential development of XA-2 as a new therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PDGF stimulation of Mueller cell proliferation: Contributions of c-JNK and the PI3K/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Woong; Chung, Eun Jee; Jung, Sun-Ah; Lee, Joon H.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has a critical role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) as a chemoattractant and mitogen for retinal pigment epithelial cells and retinal glial cells. Here, we investigated the potential effects of PDGF on the proliferation of Mueller cells and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. PDGF induced Mueller cell proliferation and increased phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor (PDGFR), as shown by an MTT assay and immunoprecipitation analyses. Both effects were blocked by JNJ, a PDGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. PDGF also stimulated phosphorylation of c-JNK and Akt. PDGF-induced Mueller cell proliferation was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with SP600125 and LY294002, inhibitors of c-JNK and Akt phosphorylation, respectively. Our findings collectively indicate that PDGF-stimulated Mueller cell proliferation occurs via activation of the c-JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These data provide useful information in establishing the role of Mueller cells in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

  19. HSP27 phosphorylation modulates TRAIL-induced activation of Src-Akt/ERK signaling through interaction with β-arrestin2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shimei; Xin, Yinqiang; Qi, Zhilin; Xu, Yimiao; Diao, Ying; Lan, Lei; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2014-03-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) regulates critical cellular functions such as development, differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. A variety of stimuli induce the phosphorylation of HSP27, which affects its cellular functions. However, most previous studies focused on the role of HSP27 protein itself in apoptosis, the particular role of its phosphorylation state in signaling transduction remains largely unclear. In the present study, we reported that HSP27 phosphorylation modulated TRAIL-triggered pro-survival signaling transduction. In HeLa cells, suppression of HSP27 phosphorylation by specific inhibitor KRIBB3 or MAPKAPK2 (MK2) knockdown and by overexpression of non-phosphorylatable HSP27(3A) mutant demonstrated that hindered HSP27 phosphorylation enhanced the TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In addition, reduced HSP27 phosphorylation by KRIBB3 treatment or MK2 knockdown attenuated the TRAIL-induced activation of Akt and ERK survival signaling through suppressing the phosphorylation of Src. By overexpression of HSP27(15A) or HSP27(78/82A) phosphorylation mutant, we further showed that phosphorylation of HSP27 at serine 78/82 residues was essential to TRAIL-triggered Src-Akt/ERK signaling transduction. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy showed that HSP27 interacted with Src and scaffolding protein β-arrestin2 in response of TRAIL stimulation and suppression of HSP27 phosphorylation apparently disrupted the TRAIL-induced interaction of HSP27 and Src or interaction of HSP27 and β-arrestin2. We further demonstrated that β-arrestin2 mediated HSP27 action on TRAIL-induced Src activation, which was achieved by recruiting signaling complex of HSP27/β-arrestin2/Src in response to TRAIL. Taken together, our study revealed that HSP27 phosphorylation modulates TRAIL-triggered activation of Src-Akt/ERK pro-survival signaling via interacting with β-arrestin2 in HeLa cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relaxin attenuates aristolochic acid induced human tubular epithelial cell apoptosis in vitro by activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang-Cheng; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Qun-Hong; Yang, Xiu; Xia, Wen-Kai; Chen, Qi; Wang, Ming; Fei, Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy remains a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), however few treatment strategies exist. Emerging evidence has shown that H2 relaxin (RLX) possesses powerful antifibrosis and anti-apoptotic properties, therefore we aimed to investigate whether H2 relaxin can be employed to reduce AA-induced cell apoptosis. Human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to AA-I were treated with or without administration of H2 RLX. Cell viability was examined using the WST-8 assay. Apoptotic morphologic alterations were observed using the Hoechst 33342 staining method. Apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. The expression of caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, ERK1/2, Bax, Bcl-2, and Akt proteins was determined by Western blot. Co-treatment with RLX reversed the increased apoptosis observed in the AA-I only treated group. RLX restored expression of phosphorylated Akt which found to be decreased in the AA-I only treated cells. RLX co-treatment led to a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as well as the cleaved form of caspase-3 compared to the AA-I only treated cells. This anti-apoptotic effect of RLX was attenuated by co-administration of the Akt inhibitor LY294002. The present study demonstrated H2 RLX can decrease AA-I induced apoptosis through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  1. Inhibition of HSP27 alone or in combination with pAKT inhibition as therapeutic approaches to target SPARC-induced glioma cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Chad R

    2012-04-01

    by inhibiting pAKT. 4 Combined inhibition of HSP27 and pAKT is more effective than TMZ treatment alone. Conclusions We conclude that inhibition of HSP27 alone, or in combination with pAKT inhibitor IV, may be an effective therapeutic approach to inhibit SPARC-induced glioma cell invasion and survival in SPARC-positive/PTEN-wildtype and SPARC-positive/PTEN-null tumors, respectively.

  2. Sensitization of TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells by concurrent suppression of the NF-κB and Akt pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xia; Chen Wenshu; Lin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Blockage of either nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or Akt sensitizes cancer cells to TNF-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the undetermined effect of concurrent blockage of these two survival pathways on TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. The results show that Akt contributes to TNF-induced NF-κB activation in lung cancer cells through regulating phosphorylation of the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB. Although individually blocking IKK or Akt partially suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activation, concurrent suppression of these pathways completely inhibited TNF-induced NF-κB activation and downstream anti-apoptotic gene expression, and synergistically potentiated TNF-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, suppression of Akt inhibited the Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway through dephosphorylation of BAD. These results indicate that concurrent suppression of NF-κB and Akt synergistically sensitizes TNF-induced cytotoxicity through blockage of distinct survival pathways downstream of NF-κB and Akt, which may be applied in lung cancer therapy

  3. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in this process. -- Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to cadmium induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. ► ROS involved in cadmium-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. ► Cadmium activates ROS-dependent AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin-mediated signaling. ► ROS

  4. C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Seob Lee

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN.

  5. Curcumin attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells through PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Kang, Jinsen; Cao, Yajun; Fan, Shengjun; Yang, Haopeng; An, Yu; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Li, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    Lipotoxicity plays a vital role in development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged elevation of free fatty acids especially the palmitate leads to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol from the curry spice turmeric, is considered to be a broadly cytoprotective agent. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of curcumin on palmitate-induced apoptosis in β-cells and investigate underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that curcumin improved cell viability and enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretory function in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells. Palmitate incubation evoked chromatin condensation, DNA nick end labeling and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Curcumin treatment inhibited palmitate-induced apoptosis, relieved mitochondrial depolarization and up-regulated Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Palmitate induced the generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes, which could be neutralized by curcumin treatment. Moreover, curcumin could promote rapid phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 in MIN6 cells under lipotoxic condition. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt specific inhibitors abolished the anti-lipotoxic effect of curcumin and stimulated FoxO1 nuclear translocation. These findings suggested that curcumin protected MIN6 pancreatic β-Cells against apoptosis through activation of Akt, inhibition of nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathway.

  6. Protective Effects of Fisetin Against 6-OHDA-Induced Apoptosis by Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryoko; Kurose, Takumi; Morishige, Yuta; Fujimori, Ko

    2018-02-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. 3,3',4',7-Tetrahydroxyflavone (fisetin), a plant flavonoid has a variety of physiological effects such as antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of fisetin against 6-OHDA-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 6-OHDA-mediated cell toxicity was reduced in a fisetin concentration-dependent manner. 6-OHDA-mediated elevation of the expression of the oxidative stress-related genes such as hemeoxygenase-1, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1, NF-E2-related factor 2, and γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier was suppressed by fisetin. Fisetin also lowered the ratio of the proapoptotic Bax protein and the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, fisetin effectively suppressed 6-OHDA-mediated activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, which leads to the cell death, while, 6-OHDA-induced caspase-3/7 activity was lowered. Furthermore, fisetin activated the PI3K-Akt signaling, which inhibits the caspase cascade, and fisetin-mediated inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced cell death was negated by the co-treatment with an Akt inhibitor. These results indicate that fisetin protects 6-OHDA-induced cell death by activating PI3K-Akt signaling in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. This is the first report that the PI3K-Akt signaling is involved in the fisetin-protected ROS-mediated neuronal cell death.

  7. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a promising therapeutic strategy against paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer via targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongshao; Lin, Xiaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Zhentao; Chen, Zuhua; Li, Zhongwu; Wang, Jingyuan; Li, Beifang; Hu, Yanting; Dong, Bin; Shen, Lin; Ji, Jiafu; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaotian

    2018-01-26

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is widely used in the front-line chemotherapy for gastric cancer (GC), but resistance limits its use. Due to the lack of proper models, mechanisms underlying PTX resistance in GC were not well studied. Using established PTX-resistant GC cell sublines HGC-27R, we for the first time integrated biological traits and molecular mechanisms of PTX resistance in GC. Data revealed that PTX-resistant GC cells were characterized by microtubular disorders, an EMT phenotype, reduced responses to antimitotic drugs, and resistance to apoptosis (marked by upregulated β-tubulin III, vimentin, attenuated changes in G 2 /M molecules or pro-apoptotic factors in response to antimitotic drugs or apoptotic inducers, respectively). Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, the serine/threonine kinase Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were also observed, which might be the reason for above phenotypic alternations. In vitro data suggested that targeting these pathways were sufficient to elicit antitumor responses in PTX-resistant GC, in which the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 displayed higher therapeutic efficiency than the mTOR inhibitor everolimus or the MEK inhibitor AZD6244. Antitumor effects of BEZ235 were also confirmed in mice bearing HGC-27R tumors. Thus, these data suggest that PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathway inhibition, especially PI3K/mTOR dual blockade, might be a promising therapeutic strategy against PTX-resistant GC.

  8. Hypoxia-induced p53 modulates both apoptosis and radiosensitivity via AKT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynska, Katarzyna B.; Foskolou, Iosifina P.; Abraham, Aswin G.; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Tellier, Céline; Haider, Syed; Span, Paul N.; O’Neill, Eric E.; Buffa, Francesca M.; Hammond, Ester M.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in tumors harboring p53 mutations has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy; however, the transcriptional targets that mediate hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis is reliant on the DNA-binding and transactivation domains of p53 but not on the acetylation sites K120 and K164, which, in contrast, are essential for DNA damage–induced, p53-dependent apoptosis. Evaluation of hypoxia-induced transcripts in multiple cell lines identified a group of genes that are hypoxia-inducible proapoptotic targets of p53, including inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5D), pleckstrin domain–containing A3 (PHLDA3), sulfatase 2 (SULF2), B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2), cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2), and KN motif and ankyrin repeat domains 3 (KANK3). These targets were also regulated by p53 in human cancers, including breast, brain, colorectal, kidney, bladder, and melanoma cancers. Downregulation of these hypoxia-inducible targets associated with poor prognosis, suggesting that hypoxia-induced apoptosis contributes to p53-mediated tumor suppression and treatment response. Induction of p53 targets, PHLDA3, and a specific INPP5D transcript mediated apoptosis in response to hypoxia through AKT inhibition. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of AKT led to apoptosis in the hypoxic regions of p53-deficient tumors and consequently increased radiosensitivity. Together, these results identify mediators of hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis and suggest AKT inhibition may improve radiotherapy response in p53-deficient tumors. PMID:25961455

  9. Inhibition of ERK1/2 or AKT Activity Equally Enhances Radiation Sensitization in B16F10 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalal, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal; Fathima, Faraz; Pai, Vinitha Ramanath; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Krishna, Chilakapati Murali; Upadhya, Dinesh

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation sensitizing ability of ERK1/2, PI3K-AKT and JNK inhibitors in highly radiation resistant and metastatic B16F10 cells which carry wild-type Ras and Braf. Methods Mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 was exposed to 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 Gy of electron beam radiation. Phosphorylated ERK1/2, AKT and JNK levels were estimated by ELISA. Cells were exposed to 2.0 and 3.0 Gy of radiation with or without prior pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2, AKT as well as JNK pathways. Cell death induced by radiation as well as upon inhibition of these pathways was measured by TUNEL assay using flow cytometry. Results Exposure of B16F10 cells to 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 Gy of electron beam irradiation triggered an increase in all the three phosphorylated proteins compared to sham-treated and control groups. B16F10 cells pre-treated with either ERK1/2 or AKT inhibitors equally enhanced radiation-induced cell death at 2.0 as well as 3.0 Gy (P < 0.001), while inhibition of JNK pathway increased radiation-induced cell death to a lesser extent. Interestingly combined inhibition of ERK1/2 or AKT pathways did not show additional cell death compared to individual ERK1/2 or AKT inhibition. This indicates that ERK1/2 or AKT mediates radiation resistance through common downstream molecules in B16F10 cells. Conclusions Even without activating mutations in Ras or Braf genes, ERK1/2 and AKT play a critical role in B16F10 cell survival upon radiation exposure and possibly act through common downstream effector/s. PMID:29581812

  10. Recombinant VP1, an Akt inhibitor, suppresses progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing apoptosis and modulation of CCL2 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-An Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The application of viral elements in tumor therapy is one facet of cancer research. Recombinant capsid protein VP1 (rVP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Here, we aim to further investigate its apoptotic mechanism and possible anti-metastatic effect in murine models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, one of the most common human cancers worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Treatment with rVP1 inhibited cell proliferation in two murine HCC cell lines, BNL and Hepa1-6, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 0.1-0.2 µM. rVP1 also induced apoptosis in these cells, which was mediated by Akt deactivation and dissociation of Ku70-Bax, and resulted in conformational changes and mitochondrial translocation of Bax, leading to the activation of caspases-9, -3 and -7. Treatment with 0.025 µM rVP1, which did not affect the viability of normal hepatocytes, suppressed cell migration and invasion via attenuating CCL2 production. The production of CCL2 was modulated by Akt-dependent NF-κB activation that was decreased after rVP1 treatment. The in vivo antitumor effects of rVP1 were assessed in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of HCC in immune-competent BALB/c mice. Intratumoral delivery of rVP1 inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth as a result of increased apoptosis. Intravenous administration of rVP1 in an orthotopic HCC model suppressed tumor growth, inhibited intra-hepatic metastasis, and prolonged survival. Furthermore, a decrease in the serum level of CCL2 was observed in rVP1-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented herein suggest that, via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation, rVP1 suppresses the growth, migration, and invasion of murine HCC cells by inducing apoptosis and attenuating CCL2 production both in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant protein VP1 thus has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic agent for HCC.

  11. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Seok [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin-il [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyu-dong [Hazardous Substances Analysis Division, Gwangju Regional Food and Drug Administration, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Yea [Department of Nursing Kyungbok University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hwa-Sup [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bokyung [Department of Physiology, Konkuk Medical School, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo-Pyo, E-mail: ypyun@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  12. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Shin-il; Yoo, Kyu-dong; Lee, Mi-Yea; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Shin, Hwa-Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

  13. AKT2 Oncogene and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Jin Q

    2004-01-01

    By screening NCI diversity set that was derived from 140,000 compounds, we have identified several potential Akt inhibitors, one of which has been further characterized and named Akt/PKB inhibitor (API)-2...

  14. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Kuroyanagi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 on osteoprotegerin (OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, reduced the FGF-2-induced OPG release and the OPG mRNA expression. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase activating p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, had little effect on the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release. On the other hand, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK, and Akt inhibitor suppressed the OPG release induced by FGF-2. Resveratrol failed to affect the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. The phosphorylation of Akt induced by FGF-2 was significantly suppressed by resveratrol or SRT1720. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol down-regulates FGF-2-stimulated OPG synthesis through the suppression of the Akt pathway in osteoblasts and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation.

  15. Osteopontin induces β-catenin signaling through activation of Akt in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Brian W.; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A.

    2010-01-01

    Secretion of osteopontin (OPN) by cancer cells is a known mediator of tumorigenesis and cancer progression in both experimental and clinical studies. Our work demonstrates that OPN can activate Akt, an important step in cancer progression. Both ILK and PI3K are integral proteins in the OPN/Akt pathway, as inhibition of either kinase leads to a loss of OPN-mediated Akt activation. Subsequent to OPN-induced Akt activation, we observe inactivation of GSK-3β, a regulator of β-catenin. Osteopontin stimulation leads to an overall increase in β-catenin protein levels with a resultant transfer of β-catenin to the nucleus. Through the nuclear import of β-catenin, OPN increases both the transcription and protein levels of MMP-7 and CD44, which are known TCF/LEF transcription targets. This work describes an important aspect of cancer progression induced by OPN.

  16. Isoegomaketone induces apoptosis in SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cells through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Jae; Lee, Ju-Hye; Moon, Kwang-Deog; Jeong, Il-Yun; Yee, Sung-Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Seo, Kwon-Il

    2014-11-01

    Isoegomaketone (IK) is a major biologically active component of Perilla frutescens. In this study, we investigated the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to IK-induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells. We found that IK inhibited the proliferation of SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. IK also induced sub-G1 DNA accumulation, formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation, and a DNA ladder in SK-MEL-2 cells. IK also induced activation of caspase-3 and -9, whereas caspase‑8 was unaffected. Further, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, ROS scavenger) treatment to SK-MEL-2 cells significantly reduced IK-induced cell death. Pretreatment of NAC to SK-MEL-2 cells followed by 100 µM IK reduced the protein levels of Bax and cytochrome c as well as PARP cleavage, whereas the protein level of Bcl-2 increased. Moreover, IK inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT/mTOR protein and cell proliferation induced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. In conclusion, IK-induced ROS generation regulates cell growth inhibition and it induces apoptosis through caspase‑dependent and -independent pathways via modulation of PI3K/AKT signaling in SK-MEL-2 cells.

  17. Inhibition of Akt activity induces the mesenchymal-to-epithelial reverting transition with restoring E-cadherin expression in KB and KOSCC-25B oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sam-Pyo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Akt/PKB family of kinases is frequently activated in human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Akt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT involves downregulation of E-cadherin, which appears to result from upregulation of the transcription repressor Snail. Recently, it was proposed that carcinoma cells, especially in metastatic sites, could acquire the mesenchymal-to-epithelial reverting transition (MErT in order to adapt the microenvironments and re-expression of E-cadherin be a critical indicator of MErT. However, the precise mechanism and biologic or clinical importance of the MErT in cancers have been little known. This study aimed to investigate whether Akt inhibition would restore the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, reduce that of Vimentin, and induce the MErT in OSCC cells with low or negative expression of E-cadherin. We also investigate whether inhibition of Akt activity would affect the E-cadherin repressors and signaling molecules like NF-κB, ERK, and p38. Methods We screened several OSCC cell lines in order to select suitable cell line models for inducing MErT, using immunoblotting and methylation specific-PCR. We examined whether Akt inhibitor phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogues (PIA treatment would restore the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, reduce that of Vimentin, and induce the MErT in KB and KOSCC-25B cells using RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence analysis, and in vitro migration assay. We also investigated whether inhibition of Akt activity would affect the E-cadherin repressors, including Snail, Twist, and SIP-1/ZEB-2 and signaling molecules like NF-κB, ERK, JNK, and p38 using RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analysis. Results Of the 7 OSCC cell lines, KB and KOSCC-25B showed constitutively activated phosphorylated Akt and low or negative expression of E-cadherin. Inhibition of Akt activity by PIA decreased NF-κB signaling

  18. Smad, PI3K/Akt, and Wnt-dependent signaling pathways are involved in BMP-4-induced ESC self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Lim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Hun; Han, Ho Jae

    2009-08-01

    It is known that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) has a diverse effect on ESCs. However, its precise mechanism in mouse ESCs is not fully understood. We evaluated the effect of BMP-4 on ESC proliferation and its related signal cascades in this study. BMP-4 significantly increased the level of [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in time- (> or =8 hours) and dose- (> or =10 ng/ml) dependent manners. Additionally, BMP-4 increased cyclin D1 and decreased p27(kip1) expression values in a time-dependent manner. The increases in BMP-4-induced [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and cyclin D1 expression were inhibited by the BMP-4 receptor antagonist noggin. BMP-4 increased Wnt1 expression. Wnt1 expression was attenuated by Smad4 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and BMP-4-induced cyclin D1 expression was inhibited by Smad4 and Wnt1 siRNAs. BMP-4 also activated beta-catenin, which was blocked by Smad4 and Wnt1 siRNAs. In addition, BMP-4 induced Akt phosphorylation. BMP-4-induced beta-catenin activation and cyclin D1 expression were attenuated by phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) siRNA and Akt inhibitor. Additionally, downregulation of Smad4, Wnt1, and PI3K expression by siRNA decreased the levels of pluripotency marker mRNAs of ESCs, including Oct4, Sox2, and FoxD3. Our results suggested that BMP-4-induced [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation was significantly attenuated by Smad4, Wnt1, and PI3K knockdown. In conclusion, BMP-4 contributed to the maintenance of cell proliferation and the pluripotent state by Smad, PI3K/Akt, and Wnt1/beta-catenin in mouse ESCs.

  19. 4-Hydroxy estradiol but not 2-hydroxy estradiol induces expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor A through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/FRAP pathway in OVCAR-3 and A2780-CP70 human ovarian carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ning; Nester, Rebecca A.; Sarkar, Mohamadi A.

    2004-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor composed of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits. HIF-1 expression is induced by hypoxia, growth factors, and activation of oncogenes. HIF-1 activates downstream target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), which plays an important role in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Estrogen exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for ovarian cancer. Estradiol (E2) is usually metabolized by CYP1A1/1A2 and CYP3A4 to the 2-hydroxy estradiol (2-OHE2) and 4-hydroxy estradiol (4-OHE2) in human liver. Many reports have suggested that the formation of 4-OHE2 is important for mammary carcinogenesis. However, the formation of 2-OHE2 may play an important role in exhibiting anticarcinogenic effects. In the present study, we have demonstrated that one of the catechol estrogen metabolites of E2, 4-OHE2, induces HIF-1α and VEGF-A expression at protein level in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and A2780-CP70 cells, in dose- and time-dependent manners, whereas the other catechol estrogen metabolite of E2, 2-OHE2, does not alter HIF-1α and VEGF-A expression. To explore the mechanism of 4-OHE2-induced HIF-1α and VEGF-A expression, we studied whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are involved in 4-OHE2-induced HIF-1α and VEGF-A expression. Our findings indicate that PI3K inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin, inhibited HIF-1α and VEGF-A expression, whereas MAPK inhibitor, PD98059, did not alter HIF-1α and VEGF-A expression induced by 4-OHE2. 4-OHE2, but not 2-OHE2, also induced Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 in dose- and time-dependent manners, and LY294002 and wortmannin inhibited Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 induced by 4-OHE2. Our results also indicated that the mTOR/FRAP inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited 4-OHE2-induced HIF-1α and VEGF-A expression. These results suggest that the PI3K/Akt

  20. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Inhibits Microvascular Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathway in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB is prone to inducing brain injury during open heart surgery. A hydrogen-rich solution (HRS can prevent oxidation and apoptosis, and inhibit inflammation. This study investigated effects of HRS on brain injury induced by CPB and regulatory mechanisms of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. Methods: A rat CPB model and an in vitro cell hypoxia model were established. After HRS treatment, Rat behavior was measured using neurological deficit score; Evans blue (EB was used to assess permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB; HE staining was used to observe pathological changes; Inflammatory factors and brain injury markers were detected by ELISA; the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway-related proteins and apoptosis were assessed by western blot, immunohistochemistry and qRT –PCR analyses of brain tissue and neurons. Results: After CPB, brain tissue anatomy was disordered, and cell structure was abnormal. Brain tissue EB content increased. There was an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, an increase in expression of Bax and caspase-3, a decrease in expression of Bcl2, and increases in levels of Akt, GSK3β, P-Akt, and P-GSK3β in brain tissue. HRS treatment attenuated the inflammatory reaction ,brain tissue EB content was significantly reduced and significantly decreased expression levels of Bax, caspase-3, Akt, GSK3β, P-Akt, and P-GSK3β in the brain. After adding the PI3K signaling pathway inhibitor, LY294002, to rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs, HRS could reduce activated Akt expression and downstream regulatory gene phosphorylation of GSK3β expression, and inhibit CMEC apoptosis. Conclusion: The PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway plays an important role in the mechanism of CPB-induced brain injury. HRS can reduce CPB-induced brain injury and inhibit CMEC apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway.

  1. Inhibition of SRC-3 enhances sensitivity of human cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhengzhi, E-mail: zouzhengzhi@m.scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Luo, Xiaoyong [Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Luoyang Central Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Luoyang 471000 (China); Nie, Peipei [KingMed Diagnostics and KingMed School of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wu, Baoyan; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Yanchun [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, Wenyi [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China); Geng, Guojun; Jiang, Jie [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China); Mi, Yanjun, E-mail: myjgj_77@163.com [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China)

    2016-09-09

    SRC-3 is widely expressed in multiple tumor types and involved in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising antitumor drugs. However, the poor efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors has restricted its further clinical application. Here, we reported the novel finding that depletion of SRC-3 enhanced sensitivity of breast and lung cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors (SAHA and romidepsin). In contrast, overexpression of SRC-3 decreased SAHA-induced cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that SRC-3 inhibitor bufalin increased cancer cell apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors. The combination of bufalin and SAHA was particular efficient in attenuating AKT activation and reducing Bcl-2 levels. Taken together, these accumulating data might guide development of new breast and lung cancer therapies. - Highlights: • Depletion of SRC-3 enhanced sensitivity of breast and lung cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors. • Overexpression of SRC-3 enhanced cancer cell resistance to HDAC inhibitors. • SRC-3 inhibitor bufalin increased cancer cell apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors. • Bufalin synergized with HDAC inhibitor attenuated AKT activation and reduced Bcl-2 levels in human cancer cell.

  2. AKT/SGK-sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3 in the regulation of L-selectin and perforin expression as well as activation induced cell death of T-lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhavsar, Shefalee K.; Merches, Katja; Bobbala, Diwakar [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/SGK dependent phosphorylation of GSK3{alpha},{beta} regulates T lymphocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells from mice expressing Akt/SGK insensitive GSK3{alpha},{beta} (gsk3{sup KI}) release less IL-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4{sup +} cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice express less CD62L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD8{sup +} cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice are relatively resistant to activation induced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perforin expression is enhanced in gsk3{sup KI} T cells. -- Abstract: Survival and function of T-lymphocytes critically depends on phosphoinositide (PI) 3 kinase. PI3 kinase signaling includes the PKB/Akt and SGK dependent phosphorylation and thus inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase GSK3{alpha},{beta}. Lithium, a known unspecific GSK3 inhibitor protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The present study explored, whether Akt/SGK-dependent regulation of GSK3 activity is a determinant of T cell survival and function. Experiments were performed in mutant mice in which Akt/SGK-dependent GSK3{alpha},{beta} inhibition was disrupted by replacement of the serine residue in the respective SGK/Akt-phosphorylation consensus sequence by alanine (gsk3{sup KI}). T cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice were compared to T cells from corresponding wild type mice (gsk3{sup WT}). As a result, in gsk3{sup KI} CD4{sup +} cells surface CD62L (L-selectin) was significantly less abundant than in gsk3{sup WT} CD4{sup +} cells. Upon activation in vitro T cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice reacted with enhanced perforin production and reduced activation induced cell death. Cytokine production was rather reduced in gsk3{sup KI} T cells, suggesting that GSK3 induces effector function in CD8{sup +} T cells. In conclusion, PKB/Akt and SGK sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3{alpha},{beta} is a potent regulator of perforin expression and activation induced cell death in T lymphocytes.

  3. Modulatory effect of curcumin on ketamine-induced toxicity in rat thymocytes: Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pavlovic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a widely used anesthetic in pediatric clinical practice. Previous studies have demonstrated that ketamine induces neurotoxicity and has a modulatory effect on the cells of the immune system. Here, we evaluated the potential protective effect and underlying mechanisms of natural phenolic compound curcumin against ketamine-induced toxicity in rat thymocytes. Rat thymocytes were exposed to 100 µM ketamine alone or combined with increasing concentrations of curcumin (0.3, 1, and 3 μM for 24 hours. Cell viability was analyzed with CCK-8 assay kit. Apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry and propidium iodide as well as Z-VAD-FMK and Z-LEHD-FMK inhibitors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential [MMP] were measured by flow cytometry. Colorimetric assay with DEVD-pNA substrate was used for assessing caspase-3 activity. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt signaling pathway was tested with Wortmannin inhibitor. Ketamine induced toxicity in cells, increased the number of hypodiploid cells, caspase-3 activity and ROS production, and inhibited the MMP. Co-incubation of higher concentrations of curcumin (1 and 3 μM with ketamine markedly decreased cytotoxicity, apoptosis rate, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production in rat thymocytes, and increased the MMP. Application of Z-VAD-FMK (a pan caspase inhibitor or Z-LEHD-FMK (caspase-9 inhibitor with ketamine effectively attenuated the ketamine-induced apoptosis in rat thymocytes. Administration of Wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor with curcumin and ketamine significantly decreased the protective effect of curcumin on rat thymocytes. Our results indicate that ketamine-induced toxicity in rat thymocytes mainly occurs through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway and that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of curcumin.

  4. Hsp27 regulates Akt activation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte apoptosis by scaffolding MK2 to Akt signal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Kausar, Hina; Johnson, Paul; Montoya-Durango, Diego E; Merchant, Michael; Rane, Madhavi J

    2007-07-27

    We have shown previously that Akt exists in a signal complex with p38 MAPK, MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), and heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and MK2 phosphorylates Akt on Ser-473. Additionally, dissociation of Hsp27 from Akt, prior to Akt activation, induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) apoptosis. However, the role of Hsp27 in regulating Akt activation was not examined. This study tested the hypothesis that Hsp27 regulates Akt activation and promotes cell survival by scaffolding MK2 to the Akt signal complex. Here we show that loss of Akt/Hsp27 interaction by anti-Hsp27 antibody treatment resulted in loss of Akt/MK2 interaction, loss of Akt-Ser-473 phosphorylation, and induced PMN apoptosis. Transfection of myristoylated Akt (AktCA) in HK-11 cells induced Akt-Ser-473 phosphorylation, activation, and Hsp27-Ser-82 phosphorylation. Cotransfection of AktCA with Hsp27 short interfering RNA, but not scrambled short interfering RNA, silenced Hsp27 expression, without altering Akt expression in HK-11 cells. Silencing Hsp27 expression inhibited Akt/MK2 interaction, inhibited Akt phosphorylation and Akt activation, and induced HK-11 cell death. Deletion mutagenesis studies identified acidic linker region (amino acids 117-128) on Akt as an Hsp27 binding region. Deletion of amino acids 117-128 on Akt resulted in loss of its interaction with Hsp27 and MK2 but not with Hsp90 as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pulldown studies. Co-transfection studies demonstrated that constitutively active MK2 (MK2EE) phosphorylated Aktwt (wild type) on Ser-473 but failed to phosphorylate Akt(Delta117-128) mutant in transfixed cells. These studies collectively define a novel role of Hsp27 in regulating Akt activation and cellular apoptosis by mediating interaction between Akt and its upstream activator MK2.

  5. Ghrelin promotes human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Yao, Jianfeng; Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Yueqin; Jia, Min; Huang, Yan

    2018-04-06

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an important role in cell proliferation. In the present study, we explored the role of ghrelin in A549 cell proliferation and the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that ghrelin promotes A549 cell proliferation, knockdown of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) attenuated A549 cell proliferation caused by ghrelin. Ghrelin induced the rapid phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, ERK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6K. PI3K inhibitor (LY 294002), ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) inhibited ghrelin-induced A549 cell proliferation. Moreover, GHSR siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK, mTOR and P70S6K induced by ghrelin. Akt and mTOR/P70S6K phosphorylation was inhibited by LY 294002 but not by PD98059. These results indicate that ghrelin promotes A549 cell proliferation via GHSR-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acquired radioresistance of cancer and the AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1 overexpression cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Fractionated radiotherapy (RT) is widely used in cancer therapy for its advantages in the preservation of normal tissues. However, repopulation of surviving tumor cells during fractionated RT limits the efficacy of RT. In fact, repopulating tumors often acquire radioresistance and this is the major cause of failure of RT. We have recently demonstrated that human tumor cells acquire radioresistance when exposed to fractionated radiation (FR) of X-rays every 12 hours for 1 month. The acquired radioresistance was associated with overexpression of cyclin D1, a result of a series of molecular changes; constitutive activation of DNA-PK and AKT with concomitant down-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) which results in suppression of cyclin D1 proteolysis. Aberrant cyclin D1 overexpression in S-phase induced DNA double strand breaks which activated DNA-PK and established the vicious cycle of cycling D1 overexpression. This overexpression of cyclin D1 is responsible for the radioresistance phenotype of long-term FR cells, since this phenotype was completely abrogated by treatment of FR cells by the AKT/PKB signaling inhibitor (API-2), an AKT inhibitor or by a Cdk4 inhibitor. Thus, targeting the AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway can be an efficient modality to suppress acquired radioresistance of tumor cells. In this article, I overview the newly discovered molecular mechanisms underlying acquired radioresistance of tumor cells induced by FR, and propose a strategy for eradication of tumors using fractionated RT by overcoming tumor radioresistance. (author)

  7. Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20 μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel PI3K/Akt Inhibitors Screened by the Cytoprotective Function of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Baek

    2011-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt pathway regulates various stress-related cellular responses such as cell survival, cell proliferation, metabolism and protein synthesis. Many cancer cell types display the activation of this pathway, and compounds inhibiting this cell survival pathway have been extensively evaluated as anti-cancer agents. In addition to cancers, several human viruses, such as HTLV, HPV, HCV and HIV-1, also modulate this pathway, presumably in order to extend the life span of the infected target cells for productive viral replication. The expression of HIV-1 Tat protein exhibited the cytoprotective effect in macrophages and a human microglial cell line by inhibiting the negative regulator of this pathway, PTEN. This cytoprotective effect of HIV-1 appears to contribute to the long-term survival and persistent HIV-1 production in human macrophage reservoirs. In this study we exploited the PI3K/Akt dependent cytoprotective effect of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. We screened a collection of compounds known to modulate inflammation, and identified three novel compounds: Lancemaside A, Compound K and Arctigenin that abolished the cytoprotective phenotype of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. All three compounds antagonized the kinase activity of Akt. Further detailed signaling studies revealed that each of these three compounds targeted different steps of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Arctigenin regulates the upstream PI3K enzyme from converting PIP2 to PIP3. Lancemaside A1 inhibited the movement of Akt to the plasma membrane, a critical step for Akt activation. Compound K inhibited Akt phosphorylation. This study supports that Tat-expressing CHME5 cells are an effective model system for screening novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors. PMID:21765914

  9. Novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors screened by the cytoprotective function of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kim

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt pathway regulates various stress-related cellular responses such as cell survival, cell proliferation, metabolism and protein synthesis. Many cancer cell types display the activation of this pathway, and compounds inhibiting this cell survival pathway have been extensively evaluated as anti-cancer agents. In addition to cancers, several human viruses, such as HTLV, HPV, HCV and HIV-1, also modulate this pathway, presumably in order to extend the life span of the infected target cells for productive viral replication. The expression of HIV-1 Tat protein exhibited the cytoprotective effect in macrophages and a human microglial cell line by inhibiting the negative regulator of this pathway, PTEN. This cytoprotective effect of HIV-1 appears to contribute to the long-term survival and persistent HIV-1 production in human macrophage reservoirs. In this study we exploited the PI3K/Akt dependent cytoprotective effect of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. We screened a collection of compounds known to modulate inflammation, and identified three novel compounds: Lancemaside A, Compound K and Arctigenin that abolished the cytoprotective phenotype of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. All three compounds antagonized the kinase activity of Akt. Further detailed signaling studies revealed that each of these three compounds targeted different steps of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Arctigenin regulates the upstream PI3K enzyme from converting PIP2 to PIP3. Lancemaside A1 inhibited the movement of Akt to the plasma membrane, a critical step for Akt activation. Compound K inhibited Akt phosphorylation. This study supports that Tat-expressing CHME5 cells are an effective model system for screening novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors.

