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Sample records for akari deep field

  1. The AKARI Deep Field South: Pushing to High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L

    2016-01-01

    The AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) is a large extragalactic survey field that is covered by multiple instruments, from optical to far-IR and radio. I summarise recent results in this and related fields prompted by the release of the Herschel far-IR/submm images, including studies of cold dust in nearby galaxies, the identification of strongly lensed distant galaxies, and the use of colour selection to find candidate very high redshift sources. I conclude that the potential for significant new results from the ADF-S is very great. The addition of new wavelength bands in the future, eg. from Euclid, SKA, ALMA and elsewhere, will boost the importance of this field still further.

  2. Evolution of mid-infrared galaxy luminosity functions from the entire AKARI NEP-Deep field with new CFHT photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Ohyama, Youichi; Malkan, Matthew; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Nakagawa, Takao; Buat, Veronique; Burgarella, Denis; Sedgwick, Chris; Toba, Yoshiki; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Marchetti, Lucia; Małek, Katarzyna; Koptelova, Ekaterina; Chao, Dani; Wu, Yi-Han; Pearson, Chris; Takagi, Toshinobu; Lee, Hyung Mok; Serjeant, Stephen; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Kim, Seong Jin

    2015-01-01

    We present infrared galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) deep field using recently-obtained, wider CFHT optical/near-IR images. AKARI has obtained deep images in the mid-infrared (IR), covering 0.6 deg$^2$ of the NEP deep field. However, our previous work was limited to the central area of 0.25 deg$^2$ due to the lack of optical coverage of the full AKARI NEP survey. To rectify the situation, we recently obtained CFHT optical and near-IR images over the entire AKARI NEP deep field. These new CFHT images are used to derive accurate photometric redshifts, allowing us to fully exploit the whole AKARI NEP deep field. AKARI's deep, continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelengths (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24$\\mu$m) exists nowhere else, due to filter gaps of other space telescopes. It allows us to estimate restframe 8$\\mu$m and 12$\\mu$m luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, which was the largest uncer...

  3. Star forming galaxies in the AKARI Deep Field South: identifications and SEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Pollo, A; Bienias, P; Shirahata, M; Matsuura, S; Kawada, M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the nature and properties of far-infrared (FIR) sources from the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), we performed an extensive search for the counterparts of 1000 ADF-S objects brighter than 0.0301 Jy in the WIDE-S (90 $\\mu$m) AKARI band in the public databases (NED and SIMBAD). We analyzed the properties of the resulting sample: statistic of the identified objects, number counts, redshift distribution and morphological types. We also made a crude analysis of the clustering properties of the sources and constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 47 selected objects with the best photometry. Among 1000 investigated ADF-S sources, 545 were identified at other wavelengths. From them, 518 are known galaxies, and 343 of them were not known previously as infra-red sources. We found redshifts of 48 extragalactic objects and morphological types of 77 galaxies. We conclude that the bright FIR point sources observed in the ADF-S are mostly nearby galaxies.Their properties are very similar to propert...

  4. Clustering of the AKARI NEP Deep Field 24 $\\mu$m selected galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Solarz, A; Takeuchi, T T; Małek, K; Matsuhara, H; White, G J; Pȩpiak, A; Goto, T; Wada, T; Oyabu, S; Takagi, T; Ohyama, Y; Pearson, C P; Hanami, H; Ishigaki, T; Malkan, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of selection of 24~$\\mu$m galaxies from the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) Deep Field down to $150 \\mbox{ }\\mu$Jy and measurements of their two-point correlation function. We aim to associate various 24 $\\mu$m selected galaxy populations with present day galaxies and to investigate the impact of their environment on the direction of their subsequent evolution. We discuss using of Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm applied to infrared photometric data to perform star-galaxy separation, in which we achieve an accuracy higher than 80\\%. The photometric redshift information, obtained through the CIGALE code, is used to explore the redshift dependence of the correlation function parameter ($r_{0}$) as well as the linear bias evolution. This parameter relates galaxy distribution to the one of the underlying dark matter. We connect the investigated sources to their potential local descendants through a simplified model of the clustering evolution without interactions. We observe two differe...

  5. Far Infrared Luminosity Function of Local Star-forming Galaxies in the AKARI Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Sedgwick, Chris; Pearson, Chris; Matsuura, Shuji; Shirahata, Mai; Oyabu, Shinki; Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Clements, D L; Negrello, Mattia; White, Glenn J

    2011-01-01

    We present a far-infrared galaxy luminosity function for the local universe. We have obtained 389 spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies observed at 90 microns in the AKARI Deep Field South, using the AAOmega fibre spectrograph via optical identifications in the digitized sky survey and 4m-class optical imaging. For the luminosity function presented in this paper, we have used those galaxies which have redshifts 0

  6. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm Survey of the AKARI Deep Field South: source catalogue and number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsukade, B; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Ezawa, H; Hughes, D H; Ikarashi, S; Iono, D; Kawabe, R; Khan, S; Matsuo, H; Matsuura, S; Nakanishi, K; Oshima, T; Perera, T; Scott, K S; Shirahata, M; Takeuchi, T T; Tamura, Y; Tanaka, K; Tosaki, T; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a 1.1 mm deep survey of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) with AzTEC mounted on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We obtained a map of 0.25 sq. deg area with an rms noise level of 0.32-0.71 mJy. This is one of the deepest and widest maps thus far at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. We uncovered 198 sources with a significance of 3.5-15.6 sigma, providing the largest catalog of 1.1 mm sources in a contiguous region. Most of the sources are not detected in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI satellite, suggesting that they are mostly at z ~ 1.5 given the detection limits. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts in the ADF-S, the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA 22 field surveyed by AzTEC/ASTE, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with fluxes >=1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1...

  7. Initial analysis of extragalactic fields using a new AKARI/IRC analysis pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, H R; Pearson, C P

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results of a new data analysis pipeline for processing extragalactic AKARI/IRC images. The main improvements of the pipeline over the standard analysis are the removal of Earth shine and image distortion correction. We present the differential number counts of the AKARI/IRC S11 filter IRAC validation field. The differential number counts are consistent with S11 AKARI NEP deep and 12 microns WISE NEP number counts, and with a phenomenological backward evolution galaxy model, at brighter fluxes densities. There is a detection of deeper galaxies in the IRAC validation field.

  8. Detection of CFIRB with AKARI/FIS Deep Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Woong-Seob; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsuura, Shuji; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Nakagawa, Takao; Oh, Sang Hoon; Shirahata, Mai; Lee, Sungho; Hwang, Ho Seong; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Far-Infrared Background (CFIRB) contains information about the number and distribution of contributing sources and thus gives us an important key to understand the evolution of galaxies. Using a confusion study to set a fundamental limit to the observations, we investigate the potential to explore the CFIRB with AKARI/FIS deep observations. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) is one of the focal-plane instruments on the AKARI (formerly known as ASTRO-F) satellite, which was launched in early 2006. Based upon source distribution models assuming three different cosmological evolutionary scenarios (no evolution, weak evolution, and strong evolution), an extensive model for diffuse emission from infrared cirrus, and instrumental noise estimates, we present a comprehensive analysis for the determination of the confusion levels for deep far-infrared observations. We use our derived sensitivities to suggest the best observational strategy for the AKARI/FIS mission to detect the CFIRB fluctuations. If the sour...

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AKARI NEP Deep Survey revised catalog (Murata+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Arimatsu, K.; Oi, N.; Takagi, T.; Oyabu, S.; Goto, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Malkan, M.; Pearson, C.; Malek, K.; Solarz, A.

    2013-09-01

    This is the revised catalogue of the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep survey. The survey was carried out with the InfraRed Camera (IRC) onboard AKARI which has a comprehensive mid-IR wavelength coverage in nine photometric bands at 2-24 micron. For mid-IR source extraction we used a detection image while for near-IR source detection we used optical to near-IR ground-based catalogue which is based on CFHT/MegaCam z', CFHT/WIRCam Ks and Subaru/Scam z' band detection. Here we present an AKARI source with the identification from the ground-based catalogue. For objects with multiple counterparts, all of these were listed in the catalogue with an upper limit for the AKARI flux. The magnitudes are given in the AB system. (1 data file).

  10. Deep Extragalactic Surveys around the Ecliptic Poles with AKARI (ASTRO-F)

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuhara, H; Matsuura, S; Nakagawa, T; Kawada, M; Oyama, Y; Pearson, C P; Oyabu, S; Takagi, T; Serjeant, S; White, G J; Hanami, H; Watarai, H; Takeuchi, T T; Kodama, T; Arimoto, N; Okamura, S; Lee, H M; Pak, S; Im, M S; Lee, M G; Kim, W; Jeong, W S; Imai, K; Fujishiro, N; Shirahata, M; Suzuki, T; Ihara, C; Sakon, I; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Oyama, Youichi; Pearson, Chris P.; Oyabu, Shinki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Serjeant, Stephen; White, Glenn J.; Hanami, Hitoshi; Watarai, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Arimoto, Nobuo; Okamura, Sadanori; Lee, Hyung Mok; Pak, Soojong; Im, Myung Shin; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Woojung; Jeong, Woong Seob; Imai, Koji; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Shirahata, Mai; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Ihara, Chiaki; Sakon, Itsuki

    2006-01-01

    AKARI (formerly ASTRO-F) is an infrared space telescope designed for an all-sky survey at 10-180 (mu)m, and deep pointed surveys of selected areas at 2-180 (mu)m. The deep pointed surveys with AKARI will significantly advance our understanding of galaxy evolution, the structure formation of the Universe, the nature of the buried AGNs, and the cosmic infrared background. Here we describe the important characteristics of the AKARI mission: the orbit, and the attitude control system, and investigate the optimum survey area based on the updated pre-flight sensitivities of AKARI, taking into account the cirrus confusion noise as well as the surface density of bright stars. The North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) is concluded to be the best area for 2-26 (mu)m deep surveys, while the low-cirrus noise regions around the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) are worth considering for 50-180 (mu)m pointed surveys to high sensitivities limited by the galaxy confusion noise. Current observational plans of these pointed surveys are described ...

  11. The AKARI FU-HYU galaxy evolution program: First results from the GOODS-N field

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, C P; Negrello, M; Takagi, T; Jeong, W -S; Matsuhara, H; Wada, T; Oyabu, S; Lee, H M; Im, M S

    2010-01-01

    The AKARI FU-HYU mission program carried out mid-infrared imaging of several well studied Spitzer fields preferentially selecting fields already rich in multi-wavelength data from radio to X-ray wavelengths filling in the wavelength desert between the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS bands.We present the initial results for the FU-HYU survey in the GOODS-N field.We utilize the supreme multiwavelength coverage in the GOODS-N field to produce a multiwavelength catalogue from infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths, containing more than 4393 sources, including photometric redshifts. Using the FU-HYU catalogue we present colour-colour diagrams that map the passage of PAH features through our observation bands. We find that the longer mid-infrared bands from AKARI (IRC-L18W 18 micron band) and Spitzer (MIPS24 24 micron band) provide an accurate measure of the total MIR emission of the sources and therefore their probable total mid-infrared luminosity. We also find that colours incorporating the AKARI IRC-S11 11 micron band produ...

  12. The AKARI FU-HYU galaxy evolution program: first results from the GOODS-N field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, C. P.; Serjeant, S.; Negrello, M.; Takagi, T.; Jeong, W.-S.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Oyabu, S.; Lee, H. M.; Im, M. S.

    2010-05-01

    The AKARI FU-HYU mission program carried out mid-infrared imaging of several well studied Spitzer fields preferentially selecting fields already rich in multi-wavelength data from radio to X-ray wavelengths filling in the wavelength desert between the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS bands. We present the initial results for the FU-HYU survey in the GOODS-N field. We utilize the supreme multiwavelength coverage in the GOODS-N field to produce a multiwavelength catalogue from infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths, containing more than 4393 sources, including photometric redshifts. Using the FU-HYU catalogue we present colour-colour diagrams that map the passage of PAH features through our observation bands. We find that the longer mid-infrared bands from AKARI (IRC-L18W 18 micron band) and Spitzer (MIPS24 24 micron band) provide an accurate measure of the total MIR emission of the sources and therefore their probable total mid-infrared luminosity. We also find that colours incorporating the AKARI IRC-S11 11 micron band produce a bimodal distribution where an excess at 11 microns preferentially selects moderate redshift star-forming galaxies. These powerful colour-colour diagnostics are further used as tools to extract anomalous colour populations, in particular a population of Silicate Break galaxies from the GOODS-N field showing that dusty starbursts can be selected of specific redshift ranges (z = 1.2-1.6) by mid-infrared drop-out techniques. The FU-HYU catalogue will be made publically available to the astronomical community.

  13. HECTOSPEC AND HYDRA SPECTRA OF INFRARED LUMINOUS SOURCES IN THE AKARI NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE SURVEY FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 μm and 15 μm, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are ∼80% for objects with R ☉ yr–1. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter

  14. AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Survey. Revision of the catalogue via a new image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Arimatsu, K.; Oi, N.; Takagi, T.; Oyabu, S.; Goto, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Malkan, M.; Pearson, C.; Małek, K.; Solarz, A.

    2013-11-01

    Context. We present the revised near- to mid-infrared catalogue of the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole deep survey. The survey has the unique advantage of continuous filter coverage from 2 to 24 μm over nine photometric bands, but the initial version of the survey catalogue leaves room for improvement in the image analysis stage; the original images are strongly contaminated by the behaviour of the detector and the optical system. Aims: The purpose of this study is to devise new image analysis methods and to improve the detection limit and reliability of the source extraction. Methods: We removed the scattered light and stray light from the Earth limb, and corrected for artificial patterns in the images by creating appropriate templates. We also removed any artificial sources due to bright sources by using their properties or masked them out visually. In addition, for the mid-infrared source extraction, we created detection images by stacking all six bands. This reduced the sky noise and enabled us to detect fainter sources more reliably. For the near-infrared source catalogue, we considered only objects with counterparts from ground-based catalogues to avoid fake sources. For our ground-based catalogues, we used catalogues based on the CFHT/MegaCam z' band, CFHT/WIRCam Ks band and Subaru/Scam z' band. Objects with multiple counterparts were all listed in the catalogue with a merged flag for the AKARI flux. Results: The detection limits of all mid-infrared bands were improved by ~20%, and the total number of detected objects was increased by ~2000 compared with the previous version of the catalogue; it now has 9560 objects. The 5σ detection limits in our catalogue are 11, 9, 10, 30, 34, 57, 87, 93, and 256 μJy in the N2, N3, N4, S7, S9W, S11, L15, L18W, and L24 bands, respectively. The astrometric accuracies of these band detections are 0.48, 0.52, 0.55, 0.99, 0.95, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.6 arcsec, respectively. The false-detection rate of all nine bands was decreased

  15. J and H-band Imaging of AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Survey Field

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Yiseul; Kang, Eugene; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We present the J and H-band source catalog covering the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole field. Filling the gap between the optical data from other follow-up observations and mid-infrared (MIR) data from AKARI, our near-infrared (NIR) data provides contiguous wavelength coverage from optical to MIR. For the J and H-band imaging, we used the FLoridA Multi-object Imaging Near-ir Grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS) on the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope covering a 5.1 deg2 area down to a 5 sigma depth of ~21.6 mag and ~21.3 mag (AB) for J and H-band with an astrometric accuracy of 0.14" and 0.17" for 1 sigma in R.A. and Decl. directions, respectively. We detected 208,020 sources for J-band and 203,832 sources for H-band. This NIR data is being used for studies including analysis of the physical properties of infrared sources such as stellar mass and photometric redshifts, and will be a valuable dataset for various future missions.

  16. Radio-AGN in the AKARI-NEP field and their role in the evolution of galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; team, the AKARI-NEP

    2013-01-01

    Radio-loud active galaxies have been found to exhibit a close connection to galactic mergers and host galaxy star-formation quenching. We present preliminary results of an optical spectroscopic investigation of the AKARI NEP field. We focus on the population of radio-loud AGN and use photometric and spectroscopic information to study both their star-formation and nuclear activity components. Preliminary results show that radio-AGN are associated with early type, massive galaxies with relative...

  17. Radio-AGN in the AKARI-NEP field and their role in the evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; 10.5303/PKAS.2012.27.4.287

    2013-01-01

    Radio-loud active galaxies have been found to exhibit a close connection to galactic mergers and host galaxy star-formation quenching. We present preliminary results of an optical spectroscopic investigation of the AKARI NEP field. We focus on the population of radio-loud AGN and use photometric and spectroscopic information to study both their star-formation and nuclear activity components. Preliminary results show that radio-AGN are associated with early type, massive galaxies with relatively old stellar populations.

  18. Where the active galaxies live: a panchromatic view of radio-AGN in the AKARI-NEP field

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; Trichas, Markos

    2013-01-01

    We study the host galaxy properties of radio sources in the AKARI-North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field, using an ensemble of multi-wavelength datasets. We identify both radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN and study their host galaxy properties by means of SED fitting. We investigate the relative importance of nuclear and star-formation activity in radio-AGN and assess the role of radio-AGN as efficient quenchers of star-formation in their host galaxies.

  19. Mid-Infrared Luminosity Function of Local Star-Forming Galaxies in the NEP-Wide Survey Field of AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seong Jin; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Im, Myungshin; Shim, Hyunjin; Kim, Min Gyu; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2015-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity functions (LFs) of local star-forming (SF) galaxies in the AKARI NEP-Wide Survey field. In order to derive more accurate luminosity function, we used spectroscopic sample only. Based on the NEP-Wide point source catalogue containing a large number of infrared (IR) sources distributed over the wide (5.4 sq. deg.) field, we incorporated the spectroscopic redshift data for about 1790 selected targets obtained by optical follow-up surveys with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra. The AKARI continuous 2 to 24 micron wavelength coverage as well as photometric data from optical u band to NIR H-band with the spectroscopic redshifts for our sample galaxies enable us to derive accurate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the mid-infrared. We carried out SED fit analysis and employed 1/Vmax method to derive the MIR (8, 12, and 15 micron rest-frame) luminosity functions. We fit our 8 micron LFs to the double power-law with the power index of alpha= 1.53 and beta= 2.85 at the break lu...

  20. Cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution near and far: from AKARI to SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) luminosity is fundamental to understanding the cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution, since their most intense stages are often obscured by dust. Japanese infrared satellite, AKARI, provided unique data sets to probe these both at low and high redshifts. The AKARI performed an all sky survey in 6 IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160$\\mu$m) with 3-10 times better sensitivity than IRAS, covering the crucial far-IR wavelengths across the peak of the dust emission. Combined with a better spatial resolution, AKARI can measure the total infrared luminosity ($L_{TIR}$) of individual galaxies much more precisely, and thus, the total infrared luminosity density of the local Universe. In the AKARI NEP deep field, we construct restframe 8$\\mu$m, 12$\\mu$m, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15$AKARI satellite allows us to est...

  1. Deep 15μm AKARI Observations in the CDFS: Estimating Dust Luminosities for a MIR-Selected Sample and for Lyman Break Galaxies and the Evolution of Ldust/LUV with the Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarella, Denis; Buat, Véronique; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Wada, Takehiko; Pearson, Chris

    2009-02-01

    Deep observations of the Chandra Deep Field South have been secured at 15μm with AKARI/IRC infrared space telescope. From these observations, we define a sample of mid infrared-selected galaxies at 15μm and we also obtain 15μm flux densities for a sample of Lyman Break Galaxies at z ˜ 1 already observed at 24μm with Spitzer/MIPS. Number counts for the mid infrared-selected sample show a bump around a 15μm flux density of 0.2mJy that can be attributed to galaxies at z > 0.4 and at z > 0.8 for the fainter part of the bump. This bump seems to be shifted as compared to other works and a possible origin can be the Cosmic variance. On the two above samples at z ˜ 1 we have tested the validity of the conversions from luminosities ν.fν at 8νm to total dust luminosities by comparing with luminosities estimated from 12νm data used as a reference. Some calibrations seem better when compared to evaluated from longer wavelength luminosities. We also find that the rest-frame 8μm luminosities provide good estimates of Ldust. By comparing our data to several libraries of spectral energy distributions, we find that models can explain the diversity of the observed f24/f15 ratio quite reasonably. However, when we analyse the luminosity dependence of this ratio, we find important discrepancies. Finally, we revisit the evolution of Ldust/LUV ratio with the redshift z by re-calibrating previous Ldust at z ˜ 2 based on our results and added new data points at higher redshifts. The decreasing trend is amplified as compared to the previous estimate.

  2. Near-infrared and Mid-infrared Spectroscopy with the Infrared Camera (IRC) for AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Ohyama, Youichi; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Kim, Woojung; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Sakon, Itsuki; Cohen, Martin; Ishigaki, Miho; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kataza, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Takagi, Toshinobu; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumio; Watarai, Hidenori; Pearson, Chris P; Takeyama, Norihide; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The Infrared Camera (IRC) is one of the two instruments on board the AKARI satellite. In addition to deep imaging from 1.8-26.5um for the pointed observation mode of the AKARI, it has a spectroscopic capability in its spectral range. By replacing the imaging filters by transmission-type dispersers on the filter wheels, it provides low-resolution (lambda/d_lambda ~ 20-120) spectroscopy with slits or in a wide imaging field-of-view (approximately 10'X10'). The IRC spectroscopic mode is unique in space infrared missions in that it has the capability to perform sensitive wide-field spectroscopic surveys in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. This paper describes specifications of the IRC spectrograph and its in-orbit performance.

  3. The Infrared Astronomical Mission AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, H; Barthel, P; Clements, D L; Cohen, M; Doi, Y; Enya, K; Figueredo, E; Fujishiro, N; Fujiwara, H; Fujiwara, M; García-Lario, P; Goto, T; Hasegawa, S; Hibi, Y; Hirao, T; Hiromoto, N; Hong, S S; Imai, K; Ishigaki, M; Ishiguro, M; Ishihara, D; Ita, Y; Jeong, W -S; Jeong, K S; Kaneda, H; Kataza, H; Kawada, M; Kawai, T; Kawamura, A; Kessler, M F; Kester, Do; Kii, T; Kim, D C; Kim, W; Kobayashi, H; Koo, B C; Kwon, S M; Lee, H M; Lorente, R; Makiuti, S; Matsuhara, H; Matsumoto, T; Matsuo, H; Matsuura, S; Müller, T G; Murakami, N; Nagata, H; Nakagawa, T; Naoi, T; Narita, M; Noda, M; Oh, S H; Ohnishi, A; Ohyama, Y; Okada, Y; Okuda, H; Oliver, S; Onaka, T; Ootsubo, T; Oyabu, S; Pak, S; Park, Y S; Pearson, C P; Rowan-Robinson, M; Saitô, T; Sakon, I; Salama, A; Sato, S; Savage, R S; Serjeant, S; Shibai, H; Shirahata, M; Sohn, J J; Suzuki, T; Takagi, T; Takahashi, H; Tanabé, T; Takeuchi, T T; Takita, S; Thomson, M; Uemizu, K; Ueno, M; Usui, F; Verdugo, E; Wada, T; Wang, L; Watabe, T; Watarai, H; White, G J; Yamamura, I; Yamauchi, C; Yasuda, A

    2007-01-01

    AKARI, the first Japanese satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy, was launched on 2006 February 21, and started observations in May of the same year. AKARI has a 68.5 cm cooled telescope, together with two focal-plane instruments, which survey the sky in six wavelength bands from the mid- to far-infrared. The instruments also have the capability for imaging and spectroscopy in the wavelength range 2 - 180 micron in the pointed observation mode, occasionally inserted into the continuous survey operation. The in-orbit cryogen lifetime is expected to be one and a half years. The All-Sky Survey will cover more than 90 percent of the whole sky with higher spatial resolution and wider wavelength coverage than that of the previous IRAS all-sky survey. Point source catalogues of the All-Sky Survey will be released to the astronomical community. The pointed observations will be used for deep surveys of selected sky areas and systematic observations of important astronomical targets. These will become an additional ...

  4. Dusty Universe viewed by AKARI far infrared detector

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, K; Takeuchi, T T; Giovannoli, E; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Malkan, M; Kurek, A

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of multiwavelength Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of far-infrared galaxies detected in the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF--S) Survey. The analysis uses a carefully selected sample of 186 sources detected at the 90 $\\mu$m AKARI band, identified as galaxies with cross-identification in public catalogues. For sources without known spectroscopic redshifts, we estimate photometric redshifts after a test of two independent methods: one based on using mainly the optical -- mid infrared range, and one based on the whole range of ultraviolet -- far infrared data. We observe a vast improvement in the estimation of photometric redshifts when far infrared data are included, compared with an approach based mainly on the optical -- mid infrared range. We discuss the physical properties of our far-infrared-selected sample. We conclude that this sample consists mostly of rich in dust and young stars nearby galaxies, and, furthermore, that almost 25% of these sources are (Ultra)Lumino...

  5. Deep 15um AKARI observations in the CDFS: estimating dust luminosities for a MIR-selected sample and for Lyman Break Galaxies and the evolution of L(dust)/L(UV) with the redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Burgarella, Denis; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Wada, Takehiko; Pearson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Deep observations of the CDFS have been secured at 15um with AKARI/IRC infrared space telescope (ESA open time). From these observations, we define a sample of MIR-selected galaxies at 15um and we also obtain 15um flux densities for a sample of LBGs at z=1 already observed at 24um with Spitzer/MIPS. Number counts for the MIR-selected sample show a bump around a 15um flux density of 0.2mJy that can be attributed to galaxies at z>0.4 and at z>0.8 for the fainter part of the bump. This bump seems to be shifted as compared to other works and a possible origin can be the Cosmic variance. Thanks to this dataset, we have tested, on the two above samples at z=1, the validity of the conversions from monochromatic luminosities nu.f(nu) at a rest-frame wavelength of 8um by a comparison with total dust luminosities estimated from Spitzer rest-frame 12um data that we use as a reference. We find that the 8um dust luminosities are not all consistent and that some of them are better when compared to L(dust) evaluated from lo...

  6. Strong Gravitational Lenses and Multi-Wavelength Galaxy Surveys with AKARI, Herschel, SPICA and Euclid

    CERN Document Server

    Serjeant, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Submillimetre and millimetre-wave surveys with Herschel and the South Pole Telescope have revolutionised the discovery of strong gravitational lenses. Their follow-ups have been greatly facilitated by the multi-wavelength supplementary data in the survey fields. The forthcoming Euclid optical/near-infrared space telescope will also detect strong gravitational lenses in large numbers, and orbital constraints are likely to require placing its deep survey at the North Ecliptic Pole (the natural deep field for a wide class of ground-based and space-based observatories including AKARI, JWST and SPICA). In this paper I review the current status of the multi-wavelength survey coverage in the NEP, and discuss the prospects for the detection of strong gravitational lenses in forthcoming or proposed facilities such as Euclid, FIRSPEX and SPICA.

  7. The NTT Susi Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Arnouts, S; Cristiani, S; Zaggia, S R; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E

    1999-01-01

    We present a deep BVrI multicolor catalog of galaxies in a 5.62 sq.arcmin field 80 arcsec south of the high redshift (z=4.7) quasar BR 1202-0725, derived from observations with the direct CCD camera SUSI at the ESO NTT. The formal 5$\\sigma$ magnitude limits (in 2 x FWHM apertures) are 26.9, 26.5, 25.9 and 25.3 in B, V, r and I respectively. Counts, colors for the star and galaxy samples are discussed and a comparison with a deep HST image in the I band is presented. The percentage of merged or blended galaxies in the SUSI data to this magnitude limit is estimated to be not higher than 1%. At the same galactic latitude of the HDF but pointing toward the galactic center, the star density in this field is found to be ~3 times higher, with ~20% of the objects with V-I > 3.0. Reliable colors have been measured for galaxies selected down to r = 26. The choice of the optical filters has been optimized to define a robust multicolor selection of galaxies at 3.8 <= z <= 4.4. Within this interval the surface densi...

