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Sample records for akreos advanced optics

  1. Advances in optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, C.; Ntziachristos, V.; Mahmood, U.; Tung, C.H.; Weissleder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Different optical imaging technologies have significantly progressed over the last years. Besides advances in imaging techniques and image reconstruction, new 'smart' optical contrast agents have been developed which can be used to detect molecular targets (such as endogenous enzymes) in vivo. The combination of novel imaging technologies coupled with smart agents bears great diagnostic potential both clinically and experimentally. This overview outlines the basic principles of optical imaging and summarizes the current state of the art. (orig.) [de

  2. Advances in integrated optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, A; Bertolotti, M

    1994-01-01

    This volwne contains the Proceedings of a two-week summer conference titled "Advances in Integrated Optics" held June 1-9, 1993, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 18th annual course organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The term Integrated Optics signifies guided-wave optical circuits consisting of two or more devices on a single substrate. Since its inception in the late 1960's, Integrated Optics has evolved from a specialized research topic into a broad field of work, ranging from basic research through commercial applications. Today many devices are available on market while a big effort is devolved to research on integrated nonlinear optical devices. This conference was organized to provide a comprehensive survey of the frontiers of this technology, including fundamental concepts, nonlinear optical materials, devices both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and selected applications. These Proceedings update a...

  3. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  4. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  5. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  6. Advances in Retinal Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxiu Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has undergone a revolution in the past 50 years to allow for better understanding of the eye in health and disease. Significant improvements have occurred both in hardware such as lasers and optics in addition to software image analysis. Optical imaging modalities include optical coherence tomography (OCT, OCT angiography (OCTA, photoacoustic microscopy (PAM, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, adaptive optics (AO, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, and molecular imaging (MI. These imaging modalities have enabled improved visualization of retinal pathophysiology and have had a substantial impact on basic and translational medical research. These improvements in technology have translated into early disease detection, more accurate diagnosis, and improved management of numerous chorioretinal diseases. This article summarizes recent advances and applications of retinal optical imaging techniques, discusses current clinical challenges, and predicts future directions in retinal optical imaging.

  7. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  8. Advanced infrared optically black baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.; Egert, C.M.; Allred, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared optically black baffle surfaces are an essential component of many advanced optical systems. All internal surfaces in advanced infrared optical sensors that require stray light management to achieve resolution are of primary concern in baffle design. Current industrial materials need improvements to meet advanced optical sensor systems requirements for optical, survivability, and endurability. Baffles are required to survive and operate in potentially severe environments. Robust diffuse-absorptive black surfaces, which are thermally and mechanically stable to threats of x-ray, launch, and in-flight maneuver conditions, with specific densities to allow an acceptable weight load, handleable during assembly, cleanable, and adaptive to affordable manufacturing, are required as optical baffle materials. In this paper an overview of recently developed advanced infrared optical baffle materials, requirements, manufacturing strategies, and the Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) Advanced Baffle Program are discussed

  9. Advances in magnetic and optical resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    1997-01-01

    Since 1965, Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance has provided researchers with timely expositions of fundamental new developments in the theory of, experimentation with, and application of magnetic and optical resonance.

  10. Advancing High Contrast Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, M.; Poyneer, L.; GPI Team

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing challenge has been to directly image faint extrasolar planets adjacent to their host suns, which may be ~1-10 million times brighter than the planet. Several extreme AO systems designed for high-contrast observations have been tested at this point, including SPHERE, Magellan AO, PALM-3000, Project 1640, NICI, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI, Macintosh et al. 2014). The GPI is the world's most advanced high-contrast adaptive optics system on an 8-meter telescope for detecting and characterizing planets outside of our solar system. GPI will detect a previously unstudied population of young analogs to the giant planets of our solar system and help determine how planetary systems form. GPI employs a 44x44 woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 1 kHz. The controller uses Fourier-based reconstruction and modal gains optimized from system telemetry (Poyneer et al. 2005, 2007). GPI has an apodized Lyot coronal graph to suppress diffraction and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for obtaining planetary spectra. This paper discusses current performance limitations and presents the necessary instrumental modifications and sensitivity calculations for scenarios related to high-contrast observations of non-sidereal targets.

  11. Advanced fabrication of optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hed, P.P.; Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    The fabrication of high-precision optical elements for new generations of high-power lasers requires a deterministic method of generating precision optical surfaces entailing considerably less time, skill, and money than present optical techniques. Such a process would use precision computer-controlled machinery with ongoing in situ metrology to generate precise optical surfaces. The implementation of deterministic processes requires a better understanding of the glass-grinding process, especially the control of ductile material removal. This project is intended to develop the basic knowledge needed to implement a computer-controlled optics-manufacturing methodology

  12. Liquid lens: advances in adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Shawn Patrick

    2010-12-01

    'Liquid lens' technologies promise significant advancements in machine vision and optical communications systems. Adaptations for machine vision, human vision correction, and optical communications are used to exemplify the versatile nature of this technology. Utilization of liquid lens elements allows the cost effective implementation of optical velocity measurement. The project consists of a custom image processor, camera, and interface. The images are passed into customized pattern recognition and optical character recognition algorithms. A single camera would be used for both speed detection and object recognition.

  13. Advances in condensed matter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T.

    2013-01-01

    - and multiple-scattering regimes is derived. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also derived, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images...... are discussed. Finally, the Wigner phase-space distribution function is derived in a closed-form solution, which may have applications in OCT....

  15. Advanced Functionalities for Highly Reliable Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi

    This thesis covers two research topics concerning optical solutions for networks e.g. avionic systems. One is to identify the applications for silicon photonic devices for cost-effective solutions in short-range optical networks. The other one is to realise advanced functionalities in order...... to increase the availability of highly reliable optical networks. A cost-effective transmitter based on a directly modulated laser (DML) using a silicon micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance its modulation speed is proposed, analysed and experimentally demonstrated. A modulation speed enhancement from 10 Gbit...... interconnects and network-on-chips. A novel concept of all-optical protection switching scheme is proposed, where fault detection and protection trigger are all implemented in the optical domain. This scheme can provide ultra-fast establishment of the protection path resulting in a minimum loss of data...

  16. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, established in 1965, continues its tradition of excellence with Volume 32, published in honor of Founding Editor Sir David Bates upon his retirement as editorof the series. This volume presents reviews of topics related to the applications of atomic and molecular physics to atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

  17. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  18. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R; Arimondo, Ennio

    2006-01-01

    Volume 54 of the Advances Series contains ten contributions, covering a diversity of subject areas in atomic, molecular and optical physics. The article by Regal and Jin reviews the properties of a Fermi degenerate gas of cold potassium atoms in the crossover regime between the Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules and the condensation of fermionic atom pairs. The transition between the two regions can be probed by varying an external magnetic field. Sherson, Julsgaard and Polzik explore the manner in which light and atoms can be entangled, with applications to quantum information processing

  19. Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter E; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T; Tycho, Andreas; Joergensen, Thomas M; Frosz, Michael H

    2004-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle valid both for the single and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images is developed; the so-called true-reflection algorithm in which the OCT signal may be corrected for the attenuation caused by scattering. For the first time, the algorithm is demonstrated by using the Monte Carlo model as a numerical tissue phantom. Such algorithm holds promise for improving OCT imagery and to extend the possibility for functional imaging

  20. Advanced applications of scatterometry based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Dhairya; Keller, Nick; Kagalwala, Taher; Recchia, Fiona; Lifshitz, Yevgeny; Elia, Alexander; Todi, Vinit; Fronheiser, Jody; Vaid, Alok

    2017-03-01

    The semiconductor industry continues to drive patterning solutions that enable devices with higher memory storage capacity, faster computing performance, and lower cost per transistor. These developments in the field of semiconductor manufacturing along with the overall minimization of the size of transistors require continuous development of metrology tools used for characterization of these complex 3D device architectures. Optical scatterometry or optical critical dimension (OCD) is one of the most prevalent inline metrology techniques in semiconductor manufacturing because it is a quick, precise and non-destructive metrology technique. However, at present OCD is predominantly used to measure the feature dimensions such as line-width, height, side-wall angle, etc. of the patterned nano structures. Use of optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay, line edge roughness, etc. is fairly limited. Inspection of process induced abnormalities is a fundamental part of process yield improvement. It provides process engineers with important information about process errors, and consequently helps optimize materials and process parameters. Scatterometry is an averaging technique and extending it to measure the position of local process induced defectivity and feature-to-feature variation is extremely challenging. This report is an overview of applications and benefits of using optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay and fin bending for advanced technology nodes beyond 7nm. Currently, the optical scatterometry is based on conventional spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectroscopic reflectometry measurements, but generalized ellipsometry or Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry data provides important, additional information about complex structures that exhibit anisotropy and depolarization effects. In addition the symmetry-antisymmetry properties associated with Mueller matrix (MM) elements

  1. Advanced Optical Technologies for Defense Trauma and Critical Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berns, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    ...: High Resolution F-OCT and MPM/SHG Imaging of the Oral-Nasal Cavity Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy in Critical Patient Medicine, Optical Therapeutics in Cartilage for the Treatment of Traumatic Injuries and Degenerative Disease, Advanced Optical Technologies for Orthopedic Applications.

  2. Advanced Optical Signal Processing using Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent progress on time lens based advanced optical signal processing is presented, with a special focus on all-optical ultrafast 640 Gbit/s all-channel serial-to-parallel conversion, and scalable WDM regeneration....

  3. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  4. Digital polarization holography advancing geometrical phase optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Luciano; Roberts, David E; Liao, Zhi; Nersisyan, Sarik; Uskova, Olena; Wickboldt, Lloyd; Tabiryan, Nelson; Steeves, Diane M; Kimball, Brian R

    2016-08-08

    Geometrical phase or the fourth generation (4G) optics enables realization of optical components (lenses, prisms, gratings, spiral phase plates, etc.) by patterning the optical axis orientation in the plane of thin anisotropic films. Such components exhibit near 100% diffraction efficiency over a broadband of wavelengths. The films are obtained by coating liquid crystalline (LC) materials over substrates with patterned alignment conditions. Photo-anisotropic materials are used for producing desired alignment conditions at the substrate surface. We present and discuss here an opportunity of producing the widest variety of "free-form" 4G optical components with arbitrary spatial patterns of the optical anisotropy axis orientation with the aid of a digital spatial light polarization converter (DSLPC). The DSLPC is based on a reflective, high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) combined with an "ad hoc" optical setup. The most attractive feature of the use of a DSLPC for photoalignment of nanometer thin photo-anisotropic coatings is that the orientation of the alignment layer, and therefore of the fabricated LC or LC polymer (LCP) components can be specified on a pixel-by-pixel basis with high spatial resolution. By varying the optical magnification or de-magnification the spatial resolution of the photoaligned layer can be adjusted to an optimum for each application. With a simple "click" it is possible to record different optical components as well as arbitrary patterns ranging from lenses to invisible labels and other transparent labels that reveal different images depending on the side from which they are viewed.

  5. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  6. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-09-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  7. Advanced Optoelectronic Components for All-Optical Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H

    2002-01-01

    Under APOSR Grant F49620-96-1-0126, 'Advanced Optoelectronic Components for All-Optical Networks', we have worked to develop key technologies and components to substantially improve the performance...

  8. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  9. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching.......Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  10. Advances on geometric flux optical design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Botella, Ángel; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Álvarez; Vázquez, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Nonimaging optics is focused on the study of methods to design concentrators or illuminators systems. It can be included in the area of photometry and radiometry and it is governed by the laws of geometrical optics. The field vector method, which starts with the definition of the irradiance vector E, is one of the techniques used in nonimaging optics. Called "Geometrical flux vector" it has provide ideal designs. The main property of this model is, its ability to estimate how radiant energy is transferred by the optical system, from the concepts of field line, flux tube and pseudopotential surface, overcoming traditional raytrace methods. Nevertheless this model has been developed only at an academic level, where characteristic optical parameters are ideal not real and the studied geometries are simple. The main objective of the present paper is the application of the vector field method to the analysis and design of real concentration and illumination systems. We propose the development of a calculation tool for optical simulations by vector field, using algorithms based on Fermat`s principle, as an alternative to traditional tools for optical simulations by raytrace, based on reflection and refraction law. This new tool provides, first, traditional simulations results: efficiency, illuminance/irradiance calculations, angular distribution of light- with lower computation time, photometrical information needs about a few tens of field lines, in comparison with million rays needed nowadays. On the other hand the tool will provides new information as vector field maps produced by the system, composed by field lines and quasipotential surfaces. We show our first results with the vector field simulation tool.

  11. Advanced Secure Optical Image Processing for Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falou, Ayman

    2018-04-01

    New image processing tools and data-processing network systems have considerably increased the volume of transmitted information such as 2D and 3D images with high resolution. Thus, more complex networks and long processing times become necessary, and high image quality and transmission speeds are requested for an increasing number of applications. To satisfy these two requests, several either numerical or optical solutions were offered separately. This book explores both alternatives and describes research works that are converging towards optical/numerical hybrid solutions for high volume signal and image processing and transmission. Without being limited to hybrid approaches, the latter are particularly investigated in this book in the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Additionally, pure numerical or optical solutions are also considered since they emphasize the advantages of one of the two approaches separately.

  12. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrymgeour, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boye, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adelsberger, Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  13. Advanced lightweight optics development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbro, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A considerable amount of effort over the past year has been devoted to exploring ultra-lightweight optics for two specific NASA programs, the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the High Throughput X-ray Spectrometer (HTXS). Experimental investigations have been undertaken in a variety of materials including glass, composites, nickel, beryllium, Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (CSiC), Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide, Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide, and Silicon. Overall results of these investigations will be summarized, and specific details will be provided concerning the in-house development of ultra-lightweight nickel replication for both grazing incidence and normal incidence optics. This will include x-ray test results of the grazing incidence optic and cryogenic test results of the normal incidence optic. The status of two 1.5 meter diameter demonstration mirrors for NGST will also be presented. These two demonstrations are aimed at establishing the capability to manufacture and test mirrors that have an areal density of 15 kilograms per square meter. Efforts in thin membrane mirrors and Fresnel lenses will also be briefly discussed

  14. Advanced Optical Processing of Microwave Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel V. Andrés

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a review on the recent approaches proposed to implement transversal RF filters. Different tunable transversal filters consisting of wavelength tunable optical taps and those employing the tunability of dispersive devices are presented showing their high-performance characteristics. A comprehensive review of the fundamentals and a discussion on the main limitation of these structures are also included.

  15. Optics for Advanced Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, David E.; Khaykovich, Boris

    2016-01-01

    During the report period, we continued the work as outlined in the original proposal. We have analyzed potential optical designs of Wolter mirrors for the neutron-imaging instrument VENUS, which is under construction at SNS. In parallel, we have conducted the initial polarized imaging experiment at Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, one of very few of currently available polarized-imaging facilities worldwide.

  16. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics.

  17. Advanced optical components for next-generation photonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S. J. B.

    2003-08-01

    Future networks will require very high throughput, carrying dominantly data-centric traffic. The role of Photonic Networks employing all-optical systems will become increasingly important in providing scalable bandwidth, agile reconfigurability, and low-power consumptions in the future. In particular, the self-similar nature of data traffic indicates that packet switching and burst switching will be beneficial in the Next Generation Photonic Networks. While the natural conclusion is to pursue Photonic Packet Switching and Photonic Burst Switching systems, there are significant challenges in realizing such a system due to practical limitations in optical component technologies. Lack of a viable all-optical memory technology will continue to drive us towards exploring rapid reconfigurability in the wavelength domain. We will introduce and discuss the advanced optical component technologies behind the Photonic Packet Routing system designed and demonstrated at UC Davis. The system is capable of packet switching and burst switching, as well as circuit switching with 600 psec switching speed and scalability to 42 petabit/sec aggregated switching capacity. By utilizing a combination of rapidly tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency (ULCF) arrayed waveguide grating router (AWGR), the system is capable of rapidly switching the packets in wavelength, time, and space domains. The label swapping module inside the Photonic Packet Routing system containing a Mach-Zehnder wavelength converter and a narrow-band fiber Bragg-grating achieves all-optical label swapping with optical 2R (potentially 3R) regeneration while maintaining optical transparency for the data payload. By utilizing the advanced optical component technologies, the Photonic Packet Routing system successfully demonstrated error-free, cascaded, multi-hop photonic packet switching and routing with optical-label swapping. This paper will review the advanced optical component technologies

  18. Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Thrane, L.; Yura, H.T.

    2004-01-01

    and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally...... tissue phantom. Such algorithm holds promise for improving OCT imagery and to extend the possibility for functional imaging....

  19. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    2001-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material and detailed descriptions of important recent developments.

  20. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material as well as detailed descriptions of important recent developments.

  1. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    2000-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material and detailed descriptions of important recent developments.

  2. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material and detailed descriptions of important recent developments.

  3. ADVANCED OPTICAL TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, L.; Mascaro, A. L. Allegra; Lotti, J.; Sacconi, L.; Pavone, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding brain structure and function, and the complex relationships between them, is one of the grand challenges of contemporary sciences. Thanks to their flexibility, optical techniques could be the key to explore this complex network. In this manuscript, we briefly review recent advancements in optical methods applied to three main issues: anatomy, plasticity and functionality. We describe novel implementations of light-sheet microscopy to resolve neuronal anatomy in whole fixed brain...

  4. Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology" project will investigate newly developed optic gas sensors delivered from a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort. A ventilation test rig will be designed and fabricated to test the sensors while integrated with a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA). Once the sensors are integrated, a series of test points will be completed to verify that the sensors can withstand Advanced Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) environments and associated human metabolic profiles for changes in pressure and levels of Oxygen (ppO2), carbon dioxide (ppCO2), and humidity (ppH2O).

  5. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts who are active in their research fields. The articles contain both relevant review material and detailed descriptions of important recent developments. · Reviews timely fields of atomic physics · Articles written by world leaders in those fields · In depth review of the subject with relevant literature · Suitable for researchers in other fields · Only book series of this kind.

  6. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1991-02-01

    Fiber optic technology is expected to be used in future advanced weapons platforms as well as commercial aerospace applications. Fiber optic waveguides will be used to transmit noise free high speed data between a multitude of computers as well as audio and video information to the flight crew. Passive optical sensors connected to control computers with optical fiber interconnects will serve both control and monitoring functions. Implementation of fiber optic technology has already begun. Both the military and NASA have several programs in place. A cooperative program called FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) between NASA Lewis and the NAVY to build environmentally test and flight demonstrate sensor systems for propul sion and flight control systems is currently underway. Integrated Optical Circuits (IOC''s) are also being given serious consideration for use in advanced aircraft sys tems. IOC''s will result in miniaturization and localization of components to gener ate detect optical signals and process them for use by the control computers. In some complex systems IOC''s may be required to perform calculations optically if the technology is ready replacing some of the electronic systems used today. IOC''s are attractive because they will result in rugged components capable of withstanding severe environments in advanced aerospace vehicles. Manufacturing technology devel oped for microelectronic integrated circuits applied to IOC''s will result in cost effective manufacturing. This paper reviews the current FOCSI program and describes the role of IOC''s in FOCSI applications.

  7. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company – a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon

  8. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  9. Optical spatial solitons: historical overview and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Segev, Mordechai; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2012-08-01

    Solitons, nonlinear self-trapped wavepackets, have been extensively studied in many and diverse branches of physics such as optics, plasmas, condensed matter physics, fluid mechanics, particle physics and even astrophysics. Interestingly, over the past two decades, the field of solitons and related nonlinear phenomena has been substantially advanced and enriched by research and discoveries in nonlinear optics. While optical solitons have been vigorously investigated in both spatial and temporal domains, it is now fair to say that much soliton research has been mainly driven by the work on optical spatial solitons. This is partly due to the fact that although temporal solitons as realized in fiber optic systems are fundamentally one-dimensional entities, the high dimensionality associated with their spatial counterparts has opened up altogether new scientific possibilities in soliton research. Another reason is related to the response time of the nonlinearity. Unlike temporal optical solitons, spatial solitons have been realized by employing a variety of noninstantaneous nonlinearities, ranging from the nonlinearities in photorefractive materials and liquid crystals to the nonlinearities mediated by the thermal effect, thermophoresis and the gradient force in colloidal suspensions. Such a diversity of nonlinear effects has given rise to numerous soliton phenomena that could otherwise not be envisioned, because for decades scientists were of the mindset that solitons must strictly be the exact solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation as established for ideal Kerr nonlinear media. As such, the discoveries of optical spatial solitons in different systems and associated new phenomena have stimulated broad interest in soliton research. In particular, the study of incoherent solitons and discrete spatial solitons in optical periodic media not only led to advances in our understanding of fundamental processes in nonlinear optics and photonics, but also had a

  10. Advanced materials and techniques for fiber-optic sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. (author)

  11. Advances in optical coherence tomography in dermatology-a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonas; Holmes, Jon; Jemec, Gregor B. E.

    2018-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced as an imaging system, but like ultrasonography, other measures, such as blood perfusion and polarization of light, have enabled the technology to approach clinical utility. This review aims at providing an overview of the advances in clinical research based on the improving technical aspects. OCT provides cross-sectional and en face images down to skin depths of 0.4 to 2.00 mm with optical resolution of 3 to 15 μm. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) enables the visualization of cutaneous microvasculature via detection of rapid changes in the interferometric signal of blood flow. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most comprehensively investigated topic, resulting in improved descriptions of morphological features and diagnostic criteria. A refined scoring system for diagnosing NMSC, taking findings from conventional and D-OCT into account, is warranted. OCT diagnosis of melanoma is hampered by the resolution and the optical properties of melanin. D-OCT may be of value in diseases characterized with dynamic changes in the vasculature of the skin and the addition of functional measures is strongly encouraged. In conclusion, OCT in dermatology is still an emerging technology that has great potential for improving further in the future.

  12. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously

  13. Advanced MEMS systems for optical communication and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horenstein, M N; Sumner, R; Freedman, D S; Datta, M; Kani, N; Miller, P; Stewart, J B; Cornelissen, S

    2011-01-01

    Optical communication and adaptive optics have emerged as two important uses of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices based on electrostatic actuation. Each application uses a mirror whose surface is altered by applying voltages of up to 300 V. Previous generations of adaptive-optic mirrors were large (∼1 m) and required the use of piezoelectric transducers. Beginning in the mid-1990s, a new class of small MEMS mirrors (∼1 cm) were developed. These mirrors are now a commercially available, mature technology. This paper describes three advanced applications of MEMS mirrors. The first is a mirror used for corona-graphic imaging, whereby an interferometric telescope blocks the direct light from a distant star so that nearby objects such as planets can be seen. We have developed a key component of the system: a 144-channel, fully-scalable, high-voltage multiplexer that reduces power consumption to only a few hundred milliwatts. In a second application, a MEMS mirror comprises part of a two-way optical communication system in which only one node emits a laser beam. The other node is passive, incorporating a retro-reflective, electrostatic MEMS mirror that digitally encodes the reflected beam. In a third application, the short (∼100-ns) pulses of a commercially-available laser rangefinder are returned by the MEMS mirror as a digital data stream. Suitable low-power drive systems comprise part of the system design.

  14. Advances in the production of freeform optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Yazid E.; Luniya, Suneet S.

    2007-05-01

    Recent market demands for free-form optics have challenged the industry to find new methods and techniques to manufacture free-form optical surfaces with a high level of accuracy and reliability. Production techniques are becoming a mix of multi-axis single point diamond machining centers or deterministic ultra precision grinding centers coupled with capable measurement systems to accomplish the task. It has been determined that a complex software tool is required to seamlessly integrate all aspects of the manufacturing process chain. Advances in computational power and improved performance of computer controlled precision machinery have driven the use of such software programs to measure, visualize, analyze, produce and re-validate the 3D free-form design thus making the process of manufacturing such complex surfaces a viable task. Consolidation of the entire production cycle in a comprehensive software tool that can interact with all systems in design, production and measurement phase will enable manufacturers to solve these complex challenges providing improved product quality, simplified processes, and enhanced performance. The work being presented describes the latest advancements in developing such software package for the entire fabrication process chain for aspheric and free-form shapes. It applies a rational B-spline based kernel to transform an optical design in the form of parametrical definition (optical equation), standard CAD format, or a cloud of points to a central format that drives the simulation. This software tool creates a closed loop for the fabrication process chain. It integrates surface analysis and compensation, tool path generation, and measurement analysis in one package.

  15. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  16. Surface plasmon optics for biosensors with advanced sensitivity and throughput

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, M.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmonic biosensors represent a rapidly advancing technology which enables rapid and sensitive analysis of target analytes. This thesis focuses on novel metallic and polymer structures for plasmonic biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (SPF). It comprises four projects addressing key challenges concerning the enhancement of sensitivity and throughput. In the project 1, an advanced optical platform is developed which relies on reference-compensated angular spectroscopy of hydrogel-guided waves. The developed optical setup provides superior refractive index resolution of 1.2×10 -7 RIU and offers an attractive platform for direct detection of small analytes which cannot be analyzed by regular SPR biosensors. The project 2 carries out theoretical study of SPR imaging with advanced lateral resolution by utilizing Bragg scattered surface plasmons (BSSPs) on sub-wavelength metallic gratings. The results reveal that the proposed concept provides better lateral resolution and fidelity of the images. This feature opens ways for high-throughput SPR biosensors with denser arrays of sensing spots. The project 3 investigates surface plasmon coupled-emission from fluorophores in the vicinity of plasmonic Bragg-gratings. The experimental results provide leads on advancing the collection efficiency of fluorescence light by controlling the directions of fluorescence emission. This functionality can directly improve the sensitivity of fluorescence-based assays. In the last project 4, a novel sensing scheme with actively tuneable plasmonic structures is developed by employing thermo-responsive hydrogel binding matrix. The hydrogel film simultaneously serves as a large capacity binding matrix and provides means for actuating of surface plasmons through reversible swelling and collapsing of the hydrogel. This characteristic is suitable for multiplexing of sensing channels in fluorescence-based biosensor scheme (author)

  17. Advanced freeform optics enabling ultra-compact VR headsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Zamora, Pablo; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Buljan, Marina; Narasimhan, Bharathwaj; Gorospe, Jorge; López, Jesús; Nikolić, Milena; Sánchez, Eduardo; Lastres, Carmen; Mohedano, Ruben

    2017-06-01

    We present novel advanced optical designs with a dramatically smaller display to eye distance, excellent image quality and a large field of view (FOV). This enables headsets to be much more compact, typically occupying about a fourth of the volume of a conventional headset with the same FOV. The design strategy of these optics is based on a multichannel approach, which reduces the distance from the eye to the display and the display size itself. Unlike conventional microlens arrays, which are also multichannel devices, our designs use freeform optical surfaces to produce excellent imaging quality in the entire field of view, even when operating at very oblique incidences. We present two families of compact solutions that use different types of lenslets: (1) refractive designs, whose lenslets are composed typically of two refractive surfaces each; and (2) light-folding designs that use prism-like three-surface lenslets, in which rays undergo refraction, reflection, total internal reflection and refraction again. The number of lenslets is not fixed, so different configurations may arise, adaptable for flat or curved displays with different aspect ratios. In the refractive designs the distance between the optics and the display decreases with the number of lenslets, allowing for displaying a light-field when the lenslet becomes significantly small than the eye pupil. On the other hand, the correlation between number of lenslets and the optics to display distance is broken in light-folding designs, since their geometry permits achieving a very short display to eye distance with even a small number of lenslets.

  18. Advances in optics in the medieval Islamic world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge in the field of optics, mainly in catoptrics and dioptrics, before the birth of modern science and the well-documented contributions of men such as Kepler and Newton. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of the subject such as one might find in history of science journals; instead, it is aimed at the curious physicist who has probably been taught that nothing much of note was understood about the behaviour of light, beyond outdated philosophical musings, prior to the seventeenth century. The paper will focus on advances during the medieval period between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, in both the east and the west, when the theories of the Ancient Greeks were tested, advanced, corrected and mathematised. In particular, it concentrates on a multivolume treatise on optics written one thousand years ago by the Arab scholar, Ibn al-Haytham, and examines how it influenced our understanding of the nature of reflection and refraction of light. Even the well-informed physicist should find a few surprises here, which will alter his or her view of the debt we owe to these forgotten scholars.

  19. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented

  20. Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menn, M Le; De Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J L; Grosso, P; Delauney, L; Podeur, C; Brault, P; Guillerme, O

    2011-01-01

    Absolute salinity measurement of seawater has become a key issue in thermodynamic models of the oceans. One of the most direct ways is to measure the seawater refractive index which is related to density and can therefore be related to the absolute salinity. Recent advances in high resolution position sensitive devices enable us to take advantage of small beam deviation measurements using refractometers. This paper assesses the advantages of such technology with respect to the current state-of-the-art technology. In particular, we present the resolution dependence on refractive index variations and derive the limits of such a solution for designing seawater sensors well suited for coastal and deep-sea applications. Particular attention has been paid to investigate the impact of environmental parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on an optical sensor, and ways to mitigate or compensate them have been suggested here. The sensor has been successfully tested in a pressure tank and in open oceans 2000 m deep

  1. Advanced free space optics (FSO) a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, unified tutorial covering the most recent advances in the technology of free-space optics (FSO). It is an all-inclusive source of information on the fundamentals of FSO as well as up-to-date information on the state-of-the-art in technologies available today. This text is intended for graduate students, and will also be useful for research scientists and engineers with an interest in the field. FSO communication is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond what is possible in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of FSO links. From a systems point-of-view, this groundbreaking book provides a thorough understanding of channel behavior, which can be used to design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions. Topics addressed...

  2. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-08-01

    a single spine, with two-photon uncaging) and in rapid, flexible spatial-temporal patterns [10-14]. Nevertheless, current technology generally requires damaging doses of UV or violet illumination and the continuous re-introduction of the caged compound, which, despite interest, makes for a difficult transition beyond in vitro preparations. Thus, the tremendous progress in the in vivo application of photo-stimulation tools over the past five years has been largely facilitated by two 'exciting' new photo-stimulation technologies: photo-biological stimulation of a rapidly increasing arsenal of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps ('optogenetic' probes[15-18]) and direct photo-thermal stimulation of neural tissue with an IR laser [19-21]. The Journal of Neural Engineering has dedicated a special section in this issue to highlight advances in optical stimulation technology, which includes original peer-reviewed contributions dealing with the design of modern optical systems for spatial-temporal control of optical excitation patterns and with the biophysics of neural-thermal interaction mediated by electromagnetic waves. The paper by Nikolenko, Peterka and Yuste [22] presents a compact design of a microscope-photo-stimulator based on a transmissive phase-modulating spatial-light modulator (SLM). Computer-generated holographic photo-stimulation using SLMs [12-14, 23] allows the efficient parallel projection of intense sparse patterns of light, and the welcome development of compact, user-friendly systems will likely reduce the barrier to its widespread adoption. The paper by Losavio et al [24] presents the design and functional characteristics of their acousto-optical deflector (AOD) systems for studying spatial-temporal dendritic integration in single neurons in vitro. Both single-photon (UV) and two-photon (femtosecond pulsed IR) AOD uncaging systems are described in detail. The paper presents an excellent overview of the current state of the art and limitations of

  3. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  4. Advanced Modulation Techniques for High-Performance Computing Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally assess the performance of a 64 × 64 optical switch fabric used for ns-speed optical cell switching in supercomputer optical interconnects. More specifically, we study four alternative modulation formats and detection schemes, namely, 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-...

  5. Advanced in Nonlinear Optics and Laser Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, S.; Kotler, Z; Lavi, R.; Sternklar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Nonlinear Optics Group (NLOG) at Soreq NRC is engaged in the development of fundamental and applied technology in the related fields of nonlinear optics and laser development. Our work in nonlinear optics started with the goal of improving laser performance. These efforts were successful and opened the way for R and D in nonlinear optics for other applications. Today we use nonlinear optics to enable continuous tunability of lasers, control the path of light beams, modulate a light signal rapidly, provide optical data storage, and supply new means of microscopically probing biological and inorganic samples. Technology maturation and interaction with users will show which aspects of nonlinear optics will make the most impact

  6. Visual outcome and optical quality after bilateral implantation of aspheric diffractive multifocal, aspheric monofocal and spherical monofocal intraocular lenses: a prospective comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the visual function after bilateral implantation of aspheric diffractive multifocal Tecnis ZMA00, aspheric monofocal ZA9003 versus spherical monofocal Akreos Adapt intraocular lenses (IOLs.METHODS: Tecnis ZMA00, Tecnis ZA9003 or Akreos Adapt IOLs were bilaterally implanted in 180 eyes from 90 patients. The following parameters were assessed 3 months postoperatively: monocular and binocular uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA and distance-corrected visual acuity (DCVA for distance, intermediate and near, spherical aberration (SA, contrast and glare sensitivity, near point refractive power, uncorrected and best-corrected near stereoscopic acuity (NSA. Patient satisfaction was assessed by a questionnaire.RESULTS: Three months postoperatively, the monocular and binocular UCVA and DCVA at near of Tecnis ZMA00 were significantly better than other two groups. The mean SA for 5.0mm optical zone in Tecnis ZMA00 and Tecnis ZA9003 was significantly lower than that in Akreos Adapt. Mean contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were better for Tecnis ZA9003 group than for other two groups. Patients with Tecnis ZMA00 had higher monocular and binocular near point refractive power and uncorrected NSA than monofocal groups. The patients in Tecnis ZMA00 had higher mean values for halo compared with other two groups.CONCLUSION: Tecnis ZMA00 provided better near VA and uncorrected NSA and higher near point refractive power than monofocal IOLs and patients were spectacle independent. The IOLs with Tecnis aspheric design improved contrast and glare sensitivity. Patients with Tecnis ZMA00 reported more disturbances on visual phenomena of halo.

  7. Reststrahlen Band Optics for the Advancement of Far-Infrared Optical Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streyer, William Henderson

    The dissertation aims to build a case for the benefits and means of investigating novel optical materials and devices operating in the underdeveloped far-infrared (20 - 60 microns) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This dissertation and the proposed future investigations described here have the potential to further the advancement of new and enhanced capabilities in fields such as astronomy, medicine, and the petrochemical industry. The first several completed projects demonstrate techniques for developing far-infrared emission sources using selective thermal emitters, which could operate more efficiently than their simple blackbody counterparts commonly used as sources in this wavelength region. The later projects probe the possible means of linking bulk optical phonon populations through interaction with surface modes to free space photons. This is a breakthrough that would enable the development of a new class of light sources operating in the far-infrared. Chapter 1 introduces the far-infrared wavelength range along with many of its current and potential applications. The limited capabilities of the available optical architecture in this range are outlined along with a discussion of the state-of-the-art technology available in this range. Some of the basic physical concepts routinely applied in this dissertation are reviewed; namely, the Drude formalism, semiconductor Reststrahlen bands, and surface polaritons. Lastly, some of the physical challenges that impede the further advancement of far-infrared technology, despite remarkable recent success in adjacent regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, are discussed. Chapter 2 describes the experimental and computational methods employed in this dissertation. Spectroscopic techniques used to investigate both the mid-infrared and far-infrared wavelength ranges are reviewed, including a brief description of the primary instrument of infrared spectroscopy, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nano-Optics : Principles Enabling Basic Research and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John; Silvestri, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of nano-optics, including basic theory, experiment and applications, particularly in nanofabrication and optical characterization. The contributions clearly demonstrate how advances in nano-optics and photonics have stimulated progress in nanoscience and -fabrication, and vice versa. Their expert authors address topics such as three-dimensional optical lithography and microscopy beyond the Abbe diffraction limit, optical diagnostics and sensing, optical data- and telecommunications, energy-efficient lighting, and efficient solar energy conversion. Nano-optics emerges as a key enabling technology of the 21st century. This work will appeal to a wide readership, from physics through chemistry, to biology and engineering. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Erice, 4-19 July, 2015.