  10. Administration of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Early Brain Injury via Akt Pathway Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of trauma-induced mortality and disability, and emerging studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of TBI. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, a hydrophilic bile acid, has been reported to act as an ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone and to have the potential to attenuate apoptosis and inflammation. To study the effects of TUDCA on brain injury, we subjected mice to TBI with a controlled cortical impact (CCI device. Using western blotting, we first examined TBI-induced changes in the expression levels of GRP78, an ER stress marker, p-PERK, PERK, p-eIF2a, eIF2a, ATF4, p-Akt, Akt, Pten, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-12 and CHOP, as well as changes in the mRNA levels of Akt, GRP78, Caspase-12 and CHOP using RT-PCR. Neuronal cell death was assessed by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL assay, and CHOP expression in neuronal cells was detected by double-immunofluorescence staining. Neurological and motor deficits were assessed by modified neurological severity scores (mNSS and beam balance and beam walking tests, and brain water content was also assessed. Our results indicated that ER stress peaked at 72 h after TBI and that TUDCA abolished ER stress and inhibited p-PERK, p-eIF2a, ATF4, Pten, Caspase-12 and CHOP expression levels. Moreover, our results show that TUDCA also improved neurological function and alleviated brain oedema. Additionally, TUDCA increased p-Akt expression and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. However, the administration of the Akt inhibitor MK2206 or siRNA targeting of Akt abolished the beneficial effects of TUDCA. Taken together, our results indicate that TUDCA may attenuate early brain injury via Akt pathway activation.

  11. Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Chun-Ki; Kim, Jung Huan; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the molecular effect and signal pathway of icariin, a major flavonoid of Epimedium koreanum Nakai, on angiogenesis. Icariin stimulated in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, as well as increased in vivo angiogenesis. Icariin activated the angiogenic signal modulators, ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased NO production, without affecting VEGF expression, indicating that icariin may directly stimulate angiogenesis. Icariin-induced ERK activation and angiogenic events were significantly inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, without affecting Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. The PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin suppressed icariin-mediated angiogenesis and Akt and eNOS activation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor NMA partially reduced the angiogenic activity of icariin. These results suggest that icariin stimulated angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways and may be a useful drug for angiogenic therapy

  12. Amentoflavone protects dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model mice through PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Qin; Qin, Liyue; Huang, Fei; Wang, Xiaoshuang; Yang, Liu; Shi, Hailian; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Chen, Ziyu; Wu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis are suggested to be actively involved in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of amentoflavone (AF), a naturally occurring biflavonoid from Selaginella tamariscina, was examined in PD models both in vitro and in vivo. On SH-SY5Y cells, AF treatment dose-dependently reduced 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )-induced nuclear condensation and loss of cell viability without obvious cytotoxicity. It inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and p21 but increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Further study disclosed that AF enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and ERK1/2 down-regulated by MPP + in SH-SY5Y cells, the effect of which could be blocked by LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K. Consistently, AF alleviated the behavioral deterioration in pole and traction tests and rescued the loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc and fibers in striatum in methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mice. It also could enhance the activation of PI3K and Akt as well as Bcl-2/Bax ratio in SN. Moreover, AF alleviated gliosis as well as the gene expression levels of IL-1β and iNOS in SN. Collectively, these results suggested that AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP + -induced neurotoxicity, which might be mediated through activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in dopaminergic neurons and attenuation of neuroinflammation. - Highlights: • AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP + -induced neurotoxicity. • AF modulated PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways. • AF could alleviate neuroinflammation in SN.

  13. Amentoflavone protects dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model mice through PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qin; Qin, Liyue; Huang, Fei, E-mail: Fei_H@hotmail.com; Wang, Xiaoshuang; Yang, Liu; Shi, Hailian; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Chen, Ziyu; Wu, Xiaojun, E-mail: xiaojunwu320@126.com

    2017-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis are suggested to be actively involved in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of amentoflavone (AF), a naturally occurring biflavonoid from Selaginella tamariscina, was examined in PD models both in vitro and in vivo. On SH-SY5Y cells, AF treatment dose-dependently reduced 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP{sup +})-induced nuclear condensation and loss of cell viability without obvious cytotoxicity. It inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and p21 but increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Further study disclosed that AF enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and ERK1/2 down-regulated by MPP{sup +} in SH-SY5Y cells, the effect of which could be blocked by LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K. Consistently, AF alleviated the behavioral deterioration in pole and traction tests and rescued the loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc and fibers in striatum in methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mice. It also could enhance the activation of PI3K and Akt as well as Bcl-2/Bax ratio in SN. Moreover, AF alleviated gliosis as well as the gene expression levels of IL-1β and iNOS in SN. Collectively, these results suggested that AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP{sup +}-induced neurotoxicity, which might be mediated through activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in dopaminergic neurons and attenuation of neuroinflammation. - Highlights: • AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP{sup +}-induced neurotoxicity. • AF modulated PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways. • AF could alleviate neuroinflammation in SN.

  14. PI3K/Akt contributes to increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages exposed to hypoxic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Young; Jeong, Eunshil; Joung, Sun Myung; Lee, Joo Young

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hypoxic stress-induced TLR4 expression is mediated by PI3K/Akt in macrophages. ► PI3K/Akt regulated HIF-1 activation leading to TLR4 expression. ► p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was not involved in TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. ► Sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia-mediated TLR4 expression by inhibiting PI3K/Akt. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in triggering immune and inflammatory responses by detecting invading microbial pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Increased expression of TLR4 is implicated in aggravated inflammatory symptoms in ischemic tissue injury and chronic diseases. Results from our previous study showed that TLR4 expression was upregulated by hypoxic stress mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) at a transcriptional level in macrophages. In this study, we further investigated the upstream signaling pathway that contributed to the increase of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Either treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K and Akt or knockdown of Akt expression by siRNA blocked the increase of TLR4 mRNA and protein levels in macrophages exposed to hypoxia and CoCl 2 . Phosphorylation of Akt by hypoxic stress preceded nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. A PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated CoCl 2 -induced nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1α. In addition, HIF-1α-mediated upregulation of TLR4 expression was blocked by LY294002. Furthermore, sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia- and CoCl 2 -induced upregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein by inhibiting PI3K/Akt activation and the subsequent nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1α. However, p38 was not involved in HIF-1α activation and TLR4 expression induced by hypoxic stress in macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PI3K/Akt contributes to hypoxic stress-induced TLR4 expression at least partly through the regulation of HIF-1 activation. These reveal a novel

  15. PI3K/Akt contributes to increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages exposed to hypoxic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Young; Jeong, Eunshil; Joung, Sun Myung [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Young, E-mail: joolee@catholic.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxic stress-induced TLR4 expression is mediated by PI3K/Akt in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI3K/Akt regulated HIF-1 activation leading to TLR4 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was not involved in TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia-mediated TLR4 expression by inhibiting PI3K/Akt. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in triggering immune and inflammatory responses by detecting invading microbial pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Increased expression of TLR4 is implicated in aggravated inflammatory symptoms in ischemic tissue injury and chronic diseases. Results from our previous study showed that TLR4 expression was upregulated by hypoxic stress mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) at a transcriptional level in macrophages. In this study, we further investigated the upstream signaling pathway that contributed to the increase of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Either treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K and Akt or knockdown of Akt expression by siRNA blocked the increase of TLR4 mRNA and protein levels in macrophages exposed to hypoxia and CoCl{sub 2}. Phosphorylation of Akt by hypoxic stress preceded nuclear accumulation of HIF-1{alpha}. A PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated CoCl{sub 2}-induced nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. In addition, HIF-1{alpha}-mediated upregulation of TLR4 expression was blocked by LY294002. Furthermore, sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia- and CoCl{sub 2}-induced upregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein by inhibiting PI3K/Akt activation and the subsequent nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. However, p38 was not involved in HIF-1{alpha} activation and TLR4 expression induced by hypoxic stress in macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PI3K/Akt

  16. Curcumin Attenuated Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Via Activation of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, You-Ling; Li, Heng-Chang; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Hui-Hua; Huang, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Hang; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Bupivacaine is widely used for regional anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, and pain management. However, bupivacaine could cause neuronal injury. Curcumin, a low molecular weight polyphenol, has a variety of bioactivities and may exert neuroprotective effects against damage induced by some stimuli. In the present study, we tested whether curcumin could attenuate bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell injury was evaluated by examining cell viability, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. We also investigated the levels of activation of the Akt signaling pathway and the effect of Akt inhibition by triciribine on cell injury following bupivacaine and curcumin treatment. Our findings showed that the bupivacaine treatment could induce neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of the SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin significantly attenuated bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Interestingly, the curcumin treatment increased the levels of Akt phosphorylation. More significantly, the pharmacological inhibition of Akt abolished the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against bupivacaine-induced cell injury. Our data suggest that pretreating SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin provides a protective effect on bupivacaine-induced neuronal injury via activation of the Akt signaling pathway.

  17. O-GlcNAcylation regulates ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis through AKT signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jianhua; Gu, Jin-hua; Dai, Chun-ling; Gu, Jianlan; Jin, Xiaoxia; Sun, Jianming; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in neural development and neurological disorders. In this study, we found that O-GlcNAcylation, a unique protein posttranslational modification with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), promoted apoptosis through attenuating phosphorylation/activation of AKT and Bad. By using co-immunoprecipitation and mutagenesis techniques, we identified O-GlcNAc modification at both Thr308 and Ser473 of AKT. O-GlcNAcylation-induced apoptosis was attenuated by over-expr...

  18. Loss of Akt1 in mice increases energy expenditure and protects against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min; Easton, Rachael M; Gleason, Catherine E; Monks, Bobby R; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kahn, C Ronald; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2012-01-01

    Akt is encoded by a gene family for which each isoform serves distinct but overlapping functions. Based on the phenotypes of the germ line gene disruptions, Akt1 has been associated with control of growth, whereas Akt2 has been linked to metabolic regulation. Here we show that Akt1 serves an unexpected role in the regulation of energy metabolism, as mice deficient for Akt1 exhibit protection from diet-induced obesity and its associated insulin resistance. Although skeletal muscle contributes most of the resting and exercising energy expenditure, muscle-specific deletion of Akt1 does not recapitulate the phenotype, indicating that the role of Akt1 in skeletal muscle is cell nonautonomous. These data indicate a previously unknown function of Akt1 in energy metabolism and provide a novel target for treatment of obesity.

  19. Edaravone protects rats and human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells against hyperoxia injury: heme oxygenase-1 and PI3K/Akt pathway may be involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huifang; Feng, Ying; Ning, Yunye; Zhang, Zinan; Li, Weihao; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is a clinical syndrome as a result of prolonged supplement of high concentrations of oxygen. As yet, no specific treatment is available for HALI. The present study aims to investigate the effects of edaravone on hyperoxia-induced oxidative injury and the underlying mechanism. We treated rats and human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells with hyperoxia and different concentration of edaravone, then examined the effects of edaravone on cell viability, cell injury and two oxidative products. The roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and PI3K/Akt pathway were explored using Western blot and corresponding inhibitors. The results showed that edaravone reduced lung biochemical alterations induced by hyperoxia and mortality of rats, dose-dependently alleviated cell mortality, cell injury, and peroxidation of cellular lipid and DNA oxidative damage. It upregulated cellular HO-1 expression and activity, which was reversed by PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition. The administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, and LY249002, a PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor, abolished the protective effects of edaravone in cells. This study indicates that edaravone protects rats and human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells against hyperoxia-induced injury and the antioxidant effect may be related to upregulation of HO-1, which is regulated by PI3K/Akt pathway.

  20. Metformin-induced protection against oxidative stress is associated with AKT/mTOR restoration in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaghi, Behzad; Safarian, Fatemeh; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Dargahi, Leila

    2016-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been recognized to impair cell function through suppressing Akt the well-known pro-survival molecule. Pile of concrete evidence imply metformin as an Insulin sensitizer may enhance Akt/mTOR activity however the significance of Akt/mTOR recruitment has not yet been revealed in metformin induced neuroprotection against oxidative stress. In the current study using H2O2 induced injury in PC12 cells; we first examined metformin impact on cell death by MTT assay and visual assessment. Metformin pretreated cells were then subjected to immunoblotting as well as real time PCR to find PI3K, Akt, mTOR and S6K concurrent transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes. The proportions of phosphorylated to non-phosphorylated constituents of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K were determined to address their activation upon metformin treatment. According to cells morphology and MTT data metformin led to significant protection against H2O2 induced injury in 0.1 and 0.5mM concentrations. Metformin induced protection concurred with elevated PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K activity as well as enhanced GSH levels. These changes paralleled with a profound decline in the corresponding transcripts as determined by real time PCR. Taken together our experimentation supports the hypothesis that Akt/mTOR/S6K cascade may contribute to metformin alleviating effect. The present work while highlighting metformin anti-oxidant characteristics, concludes that Akt/mTOR signaling might be central to the drug's alleviating effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in apoptosis induced by capsaicin in the human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1.

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    Zhang, Jian-Hong; Lai, Fu-Ji; Chen, Hui; Luo, Jiang; Zhang, Ri-Yuan; Bu, He-Qi; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Lin, Hong-Hai; Lin, Sheng-Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Capsaicin, one of the major pungent ingredients found in red peppers, has been recently demonstrated to induce apoptosis in various malignant cell lines through an unclear mechanism. In this study, the effect of capsaicin on proliferation and apoptosis in the human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and its possible mechanism(s) of action were investigated. The results of a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay revealed that capsaicin significantly decreased the viability of PANC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Capsaicin induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PANC-1 cells as demonstrated by a flow cytometric assessment. Caspase-3 expression at both the protein and mRNA level was promoted following capsaicin treatment. Furthermore, we revealed that phospho-PI3 Kinase p85 (Tyr458) and phospho-Akt (Ser473) in PANC-1 cells were downregulated in response to capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin gavage significantly inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell xenografts in athymic nude mice. An increased number of TUNEL-positive cells and cleaved caspase-3 were observed in capsaicin-treated mice. In vivo, capsaicin downregulated the expression of phospho-PI3 Kinase p85 (Tyr458) and phospho-Akt (Ser473). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that capsaicin is an inhibitor of growth of PANC-1 cells, and downregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway may be involved in capsaicin-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Edaravone protects the retina against ischemia/reperfusion‑induced oxidative injury through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway.

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    Xu, Yi-Pin; Han, Fang; Tan, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can occur as a result of a number of ocular diseases or ischemic events in the brain, leading to possible vision loss if not treated properly. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species is important in the process of I/R injury. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, has been demonstrated to have a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia; however, its effect against retinal I/R injury remains to be fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of edaravone on the oxidative parameters, retinal inflammation and apoptosis induced by I/R injury, and treated photoreceptor‑derived 661W cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and edaravone to examine the underlying mechanism. For the in vivo study, oxidative parameters (malondialdehyde, DNA fragmentation, total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase and glutathione) in the retina, retinal thickness, and apoptotic index in the ganglionic cell layer and inner nuclear layer were measured. For the in vitro study, the effects of edaravone or nuclear factor erythroid‑2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) small interfering RNA or phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitors on cell viability, membrane integrity, levels of phosphorylated‑Akt, Akt and nuclear Nrf2 of H2O2‑treated 661W cells were examined. The results demonstrated that edaravone inhibited the oxidative injury in the retina induced by the retinal I/R procedure and increased retinal inflammation, and apoptosis. The results of the in vitro experiments demonstrated that edaravone effectively protected the viability and the membrane integrity of the H2O2‑treated 661W cells via the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Nrf2pathway. These results indicated the potential protective effect of edaravone against retinal I/R injury and provided a novel explanation for the protective effects of edaravone.

  3. Curcumin significantly enhances dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of p53-dependent Bcl-2 expression and inhibition of Mcl-1 protein stability.

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    Bo Ram Seo

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways are important for cell survival and growth, and they are highly activated in cancer cells compared with normal cells. Therefore, these signaling pathways are targets for inducing cancer cell death. The dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 completely inhibited both signaling pathways. However, NVP-BEZ235 had no effect on cell death in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We tested whether combined treatment with natural compounds and NVP-BEZ235 could induce cell death. Among several chemopreventive agents, curcumin, a natural biologically active compound that is extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma species, markedly induced apoptosis in NVP-BEZ235-treated cells. Co-treatment with curcumin and NVP-BEZ235 led to the down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein expression but not mRNA expression. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 completely inhibited curcumin plus NVP-NEZ235-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 was involved in curcumin plus NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis. Curcumin or NVP-BEZ235 alone did not change Bcl-2 mRNA or protein expression, but co-treatment reduced Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression. Combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin reduced Bcl-2 expression in wild-type p53 HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells but not p53-null HCT116 cells. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was completely reversed by treatment with pifithrin-α, a p53-specific inhibitor. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 also inhibited apoptosis in NVP-BE235 plus curcumin-treated cells. In contrast, NVP-BEZ235 combined with curcumin did not have a synergistic effect on normal human skin fibroblasts and normal human mesangial cells. Taken together, combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin induces apoptosis through p53-dependent Bcl-2 mRNA down-regulation at the transcriptional level and Mcl-1 protein down-regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  4. Activation of Akt1 accelerates carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in mammary gland of virgin and post-lactating transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Kim, Juri; Elshimali, Yayha; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2014-01-01

    Data from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that activation of Akt regulates cell survival signaling and plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Hence, transgenic mice were created to explore the oncogenic role of Akt1 in the development of mammary tumors. The transgenic mice were generated by expressing myristoylated-Akt1 (myr-Akt1) under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter. The carcinogen 7, 12 dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) was used to induce tumor formation. The MMTV driven myr-Akt1 transgene expression was detected primarily in the mammary glands, uterus, and ovaries. The expression level increased significantly in lactating mice, suggesting that the response was hormone dependent. The total Akt expression level in the mammary gland was also higher in the lactating mice. Interestingly, the expression of MMTVmyr-Akt1 in the ovaries of the transgenic mice caused significant increase in circulating estrogen levels, even at the post-lactation stage. Expression of myr-Akt1 in mammary glands alone did not increase the frequency of tumor formation. However, there was an increased susceptibility of forming mammary tumors induced by DMBA in the transgenic mice, especially in mice post-lactation. Within 34 weeks, DMBA induced mammary tumors in 42.9% of transgenic mice post-lactation, but not in wild-type mice post-lactation. The myr-Akt1 mammary tumors induced by DMBA had increased phosphorylated-Akt1 and showed strong expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, Cyclin D1 was more frequently up-regulated in mammary tumors from transgenic mice compared to tumors from wild-type mice. Overexpression of Cyclin D1, however, was not completely dependent on activated Akt1. Interestingly, mammary tumors that had metastasized to secondary sites had increased expression of Twist and Slug, but low expression of Cyclin D1. In summary, the MMTVmyr-Akt1 transgenic mouse model could be useful to study mechanisms of ER

  5. Analysis of genes involved in the PI3K/Akt pathway in radiation- and MNU-induced rat mammary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Kaye; Nishimura, Mayumi; Daino, Kazuhiro; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Yukiko; Morioka, Takamitsu; Blyth, Benjamin J; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Takabatake, Masaru; Fukuda, Maki; Moriyama, Hitomi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2017-03-01

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is one of the most important signaling networks in human breast cancer, and since it was potentially implicated in our preliminary investigations of radiation-induced rat mammary carcinomas, our aim here was to verify its role. We included mammary carcinomas induced by the chemical carcinogen 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to determine whether any changes were radiation-specific. Most carcinomas from both groups showed activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, but phosphorylation of AKT1 was often heterogeneous and only present in a minority of carcinoma cells. The negative pathway regulator Inpp4b was significantly downregulated in both groups, compared with in normal mammary tissue, and radiation-induced carcinomas also showed a significant decrease in Pten expression, while the chemically induced carcinomas showed a decrease in Pik3r1 and Pdk1. Significant upregulation of the positive regulators Erbb2 and Pik3ca was observed only in chemically induced carcinomas. However, no genes showed clear correlations with AKT phosphorylation levels, except in individual carcinomas. Only rare carcinomas showed mutations in PI3K/AKT pathway genes, yet these carcinomas did not exhibit stronger AKT phosphorylation. Thus, while AKT phosphorylation is a common feature of rat mammary carcinomas induced by radiation or a canonical chemical carcinogen, the mutation of key genes in the pathways or permanent changes to gene expression of particular signaling proteins do not explain the pathway activation in the advanced cancers. Although AKT signaling likely facilitates cancer development and growth in rat mammary carcinomas, it is unlikely that permanent disruption of the PI3K/AKT pathway genes is a major causal event in radiation carcinogenesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  6. AKT-independent PI3-K signaling in cancer – emerging role for SGK3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, Maressa A; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D; Sheppard, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling pathway plays an important role in a wide variety of fundamental cellular processes, largely mediated via protein kinase B/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (PKB/AKT) signaling. Given the crucial role of PI3-K/AKT signaling in regulating processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and survival, it is not surprising that components of this pathway are frequently dysregulated in cancer, making the AKT kinase family members important therapeutic targets. The large number of clinical trials currently evaluating PI3-K pathway inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy further emphasizes this. The serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (SGK) family is made up of three isoforms, SGK1, 2, and 3, that are PI3-K-dependent, serine/threonine kinases, with similar substrate specificity to AKT. Consequently, the SGK family also regulates similar cell processes to the AKT kinases, including cell proliferation and survival. Importantly, there is emerging evidence demonstrating that SGK3 plays a critical role in AKT-independent oncogenic signaling. This review will focus on the role of SGK3 as a key effector of AKT-independent PI3-K oncogenic signaling

  7. Dihydrotestosterone induces SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in HaCaT cells

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    Zhou Bing-rong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of dihydrotestosterone (DHT-induced expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, and the synthesis and secretion of lipids, in HaCaT cells. HaCaT cells were treated with DHT and either the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK inhibitor PD98059. Real time-PCR, Western blot, Oil Red staining and flow cytometry were employed to examine the mRNA and protein expressions of SREBP-1, the gene transcription of lipid synthesis, and lipid secretion in HaCaT cells. Findings We found that DHT upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of SREBP-1. DHT also significantly upregulated the transcription of lipid synthesis-related genes and increased lipid secretion, which can be inhibited by the addition of LY294002. Conclusions Collectively, these results indicate that DHT induces SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis in HaCaT cells via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway.

  8. Protective Effect of DHT on Apoptosis Induced by U18666A via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in C6 Glial Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kai; Wu, Junfeng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Bo, Jimei; Hong, Zhen; Zu, Hengbing

    2016-07-01

    Various useful animal models, such as Alzheimer's disease and Niemann-Pick disease, were provided by U18666A. However, the pathogenesis of U18666A-induced diseases, including U18666A-mediated apoptosis, remains incompletely elucidated, and therapeutic strategies are still limited. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has been reported to contribute to the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Our study investigated the neuroprotective activity of DHT in U18666A-related diseases. Apoptosis of C6 cells was detected by Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining and flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining. Cell viability was assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins, such as Akt, seladin-1, Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspase-3, was determined using Western blot. Our results demonstrated that the apoptotic rate of C6 cells significantly increased after U18666A addition, but was remarkably reduced after DHT treatment. Pretreatment with DHT attenuated U18666A-induced cell viability loss. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could suppress DHT anti-apoptotic effect. Furthermore, we discovered that U18666A could significantly downregulate seladin-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, but no significant change was observed in Bcl-xL, Bax, and P-Akt protein expressions. Compared with U18666A-treated group, the expression of P-Akt, seladin-1, and Bcl-xL significantly increased, and the expression of Bax and caspase-3 remarkably reduced after DHT treatment. However, in the presence of LY294002, the effect of DHT was reversed. In conclusion, we found that seladin-1 may take part in U18666A-induced apoptosis. DHT may inhibit U18666A-induced apoptosis by regulating downstream apoptosis-related proteins including seladin-1, caspase-3, Bcl-xL, and Bax through activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  9. Antagonist effect of triptolide on AKT activation by truncated retinoid X receptor-alpha.

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    Na Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRα is a key member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. We recently demonstrated that proteolytic cleavage of RXRα resulted in production of a truncated product, tRXRα, which promotes cancer cell survival by activating phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K/AKT pathway. However, how the tRXRα-mediated signaling pathway in cancer cells is regulated remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened a natural product library for tRXRα targeting leads and identified that triptolide, an active component isolated from traditional Chinese herb Trypterygium wilfordii Hook F, could modulate tRXRα-mediated cancer cell survival pathway in vitro and in animals. Our results reveal that triptolide strongly induces cancer cell apoptosis dependent on intracellular tRXRα expression levels, demonstrating that tRXRα serves as an important intracellular target of triptolide. We show that triptolide selectively induces tRXRα degradation and inhibits tRXRα-dependent AKT activity without affecting the full-length RXRα. Interestingly, such effects of triptolide are due to its activation of p38. Although triptolide also activates Erk1/2 and MAPK pathways, the effects of triptolide on tRXRα degradation and AKT activity are only reversed by p38 siRNA and p38 inhibitor. In addition, the p38 inhibitor potently inhibits tRXRα interaction with p85α leading to AKT inactivation. Our results demonstrate an interesting novel signaling interplay between p38 and AKT through tRXRα mediation. We finally show that targeting tRXRα by triptolide strongly activates TNFα death signaling and enhances the anticancer activity of other chemotherapies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results identify triptolide as a new xenobiotic regulator of the tRXRα-dependent survival pathway and provide new insight into the mechanism by which triptolide acts to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Triptolide represents one of the most

  10. AKT Inhibition in Solid Tumors With AKT1 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, David M; Smyth, Lillian M; Donoghue, Mark T A; Westin, Shannon N; Bedard, Philippe L; Dean, Emma J; Bando, Hideaki; El-Khoueiry, Anthony B; Pérez-Fidalgo, José A; Mita, Alain; Schellens, Jan H M; Chang, Matthew T; Reichel, Jonathan B; Bouvier, Nancy; Selcuklu, S Duygu; Soumerai, Tara E; Torrisi, Jean; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Ambrose, Helen; Barrett, J Carl; Dougherty, Brian; Foxley, Andrew; Lindemann, Justin P O; McEwen, Robert; Pass, Martin; Schiavon, Gaia; Berger, Michael F; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Solit, David B; Banerji, Udai; Baselga, José; Taylor, Barry S

    2017-07-10

    Purpose AKT1 E17K mutations are oncogenic and occur in many cancers at a low prevalence. We performed a multihistology basket study of AZD5363, an ATP-competitive pan-AKT kinase inhibitor, to determine the preliminary activity of AKT inhibition in AKT-mutant cancers. Patients and Methods Fifty-eight patients with advanced solid tumors were treated. The primary end point was safety; secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Tumor biopsies and plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were collected in the majority of patients to identify predictive biomarkers of response. Results In patients with AKT1 E17K-mutant tumors (n = 52) and a median of five lines of prior therapy, the median PFS was 5.5 months (95% CI, 2.9 to 6.9 months), 6.6 months (95% CI, 1.5 to 8.3 months), and 4.2 months (95% CI, 2.1 to 12.8 months) in patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast, gynecologic, and other solid tumors, respectively. In an exploratory biomarker analysis, imbalance of the AKT1 E17K-mutant allele, most frequently caused by copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity targeting the wild-type allele, was associated with longer PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.41; P = .04), as was the presence of coincident PI3K pathway hotspot mutations (HR, 0.21; P = .045). Persistent declines in AKT1 E17K in cfDNA were associated with improved PFS (HR, 0.18; P = .004) and response ( P = .025). Responses were not restricted to patients with detectable AKT1 E17K in pretreatment cfDNA. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were hyperglycemia (24%), diarrhea (17%), and rash (15.5%). Conclusion This study provides the first clinical data that AKT1 E17K is a therapeutic target in human cancer. The genomic context of the AKT1 E17K mutation further conditioned response to AZD5363.

  11. Puerarin protects differentiated PC12 cells from H₂O₂-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Huang, Wei-Dong; Lv, Xue-Ying; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as a major mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. ROS (reactive oxygen species) can cause cell death via apoptosis. NGF (nerve growth factor) differentiated rat PC12 cells have been extensively used to study the differentiation and apoptosis of neurons. This study has investigated the protective effects of puerarin in H2O2-induced apoptosis of differentiated PC12 cells, and the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Differentiated PC12 cells were incubated with 700 μM H2O2 in the absence or presence of different doses of puerarin (4, 8 and 16 μM). Apoptosis was assessed by MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) analysis and Annexin V-PI (propidium iodide) double staining flow cytometry. Protein levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-BAD (Bcl-2/Bcl-XL-antagonist, causing cell death) were assayed by Western blotting. After stimulation with H2O2 for 18 h, the viability of differentiated PC12 cells decreased significantly and a large number of cells underwent apoptosis. Differentiated PC12 cells were rescued from H2O2-induced apoptosis at different concentrations of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. This was through increased production of phospho-Akt and phospho-BAD, an effect that could be reversed by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase). The results suggest that puerarin may have neuroprotective effect through activation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

  12. Hepatic Stellate Cell Coculture Enables Sorafenib Resistance in Huh7 Cells through HGF/c-Met/Akt and Jak2/Stat3 Pathways

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    Weibo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Tumor microenvironment confers drug resistance to kinase inhibitors by increasing RKT ligand levels that result in the activation of cell-survival signaling including PI3K and MAPK signals. We assessed whether HSC-LX2 coculture conferred sorafenib resistance in Huh7 and revealed the mechanism underlying the drug resistance. Experimental Design. The effect of LX2 on sorafenib resistance was determined by coculture system with Huh7 cells. The rescue function of LX2 supernatants was assessed by MTT assay and fluorescence microscopy. The underlying mechanism was tested by administration of pathway inhibitors and manifested by Western blotting. Results. LX2 coculture significantly induced sorafenib resistance in Huh7 by activating p-Akt that led to reactivation of p-ERK. LX2 secreted HGF into the culture medium that triggered drug resistance, and exogenous HGF could also induce sorafenib resistance. The inhibition of p-Akt blocked sorafenib resistance caused by LX2 coculture. Increased phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat3 was also detected in LX2 cocultured Huh7 cells. The Jak inhibitor tofacitinib reversed sorafenib resistance by blocking Jak2 and Stat3 activation. The combined administration of sorafenib and p-Stat3 inhibitor S3I-201 augmented induced apoptosis even in the presence of sorafenib resistance. Conclusions. HSC-LX2 coculture induced sorafenib resistance in Huh7 through multiple pathways: HGF/c-Met/Akt pathway and Jak2/Stat3 pathway. A combined administration of sorafenib and S3I-201 was able to augment sorafenib-induced apoptosis even in the presence of LX2 coculture.

  13. Akt interacts directly with Smad3 to regulate the sensitivity to TGF-beta induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, Andrew R; Cao, Yanna; Thompson, E Aubrey; Townsend, Courtney M; Ko, Tien C; Luo, Kunxin

    2004-04-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) induces both apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in some cell lines, but only growth arrest in others. It is not clear how this differential response to TGF-beta is specified. Smad proteins are critical mediators of TGF-beta signalling. After stimulation by TGF-beta, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated by the activated TGF-beta receptor kinases, oligomerize with Smad4, translocate to the nucleus and regulate the expression of TGF-beta target genes. Here we report that the sensitivity to TGF-beta induced apoptosis is regulated by crosstalk between the Akt/PKB serine/threonine kinase and Smad3 through a mechanism that is independent of Akt kinase activity. Akt interacts directly with unphosphorylated Smad3 to sequester it outside the nucleus, preventing its phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. This results in inhibition of Smad3-mediated transcription and apoptosis. Furthermore, the ratio of Smad3 to Akt correlates with the sensitivity of cells to TGF-beta induced apoptosis. Alteration of this ratio changes the apoptotic, but not the growth-inhibitory, responses of cells to TGF-beta. These findings identify an important determinant of sensitivity to TGF-beta-induced apoptosis that involves crosstalk between the TGF-beta and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) pathways.