  8. A new HST/Herschel deep field at the North Ecliptic Pole: preparing the way for JWST, SPICA and Euclid

    CERN Document Server

    Serjeant, Stephen; Burgarella, Denis; Clements, Dave; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Goto, Tomo; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hopwood, Rosalind; Hwang, Narae; Inami, Hanae; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kim, Seong Jin; Krumpe, Mirko; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Malkan, Matt; Matsuhara, Hideo; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Oyabu, Shinki; Pearson, Chris; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Vaccari, Mattia; Valtchanov, Ivan; van der Werf, Paul; Wada, Takehiko; White, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We propose a co-ordinated multi-observatory survey at the North Ecliptic Pole. This field is the natural extragalactic deep field location for most space observatories (e.g. containing the deepest Planck, WISE and eROSITA data), is in the continuous viewing zones for e.g. Herschel, HST, JWST, and is a natural high-visibility field for the L2 halo orbit of SPICA with deep and wide-field legacy surveys already planned. The field is also a likely deep survey location for the forthcoming Euclid mission. It is already a multi-wavelength legacy field in its own right (e.g. AKARI, LOFAR, SCUBA-2): the outstanding and unparalleled continuous mid-IR photometric coverage in this field and nowhere else enables a wide range of galaxy evolution diagnostics unachievable in any other survey field, by spanning the wavelengths of redshifted PAH and silicate features and the peak energy output of AGN hot dust. We argue from the science needs of Euclid and JWST, and from the comparative multiwavelength depths, that the logical ...

  9. Akari, SCUBA2 and Herschel data of pre-stellar cores

    CERN Document Server

    Ward-Thompson, Derek; Kirk, Jason Matthew; André, Philippe; Di Francesco, James

    2015-01-01

    We show Akari data, Herschel data and data from the SCUBA2 camera on JCMT, of molecular clouds. We focus on pre-stellar cores within the clouds. We present Akari data of the L1147-1157 ring in Cepheus and show how the data indicate that the cores are being externally heated. We present SCUBA2 and Herschel data of the Ophiuchus region and show how the environment is also affecting core evolution in this region. We discuss the effects of the magnetic field in the Lupus I region, and how this lends support to a model for the formation and evolution of cores in filamentary molecular clouds.

  10. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlop, J S; Biggs, A D; Geach, J E; Michalowski, M J; Ivison, R J; Rujopakarn, W; van Kampen, E; Kirkpatrick, A; Pope, A; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; Targett, T A; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Best, P N; Bruce, V A; Chapin, E L; Charlot, S; Cirasuolo, M; Coppin, K E K; Ellis, R S; Finkelstein, S L; Hayward, C C; Hughes, D H; Ibar, E; Khochfar, S; Koprowski, M P; Narayanan, D; Papovich, C; Peacock, J A; Robertson, B; Vernstrom, T; van der Werf, P P; Wilson, G W; Yun, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first, deep ALMA imaging covering the full 4.5 sq arcmin of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) as previously imaged with WFC3/IR on HST. Using a mosaic of 45 pointings, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3mm image of the HUDF, achieving an rms sensitivity of 35 microJy, at a resolution of 0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ~50 >3.5sigma peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with flux densities S(1.3) > 120 microJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts ( = 2.15), and 12 are also detected at 6GHz in new deep JVLA imaging. Due to the wealth of supporting data in this unique field, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star-formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-z Universe; indeed at z > 2 our ALMA sample contains 7 of the 9 galaxies in the HUDF with M* > 2 x 10^10 Msun and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, re...

  11. The First Source Counts at 18 microns from the AKARI NEP Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, Chris; Oyabu, S; Matsuhara, H; Wada, T; Goto, T; Takagi, T; Lee, H M; Im, M; Ohyama, Y; Kim, S J; Murata, K

    2014-01-01

    We present the first galaxy counts at 18 microns using the Japanese AKARI satellite's survey at the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP), produced from the images from the NEP-Deep and NEP-Wide surveys covering 0.6 and 5.8 square degrees respectively. We describe a procedure using a point source filtering algorithm to remove background structure and a minimum variance method for our source extraction and photometry that delivers the optimum signal to noise for our extracted sources, confirming this by comparison with standard photometry methods. The final source counts are complete and reliable over three orders of magnitude in flux density, resulting in sensitivities (80 percent completeness) of 0.15mJy and 0.3mJy for the NEP-Deep and NEP-Wide surveys respectively, a factor of 1.3 deeper than previous catalogues constructed from this field. The differential source counts exhibit a characteristic upturn from Euclidean expectations at around a milliJansky and a corresponding evolutionary bump between 0.2-0.4 mJy consiste...

  12. Conformal Field Theories and Deep Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Komargodski, Zohar; Parnachev, Andrei; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We consider Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) thought experiments in unitary Conformal Field Theories (CFTs). We explore the implications of the standard dispersion relations for the OPE data. We derive positivity constraints on the OPE coefficients of minimal-twist operators of even spin s \\geq 2. In the case of s=2, when the leading-twist operator is the stress tensor, we reproduce the Hofman-Maldacena bounds. For s>2 the bounds are new.

  13. The Deep SWIRE Field III. WIYN Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Frazer N

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopy using HYDRA on the WIYN 3.5m telescope of objects in the deep SWIRE radio field. The goal of the project was to determine spectroscopic redshifts for as many of the brighter objects in the field as possible, especially those detected in the radio and at 24 microns. These redshifts are primarily being used in studies of galaxy evolution and the connection of that evolution to AGN and star-formation. Redshifts measured for 365 individual objects are reported. The redshifts range from 0.03 to 2.5, mostly with z < 0.9. The sources were selected to be within the WIYN HYDRA field of approximately 30' in radius from the center of the SWIRE deep field, 10h46m00s, 59d 01'00" (J2000). Optical sources for spectroscopic observation were selected from a r-band image of the field. A priority list of spectroscopic targets was established in the following order: 20cm detections, 24 micron detections, galaxies with r < 20 and the balance made up of fainter galaxies in the field. We...

  14. AKARI-CAS --- Online Service for AKARI All-Sky Catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, C; Ikeda, N; Inada, K; Katano, M; Kataza, H; Makiuti, S; Matsuzaki, K; Takita, S; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamura, I; 10.1086/660926

    2011-01-01

    The AKARI All-Sky Catalogues are an important infrared astronomical database for next-generation astronomy that take over the IRAS catalog. We have developed an online service, AKARI Catalogue Archive Server (AKARI-CAS), for astronomers. The service includes useful and attractive search tools and visual tools. One of the new features of AKARI-CAS is cached SIMBAD/NED entries, which can match AKARI catalogs with other catalogs stored in SIMBAD or NED. To allow advanced queries to the databases, direct input of SQL is also supported. In those queries, fast dynamic cross-identification between registered catalogs is a remarkable feature. In addition, multiwavelength quick-look images are displayed in the visualization tools, which will increase the value of the service. In the construction of our service, we considered a wide variety of astronomers' requirements. As a result of our discussion, we concluded that supporting users' SQL submissions is the best solution for the requirements. Therefore, we implemented...

  15. ESA Collaboration on the AKARI mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Alberto; Alfageme, Carlos; Garcia-Lario, Pedro; Kessler, Martin; Lorente, Rosario; Pearson, Chris; Stephenson, Craig; Unal, Martin; Verdugo, Eva

    AKARI (formerly ASTRO-F), is the first Japanese satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy, from JAXA and collaborators. Its main objective is to perform an all-sky survey with better spatial resolution and wider wavelength coverage than IRAS, mapping the entire sky in six infrared bands from 9 to 180 micron. AKARI operated with a 68.5 cm-diameter telescope cooled down to 6K and observed in the wavelength range 2-180 µm from a sun-synchronous polar orbit at 700 km altitude. AKARI All-Sky Survey observations were carried out in the midto far-infrared spectral region with six photometric bands, during the cryogenic mission phase of AKARI from May 8, 2006 to August 26, 2007. Launched on 21 February 2006, AKARI ran out of its on-board supply of cryogen on August 26th, 2007, after successful operation and observations that began on May 8th, 2006, achieving the expected lifetime of 550 days. More than 94than 5,000 pointed observations over the wavelength range 2-180 µm in 13 bands, providing comprehensive multi-wavelength photometric and spectroscopic coverage of a wide variety of astronomical sources AKARI is entering now into the Post-Helium Phase, dedicated to pointed observations, with imaging and spectroscopic capabilities in the 1.8 to 5.5 micron wavelength range. This presentation will illustrate the collaboration ESA is having with JAXA/ISAS in order to increase the scientific output of the mission; (i) by capturing all of the possible data (providing tracking support from the ESA ground station in Kiruna) and (ii) to accelerate the production of the sky catalogues, which will be extremely valuable in the exploitation of the Herschel and Planck missions, via provision of pointing reconstruction. In return for this collaboration, ESA received 10non-survey parts of the mission, which is distributed to European scientists, via the traditional route of Calls for Proposals, followed by peer-review.

  16. The Local Group: the ultimate deep field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Weisz, Daniel R.; Bullock, James S.; Cooper, Michael C.

    2016-10-01

    Near-field cosmology - using detailed observations of the Local Group and its environs to study wide-ranging questions in galaxy formation and dark matter physics - has become a mature and rich field over the past decade. There are lingering concerns, however, that the relatively small size of the present-day Local Group (˜2 Mpc diameter) imposes insurmountable sample-variance uncertainties, limiting its broader utility. We consider the region spanned by the Local Group's progenitors at earlier times and show that it reaches 3 arcmin ≈ 7 comoving Mpc in linear size (a volume of ≈350 Mpc3) at z = 7. This size at early cosmic epochs is large enough to be representative in terms of the matter density and counts of dark matter haloes with Mvir(z = 7) ≲ 2 × 109 M⊙. The Local Group's stellar fossil record traces the cosmic evolution of galaxies with 103 ≲ M⋆(z = 0)/M⊙ ≲ 109 (reaching M1500 > -9 at z ˜ 7) over a region that is comparable to or larger than the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) for the entire history of the Universe. In the JWST era, resolved stellar populations will probe regions larger than the HUDF and any deep JWST fields, further enhancing the value of near-field cosmology.

  17. The Local Group: The Ultimate Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S; Cooper, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Near-field cosmology - using detailed observations of the Local Group and its environs to study wide-ranging questions in galaxy formation and dark matter physics - has become a mature and rich field over the past decade. There are lingering concerns, however, that the relatively small size of the present-day Local Group ($\\sim$ 2 Mpc diameter) imposes insurmountable sample-variance uncertainties, limiting its broader utility. We consider the evolution of the Local Group with time and show that it reaches $3' \\approx 7$ co-moving Mpc in linear size (a volume of $\\approx 350\\,{\\rm Mpc}^3$) at $z=7$. The Local Group is a representative portion of the Universe at early cosmic epochs according to multiple metrics. In a sense, the Local Group is therefore the ultimate deep field: its stellar fossil record traces the cosmic evolution for galaxies with $10^{3} 38$ at $z\\sim7$) over a region that, in terms of size, is comparable to or larger than the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) for the entire history of the Unive...

  18. The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Griffith, R; Eisenhardt, P; Kozlowski, S; Kochanek, C S; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A R; Croft, S; Dey, A; Eisenstein, D; González, A H; Gorjian, V; Grogin, N A; Ivison, R J; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L A; Röttgering, H J A; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I; Van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of ten square degrees in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Cycle four Spitzer Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit -- for the first time -- the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z~3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS datasets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z~1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly-released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.9...

  19. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg.2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 105 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  20. Protein secondary structure prediction using deep convolutional neural fields

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Wang; Jian Peng; Jianzhu Ma; Jinbo Xu

    2015-01-01

    Protein secondary structure (SS) prediction is important for studying protein structure and function. When only the sequence (profile) information is used as input feature, currently the best predictors can obtain ~80% Q3 accuracy, which has not been improved in the past decade. Here we present DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) for protein SS prediction. DeepCNF is a Deep Learning extension of Conditional Neural Fields (CNF), which is an integration of Conditional Random Fields (CRF)...

  1. Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Takita, Satoshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    We present the results of an unbiased asteroid survey in the mid-infrared wavelength region with the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI. About 20% of the point source events recorded in the AKARI All-Sky Survey observations are not used for the IRC Point Source Catalog (IRC-PSC) in its production process because of a lack of multiple detection by position. Asteroids, which are moving objects on the celestial sphere, remain in these ``residual events''. We identify asteroids out of the residual events by matching them with the positions of known asteroids. For the identified asteroids, we calculate the size and albedo based on the Standard Thermal Model. Finally we have a new brand of asteroid catalog, named the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA), which contains 5120 objects, about twice as many as the IRAS asteroid catalog. The catalog objects comprise 4953 main belt asteroids, 58 near-Earth asteroids, and 109 Jovian Trojan asteroids. The catalog is publicly available via the Internet.

  2. A selection of AKARI FIS BSC extragalactic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, G.; Tóth, L. V.; Balázs, L. G.; Zahorecz, S.; Bagoly, Z.; Horváth, I.; Rácz, I. I.; Nagy, A.

    The point sources in the Bright Source Catalogue (BSC) of the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) were classified based on their far-IR and mid-IR fluxes and colours using Quadratic Discriminant Analysis method (QDA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The reliability of our results show that we can successfully separate galactic and extragalactic AKARI point sources in the multidimensional space of fluxes and colours. However, differentiating among the extragalactic sub-types needs further information.

  3. A catalogue of AKARI FIS BSC extragalactic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Gabor; Toth, L. Viktor; Gyorgy Balazs, Lajos

    2015-08-01

    We combined photometric data of about 70 thousand point sources from the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor Bright Source Catalogue with AllWISE catalogue data to identify galaxies. We used Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) to classify our sources. The classification was based on a 6D parameter space that contained AKARI [F65/F90], [F90/F140], [F140/F160] and WISE W1-W2 colours along with WISE W1 magnitudes and AKARI [F140] flux values. Sources were classified into 3 main objects types: YSO candidates, evolved stars and galaxies. The training samples were SIMBAD entries of the input point sources wherever an associated SIMBAD object was found within a 30 arcsecond search radius. The QDA resulted more than 5000 AKARI galaxy candidate sources. The selection was tested cross-correlating our AKARI extragalactic catalogue with the Revised IRAS-FSC Redshift Catalogue (RIFSCz). A very good match was found. A further classification attempt was also made to differentiate between extragalactic subtypes using Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The results of the various methods showed that we can confidently separate cirrus dominated objects (type 1 of RIFSCz). Some of our “galaxy candidate” sources are associated with 2MASS extended objects, and listed in the NASA Extragalactic Database so far without clear proofs of their extragalactic nature. Examples will be presented in our poster. Finally other AKARI extragalactic catalogues will be also compared to our statistical selection.

  4. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Deep Convolutional Neural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Peng, Jian; Ma, Jianzhu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Protein secondary structure (SS) prediction is important for studying protein structure and function. When only the sequence (profile) information is used as input feature, currently the best predictors can obtain ~80% Q3 accuracy, which has not been improved in the past decade. Here we present DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) for protein SS prediction. DeepCNF is a Deep Learning extension of Conditional Neural Fields (CNF), which is an integration of Conditional Random Fields (CRF) and shallow neural networks. DeepCNF can model not only complex sequence-structure relationship by a deep hierarchical architecture, but also interdependency between adjacent SS labels, so it is much more powerful than CNF. Experimental results show that DeepCNF can obtain ~84% Q3 accuracy, ~85% SOV score, and ~72% Q8 accuracy, respectively, on the CASP and CAMEO test proteins, greatly outperforming currently popular predictors. As a general framework, DeepCNF can be used to predict other protein structure properties such as contact number, disorder regions, and solvent accessibility.

  5. AKARI Far-Infrared All-Sky Survey Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Yasuo; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Takita, Satoshi; Arimatsu, Ko; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Nakagawa, Takao; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Tanaka, Masahiro; White, Glenn J; Etxaluze, Mireya; Shibai, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Far-infrared observations provide crucial data for the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), since most of its energy is emitted between ~100 and 200 um. We present the first all-sky image from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite, in the wavelength range 50 -- 180 um. Covering >99% of the sky in four photometric bands with four filters centred at 65 um, 90 um, 140 um, and 160 um wavelengths, this achieved spatial resolutions from 1 to 2 arcmin and a detection limit of <10 MJy sr-1, with absolute and relative photometric accuracies of <20%. All-sky images of the Galactic dust continuum emission enable astronomers to map the large-scale distribution of the diffuse ISM cirrus, to study its thermal dust temperature, emissivity and column density, and to measure the interaction of the Galactic radiation field and embedded objects with the surrounding ISM. In addition to the point source population of stars, protostar...

  6. Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the AKARI All Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Eser, E Kilerci; Doi, Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a new catalog of 118 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) and one Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxy (HLIRG) by crossmatching AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the Final Data Release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS). 40 of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing/post mergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the AGN fraction and IR luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large off-set from the 'main sequence' up to z~1; their off-set from the z~2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a consistent result with the previous studies showing that compared to local star forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We for the first time demonstrate that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (...

  7. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the AKARI all-sky survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilerci Eser, E., E-mail: ecekilerci@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Goto, T. [National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Doi, Y., E-mail: tomo@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: doi@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We present a new catalog of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) by cross-matching the AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the final data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. Forty of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing or postmergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the active galactic nucleus fraction and infrared luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large offset from the main sequence up to z ∼ 1; their offset from the z ∼ 2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a result consistent with the previous studies showing that, compared to local star-forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We demonstrate for the first time that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR). The scatter of ULIRGs around the FMR (0.09 dex-0.5 dex) is comparable to the scatter of z ∼ 2-3 galaxies. We provide the largest local (0.050

  8. Neptune's Atmospheric Composition from AKARI Infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Leigh N; Burgdorf, Martin; Orton, Glenn; Encrenaz, Therese; 10.1051/0004-6361/200913358

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Disk-averaged infrared spectra of Neptune between 1.8 and 13 $\\mu$m, obtained by the AKARI Infrared Camera (IRC) in May 2007, have been analysed to (a) determine the globally-averaged stratospheric temperature structure; (b) derive the abundances of stratospheric hydrocarbons; and (c) detect fluorescent emission from CO at 4.7 $\\mu$m. Methods: Mid-infrared spectra were modelled using a line-by-line radiative transfer code to determine the temperature structure between 1-1000 $\\mu$bar and the abundances of CH$_4$, CH$_3$D and higher-order hydrocarbons. A full non-LTE radiative model was then used to determine the best fitting CO profile to reproduce the fluorescent emission observed at 4.7 $\\mu$m in the NG channel (with a spectral resolution of 135). Results: The globally-averaged stratospheric temperature structure is quasi-isothermal between 1-1000 $\\mu$bar, which suggests little variation in global stratospheric conditions since studies by the Infrared Space Observatory a decade earlier. The derived C...

  9. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  10. Search for Water in Outer Main Belt Based on AKARI Asteroid Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Fumihiko

    2012-06-01

    We propose a program to search water ice on the surface of asteroids in the outer main belt regions, which have high albedo measured with AKARI. The distribution of water in the main belt provides important information to understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system, because water is a good indicator of temperature in the early solar nebula. The existence of water ice is a hot topic in the solar system studies today. Water ice is recently found in the outer region of the main asteroid belt and some of them are linked to the main belt comets. Brand-new albedo data brought by AKARI opens the possibility of detection of water ice on the C-type asteroids. Here we propose to make the spectroscopic observations with the Subaru telescope in the near-infrared wavelengths to detect water ice on these high-albedo C-type asteroids. Thanks to a large aperture of Subaru telescope and a high altitude of Mauna Kea, it can be only possible to observe a weak signal of the existence of water on the surface of asteroids with a certain S/N. In addition, using the imaging data taken prior to IRCS spectroscopic mode, we intend to seek any comet-like activities by investigating diffuseness of the asteroids, which can be detected by comparing the observed point-spread functions with those of field stars.

  11. Total infrared luminosity estimation from local galaxies in AKARI all sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Solarz, A; Pollo, A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use the a new and improved version of AKARI all sky survey catalogue of far-infrared sources to recalibrate the formula to derive the total infrared luminosity. We cross-match the faint source catalogue (FSC) of IRAS with the new AKARI-FIS and obtained a sample of 2430 objects. Then we calculate the total infrared (TIR) luminosity $L_{\\textrm{TIR}}$ from the Sanders at al. (1996) formula and compare it with total infrared luminosity from AKARI FIS bands to obtain new coefficients for the general relation to convert FIR luminosity from AKARI bands to the TIR luminosity.

  12. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.;

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...

  13. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  14. The GISMO 2-millimeter Deep Field in GOODS-N

    CERN Document Server

    Staguhn, Johannes G; Arendt, Richard G; Benford, Dominic J; Decarli, Roberto; Dwek, Eli; Fixsen, Dale J; Hilton, Gene C; Irwin, Kent D; Jhabvala, Christine A; Karim, Alexander; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F; Miller, Timothy M; Moseley, S Harvey; Sharp, Elmer H; Walter, Fabian; Wollack, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We present deep continuum observations at a wavelength of 2 mm centered on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in the GOODS-N field. These are the first deep field observations ever obtained at this wavelength. The 1 sigma sensitivity in the innermost ~ 4' of the 7' diameter map is ~135 uJy/beam, a factor of three lower in point source flux sensitivity than the deepest available SCUBA 850 um observations, and almost a factor of four lower than the combined MAMBO/AzTEC 1.2 mm observations of this region. Our source extraction algorithm identifies 12 sources directly, and another 3 through correlation with known sources at 1.2 mm and 850 um. Five of the directly detected 2 mm sources have counterparts in the 1.2 mm MAMBO/AzTEC catalog, and four of those also have SCUBA 850 um counterparts, including one of the first blank-field detected submillimeter galaxies, HDF850.1. The median redshift of all sources with counterparts of known redshifts is z_median = 2.91+/-0.94. Statistically, the detections are most likely real f...

  15. The Subaru Deep Field: The Optical Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kashikawa, N; Yasuda, N; Ajiki, M; Akiyama, M; Ando, H; Aoki, K; Doi, M; Fujita, S S; Furusawa, H; Hayashino, T; Iwamuro, F; Iye, M; Karoji, H; Kobayashi, N; Kodaira, K; Kodama, T; Komiyama, Yu; Matsuda, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mizumoto, Y; Morokuma, T; Motohara, K; Murayama, T; Nagao, T; Nariai, K; Ohta, K; Okamura, S; Ouchi, M; Sasaki, T; Sato, Y; Sekiguchi, K; Shioya, Y; Tamura, H; Taniguchi, Y; Umemura, M; Yamada, T; Yoshida, M

    2004-01-01

    The Subaru Deep Field (SDF) project is a program of Subaru Observatory to carry out a deep galaxy survey over a blank field as large as 34'x27'. The program consists of very deep multi-band optical imaging, near infrared imaging for smaller portions of the field and follow-up optical spectroscopy. Major scientific goals of the project are to construct large samples of Lyman-break galaxies at z~4-5 and Lyman alpha emitters at z~5.7 and 6.6, and to make detailed studies these very high-redshift galaxy populations. In this paper, we describe the optical imaging observations and data reduction, presenting mosaicked images and object catalogs in seven bandpasses.The optical imaging was made through five broad-band filters, B, V, R, i', z', and two narrow-band filters, NB816 (lambda_c=8150A) and NB921 (lambda_c=9196A) with almost 10 hours long integrations for each band. The limiting magnitudes measured at 3-sigma on a 2" aperture are B=28.45, V=27.74, R=27.80, i'=27.43, z'=26.62, NB816=26.63, and NB921=26.54 in th...

  16. Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relation from the AKARI Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M; Neilson, Hilding; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the period-luminosity (P-L) relation for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids based on mid-infrared AKARI observations. AKARI's IRC sources were matched to the OGLE-III LMC Cepheid catalog. Together with the available I band light curves from the OGLE-III catalog, potential false matches were removed from the sample. This procedure excluded most of the sources in the S7 and S11 bands: hence only the P-L relation in the N3 band was derived in this paper. Random-phase corrections were included in deriving the P-L relation for the single epoch AKARI data, even though the derived P-L relation is consistent with the P-L relation without random-phase correction, though there is a \\sim 7 per-cent improvement in the dispersion of the P-L relation. The final adopted N3 band P-L relation is N3 = -3.246 log(P) + 15.844, with a dispersion of 0.149.

  17. Cepheid period-luminosity relation from the AKARI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Neilson, Hilding; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we derive the period-luminosity (P-L) relation for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids based on mid-infrared AKARI observations. AKARI's Infrared Camera sources were matched to the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment-III (OGLE-III) LMC Cepheid catalogue. Together with the available I-band light curves from the OGLE-III catalogue, potential false matches were removed from the sample. This procedure excluded most of the sources in the S7 and S11 bands; hence, only the P-L relation in the N3 band is derived in this paper. Random-phase corrections were included in deriving the P-L relation for the single-epoch AKARI data; even though the derived P-L relation is consistent with the P-L relation without random-phase correction, however there is an ~7 per cent improvement in the dispersion of the P-L relation. The final adopted N3-band P-L relation is N3 = -3.246 log(P) + 15.844, with a dispersion of 0.149.

  18. The Campos Basin, Marlin and other deep water fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, A.C. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper emphasizes the Brazilian deep water production history driven with the usage of floating production systems. The development of the Marlin and other deep water fields as well their features, is presented. Discoveries already made in waters deeper than 2.000 metres are showed with potential prospective areas for exploration. The expected characteristics of these reservoirs are also presented. The main accomplishments of the Petrobas Procap-2000 R and D Program are summarized. The technology trends, based on previous experience, as well as the future challenges to support the activities to be carried out in the ultra deep waters, are discussed. Key technology issues in deep water exploration scenario, such as horizontal and multilateral wells, high productivity wells, artificial lift in subsea wells, subsea equipment, flowlines and pipelines, produced fluid problems, floating production facility, subsea boosting and multiphase metering are also addressed. Finally, Petrobas` vision on what would the offshore production be like, when exploiting oil reservoirs of 2.000 metre water depth and beyond, is presented. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Galactic planetary nebulae in the AKARI far-infrared surveyor bright source catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Nick; García-Lario, Pedro; Szczerba, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of our preliminary study of all known Galactic PNe (included in the Kerber 2003 catalog) which are detected by the AKARI/FIS All-Sky Survey as identified in the AKARI/FIS Bright Source Catalog (BSC) Version Beta-1.

  20. DeepCNF-D: Predicting Protein Order/Disorder Regions by Weighted Deep Convolutional Neural Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered proteins or protein regions are involved in key biological processes including regulation of transcription, signal transduction, and alternative splicing. Accurately predicting order/disorder regions ab initio from the protein sequence is a prerequisite step for further analysis of functions and mechanisms for these disordered regions. This work presents a learning method, weighted DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields, to improve the accuracy of order/disorder prediction by exploiting the long-range sequential information and the interdependency between adjacent order/disorder labels and by assigning different weights for each label during training and prediction to solve the label imbalance issue. Evaluated by the CASP9 and CASP10 targets, our method obtains 0.855 and 0.898 AUC values, which are higher than the state-of-the-art single ab initio predictors.

  1. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. H. Ishwara-Chandra; S. K. Sirothia; Y. Wadadekar; S. Pal

    2011-12-01

    Most of the radio galaxies with > 3 have been found using the red-shift spectral index correlation.We have started a programme with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to exploit this correlation at flux density levels about 100 times deeper than the known high-redshift radio galaxies, with an aim to detect candidate high-redshift radio galaxies. Here we present results from the deep 150 MHz observations of LBDS-Lynx field, which has been imaged at 327, 610 and 1412 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and at 1400 and 4860 MHz with the Very Large Array (VLA). We find about 150 radio sources with spectra steeper than 1. About two-thirds of these are not detected in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), hence are strong candidate high-redshift radio galaxies, which need to be further explored with deep infra-red imaging and spectroscopy to estimate the red-shift.