  9. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  10. Advanced Optical Technologies for Defense Trauma and Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    Imaging and quantifying Brownian motion of micro- and nanoparticles using phase resolved Doppler variance optical coherence tomography,” J. of...Optical traps can stop movements of Mesostoma spermatocyte kinetochores. Am. Soc. Cell Biol. Mtg., Denver, CO, December 3-7, 2011. 22 8. Gioux, S

  11. Electro-optic architecture for servicing sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed design of a fiber optic propulsion control system, integrating favored sensors and electro-optics architecture is presented. Layouts, schematics, and sensor lists describe an advanced fighter engine system model. Components and attributes of candidate fiber optic sensors are identified, and evaluation criteria are used in a trade study resulting in favored sensors for each measurand. System architectural ground rules were applied to accomplish an electro-optics architecture for the favored sensors. A key result was a considerable reduction in signal conductors. Drawings, schematics, specifications, and printed circuit board layouts describe the detailed system design, including application of a planar optical waveguide interface.

  12. Advances in optical information processing V; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21-24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Dennis R.

    Consideration is given to the following topics: transition of optical processing into systems (TOPS), optical signal processing, optical signal processing devices, optical image processing, Russian optical information processing, optical interconnects, and optical computing. Particular papers are presented on an acoustooptic range-Doppler processor design for radar insertion, an optical SAR processor and target recognition system, an advanced magnetooptic spatial light modulator device development update, an algorithm for controlling speckle-noise parameters, optical image processing in Russia, a massively parallel optical interconnect for long data stream convolution, and a reprogrammable digital optical coprocessor. (For individual items see A93-27718 to A93-27723)

  13. Advances in hybrid optics physical sensors for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2010-04-01

    Highlighted are novel innovations in hybrid optical design physical sensors for extreme environments. Various hybrid design compositions are proposed that are suited for a particular sensor application. Examples includes combining freespace (wireless) and fiber-optics (wired) for gas turbine sensing and combining single crystal and sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials for robust extreme environment Coefficent of Thermal Expansion (CTE) matched frontend probe design. Sensor signal processing also includes the hybrid theme where for example Black-Body radiation thermometry (pyrometry) is combined with laser interferometry to provide extreme temperature measurements. The hybrid theme also operates on the optical device level where a digital optical device such as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is combined with an analog optical device such as an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal Length Lens (ECVFL) to deliver a smart and compressive Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging sensor for remote scene and object shape capture including both ambient light (passive) mode and active laser targeting and receive processing. Within a device level, the hybrid theme also operates via combined analog and digital control such as within a wavelength-coded variable optical delay line. These powerful hybrid design optical sensors have numerous applications in engineering and science applications from the military to the commercial/industrial sectors.

  14. Hybrid catadioptric system for advanced optical cavity velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frayer, Daniel K.

    2018-02-06

    A probe including reflector is disclosed to measure the velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the surface by the probe and then reflected back from the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface, collected into probe, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to one or more lens groups and a reflector, such as a parabolic reflector having a mirrored interior surface.

  15. Advanced integrated spectrometer designs for miniaturized optical coherence tomography systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akça, B.I.; Povazay, B.; Chang, Lantian; Alex, A.; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Drexler, W.; Pollnau, Markus

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinical applications that revolutionized in vivo medical diagnostics. Nevertheless, its current limitations owing to cost, size, complexity, and the need for accurate alignment must be overcome by radically novel approaches. Exploiting integrated

  16. Optical diagnostics in the advanced test accelerator (ATA) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Y.P.; Cornish, J.P.; Donnelly, D.

    1987-05-01

    The ATA is a 50-MeV, 10-kA, 70-ns pulsed electron beam accelerator that generates an extremely harsh environment for diagnostic measurements. Diagnostic targets placed in the beamline are subject to damage, frequently being destroyed by a single pulse. High radiation (x-ray, gamma, and neutron) and electromagnetic interference levels preclude placing components near the beamline that are susceptible to radiation damage. Examples of such components are integrated circuit elements, hydrocarbons such as Teflon insulation, and optical components that darken, resulting in transmission loss. Optical diagnostics play an important part in measuring experimental parameters such as the beam current density profile. A large number of optical lines of sight (LOS) are routinely deployed along the experimental beamlines that use the ATA beam. Gated TV cameras are located outside the accelerator tunnel, because the tunnel is inaccessible during operations. We will describe and discuss the difficulties, problems, and solutions encountered in making optical measurements in the ATA environment

  17. Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) : Volume 1. Advanced System Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    A performance specification is provided in this report for an Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) scanner system which features 6% improved readability over existing industry scanner systems. It also includes the analysis and rationale which ...

  18. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-02-24

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  19. Advanced optical signal processing of broadband parallel data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Hu, Hao; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration.......Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration....

  20. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  1. Advances in imaging and electron physics optics of charged particle analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends Invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  2. Advances in imaging and electron physics optics of charged particle analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts * Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends * Invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  3. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  4. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Fernández Gavela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  5. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  6. Some Advances in the Circuit Modeling of Extraordinary Optical Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Medina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT through electrically small holes perforated on opaque metal screens has been a hot topic in the optics community for more than one decade. This experimentally observed frequency-selective enhanced transmission of electromagnetic power through holes, for which classical Bethe's theory predicts very poor transmission, later attracted the attention of engineers working on microwave engineering or applied electromagnetics. Extraordinary transmission was first linked to the plasma-like behavior of metals at optical frequencies. However, the primary role played by the periodicity of the distribution of holes was soon made evident, in such a way that extraordinary transmission was disconnected from the particular behavior of metals at optical frequencies. Indeed, the same phenomenon has been observed in the microwave and millimeter wave regime, for instance. Nowadays, the most commonly accepted theory explains EOT in terms of the interaction of the impinging plane wave with the surface plasmon-polariton-Bloch waves (SPP-Bloch supported by the periodically perforated plate. The authors of this paper have recently proposed an alternative model whose details will be briefly summarized here. A parametric study of the predictions of the model and some new potential extensions will be reported to provide additional insight.

  7. Advanced Geometric Optics on a Programmable Pocket Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Allen

    1979-01-01

    Presents a ray-tracing procedure based on some ideas of Herzberger and the matrix approach to geometrical optics. This method, which can be implemented on a programmable pocket calculator, applies to any conic surface, including paraboloids, spheres, and planes. (Author/GA)

  8. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  9. Advances in lasers and optical micro-nano-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, F.; Fazio, E.

    2010-09-01

    Lasers represent a well consolidated technology: nevertheless, research in this field remains very active and productive, in both basic and applied directions. At the moment significant attention is given to those sources that bring together high power and compactness. Such high power lasers find important applications for material treatments and such applications are presented by Ehsani et al and Saiedeh Saghafi et al, in the treatment of dielectric thin films (Alteration of optical and morphological properties of polycarbonate illuminated by visible/IR laser beams) or of biological tissues like pistachio seeds (Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis). In particular the latter paper show how laser sources can find very important applications in new domains, preserving goods and food without the need for preservatives or pesticides by simply sterilizing them using light. Optical Micro and Nano Systems presents a new domain for exploration. In this framework this special issue is very attractive, because it assembles papers reporting new results in three directions: new techniques for monitoring integrated micro- and nano-systems, new integrated systems and novel high performance metamaterial configurations. Integrated micro-components can be monitored and controlled using reflectance measurements as presented by Piombini et al (Toward the reflectance measurement of micro components). Speckle formation during laser beam reflection can also be a very sophisticated tool for detecting ultra-precise displacements, as presented by Filter et al (High resolution displacement detection with speckles : accuracy limits in linear displacement speckle metrology). Three dimensional integrated optical structures is indeed a big challenge and a peculiarity of photonics, they can be formed through traditional holography or using more sophisticated and novel ! technologies. Thus, special

  10. Advanced Technologies for Ultrahigh Resolution and Functional Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Gorczynska, "Frequency domain optical coherence tomography techniques in eye imaging," Acta Physica Polonica A , vol. 102, pp. 739-46, 2002/12/ 2002. [57] S...other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a . REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  11. Advanced Optics for the Remote Steering ITER ECRH Upper Launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, A; Cirant, S; Moro, A; Platania, P; Sozzi, C

    2005-01-01

    The optics of the ECRH Upper Launcher in ITER based on the Remote Steering concept needs special attention, since any focussing element in front of the waveguide has combined effects on the range of steering angles achievable and the beam width in the plasma region. The effects are studied in detail for a setup composed by 8 beams per port (three ports), for a spherical and a hyperbolic mirror surface. Gaussian beam analysis is compared to beam pattern calculations with the optical physics code GRASP, in order to verify the validity of gaussian optics approximation. The standard description with simply astigmatic beams, not adequate in more complex systems as the proposed two-mirror set-up, requires approximations, which are compared with the generalized astigmatic beam description. The ohmic losses at the end mirrors and the related localized heating due to the very large power density cause deformations that depends on the design of the cooling circuit. The distortion of the beam shape has been evaluated in a realistic case of mirror cooling with a small-channel system. The quantification of the effect depends on the precise evaluation ohmic losses and their enhancement in the long term due to the surface deterioration

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Optics in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Foy, Renaud

    2005-01-01

    Astrophysics is facing challenging aims such as deep cosmology at redshift higher than 10 to constrain cosmology models, or the detection of exoplanets, and possibly terrestrial exoplanets, and several others. It requires unprecedented ambitious R&D programs, which have definitely to rely on a tight cooperation between astrophysics and optics communities. The book addresses most of the most critical interdisciplinary domains where they interact, or where they will do. A first need is to collect more light, i.e. telescopes still larger than the current 8-10 meter class ones. Decametric, and even hectometric, optical (from UV to IR wavelengths) telescopes are being studied. Whereas up to now the light collecting surface of new telescopes was approximately 4 times that of the previous generation, now this factor is growing to 10 to 100. This quantum leap urges to implement new methods or technologies developed in the optics community, both in academic labs and in the industry. Given the astrophysical goals a...

  13. Advanced optical 3D scanners using DMD technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenstermann, P.; Godding, R.; Hermstein, M.

    2017-02-01

    Optical 3D measurement techniques are state-of-the-art for highly precise, non-contact surface scanners - not only in industrial development, but also in near-production and even in-line configurations. The need for automated systems with very high accuracy and clear implementation of national precision standards is growing extremely due to expanding international quality guidelines, increasing production transparency and new concepts related to the demands of the fourth industrial revolution. The presentation gives an overview about the present technical concepts for optical 3D scanners and their benefit for customers and various different applications - not only in quality control, but also in design centers or in medical applications. The advantages of DMD-based systems will be discussed and compared to other approaches. Looking at today's 3D scanner market, there is a confusing amount of solutions varying from lowprice solutions to high end systems. Many of them are linked to a very special target group or to special applications. The article will clarify the differences of the approaches and will discuss some key features which are necessary to render optical measurement systems suitable for industrial environments. The paper will be completed by examples for DMDbased systems, e. g. RGB true-color systems with very high accuracy like the StereoScan neo of AICON 3D Systems. Typical applications and the benefits for customers using such systems are described.

  14. Design and Performance Evaluation of Sensors and Actuators for Advanced Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art commercial sensors and actuators do not meet many of NASA s next generation spacecraft and instrument needs. Nor do they satisfy the DoD needs for satellite missions, especially micro/nano satellite missions. In an effort to develop advanced optical devices and instruments that meet mission requirements, NASA Langley recently completed construction of a new cleanroom housing equipment capable of fabricating high performance active optic and adaptive optic technologies including deformable mirrors, reconfigurable lenses (both refractive and diffractive), spectrometers, spectro-polarimeters, tunable filters and many other active optic devices. In addition to performance, these advanced optic technologies offer advantages in speed, size, weight, power consumption, and radiation tolerance. The active optic devices described in this paper rely on birefringent liquid crystal materials to alter either the phase or the polarization of the incoming light. Design considerations and performance evaluation results for various NASA applications are presented. Applications presented will include large space telescopes, optical communications, spacecraft windows, coronagraphs, and star trackers. Keywords: Photonics, Adaptive Optics, Tunable Filters, MEMs., MOEMs, Coronagraph, Star Tracker

  15. Optical microparticle manipulation advances and new capabilities offered by diffractive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojfer, V.A.; Kotlyar, V.V.; Khonina, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    The review deals with a promising area in laser optics - optical manipulation. The object under manipulation can be of various nature: from a colloid particle to a molecule, from cell, virus, to a micromechanism part, etc. In the first part of this work a concise review of the articles on optical manipulation of microparticles and atoms published in the last two decades is presented. The second part is devoted t the production of laser beams with self-reproduction properties. Such beams can be most effectively produced using diffractive optical elements (DOEs). The DOE-generated self-reproducing laser beams (stable, axially periodic, rotating, and multiorder) offer new opportunities in optical manipulation of micro- and nano-objects [ru

  16. Advanced optical system for scanning-spot photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Wullner, Christian; Semchishen, Vladimir A.; Seiler, Theo

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this presentation is to discuss the use of the Light Shaping Beam Homogenizer in an optical system for scanning-spot PRK. Methods: The basic principle of the LSBH is the transformation of any incident intensity distribution by light scattering on an irregular microlens structure z = f(x,y). The relief of this microlens structure is determined by a defined statistical function, i.e. it is defined by the mean root-squared tilt σ of the surface relief. Therefore, the beam evolution after the LSBH and in the focal plane of an imaging lens was measured for various root-squared tilts. Beside this, an optical setup for scanning-spot PRK was assembled according to the theoretical and experimental results. Results: The divergence, homogeneity and the Gaussian radius of the intensity distribution in the treatment plane of the scanning-spot PRK laser system is mainly characterized by dependent on root-mean-square tilt σ of the LSBH, as it will be explained by the theoretical description of the LSBH. Conclusions: The LSBH represents a simple, low cost beam homogenizer with low energy losses, for scanning-spot excimer laser systems.

  17. An advanced UV optical cavity for the European FEL project

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, M W; Chesworth, A A; Clarke, J A; Fell, B; Hill, C; Marl, R; Mullacrane, I D; Reid, R J

    2000-01-01

    A European collaboration is constructing a short wavelength FEL for the ELETTRA storage ring. The optical cavity has been designed and constructed at Daresbury Laboratory for delivery to Sincrotrone Trieste in Autumn 1999, following commissioning tests over the Summer. Initial FEL operation will be at 350 nm but subsequently down to 200 nm or less and mirrors will be 40 mm diameter. The 32 m optical cavity is controllable to 0.01 mu rad in mirror pitch and yaw using digital piezo translators. A novel feature is the simultaneous presence of three remotely interchangeable mirrors to extend the tuning range and also to interchange damaged mirrors immediately. In addition, a transfer arm and load-lock arrangement will permit a mirror to be withdrawn from the chamber and replaced without disruption to the UHV system. The FEL is designed to operate at high power (1-10 W) and multi-watt spontaneous emission is also present: power loading has been investigated by FEA analysis and has necessitated specification of a w...

  18. Advances in optical thermometry for the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: fraser.lott@gmail.com; Netchaieff, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), ZA de Trappes-Elancourt, 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 TRAPPES Cedex (France); Escourbiac, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Jouvelot, J.-L.; Constans, S. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique-FE200, Porte Magenta BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Hernandez, D. [Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), B.P. 5, 66125 Font-Romeu Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    Thermography will be an important diagnostic on the ITER tokamak, but the inclusion of reflective materials such as tungsten in the design for ITER's first wall and divertor region presents problems for optical temperature measurement. The ongoing testing of ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) provides an excellent opportunity to resolve such problems. This has focused on the variation of PFC emissivity with temperature and time, as well as environmental influence on thermography. The sensitivity of these systems to ambient temperature, due primarily to modification of the transmission of the optical path, has been established and minimised. The accuracy of the system is then sufficient to measure the variation of emissivity in heated material samples, by comparing its front-face luminance measured with an infrared camera to the temperature given by an implanted thermocouple. Measurements on both tungsten and carbon fibre composite are in broad agreement with theory, and thus give the material's function of emissivity with temperature at the start of its life. To determine its evolution, a bicolour pyroreflectometer was then installed. This uses two lasers to measure the reflectivity in addition to the luminance at two wavelengths, and thus the true temperature can be calculated. This was validated against the instrumented sample, then used along with the camera to observe an ITER mock-up during {approx}50,000 s of 5 MW/m{sup 2} testing. Emissivity was seen to vary little in the 500 deg. C region. Higher temperature tests are ongoing.

  19. UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings in optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2002-01-01

    of the novel polarization control method for UV writing of Bragg gratings with advanced apodization profiles including phase shifts. The principle of the polarization control method relies on a spatial separation of the s- and p-polarized components of a linearly polarized UV beam corresponding to half......, Technical University of Denmark. During fabrication the planar waveguides were annealed in an oxygen rich atmosphere. This reduces the photosensitivity to a negligible level and Bragg gratings cannot be written within reasonable time unless the waveguides are sensitized by deuterium loading. Samples were...

  20. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Baldassare

    2005-01-01

    Advanced spectroscopic techniques allow the probing of very small systems and very fast phenomena, conditions that can be considered "extreme" at the present status of our experimentation and knowledge. Quantum dots, nanocrystals and single molecules are examples of the former and events on the femtosecond scale examples of the latter. The purpose of this book is to examine the realm of phenomena of such extreme type and the techniques that permit their investigations. Each author has developed a coherent section of the program starting at a somewhat fundamental level and ultimately reaching the frontier of knowledge in the field in a systematic and didactic fashion. The formal lectures are complemented by additional seminars.

  1. Advances in optical structure systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-19, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, John; Genberg, Victor L.; Krumweide, Gary C.

    Various papers on advances in optical structure systems are presented. Individual topics addressed include: beam pathlength optimization, thermal stress in glass/metal bond with PR 1578 adhesive, structural and optical properties for typical solid mirror shapes, parametric study of spinning polygon mirror deformations, simulation of small structures-optics-controls system, spatial PSDs of optical structures due to random vibration, mountings for a four-meter glass mirror, fast-steering mirrors in optical control systems, adaptive state estimation for control of flexible structures, surface control techniques for large segmented mirrors, two-time-scale control designs for large flexible structures, closed-loop dynamic shape control of a flexible beam. Also discussed are: inertially referenced pointing for body-fixed payloads, sensor blending line-of-sight stabilization, controls/optics/structures simulation development, transfer functions for piezoelectric control of a flexible beam, active control experiments for large-optics vibration alleviation, composite structures for a large-optical test bed, graphite/epoxy composite mirror for beam-steering applications, composite structures for optical-mirror applications, thin carbon-fiber prepregs for dimensionally critical structures.

  2. Advanced Equalization Techniques for Digital Coherent Optical Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria

    approach based on joint encoding and equalization technique, known as Turbo Equalization (TE). This scheme is demonstrated to be powerful in transmission impairments mitigation for high order modulations formats, such as 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), considered a key technology for high speed...... a lower complexity convolutional code compared to state of the art reports. Furthermore, in order to fulfill the strict constrains of spectral efficiency, this thesis shows the application of digital adaptive equalizer for reconfigurable and Ultra Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (U......-over-Fiber (RoF) transmission system for a stand alone case and mixed modulation mixed bit rates transmission scheme. In conclusion, this PhD thesis demonstrates the flexibility, upgrade-ability and robustness offered by rising advanced digital signal processing techniques, for future high-speed, high...

  3. Three dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging: advantages and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Michelle L; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Xu, Juan; Kim, Jongsick; Kagemann, Larry; Folio, Lindsey S; Schuman, Joel S

    2010-11-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ophthalmic imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized assessment of the eye, the retina in particular. Recent technological improvements have made the acquisition of 3D-OCT datasets feasible. However, while volumetric data can improve disease diagnosis and follow-up, novel image analysis techniques are now necessary in order to process the dense 3D-OCT dataset. Fundamental software improvements include methods for correcting subject eye motion, segmenting structures or volumes of interest, extracting relevant data post hoc and signal averaging to improve delineation of retinal layers. In addition, innovative methods for image display, such as C-mode sectioning, provide a unique viewing perspective and may improve interpretation of OCT images of pathologic structures. While all of these methods are being developed, most remain in an immature state. This review describes the current status of 3D-OCT scanning and interpretation, and discusses the need for standardization of clinical protocols as well as the potential benefits of 3D-OCT scanning that could come when software methods for fully exploiting these rich datasets are available clinically. The implications of new image analysis approaches include improved reproducibility of measurements garnered from 3D-OCT, which may then help improve disease discrimination and progression detection. In addition, 3D-OCT offers the potential for preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative surgical guidance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  5. Advanced Electrical, Optical and Data Communication Infrastructure Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Cobb

    2011-04-30

    The implementation of electrical and IT infrastructure systems at the North Carolina Center for Automotive Research , Inc. (NCCAR) has achieved several key objectives in terms of system functionality, operational safety and potential for ongoing research and development. Key conclusions include: (1) The proven ability to operate a high speed wireless data network over a large 155 acre area; (2) Node to node wireless transfers from access points are possible at speeds of more than 50 mph while maintaining high volume bandwidth; (3) Triangulation of electronic devices/users is possible in areas with overlapping multiple access points, outdoor areas with reduced overlap of access point coverage considerably reduces triangulation accuracy; (4) Wireless networks can be adversely affected by tree foliage, pine needles are a particular challenge due to the needle length relative to the transmission frequency/wavelength; and (5) Future research will use the project video surveillance and wireless systems to further develop automated image tracking functionality for the benefit of advanced vehicle safety monitoring and autonomous vehicle control through 'vehicle-to-vehicle' and 'vehicle-to-infrastructure' communications. A specific advantage realized from this IT implementation at NCCAR is that NC State University is implementing a similar wireless network across Centennial Campus, Raleigh, NC in 2011 and has benefited from lessons learned during this project. Consequently, students, researchers and members of the public will be able to benefit from a large scale IT implementation with features and improvements derived from this NCCAR project.

  6. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I ampersand C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment

  7. Recent Advances in Optical Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring and Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of pollutants requires the development of innovative analytical devices that are precise, sensitive, specific, rapid, and easy-to-use to meet the increasing demand for legislative actions on environmental pollution control and early warning. Optical biosensors, as a powerful alternative to conventional analytical techniques, enable the highly sensitive, real-time, and high-frequency monitoring of pollutants without extensive sample preparation. This article reviews important advances in functional biorecognition materials (e.g., enzymes, aptamers, DNAzymes, antibodies and whole cells that facilitate the increasing application of optical biosensors. This work further examines the significant improvements in optical biosensor instrumentation and their environmental applications. Innovative developments of optical biosensors for environmental pollution control and early warning are also discussed.

  8. The Fiber Optic System for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm. The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  9. The fiber optic system for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-08-28

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm.[1] The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  10. Recent developments of advanced structures for space optics at Astrium, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas; Wulz, Georg; Scheulen, Dietmar

    2003-12-01

    The mechanical division of EADS Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen Germany, the former Dornier Satellitensystem GmbH is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of three different advanced dimensionally stable composite and ceramic material structures for satellite borne optics: -CFRP Camera Structure -Planck Telescope Reflectors -NIRSpec Optical Bench Breadboard for James Web Space Telescope The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  11. Recent results of a seismically isolated optical table prototype designed for advanced LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, V; Abbott, B; Boschi, V; Coyne, D; DeSalvo, R; Aso, Y; Marka, S; Ottaway, D; Stochino, A

    2008-01-01

    The Horizontal Access Module Seismic Attenuation System (HAM-SAS) is a mechanical device expressly designed to isolate a multipurpose optical table and fit in the tight space of the LIGO HAM Ultra-High-Vacuum chamber. Seismic attenuation in the detectors' sensitivity frequency band is achieved with state of the art passive mechanical attenuators. These devices should provide an attenuation factor of about 70dB above 10Hz at the suspension point of the Advanced LIGO triple pendulum suspension. Automatic control techniques are used to position the optical table and damp rigid body modes. Here, we report the main results obtained from the full scale prototype installed at the MIT LIGO Advanced System Test Interferometer (LASTI) facility. Seismic attenuation performance, control strategies, improvements and limitations are also discussed

  12. Support systems for optics in the experiment stations at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraza, J.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Support systems have been designed for optics in the experiment stations of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. These systems utilize modular precision positioning slides and stages arranged in 3-point kinematic mount fashion for optimum mechanical stability. Through the use of novel configurations, these systems can achieve large linear motions, six degree-of-freedom motion, and large load capacities without sacrificing valuable experimental station space. This paper will discuss the designs and specifications of the positioning systems developed

  13. Elementary and advanced Lie algebraic methods with applications to accelerator design, electron microscopes, and light optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of elementary Lie algebraic methods for treating Hamiltonian systems. This review is followed by a brief exposition of advanced Lie algebraic methods including resonance bases and conjugacy theorems. Finally, applications are made to the design of third-order achromats for use in accelerators, to the design of subangstroem resolution electron microscopes, and to the classification and study of high order aberrations in light optics. (orig.)

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging in Medicine, Environment, Security and Defence

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  15. The cryogenic cooling program in high-heat-load optics at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes some of the aspects of the cryogenic optics program at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). A liquid-nitrogen-cooled, high-vacuum, double crystal monochromator is being fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A pumping system capable of delivering a variable flow rate of up to 10 gallons per minute of pressurized liquid nitrogen and removing 5 kilowatts of x-ray power is also being constructed. This specialized pumping system and monochromator will be used to test the viability of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load synchrotron optics. It has been determined that heat transfer enhancement will be required for optics used with APS insertion devices. An analysis of a porous-matrix-enhanced monochromator crystal is presented. For the particular case investigated, a heat transfer enhancement factor of 5 to 6 was calculated

  16. Experimental demonstration of large capacity WSDM optical access network with multicore fibers and advanced modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Borui; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Lei; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Shuang; Shum, Perry Ping

    2015-05-04

    Towards the next generation optical access network supporting large capacity data transmission to enormous number of users covering a wider area, we proposed a hybrid wavelength-space division multiplexing (WSDM) optical access network architecture utilizing multicore fibers with advanced modulation formats. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrated a WSDM optical access network with duplex transmission using our developed and fabricated multicore (7-core) fibers with 58.7km distance. As a cost-effective modulation scheme for access network, the optical OFDM-QPSK signal has been intensity modulated on the downstream transmission in the optical line terminal (OLT) and it was directly detected in the optical network unit (ONU) after MCF transmission. 10 wavelengths with 25GHz channel spacing from an optical comb generator are employed and each wavelength is loaded with 5Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signal. After amplification, power splitting, and fan-in multiplexer, 10-wavelength downstream signal was injected into six outer layer cores simultaneously and the aggregation downstream capacity reaches 300 Gb/s. -16 dBm sensitivity has been achieved for 3.8 × 10-3 bit error ratio (BER) with 7% Forward Error Correction (FEC) limit for all wavelengths in every core. Upstream signal from ONU side has also been generated and the bidirectional transmission in the same core causes negligible performance degradation to the downstream signal. As a universal platform for wired/wireless data access, our proposed architecture provides additional dimension for high speed mobile signal transmission and we hence demonstrated an upstream delivery of 20Gb/s per wavelength with QPSK modulation formats using the inner core of MCF emulating a mobile backhaul service. The IQ modulated data was coherently detected in the OLT side. -19 dBm sensitivity has been achieved under the FEC limit and more than 18 dB power budget is guaranteed.

  17. Clinical translation of handheld optical coherence tomography: practical considerations and recent advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Guillermo L.; Won, Jungeun; Spillman, Darold R.; Dsouza, Roshan; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-12-01

    Since the inception of optical coherence tomography (OCT), advancements in imaging system design and handheld probes have allowed for numerous advancements in disease diagnostics and characterization of the structural and optical properties of tissue. OCT system developers continue to reduce form factor and cost, while improving imaging performance (speed, resolution, etc.) and flexibility for applicability in a broad range of fields, and nearly every clinical specialty. An extensive array of components to construct customized systems has also become available, with a range of commercial entities that produce high-quality products, from single components to full systems, for clinical and research use. Many advancements in the development of these miniaturized and portable systems can be linked back to a specific challenge in academic research, or a clinical need in medicine or surgery. Handheld OCT systems are discussed and explored for various applications. Handheld systems are discussed in terms of their relative level of portability and form factor, with mention of the supporting technologies and surrounding ecosystem that bolstered their development. Additional insight from our efforts to implement systems in several clinical environments is provided. The trend toward well-designed, efficient, and compact handheld systems paves the way for more widespread adoption of OCT into point-of-care or point-of-procedure applications in both clinical and commercial settings.

  18. Advanced X-ray Optics Metrology for Nanofocusing and Coherence Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2007-12-01

    What is the point of developing new high-brightness light sources if beamline optics won't be available to realize the goals of nano-focusing and coherence preservation? That was one of the central questions raised during a workshop at the 2007 Advanced Light Source Users Meeting. Titled, 'Advanced X-Ray Optics Metrology for Nano-focusing and Coherence Preservation', the workshop was organized by Kenneth Goldberg and Valeriy Yashchuk (both of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL), and it brought together industry representatives and researchers from Japan, Europe, and the US to discuss the state of the art and to outline the optics requirements of new light sources. Many of the presentations are viewable on the workshop website http://goldberg.lbl.gov/MetrologyWorkshop07/. Many speakers shared the same view of one of the most significant challenges facing the development of new high-brightness third and fourth generation x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV light sources: these sources place extremely high demands on the surface quality of beamline optics. In many cases, the 1-2-nm surface error specs that define the outer bounds of 'diffraction-limited' quality are beyond the reach of leading facilities and optics vendors. To focus light to 50-nm focal spots, or smaller, from reflective optics and to preserve the high coherent flux that new sources make possible, the optical surface quality and alignment tolerances must be measured in nano-meters and nano-radians. Without a significant, well-supported research effort, including the development of new metrology techniques for use both on and off the beamline, these goals will likely not be met. The scant attention this issue has garnered is evident in the stretched budgets and limited manpower currently dedicated to metrology. With many of the world's leading groups represented at the workshop, it became clear that Japan and Europe are several steps ahead of the US in this critical area

  19. Microscopy of biological sample through advanced diffractive optics from visible to X-ray wavelength regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Cojoc, Dan; Emiliani, Valentina; Cabrini, Stefano; Coppey-Moisan, Maite; Ferrari, Enrico; Garbin, Valeria; Altissimo, Matteo

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this report is to demonstrate a unified version of microscopy through the use of advanced diffractive optics. The unified scheme derives from the technical possibility of realizing front wave engineering in a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum. The unified treatment is realized through the design and nanofabrication of phase diffractive elements (PDE) through which wave front beam shaping is obtained. In particular, we will show applications, by using biological samples, ranging from micromanipulation using optical tweezers to X-ray differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy combined with X-ray fluorescence. We report some details on the design and physical implementation of diffractive elements that besides focusing also perform other optical functions: beam splitting, beam intensity, and phase redistribution or mode conversion. Laser beam splitting is used for multiple trapping and independent manipulation of micro-beads surrounding a cell as an array of tweezers and for arraying and sorting microscopic size biological samples. Another application is the Gauss to Laguerre-Gauss mode conversion, which allows for trapping and transfering orbital angular momentum of light to micro-particles immersed in a fluid. These experiments are performed in an inverted optical microscope coupled with an infrared laser beam and a spatial light modulator for diffractive optics implementation. High-resolution optics, fabricated by means of e-beam lithography, are demonstrated to control the intensity and the phase of the sheared beams in x-ray DIC microscopy. DIC experiments with phase objects reveal a dramatic increase in image contrast compared to bright-field x-ray microscopy. Besides the topographic information, fluorescence allows detection of certain chemical elements (Cl, P, Sc, K) in the same setup, by changing the photon energy of the x-ray beam. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Recent advances in Optical Computed Tomography (OCT) imaging system for three dimensional (3D) radiotherapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmad Taufek Abdul; Farah Rosli, Nurul; Zain, Shafirah Mohd; Zin, Hafiz M.

    2018-01-01

    Radiotherapy delivery techniques for cancer treatment are becoming more complex and highly focused, to enable accurate radiation dose delivery to the cancerous tissue and minimum dose to the healthy tissue adjacent to tumour. Instrument to verify the complex dose delivery in radiotherapy such as optical computed tomography (OCT) measures the dose from a three-dimensional (3D) radiochromic dosimeter to ensure the accuracy of the radiotherapy beam delivery to the patient. OCT measures the optical density in radiochromic material that changes predictably upon exposure to radiotherapy beams. OCT systems have been developed using a photodiode and charged coupled device (CCD) as the detector. The existing OCT imaging systems have limitation in terms of the accuracy and the speed of the measurement. Advances in on-pixel intelligence CMOS image sensor (CIS) will be exploited in this work to replace current detector in OCT imaging systems. CIS is capable of on-pixel signal processing at a very fast imaging speed (over several hundred images per second) that will allow improvement in the 3D measurement of the optical density. The paper will review 3D radiochromic dosimeters and OCT systems developed and discuss how CMOS based OCT imaging will provide accurate and fast optical density measurements in 3D. The paper will also discuss the configuration of the CMOS based OCT developed in this work and how it may improve the existing OCT system.

  1. Advanced RF and microwave functions based on an integrated optical frequency comb source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingyuan; Wu, Jiayang; Nguyen, Thach G; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2018-02-05

    We demonstrate advanced transversal radio frequency (RF) and microwave functions based on a Kerr optical comb source generated by an integrated micro-ring resonator. We achieve extremely high performance for an optical true time delay aimed at tunable phased array antenna applications, as well as reconfigurable microwave photonic filters. Our results agree well with theory. We show that our true time delay would yield a phased array antenna with features that include high angular resolution and a wide range of beam steering angles, while the microwave photonic filters feature high Q factors, wideband tunability, and highly reconfigurable filtering shapes. These results show that our approach is a competitive solution to implementing reconfigurable, high performance and potentially low cost RF and microwave signal processing functions for applications including radar and communication systems.