  14. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    v e V ia b il it y Figure 8. PC3-LN4 cells in normoxia or hypoxia were treated with Pim inhibitors. Left panel shows a Western blot and the...3728-36, PMID 25241892 4. Warfel, NA, Kraft, AS. Pim kinase (and Akt) biology and signaling in tumors. Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Jul; 151: 41 - 9. doi: 10.1016...Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer These studies will accelerate and significantly advance the rational development of targeted agents

  15. Resveratrol Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy Is Associated with the Suppression of Renal Inflammation and Mesangial Cell Proliferation: Possible Roles of Akt/NF-κB Pathway

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    Feng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate the protection of resveratrol (RSV in diabetes associated with kidney inflammation and cell proliferation. Rat mesangial cell and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model were used. In vitro, RSV attenuated high glucose-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 expression and mesangial cell proliferation, as well as Akt and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation. The similar results were recaptured in the experiment with Akt inhibitors. In vivo, mice were divided into three groups: control group, diabetes mellitus (DM group, and RSV-treated DM group. Compared with control group, the kidney weight to body weight ratio and albumin to creatinine ratio were increased in DM group, but not in RSV-treated DM group. Furthermore, the increased expression of PAI-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in diabetic renal cortex were also reduced by RSV administration. Besides, the kidney p-Akt/Akt ratio and NF-κB were significantly increased in DM group; however, these changes were reversed in RSV-treated DM group. Additionally, immunohistochemistry results indicated that RSV treatment reduced the density of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells significantly in glomeruli of diabetic mice. These results suggest that RSV prevents diabetes-induced renal inflammation and mesangial cell proliferation possibly through Akt/NF-κB pathway inhibition.

  16. Concurrent targeting Akt and sphingosine kinase 1 by A-674563 in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yanan; Gao, Meng; Wang, Guangping; Fu, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Akt signaling plays a pivotal role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development and progression. In the present study, we evaluated the potential anti-AML activity by a novel Akt kinase inhibitor A-674563. Our results showed that A-674563 dose-dependently inhibited survival and proliferation of U937 AML cells and six lines of human AML progenitor cells, yet sparing human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMCs). A-674563 activated caspase-3/9 and apoptosis in the AML cells. Reversely, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-CHO dramatically alleviated A-674563-induced AML cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity. For the molecular study, we showed that A-674563 blocked Akt activation in U937 cells and human AML progenitor cells. Further, A-674563 decreased sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity in above AML cells to deplete pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and boost pro-apoptotic ceramide production. Such an effect on SphK1 signaling by A-674563 appeared independent of Akt blockage. Significantly, K6PC-5, a novel SphK1 activator, or supplement with S1P attenuated A-674563-induced ceramide production, and subsequent U937 cell death and apoptosis. Importantly, intraperitoneal injection of A-674563 at well-tolerated doses suppressed U937 leukemic xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, whiling significantly improving the animal survival. The results of the current study demonstrate that A-674563 exerts potent anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo, possibly via concurrent targeting Akt and SphK1 signalings. - Highlights: • A-674563 is cytotoxic and anti-proliferative in U937 and AML progenitor cells. • A-674563 activates caspase-3/9 and apoptosis in U937 and AML progenitor cells. • Whiling blocking Akt, A-674563 manipulates other signalings in AML cells. • A-674563 inhibits SphK1 activity in AML cells, independent of Akt blockage. • A-674563 injection inhibits U937 xenograft in vivo growth, and improves mice survival.

  17. Concurrent targeting Akt and sphingosine kinase 1 by A-674563 in acute myeloid leukemia cells

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    Xu, Lin [Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha (China); Shaoyang Central Hospital, Hunan Province (China); Zhang, Yanan; Gao, Meng [The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410013 (China); Wang, Guangping, E-mail: wangguangping45@sina.com [Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha (China); Fu, Yunfeng, E-mail: fuyunfeng33163@163.com [The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410013 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Akt signaling plays a pivotal role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development and progression. In the present study, we evaluated the potential anti-AML activity by a novel Akt kinase inhibitor A-674563. Our results showed that A-674563 dose-dependently inhibited survival and proliferation of U937 AML cells and six lines of human AML progenitor cells, yet sparing human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMCs). A-674563 activated caspase-3/9 and apoptosis in the AML cells. Reversely, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-CHO dramatically alleviated A-674563-induced AML cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity. For the molecular study, we showed that A-674563 blocked Akt activation in U937 cells and human AML progenitor cells. Further, A-674563 decreased sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity in above AML cells to deplete pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and boost pro-apoptotic ceramide production. Such an effect on SphK1 signaling by A-674563 appeared independent of Akt blockage. Significantly, K6PC-5, a novel SphK1 activator, or supplement with S1P attenuated A-674563-induced ceramide production, and subsequent U937 cell death and apoptosis. Importantly, intraperitoneal injection of A-674563 at well-tolerated doses suppressed U937 leukemic xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, whiling significantly improving the animal survival. The results of the current study demonstrate that A-674563 exerts potent anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo, possibly via concurrent targeting Akt and SphK1 signalings. - Highlights: • A-674563 is cytotoxic and anti-proliferative in U937 and AML progenitor cells. • A-674563 activates caspase-3/9 and apoptosis in U937 and AML progenitor cells. • Whiling blocking Akt, A-674563 manipulates other signalings in AML cells. • A-674563 inhibits SphK1 activity in AML cells, independent of Akt blockage. • A-674563 injection inhibits U937 xenograft in vivo growth, and improves mice survival.

  18. The Role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling in Gastric Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tasuku; Yashiro, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is one of the key signaling pathways induced by various receptor-tyrosine kinases. Accumulating evidence shows that this pathway is an important promoter of cell growth, metabolism, survival, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma have often been demonstrated. Many kinds of molecular targeting therapies are currently undergoing clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. However, with the exception of the ErbB2-targeting antibody, targeting agents, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors, have not been approved for treatment of patients with gastric carcinoma. This review summarizes the current knowledge on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma and the possible therapeutic targets for gastric carcinoma. Improved knowledge of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of tumor development and for identifying ideal targets of anticancer therapy for gastric carcinoma

  19. The Role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling in Gastric Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Tasuku [Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Yashiro, Masakazu, E-mail: m9312510@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Oncology Institute of Geriatrics and Medical Science, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is one of the key signaling pathways induced by various receptor-tyrosine kinases. Accumulating evidence shows that this pathway is an important promoter of cell growth, metabolism, survival, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma have often been demonstrated. Many kinds of molecular targeting therapies are currently undergoing clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. However, with the exception of the ErbB2-targeting antibody, targeting agents, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors, have not been approved for treatment of patients with gastric carcinoma. This review summarizes the current knowledge on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma and the possible therapeutic targets for gastric carcinoma. Improved knowledge of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of tumor development and for identifying ideal targets of anticancer therapy for gastric carcinoma.

  20. Buyang Huanwu Decoction Vigorously Rescues PC12 Cells Against 6-OHDA-Induced Neurotoxicity via Akt/GSK3β Pathway Based on Serum Pharmacology Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeyan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qian; Sun, Jinhao

    2016-12-01

    Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD), as a popular traditional Chinese medicine formula, was widely used for treating ischemic diseases. However, in the area of neurodegenerative diseases, the researches focused on BYHWD are rare but promising, and molecular mechanisms underlying are largely elusive. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a dopaminergic-specific neurotoxin, is extensively used to establish neurotoxic model in vivo and in vitro. In our present study, we prepared drug-containing serum of BYHWD (Buyang Huanwu drug-containing serum [BYHWS]) based on serum pharmacology methodology. Neurotoxic model in vitro was established in PC12 cells, and innovative experimental grouping method was adopted to investigate neuroprotective effects of BYHWS on neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA exposure. Remarkably, BYHWS vigorously rescued PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity even to surpass 100% in cell viability. Moreover, Hoechst/propidium iodide (PI) staining revealed that cell apoptotic rate was reduced significantly after incubation of BYHWS. Besides, BYHWS effectively restored the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and attenuated the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species level caused by 6-OHDA insult. Furthermore, BYHWS remarkably reversed the dephosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) evoked by 6-OHDA. The above protective effects were attenuated by coculturing with Akt inhibitor LY294002. In summary, we concluded that the BYHWS vigorously blocked 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity via Akt/GSK3β pathway and provided a novel insight into roles of BYHWD in the clinical practices on neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. 2,5-hexanedione induces bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell apoptosis via inhibition of Akt/Bad signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingsong; Shi, Xiaoxia; Li, Shuangyue; Piao, Fengyuan

    2018-04-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) is an important bioactive metabolite of n-hexane and mediates the neurotoxicity of parent compound. Studies show that HD induces apoptotic death of neural progenitor cells. However, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential stem cells with the ability to differentiate into various cell types and have been used as cell model for studying the toxic effects of chemicals on stem cells. In this study, we exposed rat bone marrow MSCs to 0, 10, 20, and 40 mM HD in vitro. Apoptosis and disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential were estimated by immunochemistry staining. The expression of Akt, Bad, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bad (p-Bad) as well as cytochrome c in mitochondria and cytosol were examined by Western blot. Moreover, caspase 3 activity, viability, and death of cells were measured by spectrophotometry. Our results showed that HD induced cell apoptosis and increased caspase 3 activity. HD down-regulated the expression levels of p-Akt, p-Bad and induced MMP depolarization, followed by cytochrome c release. Moreover, HD led to a concentration-dependent increase in the MSCs death, which was relative to MSCs apoptosis. However, these toxic effects of HD on the MSCs were significantly mitigated in the presence of IGF, which could activate PI3 K/Akt pathway. These results indicated that HD induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in the MSCs via inhibiting Akt/Bad signaling pathway and apoptotic death of MSCs via the signaling pathway. These results might provide some clues for studying further the mechanisms of HD-induced stem cell apoptosis and adverse effect on neurogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The AKT inhibitor AZD5363 is selectively active in PI3KCA mutant gastric cancer, and sensitizes a patient-derived gastric cancer xenograft model with PTEN loss to Taxotere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Davies, Barry R; Han, Sufang; Zhou, Minhua; Bai, Yu; Zhang, Jingchuan; Xu, Yan; Tang, Lily; Wang, Huiying; Liu, Yuan Jie; Yin, Xiaolu; Ji, Qunsheng; Yu, De-Hua

    2013-10-02

    Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is a common phenomenon in cancer due to multiple mechanisms, including mutation of PI3KCA, loss or mutation of PTEN, or over-expression of receptor tyrosine kinases. We recently developed a novel AKT kinase inhibitor, AZD5363, and demonstrated that HGC27, a cell line harboring both PI3KCA mutation and PTEN loss, displayed the greatest sensitivity to this AKT inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. To further elucidate the correlation between AZD5363 response and genetic alterations in gastric cancer (GC) and identify GC patients with both PI3KCA mutations and PTEN loss, we investigated the effects of pharmacological inhibition of AKT on a panel of 20 GC cell lines and genetic aberrations in tumor samples from a cohort of Chinese GC patients. We demonstrated that GC cells with PI3KCA mutations were selectively sensitive to AZD5363. Disease linkage studies showed that PI3KCA activating mutations or PTEN loss were found in 2.7% (4/150) and 23% (14/61) of Chinese GC patients respectively. To further dissect the role of PI3KCA mutation and PTEN loss in response to AKT inhibition, we tested the antitumor activity of AZD5363 in two patient-derived GC xenograft (PDGCX) models harboring either PI3KCA mutation or PTEN loss. Our data indicated that AZD5363 monotherapy treatment led to a moderate response in the PI3KCA mutant PDGCX model. Whilst monotherapy AZD5363 or Taxotere were ineffective in the PTEN negative PDGCX model, significant anti-tumor activity was observed when AZD5363 was combined with Taxotere. Our results indicated that PI3KCA mutation is an important determinant of response to AKT inhibition in GC and combination with AZD5363 can overcome innate resistance to Taxotere in a PTEN loss PDGCX model. It is suggested that AKT inhibitor is an attractive option for treatment of a new segment of GC patients with aberrant PI3K/AKT signaling.

  3. TGF-beta induces connexin43 gene expression in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells via activation of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacheau, Charlotte; Fontaine, Juliette; Loy, Jennifer; Mauviel, Alain; Verrecchia, Franck

    2008-12-01

    One of the shared physiological roles between TGF-beta and connexin family members is to inhibit epithelial cell cycle progression and consequently, to provide protection against malignant transformation. Herein, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 induces the expression of connexin43 (Cx43) in normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) cell lines at the protein and mRNA levels, and transcriptionally. Using overexpression of a truncated dominant-negative form of Cx43, we determined that the modulation of gap junctional communication by TGF-beta1 plays a key role in the control of NMuMG cells proliferation by TGF-beta1. In addition, using overexpression of truncated dominant-negative forms of either Smad2 or Smad3, and MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma cells deficient for Smad4, we determined that the Smad cascade is not implicated in TGF-beta1 effect on Cx43 expression. Using specific pharmacologic inhibitors for JNK, ERK, p38, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, we demonstrated the cooperative role of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling in TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 expression and gap junctional communication. Furthermore, transfection of a c-jun antisense expression vector significantly prevented TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression demonstrating the involvement of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway together with p38 and PI3K/AKT pathways in mediating TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression.

  4. MDM2 regulates hypoxic hypoxia-inducible factor 1α stability in an E3 ligase, proteasome, and PTEN-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shweta; Singh, Alok R; Durden, Donald L

    2014-08-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor containing an inducibly expressed HIF1α subunit and a constitutively expressed HIF1β subunit. Under hypoxic conditions, the HIF1α subunit accumulates because of a decrease in the rate of proteolytic degradation, and the resulting HIF1α-HIF1β heterodimers undergo post-translational modifications that promote transactivation. Previous reports suggest that amplified signaling through PI3K enhances HIF1-dependent gene expression; however, its role is controversial, and the mechanism is unclear. Using genetically engineered PTEN-deficient cell lines, we demonstrate that PTEN specifically inhibited the accumulation of HIF1α in response to hypoxia. Furthermore, we report that in glioblastoma cell lines, inhibition of PI3K pathway, using pan as well as isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors SF1126, PF4691502, BEZ-235, GDC0941, and TGX221 blocked the induction of HIF1α protein and its targets vascular endothelial growth factor, HK1, and GLUT1 mRNA in response to hypoxia. Herein, we describe the first evidence that HIF1α can be degraded under hypoxic conditions via the 26 S proteasome and that MDM2 is the E3 ligase that induces the hypoxic degradation of HIF1α. Moreover, the action of MDM2 on HIF1α under hypoxia occurs in the cytoplasm and is controlled by the PTEN-PI3K-AKT signaling axis. These data strongly suggest a new role for PTEN in the regulation of HIF1α and importantly that PI3K-AKT activation is required for the hypoxic stabilization of HIF1α and that hypoxia alone is not sufficient to render HIF1α resistant to proteasomal cleavage and degradation. Moreover, these findings suggest new therapeutic considerations for PI3K and/or AKT inhibitors for cancer therapeutics. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. MDM2 Regulates Hypoxic Hypoxia-inducible Factor 1α Stability in an E3 Ligase, Proteasome, and PTEN-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-AKT-dependent Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shweta; Singh, Alok R.; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor containing an inducibly expressed HIF1α subunit and a constitutively expressed HIF1β subunit. Under hypoxic conditions, the HIF1α subunit accumulates because of a decrease in the rate of proteolytic degradation, and the resulting HIF1α–HIF1β heterodimers undergo post-translational modifications that promote transactivation. Previous reports suggest that amplified signaling through PI3K enhances HIF1-dependent gene expression; however, its role is controversial, and the mechanism is unclear. Using genetically engineered PTEN-deficient cell lines, we demonstrate that PTEN specifically inhibited the accumulation of HIF1α in response to hypoxia. Furthermore, we report that in glioblastoma cell lines, inhibition of PI3K pathway, using pan as well as isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors SF1126, PF4691502, BEZ-235, GDC0941, and TGX221 blocked the induction of HIF1α protein and its targets vascular endothelial growth factor, HK1, and GLUT1 mRNA in response to hypoxia. Herein, we describe the first evidence that HIF1α can be degraded under hypoxic conditions via the 26 S proteasome and that MDM2 is the E3 ligase that induces the hypoxic degradation of HIF1α. Moreover, the action of MDM2 on HIF1α under hypoxia occurs in the cytoplasm and is controlled by the PTEN-PI3K-AKT signaling axis. These data strongly suggest a new role for PTEN in the regulation of HIF1α and importantly that PI3K-AKT activation is required for the hypoxic stabilization of HIF1α and that hypoxia alone is not sufficient to render HIF1α resistant to proteasomal cleavage and degradation. Moreover, these findings suggest new therapeutic considerations for PI3K and/or AKT inhibitors for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24982421

  6. Vorinostat Enhances Cytotoxicity of SN-38 and Temozolomide in Ewing Sarcoma Cells and Activates STAT3/AKT/MAPK Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie B Sampson

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi have been evaluated in patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS but demonstrated limited activity. To better understand the potential for HDACi in EWS, we evaluated the combination of the HDACi vorinostat, with DNA damaging agents SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan and topoisomerase 1 inhibitor plus the alkylating agent temozolomide (ST. Drugs were evaluated in sequential and simultaneous combinations in two EWS cell lines. Results demonstrate that cell viability, DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS production are dependent on the sequence of drug administration. Enhanced cytotoxicity is exhibited in vitro in EWS cell lines treated with ST administered before vorinostat, which was modestly higher than concomitant treatment and superior to vorinostat administered before ST. Drug combinations downregulate cyclin D1 to induce G0/G1 arrest and promote apoptosis by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. When ST is administered before or concomitantly with vorinostat there is activation of STAT3, MAPK and the p53 pathway. In contrast, when vorinostat is administered before ST, there is DNA repair, increased AKT phosphorylation and reduced H2B acetylation. Inhibition of AKT using the small molecule inhibitor MK-2206 did not restore H2B acetylation. Combining ST with the dual ALK and IGF-1R inhibitor, AZD3463 simultaneously inhibited STAT3 and AKT to enhance the cytotoxic effects of ST and further reduce cell growth suggesting that STAT3 and AKT activation were in part mediated by ALK and IGF-1R signaling. In summary, potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity were demonstrated for ST induced DNA damage before or simultaneous with HDAC inhibition and cell death was mediated through the p53 pathway. These observations may aid in designing new protocols for treating pediatric patients with high-risk EWS.

  7. Vorinostat Enhances Cytotoxicity of SN-38 and Temozolomide in Ewing Sarcoma Cells and Activates STAT3/AKT/MAPK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Valerie B; Vetter, Nancy S; Kamara, Davida F; Collier, Anderson B; Gresh, Renee C; Kolb, E Anders

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been evaluated in patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS) but demonstrated limited activity. To better understand the potential for HDACi in EWS, we evaluated the combination of the HDACi vorinostat, with DNA damaging agents SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan and topoisomerase 1 inhibitor) plus the alkylating agent temozolomide (ST). Drugs were evaluated in sequential and simultaneous combinations in two EWS cell lines. Results demonstrate that cell viability, DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are dependent on the sequence of drug administration. Enhanced cytotoxicity is exhibited in vitro in EWS cell lines treated with ST administered before vorinostat, which was modestly higher than concomitant treatment and superior to vorinostat administered before ST. Drug combinations downregulate cyclin D1 to induce G0/G1 arrest and promote apoptosis by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. When ST is administered before or concomitantly with vorinostat there is activation of STAT3, MAPK and the p53 pathway. In contrast, when vorinostat is administered before ST, there is DNA repair, increased AKT phosphorylation and reduced H2B acetylation. Inhibition of AKT using the small molecule inhibitor MK-2206 did not restore H2B acetylation. Combining ST with the dual ALK and IGF-1R inhibitor, AZD3463 simultaneously inhibited STAT3 and AKT to enhance the cytotoxic effects of ST and further reduce cell growth suggesting that STAT3 and AKT activation were in part mediated by ALK and IGF-1R signaling. In summary, potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity were demonstrated for ST induced DNA damage before or simultaneous with HDAC inhibition and cell death was mediated through the p53 pathway. These observations may aid in designing new protocols for treating pediatric patients with high-risk EWS.

  8. CD147 induces up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in U937-derived foam cells through PI3K/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, JiaXin; Li, YunTian; Du, DaYong; Liu, Yang; Yin, YongJun

    2016-11-01

    Intraplaque angiogenesis has been recognized as an important risk factor for the rupture of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in recent years. CD147, also called Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer, has been found the ability to promote angiogenesis in many pathological conditions such as cancer diseases and rheumatoid arthritis via the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a critical mediator of angiogenesis. We investigated whether CD147 would also induce the up-regulation of VEGF in the foam cells formation process and explored the probable signaling pathway. The results showed the expression of CD147 and VEGF was significantly higher in U937-derived foam cells. After CD147 stealth siRNA transfection treatment, the production of VEGF was reduced depended on the inhibition efficiency of CD147 siRNAs.The special signaling pathway inhibitors LY294002, SP600125, SB203580 and U0126 were added to cultures respectively and the results showed LY294002 dose-dependently inhibited the expression of VEGF. The reduction of phospho-Akt was observed in both LY294002 and siRNA groups, suggested that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway may be the probable signaling pathway underlying CD147 induced up-regulation of VEGF in U937-derived foam cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heat shock protein 90 inhibitor enhances apoptosis by inhibiting the AKT pathway in thermal-stimulated SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Kyung; Jeong, Ki-Heon; Choi, Hyeongwon; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Lee, Mu-Hyoung

    2018-02-08

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperone proteins, which are upregulated after various stresses. Hsp90 inhibitors have been investigated as adjuvant therapies for the treatment of melanoma. Thermal ablation could be a treatment option for surgically unresectable melanoma or congenital nevomelanocytic nevi, however, there is a limitation such as the possibility of recurrence. We evaluated apoptosis in a melanoma cell line treated with the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), in hyperthermic conditions. SK-MEL-2 cells were stimulated at 43 °C for 1 h and treated with 0, 0.1 and 1 μM 17-DMAG. We evaluated the cell viability using MTT and apoptosis with HSP 90 inhibitor. We studied the protein expression of AKT, phospho-AKT, ERK, phospho-ERK, MAPK, and phospho-MAPK, caspase 3,7,9, and anti-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. 17-DMAG significantly inhibited the proliferation of the SK-MEL-2 cells at 37 °C (0.1 μM: 44.47% and 1 μM: 61.23%) and 43 °C (0.1 μM: 49.21% and 1 μM: 63.60%), suggesting synergism between thermal stimulation and 17-DMAG. 17-DMAG treatment increased the frequency of apoptotic cell populations to 2.17% (0.1 μM) and 3.05% (1 μM) in 37 °C controls, and 4.40% (0.1 μM) and 4.97% (1 μM) in the group stimulated at 43 °C. AKT phosphorylation were activated by thermal stimulation and inhibited by 17-DMAG. Hsp90 inhibitor treatment may be clinically applicable to enhance the apoptosis of melanoma cells in hyperthermic condition. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Qianlie Xiaozheng Decoction Induces Autophagy in Human Prostate Cancer Cells via Inhibition of the Akt/mTOR Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Qianlie Xiaozheng decoction (QLXZD, a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, has been used clinically to treat advanced prostate cancer (PCa for more than 10 years. However, experimental evidence supporting its efficacy is lacking. Here, we investigated the anticancer properties and molecular mechanism of QLXZD in vitro in a human PCa cell line (PC3 and in vivo using PC3 xenografts in nude mice. We confirmed the antineoplastic activity of QLXZD by analyzing cell viability and tumor volume growth, which decreased significantly compared to that of the controls. Autophagy following QLXZD treatment was detected morphologically using transmission electron microscopy and was confirmed by measuring the expression of autophagy markers (LC3-II and p62 using fluorescence analysis, flow cytometry, and western blotting. Increasing autophagic flux induced by QLXZD was monitored via pmCherry-GFP-LC3 fluorescence analysis. QLXZD-induced autophagic cell death was alleviated by the autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyl adenine and hydroxychloroquine. We evaluated the total expression and phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in the Akt/mTOR pathway regulating autophagy. Phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and p70S6K, but not total protein levels, decreased following treatment. This is the first study to demonstrate the autophagy-related mechanistic pathways utilized during QLXZD-mediated antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. These findings support the clinical use of QLXZD for PCa treatment.

  11. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis and portal hypertension in rat using adenoviral gene transfer of Akt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gang; Huang, Xiang-Jun; Luo, Hong-Wu; Huang, Fei-Zhou; Liu, Xun-Yang; Wang, Yong-Heng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a virus constitutively expressing active Akt is useful to prevent cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Using cre-loxp technique, we created an Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus, in which Akt is labeled by a HA tag and its expression is driven by myr promoter. Further, through measuring enzyme levels and histological structure, we determined the efficacy of this Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus in inhibiting the development of cirrhosis induced by CCl4 in rats. Lastly, using western blotting, we examined the expression levels and/or phosphorylation status of Akt, apoptotic mediators, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and markers for hepatic stellate cells activation to understand the underlying mechanisms of protective role of this virus. The Ad-myr-HA-Akt virus was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of inserted Akt gene and sequencing for full length of inserted fragment, which was consistent with the sequence reported in the GenBank. The concentrations of Ad-myr-HA-Akt and adenoviral enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) virus used in the current study were 5.5 × 10(11) vp/mL. The portal vein diameter, peak velocity of blood flow, portal blood flow and congestion index were significantly increased in untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups when compared to normal control after the virus was introduced to animal through tail veil injection. In contrast, these parameters in the Akt cirrhosis group were comparable to normal control group. Compared to the normal control, the liver function (Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase and Albumin) was significantly impaired in the untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups. The Akt cirrhosis group showed significant improvement of liver function when compared to the untreated, saline and Ad-EGFP cirrhosis groups. The Hyp level and portal vein pressure in Akt cirrhosis groups were also significantly lower than other cirrhosis groups. The results of HE and

  12. Inflammation induced mTORC2-Akt-mTORC1 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Dipanjan; Sinha, Archana; Saikia, Sudeshna; Gogoi, Bhaskarjyoti; Rathore, Arvind K; Das, Anindhya Sundar; Pal, Durba; Buragohain, Alak K; Dasgupta, Suman

    2018-06-05

    The transformation of macrophages into lipid loaded foam cells is a critical and early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Several recent reports highlighted that induction of TLR4 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we found that the TLR4 mediated inflammatory signaling communicated with mTORC2-Akt-mTORC1 metabolic cascade in macrophage and thereby promoting lipid uptake and foam cell formation. Mechanistically, LPS treatment markedly upregulates TLR4 mediated inflammatory pathway which by activating mTORC2 induces Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and that aggravate mTORC1 dependent scavenger receptors expression and consequent lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages. Inhibition of mTORC2 either by silencing Rictor expression or inhibiting its association with mTOR notably prevents LPS induced Akt activation, scavenger receptors expression and macrophage lipid accumulation. Although suppression of mTORC1 expression by genetic knockdown of Raptor did not produce any significant change in Akt S473 phosphorylation, however, incubation with Akt activator in Rictor silenced cells failed to promote scavenger receptors expression and macrophage foam cell formation. Thus, present research explored the signaling pathway involved in inflammation induced macrophage foam cells formation and therefore, targeting this pathway might be useful for preventing macrophage foam cell formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway by oxidative stress mediates high glucose-induced increase of adipogenic differentiation in primary rat osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2013-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of osteopenia and bone fracture that may be related to hyperglycemia. However, the mechanisms accounting for diabetic bone disorder are unclear. Here, we showed that high glucose significantly promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat primary osteoblasts. Most importantly, we reported for the first time that ROS induced by high glucose increased alkaline phosphatase activity, inhibited type I collagen (collagen I) protein level and cell mineralization, as well as gene expression of osteogenic markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), collagen I, and osteocalcin, but promoted lipid droplet formation and gene expression of adipogenic markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), and adipsin, which were restored by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Moreover, high glucose-induced oxidative stress activated PI3K/Akt pathway to inhibited osteogenic differentiation but stimulated adipogenic differentiation. In contrast, NAC and a PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002, reversed the down-regulation of osteogenic markers and the up-regulation of adipogenic markers as well as the activation of Akt under high glucose. These results indicated that oxidative stress played a key role in high glucose-induced increase of adipogenic differentiation, which contributed to the inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. This process was mediated by PI3K/Akt pathway in rat primary osteoblasts. Hence, suppression of oxidative stress could be a potential therapeutic approach for diabetic osteopenia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation and increases sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Taj D.; Gandy, Johanna C.; Bijur, Gautam N.

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed protein glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is constitutively active, however its activity is markedly diminished following phosphorylation of Ser21 of GSK3α and Ser9 of GSK3β. Although several kinases are known to phosphorylate Ser21/9 of GSK3, for example Akt, relatively much less is known about the mechanisms that cause the dephosphorylation of GSK3 at Ser21/9. In the present study KCl-induced plasma membrane depolarization of SH-SY5Y cells, which increases intracellular calcium concentrations caused a transient decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473, and GSK3 at Ser21/9. Overexpression of the selective protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, inhibitor-2, increased basal GSK3 phosphorylation at Ser21/9 and significantly blocked the KCl-induced dephosphorylation of GSK3β, but not GSK3α. The phosphorylation of Akt was not affected by the overexpression of inhibitor-2. GSK3 activity is known to affect sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) levels. Overexpression of inhibitor-2 or treatment of cells with the GSK3 inhibitors lithium and SB216763 increased the levels of SERCA2. These results indicate that the protein phosphatase-1/inhibitor-2 complex differentially regulates GSK3 dephosphorylation induced by KCl and that GSK3 activity regulates SERCA2 levels

  15. Dietary flavonoid fisetin: A novel dual inhibitor of PI3K/Akt and mTOR for prostate cancer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Syed, Deeba; Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic and case control population based studies over the past few decades have identified diet as an important determinant of cancer risk. This evidence has kindled an interest into research on bioactive food components and has till date resulted in the identification of many compounds with cancer preventive and therapeutic potential. Among such compounds has been fisetin (3,7,3’,4’-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol and a member of the flavonoid polyphenols that also include quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol. Fisetin is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables such as apples, persimmons, grapes, kiwis, strawberries, onions and cucumbers. We evaluated the effects of fisetin against melanoma and cancers of the prostate, pancreas and the lungs. Using prostate and lung adenocarcinoma cells, we observed that fisetin acts as a dual inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt and the mTOR pathways. This is a significant finding considering the fact that mTOR is phosphorylated and its activation is more frequent in tumors with overexpression of PI3K/Akt. Dual inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling have been suggested as valuable agents for treating such cancers. Here, we summarize our findings on the dietary flavonoid fisetin and its effects on cancer with particular focus on prostate cancer. Our observations and findings from other laboratories suggest that fisetin could be a useful chemotherapeutic agent that could be used either alone or as an adjuvant with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for the management of prostate and other cancers. PMID:22842629

  16. Resveratrol induces growth arrest and apoptosis through activation of FOXO transcription factors in prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a naturally occurring phytopolyphenol compound, has attracted extensive interest in recent years because of its diverse pharmacological characteristics. Although resveratrol possesses chemopreventive properties against several cancers, the molecular mechanisms by which it inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis have not been clearly understood. The present study was carried out to examine whether PI3K/AKT/FOXO pathway mediates the biological effects of resveratrol.Resveratrol inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Resveratrol, PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 and Wortmannin and AKT inhibitor alone slightly induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells. These inhibitors further enhanced the apoptosis-inducing potential of resveratrol. Overexpression of wild-type PTEN slightly induced apoptosis. Wild type PTEN and PTEN-G129E enhanced resveratrol-induced apoptosis, whereas PTEN-G129R had no effect on proapoptotic effects of resveratrol. Furthermore, apoptosis-inducing potential of resveratrol was enhanced by dominant negative AKT, and inhibited by wild-type AKT and constitutively active AKT. Resveratrol has no effect on the expression of FKHR, FKHRL1 and AFX genes. The inhibition of FOXO phosphorylation by resveratrol resulted in its nuclear translocation, DNA binding and transcriptional activity. The inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway induced FOXO transcriptional activity resulting in induction of Bim, TRAIL, p27/KIP1, DR4 and DR5, and inhibition of cyclin D1. Similarly, resveratrol-induced FOXO transcriptional activity was further enhanced when activation of PI3K/AKT pathway was blocked. Over-expression of phosphorylation deficient mutants of FOXO proteins (FOXO1-TM, FOXO3A-TM and FOXO4-TM induced FOXO transcriptional activity, which was further enhanced by resveratrol. Inhibition of FOXO transcription factors by shRNA blocked resveratrol-induced upregulation of Bim, TRAIL, DR4, DR5, p27/KIP1 and apoptosis, and inhibition of cyclin D1 by

  17. PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 potentiates homoharringtonine antimyeloma activity in myeloma cells adhered to stromal cells and in SCID mouse xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Wen, Xiaofang; Wang, Bin; Hou, Diyu; Zou, Hong; Yuan, Qin; Yang, Hui; Xie, Jieqiong; Huang, Huifang

    2018-05-01

    Homoharringtonine (HHT) is a known anti-leukemia drug that inhibits multiple myeloma (MM) cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our prior study demonstrated that the potency of HHT in MM cells was compromised significantly when myeloma cells were co-cultured with BM stromal cells. This study aimed to investigate whether PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 could potentiate the antimyeloma activity of HHT against MM cells adhered to BM stromal cells and in vivo xenograft models. A co-culture system composed of MM cells and human stromal cells was employed to mimic MM cells in bone marrow niche. The inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effect of HHT and LY294002 was determined by CCK-8 assay or flow cytometry. Expression of PI3K/Akt signaling molecules and anti-apoptotic protein myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) was assessed by western blot analysis and/or reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). MM xenografts were used to evaluate antitumor effect of combined therapy with HHT and LY294002. Adhesion to BM stromal cells rendered MM cells resistant to HHT whereas silencing Mcl-1 partly reversed the resistance. LY294002 induced apoptosis in MM cells and potentiated the antimyeloma effects of HHT by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signal pathway which was abnormally activated during adhesion. LY294002 also enhanced the antimyeloma effect of HHT in in vivo xenograft models. These findings suggest that activation of PI3K/Akt signal pathway was responsible for the resistance to HHT in MM cells adhered to stromal cells. LY294002 can potentiate the antimyeloma activity of HHT both in vitro and in vivo, which may represent a new clinical treatment in MM.

  18. BRAFV600E Negatively Regulates the AKT Pathway in Melanoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F.; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamy...