  2. The LABOCA Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, A; Coppin, K; Greve, T R; Walter, F; Smail, Ian; Dunlop, J S; Knudsen, K K; Alexander, D M; Bertoldi, F; Brandt, W N; Chapman, S C; Cox, P; Dannerbauer, H; De Breuck, C; Gawiser, E; Ivison, R J; Lutz, D; Menten, K M; Koekemoer, A M; Kreysa, E; Kurczynski, P; Rix, H -W; Schinnerer, E; Van der Werf, P P

    2009-01-01

    We present a sensitive 870 micron survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) using LABOCA on the APEX telescope. The LABOCA ECDFS Submillimetre Survey (LESS) covers the full 30' x 30' field size of the ECDFS and has a uniform noise level of 1.2 mJy/beam. LESS is thus the largest contiguous deep submillimetre survey undertaken to date. The noise properties of our map show clear evidence that we are beginning to be affected by confusion noise. We present a catalog of 126 SMGs detected with a significance level above 3.7 sigma. The ECDFS exhibits a deficit of bright SMGs relative to previously studied blank fields but not of normal star-forming galaxies that dominate the extragalactic background light (EBL). This is in line with the underdensities observed for optically defined high redshift source populations in the ECDFS (BzKs, DRGs,optically bright AGN and massive K-band selected galaxies). The differential source counts in the full field are well described by a power law with a slope of alpha=-3...

  3. A Pilot for a VLA HI Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Ximena; Hess, Kelley M; Pisano, D J; Kreckel, Kathryn; Momjian, Emmanuel; Popping, Attila; Oosterloo, Tom; Chomiuk, Laura; Verheijen, M A W; Henning, Patricia A; Schiminovich, David; Bershady, Matthew A; Wilcots, Eric M; Scoville, Nick

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution 21-cm HI deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved neutral gas maps at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0field for 50 hours, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of view of 34' x 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of HI and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations...

  4. EIS Data on the Chandra Deep Field South Released

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this note is to announce that the ESO Imaging Survey programme has released a full set of optical/infrared data covering the socalled Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) rapidly becoming a favoured target for cosmological studies in the southern hemisphere. The field was originally selected for deep X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM. The former have already been completed producing the deepest high-resolution X-ray image ever taken with a total integration time of one million seconds. The data obtained by EIS include J and Ks infrared observations of an area of 0.1 square degree nearly matching the Chandra image down to JAB ~ 23.4 and KAB ~ 22.6 and UU'BVRI optical observations over 0.25 square degree, matching the XMM field of view, reaching 5 s limiting magnitudes of U'AB = 26.0, UAB = 25.7, BAB = 26.4, VAB = 25.4, RA B = 25.5 and IA B = 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2 ´ FWHM aperture.

  5. "Hidden" Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field North

    OpenAIRE

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Moran, Edward C.; Kay, Laura E.

    2007-01-01

    We have compared the X-ray--to--optical flux ratios (F_x/F_opt) of absorbed active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Chandra Deep Field North (CDF-N) with those of nearby, optically classified Seyfert 2 galaxies. The comparison provides an opportunity to explore the extent to which the local population of absorbed AGNs can account for the properties of the distant, spectroscopically ambiguous sources that produce the hard X-ray background. Our nearby sample consists of 38 objects that well repres...

  6. A molecular line scan in the Hubble deep field north

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Colombo, D.; Da Cunha, E.; Rix, H.-W. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carilli, C. [NRAO, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Riechers, D. [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cox, P.; Neri, R.; Downes, D. [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Bell, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Daddi, E.; Sargent, M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ellis, R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M., E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2014-02-20

    We present a molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) that covers the entire 3 mm window (79-115 GHz) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our CO redshift coverage spans z ≲ 0.45, 1 ≲ z ≲ 1.9 and all z ≳ 2. We reach a CO detection limit that is deep enough to detect essentially all z > 1 CO lines reported in the literature so far. We have developed and applied different line-searching algorithms, resulting in the discovery of 17 line candidates. We estimate that the rate of false positive line detections is ∼2/17. We identify optical/NIR counterparts from the deep ancillary database of the HDF-N for seven of these candidates and investigate their available spectral energy distributions. Two secure CO detections in our scan are identified with star-forming galaxies at z = 1.784 and at z = 2.047. These galaxies have colors consistent with the 'BzK' color selection and they show relatively bright CO emission compared with galaxies of similar dust continuum luminosity. We also detect two spectral lines in the submillimeter galaxy HDF 850.1 at z = 5.183. We consider an additional nine line candidates as high quality. Our observations also provide a deep 3 mm continuum map (1σ noise level = 8.6 μJy beam{sup –1}). Via a stacking approach, we find that optical/MIR bright galaxies contribute only to <50% of the star formation rate density at 1 < z < 3, unless high dust temperatures are invoked. The present study represents a first, fundamental step toward an unbiased census of molecular gas in 'normal' galaxies at high-z, a crucial goal of extragalactic astronomy in the ALMA era.

  7. Unveiling obscured accretion in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, F; Santini, P; Puccetti, S; Brusa, M; Feruglio, C; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Comastri, A; Gruppioni, C; Pozzi, F; Zamorani, G; Vignali, C

    2007-01-01

    A large population of heavily obscured, Compton Thick AGNs is predicted by models of galaxy formation, models of Cosmic X-ray Background and by the ``relic'' super-massive black-hole mass function measured from local bulges. However, so far only a handful of Compton thick AGNs have been possibly detected using even the deepest Chandra and XMM surveys. Compton-thick AGNs can be recovered thanks to the reprocessing of the AGN UV emission in the infrared by selecting sources with AGN luminosity's in the mid-infrared and faint near-infrared and optical emission. To this purpose, we make use of deep HST, VLT, Spitzer and Chandra data on the Chandra Deep Field South to constrain the number of Compton thick AGN in this field. We show that sources with high 24micron to optical flux ratios and red colors form a distinct source population, and that their infrared luminosity is dominated by AGN emission. Analysis of the X-ray properties of these extreme sources shows that most of them are indeed likely to be highly obsc...

  8. Deep underground disposal of radioactive wastes: Near field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the important near-field effects of the disposal of wastes in deep rock formations. The basic characteristics of waste form, container and package, buffer and backfill materials and potential host-rock types are discussed from the perspective of the performance requirements of the total repository system. Effects of waste emplacement on the separate system components and on the system as a whole are discussed. The effects include interactions between groundwater and brines and the other system components, thermal and thermo-mechanical effects, and chemical and geochemical reactions. Special consideration is given to the radiation field that exists in proximity to the waste containers and also to the coupled effects of different phenomena

  9. Deep, wide-field, global VLBI observations of the Hubble deep field north (HDF-N) and flanking fields (HFF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, S.; Barthel, P. D.; Garrett, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dust is commonly present in weakly radio emitting star-forming galaxies and this dust may obscure the signatures of accreting black holes in these objects. Aims. We aim to uncover weak active galactic nuclei, AGN, in the faint radio source population by means of deep high-resolution radio o

  10. Summary of observations of the infrared camera (IRC) onboard AKARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Ishihara, D.; Ohyama, Y.; Sakon, I.; Shimonishi, T.; Ohsawa, R.; Mori, T. I.; Egusa, F.; Usui, F.; Takita, S.; Murakami, H.; Oyabu, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Mori, T.; Mouri, A.; Kondo, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kaneda, H.; Ita, Y.; Ootsubo, T.

    2012-09-01

    AKARI, the Japanese satellite mission dedicated to infrared astronomy was launched in 2006 February and exhausted its liquid helium in 2007 August. During the cold mission phase, the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard carried out an all-sky survey at 9 and 18µm with better spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than IRAS. Both bands also have slightly shorter wavelength coverage than IRAS 12 and 25μm bands and thus provide different information on the infrared sky. All-sky image data of the IRC are now in the final processing and will be released to the public within a year. After the exhaustion of the cryogen, the telescope and focal plane instruments of AKARI had still been kept at sufficiently low temperatures owing to the onboard cryocooler. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging and spectroscopic observations with the IRC had continued until 2011 May, when the spacecraft had a serious problem in the power supply system that forced us to terminate the observation. The IRC carried out nearly 20000 pointing observations in total despite of its near-earth orbit. About a half of them were performed after the exhaustion of the cryogen in the spectroscopic modes, which provided high-sensitivity NIR spectra from 2 to 5µm without disturbance of the terrestrial atmosphere. During the warm mission phase, the temperature of the instrument gradually increased and changed the array operation conditions. We present a summary of AKARI/IRC observations, including the all-sky mid-infrared diffuse data as well as the data taken in the warm mission phase.

  11. WFPC2 Observations of the Hubble Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Casertano, S; Dickinson, M; Ferguson, H C; Fruchter, A S; González-Lopezlira, R A; Heyer, I; Hook, R N; Levay, Z G; Lucas, R A; Mack, J; Makidon, R B; Mutchler, M Y; Smith, T E; Stiavelli, M; Wiggs, M S; Williams, R E; Casertano, Stefano; Mello, Duilia de; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C; Fruchter, Andrew S; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Heyer, Inge; Hook, Richard N; Levay, Zolt; Lucas, Ray A; Mack, Jennifer; Makidon, Russell B; Mutchler, Max; Stiavelli, Massimo; Wiggs, Michael S; Williams, Robert E

    2000-01-01

    The Hubble Deep Field-South observations targeted a high-galactic-latitude field near QSO J2233-606. We present WFPC2 observations of the field in four wide bandpasses centered at roughly 300, 450, 606, and 814 nm. Observations, data reduction procedures, and noise properties of the final images are discussed in detail. A catalog of sources is presented, and the number counts and color distributions of the galaxies are compared to a new catalog of the HDF-N that has been constructed in an identical manner. The two fields are qualitatively similar, with the galaxy number counts for the two fields agreeing to within 20%. The HDF-S has more candidate Lyman-break galaxies at z > 2 than the HDF-N. The star-formation rate per unit volume computed from the HDF-S, based on the UV luminosity of high-redshift candidates, is a factor of 1.9 higher than from the HDF-N at z ~ 2.7, and a factor of 1.3 higher at z ~ 4.

  12. A survey of T Tauri stars with AKARI toward the Taurus-Auriga region

    CERN Document Server

    Takita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We search new T Tauri star (TTS) candidates with the mid-infrared (MIR) part of the AKARI All-Sky Survey at 9 and 18 um wavelengths. Methods: We used the point source catalogue (PSC), obtained by the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board AKARI. We combined the 2MASS PSC and the 3rd version of the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalogue (UCAC) with the AKARI IRC-PSC, and surveyed 517 known TTSs over a 1800-square-degree part of the Taurus-Auriga region to find criteria to extract TTSs. We considered asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, Planetary Nebulae (PNe), and galaxies, which have similar MIR colours, to separate TTSs from these sources. Results: Of the 517 known TTSs, we detected 133 sources with AKARI. Based on the colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams made from the AKARI, 2MASS, and UCAC surveys, we propose the criteria to extract TTS candidates from the AKARI All-Sky data. On the basis of our criteria, we selected 176/14725 AKARI sources as TTS candidates which are located around the Taurus-...

  13. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) for AKARI

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Mitsunobu; Baba, Hajime; Barthel, Peter D.; Clements, David; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujiwara, Mikio; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2007-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) is one of two focal plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. FIS has four photometric bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 um, and uses two kinds of array detectors. The FIS arrays and optics are designed to sweep the sky with high spatial resolution and redundancy. The actual scan width is more than eight arcmin, and the pixel pitch is matches the diffraction limit of the telescope. Derived point spread functions (PSFs) from observations of asteroids are similar to ...

  14. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  15. Deep Vadose Zone–Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2013-03-14

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2012.

  16. The Case for Deep, Wide-Field Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Scranton, Ryan; Caldwell, Robert; Cooray, Asantha; Dore, Olivier; Habib, Salman; Heavens, Alan; Heitmann, Katrin; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Knox, Lloyd; Newman, Jeffrey A; Serra, Paolo; Song, Yong-Seon; Strauss, Michael; Tyson, Tony; Verde, Licia; Zhan, Hu

    2009-01-01

    Much of the science case for the next generation of deep, wide-field optical/infrared surveys has been driven by the further study of dark energy. This is a laudable goal (and the subject of a companion white paper by Zhan et al.). However, one of the most important lessons of the current generation of surveys is that the interesting science questions at the end of the survey are quite different than they were when the surveys were being planned. The current surveys succeeded in this evolving terrain by being very general tools that could be applied to a number of very fundamental measurements. Likewise, the accessibility of the data enabled the broader cosmological and astronomical community to generate more science than the survey collaborations could alone. With that in mind, we should consider some of the basic physical and cosmological questions that surveys like LSST and JDEM-Wide will be able to address.

  17. Hubble ultra deep field object surface brightness variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of adjacent pixel brightness variation in log scale was applied to ultra deep field objects captured by the Hubble telescope. The local surface brightness fluctuation has a Gaussian-like distribution implying a random accretion of material, with collisions, as a random-walk motion. The larger fluctuation of log brightness in the mid to outer regions of some galaxies is consistent with the presence of dark matter. The absence of such fluctuation enhancement in two i-drop candidates at z ∼ 3 may mean that some dark matter is the result of nucleosynthesis in the evolution process. Large fluctuation in the B+V bands in contrast to the i+z band near the center in an i-drop candidate at z ∼ 3 was interpreted to be an AGN center. The distribution average shifts towards zero for more spiral galaxies, signifying the use of local surface brightness fluctuation distribution as a morphology parameter

  18. A molecular scan in the Hubble Deep Field North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Chris; Riechers, Dominik

    2015-02-01

    Our understanding of galaxy evolution has traditionally been driven by pre-selection of galaxies based on their broad-band continuum emission. This approach is potentially biased, in particular against gas-rich systems at high-redshift which may be dust-obscured. To overcome this limitation, we have recently concluded a blind CO survey at 3mm in a region of the Hubble Deep Field North using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our study resulted in 1) the discovery of the redshift of the bright SMG HDF850.1 (z = 5.183); 2) the discovery of a bright line identified as CO(2-1) arising from a BzK galaxy at z = 1.785, and of other 6 CO lines associated with various galaxies in the field; 3) the detection of a few lines (presumably CO(3-2) at z ~ 2) with no optical/NIR/MIR counterparts. These observational results allowed us to expand the parameter space of galaxy properties probed so far in high-z molecular gas studies. Most importantly, we could set first direct constraints on the cosmic evolution of the molecular gas content of the universe. The present study represents a first, fundamental step towards an unbiased census of molecular gas in `normal' galaxies at high-z, a crucial goal of extragalactic astronomy in the ALMA era.

  19. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  20. Far infrared and submillimetre surveys: from IRAS to Akari, Herschel and Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a new IRAS Faint Source Catalog galaxy redshift catalogue (RIFSCz) which incorporates data from Galex, SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, Akari and Planck. Akari fluxes are consistent with photometry from other far infrared and submillimetre missions provided an aperture correction is applied. Results from the Hermes-SWIRE survey in Lockman are also discussed briefly, and the strong contrast between the galaxy populations selected at 60 and 500 mu is summarized.

  1. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, M. C.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Huntrieser, H.; Homeyer, C. R.; Nault, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Pan, L.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment took place in the central U.S. in May and June 2012 and had the objectives of characterizing the effect of thunderstorms on the chemical composition of the lower atmosphere and determining the chemical aging of upper troposphere (UT) convective outflow plumes. DC3 employed ground-based radars, lightning mapping arrays, and weather balloon soundings in conjunction with aircraft measurements sampling the composition of the inflow and outflow of a variety of thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, West Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the UT convective plume. The DC3 data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, and chemistry in the UT that is affected by the convection. In this presentation, we give an overview of the DC3 field campaign and highlight results from the campaign that are relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. These highlights include stratosphere-troposphere exchange in connection with thunderstorms, the 0-12 hour chemical aging and new particle formation in the UT outflow of a dissipating mesoscale convective system observed on June 21, 2012, and UT chemical aging in convective outflow as sampled the day after convection occurred and modeled in the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry model.

  3. Spitzer IRS 16 micron Observations of the GOODS Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, Harry I; Elbaz, David; Dickinson, Mark; Bridge, Carrie; Colbert, James; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Frayer, David T; Howell, Justin H; Koo, David C; Papovich, Casey; Phillips, Andrew; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer 16 micron imaging of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. We survey 150 square arcminutes in each of the two GOODS fields (North and South), to an average 3 sigma depth of 40 and 65 micro-Jy respectively. We detect about 1300 sources in both fields combined. We validate the photometry using the 3-24 micron spectral energy distribution of stars in the fields compared to Spitzer spectroscopic templates. Comparison with ISOCAM and AKARI observations in the same fields show reasonable agreement, though the uncertainties are large. We provide a catalog of photometry, with sources cross correlated with available Spitzer, Chandra, and HST data. Galaxy number counts show good agreement with previous results from ISOCAM and AKARI, with improved uncertainties. We examine the 16 to 24 micron flux ratio and find that for most sources it lies within the expected locus for starbursts and infrared luminous galaxies. A color cut of S_{16}/S_{24}>1.4 selects mostly sources which lie a...

  4. Ultraviolet number counts of galaxies from Swift UV/Optical Telescope deep imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Hoversten, E A; Berk, D E Vanden; Koch, T S; Breeveld, A A; Curran, P A; Hinshaw, D A; Marshall, F E; Roming, P W A; Siegel, M H; Still, M

    2009-01-01

    Deep Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South is used to measure galaxy number counts in three near ultraviolet (NUV) filters (uvw2: 1928 A, uvm2: 2246 A, uvw1: 2600 A) and the u band (3645 A). UVOT observations cover the break in the slope of the NUV number counts with greater precision than the number counts by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), spanning a range from 21 < m_AB < 25. Number counts models confirm earlier investigations in favoring models with an evolving galaxy luminosity function.

  5. Snapshots from deep magma chambers: decoding field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campos, Cristina P.

    2014-05-01

    During the post-orogenic stage of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo), inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutonic structures intruded previous geologic units. Structural measurements, mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data point towards different compositional domains which have been generated during a time span between 20 to 30 Ma. The result from decades of mapping revealed the architecture of ca. 10 large plutons in more détail. This work will focus on the dynamics of magmatic interaction for six different plutons ranging from c.20 to 200 km2 in outcropping area. Conclusions are based on already published and new unpublished data aiming the state of the art. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented and folded layers of granite in a K-basaltic matrix contrast with predominant more homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by stretched filament regions (magmatic shear zones) where mixing has been enhanced resulting in hybrid compositions. Locally sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least-differentiated rocks suggest generation from predominat large magma bodies of variable composition which crystallized while crossing the middle to lower crust (space, depict frozen moments in their evolution and therefore may explain some of the discrepancies in the different hybridization degrees for different complexes. The combination of detailed mapping of flow patterns in the field, numerical modeling and experimental results using natural magmatic products as end-members may provide new insights into the dynamics of magma chambers, specially for shallow chambers in a volcanic

  6. The North Ecliptic Pole Wide survey of AKARI: a near- and mid-infrared source catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seong Jin; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kang, Eugene; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Takagi, Toshinobu; Pearson, Chris; White, Glenn J; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Serjeant, Stephen; Nakagawa, Takao; Ohyama, Youichi; Goto, Tomotsugu; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Pollo, Agnieszka; Solarz, Aleksandra; Pepiak, Agata

    2012-01-01

    We present a photometric catalog of infrared (IR) sources based on the North Ecliptic PoleWide field (NEP-Wide) survey of AKARI, which is an infrared space telescope launched by Japan. The NEP-Wide survey covered 5.4 deg2 area, a nearly circular shape centered on the North Ecliptic Pole, using nine photometric filter-bands from 2 - 25 {\\mu}m of the Infrared Camera (IRC). Extensive efforts were made to reduce possible false objects due to cosmic ray hits, multiplexer bleeding phenomena around bright sources, and other artifacts. The number of detected sources varied depending on the filter band: with about 109,000 sources being cataloged in the near-IR bands at 2 - 5 {\\mu}m, about 20,000 sources in the shorter parts of the mid-IR bands between 7 - 11 {\\mu}m, and about 16,000 sources in the longer parts of the mid-IR bands, with \\sim 4,000 sources at 24 {\\mu}m. The estimated 5? detection limits are approximately 21 magnitude (mag) in the 2 - 5 {\\mu}m bands, 19.5 - 19 mag in the 7 - 11 {\\mu}m, and 18.8 - 18.5 ma...

  7. Deep near-IR observations of the Chandra Deep Field and of the HDF-South - Color and Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A; Iovino, A; Poli, F; Vanzella, E

    2001-01-01

    We present near-IR (J and Ks) number counts and colors of galaxies detected in deep VLT-ISAAC images centered on the Chandra Deep Field and Hubble Deep Field-South for a total area of 13.6 arcmin$^2$. The limiting surface brightness obtained is Ks$\\simeq$22.8 mag/arcsec$^2$ and J$\\simeq$24.5 (1$\\sigma$) on both fields. A d$log$N/dm relation with a slope of $\\sim0.34$ in J and $\\sim0.28$ in Ks is found in both fields with no evidence of decline near the magnitude limit. The median J-Ks color of galaxies becomes bluer at magnitudes fainter than Ks$\\sim18$, in agreement with the different number counts slope observed in the two bands. We find a fraction ($\\le5%$ of the total sample) of sources with color redder than J-Ks=2.3 at magnitudes Ks$>20$. Most of them appear as isolated sources, possibly elliptical or dusty starburst galaxies at redshift $z>2$. The comparison of the observed number counts with models shows that our J-band and Ks-band counts are consistent with the prediction of a model based on a small ...

  8. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) for AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Kawada, Mitsunobu; Barthel, Peter D; Clements, David; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujiwara, Mikio; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawai, Toshihide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kester, Do; Kii, Tsuneo; Kobayashi, Hisato; Kwon, Suk Minn; Lee, Hyung Mok; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Müller, Thomas G; Murakami, Noriko; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Oh, Sang Hoon; Okada, Yoko; Okuda, Haruyuki; Oliver, Sebastian; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Pak, Soojong; Park, Yong-Sun; Pearson, Chris P; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Saito, Toshinobu; Salama, Alberto; Sato, Shinji; Savage, Richard S; Serjeant, Stephen; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Mai; Sohn, Jungjoo; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; Thomson, Matthew; Usui, Fumihiko; Verdugo, Eva; Watabe, Toyoki; White, Glenn J; Wang, Lingyu; Yamamura, Issei; Yamamuchi, Chisato; Yasuda, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) is one of two focal plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. FIS has four photometric bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 um, and uses two kinds of array detectors. The FIS arrays and optics are designed to sweep the sky with high spatial resolution and redundancy. The actual scan width is more than eight arcmin, and the pixel pitch is matches the diffraction limit of the telescope. Derived point spread functions (PSFs) from observations of asteroids are similar to the optical model. Significant excesses, however, are clearly seen around tails of the PSFs, whose contributions are about 30% of the total power. All FIS functions are operating well in orbit, and its performance meets the laboratory characterizations, except for the two longer wavelength bands, which are not performing as well as characterized. Furthermore, the FIS has a spectroscopic capability using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Because the FTS takes advantage of the optics and detectors of the photometer, i...

  9. An AKARI Search for Intracluster Dust of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Matsunaga, N; Nakada, Y; Fukushi, H; Tanabé, T; Ita, Y; Izumiura, H; Matsuura, M; Ueta, T; Yamamura, I

    2008-01-01

    We report the observations of 12 globular clusters with the AKARI/FIS. Our goal is to search for emission from the cold dust within clusters. We detect diffuse emissions toward NGC 6402 and 2808, but the IRAS 100-micron maps show the presence of strong background radiation. They are likely emitted from the galactic cirrus, while we cannot rule out the possible association of a bump of emission with the cluster in the case of NGC 6402. We also detect 28 point-like sources mainly in the WIDE-S images (90 micron). At least several of them are not associated with the clusters but background galaxies based on some external catalogs. We present the SEDs by combining the near-and-mid infrared data obtained with the IRC if possible. The SEDs suggest that most of the point sources are background galaxies. We find one candidate of the intracluster dust which has no mid-infrared counterpart unlike the other point-like sources, although some features such as its point-like appearance should be explained before we conclud...

  10. The $AKARI$ Far-Infrared All-Sky Survey Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Yasuo; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Figueredo, Elysandra

    2015-01-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese $AKARI$ satellite. The survey covers $> 99$% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 $\\mu$m, 90 $\\mu$m, 140 $\\mu$m, and 160 $\\mu$m with spatial resolutions ranging from 1 to 1.5 arcmin. These data provide crucial information for the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), since significant portion of its energy is emitted between $\\sim$50 and 200 $\\mu$m. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures and column densities, can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use by the astronomical community.

  11. The AKARI far-infrared all-sky survey maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J.; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cypriano, Elysandra F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite. The survey covers > 99% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 μm, 90 μm, 140 μm, and 160 μm, with spatial resolutions ranging from 1' to 1{^''.}5. These data provide crucial information on the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the interstellar medium (ISM), since a significant portion of its energy is emitted between ˜ 50 and 200 μm. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures, and their column densities can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use in the astronomical community.

  12. Wide-field VLBA Observations of the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Middelberg, Enno; Morgan, John; Rottmann, Helge; Alef, Walter; Tingay, Steven; Norris, Ray; Bach, Uwe; Brisken, Walter; Lenc, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Wide-field surveys are a commonly-used method for studying thousands of objects simultaneously, to investigate, e.g., the joint evolution of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. VLBI observations can yield valuable input to such studies because they are able to identify AGN. However, VLBI observations of large swaths of the sky are impractical using standard methods, because the fields of view of VLBI observations are of the order of 10" or less. We have embarked on a project to carry out Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of all 96 known radio sources in one of the best-studied areas in the sky, the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). The challenge was to develop methods which could significantly reduce the amount of observing (and post-processing) time. We have developed an extension to the DiFX software correlator which allows one to correlate hundreds of positions within the primary beams. This extension enabled us to target many sources, at full resolution and high sensitivity, using ...

  13. Deep GMRT 150 MHz Observations of the DEEP2 Fields: Searching for High Red-Shift Radio Galaxies Revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susanta K. Bisoi; C. H. Ishwara-Chandra; S. K. Sirothia; P. Janardhan

    2011-12-01

    High red-shift radio galaxies are best searched at low radio frequencies, due to its steep radio spectra. Here we present preliminary results from our programme to search for high red-shift radio galaxies to ∼ 10 to 100 times fainter than the known population till date. We have extracted ultra-steep spectrum (USS) samples from deep 150 MHz Giant Meter-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations from one of the three well-studied DEEP2 fields to this effect. From correlating these radio sources with respect to the high-frequency catalogues such as VLA, FIRST and NVSS at 1.4 GHz, we find ∼ 100 steep spectrum (spectral index, > 1) radio sources, which are good candidates for high red-shift radio galaxies.

  14. Wide-Field, Deep UV Raman Hyperspectral Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS), teaming with the University of South Carolina, proposes a revolutionary wide-field Raman hyperspectral imaging system capable of...

  15. Environmental dependence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission at z~0.8. Investigation by observing the RX J0152.7-1357 with AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, Kazumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kodama, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of the strength of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission by AKARI observations of RX J0152.7-1357, a galaxy cluster at z=0.84. PAH emission reflects the physical conditions of galaxies and dominates 8 um luminosity (L8), which can directly be measured with the L15 band of AKARI. L8 to infrared luminosity (LIR) ratio is used as a tracer of the PAH strength. Both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts are applied to identify the cluster members. The L15-band-detected galaxies tend to reside in the outskirt of the cluster and have optically green colour, R-z'~ 1.2. We find no clear difference of the L8/LIR behaviour of galaxies in field and cluster environment. The L8/LIR of cluster galaxies decreases with specific-star-formation rate divided by that of main-sequence galaxies, and with LIR, consistent with the results for field galaxies. The relation between L8/LIR and LIR is between those at z=0 and z=2 in the literature. Our data also shows that starburst galaxie...

  16. Multicolor observations of the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Saracco, P; Arnouts, S; Bianchi, S; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Grazian, A

    2001-01-01

    We present a deep multicolor (UBVIJsHKs) catalog of galaxies in the HDF-S, based on observations obtained with the HST WFPC2 in 1998 and VLT-ISAAC in 1999. The photometric procedures were tuned to derive a catalog optimized for the estimation of photometric redshifts. In particular we adopted a ``conservative'' detection threshold which resulted in a list of 1611 objects. The behavior of the observed source counts is in general agreement with the result of Casertano et al. (2000) in the HDF-S and Williams et al. (1996) in the HDF-N, while the corresponding counts in the HDF-N provided by Fernandez-Soto et al. (1999) are systematically lower by a factor 1.5 beyond I_AB=26. After correcting for the incompleteness of the source counts, the object surface density at I_AB2.7) were selected down to K_AB=24, plus 3 objects whose upper limit to the Ks flux is still compatible with the selection criterion. The corresponding surface density of EROs is (2.5+-0.8) per sq.arcmin ((3.2+-0.9) per sq.arcmin if we include the...