  2. Lessons Learned During Cryogenic Optical Testing of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James; Reardon, Patrick; Geary, Joseph; Robinson, Brian; Stahl, Philip; Eng, Ron; Kegley, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Optical testing in a cryogenic environment presents a host of challenges above and beyond those encountered during room temperature testing. The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs) are 1.4 m diameter, ultra light-weight (mA2), off-axis parabolic segments. They are required to have 250 nm PV & 50 nm RMS surface figure error or less at 35 K. An optical testing system, consisting of an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI), a diffractive null corrector (DNC), and an Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), was used to measure the surface figure & radius-of-curvature of these mirrors at the operational temperature within the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Ah4SD program was designed to improve the technology related to the design, fabrication, & testing of such mirrors in support of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This paper will describe the lessons learned during preparation & cryogenic testing of the AMSDs.

  3. Performance of the advanced cold neutron source and optics upgrades at the NIST Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Kopetka, P.; Cook, J.C.; Rowe, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    On March 6, 2002, the NIST Research Reactor resumed routine operation following a six-month shutdown for facility upgrades and maintenance. During the shutdown, the original liquid hydrogen cold neutron source was removed, and the advanced cold source was installed. An optical filter was installed on one of the neutron guides, NG-3, replacing a crystal filter for the 30-m SANS instrument and the guide used between the chopper disks of the Disk Chopper time-of-flight Spectrometer (DCS) installed on NG-4 has been recently reconfigured. Additional improvements in the neutron optics of various instruments are being made. The advanced liquid hydrogen cold neutron source performs as expected, nearly doubling the flux available to most instruments. The measured gains range from about 1.4 at 2 A, to over a factor of two at 15 A. Also as expected, the heat load in the new source increased to 1200 watts, but the previously existing refrigerator has easily accommodated the increase. With intensity gains of a factor of two in the important long wavelength region of the spectrum, the advanced cold source significantly enhances the measurement capability of the cold neutron scattering instrumentation at NIST. The optical filter on NG-3 is also very successful; the 30-m SANS has an additional gain of two at 17 A. A system of refracting lenses and prisms near the SANS sample position has made possible measurements at low Q (0.0005 A -1 ) that were previously not feasible. The DCS has also seen additional intensity gain factors in excess of two for the majority of experiments and at short neutron wavelengths the gains exceed three. In addition, two new triple axis spectrometers will feature double-focusing monochromators in order to exploit the full size of the available thermal and cold neutron beam tubes. The success of the advanced cold source and enhanced neutron optics contributed to the recognition of the NIST Center for Neutron Research as 'the premiere neutron scattering

  4. Advances in clinical application of optical coherence tomography in vitreomacular interface disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Xing

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous macular interface disease mainly includes vitreomacular traction syndrome, idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane and idiopathic macular hole. Optical coherence tomography(OCTas a new tool that provides high resolution biopsy cross section image non traumatic imaging inspection, has a unique high resolution, no damage characteristics, and hence clinical widely used, vitreous macular interface for clinical disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and condition monitoring and quantitative evaluation, treatment options, etc provides important information and reference value. Vitreous macular interface disease in OCT image of anatomical morphology characteristics, improve the clinical on disease occurrence and development of knowledge. We reviewed the advances in the application of OCT in vitreomacular interface disease.

  5. Advanced magneto-optical microscopy: Imaging from picoseconds to centimeters - imaging spin waves and temperature distributions (invited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Onur Urs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the observation of magnetic domains and domain walls by wide-field optical microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr, Faraday, Voigt, and Gradient effect are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the existence of higher order magneto-optical effects for advanced magnetic imaging. Fundamental concepts and advances in methodology are discussed that allow for imaging of magnetic domains on various length and time scales. Time-resolved imaging of electric field induced domain wall rotation is shown. Visualization of magnetization dynamics down to picosecond temporal resolution for the imaging of spin-waves and magneto-optical multi-effect domain imaging techniques for obtaining vectorial information are demonstrated. Beyond conventional domain imaging, the use of a magneto-optical indicator technique for local temperature sensing is shown.

  6. Progress making the top end optical assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Arendt, J.; Bader, S.; Danyo, G.; Heller, C.

    2012-09-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to design and produce the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakal', Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot" at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we describe progress in the L-3 technical approach to meeting these challenges, including silicon carbide off-axis mirror design, fabrication, and high accuracy figuring and polishing all within L-3; mirror support design; the design for stray light control; subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning and high accuracy absolute mirror orientation sensing; Lyot stop design; and thermal management of all design elements to remain close to ambient temperature despite the imposed solar irradiance load.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Arecchi, F; Lugiato, L; Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics II

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains tutorial papers from the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics", held at the "Il Ciocco" Conference Center, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Lucca, Italy, June 28-July 7, 1987. The title of the volume is designated Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics II, because of the nearly coincident publication of a collection of articles on research in this field edited by F.T. Arecchi and R.G. Harrison [Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics, (Springer, Berlin, 1987) 1. That volume provides more detailed information about some of these topics. Together they will serve as a comprehensive and tutorial pair of companion volumes. This school was directed by Prof. Massimo Inguscio, of the Department of Physics, University of Naples, Naples, Italy to whom we express our gratitude on behalf of all lecturers and students. The Scientific Advisory Committee consisted of N.B. Abraham of Bryn Mawr College; F.T. Arecchi of the National I...

  8. Lithographic measurement of EUV flare in the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool optic at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-01

    The level of flare present in a 0.3-NA EUV optic (the MET optic) at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is measured using a lithographic method. Photoresist behavior at high exposure doses makes analysis difficult. Flare measurement analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy is compared, and optical microscopy is found to be a more reliable technique. In addition, the measured results are compared with predictions based on surface roughness measurement of the MET optical elements. When the fields in the exposure matrix are spaced far enough apart to avoid influence from surrounding fields and the data is corrected for imperfect mask contrast and aerial image proximity effects, the results match predicted values quite well. The amount of flare present in this optic ranges from 4.7% for 2 (micro)m features to 6.8% for 500 nm features

  9. Radiation hardening of optical fibers and fiber sensors for space applications: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Pinsard, E.; Laurent, A.; Ladaci, A.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Mescia, L.; Boukenter, A.

    2017-11-01

    In these ICSO proceedings, we review recent advances from our group concerning the radiation hardening of optical fiber and fiber-based sensors for space applications and compare their benefits to state-of-the-art results. We focus on the various approaches we developed to enhance the radiation tolerance of two classes of optical fibers doped with rare-earths: the erbium (Er)-doped ones and the ytterbium/erbium (Er/Yb)-doped ones. As a first approach, we work at the component level, optimizing the fiber structure and composition to reduce their intrinsically high radiation sensitivities. For the Erbium-doped fibers, this has been achieved using a new structure for the fiber that is called Hole-Assisted Carbon Coated (HACC) optical fibers whereas for the Er/Ybdoped optical fibers, their hardening was successfully achieved adding to the fiber, the Cerium element, that prevents the formation of the radiation-induced point defects responsible for the radiation induced attenuation in the infrared part of the spectrum. These fibers are used as part of more complex systems like amplifiers (Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier, EDFA or Yb-EDFA) or source (Erbium-doped Fiber Source, EDFS or Yb- EDFS), we discuss the impact of using radiation-hardened fibers on the system radiation vulnerability and demonstrate the resistance of these systems to radiation constraints associated with today and future space missions. Finally, we will discuss another radiation hardening approach build in our group and based on a hardening-by-system strategy in which the amplifier is optimized during its elaboration for its future mission considering the radiation effects and not in-lab.

  10. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade advanced optical diagnostic techniques have evolved and matured to a point where they are now widely applied in the interrogation of high pressure combusting flows. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), imaging techniques have been used successfully in on-going work to develop the next generation of commercial aircraft gas turbine combustors. This work has centered on providing a means by which researchers and designers can obtain direct visual observation and measurements of the fuel injection/mixing/combustion processes and combustor flowfield in two- and three-dimensional views at actual operational conditions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the chemical and physical processes at the extreme operating conditions of the next generation of combustors is critical to reducing emissions and increasing fuel efficiency. To accomplish this and other tasks, the diagnostic team at GRC has designed and constructed optically accessible, high pressurer high temperature flame tubes and sectar rigs capable of optically probing the 20-60 atm flowfields of these aero-combustors. Among the techniques employed at GRC are planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for imaging molecular species as well as liquid and gaseous fuel; planar light scattering (PLS) for imaging fuel sprays and droplets; and spontaneous Raman scattering for species and temperature measurement. Using these techniques, optical measurements never before possible have been made in the actual environments of liquid fueled gas turbines. 2-D mapping of such parameters as species (e.g. OH-, NO and kerosene-based jet fuel) distribution, injector spray angle, and fuel/air distribution are just some of the measurements that are now routinely made. Optical imaging has also provided prompt feedback to researchers regarding the effects of changes in the fuel injector configuration on both combustor performance and flowfield character. Several injector design modifications and improvements have

  11. XUV synchrotron optical components for the Advanced Light Source: Summary of the requirements and the developmental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.; Irick, S.; Lunt, D.

    1992-07-01

    We give a brief summary of the requirements for water cooled optical components for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third generation synchrotron radiation source under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from a finished water cooled copper alloy mirror will be used to demonstrate the state of the art in optical metrology with the Takacs Long Trace Profiler (LTP II)

  12. Tailoring the Optical Properties of Silicon with Ion Beam Created Nanostructures for Advanced Photonics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Perveen

    In today's fast life, energy consumption has increased more than ever and with that the demand for a renewable and cleaner energy source as a substitute for the fossil fuels has also increased. Solar radiations are the ultimate source of energy but harvesting this energy in a cost effective way is a challenging task. Si is the dominating material for microelectronics and photovoltaics. But owing to its indirect band gap, Si is an inefficient light absorber, thus requiring a thickness of solar cells beyond tens of microns which increases the cost of solar energy. Therefore, techniques to increase light absorption in thin film Si solar cells are of great importance and have been the focus of research for a few decades now. Another big issue of technology in this fast-paced world is the computing rate or data transfer rate between components of a chip in ultra-fast processors. Existing electronic interconnects suffering from the signal delays and heat generation issues are unable to handle high data rates. A possible solution to this problem is in replacing the electronic interconnects with optical interconnects which have large data carrying capacity. However, optical components are limited in size by the fundamental laws of diffraction to about half a wavelength of light and cannot be combined with nanoscale electronic components. Tremendous research efforts have been directed in search of an advanced technology which can bridge the size gap between electronic and photonic worlds. An emerging technology of "plasmonics'' which exploits the extraordinary optical properties of metal nanostructures to tailor the light at nanoscale has been considered a potential solution to both of the above-mentioned problems. Research conducted for this dissertation has an overall goal to investigate the optical properties of silicon with metal nanostructures for photovoltaics and advanced silicon photonics applications. The first part of the research focuses on achieving enhanced

  13. Recent advancements in robotic micro-optical assembly at the Lockheed Martin Optical Payload Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David; Larson, Thomas M.

    2017-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company Optical Payloads Center of Excellence is in process of standing up the Robotic Optical Assembly System (ROAS) capability at Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies in Colorado. This currently implemented Robotic Optical Assembly has enabled Lockheed Martin to create world-leading, ultra-lowSWAP photonic devices using a closed-loop control robot to precisely position and align micro-optics with a potential fill factor of >25 optics per square inch. This paper will discuss the anticipated applications and optical capability when ROAS is fully operational, as well as challenge the audience to update their "rules of thumb" and best practices when designing low-SWAP optical-mechanical systems that take advantage of Lockheed Martin's ROAS capability. This paper will reveal demonstrated optical pointing and stability performance achievable with ROAS and why we believe these optical specifications are relevant for the majority of anticipated applications. After a high level overview of the ROAS current state, this paper will focus in on recent results of the "Reworkable Micro-Optics Mounting IRAD". Results from this IRAD will correlate to the anticipated optical specifications required for relevant applications.

  14. Advanced digital signal processing for short haul optical fiber transmission beyond 100G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Significant increase of intra and inter data center traffic has been expected by the rapid spread of various network applications like SNS, IoT, mobile and cloud computing, and the needs for ultra-high speed and cost-effective short- to medium-reach optical fiber links beyond 100-Gbit/s is becoming larger and larger. Such high-speed links typically use multilevel modulation to lower signaling speed, which in turn face serious challenges in limited loss budget and waveform distortion tolerance. One of the promising techniques to overcome them is the use of advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and we review various DSP applications for short-to-medium reach applications.

  15. 6th conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The 6th Conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics (AOM 2017) Nanjing, China April 23 - 26, 2017 Conference Co-Chairs: Yiping Cui - Southeast University, China Xiaocong Yuan - Shenzhen University, China Shining Zhu - Nanjing University, China WELCOME Journal of physics: Conference Series is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 6 th Conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics (AOM 2017), which is an OSA topical meeting that started in 2009. AOM 2017, organized by The Optical Society of America, Southeast University, and Jiangsu Optical Society, was successfully held at Nanjing, China from April 23 th -26 th , 2017. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of optoelectronics and micro/nano-optics, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Located in Yangtze River Delta area and the center of east China, Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu province and the second largest city in the east China region, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this international conference. The conference program included plenary talks, invited talks, oral and poster contributions. From numerous submissions, 64 of the most promising and IOP-relevant contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 300 qualified and high-level researchers and experts, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we

  16. Advances in estimation methods of vegetation water content based on optical remote sensing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of vegetation water content(VWC) using optical remote sensing techniques is helpful in forest fire as-sessment,agricultural drought monitoring and crop yield estimation.This paper reviews the research advances of VWC retrieval using spectral reflectance,spectral water index and radiative transfer model(RTM) methods.It also evaluates the reli-ability of VWC estimation using spectral water index from the observation data and the RTM.Focusing on two main definitions of VWC-the fuel moisture content(FMC) and the equivalent water thickness(EWT),the retrieval accuracies of FMC and EWT using vegetation water indices are analyzed.Moreover,the measured information and the dataset are used to estimate VWC,the results show there are significant correlations among three kinds of vegetation water indices(i.e.,WSI,NDⅡ,NDWI1640,WI/NDVI) and canopy FMC of winter wheat(n=45).Finally,the future development directions of VWC detection based on optical remote sensing techniques are also summarized.

  17. Enhancing cell and gene therapy manufacture through the application of advanced fluorescent optical sensors (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard P; Chauhan, Veeren M

    2017-12-15

    Cell and gene therapies (CGTs) are examples of future therapeutics that can be used to cure or alleviate the symptoms of disease, by repairing damaged tissue or reprogramming defective genetic information. However, despite the recent advancements in clinical trial outcomes, the path to wide-scale adoption of CGTs remains challenging, such that the emergence of a "blockbuster" therapy has so far proved elusive. Manufacturing solutions for these therapies require the application of scalable and replicable cell manufacturing techniques, which differ markedly from the existing pharmaceutical incumbent. Attempts to adopt this pharmaceutical model for CGT manufacture have largely proved unsuccessful. The most significant challenges facing CGT manufacturing are process analytical testing and quality control. These procedures would greatly benefit from improved sensory technologies that allow direct measurement of critical quality attributes, such as pH, oxygen, lactate and glucose. In turn, this would make manufacturing more robust, replicable and standardized. In this review, the present-day state and prospects of CGT manufacturing are discussed. In particular, the authors highlight the role of fluorescent optical sensors, focusing on their strengths and weaknesses, for CGT manufacture. The review concludes by discussing how the integration of CGT manufacture and fluorescent optical sensors could augment future bioprocessing approaches.

  18. Optical modeling and polarization calibration for CMB measurements with ACTPol and Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Brian; Austermann, Jason; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Newburgh, Laura; Page, Lyman A.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. ACTPol uses transition edge sensor bolometers coupled to orthomode transducers to measure both the temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Calibration of the detector angles is a critical step in producing polarization maps of the CMB. Polarization angle offsets in the detector calibration can cause leakage in polarization from E to B modes and induce a spurious signal in the EB and TB cross correlations, which eliminates our ability to measure potential cosmological sources of EB and TB signals, such as cosmic birefringence. We calibrate the ACTPol detector angles by ray tracing the designed detector angle through the entire optical chain to determine the projection of each detector angle on the sky. The distribution of calibrated detector polarization angles are consistent with a global offset angle from zero when compared to the EB-nulling offset angle, the angle required to null the EB cross-correlation power spectrum. We present the optical modeling process. The detector angles can be cross checked through observations of known polarized sources, whether this be a galactic source or a laboratory reference standard. To cross check the ACTPol detector angles, we use a thin film polarization grid placed in front of the receiver of the telescope, between the receiver and the secondary reflector. Making use of a rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) mount we spin the polarizing grid at a constant speed, polarizing and rotating the incoming atmospheric signal. The resulting sinusoidal signal is used to determine the detector angles. The optical modeling calibration was shown to be consistent with a global offset angle of zero when compared to EB nulling in the first ACTPol results and will continue to be a part of our calibration implementation. The first

  19. Optical methods for the optimization of system SWaP-C using aspheric components and advanced optical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Amy; Benson, Robert; Deegan, John; Walsh, Ken; Schmidt, W. David; Howe, Russell

    2013-06-01

    We describe the benefits to camera system SWaP-C associated with the use of aspheric molded glasses and optical polymers in the design and manufacture of optical components and elements. Both camera objectives and display eyepieces, typical for night vision man-portable EO/IR systems, are explored. We discuss optical trade-offs, system performance, and cost reductions associated with this approach in both visible and non-visible wavebands, specifically NIR and LWIR. Example optical models are presented, studied, and traded using this approach.

  20. Proceedings of the first international conference on indium phosphide and related materials for advanced electronic and optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Messick, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first international conference on indium phosphide and related materials for advanced electronic and optical devices. Topics covered include: Growth and characterization of bulk and epitaxial films, Passivation technology, Processing technology, High speed optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Solar cells

  1. Sequential x-ray diffraction topography at 1-BM x-ray optics testing beamline at the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav, E-mail: sstoupin@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Liu, Zunping; Lang, Keenan; Huang, Xianrong; Wieczorek, Michael; Kasman, Elina; Hammonds, John; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We report progress on implementation and commissioning of sequential X-ray diffraction topography at 1-BM Optics Testing Beamline of the Advanced Photon Source to accommodate growing needs of strain characterization in diffractive crystal optics and other semiconductor single crystals. The setup enables evaluation of strain in single crystals in the nearly-nondispersive double-crystal geometry. Si asymmetric collimator crystals of different crystallographic orientations were designed, fabricated and characterized using in-house capabilities. Imaging the exit beam using digital area detectors permits rapid sequential acquisition of X-ray topographs at different angular positions on the rocking curve of a crystal under investigation. Results on sensitivity and spatial resolution are reported based on experiments with high-quality Si and diamond crystals. The new setup complements laboratory-based X-ray topography capabilities of the Optics group at the Advanced Photon Source.

  2. Examination of a duo-collection optics design for the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seungtae; Lee, Jong Ha

    2011-01-01

    The comparison of collective optic designs is described for the Thomson scattering system of the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) device. The optical systems collecting the light emission induced through the interaction between the plasma electrons and a laser beam are the key components for the Thomson scattering system. In the first conceptual design of the collection optics for the KSTAR Thomson scattering system, a duo-lens system covering individually the core and the edge regions of the KSTAR plasma with two optical lens modules was proposed. In optical designs, the number of optical modules is a great concern in the case of limited system space. Here, the duo-lens system is evaluated through a comparison with a uni-lens system covering the whole region of the plasma with a single optical module. The duo-lens system turned out to have 2.0 times and 4.73 times higher light collections of the plasma core and edge compared with the uni-lens system

  3. [INVITED] Recent advances in surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic chemical and biosensors utilizing bulk and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Banshi D.; Kant, Ravi

    2018-05-01

    Surface plasmon resonance has established itself as an immensely acclaimed and influential optical sensing tool with quintessential applications in life sciences, environmental monitoring, clinical diagnostics, pharmaceutical developments and ensuring food safety. The implementation of sensing principle of surface plasmon resonance employing an optical fiber as a substrate has concomitantly resulted in the evolution of fiber optic surface plasmon resonance as an exceptionally lucrative scaffold for chemical and biosensing applications. This perspective article outlines the contemporary studies on fiber optic sensors founded on the sensing architecture of propagating as well as localized surface plasmon resonance. An in-depth review of the prevalent analytical and surface chemical tactics involved in configuring the sensing layer over an optical fiber for the detection of various chemical and biological entities is presented. The involvement of nanomaterials as a strategic approach to enhance the sensor sensitivity is furnished concurrently providing an insight into the diverse geometrical blueprints for designing fiber optic sensing probes. Representative examples from the literature are discussed to appreciate the latest advancements in this potentially valuable research avenue. The article concludes by identifying some of the key challenges and exploring the opportunities for expanding the scope and impact of surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic sensors.

  4. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) measures and reports the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. It is nearing its end of life and there are a limited number remaining. Meanwhile, the next generation advanced portable life support system (PLSS) now being developed requires CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed to address both applications by Vista Photonics, Inc. Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. Version 1.0 devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Version 2.0 devices with improved electronics and significantly reduced wetted volumes were delivered to JSC in 2012. A version 2.5 upgrade recently implemented wavelength stabilized operation, better humidity measurement, and much faster data analysis/reporting. A wholly reconfigured version 3.0 will maintain the demonstrated performance of earlier versions while being backwards compatible with the EMU and offering a radiation tolerant architecture.

  5. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  6. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, Kyle [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to

  7. Analysis of physical layer performance of data center with optical wavelength switches based on advanced modulation formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Chughtai, Mohsan Niaz

    2018-05-01

    In this paper the IRIS (Integrated Router Interconnected spectrally), an optical domain architecture for datacenter network is analyzed. The IRIS integrated with advanced modulation formats (M-QAM) and coherent optical receiver is analyzed. The channel impairments are compensated using the DSP algorithms following the coherent receiver. The proposed scheme allows N2 multiplexed wavelengths for N×N size. The performance of the N×N-IRIS switch with and without wavelength conversion is analyzed for different Baud rates over M-QAM modulation formats. The performance of the system is analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER) vs OSNR curves.

  8. Recent results and future plans for a 45 actuator adaptive x-ray optics experiment at the advanced light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai F., E-mail: brejnholt1@llnl.gov; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Hill, Randal M.; Pardini, Tommaso; Hagler, Lisle; Jackson, Jessie; Jeon, Jae; McCarville, Thomas J.; Palmer, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Celestre, Richard [Advanced Light Source - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Brooks, Audrey D. [Northrop Grumman - AOA Xinetics Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We report on the current status of the Adaptive X-ray Optics project run by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL is collaborating with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to demonstrate a near real-time adaptive X-ray optic. To this end, a custom-built 45 cm long deformable mirror has been installed at ALS beamline 5.3.1 (end station 2) for a two-year period that started in September 2014. We will outline general aspects of the instrument, present results from a recent experimental campaign and touch on future plans for the project.

  9. Combined advanced finishing and UV laser conditioning process for producing damage resistant optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Peterson, John E.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Miller, Philip E.; Parham, Thomas G.; Nichols, Michael A.

    2005-07-26

    A method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects, and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure to a high-power laser beam.

  10. A study of optical design and optimization applied to lens module of laser beam shaping of advanced modern optical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chen, Zhen Hsiang

    2011-10-01

    This study used the aspheric lens to realize the laser flat-top optimization, and applied the genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal results. Using the characteristics of aspheric lens to obtain the optimized high quality Nd: YAG 355 waveband laser flat-top optical system, this study employed the Light tools LDS (least damped square) and the GA of artificial intelligence optimization method to determine the optimal aspheric coefficient and obtain the optimal solution. This study applied the aspheric lens with GA for the flattening of laser beams using two aspheric lenses in the aspheric surface optical system to complete 80% spot narrowing under standard deviation of 0.6142.

  11. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Foulk

    2012-07-24

    Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and

  12. Broad frequency band full field measurements for advanced applications: Point-wise comparisons between optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The progress of optical systems gives nowadays at disposal on lightweight structures complex dynamic measurements and modal tests, each with its own advantages, drawbacks and preferred usage domains. It is thus more easy than before to obtain highly spatially defined vibration patterns for many applications in vibration engineering, testing and general product development. The potential of three completely different technologies is here benchmarked on a common test rig and advanced applications. SLDV, dynamic ESPI and hi-speed DIC are here first deployed in a complex and unique test on the estimation of FRFs with high spatial accuracy from a thin vibrating plate. The latter exhibits a broad band dynamics and high modal density in the common frequency domain where the techniques can find an operative intersection. A peculiar point-wise comparison is here addressed by means of discrete geometry transforms to put all the three technologies on trial at each physical point of the surface. Full field measurement technologies cannot estimate only displacement fields on a refined grid, but can exploit the spatial consistency of the results through neighbouring locations by means of numerical differentiation operators in the spatial domain to obtain rotational degrees of freedom and superficial dynamic strain distributions, with enhanced quality, compared to other technologies in literature. Approaching the task with the aid of superior quality receptance maps from the three different full field gears, this work calculates and compares rotational and dynamic strain FRFs. Dynamic stress FRFs can be modelled directly from the latter, by means of a constitutive model, avoiding the costly and time-consuming steps of building and tuning a numerical dynamic model of a flexible component or a structure in real life conditions. Once dynamic stress FRFs are obtained, spectral fatigue approaches can try to predict the life of a component in many excitation conditions. Different

  13. The Master's program in Advanced Optical Technologies: an interdisciplinary, international and individual approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großmann, Jürgen; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    The Master's Program in Advanced Optical Technologies (MAOT) was established at the Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg in 2007 as part of the Elite Network of Bavaria (ENB), an initiative by the Bavarian State Government comprising about 40 elite Master's programs and doctoral programs. MAOT can be studied after a Bachelor in physics or an engineering subject. The Master's program realizes an innovative concept combining three core elements: (1) Interdisciplinarity: The program integrates courses and researchers from five engineering subjects and from physics. The degree of interdisciplinarity goes far beyond traditional programs. (2) Internationality: The program is taught entirely in English and special support is given to international students. (3). Individuality: The course curriculum was adapted at several points based on the experience in the initial years. The same is true for the way in which international students are supported and the type of support they need. The students are given an unusually high degree of freedom to develop an individual curriculum and to pursue research projects. Crucial experience and lessons learned are: (1) Lecturers and researchers have to be coordinated and the perspectives of the different disciplines have to be integrated within one program. Students must be guided in order to deal with the demands and challenges of the different disciplines. (2) International students need support with settling in Germany and with learning and working in a German cultural environment. They need support with administrative issues. Furthermore, they need to analyze and understand cultural differences and how they impact on the cooperation between lecturers and students and on the work in research groups. (3) Students must be helped to develop their own curriculum. They must learn how to combine their first-degree qualification with the specialized qualification which they gain after completing their Master's program. They

  14. A fluidics comparison of Alcon Infiniti, Bausch & Lomb Stellaris, and Advanced Medical Optics Signature phacoemulsification machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Dan; Kuo, Annie F; Kinard, Krista I; Olson, Randall J

    2008-06-01

    To compare three phacoemulsification machines for measurement accuracy and postocclusion surge (POS) in human cadaver eyes. In vitro comparisons of machine accuracy and POS. Tip vacuum and flow were compared with machine indicated vacuum and flow. All machines were placed in two human cadaver eyes and POS was determined. Vacuum (% of actual) was 101.9% +/- 1.7% for Infiniti (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas, USA), 93.2% +/- 3.9% for Stellaris (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, New York, USA), and 107.8% +/- 4.6% for Signature (Advanced Medical Optics, Santa, Ana, California, USA; P Infiniti, 53.5 +/- 0.0 ml/minute and 179.8 +/- 0.9 mm Hg for Stellaris, and 58.5 +/- 0.0 ml/minute and 115.1 +/- 2.3 mm Hg for Signature (P Infiniti, 0.16 +/- 0.06 mm for Stellaris, and 0.13 +/- 0.04 mm for Signature at 550 mm Hg, 60 cm bottle height, 45 ml/minute flow with 19-gauge tips (P Infiniti vs Stellaris and Signature). POS in an 81-year-old eye was 1.51 +/- 0.22 mm for Infiniti, 0.83 +/- 0.06 mm for Stellaris, 0.67 +/- 0.01 mm for Signature at 400 mm Hg vacuum, 70 cm bottle height, 40 ml/minute flow with 19-gauge tips (P Infiniti and Stellaris were similar. Minimizing POS and vacuum to maintain flow potentially are important in avoiding ocular damage and surgical complications.

  15. High heat load x-ray optics research and development at the Advanced Photon Source -- An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wah-Keat; Mills, D.M.

    1993-09-01

    Insertion devices at third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the APS are capable of producing x-ray beams with total power in excess of 7 kilowatts or power densities of 150 watts/mm 2 at a typical location of the optical components. Optical elements subjected to these types of heat fluxes will suffer considerably unless carefully designed to withstand these unprecedented power loadings. At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have an aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at investigating possible methods to mitigate thermal distortions. The approaches being studied include, improved heat exchangers, use of liquid gallium and liquid nitrogen as coolants, novel crystal geometries, power filtering, and replacement of silicon with diamond for crystal monochromators. This paper will provide an overview of the high heat load x-ray optics program at the APS

  16. Optical system design, analysis, and production for advanced technology systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Innsbruck, Austria, Apr. 15-17, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert E. (Editor); Rogers, Philip J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference considers topics in the fields of optical systems design software, the design and analysis of optical systems, illustrative cases of advanced optical system design, the integration of optical designs into greater systems, and optical fabrication and testing techniques. Attention is given to an extended range diffraction-based merit function for lens design optimization, an assessment of technologies for stray light control and evaluation, the automated characterization of IR systems' spatial resolution, a spectrum of design techniques based on aberration theory, a three-field IR telescope, a large aperture zoom lens for 16-mm motion picture cameras, and the use of concave holographic gratings as monochomators. Also discussed are the use of aspherics in optical systems, glass choice procedures for periscope design, the fabrication and testing of unconventional optics, low mass mirrors for large optics, and the diamond grinding of optical surfaces on aspheric lens molds.

  17. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Optical Switching in Low-Dimensional Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bányai, L

    1989-01-01

    This book contains all the papers presented at the NATO workshop on "Optical Switching in Low Dimensional Systems" held in Marbella, Spain from October 6th to 8th, 1988. Optical switching is a basic function for optical data processing, which is of technological interest because of its potential parallelism and its potential speed. Semiconductors which exhibit resonance enhanced optical nonlinearities in the frequency range close to the band edge are the most intensively studied materials for optical bistability and fast gate operation. Modern crystal growth techniques, particularly molecular beam epitaxy, allow the manufacture of semiconductor microstructures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots in which the electrons are only free to move in two, one or zero dimensions, of the optically excited electron-hole pairs in these low respectively. The spatial confinement dimensional structures gives rise to an enhancement of the excitonic nonlinearities. Furthermore, the variations of the microstr...

  18. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  19. Technical Readiness and Gaps Analysis of Commercial Optical Materials and Measurement Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Andersen, Eric S.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary; Cannon, Bret D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Mendoza, Albert; Sheen, David M.

    2013-08-06

    This report intends to support Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap and industry stakeholders by evaluating optical-based instrumentation and control (I&C) concepts for advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. These advanced designs will require innovative thinking in terms of engineering approaches, materials integration, and I&C concepts to realize their eventual viability and deployability. The primary goals of this report include: 1. Establish preliminary I&C needs, performance requirements, and possible gaps for AdvSMR designs based on best available published design data. 2. Document commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) optical sensors, components, and materials in terms of their technical readiness to support essential AdvSMR in-vessel I&C systems. 3. Identify technology gaps by comparing the in-vessel monitoring requirements and environmental constraints to COTS optical sensor and materials performance specifications. 4. Outline a future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program plan that addresses these gaps and develops optical-based I&C systems that enhance the viability of future AdvSMR designs. The development of clean, affordable, safe, and proliferation-resistant nuclear power is a key goal that is documented in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. This roadmap outlines RD&D activities intended to overcome technical, economic, and other barriers, which currently limit advances in nuclear energy. These activities will ensure that nuclear energy remains a viable component to this nation’s energy security.

  20. Extending CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning for advanced optical and EUV mask cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Ivin; Bowers, Charles W.; Balooch, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Cryogenic CO2 aerosol cleaning being a dry, chemically-inert and residue-free process is used in the production of optical lithography masks. It is an attractive cleaning option for the mask industry to achieve the requirement for removal of all printable soft defects and repair debris down to the 50nm printability specification. In the technique, CO2 clusters are formed by sudden expansion of liquid from high to almost atmospheric pressure through an optimally designed nozzle orifice. They are then directed on to the soft defects or debris for momentum transfer and subsequent damage free removal from the mask substrate. Unlike aggressive acid based wet cleaning, there is no degradation of the mask after processing with CO2, i.e., no critical dimension (CD) change, no transmission/phase losses, or chemical residue that leads to haze formation. Therefore no restriction on number of cleaning cycles is required to be imposed, unlike other cleaning methods. CO2 aerosol cleaning has been implemented for several years as full mask final clean in production environments at several state of the art mask shops. Over the last two years our group reported successful removal of all soft defects without damage to the fragile SRAF features, zero adders (from the cleaning and handling mechanisms) down to a 50nm printability specification. In addition, CO2 aerosol cleaning is being utilized to remove debris from Post-RAVE repair of hard defects in order to achieve the goal of no printable defects. It is expected that CO2 aerosol cleaning can be extended to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks. In this paper, we report advances being made in nozzle design qualification for optimum snow properties (size, velocity and flux) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. In addition the two new areas of focus for CO2 aerosol cleaning i.e. pellicle glue residue removal on optical masks, and ruthenium (Ru) film on EUV masks are presented. Usually, the residue left over after the pellicle

  1. Possibilities for Advanced Encoding Techniques at Signal Transmission in the Optical Transmission Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Čertík

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a possible simulation of negative effects in the optical transmission medium and an analysis for the utilization of different signal processing techniques at the optical signal transmission. An attention is focused on the high data rate signal transmission in the optical fiber influenced by linear and nonlinear environmental effects presented by the prepared simulation model. The analysis includes possible utilization of OOK, BPSK, DBPSK, BFSK, QPSK, DQPSK, 8PSK, and 16QAM modulation techniques together with RS, BCH, and LDPC encoding techniques for the signal transmission in the optical fiber. Moreover, the prepared simulation model is compared with real optical transmission systems. In the final part, a comparison of the selected modulation techniques with different encoding techniques and their implementation in real transmission systems is shown.