  19. Piroxicam, a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) causes apoptosis by ROS mediated Akt activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Neha; Sarkar, Munna; Raha, Sanghamitra

    2015-12-01

    Piroxicam (Px) belongs to the oxicam group of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and have been shown to exert chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects in animal models and cultured animal cells. However, little is known about the mode of action of Px and its cellular targets. We explored the role of Px, in triggering apoptosis and examined the involvement of upstream cellular mechanisms in apoptosis induction by Px. Our studies with human breast cancer cells MCF-7 show that Px induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation along with apoptotic cell death. ROS release lead to Akt activation. On evaluation it became evident that ROS mediated apoptosis induction was due to Akt activation (hyper phosphorylation). Silencing the expression of Akt using siRNA and a specific Akt inhibitor, triciribine further confirmed the findings. However Px failed to cause ROS generation, cell death or Akt phosphorylation in another human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 which is estrogen receptor negative and more aggressive compared to MCF-7 cells. This suggests that Px has cell type specific effects. Thus we revealed for the first time that Px can induce apoptosis by ROS mediated Akt hyperphosphorylation/activation. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Akt is transferred to the nucleus of cells treated with apoptin, and it participates in apoptin-induced cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddika, S; Bay, GH; Kroczak, TJ

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway is well known for the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, and some metabolic routes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we document a novel role for the PI3-K/Akt pathway during cell death induced by apoptin, a tumour-selective....... Downstream of PI3-K, Akt is activated and translocated to the nucleus together with apoptin. Direct interaction between apoptin and Akt is documented. Co-expression of nuclear Akt significantly potentiates cell death induced by apoptin. Thus, apoptin-facilitated nuclear Akt, in contrast to when in its......, as it likely gains access to a new set of substrates in the nucleus. The implicated link between survival and cell death pathways during apoptosis opens new pharmacological opportunities to modulate apoptosis in cancer, for example through the manipulation of Akt's cellular localization....

  1. Albumin fibrillization induces apoptosis via integrin/FAK/Akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous proteins can be converted to amyloid-like fibrils to increase cytotoxicity and induce apoptosis, but the methods generally require a high concentration of protein, vigorous shaking, or fibril seed. As well, the detailed mechanism of the cytotoxic effects is not well characterized. In this study, we have developed a novel process to convert native proteins into the fibrillar form. We used globular bovine serum albumin (BSA as a model protein to verify the properties of the fibrillar protein, investigated its cellular effects and studied the signaling cascade induced by the fibrillar protein. Results We induced BSA, a non-cytotoxic globular protein, to become fibril by a novel process involving Superdex-200 column chromatography in the presence of anionic or zwittergenic detergent(s. The column pore size was more important than column matrix composite in fibril formation. The fibrillar BSA induced apoptosis in BHK-21 cell as well as breast cancer cell line T47D. Pre-treating cells with anti-integrin antibodies blocked the apoptotic effect. Fibrillar BSA, but not globular BSA, bound to integrin, dephosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK, Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β. Conclusion We report on a novel process for converting globular proteins into fibrillar form to cause apoptosis by modulating the integrin/FAK/Akt/GSK-3β/caspase-3 signaling pathway. Our findings may be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of amyloid-like fibrils and applicable for the development of better therapeutic agents that target the underlying mechanism(s of the etiologic agents.

  2. DNA-PKcs is important for Akt activation and gemcitabine resistance in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Gu, Yuanlong; Qian, Yi; Hu, Benshun; Zhu, Congyuan; Wang, Gaohe; Li, Jianping

    2014-09-12

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with extremely poor prognosis. The moderate activity of the current standard gemcitabine and gemcitabine-based regimens was due to pre-existing or acquired chemo-resistance of pancreatic cancer cells. In this study, we explored the potential role of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) in gemcitabine resistance, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We found that NU-7026 and NU-7441, two DNA-PKcs inhibitors, enhanced gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Meanwhile, PANC-1 cells with siRNA-knockdown of DNA-PKcs were more sensitive to gemcitabine than control PANC-1 cells. Through the co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay, we found that DNA-PKcs formed a complex with SIN1, the latter is an indispensable component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2). DNA-PKcs-SIN1 complexation was required for Akt activation in PANC-1 cells, while inhibition of this complex by siRNA knockdown of DNA-PKcs/SIN1, or by DNA-PKcs inhibitors, prevented Akt phosphorylation in PANC-1 cells. Further, SIN1 siRNA-knockdown also facilitated gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Finally, DNA-PKcs and p-Akt expression was significantly higher in human pancreatic cancer tissues than surrounding normal tissues. Together, these results show that DNA-PKcs is important for Akt activation and gemcitabine resistance in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-13

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer.

  4. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-01-01

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  5. Angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation is necessary for angiogenesis but is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Kang, Dong-Ku; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Chang, Soo-Ik

    2007-01-01

    Angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor, binds to endothelial cells and is endocytosed and rapidly translocated to and concentrated in the nucleolus where it binds to DNA. In this study, we report that angiogenin induces transient phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells. LY294002 inhibits the angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation and also angiogenin-induced cell migration in vitro as well as angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in vivo without affecting nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells. These results suggest that cross-talk between angiogenin and protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathways is essential for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and that angiogenin-induced PKB/Akt activation is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells

  6. Gallic acid abolishes the EGFR/Src/Akt/Erk-mediated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lin, Ku-Nan; Jhang, Li-Mei; Huang, Chia-Hui; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Chang, Long-Sen

    2016-05-25

    Several studies have revealed that natural compounds are valuable resources to develop novel agents against dysregulation of the EGF/EGFR-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in cancer cells. In view of the findings that EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression is closely related to invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. To determine the beneficial effects of gallic acid on the suppression of breast cancer metastasis, we explored the effect of gallic acid on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Treatment with EGF up-regulated MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels in MCF-7 cells. EGF treatment induced phosphorylation of EGFR and elicited Src activation, subsequently promoting Akt/NFκB (p65) and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells. Activation of Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun was responsible for the MMP-9 up-regulation in EGF-treated cells. Gallic acid repressed the EGF-induced activation of EGFR and Src; furthermore, inactivation of Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun was a result of the inhibitory effect of gallic acid on the EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. Over-expression of constitutively active Akt and MEK1 or over-expression of constitutively active Src eradicated the inhibitory effect of gallic acid on the EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. A chromosome conformation capture assay showed that EGF induced a chromosomal loop formation in the MMP-9 promoter via NFκB/p65 and AP-1/c-Jun activation. Treatment with gallic acid, EGFR inhibitor, or Src inhibitor reduced DNA looping. Taken together, our data suggest that gallic acid inhibits the activation of EGFR/Src-mediated Akt and ERK, leading to reduced levels of p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping and thus inhibiting MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated MCF-7 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DMA mitigates ionizing radiation induced damage in Balb/c mice through Akt/NFκB/PTEN pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Vinod; Ranjan, Atul; Tandon, Vibha

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is associated with massive apoptosis in tumor as well as in radiosensitive organs. DMA, (5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-(2'-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-5'-benzimidazolyl) a cytoprotective radiomodulator, work in dual mode of action as free radical quencher and modifier of genomic instability caused by radiation. We observed 34% radioprotection with 50 mg/Kg bw intravenous dose of DMA in Balb/c mice at 8 Gy. DMA treatment before irradiation restored the normal crypts and villi architecture in Balb/c mice. The villi height was restored equivalent to control group in DMA treated animals, whereas, it was degenerated in irradiated animals. IR-induced apoptosis was reduced in spleen in presence of DMA as a result of preservation of splenic lymphocytes from radiation. This clearly exhibits the radioprotective ability of DMA to mitigate radiation induced tissue damage. IR-induced S phase check point was overcome by DMA. DMA promoted activation and phosphorylation of GSK3β through the activation of Akt in Balb/c mice. There was reduction in PTEN level in DMA pretreated mice where as it was upregulated in irradiated mice. Relative enhanced kinase activity of Akt was observed in DMA treated Balb/c mice and irradiated A549, MRC5 cell lines. There was no significant radioprotection in DMA treated Akt siRNA transfected cells in comparison to only Akt siRNA transfected cells with increasing dose of radiation. Akt activation was found in a dose-dependent manner by DMA through Luciferase reporter assay. We observed that DMA treated HEK cells transfected with control siRNA, resulted in less early apoptotic cells within 24h, but radiation (5 Gy) treated cells showed 20% early apoptotic cells within 3 h which were reduced to 12% at 3 h, 9% at 6 h and 8% at 24 h in DMA+radiation treated cells determined by Annexin V binding assay. Further molecular mRNA expression analysis of key regulatory genes unveil that DMA inhibited p21 and augmented Akt and Gadd45 in

  8. Interplay between estrogen receptor and AKT in estradiol-induced alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Song, Eun-Kyung; Collins, Nikail R; Uversky, Vladimir N; Dunker, A Keith; O'Malley, Bert W; Geistlinger, Tim R; Carroll, Jason S; Brown, Myles; Nakshatri, Harikrishna

    2013-06-11

    Alternative splicing is critical for generating complex proteomes in response to extracellular signals. Nuclear receptors including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and their ligands promote alternative splicing. The endogenous targets of ERα:estradiol (E2)-mediated alternative splicing and the influence of extracellular kinases that phosphorylate ERα on E2-induced splicing are unknown. MCF-7 and its anti-estrogen derivatives were used for the majority of the assays. CD44 mini gene was used to measure the effect of E2 and AKT on alternative splicing. ExonHit array analysis was performed to identify E2 and AKT-regulated endogenous alternatively spliced apoptosis-related genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to verify alternative splicing. ERα binding to alternatively spliced genes was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation-ELISA and Annexin V labeling assays were done to measure cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. We identified the targets of E2-induced alternative splicing and deconstructed some of the mechanisms surrounding E2-induced splicing by combining splice array with ERα cistrome and gene expression array. E2-induced alternatively spliced genes fall into at least two subgroups: coupled to E2-regulated transcription and ERα binding to the gene without an effect on rate of transcription. Further, AKT, which phosphorylates both ERα and splicing factors, influenced ERα:E2 dependent splicing in a gene-specific manner. Genes that are alternatively spliced include FAS/CD95, FGFR2, and AXIN-1. E2 increased the expression of FGFR2 C1 isoform but reduced C3 isoform at mRNA level. E2-induced alternative splicing of FAS and FGFR2 in MCF-7 cells correlated with resistance to FAS activation-induced apoptosis and response to keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), respectively. Resistance of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen was associated with ER

  9. The interplay between GRP78 expression and Akt activation in human colon cancer cells under celecoxib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaobo; Chang, Weilong; Du, Hansong; Bai, Jie; Sun, Zhenhai; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Guangsheng; Tao, Kaixiong; Long, Yueping

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported previously that celecoxib shows antitumor effects in many types of cancers. Here, we detected its effects on DLD-1 and SW480 (two human colon cancer cell lines) and investigated the dynamic relationship between the 78-kDa glucose-regulatory protein (GRP78) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Gene expression was detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis; the cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. First, the results showed that celecoxib induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found the celecoxib-triggered unfolded protein response and the bidirectional regulation of Akt activation in both cell lines. Inhibiting the Akt activation by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly enhanced GRP78 expression. Besides, silencing the GRP78 expression regulated Akt activation in a time-dependent manner and increased the induction of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) as well as considerably promoted celecoxib-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that under the celecoxib treatment, GRP78 plays a protective role by modulating Akt activation and abrogating CHOP expression. However, Akt activation can provide a feedback loop to inhibit GRP78 expression. These studies can lead to novel therapeutic strategies for human colon cancer.

  10. The chalcone flavokawain B induces G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human oral carcinoma HSC-3 cells through the intracellular ROS generation and downregulation of the Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Wu, Chi-Rei; Cho, Hsin-Ju; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Lai, Guan-Hua; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Kumar, K J Senthil; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2012-03-07

    Chalcones have been described to represent cancer chemopreventive food components that are rich in fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the anti-oral cancer effect of flavokawain B (FKB), a naturally occurring chalcone isolated from Alpinia pricei (shell gingers), and revealed its molecular mechanism of action. Treatment of human oral carcinoma (HSC-3) cells with FKB (1.25-10 μg/mL; 4.4-35.2 μM) inhibited cell viability and caused G(2)/M arrest through reductions in cyclin A/B1, Cdc2, and Cdc25C levels. Moreover, FKB treatment resulted in the induction of apoptosis, which was associated with DNA fragmentation, mitochondria dysfunction, cytochrome c and AIF release, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation, and Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation. Furthermore, increased Fas activity and procaspase-8, procaspase-4, and procaspase-12 cleavages were accompanied by death receptor and ER-stress, indicating the involvement of mitochondria, death-receptor, and ER-stress signaling pathways. FKB induces apoptosis through ROS generation as evidenced by the upregulation of oxidative-stress markers HO-1/Nrf2. This mechanism was further confirmed by the finding that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly blocked ROS generation and consequently inhibited FKB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, FKB downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt and p38 MAPK, while their inhibitors LY294002 and SB203580, respectively, induced G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis. The profound reduction in cell number was observed in combination treatment with FKB and Akt/p38 MAPK inhibitors, indicating that the disruption of Akt and p38 MAPK cascades plays a functional role in FKB-induced G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis in HSC-3 cells.

  11. IGF-1 and PDGF-bb Suppress IL-1β-Induced Cartilage Degradation through Down-Regulation of NF-κB Signaling: Involvement of Src/PI-3K/AKT Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, Ali; Buhrmann, Constanze; Aldinger, Constance; Rad, Jafar Soleimani; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors (GFs) capable of antagonizing the catabolic actions of cytokines may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of OA. Herein, we investigated the potential synergistic effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) on different mechanisms participating in IL-1β-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and apoptosis in chondrocytes. Methods Primary chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β to induce dedifferentiation and co-treated with either IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb and evaluated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Results Pretreatment of chondrocytes with IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation via inhibition of IκB-α kinase. Inhibition of IκB-α kinase by GFs led to the suppression of IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation, p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB-regulated gene products involved in inflammation and cartilage degradation (COX-2, MMPs) and apoptosis (caspase-3). GFs or BMS-345541 (specific inhibitor of the IKK) reversed the IL-1β-induced down-regulation of collagen type II, cartilage specific proteoglycans, β1-integrin, Shc, activated MAPKinase, Sox-9 and up-regulation of active caspase-3. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation were sensitive to inhibitors of Src (PP1), PI-3K (wortmannin) and Akt (SH-5), suggesting that the pathway consisting of non-receptor tyrosine kinase (Src), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B must be involved in IL-1β signaling. Conclusion The results presented suggest that IGF-1 and PDGF-bb are potent inhibitors of IL-1β-mediated activation of NF-κB and apoptosis in chondrocytes, may be mediated in part through suppression of Src/PI-3K/AKT pathway, which may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID

  12. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation through a calcium and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Min; Huang, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Wung, Being-Sun

    2016-12-01

    The production of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a major role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. This study elucidated the potential role of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) in NO production and explored the underlying mechanisms in endothelial cells. We observed that 25μM CORM-2 could increase NO production and stimulate an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level. Furthermore, ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid caused CORM-2-induced NO production, which was abolished by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxy-methyl ester (BAPTA-AM), indicating that intracellular Ca 2+ release plays a major role in eNOS activation. The inhibition of the IP3 receptor diminished the CORM-2-induced intracellular Ca 2+ increase and NO production. Furthermore, CORM-2 induced eNOS Ser 1179 phosphorylation and eNOS dimerization, but it did not alter eNOS expression. CORM-2 (25μM) also prolonged Akt phosphorylation, lasting for at least 12h. Pretreatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors (wortmannin or LY294002) inhibited the increases in NO production and phosphorylation but did not affect eNOS dimerization. CORM-2-induced eNOS Ser 1179 phosphorylation was intracellularly calcium-dependent, because pretreatment with an intracellular Ca 2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM) inhibited this process. Although CORM-2 increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), pretreatment with antioxidant enzyme catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine did not abolish the CORM-2-induced eNOS activity or phosphorylation, signifying that ROS is not involved in this activity. Hence, CORM-2 enhances eNOS activation through intracellular calcium release, Akt phosphorylation, and eNOS dimerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple roles and therapeutic implications of Akt signaling in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Calvo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Emiliano Calvo1, Victoria Bolós2, Enrique Grande21Centro Integral Oncológico Clara Campal (CiOCC, Madrid. Spain; 2Pfizer Oncology, Alcobendas-Madrid, SpainAbstract: The prominence of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in several tumors indicates a relationship with tumor grade and proliferation. Critical cellular processes are driven through this pathway. More detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis of tumors would enable us to design targeted drugs to block both membrane tyrosine kinase receptors and the intracellular kinases involved in the transmission of the signal. The newly approved molecular inhibitors sunitinib (an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and other tyrosine kinase receptors, sorafenib (a serine–threonine kinase inhibitor that acts against B-Raf and temsirolimus (an mTOR inhibitor shown clinical activity in advanced kidney cancer. Chronic myeloid leukemia has changed its natural history thanks to imatinib and dasatinib, both of which inhibit the intracellular bcr/abl protein derived from the alteration in the Philadelphia chromosome. Intracellular pathways are still important in cancer development and their blockade directly affects outcome. Cross-talk has been observed but is not well understood. Vertical and horizontal pathway blockade are promising anticancer strategies. Indeed, preclinical and early clinical data suggest that combining superficial and intracellular blocking agents can synergize and leverage single-agent activity. The implication of the Akt signaling pathway in cancer is well established and has led to the development of new anticancer agents that block its activation.Keywords: Akt, cancer, therapeutic target, Akt inhibitors

  14. Destabilization of Akt Promotes the Death of Myeloma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of Akt is believed to be an oncogenic signal in multiple myeloma and is associated with poor patient prognosis and resistance to available treatment. The stability of Akt proteins is regulated by phosphorylating the highly conserved turn motif (TM of these proteins and the chaperone protein HSP90. In this study we investigate the antitumor effects of inhibiting mTORC2 plus HSP90 in myeloma cell lines. We show that chronic exposure of cells to rapamycin can inhibit mTORC2 pathway, and AKT will be destabilized by administration of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG. Finally, we show that the rapamycin synergizes with 17-AAG and inhibits myeloma cells growth and promotes cell death to a greater extent than either drug alone. Our studies provide a clinical rationale of use mTOR inhibitors and chaperone protein inhibitors in combination regimens for the treatment of human blood cancers.

  15. Heat Stress-Induced PI3K/mTORC2-Dependent AKT Signaling Is a Central Mediator of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Survival to Thermal Ablation Induced Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Thompson

    Full Text Available Thermal ablative therapies are important treatment options in the multidisciplinary care of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, but lesions larger than 2-3 cm are plagued with high local recurrence rates and overall survival of these patients remains poor. Currently no adjuvant therapies exist to prevent local HCC recurrence in patients undergoing thermal ablation. The molecular mechanisms mediating HCC resistance to thermal ablation induced heat stress and local recurrence remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the HCC cells with a poor prognostic hepatic stem cell subtype (Subtype HS are more resistant to heat stress than HCC cells with a better prognostic hepatocyte subtype (Subtype HC. Moreover, sublethal heat stress rapidly induces phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR dependent-protein kinase B (AKT survival signaling in HCC cells in vitro and at the tumor ablation margin in vivo. Conversely, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2-dependent AKT phosphorylation or direct inhibition of AKT function both enhance HCC cell killing and decrease HCC cell survival to sublethal heat stress in both poor and better prognostic HCC subtypes while mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1-inhibition has no impact. Finally, we showed that AKT isoforms 1, 2 and 3 are differentially upregulated in primary human HCCs and that overexpression of AKT correlates with worse tumor biology and pathologic features (AKT3 and prognosis (AKT1. Together these findings define a novel molecular mechanism whereby heat stress induces PI3K/mTORC2-dependent AKT survival signaling in HCC cells and provide a mechanistic rationale for adjuvant AKT inhibition in combination with thermal ablation as a strategy to enhance HCC cell killing and prevent local recurrence, particularly at the ablation margin.

  16. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Effect of Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract via Src/PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Siang Lau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Botanical herbs are consumed globally not only as an essential diet but also as medicines or as functional/recreational food supplements. The extract of the Apocynum venetum leaves (AVLE, also known as Luobuma, exerts its antihypertensive effect via dilating the blood vessels in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner with optimal effect seen at as low as 10 µg/mL. A commercial Luoboma “antihypertensive tea” is available commercially in the western province of China. The present study seeks to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms of the nitric oxide (NO-releasing property of AVLE in rat aortas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by AVLE was assessed in organ chambers in the presence or absence of polyethyleneglycol catalase (PP2, 20 µM; inhibitor of Src kinase, wortmannin (30 nM and LY294002 (20 µM; PI3 (phosphatidylinositol3-Kinase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine (L-NAME, 100 µM; endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (eNOS and ODQ (1 µM; soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx level and protein expression of p-Akt and p-eNOS were measured. AVLE-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002 and abolished by L-NAME and ODQ. AVLE significantly increased total NOx level in rat aortas and in HUVECs compared to control. It also instigated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in cultured HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner and this was markedly suppressed by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002. AVLE also inhibited superoxide generated from both NADPH oxidase and xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Taken together, AVLE causes endothelium-dependent NO mediated relaxations of rat aortas through Src/PI3K/Akt dependent NO signalling pathway and possesses superoxide scavenging activity.

  17. Dehydroandrographolide, an iNOS inhibitor, extracted from from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chiou, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide (DA) are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. and are the main contributors to its therapeutic properties. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide (DA) remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy. Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. In addition, DA increased LC3-II expression and reduced p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. DA-induced autophagy was triggered by an activation of JNK1/2 and an inhibition of Akt and p38. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that DA induced autophagy in human oral cancer cells by modulating p53 expression, activating JNK1/2, and inhibiting Akt and p38. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer. PMID:26356821

  18. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in cultured rat cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takadera, Tsuneo; Ishida, Akira; Ohyashiki, Takao

    2006-01-01

    Recent data suggest that anesthetic drugs cause neurodegeneration during development. Ketamine is frequently used in infants and toddlers for elective surgeries. The purpose of this study is to determine whether glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is involved in ketamine-induced apoptosis. Ketamine increased apoptotic cell death with morphological changes which were characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation or fragmentation. In addition, insulin growth factor-1 completely blocked the ketamine-induced apoptotic cell death. Ketamine decreased Akt phosphorylation. GSK-3 is known as a downstream target of Akt. The selective inhibitors of GSK-3 prevented the ketamine-induced apoptosis. Moreover, caspase-3 activation was accompanied by the ketamine-induced cell death and inhibited by the GSK-3 inhibitors. These results suggest that activation of GSK-3 is involved in ketamine-induced apoptosis in rat cortical neurons

  19. Opposite effects of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras on radiation-induced apoptosis via differential activation of PI3K/Akt and Rac/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-A.; Kang, C.-M.; Lee, Y.-S.; Lee, S.-J.; Bae, S.-W.; Cho, C.-K.

    2003-01-01

    It has been well known that Ras signaling is involved in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, distinct cellular functions of Ras isozymes are not fully understood. Here we show the opposing roles of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras genes in the modulation of cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Overexpression of active isoform of Ha-Ras (12V-Ha- Ras) in Rat2 cells increases resistance to the ionizing radiation. Constitutive activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt is detected specifically in 12V-Ha-Ras-overexpressing cells. The specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibits PI3K/Akt signaling and potentiates the radiation-induced apoptosis, suggesting that activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the increased radio-resistance in cells overexpressing 12V-Ha-Ras. Overexpression of activated Ki-Ras (12V-Ki-Ras), on the other hand, markedly increases radiation sensitivity. The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity is selectively enhanced by ionizing radiation in cells overexpressing 12V-Ki-Ras. The specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, PD169316, or dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase decreases radiation-induced cell death. We further show that the mechanism that underlies potentiation of cell death in cells overexpressing 12V-Ki-Ras involves Bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane. Elevated Bax translocation following ionizing irradiation in 12V-Ki-Ras-overexpressing cells is completely inhibited by PD169316 or dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase. In addition, introduction of cells with RacN17, a dominant negative mutant of Rac, resulted in a marked inhibition of radiation-induced Bax translocation and apoptotic cell death as well as p38 MAP kinase activation. Taken together, these findings explain the opposite effects of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras on modulation of radio-sensitivity, and suggest that differential activation of PI3K/Akt and Rac/p38 MAP kinase signaling by Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras may

  20. Cell Signaling Associated with Na+/K+-ATPase: Activation of Phosphatidylinositide 3-Kinase IA/Akt by Ouabain Is Independent of Src

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of intact cells to selective inhibitors of Na+/K+-ATPase such as ouabain activates several growth-related cell signaling pathways. It has been suggested that the initial event of these pathways is the binding of ouabain to a preexisting complex of Src with Na+/K+-ATPase of the plasma membrane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of Src in the ouabain-induced activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase 1A (PI3K1A) and its downstream consequences. When fibroblasts devoid of Src (SYF cells) and controls (Src++ cells) were exposed to ouabain, PI3K1A, Akt, and proliferative growth were similarly stimulated in both cell lines. Ouabain-induced activation of Akt was not prevented by the Src inhibitor PP2. In contrast, ERK1/2 were not activated by ouabain in SYF cells but were stimulated in Src++ cells; this was prevented by PP2. In isolated adult mouse cardiac myocytes, where ouabain induces hypertrophic growth, PP2 also did not prevent ouabain-induced activation of Akt and the resulting hypertrophy. Ouabain-induced increases in the levels of co-immunoprecipitation of the α-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase with the p85 subunit of PI3K1A were noted in SYF cells, Src++ cells, and adult cardiac myocytes. In conjunction with previous findings, the results presented here indicate that (a) if there is a preformed complex of Src and Na+/K+-ATPase, it is irrelevant to ouabain-induced activation of the PI3K1A/Akt pathway through Na+/K+-ATPase and (b) a more likely, but not established, mechanism of linkage of Na+/K+-ATPase to PI3K1A is the ouabain-induced interaction of a proline-rich domain of the α-subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase with the SH3 domain of the p85 subunit of PI3K1A. PMID:24266852

  1. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

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    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  2. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells

  3. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stenius, Ulla [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-01-04

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells.

  4. SCD1 Expression is dispensable for hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AKT and Ras oncogenes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available Increased de novo lipogenesis is one of the major metabolic events in cancer. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, de novo lipogenesis has been found to be increased and associated with the activation of AKT/mTOR signaling. In mice, overexpression of an activated form of AKT results in increased lipogenesis and hepatic steatosis, ultimately leading to liver tumor development. Hepatocarcinogenesis is dramatically accelerated when AKT is co-expressed with an oncogenic form of N-Ras. SCD1, the major isoform of stearoyl-CoA desaturases, catalyzing the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFA into monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, is a key enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis. While many studies demonstrated the requirement of SCD1 for tumor cell growth in vitro, whether SCD1 is necessary for tumor development in vivo has not been previously investigated. Here, we show that genetic ablation of SCD1 neither inhibits lipogenesis and hepatic steatosis in AKT-overexpressing mice nor affects liver tumor development in mice co-expressing AKT and Ras oncogenes. Molecular analysis showed that SCD2 was strongly upregulated in liver tumors from AKT/Ras injected SCD1(-/- mice. Noticeably, concomitant silencing of SCD1 and SCD2 genes was highly detrimental for the growth of AKT/Ras cells in vitro. Altogether, our study provides the evidence, for the first time, that SCD1 expression is dispensable for AKT/mTOR-dependent hepatic steatosis and AKT/Ras-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Complete inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity may be required to efficiently suppress liver tumor development.

  5. Dietary Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Induces Nrf2/ARE Pathway and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High-Fat via Activation of PI3K/AKT Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP, an antioxidant from wolfberry, displays the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on experimental models of insulin resistance in vivo. However, the effective mechanism of LBP on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance is still unknown. The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism involved in LBP-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 axis against high-fat-induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells were incubated with LBP for 12 hrs in the presence of palmitate. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with LBP for 24 weeks. We analyzed the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β involved in insulin signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. First, LBP significantly induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 through PI3K/AKT signaling. Second, LBP obviously increased detoxification and antioxidant enzymes expression and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS levels via PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 axis. Third, LBP also regulated phosphorylation levels of GSK3β and JNK through PI3K/AKT signaling. Finally, LBP significantly reversed glycolytic and gluconeogenic genes expression via the activation of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective effects. In summary, LBP is novel antioxidant against insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet via activation of PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 pathway.

  6. Agmatine protects against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced water maze memory deficit, hippocampal apoptosis and Akt/GSK3β signaling disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Maryam; Zarifkar, Amir Hossein; Farbood, Yaghoub; Dianat, Mahin; Sarkaki, Alireza; Ghasemi, Rasoul

    2014-08-05

    Centrally administered streptozotocin (STZ), is known to cause Alzheimer׳s like memory deterioration. It mainly affects insulin signaling pathways such as PI3/Akt and GSK-3β which are involved in cell survival. Previous studies indicate that STZ increases the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and thereby induces caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Agmatine, a polyamine derived from l-arginine decarboxylation, is recently shown to exert some neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to assess if agmatine reverses STZ-induced memory deficits, hippocampal Akt/GSK-3β signaling disruption and caspase-3 activation. Adult male Sprague-Dawely rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The canules were implanted bilaterally into lateral ventricles. STZ was administered on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg) and agmatine treatment (40 or 80 mg/kg) was started from day 4 and continued in an every other day manner till day 14. The animal׳s learning and memory capability was assessed on days 15-18 using Morris water maze. After complement of behavioral studies the hippocampi was isolated and the amounts of hippocampal cleaved caspase-3 (the landmark of apoptosis), Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, total and phosphorylated forms of GSK-3β and Akt were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that agmatine in 80 but not 40 mg/kg reversed the memory deterioration induced by STZ. Western blot analysis revealed that STZ prompted elevation of caspase-3; Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and disrupted Akt/GSK-3β signaling in the hippocampus. Agmatine treatment prevented apoptosis and Akt/GSK-3β signaling impairment induced by STZ. This study disclosed that agmatine treatment averts not only STZ-induced memory deterioration but also hippocampal apoptosis and Akt/GSK-3β signaling disruption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Andrographolide reduces proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Forum; Madhu, Hardik; Vasavada, Abhay; Johar, Kaid

    2014-11-01

    Lens epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and transdifferentiation are involved in the development of subcapsular cataracts and postoperative capsular opacification (PCO). PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in the proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells. Andrographolide is the main bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata and is known to possess anti-proliferative and anti-migratory activities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on proliferation and migration induced by growth factors (TGF-β and bFGF) in the lens epithelial cell line, FHL 124. We have also evaluated the role of the PI3K/Akt pathway and its alteration by andrographolide during proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells. The results showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited proliferation in a dose and time dependent manner. The growth factors, TGF-β and bFGF, induced migration of lens epithelial cells, which was lowered by andrographolide. The growth factors also up regulated phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) and Akt (Thr308), which was abolished by simultaneous treatment of andrographolide. Similar changes were also observed with the PI3K inhibitor, LY290042. Our findings suggest that andrographolide reduces proliferation, migration, and phosphorylated Akt levels in lens epithelial cells. Hence andrographolide can be utilized for the prevention of PCO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel mechanisms of sildenafil in pulmonary hypertension involving cytokines/chemokines, MAP kinases and Akt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Kiss

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH is associated with high mortality due to right ventricular failure and hypoxia, therefore to understand the mechanism by which pulmonary vascular remodeling initiates these processes is very important. We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt pathway and nuclear factor (NF-κB activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. Besides its protective effect on lung morphology, sildenafil suppressed multiple cytokines involved in neutrophil and mononuclear cells recruitment including cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1, CINC-2α/β, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, interleukin (IL-1α, lipopolysaccharide induced CXC chemokine (LIX, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, and MIP-3α. NF-κB activation and phosphorylation were also attenuated by sildenafil. Furthermore, sildenafil reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation while enhanced activation of the cytoprotective Akt pathway in PH. These data suggest a beneficial effect of sildenafil on inflammatory and kinase signaling mechanisms that substantially contribute to its protective effects, and may have potential implications in designing future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  9. Sustained oxidative stress causes late acute renal failure via duplex regulation on p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation in severely burned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence indicates that late acute renal failure (ARF predicts high mortality in severely burned patients but the pathophysiology of late ARF remains undefined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS induced late ARF in a severely burned rat model and to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were exposed to 100°C bath for 15 s to induce severe burn injury (40% of total body surface area. Renal function, ROS generation, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, and phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt were measured during 72 hours after burn. RESULTS: Renal function as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen deteriorated significantly at 3 h after burn, alleviated at 6 h but worsened at 48 h and 72 h, indicating a late ARF was induced. Apoptotic cells and cleavage caspase-3 in the kidney went up slowly and turned into significant at 48 h and 72 h. Tubular cell ROS production shot up at 6 h and continuously rose during the 72-h experiment. Scavenging ROS with tempol markedly attenuated tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction at 72 h after burn. Interestingly, renal p38 MAPK phosphorylation elevated in a time dependent manner whereas Akt phosphorylation increased during the first 24 h but decreased at 48 h after burn. The p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 alleviated whereas Akt inhibitor exacerbated burn-induced tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Furthermore, tempol treatment exerted a duplex regulation through inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation but further increasing Akt phosphorylation at 72 h postburn. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that sustained renal ROS overproduction induces continuous tubular cell apoptosis and thus a late ARF at 72 h after burn in severely burned rats, which may result from ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK but a late inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

  10. Silica nanoparticles induce multinucleation through activation of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and downregulation of chromosomal passenger proteins in L-02 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Weijia; Li, Yang; Yu, Yongbo; Yu, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Jiang, Lizhen; Li, Qiuling; Sun, Zhiwei, E-mail: zwsun@ccmu.edu.cn, E-mail: zwsun@hotmail.com [Capital Medical University, School of Public Health (China)

    2016-04-15

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are applicable in various fields due to their unique physicochemical characteristics. However, concerns over their potential adverse effects have been raised. In our previous studies, we reported that SNPs could induce abnormal high incidence of multinucleation. The aim of this study is to further investigate the mechanisms of multinucleation induced by SNPs (68 nm) in human normal liver L-02 cells (L-02 cells). In order to determine the cytotoxicity of SNPs, MTT assay was performed, and the cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detected by flow cytometry and multinucleation observed by Giemsa stain showed that ROS generation and rate of multinucleated cells increased after SNPs exposure. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor against SNP-induced toxicity, was used as a ROS inhibitor to elucidate the relationship between ROS and multinucleation. The presence of NAC resulted in inhibition of both ROS generation and rate of multinucleation. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of Cdc20, Aurora B, and Survivin were down-regulated, and the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway was activated by SNPs. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggested that multinucleation induced by SNPs was related to PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signal pathway activation and downregulation of G2/M phase-related protein and chromosomal passenger proteins.