  17. Deep 20-GHz survey of the Chandra Deep Field South and SDSS Stripe 82: source catalogue and spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Franzen, T M O; Chhetri, R; Ekers, R D; Mahony, E K; Murphy, T; Norris, R P; Waldram, E M; Whittam, I H

    2013-01-01

    We present a source catalogue and first results from a deep, blind radio survey carried out at 20 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, with follow-up observations at 5.5, 9 and 18 GHz. The Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) deep pilot survey covers a total area of 5 deg^2 in the Chandra Deep Field South and in Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We estimate the survey to be 90% complete above 2.5 mJy. Of the 85 sources detected, 55% have steep spectra (alpha_{1.4}^{20} = -0.5). The steep-spectrum sources tend to have single power-law spectra between 1.4 and 18 GHz, while the spectral indices of the flat- or inverted-spectrum sources tend to steepen with frequency. Among the 18 inverted-spectrum (alpha_{1.4}^{20} >= 0.0) sources, 10 have clearly defined peaks in their spectra with alpha_{1.4}^{5.5} > 0.15 and alpha_{9}^{18} < -0.15. On a 3-yr timescale, at least 10 sources varied by more than 15% at 20 GHz, showing that variability is still common at the low flux densities probed by the AT...

  18. ESO imaging survey. Deep public survey: Multi-color optical data for the Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnouts, S.; Vandame, B.; Benoist, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; da Costa, L.; Schirmer, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Slijkhuis, R.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hook, R.; Madejsky, R.; Rité, C.; Wicenec, A.

    2001-11-01

    This paper presents multi-passband optical data obtained from observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), located at alpha ~ 3h 32m, delta ~ -27o 48'. The observations were conducted at the ESO/MPG 2.2 m telescope at La Silla using the 8kx8k Wide-Field Imager (WFI). This data set, taken over a period of one year, represents the first field to be completed by the ongoing Deep Public Survey (DPS) being carried out as a part of the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. This paper describes the optical observations, the techniques employed for un-supervised pipeline processing and the general characteristics of the final data set. Image processing has been performed using multi-resolution image decomposition techniques adapted to the EIS pipeline. The automatic processing steps include standard de-bias and flat-field, automatic removal of satellite tracks, de-fringing/sky-subtraction, image stacking/mosaicking and astrometry. Stacking of dithered images is carried out using pixel-based astrometry which enables the efficient removal of cosmic rays and image defects, yielding remarkably clean final images. The final astrometric calibration is based on a pre-release of the GSC-II catalog and has an estimated intrinsic accuracy of la 0.10 arcsec, with all passbands sharing the same solution. The paper includes data taken in six different filters (U'UBVRI). The data cover an area of about 0.25 square degrees reaching 5sigma limiting magnitudes of U'AB=26.0, UAB=25.7, BAB=26.4, VAB=25.4, RAB=25.5 and IAB= 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2 x FWHM aperture. The optical data covers an area of ~ 0.1 square degrees for which moderately deep observations in two near-infrared bands are also available, reaching 5sigma limiting magnitudes of JAB ~ 23.4 and KAB ~ 22.6. The current optical/infrared data also fully encompass the region of the deep X-ray observations recently completed by the Chandra telescope. The optical data presented here, as well as the infrared data released

  19. UVUDF: Ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble ultra deep field with wide-field camera 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Colbert, James W.; Hanish, Daniel J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bond, Nicholas A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ravindranath, Swara, E-mail: hit@ipac.caltech.edu [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); and others

    2013-12-01

    We present an overview of a 90 orbit Hubble Space Telescope treasury program to obtain near-ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS detector with the F225W, F275W, and F336W filters. This survey is designed to: (1) investigate the episode of peak star formation activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 2.5; (2) probe the evolution of massive galaxies by resolving sub-galactic units (clumps); (3) examine the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from galaxies at z ∼ 2-3; (4) greatly improve the reliability of photometric redshift estimates; and (5) measure the star formation rate efficiency of neutral atomic-dominated hydrogen gas at z ∼ 1-3. In this overview paper, we describe the survey details and data reduction challenges, including both the necessity of specialized calibrations and the effects of charge transfer inefficiency. We provide a stark demonstration of the effects of charge transfer inefficiency on resultant data products, which when uncorrected, result in uncertain photometry, elongation of morphology in the readout direction, and loss of faint sources far from the readout. We agree with the STScI recommendation that future UVIS observations that require very sensitive measurements use the instrument's capability to add background light through a 'post-flash'. Preliminary results on number counts of UV-selected galaxies and morphology of galaxies at z ∼ 1 are presented. We find that the number density of UV dropouts at redshifts 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 is largely consistent with the number predicted by published luminosity functions. We also confirm that the image mosaics have sufficient sensitivity and resolution to support the analysis of the evolution of star-forming clumps, reaching 28-29th magnitude depth at 5σ in a 0.''2 radius aperture depending on filter and observing epoch.

  20. The Deep Physics Hidden within the Field Expressions of the Radiation Fields of Lightning Return Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the electromagnetic fields generated by a current pulse propagating from one point in space to another, a scenario that is frequently used to simulate return strokes in lightning flashes, it is shown that there is a deep physical connection between the electromagnetic energy dissipated by the system, the time over which this energy is dissipated and the charge associated with the current. For a given current pulse, the product of the energy dissipated and the time over which this energy is dissipated, defined as action in this paper, depends on the length of the channel, or the path, through which the current pulse is propagating. As the length of the channel varies, the action plotted against the length of the channel exhibits a maximum value. The location of the maximum value depends on the ratio of the length of the channel to the characteristic length of the current pulse. The latter is defined as the product of the duration of the current pulse and the speed of propagation of the current pulse. The magnitude of this maximum depends on the charge associated with the current pulse. The results show that when the charge associated with the current pulse approaches the electronic charge, the value of this maximum reaches a value close to h/8π where h is the Plank constant. From this result, one can deduce that the time-energy uncertainty principle is the reason for the fact that the smallest charge that can be detected from the electromagnetic radiation is equal to the electronic charge. Since any system that generates electromagnetic radiation can be represented by a current pulse propagating from one point in space to another, the result is deemed valid for electromagnetic radiation fields in general.

  1. Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, Galen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gittings, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-06-11

    Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

  2. Mathematical aspects of stress field simulations in deep geothermal reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This report gives an insight into basics of stress field simulations for geothermal reservoirs. The quasistatic equations of poroelasticity are deduced from constitutive equations, balance of mass and balance of momentum. Existence and uniqueness of a weak solution is shown. In order of to find an approximate solution numerically, usage of the so–called method of fundamental solutions is a promising way. The idea of this method as well as a sketch of how convergence may be prov...

  3. Characterization of deep ground geothermal field in Jiahe Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Guo Dongming; He Manchao; Jiang Yaodong; Yang Qing

    2011-01-01

    Research into the characteristics of geothermal fields is important for the control of heat damage in mines.Based on measured geothermal data of boreholes from -200 m to -1200 m in a Jiahe Coal Mine,we demonstrate non-linear but increasing relations of both geo-temperatures and geothermal gradients with increases depth.Numerically,we fitted the relationship between geo-temperatures and depth,a first-order exponential decay curve,formulated as:T(h) - -4.975 + 23.08 × exp(-h/1736.1 ).

  4. A PILOT FOR A VERY LARGE ARRAY H I DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Ximena; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hess, Kelley M. [Department of Astronomy, Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Pisano, D. J. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Kreckel, Kathryn [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Popping, Attila [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Chomiuk, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Verheijen, M. A. W. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Henning, Patricia A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A.; Wilcots, Eric M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Scoville, Nick, E-mail: ximena@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    High-resolution 21 cm H I deep fields provide spatially and kinematically resolved images of neutral hydrogen at different redshifts, which are key to understanding galaxy evolution across cosmic time and testing predictions of cosmological simulations. Here we present results from a pilot for an H I deep field done with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We take advantage of the newly expanded capabilities of the telescope to probe the redshift interval 0 < z < 0.193 in one observation. We observe the COSMOS field for 50 hr, which contains 413 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts in the imaged field of 34' Multiplication-Sign 34' and the observed redshift interval. We have detected neutral hydrogen gas in 33 galaxies in different environments spanning the probed redshift range, including three without a previously known spectroscopic redshift. The detections have a range of H I and stellar masses, indicating the diversity of galaxies we are probing. We discuss the observations, data reduction, results, and highlight interesting detections. We find that the VLA's B-array is the ideal configuration for H I deep fields since its long spacings mitigate radio frequency interference. This pilot shows that the VLA is ready to carry out such a survey, and serves as a test for future H I deep fields planned with other Square Kilometer Array pathfinders.

  5. The Deep Change Field Guide A Personal Course to Discovering the Leader Within

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    How to realize your own leadership potential Based on the bestselling book, Deep Change, The Deep Change Field Guide takes readers through the introspective journey of personal transformation. The field guide streamlines, updates, and augments the content of the original book into an interactive self-teaching course that helps readers learn how to become powerful agents of change. Learning tools include reflection questions, film assignments, and action plans that help readers think about the concepts in terms of their own situations, and identify actions to embody the concepts in their lives.

  6. Numerical simulation of temperature field in deep penetration laser welding of 5A06 aluminum cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Deep penetration laser welding temperature field of 5A06 aluminum alloy canister structure was simulated using the surface-body combination heat source model by ANSYS, which was made up of Gauss surface heat source model and Gauss revolved body heat source model. Convection, radiation and conduction were all considered during the simulation process. The thermal cycle curves of the points both on the shell outer surface and in the seam thickness direction were calculated. Simulated results agreed well with the experiment results. It concluded that the surface-body combination heat source model was fit for the temperature field simulation of deep penetration laser welding of the aluminum alloy canister structure. This method was proved to be an efficient way to predict the shape and dimension of welded joint for deep penetration laser welding of the aluminum alloy canister structure.

  7. Deep 20-GHz survey of the Chandra Deep Field South and SDSS Stripe 82: source catalogue and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Chhetri, Rajan; Ekers, Ronald D.; Mahony, Elizabeth K.; Murphy, Tara; Norris, Ray P.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Whittam, Imogen H.

    2014-04-01

    We present a source catalogue and first results from a deep, blind radio survey carried out at 20 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, with follow-up observations at 5.5, 9 and 18 GHz. The Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) deep pilot survey covers a total area of 5 deg2 in the Chandra Deep Field South and in Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We estimate the survey to be 90 per cent complete above 2.5 mJy. Of the 85 sources detected, 55 per cent have steep spectra (α _{1.4}^{20} law spectra between 1.4 and 18 GHz, while the spectral indices of the flat- or inverted-spectrum sources tend to steepen with frequency. Among the 18 inverted-spectrum (α _{1.4}^{20} ≥ 0.0) sources, 10 have clearly defined peaks in their spectra with α _{1.4}^{5.5} > 0.15 and α 9^{18} < -0.15. On a 3-yr time-scale, at least 10 sources varied by more than 15 per cent at 20 GHz, showing that variability is still common at the low flux densities probed by the AT20G-deep pilot survey. We find a strong and puzzling shift in the typical spectral index of the 15-20-GHz source population when combining data from the AT20G, Ninth Cambridge and Tenth Cambridge surveys: there is a shift towards a steeper-spectrum population when going from ˜1 Jy to ˜5 mJy, which is followed by a shift back towards a flatter-spectrum population below ˜5 mJy. The 5-GHz source-count model by Jackson & Wall, which only includes contributions from FRI and FRII sources, and star-forming galaxies, does not reproduce the observed flattening of the flat-spectrum counts below ˜5 mJy. It is therefore possible that another population of sources is contributing to this effect.

  8. Making Data Mobile: The Hubble Deep Field Academy iPad app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Cordes, K.; Davis, S.; Eisenhamer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Many school districts are purchasing iPads for educators and students to use as learning tools in the classroom. Educators often prefer these devices to desktop and laptop computers because they offer portability and an intuitive design, while having a larger screen size when compared to smart phones. As a result, we began investigating the potential of adapting online activities for use on Apple’s iPad to enhance the dissemination and usage of these activities in instructional settings while continuing to meet educators’ needs. As a pilot effort, we are developing an iPad app for the “Hubble Deep Field Academy” - an activity that is currently available online and commonly used by middle school educators. The Hubble Deep Field Academy app features the HDF-North image while centering on the theme of how scientists use light to explore and study the universe. It also includes features such as embedded links to vocabulary, images and videos, teacher background materials, and readings about Hubble’s other deep field surveys. It is our goal is to impact students’ engagement in STEM-related activities, while enhancing educators’ usage of NASA data via new and innovative mediums. We also hope to develop and share lessons learned with the E/PO community that can be used to support similar projects. We plan to test the Hubble Deep Field Academy app during the school year to determine if this new activity format is beneficial to the education community.

  9. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.;

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  10. Ultra-deep K-band Imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, G. B.; Marchesini, D.; Labbé, I.; Spitler, L.; Lange-Vagle, D.; Barker, E. A.; Tanaka, M.; Fontana, A.; Galametz, A.; Ferré-Mateu, A.; Kodama, T.; Lundgren, B.; Martis, N.; Muzzin, A.; Stefanon, M.; Toft, S.; van der Wel, A.; Vulcani, B.; Whitaker, K. E.

    2016-09-01

    We have recently completed a deep near-infrared imaging survey with the High Acuity Wide Field K-band Imager (HAWK-I), nicknamed KIFF (Ks-band Imaging of the Frontier Fields). KIFF provides ultra-deep images of six fields around massive galaxy clusters that have also recently been observed with the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes as part of the Frontier Fields programme. Each of the KIFF mosaics is among the deepest Ks-band images ever obtained, and, with a boost from strong gravitational lensing by the galaxy clusters, they will be used to reveal the stellar populations of galaxies seen only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Fully reduced images are made available to the community through the Phase 3 infrastructure of the ESO Science Archive Facility.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AKARI observations of SMC Cepheids (Ngeow+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeow, C.-C.; Citro, D. M.; Kanbur, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    The AKARI data used in this work is based on the SMC bright point source catalogue presented in Ita et al. (2010, Cat. J/PASJ/62/273). Photometry in 3.2um (N3, 12899 sources), 4.1um (N4, 9748 sources), 7um (S7, 1838 sources), 11um (S11, 1045 sources), 15um (L15, 479 sources) and 24um (L24, 356 sources) bands provided from the AKARI catalogue. This catalogue was matched to the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment III (OGLE-III) SMC fundamental mode (FU) Cepheid catalogue from Soszynski et al. (2010, Cat. J/AcA/60/17). (1 data file).

  12. Slow-scan Observations with the Infrared Camera (IRC) on-board AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Takita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Kawamura, Akiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka; Yamamura, Issei

    2012-01-01

    We present the characterization and calibration of the slow-scan observation mode of the Infrared Camera (IRC) on-board AKARI. The IRC slow-scan observations were operated at the S9W (9 $\\mu$m) and L18W (18 $\\mu$m) bands. We have developed a toolkit for data reduction of the IRC slow-scan observations. We introduced a "self-pointing reconstruction" method to improve the positional accuracy to as good as 1". The sizes of the point spread functions were derived to be $\\sim6"$ at the S9W band and $\\sim7"$ at the L18W bands in full width at half maximum. The flux calibrations were achieved with the observations of 3 and 4 infrared standard stars at the S9W and L18W bands, respectively. The flux uncertainties are estimated to be better than 20% from comparisons with the AKARI IRC PSC and the WISE preliminary catalog.

  13. AKARI and Spitzer observations of heavily obscured C-rich AGB/post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-Hernández, D A; Engels, D; Perea-Calderón, J V; García-Lario, P

    2009-01-01

    We present AKARI/IRC and Spitzer/IRS observations of a selected sample of galactic IRAS sources considered to be heavily obscured AGB/post-AGB stars based on their characteristic IRAS colours. All of them are completely invisible in the optical range but extremely bright in the infrared. Based on AKARI and Spitzer spectroscopy and using DUSTY we are able to determine the dominant chemistry of their circumstellar shells as well as the properties of the dust grains contained in these shells. Most of the sources are found to be C-rich (being the reddest C-rich stars observed so far). We find only molecular absorptions (and no PAH features) such as acetylene (C2H2) at 13.7 micron, indicative of an early post-AGB stage. We shortly discuss our findings in the context of stellar evolution during the hidden "transition phase" from AGB stars to Planetary Nebulae.

  14. The AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Salama, Alberto; Alfageme, Carlos; Cassatella, Angelo; Cox, Nick; Garcia-Lario, Pedro; Stephenson, Craig; Cohen, Martin; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kim, Woojung; Matsuhara, Hideo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Muller, Thomas G; Nakagawa, Takao; Ohyama, Youichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Sakon, Itsuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Takita, Satoshi; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumihiko; Wada, Takehiko; Watarai, Hiden ori; Yamamura, Issei; Yamauchi, Chisato

    2010-01-01

    Context : AKARI is the first Japanese astronomical satellite dedicated to infrar ed astronomy. One of the main purposes of AKARI is the all-sky survey performed with six infrared bands between 9 and 200um during the period from 2006 May 6 to 2007 August 28. In this paper, we present the mid-infrared part (9um and 18um b ands) of the survey carried out with one of the on-board instruments, the Infrar ed Camera (IRC). Aims : We present unprecedented observational results of the 9 and 18um AKARI al l-sky survey and detail the operation and data processing leading to the point s ource detection and measurements. Methods : The raw data are processed to produce small images for every scan and point sources candidates, above the 5-sigma noise level per single scan, are der ived. The celestial coordinates and fluxes of the events are determined statisti cally and the reliability of their detections is secured through multiple detect ions of the same source within milli-seconds, hours, and months from each other. Resu...

  15. Period-luminosity relations for Small Magellanic Cloud Cepheid based on AKARI archival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Citro, Danielle M.; Kanbur, Shashi M.

    2012-02-01

    In this work we matched the AKARI archival data to the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment III (OGLE-III) catalogue to derive the mid-infrared period-luminosity (PL) relations for Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Cepheids. Mismatched AKARI sources were eliminated using random-phase colours obtained from the full I-band light curves from OGLE-III. It was possible to derive PL relations in the N3 and N4 bands only, although the S7-, S11-, L15- and L24-band data were also tested. Random-phase correction was included when deriving the PL relation in the N3 and N4 bands using the available time of observations from AKARI data. The final adopted PL relations were N3 =-3.370 log P + 16.527 and N4 =-3.402 log P + 16.556. However, these PL relations may be biased due to the small number of Cepheids in the sample.

  16. Period-Luminosity Relations for Small Magellanic Cloud Cepheid Based on AKARI Archival Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M

    2011-01-01

    In this work we matched the AKARI archival data to the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment-III (OGLE-III) catalog to derive the mid-infrared period luminosity (PL) relations for Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Cepheids. Mismatched AKARI sources were eliminated using random-phase colors obtained from the full I-band light curves from OGLE-III. It was possible to derive PL relations in the N3 and N4 bands only, although the S7, S11, L15, and L24 band data were also tested. Random-phase correction was included when deriving the PL relation in the N3 and N4 bands using the available time of observations from AKARI data. The final adopted PL relations were: N3 = -3.370 logP + 16.527 and N4 = -3.402 logP + 16.556. However, these PL relations may be biased due to the small number of Cepheids in the sample.

  17. AcuA: the AKARI/IRC Mid-infrared Asteroid Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Usui, Fumihiko; Mueller, Thomas G; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Takita, Satoshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an unbiased asteroid survey in the mid-infrared wavelength with the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI. About 20% of the point source events recorded in the AKARI All-Sky Survey observations are not used for the IRC Point Source Catalog (IRC-PSC) in its production process because of the lack of multiple detection by position. Asteroids, which are moving objects on the celestial sphere, remain in these "residual events". We identify asteroids out of the residual events by matching them with the positions of known asteroids. For the identified asteroids, we calculate the size and albedo based on the Standard Thermal Model. Finally we have a brand-new catalog of asteroids, named the Asteroid Catalog Using Akari (AcuA), which contains 5,120 objects, about twice as many as the IRAS asteroid catalog. The catalog objects comprise 4,953 main belt asteroids, 58 near Earth asteroids, and 109 Jovian Trojan asteroids. The catalog will be publicly available via th...

  18. X-ray and infrared diagnostics of nearby active galactic nuclei with MAXI and AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Isobe, Naoki; Oyabu, Shinki; Nakagawa, Takao; Baba, Shunsuke; Yano, Kenichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Toba, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Nearby active galactic nuclei were diagnosed in the X-ray and mid-to-far infrared wavelengths, with Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) and the Japanese infrared observatory AKARI, respectively. Among the X-ray sources listed in the second release of the MAXI all-sky X-ray source catalog, 100 ones are currently identified as a non-blazar-type active galactic nucleus. These include 95 Seyfert galaxies and 5 quasars, and they are composed of 73 type-1 and 27 type-2 objects. The AKARI all-sky survey point source catalog was searched for their mid- and far-infrared counterparts at 9, 18, and 90 $\\mu$m. As a result, 69 Seyfert galaxies in the MAXI catalog (48 type-1 and 21 type-2 ones) were found to be detected with AKARI. The X-ray (3-4 keV and 4-10 keV) and infrared luminosities of these objects were investigated, together with their color information. Adopting the canonical photon index, $\\Gamma = 1.9$, of the intrinsic X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxies, the X-ray hardness ratio between the 3-4 and 4-10 ...

  19. The BMW Detection Algorithm applied to the Chandra Deep Field south deeper and deeper

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, A; Campana, S; Tagliaferri, G

    2002-01-01

    Chandra deep fields represent the deepest look at the X-ray sky. We analyzed the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) with the aid of a dedicated wavelet-based algorithm. Here we present a detailed description of the procedures used to analyze this field, tested and verified by means of extensive simulations. We show that we can safely reconstruct the LogN-Log S source distribution of the CDFS down to limiting fluxes of 2.4x10^-17 and 2.1x10^-16 erg s^-1 cm^-2 in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands, respectively, fainter by a factor ~ 2 than current estimates. At these levels we can account for ~ 90% of the 1-2 keV and 2-10 keV X-ray background.

  20. Large-scale fluctuations in the number density of galaxies in independent surveys of deep fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, S. I.; Lovyagin, N. Yu.; Baryshev, Yu. V.; Gorokhov, V. L.

    2016-06-01

    New arguments supporting the reality of large-scale fluctuations in the density of the visible matter in deep galaxy surveys are presented. A statistical analysis of the radial distributions of galaxies in the COSMOS and HDF-N deep fields is presented. Independent spectral and photometric surveys exist for each field, carried out in different wavelength ranges and using different observing methods. Catalogs of photometric redshifts in the optical (COSMOS-Zphot) and infrared (UltraVISTA) were used for the COSMOS field in the redshift interval 0.1 Pearson correlation coefficient for the fluctuations in the numbers of galaxies obtained for independent surveys of the same deep field reaches R = 0.70 ± 0.16. The presence of this positive correlation supports the reality of fluctuations in the density of visible matter with sizes of up to 1000 Mpc and amplitudes of up to 20% at redshifts z ~ 2. The absence of correlations between the fluctuations in different fields (the correlation coefficient between COSMOS and HDF-N is R = -0.20 ± 0.31) testifies to the independence of structures visible in different directions on the celestial sphere. This also indicates an absence of any influence from universal systematic errors (such as "spectral voids"), which could imitate the detection of correlated structures.

  1. Large-Scale Fluctuations in the Number Density of Galaxies in Independent Surveys of Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Shirokov, S I; Baryshev, Yu V; Gorokhov, V L

    2016-01-01

    New arguments supporting the reality of large-scale fluctuations in the density of the visible matter in deep galaxy surveys are presented. A statistical analysis of the radial distributions of galaxies in the COSMOS and HDF-N deep fields is presented. Independent spectral and photometric surveys exist for each field, carried out in different wavelength ranges and using different observing methods. Catalogs of photometric redshifts in the optical (COSMOS-Zphot) and infrared (UltraVISTA) were used for the COSMOS field in the redshift interval $0.1 < z < 3.5$, as well as the zCOSMOS (10kZ) spectroscopic survey and the XMM-COSMOS and ALHAMBRA-F4 photometric redshift surveys. The HDFN-Zphot and ALHAMBRA-F5 catalogs of photometric redshifts were used for the HDF-N field. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the fluctuations in the numbers of galaxies obtained for independent surveys of the same deep field reaches $R = 0.70 \\pm 0.16$. The presence of this positive correlation supports the reality of fluctu...

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: z~4-7 Lyman break galaxies in Hubble deep fields (Harikane+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikane, Y.; Ouchi, M.; Ono, Y.; More, S.; Saito, S.; Lin, Y.-T.; Coupon, J.; Shimasaku, K.; Shibuya, T.; Price, P. A.; Lin, L.; Hsieh, B.-C.; Ishigaki, M.; Komiyama, Y.; Silverman, J.; Takata, T.; Tamazawa, H.; Toshikawa, J.

    2016-07-01

    We use 10 deep optical-near-IR imaging data sets of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-North-Deep, GOODS-North-Wide, GOODS-South-Deep, GOODS-South-Wide, Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)-All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), CANDELS-Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS), CANDELS-Ultra Deep Survey (UDS), Hubble Frontier Field (HFF)-Abell2744P, and HFF-MACS0416P that are taken with ACS and WFC3 on the HST. The total area of the Hubble data is ~600arcmin2. The typical FWHMs of the PSFs of ACS and WFC3 images are 0.1" and 0.2", respectively. (1 data file).

  3. Learning Depth from Single Monocular Images Using Deep Convolutional Neural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fayao; Shen, Chunhua; Lin, Guosheng; Reid, Ian

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we tackle the problem of depth estimation from single monocular images. Compared with depth estimation using multiple images such as stereo depth perception, depth from monocular images is much more challenging. Prior work typically focuses on exploiting geometric priors or additional sources of information, most using hand-crafted features. Recently, there is mounting evidence that features from deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) set new records for various vision applications. On the other hand, considering the continuous characteristic of the depth values, depth estimation can be naturally formulated as a continuous conditional random field (CRF) learning problem. Therefore, here we present a deep convolutional neural field model for estimating depths from single monocular images, aiming to jointly explore the capacity of deep CNN and continuous CRF. In particular, we propose a deep structured learning scheme which learns the unary and pairwise potentials of continuous CRF in a unified deep CNN framework. We then further propose an equally effective model based on fully convolutional networks and a novel superpixel pooling method, which is about 10 times faster, to speedup the patch-wise convolutions in the deep model. With this more efficient model, we are able to design deeper networks to pursue better performance. Our proposed method can be used for depth estimation of general scenes with no geometric priors nor any extra information injected. In our case, the integral of the partition function can be calculated in a closed form such that we can exactly solve the log-likelihood maximization. Moreover, solving the inference problem for predicting depths of a test image is highly efficient as closed-form solutions exist. Experiments on both indoor and outdoor scene datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art depth estimation approaches.