  2. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  3. Advanced feed-through systems for in-well optical fibre sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiach, G; Nolan, A; McAvoy, S; McStay, D; Prel, C; Smith, M

    2007-01-01

    A new optical fibre feed-through for use in subsea in-well optical fibre sensing systems is reported. The new feed-through is compatible for use with standard subsea Christmas Tree penetrators and allows multiple re-mating of the feed-through over the lifetime of the device. The system has been extensively tested under in-well conditions and found to conform to the performance requirements. The new feed-through is planned to be used in one of the first subsea optical fibre in-well sensing systems

  4. The CMOS Breakthrough for Space Optical Detection: Recent Advances and Short Term Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Breart de Boisanger, Michel; Larnaudie, Franck; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Magnan, Pierre; Martin Gonthier, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    .... Indeed, detectors built with both technologies allow excellent electro-optics performances to be reached, the selection of the most adequate device being driven by their functional and technological features and limits...

  5. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding. PMID:26528975

  6. Advanced Holographic Phase Nulls Suitable for EUV Quality Optical Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A number of future space sciences missions require optical surfaces that are accurate to nanometer and sub-nanometer levels. These applications include large...

  7. Advanced Modulation Formats in Cognitive Optical Networks: EU project CHRON Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Klonidis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate real-time path establishment and switching of coherent modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM) within an optical network driven by cognitive algorithms. Cognition aims at autonomous configuration optimization to satisfy quality of transmission requirements.......We demonstrate real-time path establishment and switching of coherent modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM) within an optical network driven by cognitive algorithms. Cognition aims at autonomous configuration optimization to satisfy quality of transmission requirements....

  8. Development of high-speed and wide-angle visible observation diagnostics on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak using catadioptric optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. H.; Hu, L. Q.; Zang, Q.; Han, X. F.; Shao, C. Q.; Sun, T. F.; Chen, H.; Wang, T. F.; Li, F. J.; Hu, A. L.; Yang, X. F.

    2013-01-01

    A new wide-angle endoscope for visible light observation on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been recently developed. The head section of the optical system is based on a mirror reflection design that is similar to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wide-angle observation diagnostic on the Joint European Torus. However, the optical system design has been simplified and improved. As a result, the global transmittance of the system is as high as 79.6% in the wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm, and the spatial resolution is <5 mm for the full depth of field (4000 mm). The optical system also has a large relative aperture (1:2.4) and can be applied in high-speed camera diagnostics. As an important diagnostic tool, the optical system has been installed on the HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) for its final experimental campaign, and the experiments confirmed that it can be applied to the investigation of transient processes in plasma, such as ELMy eruptions in H-mode, on EAST

  9. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  10. Active optical system for advanced 3D surface structuring by laser remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, O.; Temmler, A.; Stollenwerk, J.; Willenborg, E.; Loosen, P.

    2015-03-01

    Structuring by laser remelting enables completely new possibilities for designing surfaces since material is redistributed but not wasted. In addition to technological advantages, cost and time benefits yield from shortened process times, the avoidance of harmful chemicals and the elimination of subsequent finishing steps such as cleaning and polishing. The functional principle requires a completely new optical machine technology that maintains the spatial and temporal superposition and manipulation of three different laser beams emitted from two laser sources of different wavelength. The optical system has already been developed and demonstrated for the processing of flat samples of hot and cold working steel. However, since particularly the structuring of 3D-injection molds represents an application example of high innovation potential, the optical system has to take into account the elliptical beam geometry that occurs when the laser beams irradiate a curved surface. To take full advantage of structuring by remelting for the processing of 3D surfaces, additional optical functionality, called EPS (elliptical pre-shaping) has to be integrated into the existing set-up. The development of the beam shaping devices not only requires the analysis of the mechanisms of the beam projection but also a suitable optical design. Both aspects are discussed in this paper.

  11. Advanced optical modeling of TiN metal hard mask for scatterometric critical dimension metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Peter; Urbanowicz, Adam M.; Likhachev, Dmitriy; Hartig, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    The majority of scatterometric production control models assume constant optical properties of the materials and only dimensional parameters are allowed to vary. However, this assumption, especially in case of thin-metal films, negatively impacts model precision and accuracy. In this work we focus on optical modeling of the TiN metal hardmask for scatterometry applications. Since the dielectric function of TiN exhibits thickness dependence, we had to take this fact into account. Moreover, presence of the highly absorbing films influences extracted thicknesses of dielectric layers underneath the metal films. The later phenomenon is often not reflected by goodness of fit. We show that accurate optical modeling of metal is essential to achieve desired scatterometric model quality for automatic process control in microelectronic production. Presented modeling methodology can be applied to other TiN applications such as diffusion barriers and metal gates as well as for other metals used in microelectronic manufacturing for all technology nodes.

  12. Beam profile measurements on the advanced test accelerator using optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Y.P.; Kalibjian, R.; Cornish, J.P.; Kallman, J.S.; Donnelly, D.

    1986-01-01

    Beam current density profiles of ATA have been measured both spatially and temporally using a number of diagnostics. An extremely important technique involves measuring optical emissions from either a target foil inserted into the beam path or gas atoms and molecules excited by beam electrons. This paper describes the detection of the optical emission. A 2-D gated television camera with a single or dual micro-channel-plate (MCP) detector for high gain provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements are routinely made with resolutions of 1 mm and 5 ns respectively. The optical line of sight allows splitting part of the signal to a streak camera or photometer for even higher time resolution

  13. Advanced Optical Metrology for XRAY Replication Mandrels and Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced x-ray observatories such as IXO and GenX will require thousands of thin shell mirror segments produced by replication using convex mandrels. Quality and...

  14. Nonlinear optics and solid-state lasers advanced concepts, tuning-fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianquan

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the complete spectrum of nonlinear optics and all solid state lasers.The book integrates theory, calculations and practical design, technology, experimental schemes and applications. With the expansion and further development of Laser technology, the wavelength spectrum of Lasers had to be enlarged, even to be tunable which requires the use of nonlinear optical and Laser tunable technology. It systematically summarizes and integrates the analysis of international achievements within the last 20 years in this field. It will be helpful for university teachers, graduate students as well as engineers.

  15. A Quantum Field Approach for Advancing Optical Coherence Tomography Part I: First Order Correlations, Single Photon Interference, and Quantum Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, M E

    2018-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography has become an important imaging technology in cardiology and ophthalmology, with other applications under investigations. Major advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are likely to occur through a quantum field approach to the technology. In this paper, which is the first part in a series on the topic, the quantum basis of OCT first order correlations is expressed in terms of full field quantization. Specifically first order correlations are treated as the linear sum of single photon interferences along indistinguishable paths. Photons and the electromagnetic (EM) field are described in terms of quantum harmonic oscillators. While the author feels the study of quantum second order correlations will lead to greater paradigm shifts in the field, addressed in part II, advances from the study of quantum first order correlations are given. In particular, ranging errors are discussed (with remedies) from vacuum fluctuations through the detector port, photon counting errors, and position probability amplitude uncertainty. In addition, the principles of quantum field theory and first order correlations are needed for studying second order correlations in part II.

  16. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  17. A Quantum Field Approach for Advancing Optical Coherence Tomography Part I: First Order Correlations, Single Photon Interference, and Quantum Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, ME

    2018-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography has become an important imaging technology in cardiology and ophthalmology, with other applications under investigations. Major advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are likely to occur through a quantum field approach to the technology. In this paper, which is the first part in a series on the topic, the quantum basis of OCT first order correlations is expressed in terms of full field quantization. Specifically first order correlations are treated as the linear sum of single photon interferences along indistinguishable paths. Photons and the electromagnetic (EM) field are described in terms of quantum harmonic oscillators. While the author feels the study of quantum second order correlations will lead to greater paradigm shifts in the field, addressed in part II, advances from the study of quantum first order correlations are given. In particular, ranging errors are discussed (with remedies) from vacuum fluctuations through the detector port, photon counting errors, and position probability amplitude uncertainty. In addition, the principles of quantum field theory and first order correlations are needed for studying second order correlations in part II.

  18. Roadmap on biosensing and photonics with advanced nano-optical methods

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2016-05-10

    This roadmap, through the contributions of ten groups worldwide, contains different techniques, methods and materials devoted to sensing in nanomedicine. Optics is used in different ways in the detection schemes. Raman, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopies, plasmonics, second harmonic generation and optical tweezers are all used in applications from single molecule detection (both in highly diluted and in highly concentrated solutions) to single cell manipulation. In general, each optical scheme, through device miniaturization and electromagnetic field localization, exploits an intrinsic optical enhancement mechanism in order to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of the device with respect to the complex molecular construct. The materials used for detection include nanoparticles and nanostructures fabricated with different 2D and 3D lithographic methods. It is shown that sensitivity to a single molecule is already accessible whether the system under study is a single cell or a multitude of cells in a molecular mixture. Throughout the roadmap there is an attempt to foresee and to suggest future directions in this interdisciplinary field. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Advanced spectral processing of broadband light using acousto-optic devices with arbitrary transmission functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Vladimir Ya; Yushkov, Konstantin B

    2014-06-30

    In the paper, we developed a dispersive method for transmission function synthesis of collinear and quasi-collinear acousto-optic tunable filters. General theoretical consideration was performed, and modelling was made for broadband and narrowband signals. Experimental results on spectral shaping of femtosecond laser emission were obtained. Binary spectral encoding of broadband emission was demonstrated.

  20. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    1996-01-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves

  1. 9th International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Congress will provide a unique topical forum to share the latest results of the metamaterials research in Europe and worldwide and bring together the engineering, physics, and material science communities working on artificial materials and their applications from microwaves to optical frequencies, as well as in acoustics, mechanics, and thermodynamics.

  2. Advanced Fiber Optic-Based Sensing Technology for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Ko, William L.; Chan, Patrick; Bakalyar, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Dryden in support of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: algorithm development, system development, instrumentation installation, ground R&D, and flight testing. Examples of current research and development activities are provided.

  3. Self-slowdown and -advancement of fs pulses in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate changes in the propagation time of 180 femtosecond pulses in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier as function of pulse input power and bias current. The results interpreted as a result of pulse reshaping by gain saturation but are also analogous to coherent population osci...

  4. Optical spectroscopy: current advances and future applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daniel; Evers, D.J.; Hendriks, B.; Lucassen, G.W.; Lucassen, Gerald; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy (OS) is a tissue-sensing technique that could enhance cancer diagnosis and treatment in the near future. With OS, tissue is illuminated with a selected light spectrum. Different tissue types can be distinguished from each other based on specific changes in the reflected light

  5. Roadmap on biosensing and photonics with advanced nano-optical methods

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Schlü cker, Sebastian; Wenger, Jé rô me; Regmi, Raju; Rigneault, Hervé ; Calafiore, Giuseppe; West, Melanie; Cabrini, Stefano; Fleischer, Monika; van Hulst, Niek F; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F; Pucci, Annemarie; Cojoc, Dan; Hauser, Charlotte; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This roadmap, through the contributions of ten groups worldwide, contains different techniques, methods and materials devoted to sensing in nanomedicine. Optics is used in different ways in the detection schemes. Raman, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopies, plasmonics, second harmonic generation and optical tweezers are all used in applications from single molecule detection (both in highly diluted and in highly concentrated solutions) to single cell manipulation. In general, each optical scheme, through device miniaturization and electromagnetic field localization, exploits an intrinsic optical enhancement mechanism in order to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of the device with respect to the complex molecular construct. The materials used for detection include nanoparticles and nanostructures fabricated with different 2D and 3D lithographic methods. It is shown that sensitivity to a single molecule is already accessible whether the system under study is a single cell or a multitude of cells in a molecular mixture. Throughout the roadmap there is an attempt to foresee and to suggest future directions in this interdisciplinary field. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg Evelyne, C. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light

  7. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, A [Rich. Seifert and Co., Analytical X-ray Systems, Ahrensburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves.

  8. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Scott, Brian [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  9. Challenges and Approach for Making the Top End Optical Assembly for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzian, Blaise; Barentine, J.; Hull, T.

    2012-01-01

    L-3 Integrated Optical Systems (IOS) Division has been selected by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) to make the Top End Optical Assembly (TEOA) for the 4-meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) to operate at Haleakala, Maui. ATST will perform to a very high optical performance level in a difficult thermal environment. The TEOA, containing the 0.65-meter silicon carbide secondary mirror and support, mirror thermal management system, mirror positioning and fast tip-tilt system, field stop with thermally managed heat dump, thermally managed Lyot stop, safety interlock and control system, and support frame, operates in the "hot spot” at the prime focus of the ATST and so presents special challenges. In this paper, we will describe the L-3 IOS technical approach to meet these challenges, including subsystems for opto-mechanical positioning, rejected and stray light control, wavefront tip-tilt compensation, and thermal management. Key words: ATST, TEOA, L-3 IOS, thermal management, silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, hexapods, solar astronomy

  10. Advances in optoplasmonic sensors – combining optical nano/microcavities and photonic crystals with plasmonic nanostructures and nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Jolly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanophotonic device building blocks, such as optical nano/microcavities and plasmonic nanostructures, lie at the forefront of sensing and spectrometry of trace biological and chemical substances. A new class of nanophotonic architecture has emerged by combining optically resonant dielectric nano/microcavities with plasmonically resonant metal nanostructures to enable detection at the nanoscale with extraordinary sensitivity. Initial demonstrations include single-molecule detection and even single-ion sensing. The coupled photonic-plasmonic resonator system promises a leap forward in the nanoscale analysis of physical, chemical, and biological entities. These optoplasmonic sensor structures could be the centrepiece of miniaturised analytical laboratories, on a chip, with detection capabilities that are beyond the current state of the art. In this paper, we review this burgeoning field of optoplasmonic biosensors. We first focus on the state of the art in nanoplasmonic sensor structures, high quality factor optical microcavities, and photonic crystals separately before proceeding to an outline of the most recent advances in hybrid sensor systems. We discuss the physics of this modality in brief and each of its underlying parts, then the prospects as well as challenges when integrating dielectric nano/microcavities with metal nanostructures. In Section 5, we hint to possible future applications of optoplasmonic sensing platforms which offer many degrees of freedom towards biomedical diagnostics at the level of single molecules.

  11. Advanced sensing with micro-optical whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Righini, Giancarlo C

    2017-01-01

    This Spotlight examines an increasingly popular class of optical sensors that comprises microresonators based on the propagation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs). Several 2D and 3D WGM microresonators have already proved their capabilities as general-purpose sensors (especially as biosensors), and they have potential applications outside of research laboratories. Topics include the fundamentals of WGM propagation, types and characterization of microresonators, microfabrication issues, categories of sensing (physical, chemical, and biological), and state of the art sensors.

  12. Optical Quality, Threshold Target Identification and Military Target Task Performance After Advanced Keratorefractive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Ophthalmol 2006;141(2):360-8. 28. van Heel A. Correcting the spherical and chromatic aberrations of the eye. Journal of the Optical Society of America...for advertisements used to recruit research subjects. f. I will not accept any outside personal remuneration for implementation of a study. g...APPENDIX G - Advertisement Brochure/Flyer – N/A APPENDIX H - Consent Form(s) APPENDIX I - HIPAA Authorization Form APPENDIX J – N/A If extra

  13. Application of advanced optical probe instrumentation in steam generator tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Gouirand, J.M.; Haquet, J.F.; Ivars, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy Transfer (DTE) of the French CEA has been developing for about 15 years optical probe techniques in order to better understand and predict nuclear components dealing with two-phase flows. More recently, in the scope of an International Program, the CEA has made an intensive use of bi-optical probes in order to very precisely investigate the distributions of void fraction and gas velocity in the secondary side of a Steam-generator mock-up operating with Freon 114 (80 degrees C, 9 x 10 5 Pa at nominal conditions). At the present time, the success of this program and the recent progress achieved in the technology of the probe, in particular to withstand higher pressures and temperatures allow us to reasonably think that this device will be soon available for industrial uses. So, this paper deals with the present state of the art of the technique within CEA and in particular it successively describes: what is required of a practical point of view when it comes to perform local measurements within tube bundles and what have been the technical choices to meet these requirements; how the bi-optical probe does operate with an emphasis on the signal processing description; how the whole device accuracy, i.e., the bi-optical probe plus its complete acquisition and signal processing chain, is determined by a calibration procedure comparing first separately then all together the different components to independent numerical and physical reference methods; typical examples of measurements of the emulsion fine structure within tube bundle subchannels as regards with void fraction, gas velocity and bubble granulometries; finally, the recent progress accomplished in terms of, higher reliability, resolution, pressure and temperature resistance

  14. Overview of advanced fiber optic sensor equipment for energy production applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, John W.; Lopushansky, Richard L.

    2004-12-01

    Over the last several years, fiber optic sensor technology has matured to the point that it is now ready for use in industrial applications. Fiber optic sensors have the potential for significant cost savings to the customer, primarily because installation is straightforward and maintenance is minimal. Substantial improvements in the performance of process control systems are a major benefit that has now been demonstrated and is now understood by many in the energy and petrochemical industries. This paper describes the basic principles and components that make up an industrial fiber optic sensing system, the results of an extensive characterization program performed on Fabry-Perot sensors configured to measure various parameters, the multiplexing approach for a multi-sensor system, data communications options, and potential applications of the technology within the industry. The results of a beta test program performed on a thirty-two channel temperature measurement system are reported also. The test program was conducted in an operating catalyst tube reactor to measure changes in the reactor temperature profile versus time.

  15. Optical Far-IR Wave Generation - State-of-the-Art and Advanced Device Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Leone, B.; Roskos, H.

    2004-01-01

    and experimental results selected for medium to short term development. These technologies include advanced p-i-n photomixer with superlattice structures and, THz quantum cascade lasers. Recent results achieved in these fields will be put into the potential perspective for the respective technology in the future....

  16. Design and UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings in optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plougmann, Nikolai

    2004-01-01

    : · Development of a novel polarization control method for UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings with arbitrary refractive index modulation profile including multiple pi-phase shifts. · Development of a novel efficient technique for Bragg grating design which allows calculating an index modulation profile...

  17. Advancing Unmanned Aircraft Sensor Collection and Communication Capabilities with Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaczyk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are now being used for monitoring climate change over both land and seas. Their uses include monitoring of cloud conditions and atmospheric composition of chemicals and aerosols due to pollution, dust storms, fires, volcanic activity and air-sea fluxes. Additional studies of carbon flux are important for various ecosystem studies of both marine and terrestrial environments specifically, and can be related to climate change dynamics. Many measurements are becoming more complex as additional sensors become small enough to operate on more widely available small UAS. These include interferometric radars as well as scanning and fan-beam lidar systems which produce data streams even greater than those of high resolution video. These can be used to precisely map surfaces of the earth, ocean or ice features that are important for a variety of earth system studies. As these additional sensor capabilities are added to UAS the ability to transmit data back to ground or ship monitoring sites is limited by traditional wireless communication protocols. We describe results of tests of optical communication systems that provide significantly greater communication bandwidths for UAS, and discuss both the bandwidth and effective range of these systems, as well as their power and weight requirements both for systems on UAS, as well as those of ground-based receiver stations. We justify our additional use of Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) communication protocols with optical communication methods to ensure security and continuity of command and control operations. Finally, we discuss the implications for receiving, geo-referencing, archiving and displaying data streams from sensors communicated via optical communication to better enable real-time anomaly detection and adaptive sampling capabilities using multiple UAS or other unmanned or manned systems.

  18. Optical NIR-VIS-VUV constants of advanced substrates for thin-film devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chernova, Ekaterina; Brooks, Christopher D.; Chvostová, Dagmar; Bryknar, Z.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Tyunina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2017), s. 3844-3862 ISSN 2159-3930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13778S; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA ČR GA15-15123S Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ellipsometry * epitaxy * optical properties * single-crystal substrates * thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2016

  19. Vacuum source-field correlations and advanced waves in quantum optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stokes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution to the wave equation as a Cauchy problem with prescribed fields at an initial time $t=0$ is purely retarded. Similarly, in the quantum theory of radiation the specification of Heisenberg picture photon annihilation and creation operators at time $t \\gt 0$ in terms of operators at $t=0$ automatically yields purely retarded source-fields. However, we show that two-time quantum correlations between the retarded source-fields of a stationary dipole and the quantum vacuum-field possess advanced wave-like contributions. Despite their advanced nature, these correlations are perfectly consistent with Einstein causality. It is shown that while they do not significantly contribute to photo-detection amplitudes in the vacuum state, they do effect the statistics of measurements involving the radiative force experienced by a point charge in the field of the dipole. Specifically, the dispersion in the charge's momentum is found to increase with time. This entails the possibility of obtaining direct experimental evidence for the existence of advanced waves in physical reality, and provides yet another signature of the quantum nature of the vacuum.

  20. Advances in laser technology and fibre-optic delivery systems in lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Nathaniel M; Irby, Pierce B

    2018-06-08

    The flashlamp-pumped, solid-state holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser has been the laser of choice for use in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the past 20 years. However, although the holmium laser works well on all stone compositions and is cost-effective, this technology still has several fundamental limitations. Newer laser technologies, including the frequency-doubled, double-pulse YAG (FREDDY), erbium:YAG, femtosecond, and thulium fibre lasers, have all been explored as potential alternatives to the holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. Each of these laser technologies is associated with technical advantages and disadvantages, and the search continues for the next generation of laser lithotripsy systems that can provide rapid, safe, and efficient stone ablation. New fibre-optic approaches for safer and more efficient delivery of the laser energy inside the urinary tract include the use of smaller-core fibres and fibres that are tapered, spherical, detachable or hollow steel, or have muzzle brake distal fibre-optic tips. These specialty fibres might provide advantages, including improved flexibility for maximal ureteroscope deflection, reduced cross section for increased saline irrigation rates through the working channel of the ureteroscope, reduced stone retropulsion for improved stone ablation efficiency, and reduced fibre degradation and burnback for longer fibre life.

  1. Controllable Molecular Packing Motif and Overlap Type in Organic Nanomaterials for Advanced Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoyu Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of organic materials are very sensitive to subtle structural modification, and a proper understanding of the structure-property relationship is essential to improve the performance of organic electronic devices. The phase transitions of the η-CuPc to the α-CuPc, then to the β-CuPc were investigated using In situ X-ray diffraction and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The five stages in the phase-transition process from low to high-temperature were observed, which consisted of (1 the η-CuPc; (2 a mixture of the η- and α-CuPc; (3 a mixture of the η-, α- and β-CuPc; (4 a mixture of the α- and β-CuPc; and (5 the β-CuPc. The vibrational and optical properties at different phase-transition stages were correlated to molecular packing motif and molecule overlap type through systematic analyses of the Fourier–transform infrared, Raman and UV-VIS spectra. Moreover, the mechanism for the morphology evolution was also discussed in detail.

  2. Manufacturing of advanced bent crystals for Laue Optics for Gamma ObservationS (LOGOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolari, Andrea; Camattari, Riccardo; Bellucci, Valerio; Paternò, Gianfranco; Scian, Carlo; Mattei, Giovanni; Guidi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    X- and γ-ray detection is currently a hot topic for a wide scientific community, spanning from astrophysics to nuclear medicine. However, lack of optics capable of focusing photons of energies in the energy range 0.1–1 MeV leaves the photon detection to a direct-view approach, resulting in a limited efficiency and resolution. The main scope of the INFN-LOGOS project is the development of technologies that enable manufacturing highly performing optical elements to be employed in the realization of hard X-ray lenses. Such lenses, typically named Laue lenses, consist of an ensemble of crystals disposed in concentric rings in order to diffract the incident radiation towards the focus of the lens, where a detector is placed. In particular, the INFN-LOGOS project aims at the realization of intrinsically bent silicon and germanium crystals exploiting the quasi-mosaic effect for focusing hard X-rays. Crystal manufacturing relies on a proper revisitation of techniques typically employed in silicon micromachining, such as thin film deposition and patterning or ion implantation

  3. Development of soft x-ray optical elements at the advanced photon research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Yoda, Osamu; Koike, Masato; Sano, Kazuo; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We have been developing soft X-ray optical elements such as diffraction gratings and multilayer mirrors to applied to X-ray plasma sources and X-ray lasers and so on. In the field of the development of diffraction gratings, the laminar-type holographic gratings for flat-field spectrographs were found to be very effective in suppressing the higher orders and stray-light level. The fabricated holographic grating has a comparable spectral resolution to the replica commercial grating. In the development of the soft X-ray multilayer mirrors, the improvement of the heat stability of the Mo/Si multilayer was carried out. We have found that the Mo/SiO 2 /Si/SiO 2 multilayer having the SiO 2 layer thicknesses of 0.5 nm at the Si-on-Mo interface and of 1.5 nm at the Mo-on-Si interface has thermally stable structure up to 500degC and maintains high soft X-ray reflectivity after annealing at 400degC. In addition, we have developed an evaluation system capable of measuring the wavelength and angular characteristics of the reflectivity and diffraction efficiency of soft X-ray optical elements. (author)

  4. Manufacturing of advanced bent crystals for Laue Optics for Gamma ObservationS (LOGOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzolari, Andrea, E-mail: mazzolari@fe.infn.it [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy); Camattari, Riccardo; Bellucci, Valerio; Paternò, Gianfranco [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy); Scian, Carlo; Mattei, Giovanni [University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei (Italy); Guidi, Vincenzo [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    X- and γ-ray detection is currently a hot topic for a wide scientific community, spanning from astrophysics to nuclear medicine. However, lack of optics capable of focusing photons of energies in the energy range 0.1–1 MeV leaves the photon detection to a direct-view approach, resulting in a limited efficiency and resolution. The main scope of the INFN-LOGOS project is the development of technologies that enable manufacturing highly performing optical elements to be employed in the realization of hard X-ray lenses. Such lenses, typically named Laue lenses, consist of an ensemble of crystals disposed in concentric rings in order to diffract the incident radiation towards the focus of the lens, where a detector is placed. In particular, the INFN-LOGOS project aims at the realization of intrinsically bent silicon and germanium crystals exploiting the quasi-mosaic effect for focusing hard X-rays. Crystal manufacturing relies on a proper revisitation of techniques typically employed in silicon micromachining, such as thin film deposition and patterning or ion implantation.

  5. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  6. Design and commissioning of the photon monitors and optical transport lines for the advanced photon source positron accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.; Yang, B.; Lumpkin, A.; Jones, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two photon monitors have been designed and installed in the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. The photon monitors characterize the beam's transverse profile, bunch length, emittance, and energy spread in a nonintrusive manner. An optical transport line delivers synchrotron light from the PAR out of a high radiation environment. Both charge-coupled device and fast-gated, intensified cameras are used to measure the transverse beam profile (0.11 - 1 mm for damped beam) with a resolution of 0.06 mm. A streak camera (θ τ =I ps) is used to measure the bunch length which is in the range of 0.3-1 ns. The design of the various transport components and commissioning results of the photon monitors will be discussed

  7. Recent advances in high-capacity free-space optical and radio-frequency communications using orbital angular momentum multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Ashrafi, Solyman

    2017-01-01

    There is a continuing growth in the demand for data bandwidth, and the multiplexing of multiple independent data streams has the potential to provide the needed data capacity. One technique uses the spatial domain of an electromagnetic (EM) wave, and space division multiplexing (SDM) has become increasingly important for increased transmission capacity and spectral efficiency of a communication system. A subset of SDM is mode division multiplexing (MDM), in which multiple orthogonal beams each on a different mode can be multiplexed. A potential modal basis set to achieve MDM is to use orbital angular momentum (OAM) of EM waves. In such a system, multiple OAM beams each carrying an independent data stream are multiplexed at the transmitter, propagate through a common medium and are demultiplexed at the receiver. As a result, the total capacity and spectral efficiency of the communication system can be multiplied by a factor equal to the number of transmitted OAM modes. Over the past few years, progress has been made in understanding the advantages and limitations of using multiplexed OAM beams for communication systems. In this review paper, we highlight recent advances in the use of OAM multiplexing for high-capacity free-space optical and millimetre-wave communications. We discuss different technical challenges (e.g. atmospheric turbulence and crosstalk) as well as potential techniques to mitigate such degrading effects. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069770

  8. An extended PROSPECT: Advance in the leaf optical properties model separating total chlorophylls into chlorophyll a and b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Fumin; Blackburn, George Alan; Zhang, Hankui K; Wang, Xiuzhen; Wei, Chuanwen; Zhang, Kangyu; Wei, Chen

    2017-07-25

    The PROSPECT leaf optical model has, to date, well-separated the effects of total chlorophyll and carotenoids on leaf reflectance and transmittance in the 400-800 nm. Considering variations in chlorophyll a:b ratio with leaf age and physiological stress, a further separation of total plant-based chlorophylls into chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b is necessary for advanced monitoring of plant growth. In this study, we present an extended version of PROSPECT model (hereafter referred to as PROSPECT-MP) that can combine the effects of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids on leaf directional hemispherical reflectance and transmittance (DHR and DHT) in the 400-800 nm. The LOPEX93 dataset was used to evaluate the capabilities of PROSPECT-MP for spectra modelling and pigment retrieval. The results show that PROSPECT-MP can both simultaneously retrieve leaf chlorophyll a and b, and also performs better than PROSPECT-5 in retrieving carotenoids concentrations. As for the simulation of DHR and DHT, the performances of PROSPECT-MP are similar to that of PROSPECT-5. This study demonstrates the potential of PROSPECT-MP for improving capabilities of remote sensing of leaf photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) and for providing a framework for future refinements in the modelling of leaf optical properties.

  9. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing; Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag; Amir, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ∼50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3–10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ∼815–900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10–100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics

  10. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Telescope Optical System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Vladimir; Buckley, Jim; Falcone, Abe; Fegan, Steven; Finley, John; Gaurino, Victor; Hanna, David; Kaaret, Philip; Konopelko, Alex; Krawczynski, Henric; Romani, Roger; Weekes, Trevor

    2008-04-01

    AGIS is a conceptual design for a future ground-based gamma-ray observatory based on an array of ˜100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) with a sensitivity to gamma-rays in the energy range 40 GeV-100 TeV. The anticipated improvement of AGIS sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of the IACTs. In this submission we focus on the optical system (OS) of the AGIS telescopes and consider options which include traditional Davies-Cotton and the other prime- focus telescope designs, as well as a novel two-mirror aplanatic OS originally proposed by Schwarzschild. Emerging new mirror production technologies based on replication processes such as cold and hot glass slumping, cured CFRP, and electroforming provide new opportunities for cost effective solutions for the design of the OS. We evaluate the capabilities of these mirror fabrication methods for the AGIS project.

  11. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) Telescope Optical System Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaev, V.; Buckley, J.; Diegel, S.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S.; Finley, J.; Guarino, V.; Hanna, D.; Kaaret, P.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Ramsey, B.; Romani, R.; Vassiliev, V.; Weekes, T.

    2008-12-01

    AGIS is a conceptual design for a future ground-based gamma-ray observatory operating in the energy range 25 GeV-100 TeV, which is based on an array of ~20-100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). The desired improvement in sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation of AGIS imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of the IACTs. We are considering several options for the optical system (OS) of the AGIS telescopes, which include the traditional Davies-Cotton design as well as novel two-mirror design. Emerging mirror production technologies based on replication processes such as cold and hot glass slumping, cured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), and electroforming provide new opportunities for cost-effective solutions for the design of the OS.

  12. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques. PMID:26263987

  13. Recent advances in dental optics - Part I: 3D intraoral scanners for restorative dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzo, Silvia; Zanetti, Elisabetta M.; Franceschini, Giordano; Kilpelä, Ari; Mäkynen, Anssi

    2014-03-01

    Intra-oral scanning technology is a very fast-growing field in dentistry since it responds to the need of an accurate three-dimensional mapping of the mouth, as required in a large number of procedures such as restorative dentistry and orthodontics. Nowadays, more than 10 intra-oral scanning devices for restorative dentistry have been developed all over the world even if only some of those devices are currently available on the market. All the existing intraoral scanners try to face with problems and disadvantages of traditional impression fabrication process and are based on different non-contact optical technologies and principles. The aim of this publication is to provide an extensive review of existing intraoral scanners for restorative dentistry evaluating their working principles, features and performances.

  14. Advanced magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements of superconductors at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stahl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-optical Kerr-effect (MOKE measurements of superconducting films with soft-magnetic coatings are performed at low temperatures using a laser-based MOKE set-up. An elaborate measurement scheme with internal reference allows the quantitative comparison of the temperature dependent Kerr-amplitude with the magnetic field generated by supercurrents. For this purpose, an amorphous CoFeB thin film exhibiting a large Kerr-signal is deposited directly on top of the YBCO superconductor acting as field sensing layer. It is shown that the resulting magnetic hysteresis loops of the soft-magnetic film can be used to reconstruct the electric properties of the superconductor.

  15. Advances in broad bandwidth light sources for ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterhuber, A; Povazay, B; Bizheva, K; Hermann, B; Sattmann, H; Stingl, A; Le, T; Seefeld, M; Menzel, R; Preusser, M; Budka, H; Schubert, Ch; Reitsamer, H; Ahnelt, P K; Morgan, J E; Cowey, A; Drexler, W

    2004-01-01

    Novel ultra-broad bandwidth light sources enabling unprecedented sub-2 μm axial resolution over the 400 nm-1700 nm wavelength range have been developed and evaluated with respect to their feasibility for clinical ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) applications. The state-of-the-art light sources described here include a compact Kerr lens mode locked Ti:sapphire laser (λ c = 785 nm, Δλ = 260 nm, P out = 50 mW) and different nonlinear fibre-based light sources with spectral bandwidths (at full width at half maximum) up to 350 nm at λ c = 1130 nm and 470 nm at λ c = 1375 nm. In vitro UHR OCT imaging is demonstrated at multiple wavelengths in human cancer cells, animal ganglion cells as well as in neuropathologic and ophthalmic biopsies in order to compare and optimize UHR OCT image contrast, resolution and penetration depth

  16. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Di Sante

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques.

  17. Advanced optical design and control of multi-colored SSL system for stage lighting application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita

    , the light output from the light engine is energy and optically efficient as well as environmentally friendly. The light output stability during the operational time is investigated by using the Monte Carlo simulation and a color sensor is implemented along with the pre‐calibrated lookup table to a feedback...... system in order to provide controlled color and intensity variations within certain limits. By implementing the control mechanism, system‐to‐system calibration is possible. The control mechanism can be generalized to be used in any other SSL system. Instead of using a color sensor, the variation......The thesis deals with a novel LED color mixing light engine which is designed, developed, and subsequently demonstrated by making a prototype of the same, which is experimentally investigated. Further, the design optimization solves the problems of achieving collimated high luminous flux in a color...