  11. Silica nanoparticles induce multinucleation through activation of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and downregulation of chromosomal passenger proteins in L-02 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weijia; Li, Yang; Yu, Yongbo; Yu, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Jiang, Lizhen; Li, Qiuling; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are applicable in various fields due to their unique physicochemical characteristics. However, concerns over their potential adverse effects have been raised. In our previous studies, we reported that SNPs could induce abnormal high incidence of multinucleation. The aim of this study is to further investigate the mechanisms of multinucleation induced by SNPs (68 nm) in human normal liver L-02 cells (L-02 cells). In order to determine the cytotoxicity of SNPs, MTT assay was performed, and the cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detected by flow cytometry and multinucleation observed by Giemsa stain showed that ROS generation and rate of multinucleated cells increased after SNPs exposure. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor against SNP-induced toxicity, was used as a ROS inhibitor to elucidate the relationship between ROS and multinucleation. The presence of NAC resulted in inhibition of both ROS generation and rate of multinucleation. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of Cdc20, Aurora B, and Survivin were down-regulated, and the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway was activated by SNPs. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggested that multinucleation induced by SNPs was related to PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signal pathway activation and downregulation of G2/M phase-related protein and chromosomal passenger proteins.

  12. Totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro and ameliorates brain ischemic stroke: Potential roles of Akt activation and HO-1 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yuanxue; Xu, Xiaojun; Chang, Sai; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yazhou; Ran, Siqi [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Huang, Zhangjian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Diseases, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Ping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Jia [National Center for Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 189 Guo Shoujing Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang, Luyong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Saavedra, Juan M. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Liao, Hong, E-mail: liaohong56@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Pang, Tao, E-mail: tpang@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The natural product totarol, a phenolic diterpenoid and a major constituent isolated from the sap of Podocarpus totara, has been reported to have a potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether totarol possessed an additional neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo. We found that totarol prevented glutamate- and oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death in primary rat cerebellar granule neuronal cells and cerebral cortical neurons. Totarol increased Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions and suppressed oxidative stress by increasing GSH and SOD activities. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 prevented totarol neuroprotective effect by suppressing the totarol-induced changes in HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. The HO-1 inhibitor ZnPPIX also prevented totarol-increased GSH and SOD activities. In a model of acute cerebral ischemic injury in Sprague–Dawley rats, produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 h followed by 22 h or 46 h of reperfusion, totarol significantly reduced infarct volume and improved the neurological deficit. In this model, totarol increased HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. These observations suggest that totarol may be a novel activator of the Akt/HO-1 pathway protecting against ischemic stroke through reduction of oxidative stress. - Graphical abstract: It is unknown whether the natural product totarol has neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. This study underscores that totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro, not only by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, but also via induction of Nrf2, HO-1, GSH and SOD expressions. Totarol also ameliorated acute cerebral ischemic injury in a rat ischemic stroke model. The findings highlight that totarol may be exploited for protecting against ischemic stroke through Akt/HO-1 pathway. - Highlights: • Totarol protects glutamate- and OGD-induced neuronal injury in vitro.

  13. Totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro and ameliorates brain ischemic stroke: Potential roles of Akt activation and HO-1 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yuanxue; Xu, Xiaojun; Chang, Sai; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yazhou; Ran, Siqi; Huang, Zhangjian; Li, Ping; Li, Jia; Zhang, Luyong; Saavedra, Juan M.; Liao, Hong; Pang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The natural product totarol, a phenolic diterpenoid and a major constituent isolated from the sap of Podocarpus totara, has been reported to have a potent antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether totarol possessed an additional neuroprotective activity in vitro and in vivo. We found that totarol prevented glutamate- and oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death in primary rat cerebellar granule neuronal cells and cerebral cortical neurons. Totarol increased Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions and suppressed oxidative stress by increasing GSH and SOD activities. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 prevented totarol neuroprotective effect by suppressing the totarol-induced changes in HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. The HO-1 inhibitor ZnPPIX also prevented totarol-increased GSH and SOD activities. In a model of acute cerebral ischemic injury in Sprague–Dawley rats, produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 2 h followed by 22 h or 46 h of reperfusion, totarol significantly reduced infarct volume and improved the neurological deficit. In this model, totarol increased HO-1 expression and the activities of GSH and SOD. These observations suggest that totarol may be a novel activator of the Akt/HO-1 pathway protecting against ischemic stroke through reduction of oxidative stress. - Graphical abstract: It is unknown whether the natural product totarol has neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. This study underscores that totarol prevents neuronal injury in vitro, not only by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, but also via induction of Nrf2, HO-1, GSH and SOD expressions. Totarol also ameliorated acute cerebral ischemic injury in a rat ischemic stroke model. The findings highlight that totarol may be exploited for protecting against ischemic stroke through Akt/HO-1 pathway. - Highlights: • Totarol protects glutamate- and OGD-induced neuronal injury in vitro.

  14. Synemin promotes AKT-dependent glioblastoma cell proliferation by antagonizing PP2A

    OpenAIRE

    Pitre, Aaron; Davis, Nathan; Paul, Madhumita; Orr, A Wayne; Skalli, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The intermediate filament protein synemin is present in astrocyte progenitors and glioblastoma cells but not in mature astrocytes. Here we demonstrate a role for synemin in enhancing glioblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic survival, as synemin RNA interference decreased both behaviors by inducing G1 arrest along with Rb hypophosphorylation and increased protein levels of the G1/S inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. Akt involvement was demonstrated by decreased phosphorylation of its substr...

  15. Involvement of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways for TNF-α Production in SiHa Cervical Mucosal Epithelial Cells Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jung-Bo; Quan, Juan-Hua; Kim, Ye-Eun; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Kang, Byung-Hyun; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis; induces proinflammation in cervicovaginal mucosal epithelium. To investigate the signaling pathways in TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelium after T. vaginalis infection, the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were evaluated in T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors. T. vaginalis increased TNF-α production in SiHa cells, in a parasite burden-dependent and incubation time-dependent manner. In T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells, AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK were phosphorylated from 1 hr after infection; however, the phosphorylation patterns were different from each other. After pretreatment with inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways, TNF-α production was significantly decreased compared to the control; however, TNF-α reduction patterns were different depending on the type of PI3K/MAPK inhibitors. TNF-α production was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with wortmannin and PD98059, whereas it was increased by SP600125. These data suggested that PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways are important in regulation of TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells. However, activation patterns of each pathway were different from the types of PI3K/MAPK pathways.

  16. Neuroprotective effect of nicorandil through inhibition of apoptosis by the PI3K/Akt1 pathway in a mouse model of deep hypothermic low flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Di; Fan, Changfeng; Zhang, Weiyan; Wen, Zhongyuan; Hu, Liang; Yang, Lei; Feng, Yu; Yin, Ke-Jie; Mo, Xuming

    2015-10-15

    Nicorandil exerts a protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the brain and kidney through anti-apoptotic mechanisms. However, the mechanism by which nicorandil protects against I/R injury induced by deep hypothermic low flow (DHLF) remains unclear. We used a cerebral I/R model induced by DHLF to determine the neuroprotective effects and possible mechanisms of nicorandil. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were used to detect changes in cell morphology and the number of apoptotic cells in hippocampus, respectively. The apoptotic regulators including Bcl-2, Bax, Akt, and p-Akt (the active, phosphorylated form of Akt) were examined by Western blot (WB). Histopathological findings showed that nicorandil significantly alleviated morphological damage in hippocampal and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei induced by DHLF. Nicorandil also increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, while increasing p-Akt level. Consistent with these results, nicorandil-mediated neuroprotection was reduced in the Akt1+/- mutant mice and inhibited by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. These findings showed that nicorandil provides a neuroprotective role in DHLF-induced I/R injury by inhibiting apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluid shear stress suppresses TNF-α-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells: Involvement of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Geng; Bo, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Jin, Jiang; Xiaoyi, Tan; Cong, Chen; Liping, An; Jinglin, Ma; Cuifang, Wang; Yonggang, Chen [The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, #82 Cuiyingmen, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Yayi, Xia, E-mail: xiayayildey@163.com [The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, #82 Cuiyingmen, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China)

    2016-05-01

    TNF-α is known to induce osteoblasts apoptosis, whereas mechanical stimulation has been shown to enhance osteoblast survival. In the present study, we found that mechanical stimulation in the form of fluid shear stress (FSS) suppresses TNF-α induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family that has been implicated in cell survival. We also demonstrated that FSS imposed by flow chamber in vitro leads to a markedly activation of ERK5, which was shown to be protective against TNF-α-induced apoptosis, whereas the transfection of siRNA against ERK5 (ERK5-siRNA) reversed the FSS-medicated anti-apoptotic effects. An initial FSS-mediated activation of ERK5 that phosphorylates AKT to increase its activity, and a following forkhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) was phosphorylated by activated AKT. Phosphorylated FoxO3a is sequestered in the cytoplasm, and prevents it from translocating to nucleus where it can increase the expression of FasL and Bim. The inhibition of AKT-FoxO3a signalings by a PI3K (PI3-kinase)/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) or the transfection of ERK5-siRNA led to the nuclear translocation of non-phosphorylated FoxO3a, and increased the protein expression of FasL and Bim. In addition, the activation of caspase-3 by TNF-α was significantly inhibited by aforementioned FSS-medicated mechanisms. In brief, the activation of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a signaling pathways by FSS resulted in a decreased expression of FasL and Bim and an inhibition of caspase-3 activation, which exerts a protective effect that prevents osteoblasts from apoptosis. - Highlights: • Fluid shear stress inhibits osteoblast apoptosis induced by TNF-α. • Inhibition of ERK5 activity by transfection of ERK5 siRNA blocks FSS-mediated anti-apoptotic effect in osteoblast. • Activated ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways by FSS is required to protect osteoblast from apoptosis.

  18. Interplay between cell cycle and autophagy induced by boswellic acid analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Anup S.; Guru, Santosh K.; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Ashok; Ahmad, Masroor; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Parduman R.; Mahajan, Priya; Shah, Bhahwal A.; Sharma, Simmi; Nargotra, Amit; Vishwakarma, Ram; Korkaya, Hasan; Malik, Fayaz

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy induced by boswellic acid analog BA145 on cell cycle progression in pancreatic cancer cells. BA145 induced robust autophagy in pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and exhibited cell proliferation inhibition by inducing cells to undergo G2/M arrest. Inhibition of G2/M progression was associated with decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin E, cdc2, cdc25c and CDK-1. Pre-treatment of cells with autophagy inhibitors or silencing the expression of key autophagy genes abrogated BA145 induced G2/M arrest and downregulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. It was further observed that BA145 induced autophagy by targeting mTOR kinase (IC50 1 μM), leading to reduced expression of p-mTOR, p-p70S6K (T389), p-4EBP (T37/46) and p-S6 (S240/244). Notably, inhibition of mTOR signalling by BA145 was followed by attendant activation of AKT and its membrane translocation. Inhibition of Akt through pharmacological inhibitors or siRNAs enhanced BA145 mediated autophagy, G2/M arrest and reduced expression of G2/M regulators. Further studies revealed that BA145 arbitrated inhibition of mTOR led to the activation of Akt through IGFR/PI3k/Akt feedback loop. Intervention in IGFR/PI3k/Akt loop further depreciated Akt phosphorylation and its membrane translocation that culminates in augmented autophagy with concomitant G2/M arrest and cell death. PMID:27680387

  19. Epidermal growth factor induces HCCR expression via PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zekuan; Zhang, Guoxin; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Jiakai; Yang, Yang; Shi, Ruihua; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Zhihong; Huang, Zuhu; Kim, Jin W

    2010-01-01

    Human cervical cancer oncoprotein 1 (HCCR-1), reported as a negative regulator of p53, is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. However, it is yet unknown whether HCCR-1 plays any role in pancreatic cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor on the expression of HCCR in pancreatic cancer cells, and to explore if PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway mediated this expression. A polyclonal antibody against HCCR protein was raised by immunizing Balb/c mice with the purified recombinant protein pMBPc-HCCR. Tissue samples were constructed on a tissue chip, and the expression of HCCR was investigated by immunohistochemistry assay and Western blotting. Pancreatic cell line, PANC-1 cells were stably transfected with plasmids containing sense-HCCR-1 fragment and HCCR siRNA fragment. MTT and transwell assay were used to investigate the proliferation and invasion of stable tansfectants. The specific inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR was used to see if PI3K/mTOR signal transduction was involved in the induction of HCCR gene expression. A Luciferase assay was used to see if Akt can enhance the HCCR promoter activity. HCCR was up-regulated in pancreatic tumor tissues (mean Allred score 4.51 ± 1.549 vs. 2.87 ± 2.193, P < 0.01), especially with high expression in poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer. The growth of cells decreased in HCCR-1 siRNA transfected cells compared with vector transfectants. The number of invasion cells was significantly lower in HCCR-1 siRNA transfected cells (24.4 ± 9.9) than that in vector transfectants (49.1 ± 15.4). Treatment of PANC-1 cells with epidermal growth factor increased HCCR protein level in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, application of LY294002 and rapamycin caused a dramatic reduction of epidermal growth factor-induced HCCR expression. Over-expression of exogenous constitutively active Akt increased the HCCR promoter activity; in contrast, dominant negative Akt decreased

  20. The Akt inhibitor ISC-4 synergizes with cetuximab in 5-FU-resistant colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Allen

    Full Text Available Phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4 is an Akt inhibitor with demonstrated preclinical efficacy against melanoma and colon cancer. In this study, we sought to improve the clinical utility of ISC-4 by identifying a synergistic combination with FDA-approved anti-cancer therapies, a relevant and appropriate disease setting for testing, and biomarkers of response. We tested the activity of ISC-4 and 19 FDA-approved anticancer agents, alone or in combination, against the SW480 and RKO human colon cancer cell lines. A synergistic interaction with cetuximab was identified and validated in a panel of additional colon cancer cell lines, as well as the kinetics of synergy. ISC-4 in combination with cetuximab synergistically reduced the viability of human colon cancer cells with wild-type but not mutant KRAS genes. Further analysis revealed that the combination therapy cooperatively decreased cell cycle progression, increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and decreased phospho-Akt in responsive tumor cells. The synergism between ISC-4 and cetuximab was retained independently of acquired resistance to 5-FU in human colon cancer cells. The combination demonstrated synergistic anti-tumor effects in vivo without toxicity and in the face of resistance to 5-FU. These results suggest that combining ISC-4 and cetuximab should be explored in patients with 5-FU-resistant colon cancer harboring wild-type KRAS.

  1. Curcumin Suppresses Proliferation and Migration of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells through Autophagy-Dependent Akt Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yemin; Zhou, Yu; Li, Mingxin; Wang, Changhua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have evidenced that the anticancer potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a main yellow bioactive compound from plant turmeric was mediated by interfering with PI3K/Akt signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. This study experimentally revealed that curcumin treatment reduced Akt protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, along with an activation of autophagy and suppression of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) function. The curcumin-reduced Akt expression, cell proliferation, and migration were prevented by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy but not by UPS inhibition. Additionally, inactivation of AMPK by its specific inhibitor compound C or by target shRNA-mediated silencing attenuated curcumin-activated autophagy. Thus, these results indicate that curcumin-stimulated AMPK activity induces activation of the autophagy-lysosomal protein degradation pathway leading to Akt degradation and the subsequent suppression of proliferation and migration in breast cancer cell. PMID:26752181

  2. Inhibition of PTEN and activation of Akt by menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kyoko; Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Tsukamoto, Mariko; Tamura, Namiko; Hazeki, Kaoru; Hazeki, Osamu

    2007-04-01

    Menadione (vitamin K(3)) has been shown to activate Erk in several cell lines. This effect has been shown to be due to the activation of EGF receptors (EGFR) as a result of inhibition of some protein tyrosine phosphatases. In the present study, we examined the effects of menadione on Akt in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The phosphorylation of Akt by menadione was not inhibited by AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR. Menadione inhibited the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN in a cell-free system. In an intact cell system, menadione inhibited the effect of transfected PTEN on Akt. Thus, one mechanism of its action was considered the accelerated activation of Akt through inhibition of PTEN. This was not the sole mechanism responsible for the EGFR-independent activation of Akt, because menadione attenuated the rate of Akt dephosphorylation even in PTEN-null PC3 cells. The decelerated inactivation of Akt, probably through inhibition of some tyrosine phosphatases, was considered another mechanism of its action.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorated L-NAME-induced hypertensive heart disease by the Akt/eNOS/NO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Teng, Xu; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Hongmei; Guo, Qi; Duan, Xiaocui; Chen, Yuhong; Wu, Yuming

    2017-12-01

    Reductions in hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) production have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension; however, no studies have examined the functional role of hydrogen sulfide in hypertensive heart disease. We hypothesized that the endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide would be reduced and exogenous hydrogen sulfide would ameliorate cardiac dysfunction in N ω -nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ( L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Therefore, this study investigated the cardioprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide on L-NAME-induced hypertensive heart disease and explored potential mechanisms. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control, Control + sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), L-NAME, L-NAME + NaHS, and L-NAME + NaHS + glibenclamide (Gli) groups. Systolic blood pressure was monitored each week. In Langendorff-isolated rat heart, cardiac function represented by ±LV dP/dt max and left ventricular developing pressure was recorded after five weeks of treatment. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome staining and myocardium ultrastructure under transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate cardiac remodeling. The plasma nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide concentrations, as well as nitric oxide synthases and cystathionine-γ-lyase activity in left ventricle tissue were determined. The protein expression of p-Akt, Akt, p-eNOS, and eNOS in left ventricle tissue was analyzed using Western blot. After five weeks of L-NAME treatment, there was a time-dependent hypertension, cardiac remodeling, and dysfunction accompanied by a decrease in eNOS phosphorylation, nitric oxide synthase activity, and nitric oxide concentration. Meanwhile, cystathionine-γ-lyase activity and hydrogen sulfide concentration were also decreased. NaHS treatment significantly increased plasma hydrogen sulfide concentration and subsequently promoted the Akt/eNOS/NO pathway which inhibited the development of hypertension and attenuated cardiac remodeling and

  4. Denervation atrophy is independent from Akt and mTOR activation and is not rescued by myostatin inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. MacDonald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization and denervation (sciatic nerve resection atrophy. We found that treatment of immobilized mice with ActRIIB prevented the loss of muscle mass observed in placebo-treated mice. Our results suggest that this protection from disuse atrophy is regulated by serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK rather than by Akt. Denervation atrophy, however, was not protected by ActRIIB treatment, yet resulted in an upregulation of the pro-growth factors Akt, SGK and components of the mTOR pathway. We then treated the denervated mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and found that, despite a reduction in mTOR activation, there is no alteration of the atrophy phenotype. Additionally, rapamycin prevented the denervation-induced upregulation of the mTORC2 substrates Akt and SGK. Thus, our studies show that denervation atrophy is not only independent from Akt, SGK and mTOR activation but also has a different underlying pathophysiological mechanism than disuse atrophy.

  5. Creatine, Similar to Ketamine, Counteracts Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by Corticosterone via PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazini, Francis L; Cunha, Mauricio P; Rosa, Julia M; Colla, André R S; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Oliveira, Ágatha; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-12-01

    Ketamine has emerged as a novel strategy to treat refractory depression, producing rapid remission, but elicits some side effects that limit its use. In an attempt to investigate a safer compound that may afford an antidepressant effect similar to ketamine, this study examined the effects of the ergogenic compound creatine in a model of depression, and the involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway in its effect. In order to induce a depressive-like behavior, mice were administered with corticosterone (20 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) for 21 days. This treatment increased immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST), an effect abolished by a single administration of creatine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or ketamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o., conventional antidepressant). Treatment of mice with wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor, 0.1 μg/site, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)) or rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, 0.2 nmol/site, i.c.v.) abolished the anti-immobility effect of creatine and ketamine. None of the treatments affected locomotor activity of mice. The immunocontents of p-mTOR, p-p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), and postsynaptic density-95 protein (PSD95) were increased by creatine and ketamine in corticosterone or vehicle-treated mice. Moreover, corticosterone-treated mice presented a decreased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level, an effect abolished by creatine or ketamine. Altogether, the results indicate that creatine shares with ketamine the ability to acutely reverse the corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior by a mechanism dependent on PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and modulation of the synaptic protein PSD95 as well as BDNF in the hippocampus, indicating the relevance of targeting these proteins for the management of depressive disorders. Moreover, we suggest that creatine should be further investigated as a possible fast-acting antidepressant.

  6. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Negatively Regulates KLF15 Expression via PI3K-AKT Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunxia; Dong, Weibing; Shao, Jing; Wang, Yibin; Zhou, Meiyi; Sun, Haipeng

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15) is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively controlled by BCAA.Interestingly, BCAA starvation induced PI3K-AKT signaling. KLF15 induction by BCAA starvation was blocked by PI3K and AKT inhibitors, indicating the activation of PI3K-AKT signaling pathway mediated the KLF15 induction. BCAA regulated KLF15 expression at transcriptional level but not post-transcriptional level. However, BCAA starvation failed to increase the KLF15-promoter-driven luciferase expression, suggesting KLF15 promoter activity was not directly controlled by BCAA. Finally, fasting reduced BCAA abundance in mice and KLF15 expression was dramatically induced in muscle and white adipose tissue, but not in liver. Together, these data demonstrated BCAA negatively regulated KLF15 expression, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism underlying BCAA's multiple functions in metabolic regulation.

  7. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Negatively Regulates KLF15 Expression via PI3K-AKT Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15 is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively controlled by BCAA.Interestingly, BCAA starvation induced PI3K-AKT signaling. KLF15 induction by BCAA starvation was blocked by PI3K and AKT inhibitors, indicating the activation of PI3K-AKT signaling pathway mediated the KLF15 induction. BCAA regulated KLF15 expression at transcriptional level but not post-transcriptional level. However, BCAA starvation failed to increase the KLF15-promoter-driven luciferase expression, suggesting KLF15 promoter activity was not directly controlled by BCAA. Finally, fasting reduced BCAA abundance in mice and KLF15 expression was dramatically induced in muscle and white adipose tissue, but not in liver. Together, these data demonstrated BCAA negatively regulated KLF15 expression, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism underlying BCAA's multiple functions in metabolic regulation.

  8. Akt1 binds focal adhesion kinase via the Akt1 kinase domain independently of the pleckstrin homology domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, M D; Zeng, B; Wang, S

    2015-10-01

    for developing novel inhibitors that target this specific Akt1/FAK interaction.

  9. Premature Senescence Induced by Ionizing Radiation Requires AKT Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Jung; Kim, Bong Cho; Yoo, Hee Jung; Lee, Jae Seon

    2010-01-01

    Loss of PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene has frequently observed in human gliomas, which conferred AKT activation and resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and anti-cancer drugs. Recent reports have shown that AKT activation induces premature senescence through increase of oxygen consumption and inhibition of expression of ROS scavenging enzymes. In this study, we compared cellular response to IR in the PTEN-deficient U87, U251, U373 or PTEN-proficient LN18, LN428 glioma cells

  10. IGF-1 protects SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced apoptosis via PI3K/PDK-1/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanyang; Park, Seungjoon

    2018-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a well-known anti-apoptotic pro-survival factor and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is linked to cell survival induced by IGF-1. It is also reported that Akt signaling is modulated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). In the current study, we investigated whether the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-1 in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) is associated with the activity of PI3K/PDK1/Akt pathway. Treatment of cells with IGF-1 inhibited MPP + -induced apoptotic cell death. IGF-1-induced activation of Akt and the protective effect of IGF-1 on MPP + -induced apoptosis were abolished by chemical inhibition of PDK1 (GSK2334470) or PI3K (LY294002). The phosphorylated levels of Akt and PDK1 were significantly suppressed after MPP + exposure, while IGF-1 treatment completely restored MPP+-induced reductions in phosphorylation. IGF-1 protected cells from MPP + insult by suppressing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde levels and increasing superoxide dismutase activity. Mitochondrial ROS levels were also increased during MPP + exposure, which were attenuated by IGF-1 treatment. In addition, IGF-1-treated cells showed increased activities of succinate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, stabilization of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, increased ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax, prevention of cytochrome c release and inhibition of caspase-3 activation with PARP cleavage. Furthermore, the protective effects of IGF-1 on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were attenuated when cells were preincubated with GSK2334470 or LY294002. Our data suggest that IGF-1 protects SH-SY5Y cells against MPP + -associated oxidative stress by preserving mitochondrial integrity and inhibiting mitochondrial apoptotic cascades via the activation of PI3K/PDK1/Akt pathway. © 2018 The authors.

  11. Targeting HDAC3, a new partner protein of AKT in the reversal of chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia via DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J; Fang, W Y; Chang, L; Gao, W H; Shen, Y; Jia, M Y; Zhang, Y X; Wang, Y; Dou, H B; Zhang, W J; Zhu, J; Liang, A B; Li, J M; Hu, Jiong

    2017-12-01

    Resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs remains as the major cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are important regulators to maintain chromatin structure and control DNA damage; nevertheless, how each HDAC regulates genome stability remains unclear, especially under genome stress conditions. Here, we identified a mechanism by which HDAC3 regulates DNA damage repair and mediates resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In addition to inducing DNA damage, chemotherapy drugs trigger upregulation of HDAC3 expression in leukemia cells. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that HDAC3 contributes to chemotherapy resistance by regulating the activation of AKT, a well-documented factor in drug resistance development. HDAC3 binds to AKT and deacetylates it at the site Lys20, thereby promoting the phosphorylation of AKT. Chemotherapy drug exposure enhances the interaction between HDAC3 and AKT, resulting in decrease in AKT acetylation and increase in AKT phosphorylation. Whereas HDAC3 depletion or inhibition abrogates these responses and meanwhile sensitizes leukemia cells to chemotoxicity-induced apoptosis. Importantly, in vivo HDAC3 suppression reduces leukemia progression and sensitizes MLL-AF9 + leukemia to chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that combination therapy with HDAC3 inhibitor and genotoxic agents may constitute a successful strategy for overcoming chemotherapy resistance.

  12. Isoginkgetin inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Oh; Shin, Sejeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Chun, Hyo-Kon; Chung, An-Sik

    2006-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a key role in tumor invasion. Inhibitors of MMP-9 were screened from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood) and one potent inhibitor, isoginkgetin, a biflavonoid, was identified. Noncytotoxic levels of isoginkgetin decreased MMP-9 production profoundly, but up-regulated the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. The major mechanism of Ras-dependent MMP-9 production in HT1080 cells was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Expression of dominant-active H-Ras and p85 (a subunit of PI3K) increased MMP-9 activity, whereas dominant-negative forms of these molecules decreased the level of MMP-9. H-Ras did not increase MMP-9 in the presence of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and a NF-kappaB inhibitor, SN50. Further studies showed that isoginkgetin regulated MMP-9 production via PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathway, as evidenced by the findings that isoginkgetin inhibited activities of both Akt and NF-kappaB. PI3K/Akt is a well-known key pathway for cell invasion, and isoginkgetin inhibited HT1080 tumor cell invasion substantially. Isoginkgetin was also quite effective in inhibiting the activities of Akt and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinomas and B16F10 melanoma. Moreover, isoginkgetin treatment resulted in marked decrease in invasion of these cells. In summary, PI3K/Akt is a major pathway for MMP-9 expression and isoginkgetin markedly decreased MMP-9 expression and invasion through inhibition of this pathway. This suggests that isoginkgetin could be a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent against tumor invasion.

  13. The AKT-mTOR signalling pathway in kidney cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirina, L. V.; Usynin, Y. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Yurmazov, Z. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Kolegova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    An increased expression of phospho-AKT, m-TOR, glycogen regulator GSK-3-beta and transcription inhibitor 4E-BP1 was observed in kidney cancer tissues. Tumor size growth was associated with a high level of c-Raf and low content of phospho-m-TOR. Cancer metastasis development led to a decreased PTEN and phospho-AKT expression.

  14. Suppressing the formation of lipid raft-associated Rac1/PI3K/Akt signaling complexes by curcumin inhibits SDF-1α-induced invasion of human esophageal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Lu, Yao-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Yi; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a ligand for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which contributes to the metastasis of cancer cells by promoting cell migration. Here, we show that the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis can significantly increase invasion of esophageal carcinoma (EC) cells. We accomplished this by examining the effects of CXCR4 knockdown as well as treatment with a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody and the CXCR4-specific inhibitor AMD3100. Curcumin suppressed SDF-1α-induced cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) promoter activity, cell surface localization of CXCR4 at lipid rafts, and lipid raft-associated ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α/Akt signaling. Curcumin inhibited SDF-1α-induced cell invasion by suppressing the Rac1-PI3K signaling complex at lipid rafts but did not abrogate lipid raft formation. We further demonstrate that the attenuation of lipid raft-associated Rac1 activity by curcumin was critical for the inhibition of SDF-1α-induced PI3K/Akt/NF-κB activation, cell surface localization of CXCR4 at lipid rafts, MMP-2 promoter activity, and cell invasion. Collectively, our results indicate that curcumin inhibits SDF-1α-induced EC cell invasion by suppressing the formation of the lipid raft-associated Rac1-PI3K-Akt signaling complex, the localization of CXCR4 with lipid rafts at the cell surface, and MMP-2 promoter activity, likely through the inhibition of Rac1 activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 Is a Potent Inhibitor of ATM- and DNA-PKCs-Mediated DNA Damage Responses

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    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of PI3K/Akt signaling are being actively developed for tumor therapy owing to the frequent mutational activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 pathway in many cancers, including glioblastomas (GBMs. NVP-BEZ235 is a novel and potent dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor that is currently in phase 1/2 clinical trials for advanced solid tumors. Here, we show that NVP-BEZ235 also potently inhibits ATM and DNA-PKcs, the two major kinases responding to ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Consequently, NVP-BEZ235 blocks both nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways resulting in significant attenuation of DSB repair. In addition, phosphorylation of ATMtargets and implementation of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint are also attenuated by this drug. As a result, NVP-BEZ235 confers an extreme degree of radiosensitization and impairs DSB repair in a panel of GBM cell lines irrespective of their Akt activation status. NVP-BEZ235 also significantly impairs DSB repair in a mouse tumor model thereby validating the efficacy of this drug as a DNA repair inhibitor in vivo. Our results, showing that NVP-BEZ235 is a potent and novel inhibitor of ATM and DNA-PKcs, have important implications for the informed and rational design of clinical trials involving this drug and also reveal the potential utility of NVP-BEZ235 as an effective radiosensitizer for GBMs in the clinic.

  16. Platelets promote osteosarcoma cell growth through activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-Akt signaling axis.

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    Takagi, Satoshi; Takemoto, Ai; Takami, Miho; Oh-Hara, Tomoko; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-08-01

    The interactions of tumor cells with platelets contribute to the progression of tumor malignancy, and the expression levels of platelet aggregation-inducing factors positively correlate with the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cells. However, it is unclear how tumor-platelet interaction contributes to the proliferation of osteosarcomas. We report here that osteosarcoma-platelet interactions induce the release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from platelets, which promotes the proliferation of osteosarcomas. Co-culture of platelets with MG63 or HOS osteosarcoma cells, which could induce platelet aggregation, enhanced the proliferation of each cell line in vitro. Analysis of phospho-antibody arrays revealed that co-culture of MG63 cells with platelets induced the phosphorylation of platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and Akt. The addition of supernatants of osteosarcoma-platelet reactants also increased the growth of MG63 and HOS cells as well as the level of phosphorylated-PDGFR and -Akt. Sunitinib or LY294002, but not erlotinib, significantly inhibited the platelet-induced proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, indicating that PDGF released from platelets plays an important role in the proliferation of osteosarcomas by activating the PDGFR and then Akt. Our results suggest that inhibitors that specifically target osteosarcoma-platelet interactions may eradicate osteosarcomas. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppresses melanoma tumor growth by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/XIAP pathway.

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    Pramanik, Kartick C; Kudugunti, Shashi K; Fofaria, Neel M; Moridani, Majid Y; Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2013-09-01

    Melanoma is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. Our previous studies have demonstrated that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppresses the growth of melanoma cells and induces reactive oxygen species generation. However, the exact mechanism of the growth suppressive effects of CAPE was not clear. Here, we determined the potential mechanism of CAPE against melanoma in vivo and in vitro. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day CAPE substantially suppressed the growth of B16F0 tumor xenografts in C57BL/6 mice. Tumors from CAPE-treated mice showed reduced phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin and protein level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and enhanced the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase. In order to confirm the in vivo observations, melanoma cells were treated with CAPE. CAPE treatment suppressed the activating phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase at Tyr 458, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 at Ser 241, mammalian target of rapamycin at Ser 2448 and AKT at Ser 473 in B16F0 and SK-MEL-28 cells in a concentration and time-dependent study. Furthermore, the expression of XIAP, survivin and BCL-2 was downregulated by CAPE treatment in both cell lines. Significant apoptosis was observed by CAPE treatment as indicated by cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase. AKT kinase activity was inhibited by CAPE in a concentration-dependent manner. CAPE treatment increased the nuclear translocation of XIAP, indicating increased apoptosis in melanoma cells. To confirm the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the inhibition of AKT/XIAP pathway, cells were treated with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) prior to CAPE treatment. Our results indicate that NAC blocked CAPE-mediated AKT/XIAP inhibition and protected the cells from apoptosis. Because AKT regulates XIAP, their interaction was examined by immunoprecipitation studies. Our results show that CAPE

  18. Coenzyme Q10 Inhibits the Aging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by D-Galactose through Akt/mTOR Signaling

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    Dayong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidences indicate that reactive oxygen species are the main factor promoting stem cell aging. Recent studies have demonstrated that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 plays a positive role in organ and cellular aging. However, the potential for CoQ10 to protect stem cell aging has not been fully evaluated, and the mechanisms of cell senescence inhibited by CoQ10 are still poorly understood. Our previous study had indicated that D-galactose (D-gal can remarkably induce mesenchymal stem cell (MSC aging through promoting intracellular ROS generation. In this study, we showed that CoQ10 could significantly inhibit MSC aging induced by D-gal. Moreover, in the CoQ10 group, the expression of p-Akt and p-mTOR was clearly reduced compared with that in the D-gal group. However, after Akt activating by CA-Akt plasmid, the senescence-cell number in the CoQ10 group was significantly higher than that in the control group. These results indicated that CoQ10 could inhibit D-gal-induced MSC aging through the Akt/mTOR signaling.