  4. Learning Depth from Single Monocular Images Using Deep Convolutional Neural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fayao; Shen, Chunhua; Lin, Guosheng; Reid, Ian

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we tackle the problem of depth estimation from single monocular images. Compared with depth estimation using multiple images such as stereo depth perception, depth from monocular images is much more challenging. Prior work typically focuses on exploiting geometric priors or additional sources of information, most using hand-crafted features. Recently, there is mounting evidence that features from deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) set new records for various vision applications. On the other hand, considering the continuous characteristic of the depth values, depth estimation can be naturally formulated as a continuous conditional random field (CRF) learning problem. Therefore, here we present a deep convolutional neural field model for estimating depths from single monocular images, aiming to jointly explore the capacity of deep CNN and continuous CRF. In particular, we propose a deep structured learning scheme which learns the unary and pairwise potentials of continuous CRF in a unified deep CNN framework. We then further propose an equally effective model based on fully convolutional networks and a novel superpixel pooling method, which is about 10 times faster, to speedup the patch-wise convolutions in the deep model. With this more efficient model, we are able to design deeper networks to pursue better performance. Our proposed method can be used for depth estimation of general scenes with no geometric priors nor any extra information injected. In our case, the integral of the partition function can be calculated in a closed form such that we can exactly solve the log-likelihood maximization. Moreover, solving the inference problem for predicting depths of a test image is highly efficient as closed-form solutions exist. Experiments on both indoor and outdoor scene datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art depth estimation approaches. PMID:26660697

  5. The GISMO two-millimeter deep field in GOODS-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staguhn, Johannes G. [The Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kovács, Attila [California Institute of Technology 301-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Dwek, Eli; Fixsen, Dale J.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Sharp, Elmer H.; Wollack, Edward J. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Karim, Alexander [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Leclercq, Samuel [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2014-07-20

    We present deep continuum observations using the GISMO camera at a wavelength of 2 mm centered on the Hubble Deep Field in the GOODS-N field. These are the first deep field observations ever obtained at this wavelength. The 1σ sensitivity in the innermost ∼4' of the 7' diameter map is ∼135 μJy beam{sup –1}, a factor of three higher in flux/beam sensitivity than the deepest available SCUBA 850 μm observations, and almost a factor of four higher in flux/beam sensitivity than the combined MAMBO/AzTEC 1.2 mm observations of this region. Our source extraction algorithm identifies 12 sources directly, and another 3 through correlation with known sources at 1.2 mm and 850 μm. Five of the directly detected GISMO sources have counterparts in the MAMBO/AzTEC catalog, and four of those also have SCUBA counterparts. HDF850.1, one of the first blank-field detected submillimeter galaxies, is now detected at 2 mm. The median redshift of all sources with counterparts of known redshifts is z-tilde =2.91±0.94. Statistically, the detections are most likely real for five of the seven 2 mm sources without shorter wavelength counterparts, while the probability for none of them being real is negligible.

  6. The formation mechanism of high-quality dolomite reservoir in the deep of Puguang Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of Puguang Gas Field provides the exploration of China deep marine carbonate rock with important references.In Puguang Gas Field,the dolomite reservoirs discovered in the deep are the best in the present of China,which present big thickness and wide-range distribution,and develop abundant secondary porosity.The researches show that Puguang Gas Field bears the characteristics of early gas-filling time,deep burial,high matured organic matter and long-term interaction of hydrocarbon(oil and gas)-water-rock(carbonate reservoir).The developments of secondary pores in this area are affected by multiple diagenesis and their formation mechanisms are complicated.Through the research on depositional environment,sedimentary facies and reservoir porosity characters of Changxing and Feixianguan Formations,it is thought that high-quality dolomite reservoirs of Puguang Gas Field form on the favorable sedimentary facies belts,which are the integrate result affected by several factors including superficial corrosion,burial corrosion,overpressure and tectonic movement,among which burial corrosion of TSR to reservoir and overpressure formed by thermal evolution of organic matter have great effect on the formation of secondary porosity of Changxing and Feixianguan Formations.

  7. Modeling of the Zodiacal Emission for the AKARI/IRC Mid-infrared All-sky Diffuse Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toru; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Takaba, Sachi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Onaka, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The zodiacal emission, which is the thermal infrared (IR) emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) in our solar system, has been studied for a long time. Nevertheless, accurate modeling of the zodiacal emission has not been successful to reproduce the all-sky spatial distribution of the zodiacal emission, especially in the mid-IR where the zodiacal emission peaks. Therefore, we aim to improve the IPD cloud model based on Kelsall et al., using the AKARI 9 and 18 μm all-sky diffuse maps. By adopting a new fitting method based on the total brightness, we have succeeded in reducing the residual levels after subtraction of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI data and thus in improving the modeling of the zodiacal emission. Comparing the AKARI and the COBE data, we confirm that the changes from the previous model to our new model are mostly due to model improvements, but not temporal variations between the AKARI and the COBE epoch, except for the position of the Earth-trailing blob. Our results suggest that the size of the smooth cloud, a dominant component in the model, is about 10% more compact than previously thought, and that the dust sizes are not large enough to emit blackbody radiation in the mid-IR. Furthermore, we detect a significant isotropically distributed IPD component, owing to an accurate baseline measurement with AKARI.

  8. MODELING OF THE ZODIACAL EMISSION FOR THE AKARI/IRC MID-INFRARED ALL-SKY DIFFUSE MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Toru; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Takaba, Sachi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Onaka, Takashi, E-mail: kondo@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ishihara@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The zodiacal emission, which is the thermal infrared (IR) emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) in our solar system, has been studied for a long time. Nevertheless, accurate modeling of the zodiacal emission has not been successful to reproduce the all-sky spatial distribution of the zodiacal emission, especially in the mid-IR where the zodiacal emission peaks. Therefore, we aim to improve the IPD cloud model based on Kelsall et al., using the AKARI 9 and 18 μm all-sky diffuse maps. By adopting a new fitting method based on the total brightness, we have succeeded in reducing the residual levels after subtraction of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI data and thus in improving the modeling of the zodiacal emission. Comparing the AKARI and the COBE data, we confirm that the changes from the previous model to our new model are mostly due to model improvements, but not temporal variations between the AKARI and the COBE epoch, except for the position of the Earth-trailing blob. Our results suggest that the size of the smooth cloud, a dominant component in the model, is about 10% more compact than previously thought, and that the dust sizes are not large enough to emit blackbody radiation in the mid-IR. Furthermore, we detect a significant isotropically distributed IPD component, owing to an accurate baseline measurement with AKARI.

  9. Morphological Number Counts of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M G; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Narae

    2000-01-01

    We present a study of photometric properties of the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) based on the released WFPC2 images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have classified about 340 galaxies with $I<26$ mag in the HDFS as well as about 400 galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN) using the visual classification supplemented by inspection of the surface brightness profiles of the galaxies. Galaxy population statistics and morphological number counts for the HDFS are found to be similar to be those for the HDFN. We have also determined photometrically the redshifts of the galaxies with $I<26$ mag in the HDFS and the HDFN using the empirical training set method. Redshift distribution, color-redshift relation, and magnitude-redshift for each type of galaxies are investigated.

  10. New Constraints on Cosmic Reionization from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Brant E; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Ellis, Richard S; Stark, Daniel P; McLure, Ross J; Dunlop, James S; Koekemoer, Anton; Schenker, Matthew A; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Rogers, Alexander B; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Understanding cosmic reionization requires the identification and characterization of early sources of hydrogen-ionizing photons. The 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign has acquired the deepest infrared images with the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard Hubble Space Telescope and, for the first time, systematically explored the galaxy population deep into the era when cosmic microwave background (CMB) data indicates reionization was underway. The UDF12 campaign thus provides the best constraints to date on the abundance, luminosity distribution, and spectral properties of early star-forming galaxies. We synthesize the new UDF12 results with the most recent constraints from CMB observations to infer redshift-dependent ultraviolet (UV) luminosity densities, reionization histories, and electron scattering optical depth evolution consistent with the available data. Under reasonable assumptions about the escape fraction of hydrogen ionizing photons and the intergalactic medium clumping factor, we find that to f...

  11. Field-reversed bubble in deep plasma channels for high quality electron acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhov, A; Tueckmantel, T; Thomas, J; Kostyukov, I Yu

    2014-01-01

    We study hollow plasma channels with smooth boundaries for laser-driven electron acceleration in the bubble regime. Contrary to the uniform plasma case, the laser forms no optical shock and no etching at the front. This increases the effective bubble phase velocity and energy gain. The longitudinal field has a plateau that allows for mono-energetic acceleration. We observe as low as 10^{-3} r.m.s. relative witness beam energy uncertainty in each cross-section and 0.3% total energy spread. By varying plasma density profile inside a deep channel, the bubble fields can be adjusted to balance the laser depletion and dephasing lengths. Bubble scaling laws for the deep channel are derived. Ultra-short pancake-like laser pulses lead to the highest energies of accelerated electrons per Joule of laser pulse energy.

  12. AKARI Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Observations of Interstellar Ices in Edge-on Starburst Galaxy NGC253

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Onaka, Takashi; Shimonishi, Takashi; Suzuki, Toyoaki

    2011-01-01

    We present the spatially-resolved near-infrared (2.5-5.0 um) spectra of the edge-on starburst galaxy NGC253 obtained with the Infrared Camera onboard AKARI. Near the center of the galaxy, we clearly detect the absorption features of interstellar ices (H_2O: 3.05 um, CO_2: 4.27 um, and XCN: 4.62 um) and the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 3.29 um and hydrogen recombination line Br alpha at 4.05 um. We find that the distributions of the ices differ from those of the PAH and gas. We calculate the column densities of the ices and derive the abundance ratios of N(CO_2)/N(H_2O) = 0.17 +- 0.05. They are similar to those obtained around the massive young stellar objects in our Galaxy (0.17 +- 0.03), although much stronger interstellar radiation field and higher dust temperature are expected near the center of NGC253.

  13. The Evolution of Barred Spiral Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Fields North and South

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, R. G.; Merrifield, M. R.; Ellis, R. S.; Tanvir, N.; Brinchmann, J.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of barred spiral galaxies as a function of redshift contains important information on the gravitational influence of stellar disks in their dark matter halos and also may distinguish between contemporary theories for the origin of galactic bulges. In this paper we present a new quantitative method for determining the strength of barred spiral structure, and verify its robustness to redshift-dependent effects. By combining galaxy samples from the Hubble Deep Field North with newl...

  14. Numerical simulation of temperature distribution of deep field in high temperature mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-guang; TANG Li-juan; XU Yi-hong

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the temperature distribution of deep field, mathematical models of temperature field in field and surrounding rock were built based on heat transfer and seepage theory. Combined test data with mathematical model, the temperature distribution under heat-transfer and underground-water coupling was studied by using Golden Software Surfer and Matlab. The results show that distribution law of most isothermal lines is very similar in deep field, and temperature gradient is equal in general. At the same time,temperature distribution is influenced by underground-water and fault. In surrounding rock,seepage changes symmetrical distribution of temperature field and vector, and the temperature field may divide into inward-diffusion area and outward-diffusion area. Peripheral temperature of working will approach to the temperature of airflow. In inward diffusion area,the distribution of temperature and temperature vector is symmetric, and the direction of temperature vector point to the center of working. The action of airflow is stronger than seepage in inward diffusion area, however, the case opposite is true in outward diffusion area.

  15. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Corral, A; Comastri, A; Ranalli, P; Akylas, A; Salvato, M; Lanzuisi, G; Vignali, C; Koutoulidis, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra Deep Field South. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields. In that work, we only found a moderate percentage ($<$ 50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample, but we were limited by poor photon statistics. In this paper, we use not only a deeper 6 Ms Chandra survey of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), but combine these data with the 3 Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (but only 3 could be CT AGN), wherea...

  16. Galaxy clusters in the CFHTLS. First matched filter candidate catalogue of the Deep fields

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, L F; Cappi, A; Maurogordato, S; Mazure, A; Slezak, E; Adami, C; Ferrari, C; Martel, F

    2006-01-01

    We apply a matched-filter cluster detection algorithm to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) i-band data for the Deep-1, Deep-2, Deep-3 and Deep-4 fields covering a total of 4square degrees. To test the implemented procedure we carry out simulations for assessing the frequency of noise peaks as well as estimate the recovery efficiency. We estimate that up to z~0.7 the catalogue is essentially complete for clusters of richness class R>~1. The recovered redshifts are in general overestimated by dz=0.1 with a scatter of sigma_dz~0.1, except at redshifts z>~1 where the estimated redshifts are systematically underestimated. The constructed cluster candidate catalogue contains 162 detections over an effective area of 3.112 square degrees corresponding to a density of ~52.1 per square degree. The median estimated redshift of the candidates is z=0.6. The estimated noise frequency is 16.9+-5.4 detections per square degree. From visual inspection we identify systems that show a clear concentration...

  17. Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a collaborative

  18. Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

    2011-10-01

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a

  19. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.;

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...

  20. Redshifts of Emission Line Objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, C; Malhotra, S; Rhoads, J E; Mobasher, B; Daddi, E; Gronwall, C; Hathi, N P; Panagia, N; Ferguson, H C; Koekemoer, A M; Kümmel, M; Moustakas, L A; Pasquali, A; Alighieri, S S; Vernet, J; Walsh, J R; Windhorst, R; Yan, H; Xu, Chun; Pirzkal, Norbert; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Mobasher, Bahram; Daddi, Emanuele; Gronwall, Caryl; Hathi, Nimish P.; Panagia, Nino; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kuemmel, Martin; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Pasquali, Anna; Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Vernet, Joel; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Windhorst, Rogier; Yan, Haojing

    2007-01-01

    We present redshifts for 115 emission line objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) identified through the GRism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) project using the slitless grism spectroscopy mode of the ACS Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The sample was selected by an emission line search on all extracted 1-dimensional GRAPES spectra. We identify the emission lines using line wavelength ratios where multiple lines are detected in the grism wavelength range (5800A 25 mag). Such emission lines would likely remain undiscovered without our deep survey. The emission line objects fall into 3 categories: 1) Most are low to moderate redshift galaxies (0 < z < 2), including many actively star forming galaxies with strong HII regions; 2) 9 are high redshift (4 < z < 7) Lyman-alpha emitters; and 3) at least 3 are candidate AGNs.

  1. The MUSE 3D view of the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, R; Richard, J; Contini, T; Drake, A; Franx, M; Tacchella, S; Vernet, J; Wisotzki, L; Blaizot, J; Bouché, N; Bouwens, R; Cantalupo, S; Carollo, C M; Carton, D; Caruana, J; Clément, B; Dreizler, S; Epinat, B; Guiderdoni, B; Herenz, C; Husser, T -O; Kamann, S; Kerutt, J; Kollatschny, W; Krajnovic, D; Lilly, S; Martinsson, T; Michel-Dansac, L; Patricio, V; Schaye, J; Shirazi, M; Soto, K; Soucail, G; Steinmetz, M; Urrutia, T; Weilbacher, P; de Zeeuw, T

    2014-01-01

    We observed the Hubble Deep Field South with the new panoramic integral field spectrograph MUSE that we built and just commissioned at the VLT. The data cube resulting from 27 hours of integration covers one arcmin^2 field of view at an unprecedented depth with a 1 sigma emission line surface brightness limit of 1x$10^{-19}$ erg/s/cm$^2$/arcsec$^2$ and contains ~90,000 spectra. We present the combined and calibrated data cube, and we perform a first-pass analysis of the sources detected in the HDF-S imaging. We measured the redshifts of 189 sources up to a magnitude F814W = 29.5, increasing by more than an order of magnitude the number of known spectroscopic redshifts in this field. We also discovered 26 Lya emitting galaxies which are not detected in the HST WFPC2 deep broad band images. The intermediate spectral resolution of 2.3{\\AA} allows us to separate resolved asymmetric Lya emitters, [O II] emitters, and C III] emitters and the large instantaneous wavelength range of 4500{\\AA} helps to identify single...

  2. Ultra-deep K S-band Imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Marchesini, Danilo; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Barker, Elizbeth A.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lundgren, Britt; Martis, Nicholas; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro; Toft, Sune; van der Wel, Arjen; Vulcani, Benedetta; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-09-01

    We present an overview of the “KIFF” project, which provides ultra-deep K s -band imaging of all six of the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters, Abell 2744, MACS-0416, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS-0717, and MACS-1149. All of these fields have recently been observed with large allocations of Directors’ Discretionary Time with the Hubble and Spitzer telescopes, covering 0.4\\lt λ \\lt 1.6 μ {{m}} and 3.6–4.5 μ {{m}}, respectively. VLT/HAWK-I integrations of the first four fields reach 5σ limiting depths of {K}s∼ 26.0 (AB, point sources) and have excellent image quality (FWHM ∼ 0.″4). The MACS-0717 and MACS-1149 fields are observable from the northern hemisphere, and shorter Keck/MOSFIRE integrations on those fields reach limiting depths of K s = 25.5 and 25.1, with a seeing FWHM of ∼ 0.″4 and 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5. In all cases the K s -band mosaics cover the primary cluster and parallel HST/ACS+WFC3 fields. The total area of the K s -band coverage is 490 arcmin2. The K s -band at 2.2 μ {{m}} crucially fills the gap between the reddest HST filter (1.6 μ {{m}} ∼ H band) and the IRAC 3.6 μ {{m}} passband. While reaching the full depths of the space-based imaging is not currently feasible from the ground, the deep K s -band images provide important constraints on both the redshifts and the stellar population properties of galaxies extending well below the characteristic stellar mass across most of the age of the universe, down to and including the redshifts of the targeted galaxy clusters (z≲ 0.5). Reduced, aligned mosaics of all six survey fields are provided.

  3. Ultra-deep K S-band Imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Marchesini, Danilo; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Barker, Elizbeth A.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lundgren, Britt; Martis, Nicholas; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro; Toft, Sune; van der Wel, Arjen; Vulcani, Benedetta; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-09-01

    We present an overview of the “KIFF” project, which provides ultra-deep K s -band imaging of all six of the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters, Abell 2744, MACS-0416, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS-0717, and MACS-1149. All of these fields have recently been observed with large allocations of Directors’ Discretionary Time with the Hubble and Spitzer telescopes, covering 0.4\\lt λ \\lt 1.6 μ {{m}} and 3.6-4.5 μ {{m}}, respectively. VLT/HAWK-I integrations of the first four fields reach 5σ limiting depths of {K}s˜ 26.0 (AB, point sources) and have excellent image quality (FWHM ˜ 0.″4). The MACS-0717 and MACS-1149 fields are observable from the northern hemisphere, and shorter Keck/MOSFIRE integrations on those fields reach limiting depths of K s = 25.5 and 25.1, with a seeing FWHM of ˜ 0.″4 and 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5. In all cases the K s -band mosaics cover the primary cluster and parallel HST/ACS+WFC3 fields. The total area of the K s -band coverage is 490 arcmin2. The K s -band at 2.2 μ {{m}} crucially fills the gap between the reddest HST filter (1.6 μ {{m}} ˜ H band) and the IRAC 3.6 μ {{m}} passband. While reaching the full depths of the space-based imaging is not currently feasible from the ground, the deep K s -band images provide important constraints on both the redshifts and the stellar population properties of galaxies extending well below the characteristic stellar mass across most of the age of the universe, down to and including the redshifts of the targeted galaxy clusters (z≲ 0.5). Reduced, aligned mosaics of all six survey fields are provided.

  4. The MUSE 3D view of the Hubble Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Drake, A.; Franx, M.; Tacchella, S.; Vernet, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Blaizot, J.; Bouché, N.; Bouwens, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Carton, D.; Caruana, J.; Clément, B.; Dreizler, S.; Epinat, B.; Guiderdoni, B.; Herenz, C.; Husser, T.-O.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnovic, D.; Lilly, S.; Martinsson, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Patricio, V.; Schaye, J.; Shirazi, M.; Soto, K.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Urrutia, T.; Weilbacher, P.; de Zeeuw, T.

    2015-03-01

    We observed Hubble Deep Field South with the new panoramic integral-field spectrograph MUSE that we built and have just commissioned at the VLT. The data cube resulting from 27 h of integration covers one arcmin2 field of view at an unprecedented depth with a 1σ emission-line surface brightness limit of 1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2, and contains ~90 000 spectra. We present the combined and calibrated data cube, and we performed a first-pass analysis of the sources detected in the Hubble Deep Field South imaging. We measured the redshifts of 189 sources up to a magnitude I814 = 29.5, increasing the number of known spectroscopic redshifts in this field by more than an order of magnitude. We also discovered 26 Lyα emitting galaxies that are not detected in the HST WFPC2 deep broad-band images. The intermediate spectral resolution of 2.3 Å allows us to separate resolved asymmetric Lyα emitters, [O ii]3727 emitters, and C iii]1908 emitters, and the broad instantaneous wavelength range of 4500 Å helps to identify single emission lines, such as [O iii]5007, Hβ, and Hα, over a very wide redshift range. We also show how the three-dimensional information of MUSE helps to resolve sources that are confused at ground-based image quality. Overall, secure identifications are provided for 83% of the 227 emission line sources detected in the MUSE data cube and for 32% of the 586 sources identified in the HST catalogue. The overall redshift distribution is fairly flat to z = 6.3, with a reduction between z = 1.5 to 2.9, in the well-known redshift desert. The field of view of MUSE also allowed us to detect 17 groups within the field. We checked that the number counts of [O ii]3727 and Lyα emitters are roughly consistent with predictions from the literature. Using two examples, we demonstrate that MUSE is able to provide exquisite spatially resolved spectroscopic information on the intermediate-redshift galaxies present in the field. Thisunique data set can be used for a

  5. CANDELS MULTIWAVELENGTH CATALOGS: SOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND PHOTOMETRY IN THE CANDELS UKIDSS ULTRA-DEEP SURVEY FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galametz, Audrey; Grazian, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, I-00040, Monteporzio (Italy); Ferguson, Henry C.; Dahlen, Tomas; Grogin, Norman; Huang, Kuang-Han; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandy M.; Guo, Yicheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Donley, Jennifer L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME (United States); Peth, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Almaini, Omar, E-mail: audrey.galametz@oa-roma.inaf.it [The School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Collaboration: CANDELS team; and others

    2013-06-01

    We present the multiwavelength-ultraviolet to mid-infrared-catalog of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra-Deep Survey field observed as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). Based on publicly available data, the catalog includes the CANDELS data from the Hubble Space Telescope (near-infrared WFC3 F125W and F160W data and visible ACS F606W and F814W data); u-band data from CFHT/Megacam; B, V, R{sub c} , i', and z' band data from Subaru/Suprime-Cam; Y and K{sub s} band data from VLT/HAWK-I; J, H, and K band data from UKIDSS (Data Release 8); and Spitzer/IRAC data (3.6, 4.5 {mu}m from SEDS; 5.8 and 8.0 {mu}m from SpUDS). The present catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35, 932 sources over an area of 201.7 arcmin{sup 2} and includes radio- and X-ray-detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources.

  6. X-ray spectral properties of AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South

    OpenAIRE

    Tozzi, P.; Gilli, R.; Mainieri, V.; C. Norman(JHU, Baltimore, USA); Risaliti, G.; Rosati, P.; Bergeron, J.; Borgani, S.; Giacconi, R.; Hasinger, G.; Nonino, M.; Streblyanska, A.; Szokoly, G.; Wang, J X; Zheng, W.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed X-ray spectral analysis of the sources in the 1Ms catalog of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) taking advantage of optical spectroscopy and photometric redshifts for 321 sources. As a default spectral model, we adopt a power law with slope Gamma with an intrinsic redshifted absorption N_H, a fixed Galactic absorption and an unresolved Fe emission line. For 82 X-ray bright sources, we perform the X-ray spectral analysis leaving both Gamma and N_H free. The weighted mean...

  7. Meeting the flow assurance challenges of deep water developments - from CAPEX development to field start up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M.M.; Feasey, N.D. [National Aluminium Company Ltd. (Nalco), Cheshire (United Kingdom); Afonso, M.; Silva, D. [NALCO Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As oil accumulations in easily accessible locations around the world become less available developments in deeper water become a more common target for field development. Deep water projects, particularly sub sea development, present a host of challenges in terms of flow assurance and integrity. In this paper the focus will be on the chemical control of flow assurance challenges in hydrate control, scale control and wax/asphaltene control within deep water (>750 meter) developments. The opportunities for kinetic hydrate control vs. conventional thermodynamic hydrate control will be outlined with examples of where these technologies have been applied and the limitations that still exist. The development of scale control chemical formulations specifically for sub sea application and the challenges of monitoring such control programs will be highlighted with developments in real time and near real time monitoring. Organic deposit control (wax/asphaltene) will focus on the development of new chemicals that have higher activity but lower viscosity than currently used chemicals hence allowing deployment at colder temperatures and over longer distances. The factors that need to be taken into account when selecting chemicals for deep water application will be highlighted. Fluid viscosity, impact of hydrostatic head on injectivity, product stability at low temperature and interaction with other production chemicals will be reviewed as they pertain to effective flow assurance. This paper brings learning from other deep water basins with examples from the Gulf of Mexico, West Africa and Brazil, which will be used to highlight these challenges and some of the solutions currently available along with the technology gaps that exist. (author)

  8. The WIRCam Deep Survey I: Counts, colours and mass-functions derived from near-infrared imaging in the CFHTLS Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bielby, R; McCracken, H J; Ilbert, O; Daddi, E; Fèvre, O Le; Gonzalez-Perez, V; Kneib, J -P; Marmo, C; Mellier, Y; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Willott, C J

    2011-01-01

    We present a new near-infrared imaging survey in the four CFHTLS deep fields: the WIRCam Deep Survey or "WIRDS". WIRDS comprises extremely deep, high quality (FWHM \\approx 0.6") J, H and Ks imaging covering a total effective area of 2.1 square degrees and reaching AB 50% completeness limits of \\approx 24.5. We combine our images with the CFHTLS to create a unique eight-band ugrizJHKS photometric catalogues in the four CFHTLS deep fields; these four separate fields allow us to make a robust estimate of the effect of cosmic variance for all our measurements. We use these catalogues in combination with \\approx 9,800 spectroscopic redshifts to estimate precise photometric redshifts ({\\sigma} < 0.03), galaxy types, star-formation rates and stellar masses for a unique sample of \\approx 1.8 million galaxies. Our JHKs number counts are consistent with previous studies. We apply the "BzK" selection to our gzK filter set and find that the star forming BzK selection successfully selects 76% of star-forming galaxies i...

  9. MUSE Deep-Fields: The Lya Luminosity Function in the Hubble Deep Field South at 2.91 < z < 6.64

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Alyssa B; Blaizot, Jeremy; Wisotzki, Lutz; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Garel, Thibault; Richard, Johan; Bacon, Roland; Bina, David; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Contini, Thierry; Brock, Mark den; Hashimoto, Takuya; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Pello, Roser; Schaye, Joop; Schmidt, Kasper B

    2016-01-01

    We present the first estimate of the Ly{\\alpha} luminosity function using blind spectroscopy from the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer, MUSE, in the Hubble Deep Field South. Using automatic source-detection software, we assemble a homogeneously-detected sample of 59 Ly{\\alpha} emitters covering a flux range of -18.0 < log10 (F) < -16.3 (erg s^-1 cm^-2), corresponding to luminosities of 41.4 < log10 (L) < 42.8 (erg s^-1). As recent studies have shown, Ly{\\alpha} fluxes can be underestimated by a factor of two or more via traditional methods, and so we undertake a careful assessment of each object's Ly{\\alpha} flux using a curve-of-growth analysis to account for extended emission. We describe our self-consistent method for determining the completeness of the sample, and present an estimate of the global Ly{\\alpha} luminosity function between redshifts 2.91 < z < 6.64 using the 1/Vmax estimator. We find the luminosity function is higher than many number densities reported in the literature by ...

  10. Deep probing of the photospheric sunspot penumbra: no evidence for magnetic field-free gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M; Collados, M; Schlichenmaier, R; Balthasar, H; Franz, M; Rezaei, R; Kiess, C; Suarez, D Orozco; Pastor, A; Berkefeld, T; von der Luehe, O; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sigwarth, M; Soltau, D; Volkmer, R; Waldmann, T; Denker, C; Hofmann, A; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Feller, A; Lagg, A; Solanki, S K; Sobotka, M; Nicklas, H

    2016-01-01

    Some models for the topology of the magnetic field in sunspot penumbrae predict the existence of field-free or dynamically weak-field regions in the deep Photosphere. To confirm or rule out the existence of weak-field regions in the deepest photospheric layers of the penumbra. The magnetic field at $\\log\\tau_5=0$ is investigated by means of inversions of spectropolarimetric data of two different sunspots located very close to disk center with a spatial resolution of approximately 0.4-0.45 arcsec. The data have been recorded using the GRIS instrument attached to the 1.5-meters GREGOR solar telescope at El Teide observatory. It includes three Fe I lines around 1565 nm, whose sensitivity to the magnetic field peaks at half a pressure-scale-height deeper than the sensitivity of the widely used Fe I spectral line pair at 630 nm. Prior to the inversion, the data is corrected for the effects of scattered light using a deconvolution method with several point spread functions. At $\\log\\tau_5=0$ we find no evidence for...