  18. Optical Thin Films for Gas Sensing in Advanced Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohodnicki, Paul; Brown, Thomas; Baltrus John; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2012-08-09

    Even for existing coal based plants, the opportunity for sensors and controls to improve efficiency is great. A wide range of gas species are of interest for relevant applications. Functional sensor layers for embedded sensing must be compatible with extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, corrosive). Au incorporated metal oxides have been looked at by a number of other authors previously for gas sensing, but have often focused on temperatures below 500{degree}C. Au nanoparticle incorporated metal oxide thin films have shown enhanced gas sensing response. In prior work, we have demonstrated that material systems such as Au nanoparticle incorporated TiO{sub 2} films exhibit a potentially useful optical response to changing gas atmospheres at temperatures up to ~800-850{degree}C. Current work is focused on sputter-deposited Au/TiO{sub 2} films. Au and Ti are multi-layered sputter deposited, followed by a 950{degree}C oxidation step. Increasing Au layer thickness yields larger particles. Interband electronic transitions significantly modify the optical constants of Au as compared to the damped free electron theory. A high temperature oxidation (20%O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment was performed at 700{degree}C followed by a reduction (4%H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment to illustrate the shift in both absorption and scattering with exposure to reducing gases. Shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak in changing gas atmospheres is well documented, but shift in the peak associated with diffuse scattering is a new observation. Increasing Au layer-thickness results in an increase in LSPR absorption and a shift to longer wavelengths. Diffuse scattering associated with the LSPR resonance of Au shows a similar trend with increasing Au thickness. To model the temperature dependence of LSPR, the modification to the plasmon frequency, the damping frequency, and the dielectric constant of the oxide matrix must be accounted for. Thermal expansion of Au causes

  19. Application of advanced diffraction based optical metrology overlay capabilities for high-volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Ni, Wei-Feng; Chuang, S. M.; Chuang, T. K.; Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jacky; Rao, Shiuan-An; Cumurcu Gysen, Aysegul; d'Alfonso, Maxime; Yueh, Jenny; Izikson, Pavel; Soco, Aileen; Wu, Jon; Nooitgedagt, Tjitte; Ottens, Jeroen; Kim, Yong Ho; Ebert, Martin

    2017-03-01

    On-product overlay requirements are becoming more challenging with every next technology node due to the continued decrease of the device dimensions and process tolerances. Therefore, current and future technology nodes require demanding metrology capabilities such as target designs that are robust towards process variations and high overlay measurement density (e.g. for higher order process corrections) to enable advanced process control solutions. The impact of advanced control solutions based on YieldStar overlay data is being presented in this paper. Multi patterning techniques are applied for critical layers and leading to additional overlay measurement demands. The use of 1D process steps results in the need of overlay measurements relative to more than one layer. Dealing with the increased number of overlay measurements while keeping the high measurement density and metrology accuracy at the same time presents a challenge for high volume manufacturing (HVM). These challenges are addressed by the capability to measure multi-layer targets with the recently introduced YieldStar metrology tool, YS350. On-product overlay results of such multi-layers and standard targets are presented including measurement stability performance.

  20. On Special Optical Modes and Thermal Issues in Advanced Gravitational Wave Interferometric Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Jean-Yves

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of present ground-based gravitational wave antennas is too low to detect many events per year. It has, therefore, been planned for years to build advanced detectors allowing actual astrophysical observations and investigations. In such advanced detectors, one major issue is to increase the laser power in order to reduce shot noise. However, this is useless if the thermal noise remains at the current level in the 100 Hz spectral region, where mirrors are the main contributors. Moreover, increasing the laser power gives rise to various spurious thermal effects in the same mirrors. The main goal of the present study is to discuss these issues versus the transverse structure of the readout beam, in order to allow comparison. A number of theoretical studies and experiments have been carried out, regarding thermal noise and thermal effects. We do not discuss experimental problems, but rather focus on some theoretical results in this context about arbitrary order Laguerre–Gauss beams, and other “exotic” beams.

  1. Advanced optical diagnostics for a coal-fired MHD retrofit of an existing power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, W.S.; Cook, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The retrofit concept involves integrating a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation facility with an existing commercial steam power plant. The MHD power train will be 250 MW t and represents a 5:1 scale-up of existing developmental, proof-of-concept (POC) facilities. The program provides a cost effective way to demonstrate the effectiveness, reliability, and operability of the technology and a basis for future commercialization. An aspect of the program must be to accumulate information on component performance and scale-up relations to enable a smooth transition to commercial plant designs. Special state-of-the-art optical diagnostic instrumentation systems are required for this modern energy conversion technology. In-situ measurements with such systems provide a clearer understanding of the processes involved in the ash/seed-laden MHD gas stream, fundamental scale-up data, performance monitors, and a basis for improved control strategies and control instruments. The types of instrumentation, the measurement locations and frequency, and the benefits for the retrofit program are discussed

  2. Advanced Design of the First Quasi-optical Transmission Line for ECRH at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Likin, K.; Martin, R.

    1999-01-01

    TJ-II plasma start-up and heating are made by electron cyclotron resonance waves at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. The microwave power of the gyrotrons is transmitted by two quasi-optical transmission lines. The first line launches the microwave power under fixed injection geometry, i. e. there is no a possibility to change the launching angle the wave polarization. Due to the long distance between the last focusing mirror and the center TJ-II vessel the beam is quite wide at plasma border. The second line has a moveable mirror installed inside the TJ-II vessel. To get high absorption efficiency and a narrow energy deposition profile the internal mirror focuses the wave beam at plasma center. The beam width is about 2 cm. To get more flexibility in experiments on heating and current drive the first transmission line needs to be upgraded. The designs is presented in this report. It includes and internal mirror to focus the beam and to change the injection angle. A polarizer consisting in two corrugated mirrors will be incorporated to get any wave polarization. Two mirrors with an array of coupling holes and calorimetric measurements of the energy absorbed in the barrier window will permit the estimation of the microwave power launched the TJ-II. (Author) 13 refs

  3. Advanced methods for light trapping in optically thin silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, James Richard

    2011-12-01

    The field of light trapping is the study of how best to absorb light in a thin film of material when most light either reflects away at the surface or transmits straight through to the other side. This has tremendous application to the field of photovoltaics where thin silicon films can be manufactured cheaply, but also fail to capture all of the available photons in the solar spectrum. Advancements in light trapping therefore bring us closer to the day when photovoltaic devices may reach grid parity with traditional fossil fuels on the electrical energy market. This dissertation advances our understanding of light trapping by first modeling the effects of loss in planar dielectric waveguides. The mathematical framework developed here can be used to model any arbitrary three-layer structure with mixed gain or loss and then extract the total field solution for the guided modes. It is found that lossy waveguides possess a greater number of eigenmodes than their lossless counterparts, and that these "loss guided" modes attenuate much more rapidly than conventional modes. Another contribution from this dissertation is the exploration of light trapping through the use of dielectric nanospheres embedded directly within the active layer of a thin silicon film. The primary benefit to this approach is that the device can utilize a surface nitride layer serving as an antireflective coating while still retaining the benefits of light trapping within the film. The end result is that light trapping and light injection are effectively decoupled from each other and may be independently optimized within a single photovoltaic device. The final contribution from this work is a direct numerical comparison between multiple light trapping schemes. This allows us to quantify the relative performances of various design techniques against one another and objectively determine which ideas tend to capture the most light. Using numerical simulation, this work directly compares the absorption

  4. Advanced time and wavelength division multiplexing for metropolitan area optical data communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watford, M.; DeCusatis, C.

    2005-09-01

    With the advent of new regulations governing the protection and recovery of sensitive business data, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, there has been a renewed interest in business continuity and disaster recovery applications for metropolitan area networks. Specifically, there has been a need for more efficient bandwidth utilization and lower cost per channel to facilitate mirroring of multi-terabit data bases. These applications have further blurred the boundary between metropolitan and wide area networks, with synchronous disaster recovery applications running up to 100 km and asynchronous solutions extending to 300 km or more. In this paper, we discuss recent enhancements in the Nortel Optical Metro 5200 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) platform, including features recently qualified for data communication applications such as Metro Mirror, Global Mirror, and Geographically Distributed Parallel Sysplex (GDPS). Using a 10 Gigabit/second (Gbit/s) backbone, this solution transports significantly more Fibre Channel protocol traffic with up to five times greater hardware density in the same physical package. This is also among the first platforms to utilize forward error correction (FEC) on the aggregate signals to improve bit error rate (BER) performance beyond industry standards. When combined with encapsulation into wide area network protocols, the use of FEC can compensate for impairments in BER across a service provider infrastructure without impacting application level performance. Design and implementation of these features will be discussed, including results from experimental test beds which validate these solutions for a number of applications. Future extensions of this environment will also be considered, including ways to provide configurable bandwidth on demand, mitigate Fibre Channel buffer credit management issues, and support for other GDPS protocols.

  5. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  6. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 10. Variability among academic glaucoma subspecialists in assessing optic disc notching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasterland, D E; Blackwell, B; Dally, L G; Caprioli, J; Katz, L J; Ederer, F

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of data from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) has found eyes reported to have partial optic disc rim notching (not to the edge) at baseline to have less risk of subsequent visual field loss than eyes with no notching. Because this is counterintuitive and because classification of notching had not been defined in the AGIS protocol, we have assessed AGIS ophthalmologists interobserver and intraobserver agreement on notching. Fourteen glaucoma subspecialists classified notching in 26 pairs of stereoscopic disc photographs of eyes with mild to severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy. They classified images as showing either no notching, notching not to the edge, or notching to the edge. Several hours later, 10 of them classified the same images a second time. In an analysis of interobserver agreement, of 26 stereoscopic images, a plurality of ophthalmologists classified notching as absent in 9 (35%), as present but not to the edge in 7 (27%), and as present and not to the edge in 10 (38%). All 14 ophthalmologists (100%) agreed on the classification of 7 (27%) of the images, and 13 of the 14 ophthalmologists (93%) agreed on the classification of 4 additional images (15%). Of these 11 images with at least 93% agreement, notching was reported as absent in 3 (27%) and to the edge in 8 (73%). In the remaining 15 images, there was substantial disagreement about whether notching was present and, if so, whether it was to the edge. In an analysis of intraobserver agreement, none of the 10 ophthalmologists who completed the viewing a second time classified all eyes exactly the same as the first time, though 5 ophthalmologists made 4 or fewer reclassifications. Overall, 80% of the original classifications were reproduced on second reading. Of the initial classifications that were not reproduced, slightly more than half were first classified as having notching not to the edge. Without definitions or examples of optic disc rim notching, the glaucoma

  7. Applications of Nano-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changhe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Sheng, Yunlong

    2011-11-01

    As nanoscale fabrication techniques advance, nano-optics continues to offer enabling solutions to numerous practical applications for information optics. This Applied Optics feature issue focuses on the Application of Nano-optics. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Santos, M.; Kessler, R.; Burger, E.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Chen, H.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H.T.; Doctor, Z.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave (GW) event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO GW detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg(exp 2) area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in the i and z bands at 4-5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median 5(sigma) point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i = 22.5 and z = 21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg(exp 2), corresponding to a 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% in the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4-5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i = 21.5, 21.1, 20.1 for object colors (i-z)= 1, 0, -1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.

  9. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH FAST FIBER-OPTIC BEAM LOSS MONITORS FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE STORAGE RING SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J.; Harkay, K.; Sajaev, V.; Shang, H.

    2017-06-25

    Fast fiber-optic (FFO) beam loss monitors (BLMs) installed with the first two superconducting undulators (SCUs) in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring have proven to be a useful diagnostic for measuring deposited charge (energy) during rapid beam loss events. The first set of FFOBLMs were installed outside the cryostat of the short SCU, a 0.33-m long device, above and below the beam centerline. The second set are mounted with the first 1.1-mlong SCU within the cryostat, on the outboard and inboard sides of the vacuum chamber. The next 1.1-m-long SCU is scheduled to replace the short SCU later in 2016 and will be fitted with FFOBLMs in a manner similar to original 1.1-m device. The FFOBLMs were employed to set timing and voltage for the abort kicker (AK) system. The AK helps to prevent quenching of the SCUs during beam dumps [1] by directing the beam away from the SC magnet windings. The AK is triggered by the Machine Protection System (MPS). In cases when the AK fails to prevent quenching, the FFOBLMs show that losses often begin before detection by the MPS.

  10. Advanced Silicon Photonic Transceivers - the Case of a Wavelength Division and Polarization Multiplexed Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Receiver for Terabit/s Optical Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    formats by the co- integration of a passive 90 degree optical hybrid, highspeed balanced Ge photodetectors and a high-speed two-channel transimpedance...40 Gbaud and can handle advanced modulation formats by the co-integration of a passive 90 degree optical hybrid, high- speed balanced Ge...reached at an OSNR of 12.4 dB. The hard -decision FEC (HD-FEC) threshold (BER of 3.8 × 10-3 for 7% overhead) requires 14 dB OSNR. For 16-QAM this requires

  11. Advanced materials for the optical delay line of frequency pulse modulator on the basis of semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrarov, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper some materials which can be sued as an optical delay line of the pulse frequency modulator are considered. The structure and the principle are described as a modulator consisting of a laser diode with two Fabry Perot resonators and an optical wave guide providing a feedback loop. The optical wave guide fulfills the function of delay line and links the two resonators. The pulse sequence of the radiation of the semiconductor laser arises due to failure and recovery of optical generation. The pulse frequency modulation can be carried out by the action of electrical tension field on the electro optic martial of the wave guide. The selection of three electro-optic crystals for making of the optical wave guide of the considered modulator is justified. (author)

  12. Fluidics and heat generation of Alcon Infiniti and Legacy, Bausch & Lomb Millennium, and advanced medical optics sovereign phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Michael S; Valentine, Jeremy R; Olson, Randall J

    2006-09-01

    To study heat generation, vacuum, and flow characteristics of the Alcon Infiniti and Bausch & Lomb Millennium with results compared with the Alcon Legacy and advanced medical optics (AMO) Sovereign machines previously studied. Experimental study. Heat generation with continuous ultrasound was determined with and without a 200-g weight. Flow and vacuum were determined from 12 to 40-ml/min in 2-ml/min steps. The impact of a STAAR Cruise Control was also tested. Millennium created the most heat/20% of power (5.67 +/- 0.51 degrees C unweighted and 6.80 +/- 0.80 degrees C weighted), followed by Sovereign (4.59 +/- 0.70 degrees C unweighted and 5.65 +/- 0.72 degrees C weighted), Infiniti (2.79 +/- 0.62 degrees C unweighted and 3.96 +/- 0.31 degrees C weighted), and Legacy (1.99 +/- 0.49 degrees C unweighted and 4.27 +/- 0.76 degrees C weighted; P Infiniti vs Legacy, both weighted). Flow studies revealed that Millennium Peristaltic was 17% less than indicated (P < .0001 to all other machines), and all other machines were within 3.5% of indicated. Cruise Control decreased flow by 4.1% (P < .0001 for same machine without it). Millennium Venturi had the greatest vacuum (81% more than the least Sovereign; P < .0001), and Cruise Control increased vacuum in a peristaltic machine 35% more than the Venturi system (P < .0001). Percent power is not consistent in regard to heat generation, however, flow was accurate for all machines except Millennium Peristaltic. Restriction with Cruise Control elevates unoccluded vacuum to levels greater than the Venturi system tested.

  13. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Peripapillary Choroidal Thicknesses in Non-Glaucomatous Unilateral Optic Atrophy Compared with Unilateral Advanced Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Ayyildiz, Onder; Aykas, Seckin; Gokce, Gokcen; Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Ozgonul, Cem; Ozge, Gokhan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Yumusak, Erhan

    2017-02-01

    To investigate retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL-T) and peripapillary choroidal thickness (PC-T) in non-glaucomatous optic atrophy (OA) patients in comparison with unaffected and control eyes, furthermore, to compare thickness profiles with unilateral pseudoexfoliative advanced glaucoma. Thirty-three eyes with OA (Group A), 33 unaffected fellow eyes (Group B), 25 right eyes of 25 control subjects (Group C), and 15 eyes with advanced glaucoma (Group D) were enrolled. RNFL-T was measured in six regions by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography was obtained to evaluate PC-T in corresponding regions. RNFL-T was significantly lower in Group A than in Groups B and C globally and at all peripapillary regions (all p temporal > nasal > inferior) profiles were almost identical to that in unaffected fellow eyes and control eyes. However, Group D showed different patterns with less regional differences in RNFL-T, and the greatest value of PC-T in nasal quadrant. Besides retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, non-glaucomatous OA is associated with choroidal thinning. The RNFL-T and PC-T profiles in advanced glaucoma eyes differed from the common patterns seen among OA eyes, unaffected fellow eyes, and control eyes.

  14. Advances in optical information processing IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 18-20, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Dennis R.

    1990-09-01

    The present conference discusses topics in optical image processing, optical signal processing, acoustooptic spectrum analyzer systems and components, and optical computing. Attention is given to tradeoffs in nonlinearly recorded matched filters, miniature spatial light modulators, detection and classification using higher-order statistics of optical matched filters, rapid traversal of an image data base using binary synthetic discriminant filters, wideband signal processing for emitter location, an acoustooptic processor for autonomous SAR guidance, and sampling of Fresnel transforms. Also discussed are an acoustooptic RF signal-acquisition system, scanning acoustooptic spectrum analyzers, the effects of aberrations on acoustooptic systems, fast optical digital arithmetic processors, information utilization in analog and digital processing, optical processors for smart structures, and a self-organizing neural network for unsupervised learning.

  15. Future of bone pathology, bone grafting, and osseointegration in oral and maxillofacial surgery: how applying optical advancements can help both fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S.

    2013-03-01

    Introduction: In recent years, advances in technology are propelling the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery into new realms. With a relatively thin alveolar mucosa overlying the underlying bone, significant diagnostic and therapeutic advantages are present. However, there remains an enormous gap between advancements in physics, in particular optics, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Bone Pathology: Improvements in diagnosis, classification, and treatment of the various bone pathologies are still being sought after as advancements in technology continue to progress. Combining the clinical, histological, and pathological characteristics with these advancements, patients with debilitating pathologies may have more promising treatment options and prognosis. Bone Grafting: Defects in the facial bones, in particular the jaws, may be due to a number of reasons: pathology, trauma, infections, congenital deformities, or simply due to atrophy. Bone grafting is commonly employed to correct such defects, and allows new bone formation through tissue regeneration. Osseointegration: Growing use of dental implants has focused attention on osseointegration and its process. Osseointegration refers to the actual process of the direct contact between bone and implant, without an intervening soft tissue layer. The theories proposed regarding this process are many, yet there lacks a clear, unified stance on the actual process and its mechanisms. Further investigation using optical probes could provide that unifying answer. Conclusion: The primary goal of this lecture is to introduce pioneers in the field of optics to the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. With a brief introduction into the procedures and techniques, we are hopeful to bridge the ever-widening gap between the clinical science and the basic sciences.

  16. Advanced Modular, Multi-Channel, High Speed Fiber Optic Sensing System for Acoustic Emissions Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes to prove the feasibility of innovations based on ultra-light-weight, ultra-high-speed, multi-channel,...

  17. 20040217 NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Quasi-Optical Control of Intense Microwave Transmission Nizhny Novgorod, Russia 17 - 20 Feb 2004 2004 novgorod20040217 20040220

    CERN Document Server

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2005-01-01

    This volume assembles the texts of presentations given at the NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop on Quasi-Optical Transmission of High-Power Microwaves, held in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia in February 2004. The presentations bridge a wide range of technical areas, but share common tools of analysis and design. Applications of quasi-optics extend to the use of high-power microwaves—including millimeter-waves— for radar and communications (especially deep space millimeter-wave systems, space debris detection radar, and radar for the detection of small targets moving over heavy clutter); particle accelerators (especially for a future high-acceleration-gradient electron-positron collider); plasma research (especially for controlled nuclear fusion and waste decontamination); and material processing (in particular, ceramic sintering with millimeter-waves, and the coating of metal surfaces with protective dielectric films.). Scientists and engineers working in any of these areas should benefit significantly f...

  18. Laser ablation in temporomandibular joint disorders and a case report involving an ossifying fibroma: how optics could potentially advance treatments in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rahul; Stevens, Timothy W.; Stringer, Dale E.; Dean, Jeff S.; Herford, Alan S.

    2013-03-01

    Introduction: In the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, there are many applications for lasers and optics. The first part of this manuscript is to discuss laser therapy and garner suggestions on how it can be improved. The second part is to present a case in which complications of a bone graft delayed healing and a return to normalcy for the patient. It is the goal of this paper to utilize the new advancements in optics so that patient care can be improved. Laser Therapy: Laser ablation and low-level laser therapy have been used in a variety of joint adhesion cases, including arthritis of the hand and foot. In the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, this method has been used to treat pain and mobility dysfunction in patients with temporomandibular joint disease. While the outcomes have been promising, lack of familiarity with the device or doubt about its effects have reduced its use. This reduction in use has left the actual process of laser therapy relatively unchanged. Case Presentation: A 28 year-old female presented for a mandibular resection due to an ossifying fibroma. In the next several months her reconstructed area displayed significant signs of infection, as well as graft failure. X-rays, unfortunately, did not display the actual metabolic activity. Although the patient was reconstructed successfully thereafter, with more advanced technology available the patient could have endured a more comfortable treatment. Conclusion: While there are many more areas of oral and maxillofacial surgery that could potentially benefit from advances in optical technology, we have chosen to highlight these two areas due to their prevalence within our community.

  19. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  20. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  1. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  2. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  3. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  4. Engineering Foundation Conference: Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine, and surgery, Kona Surf Resort and Conference Center, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, August 1-6, 1999. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yodh, Arjun; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Benaron, David

    2001-09-01

    The intent of the conference was to gather a group of cross-disciplinary investigators from universities, medical schools, national laboratories, industry, and government in order to highlight future applications and technology of the optical sciences in biotechnology, medicine, and surgery. The session chairs brought new participants and speakers to the conference who were not regular attendees of the OSA and SPIE conferences. Attendees included a good number of graduate and post-doctoral students who tended to join the more senior members in organized and spontaneous afternoon activities. A critique of the conference is given which discusses things that worked well and things that could have been better, focusing on costs, funding, and speaker cancellations. Sessions were held on the following topics: Photodynamic therapy: fundamental and clinical studies; Frontiers in spectroscopy; Photon migration; Advances in tissue microscopy, dyes and reporters; Advances in cell microscopy: spectroscopy and micromanipulation; Laser-tissue interactions: therapeutic interventions; and Optics for biotechnology. Along with the program and participant lists, nearly 50 poster presentations are included.

  5. Sol-gel optical thin films for an advanced megajoule-class Nd:glass laser ICF-driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floch, H.G.; Belleville, P.F.; Pegon, P.M.; Dijonneau, C.S.; Guerain, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established by manufacturers and users that optical coatings are generally prepared by the well known Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technology. In the authors' opinion sol-gel technology is an effective and competitive alternative. The aim of this paper is to emphasize on the sol-gel thin film work carried out at Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton (CEL-V) and concerning the technology for high power lasers. The authors will briefly discuss the chemistry of the sol-gel process, the production of optical coatings and the related deposition techniques. Finally, the paper describes the preparation and performance of sol-gel optical coatings they have developed to fulfill the requirements of a future 2 MJ/500 TW (351 nm) pulsed Nd:glass laser so-called LMJ (Laser MegaJoules). This powerful laser is to be used for their national Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, to demonstrate at the laboratory scale, ignition of deuterium-tritium fusion fuel. Moreover, the aim of this article is, hopefully, to provide a convincing argument that coatings and particularly optical coatings, are some of the useful products available from sol-gel technology, and that exciting developments in other areas are almost certain to emerge within the coming decade

  6. Pulse advancement and delay in an integrated optical two-port ring-resonator circuit: direct experimental observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Zhuang, L.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We report experimental observations of the negative-group-velocity (v_g) phenomenon in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit. We demonstrate that when the v_g is negative, the (main) peak of output pulse appears earlier than the peak of a reference pulse, while for a positive v_g,

  7. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) Telescope Mechanical and Optical System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, Karen L.; Vassiliev, V.; AGIS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    AGIS is a concept for the next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. It will be an array of 36 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) sensitive in the energy range from 50 GeV to 200 TeV. The required improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation relative to the present generation instruments imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of AGIS telescopes. In this submission, we outline the status of the development of the optical and mechanical systems for a novel Schwarzschild-Couder two-mirror aplanatic telescope. This design can provide a field of view and angular resolution significantly better to those offered by the traditional Davies-Cotton optics utilized in present-day IACTs. Other benefits of the novel design include isochronous focusing and compatibility with cost-effective, high quantum efficiency image sensors such as multi-anode PMTs, silicon PMTs (SiPMs), or image intensifiers.

  8. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fluorescence and other Optical Properties of Biological Particles for Biological Warfare Agent Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden; Optics of Biological Particles

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  9. An Advanced 500-MHZ-Bandwidth Fiber-Optic Signal Link for EMP and General Laboratory Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    EVALUATION DIR DEPT OF THE ARMY REDSTONE ARSENAL, AL 35809 ATTN STEWS -CE, COMMUNICATIONS/ ELEC OFFICE DIRECTOR ATTN STEWS -NR, NATIONAL RANGE NIGHT...VISION & ELECTRO-OPTICS LABORATORY OPERATIONS DIR ATTN DELNV-EO, E-O DEVICES DIV ATTN STEWS -ID, INSTRUMENTATION DIR FORT BELVOIR, VA 22060 ATTN STEWS -ID...22900 ATTN WHITTAKER, D., 22900 SPECTRONICS ATTN LAMB , R. C., 22900 ATTN L. STEWART ATTN OLDHAM, T. R., 2300 ATTN MR. SHAUNFIELD ATTN KEHS, A., 22300

  10. Smart time-pulse coding photoconverters as basic components 2D-array logic devices for advanced neural networks and optical computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Michalnichenko, Nikolay N.

    2004-04-01

    The article deals with a conception of building arithmetic-logic devices (ALD) with a 2D-structure and optical 2D-array inputs-outputs as advanced high-productivity parallel basic operational training modules for realization of basic operation of continuous, neuro-fuzzy, multilevel, threshold and others logics and vector-matrix, vector-tensor procedures in neural networks, that consists in use of time-pulse coding (TPC) architecture and 2D-array smart optoelectronic pulse-width (or pulse-phase) modulators (PWM or PPM) for transformation of input pictures. The input grayscale image is transformed into a group of corresponding short optical pulses or time positions of optical two-level signal swing. We consider optoelectronic implementations of universal (quasi-universal) picture element of two-valued ALD, multi-valued ALD, analog-to-digital converters, multilevel threshold discriminators and we show that 2D-array time-pulse photoconverters are the base elements for these devices. We show simulation results of the time-pulse photoconverters as base components. Considered devices have technical parameters: input optical signals power is 200nW_200μW (if photodiode responsivity is 0.5A/W), conversion time is from tens of microseconds to a millisecond, supply voltage is 1.5_15V, consumption power is from tens of microwatts to a milliwatt, conversion nonlinearity is less than 1%. One cell consists of 2-3 photodiodes and about ten CMOS transistors. This simplicity of the cells allows to carry out their integration in arrays of 32x32, 64x64 elements and more.

  11. OSMOSIS: a new joint laboratory between SOFRADIR and ONERA for the development of advanced DDCA with integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Guillaume; Matallah, Noura; Guerineau, Nicolas; Magli, Serge; Chambon, Mathieu; Jenouvrier, Pierre; Mallet, Eric; Reibel, Yann

    2014-06-01

    Today, both military and civilian applications require miniaturized optical systems in order to give an imagery function to vehicles with small payload capacity. After the development of megapixel focal plane arrays (FPA) with micro-sized pixels, this miniaturization will become feasible with the integration of optical functions in the detector area. In the field of cooled infrared imaging systems, the detector area is the Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assembly (DDCA). SOFRADIR and ONERA have launched a new research and innovation partnership, called OSMOSIS, to develop disruptive technologies for DDCA to improve the performance and compactness of optronic systems. With this collaboration, we will break down the technological barriers of DDCA, a sealed and cooled environment dedicated to the infrared detectors, to explore Dewar-level integration of optics. This technological breakthrough will bring more compact multipurpose thermal imaging products, as well as new thermal capabilities such as 3D imagery or multispectral imagery. Previous developments will be recalled (SOIE and FISBI cameras) and new developments will be presented. In particular, we will focus on a dual-band MWIR-LWIR camera and a multichannel camera.

  12. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millán, María S

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical–digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption–decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical–digital solutions. (review article)

  13. Characterization and compensation of thermo-elastic instability of SWARM optical bench on Micro Advanced Stellar Compass attitude observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif

    2017-01-01

    Launched into orbit on November 22, 2013, the Swarm constellation of three satellites precisely measures magnetic signal of the Earth. To ensure the high accuracy of magnetic observation by vector magnetometer (VFM), its inertial attitude is precisely determined by µASC (micro Advanced Stellar Co...

  14. Differentiation of early from advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions: systematic comparison of CT, intravascular US, and optical frequency domain imaging with histopathologic examination in ex vivo human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Schlett, Christopher L; Alkadhi, Hatem; Nakano, Masataka; Stolzmann, Paul; Vorpahl, Marc; Scheffel, Hans; Tanaka, Atsushi; Warger, William C; Maehara, Akiko; Ma, Shixin; Kriegel, Matthias F; Kaple, Ryan K; Seifarth, Harald; Bamberg, Fabian; Mintz, Gary S; Tearney, Guillermo J; Virmani, Renu; Hoffmann, Udo

    2012-11-01

    To establish an ex vivo experimental setup for imaging coronary atherosclerosis with coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography, intravascular ultrasonography (US), and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) and to investigate their ability to help differentiate early from advanced coronary plaques. All procedures were performed in accordance with local and federal regulations and the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval of the local Ethics Committee was obtained. Overall, 379 histologic cuts from nine coronary arteries from three donor hearts were acquired, coregistered among modalities, and assessed for the presence and composition of atherosclerotic plaque. To assess the discriminatory capacity of the different modalities in the detection of advanced lesions, c statistic analysis was used. Interobserver agreement was assessed with the Cohen κ statistic. Cross sections without plaque at coronary CT angiography and with fibrous plaque at OFDI almost never showed advanced lesions at histopathologic examination (odds ratio [OR]: 0.02 and 0.06, respectively; both Padvanced lesions (OR: 2.49, P=.0003; OR: 2.60, P=.002; and OR: 31.2, Padvanced lesions than intravascular US and coronary CT angiography (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.858 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.802, 0.913], 0.631 [95% CI: 0.554, 0.709], and 0.679 [95% CI: 0.618, 0.740]; respectively, Padvanced coronary plaques. © RSNA, 2012

  15. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang

    2001-10-01

    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  16. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  17. Capacity-Approaching Modulation Formats for Optical Transmission Systems: Signal shaping and advanced de/muxing for efficient resource exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    Aiming for efficient fiber-optic data transport, this thesis addresses three scenario-specific modulation and/or multiplexing techniques which, leveraging digital signal processing, can further exploit the available resources.The considered environments are: (i) (ultra) long-haul networks, where we...... focus on improving the receiver sensitivity; (ii) metropolitan area networks, where the target is providing spectral and rate adaptability with fine granularity and easy reconfigurability; and (iii) short-haul networks, where facilitating more affordable throughput scaling is pursued. Functioning...

  18. Advances on Polymer Optical Fiber Gratings Using a KrF Pulsed Laser System Operating at 248 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Marques

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the achievements and progress made on the polymer optical fiber (POF gratings inscription in different types of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs and long period gratings (LPGs. Since the first demonstration of POFBGs in 1999, significant progress has been made where the inscription times that were higher than 1 h have been reduced to 15 ns with the application of the krypton fluoride (KrF pulsed laser operating at 248 nm and thermal treatments such as the pre-annealing of fibers. In addition, the application of dopants such as benzyl dimethyl ketal (BDK has provided a significant decrease of the fiber inscription time. Furthermore, such improvements lead to the possibility of inscribing POF gratings in 850 nm and 600 nm, instead of only the 1550 nm region. The progress on the inscription of different types of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBGs such as chirped POFBGs and phase-shifted POFBGs are also reported in this review.

  19. Earth, soil and environmental science research facility at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. I. Sector layout and optical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, P.; Jaski, Y.R.; Lazarz, N.; Murray, P.; Pluth, J.; Rarback, H.; Rivers, M.; Sutton, S. [CARS, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The earth, soil and environmental science component (GSECARS) of the Consortium of Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS), is designing a national research facility to be built at sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source. The bending magnet beam will be split to allow simultaneous operation of two stations, a monochromatic (8{endash}15 keV) side station and a multipurpose, white beam/monochromatic end station. The undulator beamline will have two white beam stations, which may operate simultaneously using a double-crystal monochromator (cryogenic Si) with a thin first crystal. In this mode, the upstream station will accept the monochromatized (4.5{endash}22 keV) beam deflected horizontally by a third (bendable) Ge crystal, while the end station accepts the high energy component (blue beam) transmitted by the first crystal. The need for small x-ray beams and broad spectral range have led us to base the focusing aspects of the optic design on grazing incidence mirrors. Both our bending magnet and insertion device beamlines will have long ({approximately}1 m), bendable mirrors (demagnification {lt}11, E(cut-off) {approx_gt}70 keV; beam sizes {approx_gt}tens of micrometers). For smaller focal spots, we will use small, dynamically bent Kirpatrick-Baez mirrors (demagnification 100{endash}400; E(cut-off) {lt}70 keV; beam sizes {approximately}1 micrometer). A unique aspect of our insertion device beamline is the ability to deliver focused white beam to the sample, through the incorporation of a power management pinhole in the first optics enclosure. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Novel High Temperature and Radiation Resistant Infrared Glasses and Optical Fibers for Sensing in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballato, John [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2018-01-22

    One binary and three series of ternary non-oxide pure sulfide glasses compositions were investigated with the goal of synthesizing new glasses that exhibit high glass transition (Tg) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures, infrared transparency, and reliable glass formability. The binary glass series consisted of Ges2 and La2S3 and the three glass series in the x(nBaS + mLa2S3) + (1-2x)GeS2 ternary system have BaS:La2S3 modifier ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 with . With these glasses, new insights were realized as to how ionic glasses form and how glass modifiers affect both structure and glass formability. All synthesized compositions were characterized by Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to better understand the fundamental structure, optical, and thermal characteristics of the glasses. After a range of these glasses were synthesized, optimal compositions were formed into glass disks and subjected to gamma irradiation. Glass disks were characterized both before and after irradiation by microscope imaging, measuring the refractive index, density, and UV-VIS-IR transmission spectra. The final total dose the samples were subjected to was ~2.5 MGy. Ternary samples showed a less than 0.4% change in density and refractive index and minimal change in transmission window. The glasses also resisted cracking as seen in microscope images. Overall, many glass compositions were developed that possess operating temperatures above 500 °C, where conventional chalcogenide glasses such as As2S3 and have Tgs from ~200-300 °C, and these glasses have a greater than Tc – Tg values larger than 100 °C and this shows that these glasses have good thermal stability of Tg such that they can be fabricated into optical fibers and as such can be considered candidates for high temperature infrared fiber optics. Initial fiber fabrication efforts showed that selected glasses could be drawn but larger

  1. Computational code in atomic and nuclear quantum optics: Advanced computing multiphoton resonance parameters for atoms in a strong laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, A. V.; Gurskaya, M. Yu; Ignatenko, A. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Serga, I. N.; Svinarenko, A. A.; Ternovsky, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    The consistent relativistic energy approach to the finite Fermi-systems (atoms and nuclei) in a strong realistic laser field is presented and applied to computing the multiphoton resonances parameters in some atoms and nuclei. The approach is based on the Gell-Mann and Low S-matrix formalism, multiphoton resonance lines moments technique and advanced Ivanov-Ivanova algorithm of calculating the Green’s function of the Dirac equation. The data for multiphoton resonance width and shift for the Cs atom and the 57Fe nucleus in dependence upon the laser intensity are listed.