  19. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce human eosinophil adhesion onto endothelial EA.hy926 cells via activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt cell signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Marion, Maxime; Girard, Denis

    2018-02-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) for developing new therapeutic strategies in a variety of diseases is gaining increasing attention. However, NPs could possess undesired effects, including pro-inflammatory activities. Despite the fact that several studies reported that NPs may induce or exacerbate eosinophilic inflammation in vivo in rodents, the information regarding the direct interaction between NPs and human eosinophils is lacking. In the present study, we test the possibility that NPs could alter the capacity of human eosinophils to adhere onto a cellular substratum. Using a panel of NPs, we found that several were able to increase the adhesion of human eosinophil onto endothelial EA.hy926 cells. Among them, TiO 2 NPs were the most potent and we therefore pursue this study with these NPs. TiO 2 NPs were found to increase the adhesion of eosinophils in a concentration dependent fashion. TiO 2 NPs did not alter the cell surface expression of a panel of cellular adhesion molecules, but CD29. Indeed, a weak to moderate, but significant, decrease of CD29 was observed after 30min but returned to normal levels after 90min. TiO 2 NPs were found to activate Akt, one important target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). However, despite the fact that cells were fully responsive to the cytokine GM-CSF activating both Akt and Erk-1/2, TiO 2 NPs did not activate Erk-1/2. Using a pharmacological approach with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, wortmannin, the ability of TiO 2 NPs to activate Akt was drastically inhibited and, further, their capacity to increase adhesion of eosinophils was reversed. This study provides insights into the effects of NPs on the biology of human eosinophils indicating that as other agents, NPs, namely TiO 2 NPs, can induce intracellular events associated with a cellular function, adhesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Metastable primordial germ cell-like state induced from mouse embryonic stem cells by Akt activation

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    Yamano, Noriko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kimura, Tohru, E-mail: tkimura@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watanabe-Kushima, Shoko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shinohara, Takashi [Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nakano, Toru, E-mail: tnakano@patho.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Specification to primordial germ cells (PGCs) is mediated by mesoderm-induction signals during gastrulation. We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. Essential regulators for PGC specification and their downstream germ cell-specific genes were expressed in the spheres, indicating that the sphere cells had commenced differentiation to the germ lineage. However, the spheres did not proceed to spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes. Sphere cell transfer to the original feeder-free ESC cultures resulted in chaotic differentiation. In contrast, when the spheres were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in the presence of ERK-cascade and GSK3 inhibitors, reversion to the ESC-like state was observed. These results indicate that Akt signaling promotes a novel metastable and pluripotent state that is intermediate to those of ESCs and PGCs.

  1. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

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    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  2. Neurogenesis and Increase in Differentiated Neural Cell Survival via Phosphorylation of Akt1 after Fluoxetine Treatment of Stem Cells

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    Anahita Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine (FLX is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI. Its action is possibly through an increase in neural cell survival. The mechanism of improved survival rate of neurons by FLX may relate to the overexpression of some kinases such as Akt protein. Akt1 (a serine/threonine kinase plays a key role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. Our study evaluated the effects of FLX on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC fate and Akt1 phosphorylation levels in MSCs. Evaluation tests included reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Nestin, MAP-2, and β-tubulin were detected after neurogenesis as neural markers. Ten μM of FLX upregulated phosphorylation of Akt1 protein in induced hEnSC significantly. Also FLX did increase viability of these MSCs. Continuous FLX treatment after neurogenesis elevated the survival rate of differentiated neural cells probably by enhanced induction of Akt1 phosphorylation. This study addresses a novel role of FLX in neurogenesis and differentiated neural cell survival that may contribute to explaining the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in regenerative pharmacology.

  3. Assessing PIK3CA and PTEN in Early-Phase Trials with PI3K/AKT/mTOR Inhibitors

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    Filip Janku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wealth of preclinical studies, it is unclear whether PIK3CA or phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN gene aberrations are actionable in the clinical setting. Of 1,656 patients with advanced, refractory cancers tested for PIK3CA or PTEN abnormalities, PIK3CA mutations were found in 9% (146/1,589, and PTEN loss and/or mutation was found in 13% (149/1,157. In multicovariable analysis, treatment with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor was the only independent factor predicting response to therapy in individuals harboring a PIK3CA or PTEN aberration. The rate of stable disease ≥6 months/partial response reached 45% in a subgroup of individuals with H1047R PIK3CA mutations. Aberrations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are common and potentially actionable in patients with diverse advanced cancers. This work provides further important clinical validation for continued and accelerated use of biomarker-driven trials incorporating rational drug combinations.

  4. PI3K-independent AKT activation in cancers: a treasure trove for novel therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P

    2012-09-01

    AKT/PKB serine threonine kinase, a critical signaling molecule promoting cell growth and survival pathways, is frequently dysregulated in many cancers. Although phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K), a lipid kinase, is well characterized as a major regulator of AKT activation in response to a variety of ligands, recent studies highlight a diverse group of tyrosine (Ack1/TNK2, Src, PTK6) and serine/threonine (TBK1, IKBKE, DNAPKcs) kinases that activate AKT directly to promote its pro-proliferative signaling functions. While some of these alternate AKT activating kinases respond to growth factors, others respond to inflammatory and genotoxic stimuli. A common theme emerging from these studies is that aberrant or hyperactivation of these alternate kinases is often associated with malignancy. Consequently, evaluating the use of small molecular inhibitors against these alternate AKT activating kinases at earlier stages of cancer therapy may overcome the pressing problem of drug resistance surfacing especially in patients treated with PI3K inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. mTOR Inhibition Induces EGFR Feedback Activation in Association with Its Resistance to Human Pancreatic Cancer

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    Feng Wei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is dysregulated in diverse cancers and contributes to tumor progression and drug resistance. The first generation of mTOR inhibitors have failed to show clinical efficiency in treating pancreatic cancers due in part to the feedback relief of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R-AKT signaling pathway. The second generation of mTOR inhibitors, such as AZD8055, could inhibit AKT activation upon mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2 inhibition. However, whether this generation of mTOR inhibitors can obtain satisfactory activities in pancreatic cancer therapy remains unclear. In this study, we found AZD8055 did not show great improvement compared with everolimus, AZD8055 induced a temporal inhibition of AKT kinase activities and AKT was then rephosphorylated. Additionally, we found that AZD8055-induced transient AKT inhibition increased the expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR by releasing its transcriptional factors Fork-head box O 1/3a (FoxO1/3a, which might contribute to cell resistance to AZD8055. The in vitro and in vivo experiments further indicated the combination of AZD8055 and erlotinib synergistically inhibited the mTORC1/C2 signaling pathway, EGFR/AKT feedback activation, and cell growth, as well as suppressed the progression of pancreatic cancer in a xenograft model. This study provides a rationale and strategy for overcoming AZD8055 resistance by a combined treatment with the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib in pancreatic cancer therapy.

  6. PI-103 and Quercetin Attenuate PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in T- Cell Lymphoma Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide.

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    Akhilendra Kumar Maurya

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT pathway has been considered as major drug target site due to its frequent activation in cancer. AKT regulates the activity of various targets to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS has been linked to oxidative stress and regulation of signaling pathways for metabolic adaptation of tumor microenvironment. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in this context is used as ROS source for oxidative stress preconditioning. Antioxidants are commonly considered to be beneficial to reduce detrimental effects of ROS and are recommended as dietary supplements. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive flavonoid is a dietary component which has attracted much of interest due to its potential health-promoting effects. Present study is aimed to analyze PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in H2O2 exposed Dalton's lymphoma ascite (DLA cells. Further, regulation of PI3K-AKT pathway by quercetin as well as PI-103, an inhibitor of PI3K was analyzed. Exposure of H2O2 (1mM H2O2 for 30min to DLA cells caused ROS accumulation and resulted in increased phosphorylation of PI3K and downstream proteins PDK1 and AKT (Ser-473 and Thr-308, cell survival factors BAD and ERK1/2, as well as TNFR1. However, level of tumor suppressor PTEN was declined. Both PI-103 & quercetin suppressed the enhanced level of ROS and significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of AKT, PDK1, BAD and level of TNFR1 as well as increased the level of PTEN in H2O2 induced lymphoma cells. The overall result suggests that quercetin and PI3K inhibitor PI-103 attenuate PI3K-AKT pathway in a similar mechanism.

  7. PI3K-AKT signaling pathway is involved in hypoxia/thermal-induced immunosuppression of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yulong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Guodong; Lin, Shi; Zeng, Xinyang; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping

    2016-12-01

    The PI3K-AKT signal pathway has been found to be involved in many important physiological and pathological processes of the innate immune system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the AKT (HdAKT) and PI3K (HdPI3K) gene of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor were cloned and characterized for the important status of PI3K and AKT protein in PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. The full length cDNAs of HdAKT and HdPI3K are 2126 bp and 6052 bp respectively, encoding proteins of 479 amino acids and 1097 amino acids, respectively. The mRNA expression level of fourteen genes in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that all these fourteen genes were ubiquitously expressed in seven selected tissues. Meanwhile, HdAKT was expressed in haemocytes with the highest expression level (p abalone. The mRNA expression of these genes in gills, haemocytes and hepatopancreas was significantly down-regulated after the Vibrio parahaemolyticus stimulation with environment stimulation (thermal, hypoxia and thermal & hypoxia). These results indicate that the dual/multiple stresses defeat the immune system and lead to immunosuppression in abalone. PI3K-AKT signaling pathway may be involved in hypoxia/thermal-induced immunosuppression of small abalone Haliotis diversicolor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TCR Signal Strength Regulates Akt Substrate Specificity To Induce Alternate Murine Th and T Regulatory Cell Differentiation Programs.

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    Hawse, William F; Boggess, William C; Morel, Penelope A

    2017-07-15

    The Akt/mTOR pathway is a key driver of murine CD4 + T cell differentiation, and induction of regulatory T (Treg) cells results from low TCR signal strength and low Akt/mTOR signaling. However, strong TCR signals induce high Akt activity that promotes Th cell induction. Yet, it is unclear how Akt controls alternate T cell fate decisions. We find that the strength of the TCR signal results in differential Akt enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, the Akt substrate networks associated with T cell fate decisions are qualitatively different. Proteomic profiling of Akt signaling networks during Treg versus Th induction demonstrates that Akt differentially regulates RNA processing and splicing factors to drive T cell differentiation. Interestingly, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) L or hnRNP A1 are Akt substrates during Treg induction and have known roles in regulating the stability and splicing of key mRNAs that code for proteins in the canonical TCR signaling pathway, including CD3ζ and CD45. Functionally, inhibition of Akt enzymatic activity results in the dysregulation of splicing during T cell differentiation, and knockdown of hnRNP L or hnRNP A1 results in the lower induction of Treg cells. Together, this work suggests that a switch in substrate specificity coupled to the phosphorylation status of Akt may lead to alternative cell fates and demonstrates that proteins involved with alternative splicing are important factors in T cell fate decisions. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. B Cell Receptor Activation Predominantly Regulates AKT-mTORC1/2 Substrates Functionally Related to RNA Processing.

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    Dara K Mohammad

    Full Text Available Protein kinase B (AKT phosphorylates numerous substrates on the consensus motif RXRXXpS/T, a docking site for 14-3-3 interactions. To identify novel AKT-induced phosphorylation events following B cell receptor (BCR activation, we performed proteomics, biochemical and bioinformatics analyses. Phosphorylated consensus motif-specific antibody enrichment, followed by tandem mass spectrometry, identified 446 proteins, containing 186 novel phosphorylation events. Moreover, we found 85 proteins with up regulated phosphorylation, while in 277 it was down regulated following stimulation. Up regulation was mainly in proteins involved in ribosomal and translational regulation, DNA binding and transcription regulation. Conversely, down regulation was preferentially in RNA binding, mRNA splicing and mRNP export proteins. Immunoblotting of two identified RNA regulatory proteins, RBM25 and MEF-2D, confirmed the proteomics data. Consistent with these findings, the AKT-inhibitor (MK-2206 dramatically reduced, while the mTORC-inhibitor PP242 totally blocked phosphorylation on the RXRXXpS/T motif. This demonstrates that this motif, previously suggested as an AKT target sequence, also is a substrate for mTORC1/2. Proteins with PDZ, PH and/or SH3 domains contained the consensus motif, whereas in those with an HMG-box, H15 domains and/or NF-X1-zinc-fingers, the motif was absent. Proteins carrying the consensus motif were found in all eukaryotic clades indicating that they regulate a phylogenetically conserved set of proteins.

  10. Primary Blast-Induced Changes in Akt and GSK3β Phosphorylation in Rat Hippocampus

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    Yushan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast from improvised explosive devices has been a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the mechanisms of primary blast-induced TBI are not well understood. The Akt signal transduction pathway has been implicated in various brain pathologies including TBI. In the present study, the effects of simulated primary blast waves on the phosphorylation status of Akt and its downstream effector kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β, in rat hippocampus, were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (350–400 g were exposed to a single pulse shock wave (25 psi; ~7 ms duration and sacrificed 1 day, 1 week, or 6 weeks after exposure. Total and phosphorylated Akt, as well as phosphorylation of its downstream effector kinase GSK3β (at serine 9, were detected with western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results showed that Akt phosphorylation at both serine 473 and threonine 308 was increased 1 day after blast on the ipsilateral side of the hippocampus, and this elevation persisted until at least 6 weeks postexposure. Similarly, phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9, which inhibits GSK3β activity, was also increased starting at 1 day and persisted until at least 6 weeks after primary blast on the ipsilateral side. In contrast, p-Akt was increased at 1 and 6 weeks on the contralateral side, while p-GSK3β was increased 1 day and 1 week after primary blast exposure. No significant changes in total protein levels of Akt and GSK were observed on either side of the hippocampus at any time points. Immunohistochemical results showed that increased p-Akt was mainly of neuronal origin in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and once phosphorylated, the majority was translocated to the dendritic and plasma membranes. Finally, electrophysiological data showed that evoked synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor activity was

  11. Cervical spinal erythropoietin induces phrenic motor facilitation via ERK and Akt signaling

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    Dale, Erica A.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is typically known for its role in erythropoiesis, but is also a potent neurotrophic/neuroprotective factor for spinal motor neurons. Another trophic factor regulated by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), signals via ERK and Akt activation to elicit long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Since EPO also signals via ERK and Akt activation, we tested the hypothesis that EPO elicits similar pMF. Using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemical techniques, we demonstrate in adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats that EPO and its receptor, EPO-R, are expressed in identified phrenic motor neurons. Intrathecal EPO at C4 elicits long-lasting pMF; integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude increased >90 min post-injection (63±12% baseline 90 min post-injection; pphrenic motor neurons; EPO also increased pAkt (1.6 fold vs controls; pphrenic motor neurons (p<0.05), indicating a complex interaction between these kinases. We conclude that EPO elicits spinal plasticity in respiratory motor control. Since EPO expression is hypoxia-sensitive, it may play a role in respiratory plasticity in conditions of prolonged or recurrent low oxygen. PMID:22539857

  12. Andrographolide Analogue Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Mediated Cell Death in U937 Cells by Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

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    Deepak Kumar

    Full Text Available Current chemotherapeutic agents based on apoptosis induction are lacking in desired efficacy. Therefore, there is continuous effort to bring about new dimension in control and gradual eradication of cancer by means of ever evolving therapeutic strategies. Various forms of PCD are being increasingly implicated in anti-cancer therapy and the complex interplay among them is vital for the ultimate fate of proliferating cells. We elaborated and illustrated the underlying mechanism of the most potent Andrographolide analogue (AG-4 mediated action that involved the induction of dual modes of cell death-apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemic U937 cells.AG-4 induced cytotoxicity was associated with redox imbalance and apoptosis which involved mitochondrial depolarisation, altered apoptotic protein expressions, activation of the caspase cascade leading to cell cycle arrest. Incubation with caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA decreased cytotoxic efficacy of AG-4 emphasising critical roles of caspase and Bax. In addition, AG-4 induced autophagy as evident from LC3-II accumulation, increased Atg protein expressions and autophagosome formation. Pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA suppressed the cytotoxic effect of AG-4 implying the pro-death role of autophagy. Furthermore, incubation with Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA subdued AG-4 induced autophagy and pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA curbed AG-4 induced apoptosis-implying that apoptosis and autophagy acted as partners in the context of AG-4 mediated action. AG-4 also inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR or Akt augmented AG-4 induced apoptosis and autophagy signifying its crucial role in its mechanism of action.Thus, these findings prove the dual ability of AG-4 to induce apoptosis and autophagy which provide a new perspective to it as a potential molecule targeting PCD for future cancer therapeutics.

  13. Antitumor efficacy profile of PKI-402, a dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Robert; Hollander, Irwin; Feldberg, Larry; Lucas, Judy; Soloveva, Veronica; Venkatesan, Aranapakam; Dehnhardt, Christoph; Delos Santos, Efren; Chen, Zecheng; Dos Santos, Osvaldo; Ayral-Kaloustian, Semiramis; Gibbons, Jay

    2010-04-01

    PKI-402 is a selective, reversible, ATP-competitive, equipotent inhibitor of class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), including PI3K-alpha mutants, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; IC(50) versus PI3K-alpha = 2 nmol/L). PKI-402 inhibited growth of human tumor cell lines derived from breast, brain (glioma), pancreas, and non-small cell lung cancer tissue and suppressed phosphorylation of PI3K and mTOR effector proteins (e.g., Akt at T308) at concentrations that matched those that inhibited cell growth. In MDA-MB-361 [breast: Her2(+) and PIK3CA mutant (E545K)], 30 nmol/L PKI-402 induced cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a marker for apoptosis. In vivo, PKI-402 inhibited tumor growth in MDA-MB-361, glioma (U87MG), and lung (A549) xenograft models. In MDA-MB-361, PKI-402 at 100 mg/kg (daily for 5 days, one round) reduced initial tumor volume of 260 mm(3) to 129 mm(3) and prevented tumor regrowth for 70 days. In MDA-MB-361 tumors, PKI-402 (100 mg/kg, single dose) suppressed Akt phosphorylation (at T308) and induced cleaved PARP. Suppression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) was complete at 8 hours and still evident at 24 hours. Cleaved PARP was evident at 8 and 24 hours. In normal tissue (heart and lung), PKI-402 (100 mg/kg) had minimal effect on p-Akt, with no detectable cleaved PARP. Preferential accumulation of PKI-402 in tumor tissue was observed. Complete, sustained suppression of Akt phosphorylation may cause tumor regression in MDA-MB-361 and other xenograft models. We are testing whether dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors can durably suppress p-Akt, induce cleaved PARP, and cause tumor regression in a diverse set of human tumor xenograft models. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 976-84. (c)2010 AACR.

  14. Andrographolide inhibits nuclear factor-κB activation through JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade in tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Lin-Wen; Chen, Zhih-Cherng; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism.

  15. Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κB Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Yu-Ying Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism.

  16. Naoxintong Protects Primary Neurons from Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation Induced Injury through PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway

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    Yan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naoxintong capsule (NXT, developed from Buyang Huanwu Decoction, has shown the neuroprotective effects in cerebrovascular diseases, but the neuroprotection mechanisms of NXT on ischemia/reperfusion injured neurons have not yet been well known. In this study, we established the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R induced neurons injury model and treat the neurons with cerebrospinal fluid containing NXT (BNC to investigate the effects of NXT on OGD/R induced neurons injury and potential mechanisms. BNC improved neuron viability and decreased apoptotic rate induced by OGD/R. BNC attenuated OGD/R induced cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, ROS generation, intracellular NO levels and nNOS mRNA increase, and cytochrome-c release when compared with OGD/R group. BNC significantly inhibited both mPTP opening and ΔΨm depolarization. BNC increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax expression, upregulated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, downregulated caspase-3 mRNA and caspase-9 mRNA expression, and decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression and caspase-3 activity. BNC increased phosphorylation of Akt following OGD/R, while LY294002 attenuated BNC induced increase of phosphorylated Akt expression. Our study demonstrated that NXT protected primary neurons from OGD/R induced injury by inhibiting calcium overload and ROS generation, protecting mitochondria, and inhibiting mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was mediated partially by PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activation.

  17. Protection against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by tormentic acid via the activation of PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Ye, Junli; Wei, Na; Fong, Chichun; Dong, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) could be ascribed to the progressive and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and thus molecules with neuroprotective ability may have therapeutic value against PD. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of tormentic acid (TA), a naturally occurring triterpene extracted from medicinal plants such as Rosa rugosa and Potentilla chinensis, were evaluated in a widely used cellular PD model in which neurotoxicity was induced by MPP(+) in cultured SH-SY5Y cells. We found that TA at 1-30 μM substantially protected against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity, as evidenced by the increase in cell viability, decrease in lactate dehydrogenase release and the reduction in apoptotic nuclei. Moreover, TA effectively inhibited the elevated intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as Bax/Bcl-2 ratio caused by MPP(+). Most importantly, TA markedly reversed the inhibition of protein expression of phosphorylated Akt (Ser 473) and phosphorylated GSK3β (Ser 9) caused by MPP(+). LY294002, the specific inhibitor of PI3-K, significantly abrogated the up-regulated phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated GSK3β offered by TA, suggesting that the neuroprotection of TA was mainly dependent on the activation of PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. The results taken together indicate that TA may be a potential candidate for further preclinical study aimed at the prevention and treatment of PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AKT-independent PI3-K signaling in cancer – emerging role for SGK3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruhn MA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Maressa A Bruhn,1,6 Richard B Pearson,1–4 Ross D Hannan,1–5 Karen E Sheppard1–3 1Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 5School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 6School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia Abstract: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K signaling pathway plays an important role in a wide variety of fundamental cellular processes, largely mediated via protein kinase B/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (PKB/AKT signaling. Given the crucial role of PI3-K/AKT signaling in regulating processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and survival, it is not surprising that components of this pathway are frequently dysregulated in cancer, making the AKT kinase family members important therapeutic targets. The large number of clinical trials currently evaluating PI3-K pathway inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy further emphasizes this. The serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (SGK family is made up of three isoforms, SGK1, 2, and 3, that are PI3-K-dependent, serine/threonine kinases, with similar substrate specificity to AKT. Consequently, the SGK family also regulates similar cell processes to the AKT kinases, including cell proliferation and survival. Importantly, there is emerging evidence demonstrating that SGK3 plays a critical role in AKT-independent oncogenic signaling. This review will focus on the role of SGK3 as a key effector of AKT-independent PI3-K oncogenic signaling. Keywords: SGK3, AKT, PI3-kinase, mTOR, cancer

  19. Aurora kinase A revives dormant laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells via FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-yun; He, Chang-yu; Chen, Xue-hua; Su, Li-ping; Liu, Bing-ya; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Revival of dormant tumor cells may be an important tumor metastasis mechanism. We hypothesized that aurora kinase A (AURKA), a cell cycle control kinase, promotes the transition of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cells from G0 phase to active division. We therefore investigated whether AURKA could revive dormant tumor cells to promote metastasis. Western blotting revealed that AURKA expression was persistently low in dormant laryngeal cancer Hep2 (D-Hep2) cells and high in non-dormant (T-Hep2) cells. Decreasing AURKA expression in T-Hep2 cells induced dormancy and reduced FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activity. Increasing AURKA expression in D-Hep2 cells increased FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activity and enhanced cellular proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. In addition, FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition caused dormancy-like behavior and reduced cellular mobility, migration and invasion. We conclude that AURKA may revive dormant tumor cells via FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activation, thereby promoting migration and invasion in laryngeal cancer. AURKA/FAK/PI3K/Akt inhibitors may thus represent potential targets for clinical LSCC treatment. PMID:27356739

  20. Akt1 deficiency diminishes skeletal muscle hypertrophy by reducing satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Nobuki; Miyazaki, Mitsunori

    2018-02-14

    Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the net dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Although the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway plays an important role in promoting protein synthesis and subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the precise molecular regulation of mTOR activity by the upstream protein kinase Akt is largely unknown. In addition, the activation of satellite cells has been indicated as a key regulator of muscle mass. However, the requirement of satellite cells for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is still under intense debate. In this study, female germline Akt1 knockout (KO) mice were used to examine whether Akt1 deficiency attenuates load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy through suppressing mTOR-dependent signaling and satellite cell proliferation. Akt1 KO mice showed a blunted hypertrophic response of skeletal muscle, with a diminished rate of satellite cell proliferation following mechanical overload. In contrast, Akt1 deficiency did not affect the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling and the subsequent enhanced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. These observations suggest that the load-induced activation of mTOR signaling occurs independently of Akt1 regulation and that Akt1 plays a critical role in regulating satellite cell proliferation during load-induced muscle hypertrophy.

  1. Nontranscriptional activation of PI3K/Akt signaling mediates hypotensive effect following activation of estrogen receptor β in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats

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    Wu Kay LH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen acts on the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, where sympathetic premotor neurons are located, to elicit vasodepressor effects via an estrogen receptor (ERβ-dependent mechanism. We investigated in the present study nontranscriptional mechanism on cardiovascular effects following activation of ERβ in the RVLM, and delineated the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/serine/threonine kinase (Akt signaling pathway in the effects. Methods In male Sprague–Dawley rats maintained under propofol anesthesia, changes in arterial pressure, heart rate and sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone were examined after microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of 17β-estradiol (E2β or a selective ERα or ERβ agonist. Involvement of ER subtypes and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the induced cardiovascular effects were studied using pharmacological tools of antagonists or inhibitors, gene manipulation with antisense oligonucleotide (ASON or adenovirus-mediated gene transfection. Results Similar to E2β (1 pmol, microinjection of ERβ agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 1, 2 or 5 pmol, into bilateral RVLM evoked dose-dependent hypotension and reduction in sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone. These vasodepressive effects of DPN (2 pmol were inhibited by ERβ antagonist, R,R-tetrahydrochrysene (50 pmol, ASON against ERβ mRNA (250 pmol, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (5 pmol, or Akt inhibitor (250 pmol, but not by ERα inhibitor, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (1 nmol, or transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D (5 or 10 nmol. Gene transfer by microinjection into bilateral RVLM of adenovirus encoding phosphatase and tensin homologues deleted on chromosome 10 (5 × 108 pfu reversed the vasodepressive effects of DPN. Conclusions Our results indicate that vasodepressive effects following activation of ERβ in RVLM are mediated by nongenomic activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides new insight in the

  2. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Promotes Osteoblast Maturation by Altering the Histone H4 Epigenome and Reduces Akt Phosphorylation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakovic, Amel; Evans, Jared M.; Li, Ying; Middha, Sumit; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Bone has remarkable regenerative capacity, but this ability diminishes during aging. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) promote terminal osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix production in culture. The epigenetic events altered by HDIs in osteoblasts may hold clues for the development of new anabolic treatments for osteoporosis and other conditions of low bone mass. To assess how HDIs affect the epigenome of committed osteoblasts, MC3T3 cells were treated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and subjected to microarray gene expression profiling and high-throughput ChIP-Seq analysis. As expected, SAHA induced differentiation and matrix calcification of osteoblasts in vitro. ChIP-Seq analysis revealed that SAHA increased histone H4 acetylation genome-wide and in differentially regulated genes, except for the 500 bp upstream of transcriptional start sites. Pathway analysis indicated that SAHA increased the expression of insulin signaling modulators, including Slc9a3r1. SAHA decreased phosphorylation of insulin receptor β, Akt, and the Akt substrate FoxO1, resulting in FoxO1 stabilization. Thus, SAHA induces genome-wide H4 acetylation and modulates the insulin/Akt/FoxO1 signaling axis, whereas it promotes terminal osteoblast differentiation in vitro. PMID:23940046

  3. Lycopene Protects Keratinocytes Against UVB Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis via Negative Regulation of FOXO3a Through the mTORC2/AKT Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Xu, Shina; Qu, Jinlong

    2018-01-01

    Lycopene, one of the most potent anti-oxidants, has been reported to exhibit potent anti-proliferative properties in a wide range of cancer cells through modulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis. Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) plays a pivotal role in modulating the expression of genes involved in cell death. Herein, we investigated the role of FOXO3a signaling in the anti-cancer effects of lycopene. Results showed that lycopene pretreatment attenuated UVB-induced cell hyper-proliferation and promoted apoptosis, accompanied by decreased cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and CDK4 complex in both human keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice. FOXO3a is phosphorylated in response to UVB irradiation and sequestered in the cytoplasm, while lycopene pretreatment rescued this sensitization. Gene ablation of FOXO3a attenuated lycopene-induced decrease in cell hyper-proliferation, CDK2, and CDK4 complex, indicating a critical role of FOXO3a in the lycopene-induced anti-proliferative effect of keratinocytes during UVB irradiation. Transfection with FOXO3a siRNA inhibited the lycopene-induced increase in cell apoptosis, BAX and cleaved PARP expression. Moreover, loss of AKT induced further accelerated lycopene-induced FOXO3a dephosphorylation, while loss of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) by transfection with RICTOR siRNA induced levels of AKT phosphorylation comparable to those obtained with lycopene. In contrast, overexpression of AKT or mTORC2 decreased the effects of lycopene on the expression of FOXO3a as well as AKT phosphorylation, suggesting that lycopene depends on the negative modulation of mTORC2/AKT signaling. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the mTORC2/AKT/FOXO3a axis plays a critical role in the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of lycopene in UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 366-377, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Overexpression of decorin promoted angiogenesis in diabetic cardiomyopathy via IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jinsheng; Chen, Fuqiong; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Guoran; He, Mengying; Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2017-03-14

    Microcirculatory dysfunction is believed to play an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin is generally considered a pro-angiogenic factor. Here, we investigate whether overexpression of decorin ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy and its effects on angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin combined with a high-fat diet, and decorin was overexpressed via recombinant adeno-associated virus in Wistar rats. Six months later, cardiac function was determined using an echocardiography and cardiac catheter system. The results showed that cardiac function was decreased in diabetic rats and restored by overexpression of decorin. In addition, overexpression of decorin upregulated the expression of VEGF and attenuated the reduction in the cardiac capillary density. In the in vitro study, high glucose induced apoptosis and inhibited the capabilities of tube formation, migration and proliferation, which were all ameliorated by decorin overexpression. Meanwhile, decorin overexpression increased the expression of VEGF and IGF1R, as well as the phosphorylation level of AKT and AP-1. Nonetheless, all of these effects were abolished by pretreatment with the IGF1R antibody or AKT inhibitor. In conclusion, overexpression of decorin ameliorated diabetic cardiomyopathy and promoted angiogenesis through the IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

  5. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: →PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. →PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca 2+ influx and caspase-3 activity. →PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. →PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. →PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  6. YB-1 overexpression promotes a TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition via Akt activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Bin; Lee, Eun Byul; Cui, Jun; Kim, Yosup; Jang, Ho Hee

    2015-01-01

    The Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a transcription/translation regulatory protein, and the expression thereof is associated with cancer aggressiveness. In the present study, we explored the regulatory effects of YB-1 during the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Downregulation of YB-1 increased E-cadherin promoter activity, and upregulation of YB-1 decreased promoter activity, suggesting that the YB-1 level may be correlated with the EMT. TGF-β1 induced YB-1 expression, and TGF-β1 translocated cytosolic YB-1 into the nucleus. YB-1 overexpression promoted TGF-β1-induced downregulation of epithelial markers, upregulation of mesenchymal markers, and cell migration. Moreover, YB-1 overexpression enhanced the expression of E-cadherin transcriptional repressors via TGF-β1-induced Akt activation. Our findings afford new insights into the role played by YB-1 in the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • YB-1 regulates E-cadherin expression in A549 cells. • TGF-β1 induces upregulating and nuclear localization of YB-1. • YB-1 overexpression accelerates TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. • YB-1 regulates Snail and Slug expression via Akt activation

  7. Reactive oxygen species-generating mitochondrial DNA mutation up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha gene transcription via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt/protein kinase C/histone deacetylase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshikawa, Nobuko; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakagawara, Akira; Takenaga, Keizo

    2009-11-27

    Lewis lung carcinoma-derived high metastatic A11 cells constitutively overexpress hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha mRNA compared with low metastatic P29 cells. Because A11 cells exclusively possess a G13997A mutation in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) gene, we addressed here a causal relationship between the ND6 mutation and the activation of HIF-1alpha transcription, and we investigated the potential mechanism. Using trans-mitochondrial cybrids between A11 and P29 cells, we found that the ND6 mutation was directly involved in HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression. Stimulation of HIF-1alpha transcription by the ND6 mutation was mediated by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways. The up-regulation of HIF-1alpha transcription was abolished by mithramycin A, an Sp1 inhibitor, but luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that Sp1 was necessary but not sufficient for HIF-1alpha mRNA overexpression in A11 cells. On the other hand, trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, markedly suppressed HIF-1alpha transcription in A11 cells. In accordance with this, HDAC activity was high in A11 cells but low in P29 cells and in A11 cells treated with the ROS scavenger ebselene, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and the PKC inhibitor Ro31-8220. These results suggest that the ROS-generating ND6 mutation increases HIF-1alpha transcription via the PI3K-Akt/PKC/HDAC pathway, leading to HIF-1alpha protein accumulation in hypoxic tumor cells.