  11. Modeling of the zodiacal emission for the AKARI/IRC mid-infrared all-sky diffuse maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, T; Kaneda, H; Nakamichi, K; Takaba, S; Kobayashi, H; Ootsubo, T; Pyo, J; Onaka, T

    2016-01-01

    The zodiacal emission, which is the thermal infrared (IR) emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) in our Solar System, has been studied for a long time. Nevertheless, accurate modeling of the zodiacal emission has not been successful to reproduce the all-sky spatial distribution of the zodiacal emission, especially in the mid-IR where the zodiacal emission peaks. We therefore aim to improve the IPD cloud model based on Kelsall et al. 1998, using the AKARI 9 and 18 micron all-sky diffuse maps. By adopting a new fitting method based on the total brightness, we have succeeded in reducing the residual levels after subtraction of the zodiacal emission from the AKARI data and thus in improving the modeling of the zodiacal emission. Comparing the AKARI and the COBE data, we confirm that the changes from the previous model to our new model are mostly due to model improvements, but not temporal variations between the AKARI and the COBE epoch, except for the position of the Earth-trailing blob. Our results suggest ...

  12. Interstellar dust properties of M51 from AKARI mid-infrared images

    CERN Document Server

    Egusa, Fumi; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Arimatsu, Ko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Using mid-infrared (MIR) images of four photometric bands of the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard the AKARI satellite, S7 (7 um), S11 (11 um), L15 (15 um), and L24 (24 um), we investigate the interstellar dust properties of the nearby pair of galaxies M51 with respect to its spiral arm structure. The arm and interarm regions being defined based on a spatially filtered stellar component model image, we measure the arm-to-interarm contrast for each band. The contrast is lowest in the S11 image, which is interpreted as that among the four AKARI MIR bands the S11 image best correlates with the spatial distribution of dust grains including colder components, while the L24 image with the highest contrast traces warmer dust heated by star forming activities. The surface brightness ratio between the bands, i.e. color, is measured over the disk of the main galaxy, M51a, at 300 pc resolution. We find that the distribution of S7/S11 is smooth and well traces the global spiral arm pattern while L15/S11 and L24/S11 peak at i...

  13. Faint warm debris disks around nearby bright stars explored by AKARI and IRSF

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Onaka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Debris disks are important observational clues for understanding planetary-system formation process. In particular, faint warm debris disks may be related to late planet formation near 1 AU. A systematic search of faint warm debris disks is necessary to reveal terrestrial planet formation. Aims: Faint warm debris disks show excess emission that peaks at mid-IR wavelengths. Thus we explore debris disks using the AKARI mid-IR all-sky point source catalog (PSC), a product of the second generation unbiased IR all-sky survey. Methods : We investigate IR excess emission for 678 isolated main-sequence stars for which there are 18 micron detections in the AKARI mid-IR all-sky catalog by comparing their fluxes with the predicted fluxes of the photospheres based on optical to near-IR fluxes and model spectra. The near-IR fluxes are first taken from the 2MASS PSC. However, 286 stars with Ks<4.5 in our sample have large flux errors in the 2MASS photometry due to saturation. Thus we have measured accurate J, H...

  14. AKARI/FIS Mapping of the ISM-Wind Bow Shock around Alpha Ori

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, Toshiya; Yamamura, Issei; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Mikako; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Fukushi, Hinako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    We present 10' x 50' scan maps around an M supergiant Alpha Ori at 65, 90, 140 and 160 microns obtained with the AKARI Infrared Astronomy Satellite. Higher spatial resolution data with the exact analytic solution permit us to fit the de-projected shape of the stellar wind bow shock around Alpha Ori to have the stand-off distance of 4.8', position angle of 55 degrees and inclination angle of 56 degrees. The shape of the bow shock suggests that the peculiar velocity of Alpha Ori with respect to the local medium is v_* = 40 (n_H)^(-1/2), where n_H is the hydrogen nucleus density at Alpha Ori. We find that the local medium is of n_H = 1.5 to 1.9 cm^(-3) and the velocity of the local flow is at 11 km s^(-1) by using the most recent astrometric solutions for Alpha Ori under the assumption that the local medium is moving away from the Orion OB 1 association. AKARI images may also reveal a vortex ring due to instabilities on the surface of the bow shock as demonstrated by numerical models. This research exemplifies t...

  15. AKARI Infrared Camera Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. Point Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Daisuke; Onaka, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Shimonishi, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawamura, Akiko; Wada, Takehiko; Usui, Fumihiko; Koo, Bon-Chul; Matsuura, Mikako; Takahashi, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    We present a near- to mid-infrared point source catalog of 5 photometric bands at 3.2, 7, 11, 15 and 24 um for a 10 deg2 area of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard the AKARI satellite. To cover the survey area the observations were carried out at 3 separate seasons from 2006 May to June, 2006 October to December, and 2007 March to July. The 10-sigma limiting magnitudes of the present survey are 17.9, 13.8, 12.4, 9.9, and 8.6 mag at 3.2, 7, 11, 15 and 24 um, respectively. The photometric accuracy is estimated to be about 0.1 mag at 3.2 um and 0.06--0.07 mag in the other bands. The position accuracy is 0.3" at 3.2, 7 and 11um and 1.0" at 15 and 24 um. The sensitivities at 3.2, 7, and 24 um are roughly comparable to those of the Spitzer SAGE LMC point source catalog, while the AKARI catalog provides the data at 11 and 15 um, covering the mid-infrared spectral range contiguously. Two types of catalog are provided: a Catalog and an Archive. The Archive contains all the...

  16. Infrared two-colour diagrams for AGB stars using AKARI, MSX, IRAS and NIR data

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Kyung-Won

    2011-01-01

    Using a revised version of the catalog of AGB stars by Suh & Kwon (2009), we present various infrared two-colour diagrams (2CDs) for 3003 O-rich, 1168 C-rich, 362 S-type and 35 silicate carbon stars in our Galaxy. For each object in the new catalog, we cross-identify the AKARI, MSX and 2MASS counterparts by finding the nearest one from the position information in the IRAS PSC. For the large sample of AGB stars, we present infrared two-colour diagrams using IRAS (PSC), AKARI (PSC and BSC), MSX (PSC) and near infrared (K and L bands; including 2MASS data at KS band) data for different classes of AGB stars based on the chemistry of the dust shell and/or the central star. The infrared 2CDs of AGB stars can provide useful information about the structure and evolution of the dust envelopes as well as the central stars. On the 2CDs, we plot tracks of the theoretical radiative transfer model results with increasing dust shell optical depths. Comparing the observations with the theoretical models on the new 2CDs, ...

  17. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Survey Description

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present the rationale for and the observational description of ASPECS: The ALMA SPECtroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF), the cosmological deep field that has the deepest multi-wavelength data available. Our overarching goal is to obtain an unbiased census of molecular gas and dust continuum emission in high-redshift (z$>$0.5) galaxies. The $\\sim$1$'$ region covered within the UDF was chosen to overlap with the deepest available imaging from HST. Our ALMA observations consist of full frequency scans in band 3 (84-115 GHz) and band 6 (212-272 GHz) at approximately uniform line sensitivity ($L'_{\\rm CO}\\sim$2$\\times$10$^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$), and continuum noise levels of 3.8 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ and 12.7 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$, respectively. The molecular surveys cover the different rotational transitions of the CO molecule, leading to essentially full redshift coverage. The [CII] emission line is also covered at redshifts $6.0

  18. The VLA-VIRMOS Deep Field I. Radio observations probing the microJy source population

    CERN Document Server

    Ciliegi, M B P; Gregorini, L; Vettolani, G; Parma, P; De Ruiter, H R; Lefèvre, O; Arnaboldi, M; Guzzo, L; MacCagni, D; Scaramella, R; Adami, C; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Ilbert, S G O; Iovino, A; Le Brun, V; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Meneux, B; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Ripepi, V; Rizzo, D; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Zanichelli, A; Zucca, E

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted a deep survey (r.m.s noise 17 microJy) with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.4 GHz, with a resolution of 6 arcsec, of a 1 square degree region included in the VIRMOS VLT Deep Survey. In the same field we already have multiband photometry down to I(AB)=25, and spectroscopic observations will be obtained during the VIRMOS VLT survey. The homogeneous sensitivity over the whole field has allowed to derive a complete sample of 1054 radio sources (5 sigma limit). We give a detailed description of the data reduction and of the analysis of the radio observations, with particular care to the effects of clean bias and bandwidth smearing, and of the methods used to obtain the catalogue of radio sources. To estimate the effect of the resolution bias on our observations we have modelled the effective angular-size distribution of the sources in our sample and we have used this distribution to simulate a sample of radio sources. Finally we present the radio count distribution down to 0.08 mJy derived from t...

  19. Sub-mm Emission Line Deep Fields: CO and [CII] Luminosity Functions out to z = 6

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, Gergö; Decarli, Roberto; Spaans, Marco; Somerville, Rachel S; Trager, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Now that ALMA is reaching its full capabilities, observations of sub-mm emission line deep fields become feasible. Deep fields are ideal to study the luminosity function of sub-mm emission lines, ultimately tracing the atomic and molecular gas properties of galaxies. We couple a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with a radiative transfer code to make predictions for the luminosity function of CO J=1-0 up to CO J=6-5 and [CII] at redshifts z=0-6. We find that: 1) our model correctly reproduces the CO and [CII] emission of low- and high-redshift galaxies and reproduces the available constraints on the CO luminosity function at z1.5 and the CO luminosity of individual galaxies at intermediate redshifts. We argue that this is driven by a lack of cold gas in galaxies at intermediate redshifts as predicted by cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. This may lay at the root of other problems theoretical models face at the same redshifts.

  20. Near-field radiative heat transfer between parallel structures in the deep subwavelength regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Raphael; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Lipson, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Thermal radiation between parallel objects separated by deep subwavelength distances and subject to large thermal gradients (>100 K) can reach very high magnitudes, while being concentrated on a narrow frequency distribution. These unique characteristics could enable breakthrough technologies for thermal transport control and electricity generation (for example, by radiating heat exactly at the bandgap frequency of a photovoltaic cell). However, thermal transport in this regime has never been achieved experimentally due to the difficulty of maintaining large thermal gradients over nanometre-scale distances while avoiding other heat transfer mechanisms, namely conduction. Here, we show near-field radiative heat transfer between parallel SiC nanobeams in the deep subwavelength regime. The distance between the beams is controlled by a high-precision micro-electromechanical system (MEMS). We exploit the mechanical stability of nanobeams under high tensile stress to minimize thermal buckling effects, therefore keeping control of the nanometre-scale separation even at large thermal gradients. We achieve an enhancement of heat transfer of almost two orders of magnitude with respect to the far-field limit (corresponding to a 42 nm separation) and show that we can maintain a temperature gradient of 260 K between the cold and hot surfaces at ∼100 nm distance.

  1. Photometric redshifts and selection of high redshift galaxies in the NTT and Hubble Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, A; Poli, F; Giallongo, E; Arnouts, S; Cristiani, S; Moorwood, A F M; Saracco, P

    2000-01-01

    We present and compare in this paper new photometric redshift catalogs of the galaxies in three public fields: the NTT Deep Field, the HDF-N and the HDF-S. Photometric redshifts have been obtained for thewhole sample, by adopting a $\\chi^2$ minimization technique on a spectral library drawn from the Bruzual and Charlot synthesis models, with the addition of dust and intergalactic absorption. The accuracy, determined from 125 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, is $\\sigma_z\\sim 0.08 (0.3)$ in the redshift intervals $z=0-1.5 (1.5-3.5)$. The global redshift distribution of I-selected galaxies shows a distinct peak at intermediate redshifts, z~0.6 at I_{AB}5 candidates in the HDF filter set and that the 4 brightest candidates at $z>5$ in the HDF-S are indeed most likely M stars. (ABRIDGED)

  2. Ultra-deep Ks-band Imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Brammer, Gabriel B; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Barker, Elizbeth A; Tanaka, Masayuki; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lundgren, Britt; Martis, Nicholas; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro; Toft, Sune; van der Wel, Arjen; Vulcani, Benedetta; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the "KIFF" project, which provides ultra-deep Ks-band imaging of all six of the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters Abell 2744, MACS-0416, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS-0717 and MACS-1149. All of these fields have recently been observed with large allocations of Directors' Discretionary Time with the HST and Spitzer telescopes covering 0.4 < lambda < 1.6 microns and 3.6--4.5 microns, respectively. VLT/HAWK-I integrations of the first four fields reach 5-sigma limiting depths of Ks~26.0 (AB, point sources) and have excellent image quality (FWHM ~ 0."4). Shorter Keck/MOSFIRE integrations of the MACS-0717 (MACS-1149) field better observable in the north reach limiting depths Ks=25.5 (25.1) with seeing FWHM ~0."4 (0."5). In all cases the Ks-band mosaics cover the primary cluster and parallel HST/ACS+WFC3 fields. The total area of the Ks-band coverage is 490 arcmin^2. The Ks-band at 2.2 microns crucially fills the gap between the reddest HST filter (1.6 micron ~ H-band) and the IRAC 3.6 ...

  3. A 6 GHz Synoptic Survey of the COSMOS Deep Field with the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, Joseph R.; Myers, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) covers two square degrees, and is observed over a large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray to Radio. Key science goals of COSMOS include probing the evolution of galaxies, AGN, and large scale structures of the Universe. As well as constraining cosmological models and the star and structure formation history of the Universe. The wide range of frequencies and deep surveys are suitable for many astrophysical studies.Beginning in 2013, observations of the COSMOS field in C-band (4 - 8 GHz) using the JVLA have been carried out in every configuration spanning 21 months (April 2013 - Jan 2015) for a total of 13 observations. The observations are comprised of 1 hour time blocks using a technique called On-The-Fly Mosaicking (OTFM). Using OTFM we see an increased efficiency for an allotted observation block by collecting data as the array scans across the field, rather than a pointed mosaic which requires settle down time after each new pointing. Each observation consists of 2160 1-second integrations on 432 phase centers that require calibration and image processing before they can be mosaicked to create the final image of the entire COSMOS field.The primary science goal of this survey is to identify, catalog, and study the variable and transient radio sources in the COSMOS field, comparing these to other radio, optical, IR, and X-ray observations. The main class of variables we are interested in Active Galactic Nuclei.

  4. DEEP GALEX UV SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmedo, Manuel; Chávez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica Luis Enrique Erro #1, CP 72840, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Lloyd, James [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D., E-mail: olmedo@inaoep.mx [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    We report observations of a deep near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of the Kepler field made in 2012 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Complete All-Sky UV Survey Extension (CAUSE). The GALEX-CAUSE Kepler survey (GCK) covers 104 square degrees of the Kepler field and reaches a limiting magnitude of NUV ≃ 22.6 at 3σ. Analysis of the GCK survey has yielded a catalog of 669,928 NUV sources, of which 475,164 are cross-matched with stars in the Kepler Input Catalog. Approximately 327 of 451 confirmed exoplanet host stars and 2614 of 4696 candidate exoplanet host stars identified by Kepler have NUV photometry in the GCK survey. The GCK catalog should enable the identification and characterization of UV-excess stars in the Kepler field (young solar-type and low-mass stars, chromospherically active binaries, white dwarfs, horizontal branch stars, etc.), and elucidation of various astrophysics problems related to the stars and planetary systems in the Kepler field.

  5. Propulsion Utilizing Laser-Driven Ponderomotive Fields for Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George J.; Gilland, James H.

    2009-03-01

    The generation of large amplitude electric fields in plasmas by high-power lasers has been studied for several years in the context of high-energy particle acceleration. Fields on the order of GeV/m are generated in the plasma wake of the laser by non-linear ponderomotive forces. The laser fields generate longitudinal and translational electron plasma waves with phase velocities close to the speed of light. These fields and velocities offer the potential to revolutionize spacecraft propulsion, leading to extended deep space robotic probes. Based on these initial calculations, plasma acceleration by means of laser-induced ponderomotive forces appears to offer significant potential for spacecraft propulsion. Relatively high-efficiencies appear possible with proper beam conditioning, resulting in an order of magnitude more thrust than alternative concepts for high ISP (>105 s) and elimination of the primary life-limiting erosion phenomena associated with conventional electric propulsion systems. Ponderomotive propulsion readily lends itself to beamed power which might overcome some of the constraints of power-limited propulsion concepts. A preliminary assessment of the impact of these propulsion systems for several promising configurations on mission architectures has been conducted. Emphasizing interstellar and interstellar-precursor applications, performance and technical requirements are identified for a number of missions. The use of in-situ plasma and gas for propellant is evaluated as well.

  6. Clusters, groups, and filaments in the Chandra deep field-south up to redshift 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M., E-mail: siamak.dehghan@vuw.ac.nz [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2014-03-01

    We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 deg{sup 2} area of the MUSYC-ACES field, which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogs, we find 62 overdense regions up to redshifts of 1, including clusters, groups, and filaments. We also present the detection of a relatively small void of ∼10 Mpc{sup 2} at z ∼ 0.53. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalog of all structures present, including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular, we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that 80% of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4-1 keV) X-ray emission, including 90% of all objects classified as clusters. The presence of soft-band X-ray emission in these massive structures (M {sub 200} ≥ 4.9 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}) provides a strong independent confirmation of our methodology and classification scheme. In the closest two clusters identified (z < 0.13) high-quality optical imaging from the Deep2c field of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey reveals the cD galaxies and demonstrates that they sit at the center of the detected X-ray emission. Nearly 60% of the clusters, groups, and filaments are detected in the known enhanced density regions of the CDFS at z ≅ 0.13, 0.52, 0.68, and 0.73. Additionally, all of the clusters, bar the most distant, are found in these overdense redshift regions. Many of the clusters and groups exhibit signs of ongoing formation seen in their velocity distributions, position within the detected cosmic web, and in one case through the presence of tidally

  7. Clusters, groups, and filaments in the Chandra deep field-south up to redshift 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 deg2 area of the MUSYC-ACES field, which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogs, we find 62 overdense regions up to redshifts of 1, including clusters, groups, and filaments. We also present the detection of a relatively small void of ∼10 Mpc2 at z ∼ 0.53. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalog of all structures present, including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular, we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that 80% of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4-1 keV) X-ray emission, including 90% of all objects classified as clusters. The presence of soft-band X-ray emission in these massive structures (M 200 ≥ 4.9 × 1013 M ☉) provides a strong independent confirmation of our methodology and classification scheme. In the closest two clusters identified (z < 0.13) high-quality optical imaging from the Deep2c field of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey reveals the cD galaxies and demonstrates that they sit at the center of the detected X-ray emission. Nearly 60% of the clusters, groups, and filaments are detected in the known enhanced density regions of the CDFS at z ≅ 0.13, 0.52, 0.68, and 0.73. Additionally, all of the clusters, bar the most distant, are found in these overdense redshift regions. Many of the clusters and groups exhibit signs of ongoing formation seen in their velocity distributions, position within the detected cosmic web, and in one case through the presence of tidally disrupted central galaxies

  8. Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Gephart, Roy E.; Triplett, Mark B.; Johnson, Timothy C.

    2011-02-11

    The Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan was published in October 2010. It summarized the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) state-of-knowledge about the contaminant remediation challenges facing the deep vadose zone (DVZ) beneath the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site and their approach to solving those challenges. Developing an implementation plan is the next step to address the knowledge and capabilities required to solve DVZ challenges when needed. This multi-year plan (FY-11 through FY-20) identifies the short to long-term research, management, and execution plans required to solve those problems facing the DVZ-Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The schedule supporting implementation overlies existing activities and milestones from Hanford’s DOE-Environmental Management (EM) end-user projects. Success relies upon multi-project teams focused on coordinated subsurface projects undertaken across the DOE Complex combined with facilitated, problem-focused, research investments implemented through the DVZ-AFRC.

  9. A deep and wide-field view at the IC 2944 / 2948 complex in Centaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Baume, G; Corti, M A; Carraro, G; Panei, J A

    2014-01-01

    We employed the ESO MPI wide-field camera and obtained deep images in the VIc pass-bands in the region of the IC 2944/2948 complex (l ~ 294; b ~ -1), and complemented them with literature and archival data. We used this material to derive the photometric, spectroscopic and kinematic properties of the brightest (V < 16) stars in the region. The VI deep photometry on the other end, helped us to unravel the lower main sequence of a few, possibly physical, star groups in the area. Our analysis confirmed previous suggestions that the extinction toward this line of sight follows the normal law (Rv = 3.1). We could recognize B-type stars spread in distance from a few hundred pc to at least 2 kpc. We found two young groups (age ~ 3 Myr) located respectively at about 2.3 and 3.2 kpc from the Sun. They are characterized by a significant variable extinction (E(B-V) ranging from 0.28 to 0.45 mag), and host a significant pre-main sequence population. We computed the initial mass functions for these groups and obtained ...

  10. A Deep-Structured Conditional Random Field Model for Object Silhouette Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Shafiee

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce a deep-structured conditional random field (DS-CRF model for the purpose of state-based object silhouette tracking. The proposed DS-CRF model consists of a series of state layers, where each state layer spatially characterizes the object silhouette at a particular point in time. The interactions between adjacent state layers are established by inter-layer connectivity dynamically determined based on inter-frame optical flow. By incorporate both spatial and temporal context in a dynamic fashion within such a deep-structured probabilistic graphical model, the proposed DS-CRF model allows us to develop a framework that can accurately and efficiently track object silhouettes that can change greatly over time, as well as under different situations such as occlusion and multiple targets within the scene. Experiment results using video surveillance datasets containing different scenarios such as occlusion and multiple targets showed that the proposed DS-CRF approach provides strong object silhouette tracking performance when compared to baseline methods such as mean-shift tracking, as well as state-of-the-art methods such as context tracking and boosted particle filtering.

  11. GRAPES, Grism Spectroscopy of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Description and Data Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pirzkal, N; Malhotra, S; Rhoads, J E; Koekemoer, A M; Walsh, J R; Windhorst, R A; Daddi, E; Cimatti, A; Ferguson, H C; Gardner, J P; Gronwall, C; Haiman, Z; Kuemel, M; Moustakas, L A; Panagia, N; Pasquali, A; Alighieri, S S; Vernet, J; Yan, H

    2004-01-01

    We present deep unbiased spectroscopy of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) carried out using the slitless grism spectroscopy mode of the Advance Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The GRIsm ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) achieves continuum detection as faint as z_AB=27.2 using 40 orbits (9.2x10^4 seconds) on HST. The data were taken at four orientation angles to correct for the overlap of spectra. GRAPES data provide a unique, uninterrupted, low resolution (R=100) spectral coverage from 5500A to 10500A, and allow us to detect high redshift galaxies at 4 < z < 7 whether they have Lyman-alpha lines or just show the Lyman Break, as well as find low luminosity AGNs in an unbiased fashion. This paper describes in detail the observations and the data reduction, and examines the quality of the extracted spectra. Subsequent papers will deal with the analysis of the data. The extracted and calibrated GRAPES spectra will be available from MAST at STScI.

  12. THM Coupled Modeling in Near Field of an Assumed HLW Deep Geological Disposal Repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Zhenyao; Li Guoding; Li Shushen

    2004-01-01

    One of the most suitable ways under study for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is isolation in deep geological repositories. It is very important to research the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes associated with an HLW disposal repository. Non-linear coupled equations, which are used to describe the THM coupled process and are suited to saturated-unsaturated porous media, are presented in this paper. A numerical method to solve these equations is put forward, and a finite element code is developed. This code is suited to the plane strain or axis-symmetry problem. Then this code is used to simulate the THM coupled process in the near field of an ideal disposal repository. The temperature vs. time, hydraulic head vs. time and stress vs. time results show that, in this assumed condition, the impact of temperature is very long (over 10 000 a) and the impact of the water head is short (about 90 d). Since the stress is induced by temperature and hydraulic head in this condition, the impact time of stress is the same as that of temperature. The results show that THM coupled processes are very important in the safety analysis of an HLW deep geological disposal repository.

  13. Sulfur metabolisms in epsilon- and gamma-Proteobacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In deep-sea hydrothermal systems, super hot and reduced vent fluids from the subseafloor blend with cold and oxidized seawater. Very unique and dense ecosystems are formed within these environments. Many molecular ecological studies showed that chemoautotrophic epsilon- and gamma-Proteobacteria are predominant primary producers in both free-living and symbiotic microbial communities in global deep-sea hydrothermal fields. Inorganic sulfur compounds are important substrates for the energy conservative metabolic pathways in these microorganisms. Recent genomic and metagenomic analyses and biochemical studies have contributed to the understanding of potential sulfur metabolic pathways for these chemoautotrophs. Epsilon-Proteobacteria use sulfur compounds for both electron-donors and -acceptors. On the other hand, gamma-Proteobacteria utilize two different sulfur-oxidizing pathways. It is hypothesized that differences between the metabolic pathways used by these two predominant proteobacterial phyla are associated with different ecophysiological strategies; extending the energetically feasible habitats with versatile energy metabolisms in the epsilon-Proteobacteria and optimizing energy production rate and yield for relatively narrow habitable zones in the gamma-Proteobacteria.

  14. The Star Formation History of Galaxies Measured from Individual Pixels. I. The Hubble Deep Field North

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, A; Hopkins, A M; Budavari, T; Szalay, A S; Csabai, I; Schmidt, S J; Adams, C; Petrovic, N D; Conti, Alberto; Connolly, Andrew J.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Szalay, Alex S.; Csabai, Istvan; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Adams, Carla; Petrovic, Nada

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the photometric information contained in individual pixels of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN) using a new technique, _pixel-z_, that combines predictions of evolutionary synthesis models with photometric redshift template fitting. Each spectral energy distribution template is a result of modeling of the detailed physical processes affecting gas properties and star formation efficiency. The criteria chosen to generate the SED templates is that of sampling a wide range of physical characteristics such as age, star formation rate, obscuration and metallicity. A key feature of our method is the sophisticated use of error analysis to generate error maps that define the reliability of the template fitting on pixel scales and allow for the separation of the interplay among dust, metallicity and star formation histories. This technique offers a number of advantages over traditional integrated color studies. As a first application, we derive the star formation and metallicity histories of gal...

  15. The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and IRAC Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, A H; Martinez, J; Bartlett, J G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Crawford, T M; Dey, A; Dressler, A; Eisenhardt, P R M; Galametz, A; Jannuzi, B T; Marrone, D P; Mei, S; Muzzin, A; Pacaud, F; Pierre, M; Stern, D; Vieira, J D

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 square degrees of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at 23:30,-55:00, in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs...

  16. The Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the Cosmic X-ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N; Bauer, F E; Hornschemeier, A E

    2002-01-01

    Chandra has performed a 1.4 Ms survey centred on the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N), probing the X-ray Universe 55-550 times deeper than was possible with pre-Chandra missions. We describe the detected point and extended X-ray sources and discuss their overall multiwavelength (optical, infrared, submillimeter, and radio) properties. Special attention is paid to the HDF-N X-ray sources, luminous infrared starburst galaxies, optically faint X-ray sources, and high-to-extreme redshift AGN. We also describe how stacking analyses have been used to probe the average X-ray emission properties of normal and starburst galaxies at cosmologically interesting distances. Finally, we discuss plans to extend the survey and argue that a 5-10 Ms Chandra survey would lay key groundwork for future missions such as XEUS and Generation-X.

  17. The AKARI/IRC mid-infrared all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, D.; Onaka, T.; Kataza, H.; Salama, A.; Alfageme, C.; Cassatella, A.; Cox, N.; García-Lario, P.; Stephenson, C.; Cohen, M.; Fujishiro, N.; Fujiwara, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Ita, Y.; Kim, W.; Matsuhara, H.; Murakami, H.; Müller, T. G.; Nakagawa, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Pyo, J.; Sakon, I.; Shibai, H.; Takita, S.; Tanabé, T.; Uemizu, K.; Ueno, M.; Usui, F.; Wada, T.; Watarai, H.; Yamamura, I.; Yamauchi, C.