  2. 3D wide field-of-view Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy advancing real-time in-vivo imaging and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Tankam, Patrice; Santhanam, Anand; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2017-02-01

    Real-time volumetric high-definition wide-field-of-view in-vivo cellular imaging requires micron-scale resolution in 3D. Compactness of the handheld device and distortion-free images with cellular resolution are also critically required for onsite use in clinical applications. By integrating a custom liquid lens-based microscope and a dual-axis MEMS scanner in a compact handheld probe, Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) breaks the lateral resolution limit of optical coherence tomography through depth, overcoming the tradeoff between numerical aperture and depth of focus, enabling advances in biotechnology. Furthermore, distortion-free imaging with no post-processing is achieved with a compact, lightweight handheld MEMS scanner that obtained a 12-fold reduction in volume and 17-fold reduction in weight over a previous dual-mirror galvanometer-based scanner. Approaching the holy grail of medical imaging - noninvasive real-time imaging with histologic resolution - GD-OCM demonstrates invariant resolution of 2 μm throughout a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 mm3, acquired and visualized in less than 2 minutes with parallel processing on graphics processing units. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and imaging of human tissue with GD-OCM are presented.

  3. Imaging Cajal's neuronal avalanche: how wide-field optical imaging of the point-spread advanced the understanding of neocortical structure-function relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostig, Ron D; Chen-Bee, Cynthia H; Johnson, Brett A; Jacobs, Nathan S

    2017-07-01

    This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species. Together, these findings advance our understanding about the neocortex at the mesoscopic level by underscoring that the cortical PS constitutes a fundamental motif of neocortical structure-function relationship.

  4. Realisation and advanced engineering of true optical rugate filters based on nanoporous anodic alumina by sinusoidal pulse anodisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Yoo, Jeong Ha; Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Ye; Losic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic mode is used with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA in a sinusoidal fashion. A precise control over the different anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period, anodisation amplitude, anodisation offset, number of pulses, anodisation temperature and pore widening time) makes it possible to engineer the characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours of NAA-RFs, which can be finely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. The effect of the aforementioned anodisation parameters on the photonic properties of NAA-RFs (i.e. characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours) is systematically assessed in order to establish for the first time a comprehensive rationale towards NAA-RFs with fully controllable photonic properties. The experimental results are correlated with a theoretical model (Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz - LLL), demonstrating that the effective medium of these photonic nanostructures can be precisely described by the effective medium approximation. NAA-RFs are also demonstrated as chemically selective photonic platforms combined with reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). The resulting optical sensing system is used to assess the reversible binding affinity between a model drug (i.e. indomethacin) and human serum albumin (HSA) in real-time. Our results demonstrate that this system can be used to determine the overall pharmacokinetic profile of drugs, which is a critical aspect to be considered for the implementation of efficient medical therapies.This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic

  5. A study on crystallization, optical and electrical properties of the advanced ZITO thin films using co-sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.J.; Hung, F.Y.; Chang, S.J.; Chang, S.P.; Mai, Y.C.; Hu, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: Conductor and semiconductor ZITO transparent oxide thin films have been obtained by co-sputtering system. Therefore, we could fabricate a fully transparent ZITO optoelectronic device (thin film transistors or photodetector) in the future. The conducting ZITO was used as the electrode. The active layer of TFTs and photodetector employed the semiconducting ZITO. In addition, the investigation of luminescence characteristics on Zn-In-Sn-O (ZITO) film has never been reported. So, the multi-compound ZITO (ZnO combined ITO) films would be measured by photoluminescence (PL) to analyze the effects of ITO doping and oxygen gas content on emission characteristics of film. - Abstract: Multi-functions (conductor, semiconductor and insulator) ZnInSnO (ZITO) transparent oxide thin films have been obtained by a co-sputtering system using ITO target and ZnO target with oxygen gas contents (0-8%). The ZITO film containing a small ITO content had the lowest resistivity (good electron mobility) and higher optical transmittance. In addition, the influences of thermal treatments (post-annealing and substrate temperature) on electrical properties and optical transmittance of ZITO films were studied. Photoluminescence (PL) of the ZITO film confirmed the contribution of ITO content and oxygen gas content on the photo-emission. The ZITO film with zinc atomic concentration of 58 at.% was a good candidate for TCO material (3.08 x 10 -4 Ω cm). Under the substrate temperature of 100 deg. C or post-annealing temperature of 200 o C, the properties of ZITO film could be improved.

  6. Bio-optic signatures for advanced glycation end products in the skin in streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidian, Mayer; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Rowland, Rebecca A.; Balbado, Melisa L.; Lentsch, Griffin; Balu, Mihaela; Alexander, Micheal; Shiri, Li; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Kohen, Roni; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-02-01

    Type 1diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder that occurs due to the rapid destruction of insulin-producing beta cells, leading to insulin deficiency and the inability to regulate blood glucose levels and leads to destructive secondary complications. Advanced glycation end (AGEs) products, the result of the cross-linking of reducing sugars and proteins within the tissues, are one of the key causes of major complications associated with diabetes such as renal failure, blindness, nerve damage and vascular changes. Non-invasive techniques to detect AGEs are important for preventing the harmful effects of AGEs during diabetes mellitus. In this study, we utilized multiphoton microscopy to image biopsies taken from control rats and compared them to biopsies taken from streptozotocin (STZ) induced adult male diabetic rats. This was done at two and four weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia (>400 mg/dL) specifically to evaluate the effects of glycation on collagen. We chose to use an in-situ multiphoton microscopy method that combines multiphoton auto-florescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) to detect the microscopic influence of glycation. Initial results show high auto-florescence levels were present on the collagen, as a result of the accumulation of AGEs only two weeks after the STZ injection and considerably higher levels were present four weeks after the STZ injection. Future projects could involve evaluating advanced glycation end products in a clinical trial of diabetic patients.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nano-Optics for Enhancing Light-Matter Interactions on a Molecular Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a considerable number of interrelated contributions dealing with the new scientific ability to shape and control matter and electromagnetic fields on a sub-wavelength scale. The topics range from the fundamental ones, such as photonic metamateriials, plasmonics and sub-wavelength resolution to the more applicative, such as detection of single molecules, tomography on a micro-chip, fluorescence spectroscopy of biological systems, coherent control of biomolecules, biosensing of single proteins, terahertz spectroscopy of nanoparticles, rare earth ion-doped nanoparticles, random lasing, and nanocoax array architecture. The various subjects bridge over the disciplines of physics, biology and chemistry, making this volume of interest to people working in these fields. The emphasis is on the principles behind each technique and on examining the full potential of each technique. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute that was held in Erice, ...

  8. Advances in Fiber Optic Sensors Technology Development for temperature and strain measurements in Superconducting magnets and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuchiolo, A.; Bajko, M.; Bottura, L.; Consales, M.; Cusano, A.; Giordano, M.; Perez, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires the development of a new generation of superconducting magnets based on Nb$_{3}$Sn technology. In order to monitor the magnet thermo-mechanical behaviour during its service life, from the coil fabrication to the magnet operation, reliable sensing systems need to be implemented. In the framework of the FP7 European project EUCARD, Nb$_{3}$Sn racetrack coils are developed as test beds for the fabrication validation, the cable characterization and the instrumentation development. Fiber optic sensors (FOS) based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology have been embedded in the coils of the Short Model Coil (SMC) magnet. The FBG sensitivity to both temperature and strain required the development of a solution able to separate the mechanical and temperature effects. This work presents the feasibility study of the implementation of embedded FBG sensors for the temperature and strain monitoring of the 11 T type conductor. We aim to monitor and regi...

  9. Advanced processing methods to introduce and preserve dipole orientation in organic electro-optic materials for next generation photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su

    Organic electro-optic (E-O) materials have attracted considerable research attention in the past 20 years due to their rising potentials in a lot of novel photonic applications, such as high-speed telecommunication, terahertz generation and ultra-fast optical interconnections. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on a barrier layer approach to improve the poling efficiency of electro-optic polymers. First of all, high conduction current from excessive charge injection is identified as a fundamental challenge of effective poling. After analyzing the conduction mechanism, we introduce a sol-gel derived thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer that can significantly block excessive charge injection and reduce the leakage current during high field poling. Ultralarge E-O coefficients, up to 160-350 pm/V at 1310 nm have been achieved by poling with such a barrier, which are 26%-40% higher than the results poled without such a TiO2 layer. This enhancement is explained by the suppressed charge injection and space charge accumulation by the insertion of the high injection barrier from the TiO2 barrier layer. In Chapter 3, the impact of the inserted barrier layer on the temporal alignment stability of E-O polymers is discussed. Considerable stability enhancement is confirmed using both standard 500-hour temporal alignment stability test at 85 °C and thermally stimulated discharge method. We suggest that the enhancement comes from improved stability of the screening charge. During poling the additional barrier layer helps to lower the injection and thus the space charge accumulation. And this reduced space charge accumulation further helps to replace the space charge part in the total formulation of screening charge with more stable interface trapped charge. We thus expand this knowledge to a group of other materials that can also block excessive charge injection and suppressed space charge accumulation, including dielectric polymers polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(4-vinylphenol

  10. Reflectometer end station for synchrotron calibrations of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility flight optics and for spectrometric research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessle, D.E.; Fitch, J.J.; Ingram, R.; Zhang Juda, J.; Blake, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Preparations have been underway to construct and test a facility for grazing incidence reflectance calibrations of flat mirrors at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The purpose is to conduct calibrations on witness flats to the coating process of the flight mirrors for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The x-ray energy range required is 50 eV--12 keV. Three monochromatic beamlines (X8C, X8A, U3A) will provide energy tunability over this entire range. The goal is to calibrate the AXAF flight mirrors with uncertainties approaching 1%. A portable end station with a precision-positioning reflectometer has been developed for this work. We have resolved the vacuum cleanliness requirements to preserve the coating integrity of the flats with the strict grazing-angle certainty requirements placed on the rotational control system of the reflectometer. A precision positioning table permits alignment of the system to the synchrotron beam to within 10 arcsec; the reflectometer's rotational control system can then produce grazing angle accuracy to within less than 2 arcsec, provided that the electron orbit is stable. At 10--12 keV, this degree of angular accuracy is necessary to achieve the calibration accuracy required for AXAF. However the most important energy regions for the synchrotron calibration are in the 2000--3200 eV range, where the M-edge absorption features of the coating element, iridium, appear, and the 300--700 eV range of the Ir N edges. The detail versus energy exhibited in these features cannot be traced adequately without a tunable energy source, which necessitates a synchrotron for this work. We present the mechanical designs, motion control systems, detection and measurement capabilities, and selected procedures for our measurements, as well as reflectance data

  11. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science Talk: Precision Noise Measurements at Microwave and Optical Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Eugene

    2010-03-01

    The quest to detect Gravitational Waves resulted in a number of important developments in the fields of oscillator frequency stabilization and precision noise measurements. This was due to the realization of similarities between the principles of high sensitivity measurements of weak mechanical forces and phase/amplitude fluctuations of microwave signals. In both cases interferometric carrier suppression and low-noise amplification of the residual noise sidebands were the main factors behind significant improvements in the resolution of spectral measurements. In particular, microwave frequency discriminators with almost thermal noise limited sensitivity were constructed leading to microwave oscillators with more than 25dB lower phase noise than the previous state-of-the-art. High power solid-state microwave amplifiers offered further opportunity of oscillator phase noise reduction due to the increased energy stored in the high-Q resonator of the frequency discriminator. High power microwave oscillators with the phase noise spectral density close to -160dBc/Hz at 1kHz Fourier frequency have been recently demonstrated. The principles of interferometric signal processing have been applied to the study of noise phenomena in microwave components which were considered to be ``noise free''. This resulted in the first experimental evidence of phase fluctuations in microwave circulators. More efficient use of signal power enabled construction of the ``power recycled'' interferometers with spectral resolution of -200dBc/Hz at 1kHz Fourier frequency. This has been lately superseded by an order of magnitude with a waveguide interferometer due to its higher power recycling factor. A number of opto-electronic measurement systems were developed to characterize the fidelity of frequency transfer from the optical to the microwave domain. This included a new type of a phase detector capable of measuring phase fluctuations of the weak microwave signals extracted from the demodulated

  12. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  13. FY1995 ultra-high performance semiconductor lasers for advanced optical information network; 1995 nendo kodo hikari joho tsushinmo e muketa kyokugen seino handotai laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to study and develop ultra-high performance semiconductor light source devices that should facilitate construction of advanced optical information networks. The semiconductor devices mentioned above are enhanced and integrated versions of distributed feedback (DFB) lasers based on 'gain coupling', which the group of the research coordinator has been investigating as a pioneer in the world. This research aimed at development of ultra-high performance semiconductor lasers that surpass the first generation conventional DFB lasers in any respect, by strengthening important device characteristics for system applications of the gain-coupled DFB lasers. The achievements of this research are listed below : 1. In-situ characterization of As-P exchange in MOVPE 2. Development of 1.55 {mu}m gain-coupled DFB lasers of absorptive grating type 3. Establishment of measurement technique for gain-coupling coefficients 4. Enlargement of small signal modulation response by the absorptive grating 5. Prediction of lower analog modulation distortion 6. Characterization of reflection-induced noise 7. Proposal and Demonstration of wavelength trimming 8. Proposal and Fabrication of GC DFB laser triode (NEDO)

  14. Stereoscopic (3D) versus monoscopic (2D) laparoscopy: comparative study of performance using advanced HD optical systems in a surgical simulator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Schnell, Daniel; Wilhelm, Konrad; Schlager, Daniel; Adams, Fabian; Hein, Simon; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2016-04-01

    To compare task performances of novices and experts using advanced high-definition 3D versus 2D optical systems in a surgical simulator model. Fifty medical students (novices in laparoscopy) were randomly assigned to perform five standardized tasks adopted from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum in either a 2D or 3D laparoscopy simulator system. In addition, eight experts performed the same tasks. Task performances were evaluated using a validated scoring system of the SAGES/FLS program. Participants were asked to rate 16 items in a questionnaire. Overall task performance of novices was significantly better using stereoscopic visualization. Superiority of performances in 3D reached a level of significance for tasks peg transfer and precision cutting. No significant differences were noted in performances of experts when using either 2D or 3D. Overall performances of experts compared to novices were better in both 2D and 3D. Scorings in the questionnaires showed a tendency toward lower scores in the group of novices using 3D. Stereoscopic imaging significantly improves performance of laparoscopic phantom tasks of novices. The current study confirms earlier data based on a large number of participants and a standardized task and scoring system. Participants felt more confident and comfortable when using a 3D laparoscopic system. However, the question remains open whether these findings translate into faster and safer operations in a clinical setting.

  15. Genetically determined optic neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Reynier, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions.......The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions....

  16. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  17. Advancements in Optical Navigation Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Goddard Image Analysis and Navigation Tool (GIANT) is a tool that was developed for the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification,...

  18. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  19. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported

  20. Statistical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J. W.

    This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.

  1. Interactive virtual optical laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory experiences are essential for optics education. However, college students have limited access to advanced optical equipment that is generally expensive and complicated. Hence there is a need for innovative solutions to expose students to advanced optics laboratories. Here we describe a novel approach, interactive virtual optical laboratory (IVOL) that allows unlimited number of students to participate the lab session remotely through internet, to improve laboratory education in photonics. Although students are not physically conducting the experiment, IVOL is designed to engage students, by actively involving students in the decision making process throughout the experiment.

  2. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  3. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  4. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  6. Ultrafast all-optical signal processing using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.

    2007-01-01

    As the bit rate of one wavelength channel and the number of channels keep increasing in the telecommunication networks thanks to the advancement of optical transmission technologies, switching is experiencing the transition from the electrical domain to the optical domain. All-optical signal

  7. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics

  8. Advances and challenges in label-free nonlinear optical imaging using two-photon excitation fluorescence and second harmonic generation for cancer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Giju; van Voskuilen, Johan; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging (NLOI) has emerged to be a promising tool for bio-medical imaging in recent times. Among the various applications of NLOI, its utility is the most significant in the field of pre-clinical and clinical cancer research. This review begins by briefly covering the core

  9. Implementation of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and advanced signal processing for elastic optical networking in accordance with networking and transmission constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stanley

    An increasing adoption of digital signal processing (DSP) in optical fiber telecommunication has brought to the fore several interesting DSP enabled modulation formats. One such format is orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which has seen great success in wireless and wired RF applications, and is being actively investigated by several research groups for use in optical fiber telecom. In this dissertation, I present three implementations of OFDM for elastic optical networking and distributed network control. The first is a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based real-time implementation of a version of OFDM conventionally known as intensity modulation and direct detection (IMDD) OFDM. I experimentally demonstrate the ability of this transmission system to dynamically adjust bandwidth and modulation format to meet networking constraints in an automated manner. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first real-time software defined networking (SDN) based control of an OFDM system. In the second OFDM implementation, I experimentally demonstrate a novel OFDM transmission scheme that supports both direct detection and coherent detection receivers simultaneously using the same OFDM transmitter. This interchangeable receiver solution enables a trade-off between bit rate and equipment cost in network deployment and upgrades. I show that the proposed transmission scheme can provide a receiver sensitivity improvement of up to 1.73 dB as compared to IMDD OFDM. I also present two novel polarization analyzer based detection schemes, and study their performance using experiment and simulation. In the third implementation, I present an OFDM pilot-tone based scheme for distributed network control. The first instance of an SDN-based OFDM elastic optical network with pilot-tone assisted distributed control is demonstrated. An improvement in spectral efficiency and a fast reconfiguration time of 30 ms have been achieved in this experiment. Finally, I

  10. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  11. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  12. A modular optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John Albert

    This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed to be used by university of students to investigate realistic optical sensors and detection systems to prepare for advance studies of micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS). The design accomplishes this by doing two things. First, the design significantly lowers the costs associated with studying optical sensors by modularizing the sensor design. Second, the sensor broadens the number of physical phenomena that students can apply optical sensing techniques to in a fiber optics sensor course. The dissertation is divided into seven chapters covering the historical development of fiber-optic sensors, a theoretical overview of fiber-optic sensors, the design, fabrication, and the testing of the modular sensor developed in the course of this work. Chapter 1 discusses, in detail, how this dissertation is organized and states the purpose of the dissertation. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of the development of optical fibers, optical pressure sensors, and fibers, optical pressure sensors, and optical microphones. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of multi-fiber optic detection systems, optical microphones, and pressure sensors. Chapter 4 presents the design details of the modular, optical sensor. Chapter 5 delves into how the modular sensor is fabricated and how the detection systems are constructed. Chapter 6 presents the data collected from the microphone and pressure sensor configurations of the modular sensor. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the data collected and draws conclusions about the design based on the data collected. Chapter 7 also

  13. Advanced broadband baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper broadband performance characteristics of robust, light-weight, diffuse-absorptive baffle surfaces fabricated from sputter-deposited beryllium on cross-rolled Be ingot sheet material and on Be foam, plasma sprayed beryllium, plasma sprayed boron-on-beryllium, and chemical vapor deposited boron carbide on graphite are described and compared to Martin Black. An overview of the Optics Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory (MODIL) Advanced Optical Baffle Program will be discussed

  14. Advances in silicon nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Pu, Minhao

    Silicon has long been established as an ideal material for passive integrated optical circuitry due to its high refractive index, with corresponding strong optical confinement ability, and its low-cost CMOS-compatible manufacturability. However, the inversion symmetry of the silicon crystal lattice.......g. in high-bit-rate optical communication circuits and networks, it is vital that the nonlinear optical effects of silicon are being strongly enhanced. This can among others be achieved in photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides and in nano-engineered photonic-wires (Fig. 1). In this talk I shall present some...... recent advances in this direction. The efficient coupling of light between optical fibers and the planar silicon devices and circuits is of crucial importance. Both end-coupling (Fig. 1) and grating-coupling solutions will be discussed along with polarization issues. A new scheme for a hybrid III...

  15. Nonimaging optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    1991-03-01

    Various uses of nonimaging concentrators and advances in the field of nonimaging optics are discussed. A nonimaging concentrator acts as a type of funnel for light by collecting and intensifying radiation far better than a lens or mirror would. It thus has found useful applications in fields ranging from high-energy physics to solar energy. The history of the field of nonimaging optics is traced, beginning with the design of the first compound parabolic concentrators in the mid-1960s. It is noted that at present there are two known ways to design nonimaging concentrators: the edge-ray method and the geometric vector flux approach. The use of nonimaging optical devices in the design of nontracking solar concentrators is traced. It is noted that the upper limit of concentration turns out to be about 46,000 times the intensity of sunlight at the surface of the earth. Methods used to maximize this concentration are discussed. The development and use of a solar-pumped laser which would have applications in satellite communications are discussed.

  16. Optics in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, R W

    1969-10-01

    Optics is interpreted to include x-ray optics, electronic optics, and short wave radiooptics as well as the more conventional visible, uv, and ir optics. Recent work in Britain on x-ray optics (applied to molecular biology), on scanning electron microscopy, and in radioastronomy (discovery of pulsars) is mentioned. In the optics of the visible and ir there is an increasing interest in over-all systems design. .The formation of large industrial units capable of carrying through major design program, requiring advanced mechanical and electronic design associated with new lens systems, is welcomed.

  17. Advances in quantum electronics 3

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, D W

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Electronics, Volume 3 covers articles on the theoretical and experimental work undertaken in the field of optical pumping and on gaseous ion lasers. The book presents an overview of the optical-pumping field and a review of the use and properties of the density matrix as applied to the statistical behavior of assemblages of atoms or ions. The text discusses the application of the density matrix approach to the theory of optical-pumping r.f. spectroscopy and spin-exchange optical pumping. Optical-pumping experiments are also considered. The book further provides a comprehens

  18. Tunable micro-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duppé, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Presenting state-of-the-art research into the dynamic field of tunable micro-optics, this is the first book to provide a comprehensive survey covering a varied range of topics including novel materials, actuation concepts and new imaging systems in optics. Internationally renowned researchers present a diverse range of chapters on cutting-edge materials, devices and subsystems, including soft matter, artificial muscles, tunable lenses and apertures, photonic crystals, and complete tunable imagers. Special contributions also provide in-depth treatment of micro-optical characterisation, scanners, and the use of natural eye models as inspiration for new concepts in advanced optics. With applications extending from medical diagnosis to fibre telecommunications, Tunable Micro-optics equips readers with a solid understanding of the broader technical context through its interdisciplinary approach to the realisation of new types of optical systems. This is an essential resource for engineers in industry and academia,...

  19. Noise Characterization of Devices for Optical Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walkup, John

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of the research effort is to investigate the noise characteristics of advanced optical Sources, spatial light modulators, and other devices which are candidates for applications in optical computers...

  20. Advances in Opto Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Advances in Opto Electronics. Optoelectronics is where electronics was 15 years back. All Optical Amplifiers and Semiconductor Amplifiers. Fastest Semiconductor (InP) switch is at 170GHz- where is terrabit ? MEMS based switches that route traffic at wavelength level ...

  1. Plaque Burden Influences Accurate Classification of Fibrous Cap Atheroma by In-Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography in a Porcine Model of Advanced Coronary Atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian B; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Pareek, Nilesh

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: In-vivo validation of coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) against histology and the effects of plaque burden (PB) on plaque classification remain unreported. We investigated this in a porcine model with human-like coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five female Yucatan D374...... a validated algorithm. Lesions were adjudicated using the Virmani classification and PB assessed from histology. OCT had a high sensitivity, but modest specificity (92.9% and 74.6%), for identifying fibrous cap atheroma (FCA). The reduced specificity for OCT was due to misclassification of plaques...... with histologically defined pathological intimal thickening (PIT) as FCA (46.1% of the frames with histological PIT were misclassified). PIT lesions misclassified as FCA by OCT had a statistically higher PB than in other OCT frames (median 32.0% versus 13.4%; p

  2. Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre M Bydlon

    Full Text Available Breast conserving surgery (BCS is a recommended treatment for breast cancer patients where the goal is to remove the tumor and a surrounding rim of normal tissue. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients return for additional surgeries to remove all of the cancer. Post-operative pathology is the gold standard for evaluating BCS margins but is limited due to the amount of tissue that can be sampled. Frozen section analysis and touch-preparation cytology have been proposed to address the surgical needs but also have sampling limitations. These issues represent an unmet clinical need for guidance in resecting malignant tissue intra-operatively and for pathological sampling. We have developed a quantitative spectral imaging device to examine margins intra-operatively. The context in which this technology is applied (intra-operative or post-operative setting is influenced by time after excision and surgical factors including cautery and the presence of patent blue dye (specifically Lymphazurin™, used for sentinel lymph node mapping. Optical endpoints of hemoglobin ([THb], fat ([β-carotene], and fibroglandular content via light scattering ( measurements were quantified from diffuse reflectance spectra of lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens using a Monte Carlo model. A linear longitudinal mixed-effects model was used to fit the optical endpoints for the cautery and kinetics studies. Monte Carlo simulations and tissue mimicking phantoms were used for the patent blue dye experiments. [THb], [β-carotene], and were affected by , and [β-carotene]/ was 40%. [β-carotene] and [β-carotene]/ were the only parameters not affected by cautery. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the post-excision kinetics of ex-vivo tissue and the presence of cautery and patent blue dye for breast tumor margin assessment, to accurately interpret data and exploit underling sources of contrast.

  3. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The optical fiber based supercontinuum source has recently become a significant scientific and commercial success, with applications ranging from frequency comb production to advanced medical imaging. This one-of-a-kind book explains the theory of fiber supercontinuum broadening, describes......, provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers...

  4. A Miniaturized Adaptive Optic Device for Optical Telecommunications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To advance the state-of-the-art uplink laser communication technology, new adaptive optic beam compensation techniques are needed for removing various time-varying...

  5. Optical coatings:trends and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norbert Kaiser; Torsten Feigl; Olaf Stenzel; Ulrike Schulz; Ming-hong Yang

    2005-01-01

    New applications in optoelectronics, photonics, telecommunication, displays, optical data processing, biomedicine, sensors, energy control, automobile, aerospace, and architecture stimulation are important developments in physics and technology of optical coatings. This paper will focus on the latest advances in the areas of new optical film systems and devices, new optical coating materials and film fabrication techniques, process control and monitoring, and different advanced applications. Particularly, focus is on optical films that combine optical design with microstructural features tailored on the nanometer and micrometer scales. Evaluation of film stability and integrity in harsh industrial environments and their compatibility with organic polymers are important as well.

  6. Optical computing, optical memory, and SBIRs at Foster-Miller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domash, Lawrence H.

    1994-03-01

    A desktop design and manufacturing system for binary diffractive elements, MacBEEP, was developed with the optical researcher in mind. Optical processing systems for specialized tasks such as cellular automation computation and fractal measurement were constructed. A new family of switchable holograms has enabled several applications for control of laser beams in optical memories. New spatial light modulators and optical logic elements have been demonstrated based on a more manufacturable semiconductor technology. Novel synthetic and polymeric nonlinear materials for optical storage are under development in an integrated memory architecture. SBIR programs enable creative contributions from smaller companies, both product oriented and technology oriented, and support advances that might not otherwise be developed.

  7. Principles of Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Max; Wolf, Emil

    1999-10-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

  8. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Damask, Jay N

    2005-01-01

    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  9. Advancing the quantification of humid tropical forest cover loss with multi-resolution optical remote sensing data: Sampling & wall-to-wall mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, Mark

    Humid tropical forest cover loss is threatening the sustainability of ecosystem goods and services as vast forest areas are rapidly cleared for industrial scale agriculture and tree plantations. Despite the importance of humid tropical forest in the provision of ecosystem services and economic development opportunities, the spatial and temporal distribution of forest cover loss across large areas is not well quantified. Here I improve the quantification of humid tropical forest cover loss using two remote sensing-based methods: sampling and wall-to-wall mapping. In all of the presented studies, the integration of coarse spatial, high temporal resolution data with moderate spatial, low temporal resolution data enable advances in quantifying forest cover loss in the humid tropics. Imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are used as the source of coarse spatial resolution, high temporal resolution data and imagery from the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor are used as the source of moderate spatial, low temporal resolution data. In a first study, I compare the precision of different sampling designs for the Brazilian Amazon using the annual deforestation maps derived by the Brazilian Space Agency for reference. I show that sampling designs can provide reliable deforestation estimates; furthermore, sampling designs guided by MODIS data can provide more efficient estimates than the systematic design used for the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization Forest Resource Assessment 2010. Sampling approaches, such as the one demonstrated, are viable in regions where data limitations, such as cloud contamination, limit exhaustive mapping methods. Cloud-contaminated regions experiencing high rates of change include Insular Southeast Asia, specifically Indonesia and Malaysia. Due to persistent cloud cover, forest cover loss in Indonesia has only been mapped at a 5-10 year interval using photo interpretation of single

  10. Advances in quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, D W

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Electronics, Volume 2 deals with the effects of quantum mechanics on the behavior of electrons in matter. This book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the statistical properties of optical fields and spectral processing techniques, including the use of photon correlation techniques to measure scattering effects in a number of different media. The use of optical E.P.R. and excitation spectroscopic techniques and techniques for establishing the location of impurity ions in the chalcogenides are describe in Chapter 2. The last chapter surveys the field of mode l

  11. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  12. Nanophotonic Devices for Optical Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Thourhout, D.; Spuesens, T.; Selvaraja, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We review recent progress in nanophotonic devices for compact optical interconnect networks. We focus on microdisk-laser-based transmitters and discuss improved design and advanced functionality including all-optical wavelength conversion and flip-flops. Next we discuss the fabrication uniformity...... of the passive routing circuits and their thermal tuning. Finally, we discuss the performance of a wavelength selective detector....

  13. Atomic molecular and optical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Laser-assisted manufacturing and fiber-optics communications are but two of the products of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, (AMO) research. AMO physics provides theoretical and experimental methods and essential data to neighboring areas of science such as chemistry, astrophysics, condensed-matter physics, plasma physics, surface science, biology, and medicine. This book addresses advances in atomic, molecular, and optical fields and provides recommendations for further research. It also looks at scientific applications in national security, manufacturing, medicine, and other fields

  14. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  15. Physical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-01

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  16. Physical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-15

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  17. Quantum optics, what next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kimble, H. Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Quantum optics is a well-established field that spans from fundamental physics to quantum information science. In the coming decade, areas including computation, communication and metrology are all likely to experience scientific and technological advances supported by this far-reaching research field.

  18. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  19. Advances in imaging and electron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    1995-01-01

    Academic Press is pleased to announce the creation of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics. This serial publication results from the merger of two long running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics will feature extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies,microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Continuation order customers for either of the original Advances will receiveVolume 90, the first combined volume.

  20. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  1. Optical tweezers principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Philip; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Combining state-of-the-art research with a strong pedagogic approach, this text provides a detailed and complete guide to the theory, practice and applications of optical tweezers. In-depth derivation of the theory of optical trapping and numerical modelling of optical forces are supported by a complete step-by-step design and construction guide for building optical tweezers, with detailed tutorials on collecting and analysing data. Also included are comprehensive reviews of optical tweezers research in fields ranging from cell biology to quantum physics. Featuring numerous exercises and problems throughout, this is an ideal self-contained learning package for advanced lecture and laboratory courses, and an invaluable guide to practitioners wanting to enter the field of optical manipulation. The text is supplemented by www.opticaltweezers.org, a forum for discussion and a source of additional material including free-to-download, customisable research-grade software (OTS) for calculation of optical forces, dig...

  2. Optical Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Damien; Naughton, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical computing architectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical computing, as well as some of the computational efficiencies of optical devices. We go on to discuss optical computing from the point of view of computational complexity theory, with the aim of putting some old, and some very recent, re...

  3. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. Optical Imaging of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    As the increased prevalence of breast cancer and the advances in breast evaluation awareness have resulted in an increased number of breast examinations and benign breast biopsies, several investigations have been performed to improve the diagnostic accuracy for breast lesions. Optical imaging of the breast that uses nearinfrared light to assess the optical properties of breast tissue is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to characterize breast lesions in clinical practice. This review provides a summary of the current state of optical breast imaging and it describes the basic concepts of optical imaging, the potential clinical applications for breast cancer imaging and its potential incorporation with other imaging modalities

  5. A revolution in optical manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, D. G.

    2004-01-01

    Optical tweezers use the forces exerted by a strongly focused beam of light to trap and move objects ranging in size from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. Since their introduction in 1986, the optical tweezer has become an important tool for research in the fields of biology, physical chemistry and soft condensed matter physics. Recent advances promise to take optical tweezers out of the laboratory and into the mainstream of manufacturing and diagnostics; they may even become consumer products. The next generation of single-beam optical trap offers revolutionary new opportunities for fundamental and applied research. (author)

  6. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  7. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  8. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    Praise for Previous Volumes"This volume maintains the authoritative standards of the series...The editors and publishers are to be congratulated"- M.S. CHILD in PHYSICS BULLETIN"Maintains the high standards of earlier volumes in the series...All the series are written by experts in the field, and their summaries are most timely...Strongly recommended."- G. HERZBERG in AMERICAN SCIENTIST

  9. Advanced defect classification by optical metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the workshop is to provide a high level, invited only, international community that accelerates interactions between the main target groups: universities, institutes, entrepreneurs, intrapreneurs and investors in order to facilitate customer development, application discovery or funding

  10. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    Praise for the Series""This volume maintains the authoritative standards of the series...The editors and publishers are to be congratulated.""--M.S. Child in Physics Bulletin""Maintains the high standards of earlier volumes in the series...All the articles are written by experts in the field, and their summaries are most timely...Strongly recommended.""--G. Herzberg in American Scientist

  11. Advanced Functionalities for Highly Reliable Optical Networks

    OpenAIRE

    An, Yi; Berger, Michael Stübert; Clausen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Denne afhandling behandler to felter indenfor optiske løsninger til netværk i f.eks. luftfartøjer. Det ene felt er fokuseret på at afdække hvilke applikationer der med fordel kan benytte silicium fotoniske komponenter til kost effektive løsninger i netværk med lille rækkevidde. Det andet felt fokuserer på at implementere avancerede løsninger som vil kunne højne driftssikkerheden og dermed brugbarheden af optiske netværk.En kost effektiv sender baseret på en direkte moduleret laser (DML) kombi...