  8. Augmenter of liver regeneration causes different kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation than EGF and induces hepatocyte proliferation in an EGF receptor independent and liver specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilowski, Maren; Putz, Christine [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg Hospital, Regensburg (Germany); Brand, Stephan [Department of Internal Medicine II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund (Germany); Thasler, Wolfgang Erwin, E-mail: wolfgang.thasler@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)

    2010-04-16

    Background/Aim: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is a potent growth factor which supports liver regeneration in experimental animals. The aim of this study was to compare proliferation as well as the kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation by recombinant human ALR (rhALR) and EGF in human hepatocytes and extrahepatic cells. Methods: Kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation were determined in primary human hepatocytes (phh) after stimulation with rhALR and EGF. Induction of proliferation was analyzed in phh and several cell lines of hepatic and extrahepatic origin by the MTT and [{sup 3}H]-thymidine assay. Results: The kinetics of ERK phosphorylation showed clear differences, whereby rhALR caused a transient and EGF a permanent increase during the observation period of 60 min. For both, Akt and ERK phosphorylation, EGF caused a faster effect with maximal levels observed already after 2 min, whereas rhALR caused maximal phosphorylation between 10 and 15 min. Using the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 we provide evidence of an EGF receptor independent induction of proliferation by rhALR. Furthermore, rhALR induced proliferation only in phh and the human liver derived cell lines HepG2 and Chang. In contrast, EGF enhanced proliferation in all analyzed cell types including cell lines of colon, bronchial, pancreatic and gastric origin (SW480, BC1, L36PL and GC1). Conclusion: rhALR and EGF induce different kinetics of ERK and Akt phosphorylation in human hepatocytes. The mitogenic effect of rhALR is liver specific and seems to be at least partially independent from EGF receptor mediated signaling.

  9. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio, E-mail: yyoneda@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  10. Silencing p110β prevents rapid depletion of nuclear pAkt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-wei; Ghalali, Aram; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► p110β was essential for the statin- and ATP-induced depletion of nuclear pAkt and an associated inhibition of growth. ► p110β knock-out inhibited statin-induced changes in binding between FKBP51, pAkt and PTEN. ► Data supports the hypothesis that nuclear pAkt is important for anti-cancer effects of statins. -- Abstract: The p110β subunit in the class IA PI3K family may act as an oncogene and is critical for prostate tumor development in PTEN knockout mice. We tested the possible involvement of p110β in a recently described rapid depletion of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) in the nucleus. Previous work showed that this down-regulation is induced by extracellular ATP or by statins and is mediated by the purinergic receptor P2X7. Here, we used p110β knock out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and siRNA-treated cancer cells. We found that p110β is essential for ATP- or statin-induced nuclear pAkt depletion in MEFs and in several cancer cell lines including prostate cancer cells. ATP, statin or the selective P2X7 agonist BzATP also inhibited cell growth, and this inhibition was not seen in p110β knock out cells. We also found that p110β was necessary for statin-induced changes in binding between FKBP51, pAkt and PTEN. Our data show that p110β is essential for the ATP- and statin-induced effects and support a role of nuclear pAkt in cancer development. They also provide support for a chemopreventive effect of statins mediated by depletion of nuclear pAkt.

  11. Silencing p110{beta} prevents rapid depletion of nuclear pAkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhi-wei; Ghalali, Aram; Hoegberg, Johan [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stenius, Ulla, E-mail: ulla.stenius@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p110{beta} was essential for the statin- and ATP-induced depletion of nuclear pAkt and an associated inhibition of growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p110{beta} knock-out inhibited statin-induced changes in binding between FKBP51, pAkt and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data supports the hypothesis that nuclear pAkt is important for anti-cancer effects of statins. -- Abstract: The p110{beta} subunit in the class IA PI3K family may act as an oncogene and is critical for prostate tumor development in PTEN knockout mice. We tested the possible involvement of p110{beta} in a recently described rapid depletion of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) in the nucleus. Previous work showed that this down-regulation is induced by extracellular ATP or by statins and is mediated by the purinergic receptor P2X7. Here, we used p110{beta} knock out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and siRNA-treated cancer cells. We found that p110{beta} is essential for ATP- or statin-induced nuclear pAkt depletion in MEFs and in several cancer cell lines including prostate cancer cells. ATP, statin or the selective P2X7 agonist BzATP also inhibited cell growth, and this inhibition was not seen in p110{beta} knock out cells. We also found that p110{beta} was necessary for statin-induced changes in binding between FKBP51, pAkt and PTEN. Our data show that p110{beta} is essential for the ATP- and statin-induced effects and support a role of nuclear pAkt in cancer development. They also provide support for a chemopreventive effect of statins mediated by depletion of nuclear pAkt.

  12. COX-2 activation is associated with Akt phosphorylation and poor survival in ER-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, Sharon A; Ambs, Stefan; Prueitt, Robyn L; Ridnour, Lisa A; Boersma, Brenda J; Dorsey, Tiffany M; Wink, David A; Goodman, Julie E; Yfantis, Harris G; Lee, Dong H

    2010-01-01

    Inducible cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) is commonly overexpressed in breast tumors and is a target for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the association of COX-2 with breast cancer survival and how this association is influenced by tumor estrogen and HER2 receptor status and Akt pathway activation. Tumor COX-2, HER2 and estrogen receptor α (ER) expression and phosphorylation of Akt, BAD, and caspase-9 were analyzed immunohistochemically in 248 cases of breast cancer. Spearman's correlation and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and disease-specific survival. COX-2 was significantly associated with breast cancer outcome in ER-negative [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-5.41; comparing high versus low COX-2] and HER2 overexpressing breast cancer (HR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.07-7.52). However, the hazard of poor survival associated with increased COX-2 was highest among patients who were both ER-negative and HER2-positive (HR = 5.95; 95% CI, 1.01-34.9). Notably, COX-2 expression in the ER-negative and HER2-positive tumors correlated significantly with increased phosphorylation of Akt and of the two Akt targets, BAD at Ser136 and caspase-9 at Ser196. Up-regulation of COX-2 in ER-negative and HER2-positive breast tumors is associated with Akt pathway activation and is a marker of poor outcome. The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype

  13. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

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    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing, E-mail: allenylq@hotmail.com; Liao, Er-Yuan, E-mail: eyliao@21cn.com

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  14. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  15. Fisetin Attenuates AKT Associated Growth Promoting Events in AflatoxinB1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2017-12-29

    Recently we have reported that Fisetin, a natural flavonol, is able to regress Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) led pro-inflammatory factors in rats. In the current study, we aimed to delineate whether Fisetin does so by modulating the cell growth promoting signaling cascade in HCC. The reciprocal interplay of 3-phosphoinositol kinase (PI3K) vs phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) displays Akt, a protein kinase B, to get phosphorylated at Thr308 by a 3-phosphoinositol dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). This commits cells of neoplastic niche to undergo rapid proliferation by p-Akt thr308 dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) at Ser 9 position. In this study, the effect of in vivo treatment of 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on relative profile of all these factors were studied in the liver from the HCC rats induced by two doses of 1mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. As compared to the untreated HCC liver, liver from Fisetin treated HCC group rats showed a significant decline in the activity and level of p-Aktthr308 which was consistent with a similar decline in PDK1 level. Concordantly, the level of p-GSK3βSer 9 was also found to be declined significantly in those Fisetin-treated HCC livers. A concomitant decline in immunohistochemically detected number of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cell proliferation marker, in the HCC liver, further confirmed anti-cell proliferative role of Fisetin during HCC growth in vivo. This findings suggest that Fisetin is able to suppress Akt dependent cell growth signaling mechanisms in HCC mainly by down regulating PDK1 dependent Akt phosphorylation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. ► Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. ► Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. ► Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  17. IGF-1 Promotes Brn-4 Expression and Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells via the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Xiang; Guo, Yuxiu; Sun, Xiaohui; Chen, Geng; Li, Haoming; Li, Pengcheng; Lu, Xiaohui; Tian, Meiling; Qin, Jianbing; Zhou, Hui; Jin, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that transcription factor Brn-4 is upregulated in the surgically denervated hippocampus in vivo, promoting neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. The molecules mediating Brn-4 upregulation in the denervated hippocampus remain unknown. In this study we examined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in hippocampus following denervation. Surgical denervation led to a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in vivo. We also report that IGF-1 treatment on NSCs in vitro led to a marked acceleration of Brn-4 expression and cell differentiation down neuronal pathways. The promotion effects were blocked by PI3K-specific inhibitor (LY294002), but not MAPK inhibitor (PD98059); levels of phospho-Akt were increased by IGF-1 treatment. In addition, inhibition of IGF-1 receptor (AG1024) and mTOR (rapamycin) both attenuated the increased expression of Brn-4 induced by IGF-1. Together, the results demonstrated that upregulation of IGF-1 induced by hippocampal denervation injury leads to activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn gives rise to upregulation of the Brn-4 and subsequent stem cell differentiation down neuronal pathways. PMID:25474202

  18. Apoptosis Induction of Human Prostate Carcinoma DU145 Cells by Diallyl Disulfide via Modulation of JNK and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hyun Yoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS, a sulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the compound's anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the apoptotic effects of DADS were investigated in DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells. Our results showed that DADS markedly inhibited the growth of the DU145 cells by induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was accompanied by modulation of Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family proteins, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm and proteolytic activation of caspases. We also found that the expression of death-receptor 4 (DR4 and Fas ligand (FasL proteins was increased and that the level of intact Bid proteins was down-regulated by DADS. Moreover, treatment with DADS induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, including extracellular-signal regulating kinase (ERK, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. A specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly blocked DADS-induced-apoptosis, whereas inhibitors of the ERK (PD98059 and p38 MAPK (SB203580 had no effect. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and the PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increased DADS-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the proapoptotic effect of DADS is mediated through the activation of JNK and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in DU145 cells.

  19. Regulation of Akt and Wnt signaling by the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist LY341495 and agonist LY379268.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Laurie P; Rushlow, Walter J

    2011-06-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 (mGlu(2/3)) have been implicated in schizophrenia and as a novel treatment target for schizophrenia. The current study examined whether mGlu(2/3) regulates Akt (protein kinase B) and Wnt (Wingless/Int-1) signaling, two cascades associated with schizophrenia and modified by antipsychotics. Western blotting revealed increases in phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (pGSK-3) following acute and repeated treatment of LY379268 (mGlu(2/3) agonist), whereas increases in dishevelled-2 (Dvl-2), dishevelled-3 (Dvl-3), GSK-3 and β-catenin were only observed following repeated treatment. LY341495 (mGlu(2/3) antagonist) induced the opposite response compared with LY379268. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed an association between the mGlu(2/3) complex and Dvl-2 providing a possible mechanism to explain how the mGlu(2/3) can mediate changes in Wnt signaling. However, there was no association between the mGlu(2/3) complex and Akt suggesting that changes in Akt signaling following LY341495 and LY379268 treatments may not be directly mediated by the mGlu(2/3) . Finally, an increase in locomotor activity induced by LY341495 treatment correlated with increased pAkt and pGSK-3 levels and was attenuated by the administration of the GSK-3 inhibitor, SB216763. Overall, the results suggest that mGlu(2/3) regulates Akt and Wnt signaling and LY379268 treatment has overlapping effects with D(2) dopamine receptor antagonists (antipsychotic drugs). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Effects of Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Insulin on Palmitate-Induced ROS Production and Down-Regulation of PI3K/Akt Signaling Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kunihiro; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Goto, Hidemi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    In obese and diabetic patients, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels are often elevated and may play a causal role in insulin resistance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We have previously shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has antioxidative activity through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling-mediated glutathione production. In this study, we investigated the effects of UDCA on insulin response by analyzing intracellular ROS and the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate. The level of ROS was quantified using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H 2 DCFDA), and the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was determined by Western blotting assay using appropriate antibodies. The intracellular ROS levels were increased by palmitate but were reduced by treatment with UDCA and insulin. Furthermore, insulin significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt. When the cells were pre-treated with palmitate, insulin-induced Akt-phosphorylation was markedly inhibited. However, when the cells were treated with palmitate and UDCA, the effects of insulin were partially restored. UDCA may have protective effects against palmitate-induced decreases in responsiveness to insulin.

  1. Small Molecular TRAIL Inducer ONC201 Induces Death in Lung Cancer Cells: A Preclinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhou, Jihong; Li, Zhanhua; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively targets cancer cells. The present preclinical study investigated the anti-cancer efficiency of ONC201, a first-in-class small molecule TRAIL inducer, in lung cancer cells. We showed that ONC201 was cytotoxic and anti-proliferative in both established (A549 and H460 lines) and primary human lung cancer cells. It was yet non-cytotoxic to normal lung epithelial cells. Further, ONC201 induced exogenous apoptosis activation in lung cancer cells, which was evidenced by TRAIL/death receptor-5 (DR5) induction and caspase-8 activation. The caspase-8 inhibitor or TRAIL/DR5 siRNA knockdown alleviated ONC201's cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. Molecularly, ONC201 in-activated Akt-S6K1 and Erk signalings in lung cancer cells, causing Foxo3a nuclear translocation. For the in vivo studies, intraperitoneal injection of ONC201 at well-tolerated doses significantly inhibited xenografted A549 tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Further, ONC201 administration induced TRAIL/DR5 expression, yet inactivated Akt-S6K1 and Erk in tumor tissues. These results of the study demonstrates the potent anti-lung cancer activity by ONC201.

  2. Small Molecular TRAIL Inducer ONC201 Induces Death in Lung Cancer Cells: A Preclinical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Feng

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL selectively targets cancer cells. The present preclinical study investigated the anti-cancer efficiency of ONC201, a first-in-class small molecule TRAIL inducer, in lung cancer cells. We showed that ONC201 was cytotoxic and anti-proliferative in both established (A549 and H460 lines and primary human lung cancer cells. It was yet non-cytotoxic to normal lung epithelial cells. Further, ONC201 induced exogenous apoptosis activation in lung cancer cells, which was evidenced by TRAIL/death receptor-5 (DR5 induction and caspase-8 activation. The caspase-8 inhibitor or TRAIL/DR5 siRNA knockdown alleviated ONC201's cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells. Molecularly, ONC201 in-activated Akt-S6K1 and Erk signalings in lung cancer cells, causing Foxo3a nuclear translocation. For the in vivo studies, intraperitoneal injection of ONC201 at well-tolerated doses significantly inhibited xenografted A549 tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice. Further, ONC201 administration induced TRAIL/DR5 expression, yet inactivated Akt-S6K1 and Erk in tumor tissues. These results of the study demonstrates the potent anti-lung cancer activity by ONC201.

  3. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Eisinger, Daniela A., E-mail: eisinger@pharmtox.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. δ-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-01-01

    δ-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen 2,5 ]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G i/o proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G q/11 scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the Gβγ scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  5. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) knockout preserves cardiac homeostasis through alleviating Akt-mediated myocardial autophagy suppression in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ren, J

    2015-03-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has a role in the development of obesity and diabetes. However, whether MIF has a role in fat diet-induced obesity and associated cardiac anomalies still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of MIF knockout on high-fat diet-induced obesity, obesity-associated cardiac anomalies and the underlying mechanisms involved with a focus on Akt-mediated autophagy. Adult male wild-type (WT) and MIF knockout (MIF(-/-)) mice were placed on 45% high-fat diet for 5 months. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, respiratory exchange ratio, locomotor activity and heat generation were measured using energy calorimeter. Echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed. Apoptosis was examined using terminal dUTP nick end labeling staining and western blot analysis. Akt signaling pathway and autophagy markers were evaluated. Cardiomyocytes isolated from WT and MIF(-/-) mice were treated with recombinant mouse MIF (rmMIF). High-fat diet feeding elicited increased body weight gain, insulin resistance and caloric disturbance in WT and MIF(-/-) mice. High-fat diet induced unfavorable geometric, contractile and histological changes in the heart, the effects of which were alleviated by MIF knockout. In addition, fat diet-induced cardiac anomalies were associated with Akt activation and autophagy suppression, which were nullified by MIF deficiency. In cardiomyocytes from WT mice, autophagy was inhibited by exogenous rmMIF through Akt activation. In addition, MIF knockout rescued palmitic acid-induced suppression of cardiomyocyte autophagy, the effect of which was nullified by rmMIF. These results indicate that MIF knockout preserved obesity-associated cardiac anomalies without affecting fat diet-induced obesity, probably through restoring myocardial autophagy in an Akt-dependent manner. Our findings provide new insights for the role of MIF in obesity and associated cardiac

  6. Inhibition of Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fission augments alcohol-induced cardiotoxicity via dysregulated Akt signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Sivakumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs still claim high mortality in spite of advancements in prognosis and treatment strategies. Alcohol is one of the most commonly consumed drugs globally and chronic/binge consumption (BAC 0.08 g/dL in 2 hours is a risk factor for CVDs. However, the aetiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of alcohol induced cardiotoxicity are still poorly understood. Mitochondria are the prime site for the ATP demands of the heart and also ethanol metabolism. These subcellular organelles depict dynamic fusion and fission events that are vital for structure and functional integrity. While fused mitochondrial improve ATP production and cell survival, increased fragmentation can be the cause or result of apoptosis. In this study, we proposed to analyze the mechanism of mitochondrial fission protein Drp-1-dependent apoptosis during alcohol toxicity. Male Wistar rats (220-250 kg body weight were given isocaloric sucrose or ethanol for 45 days, orally, via drinking water and intermittent gavage twice a week. Histopathological examination of the heart displayed hypertrophy with mild inflammation. Drp-1 immunoblotting showed over-expression of the protein during ethanol treatment. We next hypothesized that inhibiting Drp-1 could attenuate alcohol-induced cardiotoxicity. Interestingly, silencing Drp-1 with siRNA in-vitro augmented cytotoxicity. Also, crude mitochondrial fraction showed increased Bak aggregation, reduced cytochrome c release but increased SMAC/DIABLO. We analyzed the Akt cell survival signaling and found that PTEN showed over-expression at both transcriptional and translational level with no significant change in total Akt but down-regulation of p-Akt (Ser473. In conclusion, we have shown that inhibition of Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fission is not cardioprotective against alcohol-induced apoptotic signaling and augments the cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to interlink cell survival AKT signaling

  7. Leucine minimizes denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy of rats through akt/mtor signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barbosa Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of leucine treatment (0.30 mM on muscle weight and signaling of myoproteins related to synthesis and degradation pathways of soleus muscle following seven days of complete sciatic nerve lesion.Wistar rats (n=24 of 3 to 4 months of age (192 ± 23 g were used. The animals were randomly distributed into four experimental groups (n=6/group: control, treated with leucine (L, denervated (D and denervated treated with leucine (DL.Dependent measures were proteins levels of AKT, AMPK, mTOR, and ACC performed by Western blot. Leucine induced a reduction in the phosphorylation of AMPK (p<0.05 by 16% in the L and by 68% in the DL groups as compared with control group. Denervation increased AMPK by 24% in the D group as compared with the control group (p<0.05. AKT was also modulated by denervation and leucine treatment, highlighted by the elevation of AKT phosphorylation in the D (65%, L (98% and DL (146% groups as compared with the control group (p<0.05. AKT phosphorylation was 49% higher in the D group as compared with the DL group.Furthermore, denervation decreased mTOR phosphorylation by 29% in the D group as compared with the control group. However, leucine treatment induced an increase of 49% in the phosphorylation of mTOR in the L group as compared with the control group, and an increase of 154% in the DL as compared with the D group ( p<0.05. ACC phosphorylation was 20% greater in the D group than the control group. Furthermore, ACC in the soleus was 22% lower in the in the L group and 50% lower in the DL group than the respective control group (p<0.05.In conclusion, leucine treatment minimized the deleterious effects of denervation on rat soleus muscle by increasing anabolic (AKT and mTOR and decreasing catabolic (AMPK pathways. These results may be interesting for muscle recovery following acute denervation, which may contribute to musculoskeletal rehabilitation after denervation.

  8. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Protein Synthesis Inhibitors as H-Ras-Nanocluster-Increasing Tumor Growth Inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najumudeen, Arafath K; Posada, Itziar M D; Lectez, Benoit; Zhou, Yong; Landor, Sebastian K-J; Fallarero, Adyary; Vuorela, Pia; Hancock, John; Abankwa, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Ras isoforms H-, N-, and K-ras are each mutated in specific cancer types at varying frequencies and have different activities in cell fate control. On the plasma membrane, Ras proteins are laterally segregated into isoform-specific nanoscale signaling hubs, termed nanoclusters. As Ras nanoclusters are required for Ras signaling, chemical modulators of nanoclusters represent ideal candidates for the specific modulation of Ras activity in cancer drug development. We therefore conducted a chemical screen with commercial and in-house natural product libraries using a cell-based H-ras-nanoclustering FRET assay. Next to established Ras inhibitors, such as a statin and farnesyl-transferase inhibitor, we surprisingly identified five protein synthesis inhibitors as positive regulators. Using commonly employed cycloheximide as a representative compound, we show that protein synthesis inhibition increased nanoclustering and effector recruitment specifically of active H-ras but not of K-ras. Consistent with these data, cycloheximide treatment activated both Erk and Akt kinases and specifically promoted H-rasG12V-induced, but not K-rasG12V-induced, PC12 cell differentiation. Intriguingly, cycloheximide increased the number of mammospheres, which are enriched for cancer stem cells. Depletion of H-ras in combination with cycloheximide significantly reduced mammosphere formation, suggesting an exquisite synthetic lethality. The potential of cycloheximide to promote tumor cell growth was also reflected in its ability to increase breast cancer cell tumors grown in ovo. These results illustrate the possibility of identifying Ras-isoform-specific modulators using nanocluster-directed screening. They also suggest an unexpected feedback from protein synthesis inhibition to Ras signaling, which might present a vulnerability in certain tumor cell types.

  9. AKT2 Blocks Nucleus Translocation of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor (AIF and Endonuclease G (EndoG While Promoting Caspase Activation during Cardiac Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The AKT (protein kinase B, PKB family has been shown to participate in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase B2 (AKT2−/− mice heart was sensitized to apoptosis in response to ischemic injury. However, little is known about the mechanism and apoptotic signaling pathway. Here, we show that AKT2 inhibition does not affect the development of cardiomyocytes but increases cell death during cardiomyocyte ischemia. Caspase-dependent apoptosis of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway was inactivated in cardiomyocytes with AKT2 inhibition during ischemia, while significant mitochondrial disruption was observed as well as intracytosolic translocation of cytochrome C (Cyto C together with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF and endonuclease G (EndoG, both of which are proven to conduct DNA degradation in a range of cell death stimuli. Therefore, mitochondria-dependent cell death was investigated and the results suggested that AIF and EndoG nucleus translocation causes cardiomyocyte DNA degradation during ischemia when AKT2 is blocked. These data are the first to show a previous unrecognized function and mechanism of AKT2 in regulating cardiomyocyte survival during ischemia by inducing a unique mitochondrial-dependent DNA degradation pathway when it is inhibited.

  10. CD44 regulates cell migration in human colon cancer cells via Lyn kinase and AKT phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Venkateswaran; Vincent, Isabella R; Gardner, Helena; Chan, Emily; Dhamko, Helena; Jothy, Serge

    2007-10-01

    Colon cancer is among the leading causes of cancer death in North America. CD44, an adhesion and antiapoptotic molecule is overexpressed in colon cancer. Cofilin is involved in the directional motility of cells. In the present study, we looked at how CD44 might modulate cell migration in human colon cancer via cofilin. We used a human colon cancer cell line, HT29, which expresses CD44, HT29 where CD44 expression was knocked down by siRNA, SW620, a human colon cancer cell line which does not express CD44, stably transfected exons of CD44 in SW620 cells and the colon from CD44 knockout and wild-type mouse. Western blot analysis of siRNA CD44 lysates showed increased level of AKT phosphorylation and decreased level of cofilin expression. Similar results were also observed with SW620 cells and CD44 knockout mouse colon lysates. Experiments using the AKT phosphorylation inhibitor LY294002 indicate that AKT phosphorylation downregulates cofilin. Immunoprecipitation studies showed CD44 complex formation with Lyn, providing an essential link between CD44 and AKT phosphorylation. LY294002 also stabilized Lyn from phosphorylated AKT, suggesting an interaction between Lyn and AKT phosphorylation. Immunocytochemistry showed that cofilin and Lyn expression were downregulated in siRNA CD44 cells and CD44 knockout mouse colon. siRNA CD44 cells had significantly less migration compared to HT29 vector. Given the well-defined roles of CD44, phosphorylated AKT in apoptosis and cancer, these results indicate that CD44-induced cell migration is dependent on its complex formation with Lyn and its consequent regulation of AKT phosphorylation and cofilin expression.

  11. FGF-2 Transcriptionally Down-Regulates the Expression of BNIP3L via PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a Signaling and Inhibits Necrosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by High Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide in H9c2 Cells

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    Qian Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cardiovascular disease is a growing major global public health problem. Necrosis is one of the main forms of cardiomyocyte death in heart disease. Oxidative stress is regarded as one of the key regulators of cardiac necrosis, which eventually leads to cardiovascular disease. Many pharmacological and in vitro studies have suggested that FGF-2 can act directly on cardiomyocytes to maintain the integrity and function of the myocardium and prevent damage during oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms by which FGF-2 rescues the myocardium from oxidative stress damage in cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The present study explored the protective effects of FGF-2 in the H2O2-induced necrosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes as well as the possible signaling pathways involved. Methods: Necrosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was induced by H2O2 and assessed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8 assay and flow cytometry analysis. The cells were pretreated with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Wortmannin to investigate the possible involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the protection by FGF-2. The levels of Akt, p-Akt, FoxO3a, p-FoxO3a, and BNIP3L were detected by Western blot. Chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP analysis was used to test whether FoxO3a binds directly to the BNIP3L promoter region. A luciferase assay was used to study the effects of FoxO3a on BNIP3L gene promoter activity. Mitochondrial ΔΨM was quantified using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate (TMRM. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR was assessed with a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Results: Treatment with H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a, and it induced the nuclear localization of FoxO3a and the necrosis of H9c2 cells. These effects of H2O2 were abrogated by pretreatment with FGF-2. Furthermore, the protective effects of FGF-2 were abolished by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Wortmannin. ChIP analyses indicated that FoxO3a binds directly to the BNIP3L promoter

  12. Soyasaponins can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

  13. Blocking Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in HTR-8/SVneo First Trimester Trophoblast Cells Results in Dephosphorylation of PKBα/AKT and Induces Apoptosis

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    J. Bolnick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified a major peptide signaling target of EGF/EGFR pathway and explored the consequences of blocking or activating this pathway in the first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells, HTR-8/SVneo. A global analysis of protein phosphorylation was undertaken using novel technology (Kinexus Kinetworks that utilizes SDS-polyacrylamide minigel electrophoresis and multi-lane immunoblotting to permit specific and semiquantitative detection of multiple phosphoproteins. Forty-seven protein phosphorylation sites were queried, and the results reported based on relative phosphorylation at each site. EGF- and Iressa-(gefitinib, ZD1839, an inhibitor of EGFR treated HTR-8/SVneo cells were subjected to immunoblotting and flow cytometry to confirm the phosphoprotein screen and to assess the effects of EGF versus Iressa on cell cycle and apoptosis. EGFR mediates the phosphorylation of important signaling proteins, including PKBα/AKT. This pathway is likely to be central to EGFR-mediated trophoblast survival. Furthermore, EGF treatment induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, while Iressa induces apoptosis.

  14. Targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin squamous cell carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Ge, Minggai; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-08-19

    Abnormal activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling is detected in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). LY3023414 is a novel, potent, and orally bio-available PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitor. Its activity against human skin SCC cells was tested. We demonstrated that LY3023414 was cytotoxic when added to established (A431 line) and primary (patient-derived) human skin SCC cells. LY3023414 induced G0/1-S arrest and inhibited proliferation of skin SCC cells. Moreover, LY3023414 induced activation of caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in skin SCC cells. Intriguingly, LY3023414 was yet non-cytotoxic nor pro-apoptotic to normal human skin cells (melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts). At the molecular level, LY3023414 blocked PI3K-AKT-mTOR activation in skin SCC cells, as it dephosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR substrates: P85, AKT and S6K1. In vivo studies showed that oral administration of LY3023414 at well-tolerated doses inhibited A431 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. AKT-mTOR activation in LY3023414-treated tumors was also largely inhibited. Together, these results suggest that targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin SCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo, establishing the rationale for further clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Xenotransplantation elicits salient tumorigenicity of adult T-cell leukemia-derived cells via aberrant AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Takanashi, Tomoka; Nasu, Kentaro; Tamai, Keiichi; Mochizuki, Mai; Satoh, Ikuro; Ine, Shoji; Sasaki, Osamu; Satoh, Kennichi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Harigae, Hideo; Sugamura, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The transplantation of human cancer cells into immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc(null) (NOG) mice often causes highly malignant cell populations like cancer stem cells to emerge. Here, by serial transplantation in NOG mice, we established two highly tumorigenic adult T-cell leukemia-derived cell lines, ST1-N6 and TL-Om1-N8. When transplanted s.c., these cells formed tumors significantly earlier and from fewer initial cells than their parental lines ST1 and TL-Om1. We found that protein kinase B (AKT) signaling was upregulated in ST1-N6 and TL-Om1-N8 cells, and that this upregulation was due to the decreased expression of a negative regulator, INPP5D. Furthermore, the introduction of a constitutively active AKT mutant expression vector into ST1 cells augmented the tumorigenicity of the cells, whereas treatment with the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 attenuated the progression of tumors induced by ST1-N6 cells. Collectively, our results reveal that the AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in the malignancy of adult T-cell leukemia-derived cells. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Cell Death in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Repressing mTOR via AMPK Activation and PI3K/Akt Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer properties and mechanism of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs have been demonstrated in several cancers; however, the mechanism in lung cancer remains unclear. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a ω3-PUFA, induced apoptosis and autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. DHA-induced cell death was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and inactivated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling. Knocking down AMPK and overexpressing Akt increased mTOR activity and attenuated DHA-induced cell death, suggesting that DHA induces cell death via AMPK- and Akt-regulated mTOR inactivation. This was confirmed in Fat-1 transgenic mice, which produce ω3-PUFAs. Lewis lung cancer (LLC tumor cells implanted into Fat-1 mice showed slower growth, lower phospho-Akt levels, and higher levels of apoptosis and autophagy than cells implanted into wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that DHA-induced apoptosis and autophagy in NSCLC cells are associated with AMPK activation and PI3K/Akt inhibition, which in turn lead to suppression of mTOR; thus ω3-PUFAs may be utilized as potential therapeutic agents for NSCLC treatment.

  17. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Mohd S. [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Enteric and Food Microbiology Laboratory, Laboratory Sciences Division, International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Tsuyama, Naohiro [Department of Analytical Molecular Medicine and Devices, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Obata, Masanori [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Ishikawa, Hideaki, E-mail: hishika@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Bio-Signal Analysis, Applied Medical Engineering Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  18. Enhancement of high glucose-induced PINK1 expression by melatonin stimulates neuronal cell survival: Involvement of MT2 /Akt/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onphachanh, Xaykham; Lee, Hyun Jik; Lim, Jae Ryong; Jung, Young Hyun; Kim, Jun Sung; Chae, Chang Woo; Lee, Sei-Jung; Gabr, Amr Ahmed; Han, Ho Jae

    2017-09-01

    Hyperglycemia is a representative hallmark and risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM) and is closely linked to DM-associated neuronal cell death. Previous investigators reported on a genome-wide association study and showed relationships between DM and melatonin receptor (MT), highlighting the role of MT signaling by assessing melatonin in DM. However, the role of MT signaling in DM pathogenesis is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of mitophagy regulators in high glucose-induced neuronal cell death and the effect of melatonin against high glucose-induced mitophagy regulators in neuronal cells. In our results, high glucose significantly increased PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and LC-3B expressions; as well it decreased cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 expression and Mitotracker™ fluorescence intensity. Silencing of PINK1 induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential impairment, increased expressions of cleaved caspases, and increased the number of annexin V-positive cells. In addition, high glucose-stimulated melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) mRNA and PINK1 expressions were reversed by ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment. Upregulation of PINK1 expression in neuronal cells is suppressed by pretreatment with MT 2 receptor-specific inhibitor 4-P-PDOT. We further showed melatonin stimulated Akt phosphorylation, which was followed by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Silencing of PINK1 expression abolished melatonin-regulated mitochondrial ROS production, cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 expressions, and the number of annexin V-positive cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the melatonin stimulates PINK1 expression via an MT 2 /Akt/NF-κB pathway, and such stimulation is important for the prevention of neuronal cell apoptosis under high glucose conditions. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research

  19. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib displays significant antiproliferative effects and induces apoptosis via caspase 3, 7 and PARP in B- and T-lymphoblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult, Catrin; Boldt, Sonja; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Neri, Luca Maria; Freund, Mathias; Junghanss, Christian; Dahlhaus, Meike; Ruck, Sabine; Sawitzky, Mandy; Amoroso, Francesca; Lange, Sandra; Etro, Daniela; Glass, Aenne; Fuellen, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Targeted therapy approaches have been successfully introduced into the treatment of several cancers. The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib has antitumor activity in solid tumors and its effects on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells are still unclear. ALL cell lines (SEM, RS4;11 and Jurkat) were treated with Sorafenib alone or in combination with cytarabine, doxorubicin or RAD001. Cell count, apoptosis and necrosis rates, cell cycle distribution, protein phosphorylation and metabolic activity were determined. Sorafenib inhibited the proliferation of ALL cells by cell cycle arrest accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinD3 and CDK4. Furthermore, Sorafenib initiated apoptosis by cleavage of caspases 3, 7 and PARP. Apoptosis and necrosis rates increased significantly with most pronounced effects after 96 h. Antiproliferative effects of Sorafenib were associated with a decreased phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 and Thr308), FoxO3A (Thr32) and 4EBP-1 (Ser65 and Thr70) as early as 0.5 h after treatment. Synergistic effects were seen when Sorafenib was combined with other cytotoxic drugs or a mTOR inhibitor emphasizing the Sorafenib effect. Sorafenib displays significant antileukemic activity in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, it influences PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in ALL cells

  20. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken; Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development

  1. Inhibition of PTEN and activation of Akt by menadione

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Kyoko; Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Tsukamoto, Mariko; Tamura, Namiko; Hazeki, Kaoru; Hazeki, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    Menadione (vitamin K3) has been shown to activate Erk in several cell lines. This effect has been shown to be due to the activation of EGF receptors (EGFR) as a result of inhibition of some protein tyrosine phosphatases. In the present study, we examined the effects of menadione on Akt in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The phosphorylation of Akt by menadione was not inhibited by AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR. Menadione inhibited the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN in a cell-free system. In an...