    2010-05-01

    Context. AKARI is the first Japanese astronomical satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy. One of the main purposes of AKARI is the all-sky survey performed with six infrared bands between 9 μm and 200 μm during the period from 2006 May 6 to 2007 August 28. In this paper, we present the mid-infrared part (9 μm and 18 μm bands) of the survey carried out with one of the on-board instruments, the infrared camera (IRC). Aims: We present unprecedented observational results of the 9 μm and 18 μm AKARI all-sky survey and detail the operation and data processing leading to the point source detection and measurements. Methods: The raw data are processed to produce small images for every scan, and the point sources candidates are derived above the 5σ noise level per single scan. The celestial coordinates and fluxes of the events are determined statistically and the reliability of their detections is secured through multiple detections of the same source within milli-seconds, hours, and months from each other. Results: The sky coverage is more than 90% for both bands. A total of 877 091 sources (851 189 for 9 μm, 195 893 for 18 μm) are confirmed and included in the current release of the point source catalog. The detection limit for point sources is 50 mJy and 90 mJy for the 9 μm and 18 μm bands, respectively. The position accuracy is estimated to be better than 2''. Uncertainties in the in-flight absolute flux calibration are estimated to be 3% for the 9 μm band and 4% for the 18 μm band. The coordinates and fluxes of detected sources in this survey are also compared with those of the IRAS survey and are found to be statistically consistent. Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/514/A1

  18. X-ray and infrared diagnostics of nearby active galactic nuclei with MAXI and AKARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Naoki; Kawamuro, Taiki; Oyabu, Shinki; Nakagawa, Takao; Baba, Shunsuke; Yano, Kenichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Toba, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Nearby active galactic nuclei were diagnosed in the X-ray and mid-to-far infrared wavelengths with Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) and the Japanese infrared observatory AKARI, respectively. One hundred of the X-ray sources listed in the second release of the MAXI all-sky X-ray source catalog are currently identified as non-blazar-type active galactic nuclei. These include 95 Seyfert galaxies and 5 quasars, and they are composed of 73 type-1 and 27 type-2 objects. The AKARI all-sky survey point source catalog was searched for their mid- and far-infrared counterparts at 9, 18, and 90 μm. As a result, 69 Seyfert galaxies in the MAXI catalog (48 type-1 and 21 type-2) were found to be detected with AKARI. The X-ray (3-4 keV and 4-10 keV) and infrared luminosities of these objects were investigated, together with their color information. Adopting the canonical photon index, Γ = 1.9, of the intrinsic X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxies, the X-ray hardness ratio between the 3-4 and 4-10 keV ranges derived with MAXI was roughly converted into the absorption column density. After the X-ray luminosity was corrected for absorption from the estimated column density, the well-known X-ray-to-infrared luminosity correlation was confirmed, at least in the Compton-thin regime. In contrast, NGC 1365, the only Compton-thick object in the MAXI catalog, was found to deviate from the correlation toward a significantly lower X-ray luminosity by nearly an order of magnitude. It was verified that the relation between the X-ray hardness below 10 keV and X-ray-to-infrared color acts as an effective tool to pick up Compton-thick objects. The difference in the infrared colors between the type-1 and type-2 Seyfert galaxies and its physical implication on the classification and unification of active galactic nuclei are briefly discussed.

  19. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near

  20. RATS-Kepler -- a deep high cadence survey of the Kepler field

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Barclay, Thomas; Garcia-Alvarez, David; Antoci, Victoria; Greiss, Sandra; Still, Martin; Steeghs, Danny; Gansicke, Boris; Reynolds, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We outline the purpose, strategy and first results of a deep, high cadence, photometric survey of the Kepler field using the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma and the MDM 1.3m Telescope on Kitt Peak. Our goal was to identify sources located in the Kepler field of view which are variable on a timescale of a few mins to 1 hour. The astrophysically most interesting sources would then have been candidates for observation using Kepler using 1 min sampling. Our survey covered ~42% of the Kepler field of view and we have obtained light curves for 7.1x10^5 objects in the range 13

  1. The Evolution of the Galaxy Sizes in the NTT Deep Field a Comparison with CDM Models

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, F; Menci, N; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A

    1999-01-01

    The sizes of the field galaxies with I<25 have been measured in the NTT Deep Field. Intrinsic sizes have been obtained after deconvolution of the PSF with a multigaussian method. The reliability of the method has been tested using both simulated data and HST observations of the same field. The distribution of the half light radii is peaked at r_{hl} 0.3 arcsec, in good agreement with that derived from HST images at the same magnitude. An approximate morphological classification has been obtained using the asymmetry and concentration parameters. The intrinsic sizes of the galaxies are shown as a function of their redshifts and absolute magnitudes using photometric redshifts derived from the multicolor catalog. While the brighter galaxies with morphological parameters typical of the normal spirals show a flat distribution in the range r_{d}=1-6 kpc, the fainter population at 0.4

  2. The ROSAT deep survey; 5, X-rays Sources and Optical Identifications in the Marano Field

    CERN Document Server

    Zamorani, G; Hasinger, G; Burg, R; Giacconi, R; Schmidt, M; Trümper, J E; Ciliegi, P; Gruppioni, C; Marano, B

    1999-01-01

    We present the X-ray data and the optical identifications for a deep ROSAT PSPC observation in the "Marano field". In the inner region of the ROSAT field (15' radius) we detected 50 X-ray sources with Sx >= 3.7x10^(-15) erg/cm^2/s. When corrected for the different sensitivity over the field, the estimated observed surface density at Sx >= 4x10^(-15) erg/cm^2/s is 272+/-40 sources/sq.deg. Four X-ray sources, corresponding to 8% of the total sample, have been detected in radio images with a flux limit of about 0.2 mJy. Careful statistical analysis of multicolour CCD data in the error boxes of the 50 X-ray sources has led to the identification of 42 sources, corresponding to 84% of the X-ray sample. These 42 reliable identifications are 33 AGNs (including two radio galaxies and one BL Lac candidate; 79% of the identified sources), 2 galaxies, 3 groups or clusters of galaxies and 4 stars. We also show that it is likely that a few of the 8 unidentified sources are such because the derived X-ray positions may be of...

  3. The Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest of the QSO in the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Savaglio, S; Brown, T M; Espey, B R; Sahu, K C; Baum, S A; Carollo, C M; Kaiser, M E; Stiavelli, M; Williams, R E; Wilson, J

    1999-01-01

    The quasar in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS), J2233-606 ($z_{em}=2.23$) has been exhaustively observed by ground based telescopes and by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrograph STIS, at low, medium and high resolution in the spectral interval from 1120 Å to 10000 Å. The combined data give a continuous coverage of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest from redshift 0.9 to 2.24. This very large base-line represents a unique opportunity to study in detail the distribution of clouds associated with emitting structures in the field of the quasar and in nearby fields already observed as part of the HDFS campaign. Here we report the main properties obtained from the large spectroscopic dataset available for the Ly$\\alpha$ clouds in the intermediate redshift range $1.20-2.20$, where our present knowledge has been complicated by the difficulty in producing good data. The number density is shown to be higher than what is expected by extrapolating the results from both lower and higher redshifts: $52\\pm7$ lines with $\\log N...

  4. Outer density profiles of 19 Galactic globular clusters from deep and wide-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Gieles, Mark; Sollima, Antonio; Koposov, Sergey; Martínez-Delgado, David; Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Using deep photometric data from Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope and Wide Field Imager at the ESO 2.2-m telescope we measure the outer number density profiles of 19 stellar clusters located in the inner region of the Milky Way halo (within a Galactocentric distance range of 10-30 kpc) in order to assess the impact of internal and external dynamical processes on the spatial distribution of stars. Adopting power-law fitting templates, with index -γ in the outer region, we find that the clusters in our sample can be divided in two groups: a group of massive clusters (≥105 M⊙) that has relatively flat profiles with 2.5 4) and clear signatures of interaction with the Galactic tidal field. We refer to these two groups as 'tidally unaffected' and 'tidally affected', respectively. Our results also show a clear trend between the slope of the outer parts and the half-mass density of these systems, which suggests that the outer density profiles may retain key information on the dominant processes driving the dynamical evolution of globular clusters.

  5. RATS-Kepler - a deep high-cadence survey of the Kepler field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Brooks, Adam; Hakala, Pasi; Barclay, Thomas; Garcia-Alvarez, David; Antoci, Victoria; Greiss, Sandra; Still, Martin; Steeghs, Danny; Gänsicke, Boris; Reynolds, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We outline the purpose, strategy and first results of a deep, high-cadence, photometric survey of the Kepler field using the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma and the MDM 1.3 m Telescope on Kitt Peak. Our goal was to identify sources located in the Kepler field of view which are variable on a time-scale of a few minutes to 1 h. The astrophysically most-interesting sources would then have been candidates for observation using Kepler using 1 min sampling. Our survey covered ˜42 per cent of the Kepler field of view, and we have obtained light curves for 7.1 × 105 objects in the range 13 images available to download. We obtained Kepler data of 18 sources which we found to be variable using our survey, and we give an overview of the currently available data here. These sources include a pulsating DA white dwarf, 11 δ Sct stars which have dominant pulsation periods in the range 24 min to 2.35 h, three contact binaries, and a cataclysmic variable (V363 Lyr). One of the δ Sct stars is in a contact binary.

  6. Interstellar Dust Properties of M51 from AKARI Mid-infrared Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Fumi; Wada, Takehiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Arimatsu, Ko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2013-11-01

    Using mid-infrared (MIR) images of four photometric bands of the Infrared Camera on board the AKARI satellite, S7 (7 μm), S11 (11 μm), L15 (15 μm), and L24 (24 μm), we investigate the interstellar dust properties of the nearby pair of galaxies M51 with respect to their spiral arm structure. The arm and interarm regions are defined based on a spatially filtered stellar component model image and we measure the arm/interarm contrast for each band. The contrast is lowest in the S11 image, which we interpret as meaning that among the four AKARI MIR bands, the S11 image best correlates with the spatial distribution of dust grains including colder components. On the other hand, the L24 image, with the highest contrast, traces warmer dust heated by star forming activity. The surface brightness ratio between the bands, i.e., color, is measured over the disk of the main galaxy, M51a, at 300 pc resolution. We find that the distribution of S7/S11 is smooth and traces the global spiral arm pattern well while L15/S11 and L24/S11 peak at individual H II regions. This result indicates that the ionization state of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is related to the spiral structure. Comparison with observational data and dust models also supports the importance of the variation in the PAH ionization state within the M51a disk. However, the mechanism driving this variation is not yet clear from the currently available datasets. Another suggestion from the comparison with the models is that the PAH fraction in the total dust mass is higher than previously estimated.

  7. Mechanical stratigraphy of deep-water sandstones: insights from a multisciplinary field and laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Fabrizio; di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Corradetti, Amerigo; Cantalamessa, Gino

    2010-05-01

    Turbidite sandstones found in deep-water fold-and-thrust belts are increasingly exploited as hydrocarbon reservoirs. Within these rocks, the fluid flow is profoundly affected by the complex interaction between primary sedimentological and stratigraphic attributes (i.e, facies, layering, reservoir quality, stacking patterns, bed connectivity and lateral extent) and fracture characteristics (i.e., length, spacing, distribution, orientation, connectivity). Unfortunately, most of these features are at, or below, the resolution of conventional seismic datasets and, for this reason, their identification and localization represent one of the fundamental challenges facing exploration, appraisal and production of the sandstone reservoirs. In this respect, whereas considerable effort has been afforded to a characterization of the sedimentological and stratigraphic aspects of sandstones, detailed analysis of fractures in this type of successions has received significantly less attention. In this work, we combine field and laboratory analyses to assess the possible mechanical control exerted by the rock properties (grain size, intergranualr porosity, and Young modulus), as well as the influence of bed thickness, on joint density in turbidite sandstones. Joints are mode-I fractures occurring parallel to the greatest principle stress axis, which solve opening displacement and do not show evidence of shearing and enhance the values of total porosity forming preferential hydraulic conduits for fluid flow. Within layered rocks, commonly, joints form perpendicular to bedding due to overburden or exhumation. The empirical relation between joint spacing and bed thickness, documented in the field by many authors, has been mechanically related to the stress perturbation taking place around joints during their formation. Furthermore, close correlations between joint density and rock properties have been already established. In this present contribution, we focus on the bed

  8. Localization and Classification of Paddy Field Pests using a Saliency Map and Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyi; Gao, Junfeng; Yang, Guoguo; Zhang, Huan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We present a pipeline for the visual localization and classification of agricultural pest insects by computing a saliency map and applying deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) learning. First, we used a global contrast region-based approach to compute a saliency map for localizing pest insect objects. Bounding squares containing targets were then extracted, resized to a fixed size, and used to construct a large standard database called Pest ID. This database was then utilized for self-learning of local image features which were, in turn, used for classification by DCNN. DCNN learning optimized the critical parameters, including size, number and convolutional stride of local receptive fields, dropout ratio and the final loss function. To demonstrate the practical utility of using DCNN, we explored different architectures by shrinking depth and width, and found effective sizes that can act as alternatives for practical applications. On the test set of paddy field images, our architectures achieved a mean Accuracy Precision (mAP) of 0.951, a significant improvement over previous methods.

  9. The high-redshift (z>3) AGN population in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Vito, F; Gilli, R; Comastri, A; Iwasawa, K; Brandt, W N; Alexander, D M; Brusa, M; Lehmer, B; Bauer, F E; Schneider, D P; Xue, Y Q; Luo, B

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a spectral analysis of a sample of high-redshift (z>3) X-ray selected AGN in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), the deepest X-ray survey to date. The sample is selected using the most recent spectroscopic and photometric information available in this field. It consists of 34 sources with median redshift z=3.7, 80 median net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band and median rest-frame absorption-corrected luminosity $L_{2-10 \\rmn{keV}}\\approx1.5\\times10^{44}\\rmn{erg} \\rmn{s^{-1}}$. Spectral analysis for the full sample is presented and the intrinsic column density distribution, corrected for observational biases using spectral simulations, is compared with the expectations of X-ray background (XRB) synthesis models. We find that $\\approx57$ per cent of the sources are highly obscured ($N_H>10^{23}\\rmn{cm^{-2}}$). Source number counts in the $0.5-2\\rmn{keV}$ band down to flux $F_{0.5-2 \\rmn{keV}}\\approx4\\times10^{-17}\\rmn{erg} \\rmn{s^{-1}cm^{-2}}$ are also presented. Our results are consis...

  10. Modelling of far-field gas migration from a deep radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In assessing the post-closure safety of a deep radioactive waste repository, it is necessary to show that gas generated within the repository can migrate away, through the far-field geology, without affecting repository safety. This paper discusses the contribution of various mechanisms to gas migration through the far field; for example, diffusion of dissolved gas versus gas-phase movement, and bubble flow versus formation of a connected gas stream. It outlines different approaches to modelling gas movement from a repository, with simple semi-analytical models furnishing physical insights into the factors controlling gas migration in the absence of directly applicable experimental data, and more comprehensive numerical computations allowing the exploration of more detailed behaviour when appropriate data is obtained. If gas can induce groundwater movement, this could accelerate the transport of water-borne contaminants. Processes by which this could occur are noted, and the current status of work on possible effects of gas migration on groundwater movement in fractured hard rocks is indicated. 14 refs., 4 figs

  11. Localization and Classification of Paddy Field Pests using a Saliency Map and Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyi; Gao, Junfeng; Yang, Guoguo; Zhang, Huan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We present a pipeline for the visual localization and classification of agricultural pest insects by computing a saliency map and applying deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) learning. First, we used a global contrast region-based approach to compute a saliency map for localizing pest insect objects. Bounding squares containing targets were then extracted, resized to a fixed size, and used to construct a large standard database called Pest ID. This database was then utilized for self-learning of local image features which were, in turn, used for classification by DCNN. DCNN learning optimized the critical parameters, including size, number and convolutional stride of local receptive fields, dropout ratio and the final loss function. To demonstrate the practical utility of using DCNN, we explored different architectures by shrinking depth and width, and found effective sizes that can act as alternatives for practical applications. On the test set of paddy field images, our architectures achieved a mean Accuracy Precision (mAP) of 0.951, a significant improvement over previous methods. PMID:26864172

  12. Faint Source Counts from Off-source Fluctuation Analysis on Chandra Deep Field-North

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaji, T; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Griffiths, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of fluctuation analysis of the off-source field from the 1 Million second Chandra observation of the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDF-N). The distribution of the counts in cells has been compared with the expectations from the Log N - Log S model to constrain the behavior of the source number density down to a factor of several lower than the source-detection limit. Our results show that the number counts in the soft band (0.5-2 [keV]) continue to grow down to Sx = 7e-18 [erg s^{-1} cm^{-2}], possibly suggesting the emergence of a new population and agree well with a prediction of star forming galaxies by Ptak et al. (2001). The fluctuation analysis can loosely constrain the 2-10 keV source counts fainter than the detection limit and we found an upper limit of 10000 [srcs deg^{-2}] at Sx=2e-16 [erg s^{-1}cm^{-2}].

  13. Deep Wide Field BVI CCD Photometry of the Sextans Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M G; Park, J H; Sohn, Y J; Oh, S J; Yuk, I S; Rey, S C; Lee, S G; Lee, Y W; Kim, H I; Han, W; Park, W K; Lee, J H; Jeon, Y B; Kim, S C; Lee, Myung Goon; Park, Hong Soo; Park, Jang-Hyun; Sohn, Young-Jong; Oh, Seung Joon; Yuk, In-Soo; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Sang-Gak; Lee, Young-Wook; Kim, Ho-Il; Han, Wonyong; Park, Won-Kee; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeon, Young Beom; Kim, Sang Chul

    2003-01-01

    We present deep wide field $VI$ CCD photometry of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) in the Local Group, covering a field of 42' x 28' located at the center of the galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams of the Sextans dSph show well-defined red giant branch (RGB), blue horizontal branch (BHB), prominent red horizontal branch (RHB), asymptotic giant branch (AGB), about 120 variable star candidates including RR Lyraes and anomalous Cepheids, about 230 blue stragglers (BSs), and main sequence (MS) stars. The distance to the galaxy is derived using the $I$-band magnitude of the tip of the RGB at I(TRGB)=15.95+/-0.04: (m-M)_0=19.90+/-0.06 for an adopted reddening of E(B-V)=0.01. The mean metallicity of the RGB is estimated from the (V-I) color: [Fe/H]=-2.1+/-0.1(statistical error) +/-0.2(standard calibration error) dex, with a dispersion of sigma[Fe/H]=0.2 dex. The age of the MSTO of the main old population is estimated to be similar to that of M92, and there are seen some stellar populations with younger age. T...

  14. Mid-Infrared Variability from the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlowski, Szymon; Stern, Daniel; Ashby, Matthew L N; Assef, Roberto J; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A; Croft, S; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, P R; Gonzalez, A; Gorjian, V; Griffith, R; Grogin, N; Ivison, R; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L; Rottgering, H; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I S; van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2010-01-01

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of 474,179 objects in 8.1 deg^2 of the NDWFS Bootes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands. We find that 1.1% of the studied sample meet our standard selection criteria for being classed as a variable source. We require that the 3.6 and 4.5 micron light-curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2 sigma. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBootes survey, radio catalogs, 24 micron-selected AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects. Most of the s...

  15. Clusters, Groups, and Filaments in the Chandra Deep Field-South up to Redshift 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghan, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive structure detection analysis of the 0.3 square degree area of the MUSYC-ACES field which covers the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Using a density-based clustering algorithm on the MUSYC and ACES photometric and spectroscopic catalogues we find 62 over-dense regions up to redshifts of 1, including, clusters, groups and filaments. All structures are confirmed using the DBSCAN method, including the detection of nine structures previously reported in the literature. We present a catalogue of all structures present including their central position, mean redshift, velocity dispersions, and classification based on their morphological and spectroscopic distributions. In particular we find 13 galaxy clusters and 6 large groups/small clusters. Comparison of these massive structures with published XMM-Newton imaging (where available) shows that $80\\%$ of these structures are associated with diffuse, soft-band (0.4 - 1 keV) X-ray emission including $90\\%$ of all objects classified as cluster...

  16. Deep VLT/HAWKI and Keck/MOSFIRE K-band imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel; Marchesini, Danilo

    2015-08-01

    We will present recently-obtained deep K-band imaging of the first four Frontier Fields, Abell 2744 and MACS 0416 with the VLT/HAWK-I instrument and MACS-0717 and MACS-1149 with Keck/MOSFIRE. The final HAWK-I mosaics reach a depth of K~26 AB (5-sigma) with superb ground-based image quality ~0.4" FWHM across the field; shorter integrations with MOSFIRE reach K~25 AB and with FWHM~0.5". The 7'x7' HAWKI field of view provides ideal simultaneous coverage of both the HST cluster and parallel fields (with additional area also covered by Subaru optical and IRAC imaging), and the K band at 2.2 µm crucially fills the gap between the deep space-based imaging bandpasses observed with HST and Spitzer. The addition of the 2.2 µm imaging and photometry greatly improves the constraints on both the photometric redshifts and the stellar-population properties of galaxies extending well below the characteristic stellar mass across most of the age of the universe, down to, and including, the redshifts of the targeted galaxy clusters. The reduced, aligned mosaics of all the K-band fields are made freely available to the Frontier Fields community; identical deep HAWK-I observations of the final two Frontier Fields (Abell 370 and Abell S1063) have been awarded and will be obtained in the upcoming ESO observing periods.

  17. Monitoring Endeavour vent field deep-sea ecosystem dynamics through NEPTUNE Canada seafloor observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matabos, M.; NC Endeavour Science Team

    2010-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are dynamic systems where the complex linkages between geological, biological, chemical, and physical processes are not yet well understood. Indeed, the poor accessibility to the marine environment has greatly limited our understanding of deep-sea ecosystems. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required to conduct long-term and high-resolution time-series observations of the seafloor. Investigations of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal ecosystem require interdisciplinary studies to better understand the dynamics of vent communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. NEPTUNE Canada (NC) regional observatory is located in the Northeast Pacific, off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada), and spans ecological environments from the beach to the abyss. In September-October 2010, NC will be instrumenting its 5th node, including deployment of a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments in two vent fields on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These include a digital camera, an imaging sonar for vent plumes and flow characteristics (i.e. COVIS), temperature resistivity probes, a water sampler and seismometers. In 2011, the TEMPO-mini, a new custom-designed camera and sensor package created by IFREMER for real-time monitoring of hydrothermal faunal assemblages and their ecosystems (Sarrazin et al. 2007), and a microbial incubator, will added to the network in the Main Endeavour and Mothra vent fields. This multidisciplinary approach will involve a scientific community from different institutions and countries. Significant experience aids in this installation. For example, video systems connected to VENUS and NC have led to the development of new experimental protocols for time-series observations using seafloor cameras, including sampling design, camera calibration and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al. and Robert et al.). Similarly, autonomous deployment of many of the planned instruments

  18. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Initial Results and Catalog from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullaney, J. R.; Del-Moro, A.; Aird, J.;

    2015-01-01

    We present the initial results and the source catalog from the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (hereafter, ECDFS)—currently the deepest contiguous component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The survey covers the full ≈30...

  19. Characterization and Improvement of the Image Quality of the Data Taken with the Infrared Camera (IRC) Mid-Infrared Channels on Board AKARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimatsu, Ko; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Oyabu, Shinki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Kato, Daisuke; Egusa, Fumi; Wada, Takehiko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2011-08-01

    Mid-infrared images frequently suffer artifacts and extended point-spread functions (PSFs). We investigate the characteristics of the artifacts and the PSFs in images obtained with the infrared camera (IRC) on board AKARI at four mid-infrared bands of the S7 (7 μm), S11 (11 μm), L15 (15 μm), and L24 (24 μm). Removal of the artifacts significantly improves the reliability of the reference data for flat-fielding at the L15 and L24 bands. A set of models of the IRC PSFs is also constructed from on-orbit data. These PSFs have extended components that come from diffraction and scattering within the detector arrays. We estimate the aperture correction factors for point sources and the surface brightness correction factors for diffuse sources. We conclude that the surface brightness correction factors range from 0.95 to 0.8, taking account of the extended component of the PSFs. To correct for the extended PSF effects for the study of faint structures, we also develop an image reconstruction method, which consists of the deconvolution with the PSF and the convolution with an appropriate Gaussian. The appropriate removal of the artifacts, improved flat-fielding, and image reconstruction with the extended PSFs enable us to investigate detailed structures of extended sources in IRC mid-infrared images.

  20. Optimisation potential of sucker rod deep drilling systems in petroleum production at Brown Fields; Optimierungspotential von Gestaengetiefpumpensystemen bei der Erdoelfoerderung von Brown Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, G.; Kass, M.; Rice, D. [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs AG (RAG), Gampern (Austria)

    2007-09-13

    Optimised operation of sucker rod deep drilling systems is a decisive criterion for economically efficient production from older wells with liquid build-up (Brown Fields). Possibilities for optimising the system as a whole are reviewed from different angles (software, hardware). Design software, design methods, material problems, and corrosion prevention are gone into. (orig.)

  1. Structure detection in the D1 CFHTLS deep field using accurate photometric redshifts: a benchmark

    CERN Document Server

    Mazure, A; Pierre, M; Lefèvre, O; Arnouts, S; Duc, P A; Ilbert, O; Le Brun, V; Meneux, B; Pacaud, F; Surdej, J; Valtchanov, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigate structures in the D1 CFHTLS deep field in order to test the method that will be applied to generate homogeneous samples of clusters and groups of galaxies in order to constrain cosmology and detailed physics of groups and clusters. Adaptive kernel technique is applied on galaxy catalogues. This technique needs none of the usual a-priori assumptions (luminosity function, density profile, colour of galaxies) made with other methods. Its main drawback (decrease of efficiency with increasing background) is overcame by the use of narrow slices in photometric redshift space. There are two main concerns in structure detection. One is false detection and the second, the evaluation of the selection function in particular if one wants "complete" samples. We deal here with the first concern using random distributions. For the second, comparison with detailed simulations is foreseen but we use here a pragmatic approach with comparing our results to GalICS simulations to check that our detection number is n...

  2. Frontier Fields Clusters: Deep Chandra Observations of the Complex Merger MACS J1149.6+2223

    CERN Document Server

    Ogrean, G A; Jones, C; Forman, W; Dawson, W A; Golovich, N; Andrade-Santos, F; Murray, S S; Nulsen, P; Roediger, E; Zitrin, A; Bulbul, E; Kraft, R; Goulding, A; Umetsu, K; Mroczkowski, T; Bonafede, A; Randall, S; Sayers, J; Churazov, E; David, L; Merten, J; Donahue, M; Mason, B; Rosati, P; Vikhlinin, A; Ebeling, H

    2016-01-01

    The HST Frontier Fields cluster MACS J1149.6+2223 is one of the most complex merging clusters, believed to consist of four dark matter halos. We present results from deep (365 ks) Chandra observations of the cluster, which reveal the most distant cold front (z=0.544) discovered to date. In the cluster outskirts, we also detect hints of a surface brightness edge that could be the bow shock preceding the cold front. The substructure analysis of the cluster identified several components with large relative radial velocities, thus indicating that at least some collisions occur almost along the line of sight. The inclination of the mergers with respect to the plane of the sky poses significant observational challenges at X-ray wavelengths. MACS J1149.6+2223 possibly hosts a steep-spectrum radio halo. If the steepness of the radio halo is confirmed, then the radio spectrum, combined with the relatively regular ICM morphology, could indicate that MACS J1149.6+2223 is an old merging cluster.

  3. Bulge and Clump Evolution in Hubble Ultra Deep Field Clump Clusters, Chains and Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Fernandez, Maria Ximena; Lemonias, Jenna Jo

    2008-01-01

    Clump clusters and chain galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field are examined for bulges in the NICMOS images. Approximately 50% of the clump clusters and 30% of the chains have relatively red and massive clumps that could be young bulges. Magnitudes and colors are determined for these bulge-like objects and for the bulges in spiral galaxies, and for all of the prominent star-formation clumps in these three galaxy types. The colors are fitted to population evolution models to determine the bulge and clump masses, ages, star-formation rate decay times, and extinctions. The results indicate that bulge-like objects in clump cluster and chain galaxies have similar ages and 2 to 5 times larger masses compared to the star-formation clumps, while the bulges in spirals have ~6 times larger ages and 20 to 30 times larger masses than the clumps. All systems appear to have an underlying red disk population. The masses of star-forming clumps are typically in a range from 10^7 to 10^8 Msun; their ages have a wide range ar...