  12. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  13. Roadmap on optical security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram; Carnicer, Artur; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nomura, Takanori; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Nishchal, Naveen K.; Torroba, Roberto; Fredy Barrera, John; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Stern, Adrian; Rivenson, Yair; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.; Situ, Guohai; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Juvells, Ignasi; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Markman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Information security and authentication are important challenges facing society. Recent attacks by hackers on the databases of large commercial and financial companies have demonstrated that more research and development of advanced approaches are necessary to deny unauthorized access to critical data. Free space optical technology has been investigated by many researchers in information security, encryption, and authentication. The main motivation for using optics and photonics for information security is that optical waveforms possess many complex degrees of freedom such as amplitude, phase, polarization, large bandwidth, nonlinear transformations, quantum properties of photons, and multiplexing that can be combined in many ways to make information encryption more secure and more difficult to attack. This roadmap article presents an overview of the potential, recent advances, and challenges of optical security and encryption using free space optics. The roadmap on optical security is comprised of six categories that together include 16 short sections written by authors who have made relevant contributions in this field. The first category of this roadmap describes novel encryption approaches, including secure optical sensing which summarizes double random phase encryption applications and flaws [Yamaguchi], the digital holographic encryption in free space optical technique which describes encryption using multidimensional digital holography [Nomura], simultaneous encryption of multiple signals [Pérez-Cabré], asymmetric methods based on information truncation [Nishchal], and dynamic encryption of video sequences [Torroba]. Asymmetric and one-way cryptosystems are analyzed by Peng. The second category is on compression for encryption. In their respective contributions, Alfalou and Stern propose similar goals involving compressed data and compressive sensing encryption. The very important area of cryptanalysis is the topic of the third category with two sections

  14. Advances in imaging and electron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulvey, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Academic Press is pleased to announce the creation of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics. This serial publication results from the merger of two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics will feature extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies,microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.

  15. Soft material for optical storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, L.; Simoni, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of transforming electronic networking into optical networking is producing a major effort in studying all optical processing and as a consequence in investigating the nonlinear optical properties of materials for this purpose. In this research area soft materials like polymers and liquid crystals are more and more attractive because they are cheap and they are more easily integrated in microcircuits hardware with respect to the well-known highly nonlinear crystals. Since optical processing spans a too wide field to be treated in one single paper, the authors will focus on one specific subject within this field and give a review of the most recent advances in studying the soft-materials properties interesting for the storage of optical information. The efforts in research of new materials and techniques for optical storage are motivated by the need to store and retrieve large amounts of data with short access time and high data rate at a competitive cost

  16. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  17. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  18. Optical Robotics in Mesoscopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and torques in advanced actuation and control at the nano- and micro-scale dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-robotics requires the optimization...... of optimized shapes in the micro-robotics structures [1]. We designed different three-dimensional microstructures and had them fabricated by two-photon polymerization at BRC Hungary. These microstructures were then handled by our proprietary BioPhotonics Workstation to show proof-of-principle 3 demonstrations...

  19. Fiber Optic Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  20. Depscor-95 Agile Optical Phased Arrays for Microspacecraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fork, Richard

    1999-01-01

    ... average power beams with little or no mechanical movement are especially interesting. Recent advances in semiconductor and optical fiber lasers suggest lightweight compact optical phased arrays suitable for microspacecraft are feasible...

  1. Radiation Hard Multi-Layer Optical Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation space telescopes require advanced optical coatings to provide low loss transmission of light in a variety of spectral ranges and protect optical...

  2. Fluidic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M.; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2006-09-01

    Fluidic optics is a new class of optical system with real-time tunability and reconfigurability enabled by the introduction of fluidic components into the optical path. We describe the design, fabrication, operation of a number of fluidic optical systems, and focus on three devices, liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguides, microfluidic dye lasers, and diffraction gratings based on flowing, crystalline lattices of bubbles, to demonstrate the integration of microfluidics and optics. We fabricate these devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with soft-lithographic techniques. They are simple to construct, and readily integrable with microanalytical or lab-on-a-chip systems.

  3. Atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  4. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  5. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    spectral measurements at several line-of-sights with a view to applications for tomographic measurements on full-scale industrial combustion systems. The system was successfully applied on industrial scale for simultaneous fast exhaust gas temperature measurements in the three optical ports of the exhaust......D project, it was also important to investigate the spectral properties of major combustion species such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the infrared range at high temperatures to provide the theoretical background for the development of the optical tomography methods. The new software....... JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  6. Advances in luminescence instrument systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Bulur, E.; Duller, G.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    We report on recent advances in the development of luminescence measurement systems and techniques at Riso. These include: (1) optical stimulation units based on new-generation powerful blue light (470 nm) emitting diodes providing up to 28 mW/cm(2) for OSL measurements; (2) an infrared (830 nm...

  7. Advances in stereomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, H.; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter

    2008-09-01

    Similar to human's binocular vision, stereomicroscopes are comprised of two optical paths under a convergence angle providing a full perspective insight into the world's microstructure. The numerical aperture of stereomicroscopes has continuously increased over the years, reaching the point where the lenses of left and right perspective paths touched each other. This constraint appeared as an upper limit for the resolution of stereomicroscopes, as the resolution of a stereomicroscope was deduced from the numerical apertures of the two equally sized perspective channels. We present the optical design and advances in resolution of the world's first asymmetrical stereomicroscope, which is a technological breakthrough in many aspects of stereomicroscopes. This unique approach uses a large numerical aperture and thus an, so far, unachievable high lateral resolution in the one path, and a small aperture in the other path, which provides a high depth of field ("Fusion Optics"). This new concept is a technical challenge for the optical design of the zoom system as well as for the common main objectives. Furthermore, the new concept makes use of the particular way in which perspective information by binocular vision is formed in the human's brain. In conjunction with a research project at the University of Zurich, Leica Microsystems consolidated the functionality of this concept in to a new generation of stereomicroscopes.

  8. synthesis and optical characterization of acid-doped polyaniline thin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    SYNTHESIS AND OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ACID-DOPED. POLYANILINE THIN .... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... Characterization of Se Doped Polyaniline”,Current. Applied ... with Silver Nanoparticles”, Advances in Materials.

  9. Proceedings of the thirty fifth international conference on contemporary trends in optics and optoelectronics: conference digest - extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Optics and optoelectronics are indispensable in all spheres of human activity, ranging from day to day needs to advanced scientific and technological pursuits and their applications for the benefit of the society. This conference covers the following topics: adaptive optics, biomedical optics and imaging, classical and quantum optics, fibre optics, optics for space applications, optical metrology and NDT, optical information processing, optical and optoelectronic materials. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, Alexander Eugen

    1957-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  11. Fiber-optic communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of fiber-optic communication systems. The 3rd edition of this book is used worldwide as a textbook in many universities. This 4th edition incorporates recent advances that have occurred, in particular two new chapters. One deals with the advanced modulation formats (such as DPSK, QPSK, and QAM) that are increasingly being used for improving spectral efficiency of WDM lightwave systems. The second chapter focuses on new techniques such as all-optical regeneration that are under development and likely to be used in future communication systems. All othe

  12. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  13. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  14. Advanced SEM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D. C.; Newbury, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) represents the most promising tool for metrology, defect review, and for the analysis of ULSI structures, but both fundamental problems such as electron-solid interactions, and practical considerations such as electron-optical constraints, are now setting a limit to performance. This paper examines the directions in which an advanced SEM might be developed to overcome these constraints. The SEM also offers considerable promise as a tool for the high spatial resolution X-ray microanalysis, especially for those situations where a thin cross-section is not practical and first surface analysis is required. The ways in which this capability can be incorporated in an advanced SEM are examined

  15. Advanced SEM imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.C.; Newbury, D.E.; Newbury, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) represents the most promising tool for metrology, defect review, and for the analysis of ULSI structures, but both fundamental problems such as electron-solid interactions, and practical considerations such as electron-optical constraints, are now setting a limit to performance. This paper examines the directions in which an advanced SEM might be developed to overcome these constraints. The SEM also offers considerable promise as a tool for the high spatial resolution X-ray microanalysis, especially for those situations where a thin cross-section is not practical and first surface analysis is required. The ways in which this capability can be incorporated in an advanced SEM are examined. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon

    1991-01-01

    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  17. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  18. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  19. Optical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Applications of the optical computer include an approach for increasing the sharpness of images obtained from the most powerful electron microscopes and fingerprint/credit card identification. The information-handling capability of the various optical computing processes is very great. Modern synthetic-aperture radars scan upward of 100,000 resolvable elements per second. Fields which have assumed major importance on the basis of optical computing principles are optical image deblurring, coherent side-looking synthetic-aperture radar, and correlative pattern recognition. Some examples of the most dramatic image deblurring results are shown.

  20. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunfei

    2017-01-01

    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  1. Undergraduate experiments on statistical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Ruediger; Friege, Gunnar; Weber, Kim-Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Since the pioneering experiments of Forrester et al (1955 Phys. Rev. 99 1691) and Hanbury Brown and Twiss (1956 Nature 177 27; Nature 178 1046), along with the introduction of the laser in the 1960s, the systematic analysis of random fluctuations of optical fields has developed to become an indispensible part of physical optics for gaining insight into features of the fields. In 1985 Joseph W Goodman prefaced his textbook on statistical optics with a strong commitment to the ‘tools of probability and statistics’ (Goodman 2000 Statistical Optics (New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.)) in the education of advanced optics. Since then a wide range of novel undergraduate optical counting experiments and corresponding pedagogical approaches have been introduced to underpin the rapid growth of the interest in coherence and photon statistics. We propose low cost experimental steps that are a fair way off ‘real’ quantum optics, but that give deep insight into random optical fluctuation phenomena: (1) the introduction of statistical methods into undergraduate university optical lab work, and (2) the connection between the photoelectrical signal and the characteristics of the light source. We describe three experiments and theoretical approaches which may be used to pave the way for a well balanced growth of knowledge, providing students with an opportunity to enhance their abilities to adapt the ‘tools of probability and statistics’. (paper)

  2. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  3. Smart Structures for Control of Optical Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobers, D

    2002-01-01

    The development of lightweight, large-aperture optics is of vital importance to the Department of Defense and the US Air Force for advancing remote sensing applications and improving current capabilities...

  4. Photorefractive optics materials, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Francis T S

    1999-01-01

    The advances of photorefractive optics have demonstrated many useful and practical applications, which include the development of photorefractive optic devices for computer communication needs. To name a couple significant applications: the large capacity optical memory, which can greatly improve the accessible high-speed CD-ROM and the dynamic photorefractive gratings, which can be used for all-optic switches for high-speed fiber optic networks. This book is an important reference both for technical and non-technical staffs who are interested in this field. * Covers the recent development in materials, phenomena, and applications * Includes growth, characterization, dynamic gratings, and liquid crystal PR effect * Includes applications to photonic devices such as large capacity optical memory, 3-D interconnections, and dynamic holograms * Provides the recent overall picture of current trends in photorefractive optics * Includes optical and electronic properties of the materials as applied to dynamic photoref...

  5. Roadmap on optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário F S; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M; Pellegrino, Paul M; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin

    2017-08-01

    conventional, specialty and photonic crystal fibers. Several other sections are dedicated to micro- and nano-engineered sensors, including whispering-gallery mode and plasmonic sensors. The uses of optical sensors in chemical, biological and biomedical areas are described in other sections. Different approaches required to satisfy applications at visible, infrared and THz spectral regions are also discussed. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced in each of these areas are addressed, together with suggestions on how the field could evolve in the near future.

  6. Roadmap on optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário F. S.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J.; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin

    2017-08-01

    conventional, specialty and photonic crystal fibers. Several other sections are dedicated to micro- and nano-engineered sensors, including whispering-gallery mode and plasmonic sensors. The uses of optical sensors in chemical, biological and biomedical areas are described in other sections. Different approaches required to satisfy applications at visible, infrared and THz spectral regions are also discussed. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced in each of these areas are addressed, together with suggestions on how the field could evolve in the near future.

  7. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Other advantages of optics include low manufacturing costs, immunity to ... It is now possible to control atoms by trapping single photons in small, .... cement, and optical spectrum analyzers. ... risk of noise is further reduced, as light is immune to electro- ..... mode of operation including management of large multimedia.

  8. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, D F

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Optics gives a comprehensive coverage of developments in quantum optics over the past years. In the early chapters the formalism of quantum optics is elucidated and the main techniques are introduced. These are applied in the later chapters to problems such as squeezed states of light, resonance fluorescence, laser theory, quantum theory of four-wave mixing, quantum non-demolition measurements, Bell's inequalities, and atom optics. Experimental results are used to illustrate the theory throughout. This yields the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of experiment and theory in quantum optics in any textbook. More than 40 exercises helps readers test their understanding and provide practice in quantitative problem solving.

  9. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  11. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source

  12. Bio-Optics and Bio-Inspired Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Slocik, Joseph M; Gupta, Maneesh K; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2017-10-25

    Through the use of the limited materials palette, optimally designed micro- and nanostructures, and tightly regulated processes, nature demonstrates exquisite control of light-matter interactions at various length scales. In fact, control of light-matter interactions is an important element in the evolutionary arms race and has led to highly engineered optical materials and systems. In this review, we present a detailed summary of various optical effects found in nature with a particular emphasis on the materials and optical design aspects responsible for their optical functionality. Using several representative examples, we discuss various optical phenomena, including absorption and transparency, diffraction, interference, reflection and antireflection, scattering, light harvesting, wave guiding and lensing, camouflage, and bioluminescence, that are responsible for the unique optical properties of materials and structures found in nature and biology. Great strides in understanding the design principles adapted by nature have led to a tremendous progress in realizing biomimetic and bioinspired optical materials and photonic devices. We discuss the various micro- and nanofabrication techniques that have been employed for realizing advanced biomimetic optical structures.

  13. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  14. Advanced fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Sukham, Johneph; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials can provide unprecedented properties in accommodation of high-k (high wave vector) waves and enhancement of the optical density of states. To reach such performance the metamaterials have to be fabricated with as small imperfections as possible. Here we report on our...... advances in two approaches in fabrication of optical metamaterials. We deposit ultrathin ultrasmooth gold layers with the assistance of organic material (APTMS) adhesion layer. The technology supports the stacking of such layers in a multiperiod construction with alumina spacers between gold films, which...

  15. Quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, P D [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD (Australia).Physics Department

    1999-07-01

    Full text: Quantum optics in Australia has been an active research field for some years. I shall focus on recent developments in quantum and atom optics. Generally, the field as a whole is becoming more and more diverse, as technological developments drive experiments into new areas, and theorists either attempt to explain the new features, or else develop models for even more exotic ideas. The recent developments include quantum solitons, quantum computing, Bose-Einstein condensation, atom lasers, quantum cryptography, and novel tests of quantum mechanics. The talk will briefly cover current progress and outstanding problems in each of these areas. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society.

  16. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert J; Lin, Lawrence H

    1971-01-01

    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  17. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  18. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Growing awareness of heterogeneity in cells of microbial populations has emphasized the importance of advanced microscopy for visualization and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell variation. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in confocal...... microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  19. Nanodiamonds for optical bioimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Huan-Cheng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Chia-Liang, E-mail: yyhui@pub.iams.sinica.edu.t, E-mail: clcheng@mail.ndhu.edu.t, E-mail: hchang@gate.sinica.edu.t [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-22

    Diamond has received increasing attention for its promising biomedical applications. The material is highly biocompatible and can be easily conjugated with bioactive molecules. Recently, nanoscale diamond has been applied as light scattering labels and luminescent optical markers. The luminescence, arising from photoexcitation of colour centres, can be substantially enhanced when type Ib diamond nanocrystals are bombarded by a high-energy particle beam and then annealed to form negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centres. The centre absorbs strongly at 560 nm, fluoresces efficiently in the far-red region and is exceptionally photostable (without photoblinking and photobleaching). It is an ideal candidate for long-term imaging and tracking in complex cellular environments. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of fluorescent nanodiamonds for optical bioimaging with single particle sensitivity and nanometric resolution.

  20. Nanodiamonds for optical bioimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Diamond has received increasing attention for its promising biomedical applications. The material is highly biocompatible and can be easily conjugated with bioactive molecules. Recently, nanoscale diamond has been applied as light scattering labels and luminescent optical markers. The luminescence, arising from photoexcitation of colour centres, can be substantially enhanced when type Ib diamond nanocrystals are bombarded by a high-energy particle beam and then annealed to form negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centres. The centre absorbs strongly at 560 nm, fluoresces efficiently in the far-red region and is exceptionally photostable (without photoblinking and photobleaching). It is an ideal candidate for long-term imaging and tracking in complex cellular environments. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of fluorescent nanodiamonds for optical bioimaging with single particle sensitivity and nanometric resolution.

  1. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking

  2. Super-resolution optics for virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benitez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Zamora, Pablo; Buljan, Marina; Narasimhan, Bharathwaj; Nikolic, Milena I.; Lopez, Jesus; Gorospe, Jorge; Sanchez, Eduardo; Lastres, Carmen; Mohedano, Ruben

    2017-06-01

    In present commercial Virtual Reality (VR) headsets the resolution perceived is still limited, since the VR pixel density (typically 10-15 pixels/deg) is well below what the human eye can resolve (60 pixels/deg). We present here novel advanced optical design approaches that dramatically increase the perceived resolution of the VR keeping the large FoV required in VR applications. This approach can be applied to a vast number of optical architectures, including some advanced configurations, as multichannel designs. All this is done at the optical design stage, and no eye tracker is needed in the headset.

  3. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    ..., quantum metrology, spin squeezing, control of decoherence and many other key topics. Readers are guided through the principles of quantum optics and their uses in a wide variety of areas including quantum information science and quantum mechanics...

  4. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  5. Optics education in an optometric setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Nicole M.

    2017-08-01

    The first year optics curriculum at the Arizona College of Optometry aims to provide students with an understanding of geometrical, physical, and visual optics principals that will be the foundation of their clinical understanding of the optics of the eye and its correction in advanced courses such as ophthalmic optics and contact lenses. Although the optics of the eye are a fantastic model to use in optics education, the clinical applications may not become apparent until later in the course of study. Successful strategies are needed to engage students and facilitate the understanding of optical principals and the growth of process skills including problem solving, analysis, and critical thinking that will help in their future as health care providers. These include the implementation of ophthalmic applications as early as possible, encouragement of group work including open office hours, and the use of video problem set solutions to supplement traditional static solutions.

  6. Optimized systems for energy efficient optical tweezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R.; Kleindienst, R.; Grewe, A.; Bürger, Elisabeth; Oeder, A.; Sinzinger, S.

    2013-03-01

    Compared to conventional optics like singlet lenses or even microscope objectives advanced optical designs help to develop properties specifically useful for efficient optical tweezers. We present an optical setup providing a customized intensity distribution optimized with respect to large trapping forces. The optical design concept combines a refractive double axicon with a reflective parabolic focusing mirror. The axicon arrangement creates an annular field distribution and thus clears space for additional integrated observation optics in the center of the system. Finally the beam is focused to the desired intensity distribution by a parabolic ring mirror. The compact realization of the system potentially opens new fields of applications for optical tweezers such as in production industries and micro-nano assembly.

  7. Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks covers optical networks and how they can provide high bandwidth, energy efficient interconnects with increased communication bandwidth. This volume, with contributions from leading researchers in the field, presents an integrated view of the expected future requirements of data centers and serves as a reference for some of the most advanced and promising solutions proposed by researchers from leading universities, research labs, and companies. The work also includes several novel architectures, each demonstrating different technologies such as optical circuits, optical switching, MIMO optical OFDM, and others. Additionally, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks provides invaluable insights into the benefits and advantages of optical interconnects and how they can be a promising alternative for future data center networks.

  8. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  9. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  10. Extremely Lightweight Segmented Membrane Optical Shell Fabrication Technology for Future IR to Optical Telescope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) substrate fabrication approach be extended with a specific focus on advanced off-axis very light weight,...

  11. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  12. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  13. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  14. New organic materials for optics: optical storage and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, F.

    1996-01-01

    New organic materials have received considerable attention recently, due to their easy preparation and different variety. The most application fields in optics are optical storage and nonlinear optics. In optical storage the organic dyes have been used for example, in record able and erasable compact disks (CD-R, CD-E) nonlinear optical effects, such as nonlinear optical absorption, second and third order optical absorption, second and third order optical nonlinearities, can be applied for making optical limiters, optical modulators, as well as laser second and third harmonic generations. Due to high value of optical absorption and optical nonlinearity organic materials are always used as thin films in optical integration. In this paper the new experimental results have been presented, and future development has been also discussed. (author)

  15. Perspective and potential of smart optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Duzik, Adam J.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Ko, Hyun-U.; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Yun, Sungryul; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2017-09-01

    The increasing requirements of hyperspectral imaging optics, electro/photo-chromic materials, negative refractive index metamaterial optics, and miniaturized optical components from micro-scale to quantum-scale optics have all contributed to new features and advancements in optics technology. Development of multifunctional capable optics has pushed the boundaries of optics into new fields that require new disciplines and materials to maximize the potential benefits. The purpose of this study is to understand and show the fundamental materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics (referred to as smart optics) that are essential for future industrial, scientific, military, and space applications, such as membrane optics, filters, windows for sensors and probes, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras, light valves, light switches, and flat-panel displays. The proposed smart optics are based on the Stark and Zeeman effects in materials tailored with quantum dot arrays and thin films made from readily polarizable materials via ferroelectricity or ferromagnetism. Bound excitonic states of organic crystals are also capable of optical adaptability, tunability, and reconfigurability. To show the benefits of smart optics, this paper reviews spectral characteristics of smart optical materials and device technology. Experiments testing the quantum-confined Stark effect, arising from rare earth element doping effects in semiconductors, and applied electric field effects on spectral and refractive index are discussed. Other bulk and dopant materials were also discovered to have the same aspect of shifts in spectrum and refractive index. Other efforts focus on materials for creating field-controlled spectrally smart active optics on a selected spectral range. Surface plasmon polariton transmission of light through apertures is also discussed, along with potential applications. New breakthroughs in micro scale multiple zone plate optics as a micro

  16. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baisden, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world's largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF's high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  17. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisden, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world’s largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF’s high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  18. International Symposium on Optics and its Applications (OPTICS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.; Calvo, Maria L.; Kazaryan, Eduard M.; Papoyan, Aram V.; Sarkisyan, Hayk A.

    2012-03-01

    the direction of their further studies. We are confident that the publication of the Symposium proceedings in JPCS, a worldwide-known open access journal, will help to disseminate and promote current activities in optics, thus facilitating international cooperation and the integration of Armenian scientists into the worldwide optical community. We would like to thank the sponsors of the Symposium: National Foundation of Science and Advanced Technologies (NFSAT), The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), LT-PYRKAL, State Committee of Science of Armenia, Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, and Devout Generation Foundation. We also express our gratitude to the members of the Program Committee for their organization of the manuscript reviewing. Special thanks go to Narine Gevorgyan, Lilit Mantashyan and Paytsar Mantashyan for their invaluable assistance in the compilation of this issue. The Editors, Aranya B Bhattacherjee, University of Delhi, India Maria L Calvo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain Eduard M Kazaryan, Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, Armenia Aram V Papoyan, Institute for Physical Research of NAS, Armenia Hayk A Sarkisyan, Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, Armenia OPTICS group photograph Participants of OPTICS-2011 in front of Yerevan State University Group in Khor Virap Participants of OPTICS-2011 in Khor Virap The PDF also contains additional photographs from the Symposium.

  19. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Geometric Phase Generated Optical Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fuyong; Zang, Xiaofei; Wen, Dandan; Li, Zile; Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Huigang; Gerardot, Brian D; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Guoxing; Chen, Xianzhong

    2017-09-12

    An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion. The metasurface device is designed to display two asymmetrically distributed off-axis images of "Rubin faces" with high fidelity, high efficiency and broadband operation that are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the incident light. Upon the illumination of a linearly polarized light beam, the optical illusion of a 'vase' is perceived. Our result provides an intuitive demonstration of the figure-ground distinction that our brains make during the visual perception. The alliance between geometric metasurface and the optical illusion opens a pathway for new applications related to encryption, optical patterning, and information processing.

  1. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  2. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  3. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick M

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Calculus is intended as a text for courses that furnish the backbone of the student's undergraduate education in mathematical analysis. The goal is to rigorously present the fundamental concepts within the context of illuminating examples and stimulating exercises. This book is self-contained and starts with the creation of basic tools using the completeness axiom. The continuity, differentiability, integrability, and power series representation properties of functions of a single variable are established. The next few chapters describe the topological and metric properties of Euclide

  4. Advanced trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, C V; Robson, A

    1950-01-01

    This volume will provide a welcome resource for teachers seeking an undergraduate text on advanced trigonometry, when few are readily available. Ideal for self-study, this text offers a clear, logical presentation of topics and an extensive selection of problems with answers. Contents include the properties of the triangle and the quadrilateral; equations, sub-multiple angles, and inverse functions; hyperbolic, logarithmic, and exponential functions; and expansions in power-series. Further topics encompass the special hyperbolic functions; projection and finite series; complex numbers; de Moiv

  5. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  6. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... information about chemical equilibria, kinetics and molecular motion by monitoring changes in optical properties of the system. The five presented research projects are largely unrelated to each other both in aim and in what property is probed, however they are all connected in that they are fluorophore...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  7. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  8. Advanced synthetic holograms for security purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotačka, Libor; Vízdal, Petr; Behounek, Tomás

    2009-05-01

    Our paper deals with the recent advances in synthetically written optical security devices (DOVIDs) and holograms. The synthesized holographic security elements are recorded with a resolution reaching 500.000 dpi and are specially developed for the "layman-level" security of the most important state valuables and documents, like banknotes and identity cards. We especially pay an attention to such holographic features being impossible to originate through conventional optical holography of matrix based devices.

  9. Advanced Topics in Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-07

    identification, adaptive optics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON OF ABSTRACT OF PAGES Sudhakar Prasad... Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona (co-PI) " Dr. Stuart M. Jefferies, Professor, IfA, University of Hawaii (Co-PI) " Dr. Robert J. Plemmons...available at AMOS for conducting imaging and nonimaging research and data analysis; " transition advanced mathematical concepts and software resulting

  10. Astronomical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Daniel J

    1988-01-01

    Written by a recognized expert in the field, this clearly presented, well-illustrated book provides both advanced level students and professionals with an authoritative, thorough presentation of the characteristics, including advantages and limitations, of telescopes and spectrographic instruments used by astronomers of today.Key Features* Written by a recognized expert in the field* Provides both advanced level students and professionals with an authoritative, thorough presentation of the characteristics, including advantages and limitations, of telescopes and spectrographic i

  11. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  12. Optical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukaroff, I.; Fishman, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reflecting optical dosimeter is a thin block of optical material having an input light pipe at one corner and an output light pipe at another corner, arranged so that the light path includes several reflections off the edges of the block to thereby greatly extend its length. In a preferred embodiment, one corner of the block is formed at an angle so that after the light is reflected several times between two opposite edges, it is then reflected several more times between the other two edges

  13. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  14. Quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flytzanis, C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Quantum Optics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program is focused on the behavior of dense and dilute materials submitted to short and high-intensity light radiation fields. Nonlinear optics techniques, with time and spatial resolution, are developed. An important research activity concerns the investigations on the interactions between the photon beams and the inhomogeneous or composite materials, as well as the artificial microstructures. In the processes involving molecular beams and surfaces, the research works on the photophysics of surfaces and the molecule-surface interactions, are included [fr

  15. The advanced neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), slated for construction start in 1994, will be a multipurpose neutron research laboratory serving academic and industrial users in chemistry, biology, condensed matter physics, nuclear and fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, and many other fields. It will be centered on the world's highest flux neutron beam reactor, operating at 330 MW, with careful design integration between the neutron source and the experiment systems. Many instruments will be situated in low backgrounds at distances up to 80 m from the reactor, using neutron guides with tailored neutron optical coatings for beam transport. Apart from the many stations for neutron scattering research, specialized stations will also be provided for isotope separation on-line, experiments with liquid hydrogen targets, neutron optical techniques such as interferometry, activation analysis, depth profiling, and positron production. Careful consideration has been given to providing a good research environment for visiting scientists, including easy access to the experimental areas, while maintaining a highly secure nuclear facility. This paper will describe the reactor and experimental facilities and give some examples of the types of research for which ANS has been designed

  16. Advances in highly doped upconversion nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shihui; Zhou, Jiajia; Zheng, Kezhi; Bednarkiewicz, Artur; Liu, Xiaogang; Jin, Dayong

    2018-06-20

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are capable of converting near-infra-red excitation into visible and ultraviolet emission. Their unique optical properties have advanced a broad range of applications, such as fluorescent microscopy, deep-tissue bioimaging, nanomedicine, optogenetics, security labelling and volumetric display. However, the constraint of concentration quenching on upconversion luminescence has hampered the nanoscience community to develop bright UCNPs with a large number of dopants. This review surveys recent advances in developing highly doped UCNPs, highlights the strategies that bypass the concentration quenching effect, and discusses new optical properties as well as emerging applications enabled by these nanoparticles.

  17. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  18. Integrated optical circuit engineering V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-20, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Mark A.

    Recent advances in the theoretical and practical design and applications of optoelectronic devices and optical circuits are examined in reviews and reports. Topics discussed include system and market considerations, guided-wave phenomena, waveguide devices, processing technology, lithium niobate devices, and coupling problems. Consideration is given to testing and measurement, integrated optics for fiber-optic systems, optical interconnect technology, and optical computing.

  19. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  20. Chiral quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  1. Diophantine Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouan, D.

    2016-09-01

    What I call Diophantine optics is the exploitation in optics of some remarkable algebraic relations between powers of integers. The name comes from Diophantus of Alexandria, a greek mathematician, known as the father of algebra. He studied polynomial equations with integer coefficients and integer solutions, called diophantine equations. Since constructive or destructive interferences are playing with optical path differences which are multiple integer (odd or even) of λ/2 and that the complex amplitude is a highly non-linear function of the optical path difference (or equivalently of the phase), one can understand that any Taylor development of this amplitude implies powers of integers. This is the link with Diophantine equations. We show how, especially in the field of interferometry, remarkable relations between powers of integers can help to solve several problems, such as achromatization of a phase shifter or deep nulling efficiency. It appears that all the research that was conducted in this frame of thinking, relates to the field of detection of exoplanets, a very active domain of astrophysics today.

  2. Optical metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gåsvik, Kjell J

    2003-01-01

    New material on computerized optical processes, computerized ray tracing, and the fast Fourier transform, Bibre-Bragg sensors, and temporal phase unwrapping.* New introductory sections to all chapters.* Detailed discussion on lasers and laser principles, including an introduction to radiometry and photometry.* Thorough coverage of the CCD camera.

  3. Optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Trautman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The geometry of classical physics is Lorentzian; but weaker geometries are often more appropriate: null geodesics and electromagnetic fields, for example, are well known to be objects of conformal geometry. To deal with a single null congruence, or with the radiative electromagnetic fields associated with it, even less is needed: flag geometry for the first, optical geometry, with which this paper is chiefly concerned, for the second. The authors establish a natural one-to-one correspondence between optical geometries, considered locally, and three-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures. A number of Lorentzian geometries are shown to be equivalent from the optical point of view. For example the Goedel universe, the Taub-NUT metric and Hauser's twisting null solution have an optical geometry isomorphic to the one underlying the Robinson congruence in Minkowski space. The authors present general results on the problem of lifting a CR structure to a Lorentz manifold and, in particular, to Minkowski space; and exhibit the relevance of the deviation form to this problem

  4. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical computing technology is, in general, developing in two directions. One approach is ... current support in many places, with private companies as well as governments in several countries encouraging such research work. For example, much ... which enables more information to be carried and data to be processed.

  5. Quantum Optics in Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2001-04-01

    Quantum Optics in Phase Space provides a concise introduction to the rapidly moving field of quantum optics from the point of view of phase space. Modern in style and didactically skillful, Quantum Optics in Phase Space prepares students for their own research by presenting detailed derivations, many illustrations and a large set of workable problems at the end of each chapter. Often, the theoretical treatments are accompanied by the corresponding experiments. An exhaustive list of references provides a guide to the literature. Quantum Optics in Phase Space also serves advanced researchers as a comprehensive reference book. Starting with an extensive review of the experiments that define quantum optics and a brief summary of the foundations of quantum mechanics the author Wolfgang P. Schleich illustrates the properties of quantum states with the help of the Wigner phase space distribution function. His description of waves ala WKB connects semi-classical phase space with the Berry phase. These semi-classical techniques provide deeper insight into the timely topics of wave packet dynamics, fractional revivals and the Talbot effect. Whereas the first half of the book deals with mechanical oscillators such as ions in a trap or atoms in a standing wave the second half addresses problems where the quantization of the radiation field is of importance. Such topics extensively discussed include optical interferometry, the atom-field interaction, quantum state preparation and measurement, entanglement, decoherence, the one-atom maser and atom optics in quantized light fields. Quantum Optics in Phase Space presents the subject of quantum optics as transparently as possible. Giving wide-ranging references, it enables students to study and solve problems with modern scientific literature. The result is a remarkably concise yet comprehensive and accessible text- and reference book - an inspiring source of information and insight for students, teachers and researchers alike.

  6. Advanced Pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  7. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  8. National Jet Fuels Combustion Program – Area #3 : Advanced Combustion Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-31

    The goal of this study is to develop, conduct, and analyze advanced laser and optical measurements in the experimental combustors developed under ASCENT National Fuel Combustion Program to measure sensitivity to fuel properties. We conducted advanced...

  9. Efficient Weibull channel model for salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical communications

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.; Zedini, Emna; Elafandy, Rami T.; Kammoun, Abla; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels

  10. Precision Membrane Optical Shell (PMOS) Technology for Lightweight LIDAR Apertures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision membrane optical shell (PMOS) technology is an innovative combination of 1) ultra lightweight optically smooth membrane thin films, 2) advanced mold based...