  2. Targeting the AKT/GSK3β/Cyclin D1/Cdk4 Survival Signaling Pathway for Eradication of Tumor Radioresistance Acquired by Fractionated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kakuda, Satoshi; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Takai, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radioresistance is a major cause of treatment failure of radiotherapy (RT) in human cancer. We have recently revealed that acquired radioresistance of tumor cells induced by fractionated radiation is attributable to cyclin D1 overexpression as a consequence of the downregulation of GSK3β-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis mediated by a constitutively activated serine-threonine kinase, AKT. This prompted us to hypothesize that targeting the AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1 pathway may improve fractionated RT by suppressing acquired radioresistance of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Two human tumor cell lines with acquired radioresistance were exposed to X-rays after incubation with either an AKT inhibitor, AKT/PKB signaling inhibitor-2 (API-2), or a Cdk4 inhibitor (Cdk4-I). Cells were then subjected to immunoblotting, clonogenic survival assay, cell growth analysis, and cell death analysis with TUNEL and annexin V staining. In vivo radiosensitivity was assessed by growth of human tumors xenografted into nude mice. Results: Treatment with API-2 resulted in downregulation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with acquired radioresistance. Cellular radioresistance disappeared completely both in vitro and in vivo with accompanying apoptosis when treated with API-2. Furthermore, inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 by Cdk4-I was sufficient for abolishing radioresistance. Treatment with either API-2 or Cdk4-I was also effective in suppressing resistance to cis-platinum (II)-diamine-dichloride in the cells with acquired radioresistance. Interestingly, the radiosensitizing effect of API-2 was canceled by overexpression of cyclin D1 whereas Cdk4-I was still able to sensitize cells with cyclin D1 overexpression. Conclusion: Cyclin D1/Cdk4 is a critical target of the AKT survival signaling pathway responsible for tumor radioresistance. Targeting the AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway would provide a novel approach to improve fractionated RT and would have an impact on tumor eradication in

  3. A phase 1 study evaluating the combination of an allosteric AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudis, Clifford; Swanton, Charles; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Lee, Ray; Sutherland, Stephanie; Lehman, Robert; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Hamilton, Nicola; Gajria, Devika; Knowles, James; Shah, Jigna; Shannon, Keith; Tetteh, Ernestina; Sullivan, Daniel M; Moreno, Carolina; Yan, Li; Han, Hyo Sook

    2013-11-19

    Trastuzumab is effective in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-over-expressing breast and gastric cancers. However, patients may develop resistance through downstream signaling via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. This phase 1 trial was conducted to determine the safety and tolerability of the investigational AKT inhibitor MK-2206, to prepare for future studies to determine whether the combination with trastuzumab could inhibit compensatory signaling. Patients with HER2+ treatment-refractory breast and gastroesophageal cancer were enrolled. Treatment consisted of standard doses of intravenous trastuzumab and escalating dose levels of oral MK-2206 using either an every-other-day (45 mg and 60 mg QOD) or once-weekly (135 mg and 200 mg QW) schedule. A total of 34 patients with HER2+ disease were enrolled; 31 received study-drug. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for MK-2206 in combination with trastuzumab was 60 mg for the QOD schedule and 135 mg for the QW schedule, although a true MTD was not established due to early termination of the trial. The most common treatment-emergent toxicities included fatigue, hyperglycemia, and dermatologic rash, consistent with prior experience; one death unrelated to treatment was reported. There was one complete response in a patient with metastatic breast cancer, one patient achieved a partial response, and 5 patients had stable disease for at least 4 months, despite progression on multiple prior trastuzumab- and lapatinib-based therapies. Results also indicate that trastuzumab does not affect the pharmacokinetics of MK-2206. Results suggest the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 can be safely combined with trastuzumab, and is associated with clinical activity, supporting further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier: NCT00963547.

  4. Lasiodin inhibits proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by simultaneous modulation of the Apaf-1/caspase, AKT/MAPK and COX-2/NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianzhu Lin

    Full Text Available Rabdosia serra has been widely used for the treatment of the various human diseases. However, the antiproliferative effects and underlying mechanisms of the compounds in this herb remain largely unknown. In this study, an antiproliferative compound against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells from Rabdosia serra was purified and identified as lasiodin (a diterpenoid. The treatment with lasiodin inhibited cell viability and migration. Lasiodin also mediated the cell morphology change and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. The treatment with lasiodin induced the Apaf-1 expression, triggered the cytochrome-C release, and stimulated the PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9 cleavages, thereby activating the apoptotic pathways. The treatment with lasiodin also significantly inhibited the phosphorylations of the AKT, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK proteins. The pretreatment with the AKT or MAPK-selective inhibitors considerably blocked the lasiodin-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, the treatment with lasiodin inhibited the COX-2 expression, abrogated NF-κB binding to the COX-2 promoter, and promoted the NF-κB translocation from cell nuclei to cytosol. The pretreatment with a COX-2-selective inhibitor abrogated the lasiodin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. These results indicated that lasiodin simultaneously activated the Apaf-1/caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways and suppressed the AKT/MAPK and COX-2/NF-κB signaling pathways. This study also suggested that lasiodin could be a promising natural compound for the prevention and treatment of NPC.

  5. Cetuximab improves AZD6244 antitumor activity in colorectal cancer HT29 cells in vitro and in nude mice by attenuating HER3/Akt pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Xiao, He; Jin, Feng; Li, Mengxia; Luo, Jia; Wang, Ge

    2018-07-01

    The present study investigated the molecular mechanism by which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor cetuximab enhances the antitumor activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor AZD6244 in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. HT29 cells were treated with AZD6244 plus cetuximab and then subjected to the following assays: Cell Counting kit-8, BrdU-incorporation, flow cytometric cell cycle distribution and apoptosis analysis, western blot analysis, and nude mouse xenografts. The combination of AZD6244 and cetuximab significantly reduced HT29 cell viability and proliferation compared with AZD6244 alone. The combination treatment reduced the IC 50 value from 108.12±10.05 to 28.45±1.92 nM. AZD6244 and cetuximab also induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and reduced S phase (88.53% vs. 93.39%, P=0.080; 8.73% vs. 4.24%, P=0.082, respectively). Combination of AZD6244 with cetuximab significantly induced tumor cells apoptosis (14.61% vs. 8.99%, P=0.046). Inhibition of EGFR activity using cetuximab partially abrogated the feedback-activation of phosphorylated receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erB-3 (p-HER3) and p-AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT), as well as prevented reactivation of p-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) conferred by AZD6244 treatment. Combination of AZD6244 and cetuximab also inhibited HT29 cell xenograft growth in nude mice and suppressed HER3 and p-AKT levels in xenografts. The EGFR inhibitor cetuximab enhanced the antitumor activity of the MEK inhibitor AZD6244 in colorectal cells in vitro and in vivo . Co-inhibition of MEK and EGFR may be a promising treatment strategy in colorectal cancers.

  6. TIS21/(BTG2) negatively regulates estradiol-stimulated expansion of hematopoietic stem cells by derepressing Akt phosphorylation and inhibiting mTOR signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Cho; Ryu, Min Sook; Oh, S Paul; Lim, In Kyoung

    2008-09-01

    It has been known that 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-inducible sequence 21 (TIS21), ortholog of human B-cell translocation gene 2, regulates expansions of stage-specific thymocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In the present study, lineage-negative (Lin(-))/stem cell antigen-1-positive (Sca-1+)/c-Kit+ (LSK) cell content was significantly elevated in bone marrow (BM) of TIS21-knockout (TIS21(-/-)) female mice, suggesting 17beta-estradiol (E(2))-regulated progenitor expansion. E(2) induced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from TIS21(-/-) mice, but not wild type (WT). In contrast to WT, E(2) failed to activate protein kinase B (Akt) in the TIS21(-/-) MEFs, independent of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) activation. Despite attenuation of Akt activation, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was constitutively activated in the TIS21(-/-) MEFs. Furthermore, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 inhibitor or knockdown of Erk1 could restore activation of Akt and downregulate mTOR. Immunoprecipitation showed Akt preferentially bound to phosphorylated Erk1/2 (p-Erk1/2) in TIS21(-/-) cells, but reconstitution of TIS21 inhibited their interaction. E(2)-injected TIS21(-/-) male mice also increased LSK cells in BM. Taken together, expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in TIS21(-/-) female mice might be through inhibition of Akt activation, and constitutive activation of mTOR via preferential binding of TIS21 to E(2)-induced p-Erk1/2, compared with that of Akt. Our results suggest that TIS21 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the hematopoietic stem cell compartment and hematopoiesis.

  7. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

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    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  8. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

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    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  9. Ran is a potential therapeutic target for cancer cells with molecular changes associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 and Ras/MEK/ERK pathways

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    Yuen, Hiu-Fung; Chan, Ka-Kui; Grills, Claire; Murray, James T.; Platt-Higgins, Angela; Eldin, Osama Sharaf; O’Byrne, Ken; Janne, Pasi; Fennell, Dean A.; Johnston, Patrick G.; Rudland, Philip S.; El-Tanani, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Cancer cells have been shown to be more susceptible to Ran knockdown compared to normal cells. We now investigate whether Ran is a potential therapeutic target of cancers with frequently found mutations that lead to higher Ras/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 activities. Experimental Design Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry (PI and Annexin V staining) and MTT assay in cancer cells grown under different conditions after knockdown of Ran.. The correlations between Ran expression and patient survival were examined in breast and lung cancers. Results Cancer cells with their PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 and Ras/MEK/ERK pathways inhibited are less susceptible to Ran silencing-induced apoptosis. KRas mutated, c-Met amplified and Pten-deleted cancer cells are also more susceptible to Ran silencing-induced apoptosis than their wild-type counterparts and this effect is reduced by inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 and MEK/ERK pathways. Overexpression of Ran in clinical specimens is significantly associated with poor patient outcome in both breast and lung cancers. This association is dramatically enhanced in cancers with increased c-Met or osteopontin expression, or with oncogenic mutations of KRas or PIK3CA, all of which are mutations that potentially correlate with activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 and/or Ras/MEK/ERK pathways. Silencing Ran also results in dysregulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport of transcription factors and downregulation of Mcl-1 expression, at the transcriptional level, which are reversed by inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 and MEK/ERK pathways. Conclusion Ran is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of cancers with mutations/changes of expression in protooncogenes that lead to activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 and Ras/MEK/ERK pathways. PMID:22090358

  10. Andrographolide inhibits growth of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and upregulation of p38 MAPK pathways

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    Yang, Tingfang; Yao, Shuluan; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a prevalent hematologic malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide in children. Andrographolide (Andro), the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to possess antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. However, whether Andro would inhibit T-ALL cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of Andro on human T-ALL Jurkat cells and explored the mechanisms of cell death. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry, and the signaling transduction for Andro was analyzed by Western blotting. The results indicated 10 μg/mL Andro could significantly induce Jurkat cells’ apoptosis, depending on the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, Andro-induced apoptosis is enhanced by AKT-selective inhibitor LY294002. ERK- or JNK-selective inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on Andro-induced apoptosis. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 could reverse Andro-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We also found that the protein expression of p-p53 and p-p38 were increased after Andro treatments. The result of an in vivo study also demonstrated Andro’s dose-dependent inhibition in subcutaneous Jurkat xenografts. In conclusion, our findings explained a novel mechanism of drug action by Andro in Jurkat cells and suggested that Andro might be developed into a new candidate therapy for T-ALL patients in the coming days. PMID:27114702

  11. Estrogen Receptor Signaling and the PI3K/Akt Pathway Are Involved in Betulinic Acid-Induced eNOS Activation

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    Nicolas Hohmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid (BA is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid with anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-cancer properties. Beneficial cardiovascular effects such as increased nitric oxide (NO production through enhancement of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS activity and upregulation of eNOS expression have been demonstrated for this compound. In the present study, immortalized human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells were incubated for up to 1 h with 1–100 µM BA and with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, or the estrogen receptor (ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Phosphorylation status of eNOS and total eNOS protein were analyzed by Western blotting using a serine 1177 phosphosite-specific antibody. Bioactive NO production was assessed by determination of cGMP content in rat lung fibroblasts (RFL-6 reporter cells. Short-term incubation of EA.hy 926 cells with BA resulted in eNOS phosphorylation at the serine 1177 residue in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.57 µM. This was associated with an enhanced production of NO. BA-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production was completely blocked by pretreatment with ICI 182,780, and was attenuated by pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. These results indicate that fast non-genomic effects of ER with downstream signaling through the PI3K/Akt pathway and consecutive eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 are involved in BA-induced eNOS activation.

  12. PKD1 mediates negative feedback of PI3K/Akt activation in response to G protein-coupled receptors.

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    Yang Ni

    Full Text Available We examined whether protein kinase D1 (PKD1 mediates negative feeback of PI3K/Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR agonists. Exposure of intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells to increasing concentrations of the PKD family inhibitor kb NB 142-70, at concentrations that inhibited PKD1 activation, strikingly potentiated Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308 and Ser(473 in response to the mitogenic GPCR agonist angiotensin II (ANG II. Enhancement of Akt activation by kb NB 142-70 was also evident in cells with other GPCR agonists, including vasopressin and lysophosphatidic acid. Cell treatment with the structurally unrelated PKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 increased Akt phosphorylation as potently as kb NB 142-70 [corrected]. Knockdown of PKD1 with two different siRNAs strikingly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in response to ANG II stimulation in IEC-18 cells. To determine whether treatment with kb NB 142-70 enhances accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3 in the plasma membrane, we monitored the redistribution of Akt-pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein (Akt-PH-GFP in single IEC-18 cells. Exposure to kb NB 142-70 strikingly increased membrane accumulation of Akt-PH-GFP in response to ANG II. The translocation of the PIP3 sensor to the plasma membrane and the phosphorylation of Akt was completed prevented by prior exposure to the class I p110α specific inhibitor A66. ANG II markedly increased the phosphorylation of p85α detected by a PKD motif-specific antibody and enhanced the association of p85α with PTEN. Transgenic mice overexpressing PKD1 showed a reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473 in intestinal epithelial cells compared to wild type littermates. Collectively these results indicate that PKD1 activation mediates feedback inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo.

  13. [6]-Shogaol Inhibits α-MSH-Induced Melanogenesis through the Acceleration of ERK and PI3K/Akt-Mediated MITF Degradation

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    Huey-Chun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [6]-Shogaol is the main biologically active component of ginger. Previous reports showed that [6]-shogaol has several pharmacological characteristics, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, the effects of [6]-shogaol on melanogenesis remain to be elucidated. The study aimed to evaluate the potential skin whitening mechanisms of [6]-shogaol. The effects of [6]-shogaol on cell viability, melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and the expression of the tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF were measured. The results revealed that [6]-shogaol effectively suppresses tyrosinase activity and the amount of melanin and that those effects are more pronounced than those of arbutin. It was also found that [6]-shogaol decreased the protein expression levels of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1 and microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (MITF. In addition, the MITF mRNA levels were also effectively decreased in the presence of 20 μM [6]-shogaol. The degradation of MITF protein was inhibited by the MEK 1-inhibitor (U0126 or phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor (PI3K inhibitor (LY294002. Further immunofluorescence staining assay implied the involvement of the proteasome in the downregulation of MITF by [6]-shogaol. Our confocal assay results also confirmed that [6]-shogaol inhibited α-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (α-MSH- induced melanogenesis through the acceleration of extracellular responsive kinase (ERK and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase- (PI3K/Akt- mediated MITF degradation.

  14. Regulation of miR-21 expression in human melanoma via UV-ray-induced melanin pigmentation.

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    Lin, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Chien-Min; Lu, Cheng-You; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Yu-Hsin

    2017-08-01

    Excessive environmental ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces genetic mutations that can lead to skin cancer. This study was designed to assess the potential inhibitory activity of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on the UV irradiation-stimulated melanogenesis signal pathway in melanoma cells. The molecular mechanism of miR-21-induced inhibitory activity on UV-ray-stimulated melanogenesis-regulating proteins was examined in A375.S2 human melanoma and B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. UV irradiation for 30 min induced melanogenesis signal pathway by increasing melanin production and the number of A375.S2 cells. Similarly, UV radiation increased the expression of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) protein and decreased the melanogenesis-regulating signal, such as EGFR and Akt phosphorylation. Notably, miR-21 overexpression in UV-ray-stimulated A375.S2 cells decreased α-MSH expression and increased EGFR and Akt phosphorylation levels. Furthermore, miR-21 on UV-ray- induced melanogenesis was down-regulated by the Akt inhibitor and the EGFR inhibitor (Gefitinib). Results suggest that the suppressive activity of miR-21 on UV-ray-stimulated melanogenesis may involve the down-regulation of α-MSH and the activation in both of EGFR and Akt. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Anti-apoptotic effect of heat shock protein 90 on hypoxia-mediated cardiomyocyte damage is mediated via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

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    Wang, Wei; Peng, Yizhi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yuan, Zhiqiang

    2009-09-01

    1. Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes significantly to cardiac dysfunction following trauma, shock and burn injury. There is evidence that heat shock protein (HSP) 90 is anti-apoptotic in cardiomyocytes subjected to a variety of apoptotic stimuli. Because HSP90 acts as an upstream regulator of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt survival pathway during cellular stress, we hypothesized that HSP90 exerts a cardioprotective effect via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway. 2. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to normoxia or hypoxia in the absence or presence of the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (1 μg/mL). Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was assessed by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) staining and caspase 3 activity. Expression of HSP90, Akt, Bad and cytochrome c release was determined by western blot analysis. 3. Following exposure of cells to hypoxia, HSP90 was markedly elevated in a time-dependent manner, reaching a peak at 6 h (eightfold increase). Geldanamycin significantly increased hypoxia-induced release of LDH by 114%, the percentage of apoptotic cardiomyocytes by 102% and caspase 3 activity by 78%. Pretreatment of cells with geldanamycin also suppressed phosphorylation of both Akt and its downstream target Bad, but promoted the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. 4. In conclusion, HSP90 activity is enhanced in cardiomyocytes following hypoxic insult. The anti-apoptotic effect of HSP90 on cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia is mediated, at least in part, by the PI3-K/Akt pathway. Key words: apoptosis, cardiomyocyte, heart failure, heat shock protein 90, hypoxia, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signalling pathway, serine/threonine protein kinase Akt.

  16. Cellular stress-induced up-regulation of FMRP promotes cell survival by modulating PI3K-Akt phosphorylation cascades

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    Wells David

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the most commonly inherited mental retardation and single gene cause of autistic spectrum disorder, occurs when the Fmr1 gene is mutated. The product of Fmr1, fragile X linked mental retardation protein (FMRP is widely expressed in HeLa cells, however the roles of FMRP within HeLa cells were not elucidated, yet. Interacting with a diverse range of mRNAs related to cellular survival regulatory signals, understanding the functions of FMRP in cellular context would provide better insights into the role of this interesting protein in FXS. Using HeLa cells treated with etoposide as a model, we tried to determine whether FMRP could play a role in cell survival. Methods Apoptotic cell death was induced by etoposide treatment on Hela cells. After we transiently modulated FMRP expression (silencing or enhancing by using molecular biotechnological methods such as small hairpin RNA virus-induced knock down and overexpression using transfection with FMRP expression vectors, cellular viability was measured using propidium iodide staining, TUNEL staining, and FACS analysis along with the level of activation of PI3K-Akt pathway by Western blot. Expression level of FMRP and apoptotic regulator BcL-xL was analyzed by Western blot, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Results An increased FMRP expression was measured in etoposide-treated HeLa cells, which was induced by PI3K-Akt activation. Without FMRP expression, cellular defence mechanism via PI3K-Akt-Bcl-xL was weakened and resulted in an augmented cell death by etoposide. In addition, FMRP over-expression lead to the activation of PI3K-Akt signalling pathway as well as increased FMRP and BcL-xL expression, which culminates with the increased cell survival in etoposide-treated HeLa cells. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that FMRP expression is an essential part of cellular survival mechanisms through the modulation of PI3K, Akt, and Bcl-xL signal

  17. Inhibition of Autophagy via Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway Contributes to the Protection of Ginsenoside Rb1 against Neuronal Death Caused by Ischemic Insults

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    Tianfei Luo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lethal autophagy is a pathway leading to neuronal death caused by transient global ischemia. In this study, we examined the effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1 on ischemia/reperfusion-induced autophagic neuronal death and investigated the role of PI3K/Akt. Ischemic neuronal death in vitro was induced by using oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD in SH-SY5Y cells, and transient global ischemia was produced by using two vessels occlusion in rats. Cellular viability of SH-SY5Y cells was assessed by MTT assay, and CA1 neuronal death was evaluated by Hematoxylin-eosin staining. Autophagic vacuoles were detected by using both fluorescent microscopy in combination with acridine orange (AO and Monodansylcadaverine (MDC staining and transmission electronic microscopy. Protein levels of LC3II, Beclin1, total Akt and phosphor-Akt at Ser473 were examined by western blotting analysis. GRb1 inhibited both OGD and transient ischemia-induced neuronal death and mitigated OGD-induced autophagic vacuoles in SH-SY5Y cells. By contrast, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 counteracted the protection of GRb1 against neuronal death caused by either OGD or transient ischemia. LY294002 not only mitigated the up-regulated protein level of phosphor Akt at Ser473 caused by GRb1, but also reversed the inhibitory effect of GRb1 on OGD and transient ischemia-induced elevation in protein levels of LC3II and Beclin1.

  18. Fascaplysin Sensitizes Anti-Cancer Effects of Drugs Targeting AKT and AMPK

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    Taek-In Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascaplysin, a natural product isolated from marine sponges, is a potential candidate for the development of anti-cancer drugs. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect of strengthening anti-cancer efficacy of other drugs is poorly understood. Here, we found that fascaplysin increases phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as AKT, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, which are considered therapeutic targets for cancer treatment due to their anti-apoptotic or pro-survival functions in cancer. A cell viability assay revealed that pharmacological suppression of AKT using LY294002 enhanced the anti-cancer effect of fascaplysin in various cancer cells. Similarly, fascaplysin was observed to have improved anti-cancer effects in combination with compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor. Another challenge showed that fascaplysin increased the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX-mediated cancer therapy by suppressing genes related to folate and purine metabolism. Overall, these results suggest that fascaplysin may be useful for improving the anti-cancer efficacy of targeted anti-cancer drugs, such as inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase AKT signaling, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as MTX.

  19. Aldose reductase inhibition prevents allergic airway remodeling through PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway in mice.

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    Umesh C S Yadav

    Full Text Available Long-term and unresolved airway inflammation and airway remodeling, characteristic features of chronic asthma, if not treated could lead to permanent structural changes in the airways. Aldose reductase (AR, an aldo-sugar and lipid aldehyde metabolizing enzyme, mediates allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice, but its role in the airway remodeling is not known. In the present study, we have examined the role of AR on airway remodeling using ovalbumin (OVA-induced chronic asthma mouse model and cultured human primary airway epithelial cells (SAECs and mouse lung fibroblasts (mLFs.Airway remodeling in chronic asthma model was established in mice sensitized and challenged twice a week with OVA for 6 weeks. AR inhibitor, fidarestat, was administered orally in drinking water after first challenge. Inflammatory cells infiltration in the lungs and goblet cell metaplasia, airway thickening, collagen deposition and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR in response to increasing doses of methacholine were assessed. The TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in SAECs and changes in mLFs were examined to investigate AR-mediated molecular mechanism(s of airway remodeling.In the OVA-exposed mice for 6 wks inflammatory cells infiltration, levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, goblet cell metaplasia, collagen deposition and AHR were significantly decreased by treatment with AR inhibitor, fidarestat. Further, inhibition of AR prevented TGFβ1-induced altered expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, Occludin, and MMP-2 in SAECs, and alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in mLFs. Further, in SAECs, AR inhibition prevented TGFβ1- induced activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway but not the phosphorylation of Smad2/3.Our results demonstrate that allergen-induced airway remodeling is mediated by AR and its inhibition blocks the progression of remodeling via inhibiting TGFβ1-induced Smad-independent and PI3K/AKT/GSK3β-dependent pathway.

  20. Inactivation of EGFR/AKT signaling enhances TSA-induced ovarian cancer cell differentiation.

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    Shao, Genbao; Lai, Wensheng; Wan, Xiaolei; Xue, Jing; Wei, Ye; Jin, Jie; Zhang, Liuping; Lin, Qiong; Shao, Qixiang; Zou, Shengqiang

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian tumor is one of the most lethal gynecologic cancers, but differentiation therapy for this cancer is poorly characterized. Here, we show that thrichostatin A (TSA), the well known inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), can induce cell differentiation in HO8910 ovarian cancer cells. TSA-induced cell differentiation is characterized by typical morphological change, increased expression of the differentiation marker FOXA2, decreased expression of the pluripotency markers SOX2 and OCT4, suppressing cell proliferation, and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. TSA also induces an elevated expression of cell cycle inhibitory protein p21Cip1 along with a decrease in cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1. Significantly, blockage of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway with specific inhibitors of this signaling cascade promotes the TSA-induced differentiation of HO8910 cells. These results imply that the EGFR cascade inhibitors in combination with TSA may represent a promising differentiation therapy strategy for ovarian cancer.

  1. Mesothelin confers pancreatic cancer cell resistance to TNF-α-induced apoptosis through Akt/PI3K/NF-κB activation and IL-6/Mcl-1 overexpression

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    Li Min

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that mesothelin (MSLN plays important roles in survival of pancreatic cancer (PC cells under anchorage dependent/independent conditions as well as resistance to chemotherapy. The recent success of intratumorally-injected adeno-encoded, chemo/radiation-inducible-promoter driven hTNF-α, (TNFerade + gemcitabine in pre-clinical models of PC have renewed interest in use of TNF-α as a therapeutic component. To help find additional factors which might affect the therapy, we examined the resistance of MSLN-overexpressing pancreatic cancer cell lines to TNF-α-induced growth inhibition/apoptosis. Methods Stable MSLN overexpressing MIA PaCa-2 cells (MIA-MSLN, stable MSLN-silenced AsPC-1 cells (AsPC-shMSLN and other pancreatic cells (MIA-PaCa2, Panc 28, Capan-1, BxPC3, PL 45, Hs 766T, AsPC-1, Capan-2, Panc 48 were used. NF-κB activation was examined by western blots and luciferase reporter assay. TNF-α induced growth inhibition/apoptosis was measured by MTT, TUNEL assay and caspase activation. IL-6 was measured using luminex based assay. Results Compared to low endogenous MSLN-expressing MIA PaCa-2 and Panc 28 cells, high endogenous MSLN-expressing Capan-1, BxPC3, PL 45, Hs 766T, AsPC-1, Capan-2, Panc 48 cells were resistant to TNF-α induced growth inhibition. Stable MSLN overexpressing MIA-PaCa2 cells (MIA-MSLN were resistant to TNF-α-induced apoptosis while stable MSLN-silenced AsPC1 cells (AsPC-shMSLN were sensitive. Interestingly, TNF-α-treated MIA-MSLN cells showed increased cell cycle progression and cyclin A induction, both of which were reversed by caspase inhibition. We further found that MIA-MSLN cells showed increased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Mcl-1; deactivated (p-Ser75 BAD, and activated (p-Ser70 Bcl-2. Constitutively activated NF-κB and Akt were evident in MIA-MSLN cells that could be suppressed by MSLN siRNA with a resultant increase in sensitivity of TNF-α induced apoptosis

  2. Dexamethasone protection from TNF-alpha-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells requires NF-kappaB and is independent from AKT

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    Mejía Salvador

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biochemical bases for hormone dependence in breast cancer have been recognized as an important element in tumor resistance, proliferation and metastasis. On this respect, dexamethasone (Dex dependent protection against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death in the MCF-7 cell line has been demonstrated to be a useful model for the study of this type of cancer. Recently, cytoplasmic signaling induced by steroid receptors has been described, such as the activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways. We evaluated their possible participation in the Dex-dependent protection against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death. Results Cellular cultures of the MCF-7 cell line were exposed to either, TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha and Dex, and cell viability was evaluated. Next, negative dominants of PI3K and IkappaB-alpha, designed to block the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways, respectively, were transfected and selection and evaluation of several clones overexpressing the mutants were examined. Also, correlation with inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs expression was examined. Independent inhibition of these two pathways allowed us to test their participation in Dex-dependent protection against TNF-alpha-cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Expression of the PI3K dominant negative mutant did not alter the protection conferred by Dex against TNF-alpha mediated cell death. Contrariwise, clones expressing the IkappaB-alpha dominant negative mutant lost the Dex-conferred protection against TNF-alpha. In these clones degradation of c-IAP was accelerated, while that of XIAP was remained unaffected. Conclusion NF-kappaB, but not PI3K/Akt activation, is required for the Dex protective effect against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death, and correlates with lack of degradation of the anti-apoptotic protein c-IAP1.

  3. Dexamethasone protection from TNF-alpha-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells requires NF-kappaB and is independent from AKT.

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    Machuca, Catalina; Mendoza-Milla, Criselda; Córdova, Emilio; Mejía, Salvador; Covarrubias, Luis; Ventura, José; Zentella, Alejandro

    2006-02-21

    The biochemical bases for hormone dependence in breast cancer have been recognized as an important element in tumor resistance, proliferation and metastasis. On this respect, dexamethasone (Dex) dependent protection against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death in the MCF-7 cell line has been demonstrated to be a useful model for the study of this type of cancer. Recently, cytoplasmic signaling induced by steroid receptors has been described, such as the activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways. We evaluated their possible participation in the Dex-dependent protection against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death. Cellular cultures of the MCF-7 cell line were exposed to either, TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha and Dex, and cell viability was evaluated. Next, negative dominants of PI3K and IkappaB-alpha, designed to block the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways, respectively, were transfected and selection and evaluation of several clones overexpressing the mutants were examined. Also, correlation with inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) expression was examined. Independent inhibition of these two pathways allowed us to test their participation in Dex-dependent protection against TNF-alpha-cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Expression of the PI3K dominant negative mutant did not alter the protection conferred by Dex against TNF-alpha mediated cell death. Contrariwise, clones expressing the IkappaB-alpha dominant negative mutant lost the Dex-conferred protection against TNF-alpha. In these clones degradation of c-IAP was accelerated, while that of XIAP was remained unaffected. NF-kappaB, but not PI3K/Akt activation, is required for the Dex protective effect against TNF-alpha-mediated cell death, and correlates with lack of degradation of the anti-apoptotic protein c-IAP1.

  4. The significance of PTEN and AKT aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Zuurbier, Linda; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Vuerhard, Maartje J.; Calvert, Valerie; Kooi, Clarissa; Buijs-Gladdines, Jessica G.C.A.M.; Smits, Willem K.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Veerman, Anjo J.P.; Kamps, Willem A.; Horstmann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background PI3K/AKT pathway mutations are found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but their overall impact and associations with other genetic aberrations is unknown. PTEN mutations have been proposed as secondary mutations that follow NOTCH1-activating mutations and cause cellular resistance to γ-secretase inhibitors. Design and Methods The impact of PTEN, PI3K and AKT aberrations was studied in a genetically well-characterized pediatric T-cell leukemia patient cohort (n=146) treated on DCOG or COALL protocols. Results PTEN and AKT E17K aberrations were detected in 13% and 2% of patients, respectively. Defective PTEN-splicing was identified in incidental cases. Patients without PTEN protein but lacking exon-, splice-, promoter mutations or promoter hypermethylation were present. PTEN/AKT mutations were especially abundant in TAL- or LMO-rearranged leukemia but nearly absent in TLX3-rearranged patients (P=0.03), the opposite to that observed for NOTCH1-activating mutations. Most PTEN/AKT mutant patients either lacked NOTCH1-activating mutations (P=0.006) or had weak NOTCH1-activating mutations (P=0.011), and consequently expressed low intracellular NOTCH1, cMYC and MUSASHI levels. T-cell leukemia patients without PTEN/AKT and NOTCH1-activating mutations fared well, with a cumulative incidence of relapse of only 8% versus 35% for PTEN/AKT and/or NOTCH1-activated patients (P=0.005). Conclusions PI3K/AKT pathway aberrations are present in 18% of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Absence of strong NOTCH1-activating mutations in these cases may explain cellular insensitivity to γ-secretase inhibitors. PMID:22491738

  5. Chronic sleep restriction induces changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage of rats: roles of Akt, Bad and Caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wu, Gaoyi; Zhu, Guoxiong; Ma, Chuan; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats that had been subjected to chronic sleep restriction and to investigate whether Akt, Bad and Caspase3 play a role in the mechanism underlying the changes. One hundred and eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 60 in each): cage control group, large-platform control group, and sleep restriction group. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n = 20 in each) of three different time points (7, 14 and 21 days), respectively. The modified multiple platform method was used to induce chronic sleep restriction. The TMJ tissue histology was studied by staining with haematoxylin and eosin. The expression of Akt, p-Aktser473, Bad, p-Badser136 and Caspase3 proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The expression of Akt, Bad and Caspase3 mRNAs was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Compared with the large-platform and cage control groups, condylar cartilage pathological alterations were found in the sleep restriction group. There were significantly decreased expression levels of Akt, p-Aktser473 and p-Badser136 and significantly increased expression levels of Bad and Caspase3 after sleep restriction. These data suggest that sleep restriction may induce pathological alterations in the condylar cartilage of rats. Alterations in Akt, Bad and Caspase3 may be associated with the potential mechanism by which chronic sleep restriction influences the condylar cartilage.

  6. IGF-1 promotes Brn-4 expression and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies indicated that transcription factor Brn-4 is upregulated in the surgically denervated hippocampus in vivo, promoting neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs in vitro. The molecules mediating Brn-4 upregulation in the denervated hippocampus remain unknown. In this study we examined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in hippocampus following denervation. Surgical denervation led to a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in vivo. We also report that IGF-1 treatment on NSCs in vitro led to a marked acceleration of Brn-4 expression and cell differentiation down neuronal pathways. The promotion effects were blocked by PI3K-specific inhibitor (LY294002, but not MAPK inhibitor (PD98059; levels of phospho-Akt were increased by IGF-1 treatment. In addition, inhibition of IGF-1 receptor (AG1024 and mTOR (rapamycin both attenuated the increased expression of Brn-4 induced by IGF-1. Together, the results demonstrated that upregulation of IGF-1 induced by hippocampal denervation injury leads to activation of the PI3