  11. Optical Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Calvin C. K.; Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Ethernet The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) is soliciting papers for a second feature issue on Optical Ethernet. Ethernet has evolved from a LAN technology connecting desktop computers to a universal broadband network interface. It is not only the vehicle for local data connectivity but also the standard interface for next-generation network equipment such as video servers and IP telephony. High-speed Ethernet has been increasingly assuming the volume of backbone network traffic from SONET/SDH-based circuit applications. It is clear that IP has become the universal network protocol for future converged networks, and Ethernet is becoming the ubiquitous link layer for connectivity. Network operators have been offering Ethernet services for several years. Problems and new requirements in Ethernet service offerings have been captured through previous experience. New study groups and standards bodies have been formed to address these problems. This feature issue aims at reviewing and updating the new developments and R&D efforts of high-speed Ethernet in recent years, especially those related to the field of optical networking. Scope of Submission The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following: Ethernet PHY development 10-Gbit Ethernet on multimode fiber Native Ethernet transport and Ethernet on legacy networks EPON Ethernet OAM Resilient packet ring (RPR) and Ethernet QoS definition and management on Ethernet Ethernet protection switching Circuit emulation services on Ethernet Transparent LAN service development Carrier VLAN and Ethernet Ethernet MAC frame expansion Ethernet switching High-speed Ethernet applications Economic models of high-speed Ethernet services Ethernet field deployment and standard activities To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Optical Ethernet feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions

  12. Optics. Observation of optical polarization Möbius strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Banzer, Peter; Karimi, Ebrahim; Orlov, Sergej; Rubano, Andrea; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico; Boyd, Robert W; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-02-27

    Möbius strips are three-dimensional geometrical structures, fascinating for their peculiar property of being surfaces with only one "side"—or, more technically, being "nonorientable" surfaces. Despite being easily realized artificially, the spontaneous emergence of these structures in nature is exceedingly rare. Here, we generate Möbius strips of optical polarization by tightly focusing the light beam emerging from a q-plate, a liquid crystal device that modifies the polarization of light in a space-variant manner. Using a recently developed method for the three-dimensional nanotomography of optical vector fields, we fully reconstruct the light polarization structure in the focal region, confirming the appearance of Möbius polarization structures. The preparation of such structured light modes may be important for complex light beam engineering and optical micro- and nanofabrication. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Optical Communication over Plastic Optical Fibers Integrated Optical Receiver Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This book presents high-performance data transmission over plastic optical fibers (POF) using integrated optical receivers having good properties with multilevel modulation, i.e. a higher sensitivity and higher data rate transmission over a longer plastic optical fiber length. Integrated optical receivers and transmitters with high linearity are introduced for multilevel communication. For binary high-data rate transmission over plastic optical fibers, an innovative receiver containing an equalizer is described leading also to a high performance of a plastic optical fiber link. The cheap standard PMMA SI-POF (step-index plastic optical fiber) has the lowest bandwidth and the highest attenuation among multimode fibers. This small bandwidth limits the maximum data rate which can be transmitted through plastic optical fibers. To overcome the problem of the plastic optical fibers high transmission loss, very sensitive receivers must be used to increase the transmitted length over POF. The plastic optical fiber li...

  14. Optical gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifollahi, Alireza

    It is said that future of the world is based on space exploration which leads us to think more about low cost and light weight instruments. Cheap and sensitive instruments should be de-signed and replace the expensive ones. One of the required instruments in space ships is gyroscope controls the direction of space ship. In this article I am going to give an idea to use optical properties in a new gyroscope which will be cheaper as well as more sensitive in com-pare with most of the being used normal gyroscope nowadays. This instrument uses an optical system to measure the angular changes in the direction of a space craft movements in any of the three axels. Any movement, even very small one, will move a crystal bulb which is lashed by some narrow elastic bands in a fixed box surrounded by three optical sources and light meters. Light meters measure the attitude and the angel of changes in the light beams going through the bulb which is related to the amount of changes in the space craft directions. The system will be very sensitive even against movement around its access. As an electro digital device in connection to a Main Process Unit (MPU) it can be used in Stability Augmentation System (SAS) in a space ship. The sensitivity rate of the instrument will be based on the quality and sensitivity of the light meters.

  15. Foveated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kyle R.

    2016-05-01

    Foveated imaging can deliver two different resolutions on a single focal plane, which might inexpensively allow more capability for military systems. The following design study results provide starting examples, lessons learned, and helpful setup equations and pointers to aid the lens designer in any foveated lens design effort. Our goal is to put robust sensor in a small package with no moving parts, but still be able to perform some of the functions of a sensor in a moving gimbal. All of the elegant solutions are out (for various reasons). This study is an attempt to see if lens designs can solve this problem and realize some gains in performance versus cost for airborne sensors. We determined a series of design concepts to simultaneously deliver wide field of view and high foveal resolution without scanning or gimbals. Separate sensors for each field of view are easy and relatively inexpensive, but lead to bulky detectors and electronics. Folding and beam-combining of separate optical channels reduces sensor footprint, but induces image inversions and reduced transmission. Entirely common optics provide good resolution, but cannot provide a significant magnification increase in the foveal region. Offsetting the foveal region from the wide field center may not be physically realizable, but may be required for some applications. The design study revealed good general guidance for foveated optics designs with a cold stop. Key lessons learned involve managing distortion, telecentric imagers, matching image inversions and numerical apertures between channels, reimaging lenses, and creating clean resolution zone splits near internal focal planes.

  16. Digital processing optical transmission and coherent receiving techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    With coherent mixing in the optical domain and processing in the digital domain, advanced receiving techniques employing ultra-high speed sampling rates have progressed tremendously over the last few years. These advances have brought coherent reception systems for lightwave-carried information to the next stage, resulting in ultra-high capacity global internetworking. Digital Processing: Optical Transmission and Coherent Receiving Techniques describes modern coherent receiving techniques for optical transmission and aspects of modern digital optical communications in the most basic lines. The

  17. Advanced in-flight measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Nicholas; Jentink, Henk; Kompenhans, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The book presents a synopsis of the main results achieved during the 3 year EU-project "Advanced Inflight Measurement Techniques (AIM)" which applied advanced image based measurement techniques to industrial flight testing. The book is intended to be not only an overview on the AIM activities but also a guide on the application of advanced optical measurement techniques for future flight testing. Furthermore it is a useful guide for engineers in the field of experimental methods and flight testing who face the challenge of a future requirement for the development of highly accurate non-intrusive in-flight measurement techniques.

  18. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  19. Molecular Imaging With Optical, Magnetic Resonance, and Radioisotope Techniques: Potentials and Relative Limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budinger, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The technology advances include photodiode arrays for optical methods high field magnets proposed to 12 Tesla for functional imaging and multinuclear spectroscopy 3D ultrasound and positron tomography...

  20. Modern Estimation Techniques and Optimal Maneuver Targeting for Autonomous Optical Navigation around Small Bodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous Optical Navigation (AON) allows for significant advances in spacecraft navigation accuracy around small bodies located far from Earth, such as asteroids...

  1. Advanced Mechanical Testing of Sandwich Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Jenstrup, Claus

    2008-01-01

    An advanced digital optical system has been used to measure surface strains on sandwich face and core specimens tested in a project concerned with improved criteria for designing sandwich X-joints. The face sheet specimens were of glass reinforced polyester and were tested in tension. The core sp...

  2. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  3. Fibre Optic Gyroscope Developments Using Integrated Optic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minford, W. J.; DePaula, R. M.

    1988-09-01

    The sensing of rotation using counterpropagating optical beams in a fiber loop (the SAGNAC effect) has gone through extensive developments and demonstrations since first proved feasible by Vali and Shorthilll in 1976. The interferometric fiber gyroscope minimum configuration2 which uses a common input-output port and single-mode filter was developed to provide the extreme high stability necessary to reach the sensitivities at low rotation rates attainable with current state-of-the-art detectors. The simplicity and performance of this configuration has led to its acceptance and wide-spread use. In order to increase the mechanical stability of this system, all single-mode fiber components are employed and a further advancement to integrated optics has enabled most of the optical functions to be placed on a single mass-producible substrate. Recent improvements in the components (eg polarization maintaining fiber and low coherence sources) have further enhanced the performance of the minimum configuration gyro. This presentation focused on the impact of LiNbO3 integrated optic components on gyroscope developments. The use of Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguide optical circuits in interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes has taken two directions: to utilize only the phase modulator, or to combine many of the minimum configuration optical functions on the electro-optic substrate. The high-bandwidth phase modulator is the driving force for using LiNbO3 waveguide devices. This device allows both biasing the gyro for maximum sensitivity and closing the loop via frequency shifting, for example, thus increasing the dynamic range of the gyro and the linearity of the scale factor. Efforts to implement most of the minimum configuration optical functions onto a single LiNbO3 substrate have been led by Thomson CSF.3 They have demonstrated an interferometric gyroscope with excellent performance using a LiNbO3 optical circuit containing a Y-splitter, phase modulator, and surface

  4. ACIGA's high optical power test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, L; Aoun, M; Barriga, P

    2004-01-01

    Advanced laser interferometer detectors utilizing more than 100 W of laser power and with ∼10 6 W circulating laser power present many technological problems. The Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) is developing a high power research facility in Gingin, north of Perth, Western Australia, which will test techniques for the next generation interferometers. In particular it will test thermal lensing compensation and control strategies for optical cavities in which optical spring effects and parametric instabilities may present major difficulties

  5. Northwestern University trial emerging optical solutions

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Nortel Networks, SBC Ameritech and Northwestern University announced the creation of OMNInet (Optical Metro Network Initiative), a collaborative experimental network. The OMNInet technology trial, a four-site network located in Chicago, will provide a test bed for all-optical switching, advanced high-speed technology such as 10 gigabit Ethernet (10GE) and will test next-generation applications in healthcare, industrial design, finance and commerce.

  6. Gingin High Optical Power Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Barrigo, P

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Consortium for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (ACIGA) in collaboration with LIGO is developing a high optical power research facility at the AIGO site, Gingin, Western Australia. Research at the facility will provide solutions to the problems that advanced gravitational wave detectors will encounter with extremely high optical power. The problems include thermal lensing and parametric instabilities. This article will present the status of the facility and the plan for the future experiments

  7. Chirality in nonlinear optics and optical switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Feringa, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical

  8. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum light–matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories. PMID:27695198

  9. Recent Advances of VCSEL Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2006-12-01

    A vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was invented 30 years ago. A lot of unique features can be expected, such as low-power consumption, wafer-level testing, small packaging capability, and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly in recent years, and they are now key devices in local area networks using multimode optical fibers. Also, long wavelength VCSELs are currently attracting much interest for use in single-mode fiber metropolitan area and wide area network applications. In addition, a VCSEL-based disruptive technology enables various consumer applications such as a laser mouse and laser printers. In this paper, the recent advance of VCSEL photonics will be reviewed, which include the wavelength extension of single-mode VCSELs and their wavelength integration/control. Also, this paper explores the potential and challenges for new functions of VCSELs toward optical signal processing.

  10. Challenges and opportunities in synchrotron radiation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, V.

    Design necessities germaine to advances in optics for experimentation with synchrotron radiation are explored. Objectives for development include improved beam-line performance using new mirror materials or coatings, filtering and order-sorting enhancement, and lower surface scattering. A summary is presented of optical systems currently in use, together with requirements imposed by storage rings and experimental design. Advances are recommended in intensity, collimation, focus, and spectral purity of synchrotron beam lines. Any new storage ring mirror is noted to be required to dissipate several hundred watts, something which polished Cu is mentioned as being capable of handling, while standard SiO2 mirrors cannot.

  11. Optical twisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    singularity at the centre and produces a dark region surrounded by a ring-shaped light pattern. For LG-beams, the ring radius is proportional to the degree of helicity or topological charge of the beam. The beam we describe here is initially characterized with an apodized helical phase front at the outskirts....... Such beams can be applied to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps for cold atoms and for optical manipulation of microscopic particles....

  12. Optical microphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    2000-01-11

    An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

  13. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development: Study of the Optical Setup of a Wide-Band Optical Modulation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolls, Volker; Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance the design of the optical setup for a wide-band Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) for use with astronomical heterodyne receiver systems. This report describes the progress of this investigation achieved from March until December 2001.

  14. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  15. Amorphous chalcogenides advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rong Ping

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the chalcogenide glass science and various applications based on the glasses. It starts with a review on the glass-forming ability of various systems, followed by a discussion on the structural and physical properties of various chalcolgenide glasses and their application in integrated optics. The chapters have been contributed by prominent experts from all over the world, and therefore, the book presents the recent research advances in the area. This book will appeal to anyone who is involved in glass science and technology and glass application.

  16. Advances in magnetic resonance 12

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 12, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains six chapters and begins with a discussion of diffusion and self-diffusion measurements by nuclear magnetic resonance. This is followed by separate chapters on spin-lattice relaxation time in hydrogen isotope mixtures; the principles of optical detection of nuclear spin alignment and nuclear quadropole resonance; and the spin-1 behavior, including the relaxation of the quasi-invariants of the motion of a system of pairs of dipolar coupled spin-1/2 nu

  17. Optics code development at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.; Lysenko, W.P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is an overview of part of the beam optics code development effort in the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aim of this effort is to improve our capability to design advanced beam optics systems. The work reported is being carried out by a collaboration of permanent staff members, visiting consultants, and student research assistants. The main components of the effort are building a new framework of common supporting utilities and software tools to facilitate further development. research and development on basic computational techniques in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, and evaluation and comparison of existing beam optics codes, and support for their continuing development

  18. Optics code development at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.; Lysenko, W.P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is an overview of part of the beam optics code development effort in the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aim of this effort is to improve our capability to design advanced beam optics systems. The work reported is being carried out by a collaboration of permanent staff members, visiting consultants, and student research assistants. The main components of the effort are: building a new framework of common supporting utilities and software tools to facilitate further development; research and development on basic computational techniques in classical mechanics and electrodynamics; and evaluation and comparison of existing beam optics codes, and support for their continuing development. 17 refs

  19. History of optics: a modern teaching tool

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Moliní, Daniel; González Cano, Agustín; Díaz Herrera, Natalia; Llombart, N.; Alda, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The history of optics is a very rich field of science and it is possible to find many simple and significant examples of the application and success of the experimental method and therefore is a very good tool to transmit to the student the way science proceeds and to introduce the right spirit of critical analysis, building and testing of models, etc. Optical phenomena are specially well suited for this because in fact optical observations and experiments have made science advance in a cruci...

  20. Fiber optic communications fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have advanced dramatically over the last four decades, since the era of copper cables, resulting in low-cost and high-bandwidth transmission. Fiber optics is now the backbone of the internet and long-distance telecommunication. Without it we would not enjoy the benefits of high-speed internet, or low-rate international telephone calls. This book introduces the basic concepts of fiber-optic communication in a pedagogical way. The important mathematical results are derived by first principles rather than citing research articles. In addition, physical interpre

  1. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  2. The ATHENA telescope and optics status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark; Ferreira, Ivo; Shortt, Brian; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barriere, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Zuknik, Karl-Heintz; Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis; Oliver, Paul; Seidel, André

    2017-08-01

    The work on the definition and technological preparation of the ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) mission continues to progress. In parallel to the study of the accommodation of the telescope, many aspects of the X-ray optics are being evolved further. The optics technology chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided.

  3. Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo C. Righini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field.

  4. Toward Optical Sensors: Review and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S A; Ahmad, R B; Salim, M S; Kamaruddin, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics (FOs) and the numerous advantages of light over electronic systems have boosted the utility and demand for optical sensors in various military, industry and social fields. Environmental and atmospheric monitoring, earth and space sciences, industrial chemical processing and biotechnology, law enforcement, digital imaging, scanning, and printing are exemplars of them. The ubiquity of photonic technologies could drive down prices which reduced the cost of optical fibers and lasers. Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) offer a wide spectrum of advantages over traditional sensing systems, such as small size and longer lifetime. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, amenability to multiplexing, and high sensitivity make FOs the sensor technology of choice in several fields, including the healthcare and aerospace sectors. FOSs show reliable and rigid sensing tasks over conventional electrical and electronic sensors. This paper presents an executive review of optical fiber sensors and the most beneficial applications.

  5. Toward Optical Sensors: Review and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S. A.; Salim, M. S.; Ahmad, R. B.; Kamaruddin, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics (FOs) and the numerous advantages of light over electronic systems have boosted the utility and demand for optical sensors in various military, industry and social fields. Environmental and atmospheric monitoring, earth and space sciences, industrial chemical processing and biotechnology, law enforcement, digital imaging, scanning, and printing are exemplars of them. The ubiquity of photonic technologies could drive down prices which reduced the cost of optical fibers and lasers. Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) offer a wide spectrum of advantages over traditional sensing systems, such as small size and longer lifetime. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, amenability to multiplexing, and high sensitivity make FOs the sensor technology of choice in several fields, including the healthcare and aerospace sectors. FOSs show reliable and rigid sensing tasks over conventional electrical and electronic sensors. This paper presents an executive review of optical fiber sensors and the most beneficial applications.

  6. Integrated optics and optoelectronics II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Sept. 17-19, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ka-Kha

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on integrated optics and optoelectronics discusses proton- and ion-exchange technologies, radiation effects on GaAs optical system FET devices and on the dynamical behavior of LiNbO3 switching devices, advanced lightwave components and concepts, advanced optical interconnects concepts, advanced aircraft and engine control, IOCs for fiber-optic gyroscopes, and commercial integrated optical devices. Attention is given to integrated optical devices for high-data-rate serial-to-parallel conversion, the design of novel integrated optic devices using depressed index waveguides, and a low-loss L-band microwave fiber-optic link for control of a T/R module. Topics addressed include the temperature and modulation dependence of spectral linewidth in distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes, length-minimization design considerations in photonic integrated circuits incorporating directional couplers, and the photochemical formation of polymeric optical waveguides and devices for optical interconnection applications

  7. The Advanced LIGO timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, Imre; Factourovich, Maxim; Marka, Szabolcs; Marka, Zsuzsa; Raics, Zoltan; Bork, Rolf; Heefner, Jay; Schwinberg, Paul; Sigg, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational wave detection using a network of detectors relies upon the precise time stamping of gravitational wave signals. The relative arrival times between detectors are crucial, e.g. in recovering the source direction, an essential step in using gravitational waves for multi-messenger astronomy. Due to the large size of gravitational wave detectors, timing at different parts of a given detector also needs to be highly synchronized. In general, the requirement toward the precision of timing is determined such that, upon detection, the deduced (astro-) physical results should not be limited by the precision of timing. The Advanced LIGO optical timing distribution system is designed to provide UTC-synchronized timing information for the Advanced LIGO detectors that satisfies the above criterium. The Advanced LIGO timing system has modular structure, enabling quick and easy adaptation to the detector frame as well as possible changes or additions of components. It also includes a self-diagnostics system that enables the remote monitoring of the status of timing. After the description of the Advanced LIGO timing system, several tests are presented that demonstrate its precision and robustness.

  8. [Perimetric changes in advanced glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of various perimetric aspects in advanced glaucoma stages correlated to morpho-functional changes. MATHERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective clinical trial over a 10 months time period that included patients with advanced glaucoma stages, for which there have been recorded several computerised visual field tests (central 24-2 strategy, 10-2 strategy with either III or V--Goldman stimulus spot size) along with other morpho-funtional ocular paramaters: VA, lOP optic disk analysis. We included in our study 56 eyes from 45 patients. In most cases 89% it was an open angle glaucoma (either primary or secondary) Mean visual acuity was 0.45 +/- 0.28. Regarding the perimetric deficit 83% had advanced deficit, 9% moderate and 8% early visual changes. As perimetric type of defect we found a majority with general reduction of sensitivity (33 eyes) + ring shape scotoma. In 6 eyes (10.7%) having left only a central isle of vision we performed the central 10-2 strategy with III or V Goldmann stimulus spot size. Statistic analysis showed scarce correlation between the visual acuity and the quantitative perimetric parameters (MD and PSD), and variance analysis found present a multiple correlation parameter p = 0.07 that proves there is no liniary correspondence between the morpho-functional parameters: VA-MD(PSD) and C/D ratio. In advanced glaucoma stages, the perimetric changes are mostly severe. Perimetric evaluation is essential in these stages and needs to be individualised.

  9. Nonlinear super-resolution nano-optics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers many advances in the subjects of nano-optics and nano photonics. The author describes the principle and technical schematics of common methods for breaking through the optical diffraction limit and focuses on realizing optical super-resolution with nonlinear effects of thin film materials. The applications of nonlinear optical super-resolution effects in nano-data storage, nanolithography, and nano-imaging are also presented. This book is useful to graduate students majoring in optics and nano science and also serves as a reference book for academic researchers, engineers, technical professionals in the fields of super-resolution optics and laser techniques, nano-optics and nano photonics, nano-data storage, nano imaging, micro/nanofabrication and nanolithography and nonlinear optics.

  10. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  11. Enabling optical metrology on small 5×5μm2 in-cell targets to support flexible sampling and higher order overlay and CD control for advanced logic devices nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Antonio; de la Fuente, Isabel; Hsu, Zack; Tai, Alan; Chang, Hammer; McNamara, Elliott; Cramer, Hugo; Li, Daoping

    2018-03-01

    In next generation Logic devices, overlay control requirements shrink to sub 2.5nm level on-product overlay. Historically on-product overlay has been defined by the overlay capability of after-develop in-scribe targets. However, due to design and dimension, the after development metrology targets are not completely representative for the final overlay of the device. In addition, they are confined to the scribe-lane area, which limits the sampling possibilities. To address these two issues, metrology on structures matching the device structure and which can be sampled with high density across the device is required. Conventional after-etch CDSEM techniques on logic devices present difficulties in discerning the layers of interest, potential destructive charging effects and finally, they are limited by the long measurement times[1] [2] [3] . All together, limit the sampling densities and making CDSEM less attractive for control applications. Optical metrology can overcome most of these limitations. Such measurement, however, does require repetitive structures. This requirement is not fulfilled by logic devices, as the features vary in pitch and CD over the exposure field. The solution is to use small targets, with a maximum pad size of 5x5um2 , which can easily be placed in the logic cell area. These targets share the process and architecture of the device features of interest, but with a modified design that replicates as close as possible the device layout, allowing for in-device metrology for both CD and Overlay. This solution enables measuring closer to the actual product feature location and, not being limited to scribe-lanes, it opens the possibility of higher-density sampling schemes across the field. In summary, these targets become the facilitator of in-device metrology (IDM), that is, enabling the measurements both in-device Overlay and the CD parameters of interest and can deliver accurate, high-throughput, dense and after-etch measurements for Logic

  12. International Conference on Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering, 1st, Cambridge, MA, October 23-25, 1984, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, D. B.; Sriram, S.

    Aspects of waveguide technology are explored, taking into account waveguide fabrication techniques in GaAs/GaAlAs, the design and fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs phase couplers for optical integrated circuit applications, ion implanted GaAs integrated optics fabrication technology, a direct writing electron beam lithography based process for the realization of optoelectronic integrated circuits, and advances in the development of semiconductor integrated optical circuits for telecommunications. Other subjects examined are related to optical signal processing, optical switching, and questions of optical bistability and logic. Attention is given to acousto-optic techniques in integrated optics, acousto-optic Bragg diffraction in proton exchanged waveguides, optical threshold logic architectures for hybrid binary/residue processors, integrated optical modulation and switching, all-optic logic devices for waveguide optics, optoelectronic switching, high-speed photodetector switching, and a mechanical optical switch.

  13. Towards all-optical label switching nodes with multicast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, N.

    2008-01-01

    Fiber optics has developed so rapidly during the last decades that it has be- come the backbone of our communication systems. Evolved from initially static single-channel point-to-point links, the current advanced optical backbone net- work consists mostly of wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM)

  14. Recursive Matrix Inverse Update On An Optical Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Baranoski, Edward J.

    1988-02-01

    A high accuracy optical linear algebraic processor (OLAP) using the digital multiplication by analog convolution (DMAC) algorithm is described for use in an efficient matrix inverse update algorithm with speed and accuracy advantages. The solution of the parameters in the algorithm are addressed and the advantages of optical over digital linear algebraic processors are advanced.

  15. Reflective Optics for Microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nondispersive optics are essential for emerging microdiffraction and nanobeam research. Here we describe extensions to traditional Kirkpatrick Baez optics required to develop nondispersive microdiffraction and nanoprobe optics with 1-10 nm spatial resolution

  16. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  17. Quantum optics for experimentalists

    CERN Document Server

    Ou, Zhe-Yu Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This book on quantum optics is from the point of view of an experimentalist. It approaches the theory of quantum optics with the language of optical modes of classical wave theory, with which experimentalists are most familiar.

  18. First VESF School on Advanced Detectors for Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Advanced Interferometers and the Search for Gravitational Waves

    2014-01-01

    The search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers is gaining momentum worldwide. Beside the VIRGO and GEO gravitational wave observatories in Europe and the two LIGOs in the United States, which have operated successfully during the past decade, further observatories are being completed (KAGRA in Japan) or planned (ILIGO in India). The sensitivity of the current observatories, although spectacular, has not allowed direct discovery of gravitational waves. The advanced detectors (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo), at present in the development phase, will improve sensitivity by a factor of 10, probing the universe up to 200 Mpc for signal from inspiraling binary compact stars. This book covers all experimental aspects of the search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers. Every facet of the technological development underlying the evolution of advanced interferometers is thoroughly described, from configuration to optics and coatings, and from thermal compensation to suspensio...

  19. Innovative approach towards understanding optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Bharadwaj, Sadashiv Raj; Kumar, Raj; Shudhanshu, Avinash Kumar; Verma, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a decline in the students’ interest towards Science and Optics. Use of technology in the form of various types of sensors and data acquisition systems has come as a saviour. Till date, manual routine tools and techniques are used to perform various experimental procedures in most of the science/optics laboratories in our country. The manual tools are cumbersome whereas the automated ones are costly. It does not enthuse young researchers towards the science laboratories. There is a need to develop applications which can be easily integrated, tailored at school and undergraduate level laboratories and are economical at the same time. Equipments with advanced technologies are available but they are uneconomical and have complicated working principle with a black box approach. The present work describes development of portable tools and applications which are user-friendly. This is being implemented using open-source physical computing platform based on a simple low cost microcontroller board and a development environment for writing software. The present paper reports the development of an automated spectrometer, an instrument used in almost all optics experiments at undergraduate level, and students’ response to this innovation. These tools will inspire young researchers towards science and facilitate development of advance low cost equipments making life easier for Indian as well as developing nations. (paper)

  20. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ

    2015-01-01

    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  1. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  2. Systematic Image Based Optical Alignment and Tensegrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Glenn W.; Montgomery, Edward E, IV (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the objectives and current status of two Small Business Innovative Research being performed by the Sirius Group, under the direction of MSFC. They all relate to the development of advanced optical systems technologies for automated segmented mirror alignment techniques and fundamental design methodologies for ultralight structures. These are important to future astronomical missions in space.

  3. Advances in Fiber Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, T

    1999-01-01

    Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...

  4. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  5. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  6. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  7. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  8. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  9. Optical and digital techniques for information security

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Optical and Digital Techniques for Information Security is the first book in a series focusing on Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications. This book encompases the results of research investigation and technologies used to secure, verify, recognize, track, and authenticate objects and information from theft, counterfeiting, and manipulation by unauthorized persons and agencies. This Information Security book will draw on the diverse expertise in optical sciences and engineering, digital image processing, imaging systems, information processing, computer based information systems, sensors, detectors, and biometrics to report innovative technologies that can be applied to information security issues. The Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications series focuses on research monographs in the areas of: -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection...

  10. Advances in imaging and electron physics time resolved electron diffraction for chemistry, biology and material science

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics merges two long-running serials-Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field.

  11. Optical devices in adverse environments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, Nov. 19, 20, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in the design of fiber-optic devices, test equipment, optical sensors, and lasers for operation in hostile environments are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include radiation effects on optical fibers, the effect of H2 treatment and water content on the recovery of undoped core fibers after pulsed and continuous irradiation, the NATO test program for optical fibers and components, alpha-irradiation damage to borosilicate glasses, high-reliability optical components for undersea light-wave systems, the behavior of Si optoelectronic components under gamma irradiation, optical devices and sensors of special-purpose fibers, and a fiber-optic microprobe for interferometric measurements in generators

  12. Optical extensometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ray A.; Reich, Fred R.; Russell, James T.

    1978-01-01

    An optical extensometer is described using sequentially pulsed light beams for measuring the dimensions of objects by detecting two opposite edges of the object without contacting the object. The light beams may be of different distinguishable light characteristics, such as polarization or wave length, and are time modulated in an alternating manner at a reference frequency. The light characteristics are of substantially the same total light energy and are distributed symmetrically. In the preferred embodiment two light beam segments of one characteristic are on opposite sides of a middle segment of another characteristic. As a result, when the beam segments are scanned sequentially across two opposite edges of the object, they produce a readout signal at the output of a photoelectric detector that is compared with the reference signal by a phase comparator to produce a measurement signal with a binary level transition when the light beams cross an edge. The light beams may be of different cross sectional geometries, including two superimposed and concentric circular beam cross sections of different diameter, or two rectangular cross sections which intersect with each other substantially perpendicular so only their central portions are superimposed. Alternately, a row of three light beams can be used including two outer beams on opposite sides and separate from a middle beam. The three beams may all be of the same light characteristic. However it is preferable that the middle beam be of a different characteristic but of the same total energy as the two outer beams.

  13. Advanced Sensors for Safety and Security

    CERN Document Server

    Khudaverdyan, Surik

    2013-01-01

    This book results from a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Technological Innovations in CBRNE Sensing and Detection for Safety, Security, and Sustainability” held in Yerevan, Armenia in 2012. The objective was to discuss and exchange views as to how fusion of advanced technologies can lead to improved sensors/detectors in support of defense, security, and situational awareness. The chapters range from policy and implementation, advanced sensor platforms using stand-off (THz and optical) and point-contact methods for detection of chemical, nuclear, biological, nuclear and explosive agents and contaminants in water, to synthesis methods for several materials used for sensors.  In view of asymmetric, kinetic, and distributed nature of threat vectors, an emphasis is placed to examine new generation of sensors/detectors that utilize an ecosystems of innovation and advanced sciences convergence in support of effective counter-measures against  CBRNE threats. The book will be of considerable interest and...

  14. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics.

  15. Korea-China Optical Technology Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Cha, H. K.; Rhee, Y. J.

    2007-04-01

    The main objectives of this project are to develop cooperative channel by personnel exchanges between industrial, educational and research partners of Korea and China on the fields of optical technologies which are the basis of optical industry and being spot-lighted as new industry of 21th century, and to raise the class of Korean optical technology up to world class by utilization of Chinese large facilities through the cooperative research between the optical technology institutions of both sides. To attain the goals mentioned above, we carried out the cooperative researches between the Korean and Chinese optical technology institutions in the following 7 fields; ? research cooperation between KAERI-SITP for the quantum structured far-IR sensor technology - research cooperation for the generation of femtosecond nuclear fusion induced neutrons - research cooperation between KAERI-AIOFM for laser environment analysis and remote sensing technology - research cooperation between KAERI-SIOM for advanced diode-pumped laser technology - cooperative research related on linear and nonlinear magneto-optical properties of advanced magnetic quantum structures - design of pico-second PW high power laser system and its simulation and - cooperative research related on the femto-second laser-plasma interaction physics

  16. Honeywell optical investigations on FLASH program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Ken; Peterson, Eric; Yount, Larry

    1995-05-01

    The increasing performance and reduction of life cycle cost requirements placed on commercial and military transport aircraft are resulting in more complex, highly integrated aircraft control and management systems. The use of fiber optic data transmission media can make significant contributions in achieving these performance and cost goals. The Honeywell portion of Task 2A on the Fly-by-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is evaluating a Primary Flight Control System (PFCS) using pilot and copilot inputs from Active Hand Controllers (AHC) which are optically linked to the primary flight Control Computers (PFCC). Customer involvement is an important element of the Task 2A activity. Establishing customer requirements and perspectives on productization of systems developed under FLASH are key to future product success. The Honeywell elements of the PFCS demonstrator provide a command path that is optically interfaced from crew inputs to commands of distributed, smart actuation subsystems commands. Optical communication architectures are implemented using several protocols including the new AS-1773A 20 Mbps data bus standard. The interconnecting fiber optic cable plant is provided by our Task 1A teammate McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (West). Fiber optic cable plant fabrication uses processed, tools and materials reflecting necessary advances in manufacturing required to make fly-by-light avionics systems marketable.

  17. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    , and security medium as well. The evolution of holographic optical memories has followed a path not altogether different from holography itself, with several cycles of alternating interest over the past four decades. P. J. van Heerden is widely credited for being the first to elucidate the principles behind holographic data storage in a 1963 paper, predicting bit storage densities on the order of 1/lambda(sup 3) with source wavelength lambda - a fantastic capacity of nearly 1 TB/cu cm for visible light! The science and engineering of such a storage paradigm was heavily pursued thereafter, resulting in many novel hologram multiplexing techniques for dense data storage, as well as important advances in holographic recording materials. Ultimately, however, the lack of such enabling technologies as compact laser sources and high performance optical data I/O devices dampened the hopes for the development of a commercial product. After a period of relative dormancy, successful applications of holography in other arenas sparked a renewed interest in holographic data storage in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. Currently, with most of the critical optoelectronic device technologies in place and the quest for an ideal holographic recording medium intensified, holography is once again considered as one of several future data storage paradigms that may answer our constantly growing need for higher-capacity and faster-access memories.

  18. Light Optics for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, Matthew [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) radiation generated by a particle in a "pickup" undulator is amplified and transported to a downstream "kicker" undulator where it interacts with the same particle which radiated it. Fermilab plans to carry out both passive (no optical amplifier) and active (optical amplifier) tests of OSC at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) currently in construction*. The performace of the optical system is analyzed with simulations in Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) accounting for the specific temporal and spectral properties of undulator radiation and being augmented to include dispersion of lens material.

  19. A topological quantum optics interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Karasahin, Aziz; Flower, Christopher; Cai, Tao; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Hafezi, Mohammad; Waks, Edo

    2018-02-09

    The application of topology in optics has led to a new paradigm in developing photonic devices with robust properties against disorder. Although considerable progress on topological phenomena has been achieved in the classical domain, the realization of strong light-matter coupling in the quantum domain remains unexplored. We demonstrate a strong interface between single quantum emitters and topological photonic states. Our approach creates robust counterpropagating edge states at the boundary of two distinct topological photonic crystals. We demonstrate the chiral emission of a quantum emitter into these modes and establish their robustness against sharp bends. This approach may enable the development of quantum optics devices with built-in protection, with potential applications in quantum simulation and sensing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  20. Optical Particle Characterization in Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Particle characterization in dispersed multiphase flows is important in quantifying transport processes both in fundamental and applied research: Examples include atomization and spray processes, cavitation and bubbly flows, and solid particle transport in gas and liquid carrier phases. Optical techniques of particle characterization are preferred owing to their nonintrusiveness, and they can yield information about size, velocity, composition, and to some extent the shape of individual particles. This review focuses on recent advances for measuring size, temperature, and the composition of particles, including several planar methods, various imaging techniques, laser-induced fluorescence, and the more recent use of femtosecond pulsed light sources. It emphasizes the main sources of uncertainty, the achievable accuracy, and the outlook for improvement of specific techniques and for specific applications. Some remarks are also directed toward the computational tools used to design and investigate the performance of optical particle diagnostic instruments.