  4. Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Kong; Wei Zhang; Min Wang

    2008-01-01

    Using a simple color selection based on B-, z- and K-band photometry, BzK =(z - K)AB - (B - z)AB -0.2, we picked out 52 star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5(sBzKs) from a K-band selected sample (KVega < 22.0) in an area of ~ 5.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). We develop a new photometric redshift method, and the error in our photometric redshifts is less than 0.02(1 + z). From the photometric redshift distribution, we find the BzK color criterion can be used to select star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with KVega < 22.0. Down to KVega < 22.0, the number counts of sBzKs increase linearly with the K magnitude; the sBzKs are strongly clustered, and most of them have irregular morphologies on the ACS images. They have a median reddening of E(B -V) ~ 0.28, an average star formation rate of ~ 36 M⊙ yr-1 and a typical stellar mass of ~ 1010M⊙. The UV criterion for the galaxies at z~2 can select most of the faint sBzKs in the UDF, but it does not work well for bright, massive, highly-reddened, actively star-forming galaxies.

  5. INTEGRAL/IBIS deep extragalactic survey: M81, LMC and 3C 273/Coma fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mereminskiy, Ilya A; Lutovinov, Alexander A; Sazonov, Sergey Yu; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G; Sunyaev, Rashid A

    2016-01-01

    We present results of deep surveys of three extragalactic fields, M81 (exposure of 9.7 Ms), LMC (6.8 Ms) and 3C 273/Coma (9.3 Ms), in the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) energy band with the IBIS telescope onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, based on 12 years of observations (2003-2015). The combined survey reaches a $4\\sigma$ peak sensitivity of 0.18 mCrab (2.6$\\times$10$^{-12}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$) and sensitivity better than 0.25 and 0.87 mCrab over 10% and 90% of its full area of 4900 deg$^{2}$, respectively. We have detected in total 147 sources at $S/N>4\\sigma$, including 37 sources observed in hard X-rays for the first time. The survey is dominated by extragalactic sources, mostly by active galactic nuclei (AGN). The sample of identified sources contains 98 AGN (including 64 Seyfert galaxies, 7 LINERs, 3 XBONGs, 16 blazars and 8 AGN of unclear optical class), two galaxy clusters (Coma and Abell 3266), 17 objects located in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (13 high- and 2 low-mass X-ray binaries and 2 X-ra...

  6. Massive Structures of Galaxies at High Redshifts in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    If the Universe is dominated by cold dark matter and dark energy as in the currently popular LCDM cosmology, it is expected that large scale structures form gradually, with galaxy clusters of mass M > ~10^14 Msun appearing at around 6 Gyrs after the Big Bang (z ~ 1). Here, we report the discovery of 59 massive structures of galaxies with masses greater than a few x 10^13 Msun at redshifts between z=0.6 and 4.5 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields. The massive structures are identified by running top-hat filters on the two dimensional spatial distribution of magnitude-limited samples of galaxies using a combination of spectroscopic and photometric redshifts. We analyze the Millennium simulation data in a similar way to the analysis of the observational data in order to test the LCDM cosmology. We find that there are too many massive structures (M > 7 x 10^13 Msun) observed at z > 2 in comparison with the simulation predictions by a factor of a few, giving a probability of < 1/2500 of the ob...

  7. X-ray Sources in the Hubble Deep Field Detected by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Hornschemeier, A E; Garmire, G P; Schneider, D P; Broos, P S; Townsley, L K; Bautz, M W; Burrows, D N; Chartas, G; Feigelson, E D; Griffiths, R; Lumb, D H; Nousek, J A; Sargent, W L W

    2000-01-01

    We present first results from an X-ray study of the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and its environs obtained using 166 ks of data collected by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the deepest X-ray observation ever reported, and in the HDF-N itself we detect six X-ray sources down to a 0.5--8 keV flux limit of 4E-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1. Comparing these sources with objects seen in multiwavelength HDF-N studies shows positional coincidences with the extremely red object NICMOS J123651.74 +621221.4, an active galactic nucleus (AGN), three elliptical galaxies, and one nearby spiral galaxy. The X-ray emission from the ellipticals is consistent with that expected from a hot interstellar medium, and the spiral galaxy emission may arise from a `super-Eddington' X-ray binary or ultraluminous supernova remnant. Four of the X-ray sources have been detected at radio wavelengths. We also place X-ray upper limits on AGN candidates found in the HDF-N, and we present the t...

  8. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. VLT/VIMOS Spectroscopy in the GOODS-South Field

    CERN Document Server

    Popesso, P; Nonino, M; Vanzella, E; Daddi, E; Fosbury, R A E; Kuntschner, H; Mainieri, V; Cristiani, S; Césarsky, C J; Giavalisco, M; Renzini, A

    2008-01-01

    We present the first results of the VIsible Multiobject Spectrograph (VIMOS) ESO/GOODS program of spectroscopy of faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). The program complements the FORS2 ESO/GOODS campaign. 3312 spectra have been obtained in service mode with VIMOS at the ESO/VLT UT3. The VIMOS LR-Blue and MR grisms have been used to cover different redshift ranges. Galaxies at 1.8 3.5 have been observed in the VIMOS MR survey. Here we report results for the first 6 masks (out of 10 total) that have been analyzed from each of the LR-Blue and MR grisms. Spectra of 2344 spectra have been extracted from these 6 LR-Blue masks and 968 from 6 MR masks. 33% of the LR-Blue and 18% of the MR spectra are serendipitous observations. We obtained 1481 redshifts in the LR-Blue campaign and 656 in the MR campaign for a total success rate of 63% and 68%, respectively, which increase to 70% and 75% when only the primary targets are considered. By complementing our VIMOS spectroscopic catalog with all existin...

  9. A new catalog of photometric redshifts in the Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Soto, A; Yahil, A

    1999-01-01

    Using the newly available infrared images of the Hubble Deep Field in the J, H, and K bands and an optimal photometric method, we have refined a technique to estimate the redshifts of 1067 galaxies. A detailed comparison of our results with the spectroscopic redshifts in those cases where the latter are available shows that this technique gives very good results for bright enough objects (AB(8140) < 26.0). From a study of the distribution of residuals (Dz(rms)/(1+z) ~ 0.1 at all redshifts) we conclude that the observed errors are mainly due to cosmic variance. This very important result allows for the assessment of errors in quantities to be directly or indirectly measured from the catalog. We present some of the statistical properties of the ensemble of galaxies in the catalog, and finish by presenting a list of bright high-redshift (z ~ 5) candidates extracted from our catalog, together with recent spectroscopic redshift determinations confirming that two of them are at z=5.34 and z=5.60.

  10. INTEGRAL/IBIS deep extragalactic survey: M81, LMC and 3C 273/Coma fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereminskiy, Ilya A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Sazonov, Sergey Yu.; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.

    2016-06-01

    We present results of a deep survey of three extragalactic fields, M81 (exposure of 9.7 Ms), Large Magellanic Cloud (6.8 Ms) and 3C 273/Coma (9.3 Ms), in the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) energy band with the IBIS telescope onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, based on 12 years of observations (2003-2015). The combined survey reaches a 4σ peak sensitivity of 0.18 mCrab (2.6 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2) and sensitivity better than 0.25 and 0.87 mCrab over 10 per cent and 90 per cent of its full area of 4900 deg2, respectively. We have detected in total 147 sources at S/N > 4σ, including 37 sources observed in hard X-rays for the first time. The survey is dominated by extragalactic sources, mostly active galactic nuclei (AGN). The sample of identified sources contains 98 AGN (including 64 Seyfert galaxies, seven low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies, three X-ray bright optically normal galaxies, 16 blazars and eight AGN of unclear optical class), two galaxy clusters (Coma and Abell 3266), 17 objects located in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (13 high- and two low-mass X-ray binaries and two X-ray pulsars), three Galactic cataclysmic variables, one ultraluminous X-ray source (M82 X-1) and one blended source (SWIFT J1105.7+5854). The nature of 25 sources remains unknown, so that the survey's identification is currently complete at 83 per cent. We have constructed AGN number-flux relations (log N-log S) and calculated AGN number densities in the local Universe for the entire survey and for each of the three extragalactic fields.

  11. Dalia integrated production bundle (IPB): an innovative riser solution for deep water fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reals, Th Boscals de; Gloaguen, M.; Roche, F. [Total E and P (Angola); Marion, A.; Poincheval, A. [Technip, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Dalia field is located 210 km north west of Luanda (Angola), about 140 km from shore in 1400 meter water-depth. It was the second major discovery out of 15 made in the block 17 operated by Total. The Dalia Umbilical, Flow lines and Risers EPCI Contract was awarded in 2003. The sea-line network to connect and control the 71 wells and 9 manifolds consist of the following: 40 km of insulated pipe in pipe (12 inches into 17 inches) production flow lines; 45 km of 12 inches water and gas injection lines; 6 off 1.7 km flexible water and gas injection risers; 8 off 1.65 km flexible Integrated Production Bundle (IPB) risers; 75 km of control umbilicals. The flow assurance and associated insulation requirement of the production transport system was one of the main challenges of the project. With a crude temperature of 45 deg C at the wellhead and the required minimum temperature of 35 deg C on arrival at the FPSO, this problem was complex. Understanding that, due to the Joule Thompson effect of the riser gas lift, a 'built in' loss of about 5 deg C is induced and together with further losses through the sub sea pipelines, some up to 6 km long, the agreed solution was 'pipe in pipe' for the production flow lines. The innovative flexible IPB riser, incorporating gas lift and heating to keep the fluid temperature above hydrate formation zone, was the selected riser solution. The IPB is new technology for deep water, developed by Technip for Dalia, and consists of a 12 inches nominal central flexible, surrounded by layers of heat tracing cables, small bore gas lift lines, optical fibres and many insulation layers with an Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of approximately 3,4 W/m{sup 2}K. After an earlier research and development programme, a further extensive qualification programme was conducted during the course of the project, culminating with the deep water testing phase offshore Brazil. The IPB was then approved for fabrication and installation

  12. The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to cosmic reionization: new results from deep WFC3 imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bunker, Andrew J.; Wilkins, Stephen; Ellis, Richard S.; Stark, Daniel P.; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Chiu, Kuenley; Lacy, Mark; Matt J. Jarvis; Hickey, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    We have searched for star-forming galaxies at z≈ 7–10 by applying the Lyman-break technique to newly released Y-, J- and H-band images (1.1, 1.25 and 1.6 μm) from Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. By comparing these images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) z′-band (0.85 μm) images, we identify objects with red colours, (z′−Y)AB > 1.3, consistent with the Lyman α forest absorption at z≈ 6.7–8.8. We identify 12 of these z′-drops do...

  13. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  14. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark A. [AREVA Federal Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2016-01-19

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primary input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  15. The construction of technical standard system for ultra deep and high sour gas fields in Northeast Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yintao; Liao Chengrui; Yang Yukun

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the exploitation difficulties of gas fields in Northeast Sichuan with deep marine strata, after re- searching the relative standards domestic and abroad extensively, summarizing and promoting the successful experiences and failure lessons of project construction technology application scientifically, Sinopec has established an integrated technical standard system for the exploration and development of ultra deep and high sour gas fields. The system consists of 51 enterprise standards and covers 7 professions including geophysical prospecting, drilling, drilling log, well log- ging, gas formation test and production, sour gas gathering and transferring system, and HSE (health, safety, environ- ment). It guides and guarantees the safe, high-quality and high-efficiency project construction effectively by means of enhancing the engineering design criterion, recommending the data processing and interpretation methods, identifying the requirements of operation and field inspection and standardizing the application of technical equipments.

  16. Seafloor bathymetry in deep and shallow water marine CSEM responses of Nigerian Niger Delta oil field: Effects and corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folorunso, Adetayo Femi; Li, Yuguo

    2015-12-01

    Topography distortions in bathymetrically acquired marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) responses are capable of misleading interpretation to the presence or absence of the target if not corrected for. For this reason, the effects and correction of bathymetry distortions on the deep and shallow seafloor mCSEM responses of the Niger Delta Oil province were examined in this paper. Marine CSEM response of the Niger Delta geological structure was modelled by using a 2.5D adaptive finite element forward modelling code. In both the deep water and shallow water cases, the bathymetry distortions in the electric field amplitude and phase were found to get smaller with increasing Tx-Rx offsets and contain short-wavelength components in the amplitude curves which persist at all Tx-Rx offsets. In the deep water, topographic effects on the reservoir signatures are not significant, but as water depth reduces, bathymetric distortions become more significant as a result of the airwave effects, masking the target signatures. The correction technique produces a good agreement between the flat-seafloor reservoir model and its equivalent bathymetric model in deep water at 0.25 Hz, while in shallow water, the corrected response only shows good agreement at shorter offsets but becomes complicated at longer offsets due to airwave effects. Transmission frequency was extended above and below 0.25 Hz in the frequency spectrum and the correction method applied. The bathymetry correction at higher frequency (1.75 Hz) is not effective in removing the topographic effects in either deep or shallow water. At 0.05 Hz for both seafloor scenarios, we obtained the best corrected amplitude profiles, removing completely the distortions from both topographic undulation and airwave effects in the shallow water model. Overall, the work shows that the correction technique is effective in reducing bathymetric effects in deep water at medium frequency and in both deep and shallow waters at a low

  17. Toroidal magnetic fields for protecting astronauts from ionizing radiation in long duration deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Paolo; Spillantini, Piero

    2014-11-01

    Among the configurations of superconducting magnet structures proposed for protecting manned spaceships or manned deep space bases from ionizing radiation, toroidal ones are the most appealing for the efficient use of the magnetic field, being most of the incoming particle directions perpendicular to the induction lines of the field. The parameters of the toroid configuration essentially depend from the shape and volume of the habitat to be protected and the level of protection to be guaranteed. Two options are considered: (1) the magnetic system forming with the habitat a unique complex (compact toroid) to be launched as one piece; (2) the magnetic system to be launched separately from the habitat and assembled around it in space (large toroid). In first option the system habitat+toroid is assumed to have a cylindrical shape, with the toroid surrounding a cylindrical habitat, and launched with its axis on the axis of the launching system. The outer diameter is limited by the diameter of the shroud, which for present and foreseeable launching systems cannot be more than 9 m. The habitat is assumed to be 10 m long and have a 4 m diameter, leaving about 2 m all around for the protecting magnetic field. The volume of the habitat results about 100 m3, barely sufficient to a somewhat small crew (4-5 members) for a long duration (≅2 years) mission. Technological problems and the huge magnetic pressure exerted on the inner cylindrical conductor of the toroid limit to not more than 4 T the maximum intensity of the magnetic field. With these parameters the mitigation of the dose inside the habitat due to the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) is about 70% at minimum solar activity, while also most intense solar events cannot significantly contribute to the dose. The toroidal magnetic field can be produced by a large number of windings of the superconducting cable, arranged in cylindrical symmetry around the habitat to form continuous inner and outer cylindrical surfaces

  18. Characterization and Improvement of the Image Quality of the Data Taken with the Infrared Camera (IRC) Mid-Infrared Channels onboard AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Arimatsu, Ko; Sakon, Itsuki; Oyabu, Shinki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Kato, Daisuke; Egusa, Fumi; Wada, Takehiko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Mid-infrared images frequently suffer artifacts and extended point spread functions (PSFs). We investigate the characteristics of the artifacts and the PSFs in images obtained with the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard AKARI at four mid-infrared bands of the S7 (7{\\mu}m), S11 (11{\\mu}m), L15 (15{\\mu}m), and L24 (24 {\\mu}m). Removal of the artifacts significantly improves the reliability of the ref- erence data for flat-fielding at the L15 and L24 bands. A set of models of the IRC PSFs is also constructed from on-orbit data. These PSFs have extended components that come from diffraction and scattering within the detector arrays. We estimate the aperture correction factors for point sources and the surface brightness correction factors for diffuse sources. We conclude that the surface brightness correction factors range from 0.95 to 0.8, taking account of the extended component of the PSFs. To correct for the extended PSF effects for the study of faint structures, we also develop an image reconstruction method, whi...

  19. A SURVEY OF H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, AND CO ICE FEATURES TOWARD BACKGROUND STARS AND LOW-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS USING AKARI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, J. A. [Aix-Marseille Université, PIIM UMR 7345, F-13397 Marseille (France); Fraser, H. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Aikawa, Y. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Pontoppidan, K. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sakon, I., E-mail: helen.fraser@open.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0003 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 19 molecular clouds made using the AKARI satellite, and the data reduction pipeline written to analyze those observations. The 2.5-5 μm spectra of 30 objects—22 field stars behind quiescent molecular clouds and 8 low-mass young stellar objects in cores—were successfully extracted using the pipeline. Those spectra are further analyzed to calculate the column densities of key solid phase molecular species, including H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, and OCN{sup –}. The profile of the H{sub 2}O ice band is seen to vary across the objects observed and we suggest that the extended red wing may be an evolutionary indicator of both dust and ice mantle properties. The observation of 22 spectra with fluxes as low as < 5 mJy toward background stars, including 15 where the column densities of H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} were calculated, provides valuable data that could help to benchmark the initial conditions in star-forming regions prior to the onset of star formation.

  20. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. POINT-SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Daisuke; Onaka, Takashi; Shimonishi, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Tanabe, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Hidenori [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Kaneda, Hidehiro [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wada, Takehiko; Usui, Fumihiko [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Koo, Bon-Chul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Matsuura, Mikako, E-mail: kato@ir.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: onaka@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    We present a near- to mid-infrared point-source catalog of five photometric bands at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m for a 10 deg{sup 2} area of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the Infrared Camera on board the AKARI satellite. To cover the survey area the observations were carried out at three separate seasons from 2006 May to June, 2006 October to December, and 2007 March to July. The 10{sigma} limiting magnitudes of the present survey are 17.9, 13.8, 12.4, 9.9, and 8.6 mag at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m, respectively. The photometric accuracy is estimated to be about 0.1 mag at 3.2 {mu}m and 0.06-0.07 mag in the other bands. The position accuracy is 0.''3 at 3.2, 7, and 11 {mu}m and 1.''0 at 15 and 24 {mu}m. The sensitivities at 3.2, 7, and 24 {mu}m are roughly comparable to those of the Spitzer SAGE LMC point-source catalog, while the AKARI catalog provides the data at 11 and 15 {mu}m, covering the mid-infrared spectral range contiguously. Two types of catalog are provided: a Catalog and an Archive. The Archive contains all the detected sources, while the Catalog only includes the sources that have a counterpart in the Spitzer SAGE point-source catalog. The Archive contains about 650,000, 140,000, 97,000, 43,000, and 52,000 sources at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 {mu}m, respectively. Based on the catalog, we discuss the luminosity functions at each band, the color-color diagram, and the color-magnitude diagram using the 3.2, 7, and 11 {mu}m band data. Stars without circumstellar envelopes, dusty C-rich and O-rich stars, young stellar objects, and background galaxies are located at distinct regions in the diagrams, suggesting that the present catalog is useful for the classification of objects toward the LMC.

  1. Ice Mapping Observations in Galactic Star-Forming Regions: the AKARI Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Helen Jane; Suutarinnen, Aleksi; Noble, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that explaining the small-scale distribution of many gas-phase molecules relies on our interpretation of the complex inter-connectivity between gas- and solid-phase interstellar chemistries. Inputs to proto-stellar astrochemical models are required that exploit ice compositions reflecting the historical physical conditions in pre-stellar environments when the ices first formed. Such data are required to translate the near-universe picture of ice-composition to our understanding of the role of extra-galactic ices in star-formation at higher redshifts.Here we present the first attempts at multi-object ice detections, and the subsequent ice column density mapping. The AKARI space telescope was uniquely capable of observing all the ice features between 2 and 5 microns, thereby detecting H2O, CO and CO2 ices concurrently, through their stretching vibrational features. Our group has successfully extracted an unprecedented volume of ice spectra from AKARI, including sources with not more than 2 mJy flux at 3 microns, showing:(a) H2O CO and CO2 ices on 30 lines of sight towards pre-stellar and star-forming cores, which when combined with laboratory experiments indicate how the chemistries of these three ices are interlinked (Noble et al (2013)),(b) ice maps showing the spatial distribution of water ice across 12 pre-stellar cores, in different molecular clouds (Suutarinnen et al (2015)), and the distribution of ice components within these cores on 1000 AU scales (Noble et al (2015)),(c) over 200 new detections of water ice, mostly on lines of sight towards background sources (> 145), indicating that water ice column density has a minimum value as a function of Av, but on a cloud-by-cloud basis typically correlates with Av, and dust emissivity at 250 microns (Suutarinnen et al (2015)),(d) the first detections of HDO ice towards background stars (Fraser et al (2015)).We discuss whether these results support the picture of a generic chemical

  2. SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR RADIO VARIABLES AND TRANSIENTS IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an analysis of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) region using archival data from the Very Large Array, with the goal of studying radio variability and transients at the sub-milliJansky level. The 49 epochs of E-CDFS observations at 1.4 GHz sample timescales from 1 day to 3 months. We find that only a fraction (1%) of unresolved radio sources above 40 μJy are variable at the 4σ level. There is no evidence that the fractional variability changes along with the known transition of radio-source populations below 1 mJy. Optical identifications of the sources show that the variable radio emission is associated with the central regions of an active galactic nucleus or a star-forming galaxy. After a detailed comparison of the efficacy of various source-finding algorithms, we use the best to carry out a transient search. No transients were found. This implies that the areal density of transients with peak flux density greater than 0.21 mJy is less than 0.37 deg–2 (at a confidence level of 95%). This result is approximately an order of magnitude below the transient rate measured at 5 GHz by Bower et al. but it is consistent with more recent upper limits from Frail et al. Our findings suggest that the radio sky at 1.4 GHz is relatively quiet. For multi-wavelength transient searches, such as the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, this frequency may be optimal for reducing the high background of false positives.

  3. Solar wind charge exchange emission in the Chandra deep field north

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffuse soft X-ray background comes from distant galaxies, from hot Galactic gas, and from within the solar system. The latter emission arises from charge exchange between highly charged solar wind ions and neutral gas. This so-called solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission is spatially and temporally variable and interferes with our measurements of more distant cosmic emission while also providing important information on the nature of the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction. We present the results of our analysis of eight Chandra observations of the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN) with the goal of measuring the cosmic and SWCX contributions to the X-ray background. Our modeling of both geocoronal and heliospheric SWCX emission is the most detailed for any observation to date. After allowing for ∼30% uncertainty in the SWCX emission and subtracting it from the observational data, we estimate that the flux of cosmic background for the CDFN in the O VII Kα, Kβ, and O VIII Lyα lines totals 5.8 ± 1.1 photons s–1 cm–2 sr–1 (or LU). Heliospheric SWCX emission varied for each observation due to differences in solar wind conditions and the line of sight through the solar system, but was typically about half as strong as the cosmic background (i.e., one-third of the total) in those lines. The modeled geocoronal emission was 0.82 LU in one observation but averaged only 0.15 LU in the others. Our measurement of the cosmic background is lower than but marginally consistent with previous estimates based on XMM-Newton data.

  4. Classification of extremely red objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-Wen Fang; Xu Kong; Min Wang

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the classification of Extremely Red Objects (EROs). The analysis is based on the multi-band spatial-and ground-based observa-tions (HST/ACS-BViz, HST/NICMOS-JH, VLT-JHK) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). Over a total sky area of 5.50 arcmin2 in the UDF, we select 24 EROs with the color criterion (i-K)vega 3.9, corresponding to (I-K)vega 4.0, down to KVega = 22. We develop four methods to classify EROs into Old passively evolving Galaxies (OGs) and Dusty star-forming Galaxies (DGs), including (i-K) vs. (J-K) color diagram,spectral energy distribution fitting method, Spitzer MIPS 24μm image matching, and nonparametric measure of galaxy morphology, and found that the classification results from these methods agree well. Using these four classification methods, we classify our EROs sample into 60Gs and 8 DGs to KVega < 20.5, and 80Gs and 16 DGs to KVega < 22, respectively. The fraction of DGs increases from 8/14 at KVega < 20.5to 16/24 at Kvega < 22. To study the morphology of galaxies with its wavelength, we measure the central concentration and the Gini coefficient for the 24 EROs in our sample in HST/ACS-i, z and HST/NICMOS-J, H bands. We find that the morphological param-eters of galaxies in our sample depend on the wavelength of observation, which suggests that caution is necessary when comparing single wavelength band images of galaxies at a variety of redshifts.

  5. Enhancing the Legacy of Spitzer and Herschel with the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen

    The next frontier for comprehensive galaxy surveys is the epoch at z~1.5-3.5, the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Despite the new windows that Spitzer and Herschel have opened up into the stellar and dust emission of distant galaxies and AGN during this key epoch, these studies have been limited by the lack of spectroscopic redshifts and the unknown physical conditions (e.g., metallicities, ionization) within the targeted galaxies. To realize the full potential of Spitzer and Herschel, we require a large spectroscopic survey that will: (a) efficiently assemble spectroscopic redshifts for large samples of galaxies at z=1.4-3.8; (b) yield the physical conditions, including the ionization and metallicities of these galaxies; and (c) easily obtain spectroscopic redshifts even for very dusty/confused galaxies. To this end, our team has been allocated a large program of 47 Keck nights with the multi-object near-IR spectrograph MOSFIRE to carry out the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey (MOSDEF) in three of the Hubble CANDELS fields. MOSDEF will obtain rest-optical spectra of ~1500 galaxies at redshifts z=1.4-3.8, targeting many of the optical nebular emission lines and continuum features (e.g., [OII], [OIII], H-beta, H-alpha, [NII], [SII], 4000 Angstrom break, Ca H and K, and Mbg) that until now have been inaccessible for large samples of distant galaxies, but which are routinely used to measure the SFRs, dust attenuation, metal and gas content, and ionization and dynamical properties in nearby galaxies. MOSDEF spectroscopy provides a critical supporting role for the analysis of Spitzer and Herschel observations of distant galaxies. With this transformative dataset, we will perform the following analyses. First, we will use Spitzer and Herschel imaging, aided with spectroscopic redshifts from MOSDEF, to construct individual and mean dust SEDs for galaxies at redshifts 1.4formation and destruction processes. Our study will greatly enhance the scientific

  6. Radon-222 from the island of hawaii: deep soils are more important than lava fields or volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, M H

    1974-02-01

    The mean flux of radon-222 atoms from the island of Hawaii is 0.45 atom per square centimeter per second. Lava fields occupy 50 percent of the land area, but their radon flux is only 1 percent of that from deep volcanic soils. The island yields approximately 10 curies of radon-222 per hour to the air surrounding it. The radon-222 contribuition of volcanoes is negligible.

  7. A New Sample of Obscured AGNs Selected from the XMM-Newton and AKARI Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Terashima, Yuichi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Oyabu, Shinki; Gandhi, Poshak; Toba, Yoshiki; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We report a new sample of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the XMM serendipitous source and AKARI point-source catalogs. We match X-ray sources with infrared (18 and 90 micron) sources located at |b|>10 deg to create a sample consisting of 173 objects. Their optical classifications and absorption column densities measured by X-ray spectra are compiled and study efficient selection criteria to find obscured AGNs. We apply the criteria (1) X-ray hardness ratio defined by using the 2-4.5 keV and 4.5-12 keV bands >-0.1 and (2) EPIC-PN count rate (CR) in the 0.2-12 keV to infrared flux ratio CR/F90700 eV is found in 26 objects. Six among them are classified as Compton-thick AGNs, and four are represented by either Compton-thin or Compton-thick spectral models. The success rate of finding obscured AGNs combining our analysis and the literature is 92% if the 18 micron condition is used. Of the 26 objects, 4 are optically classified as an HII nucleus and are new "elusive AGNs" in which star format...

  8. Revised Wavelength and Spectral Response Calibrations for AKARI Near-Infrared Grism Spectroscopy: Cryogenic Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, S; Shirahata, M; Isobe, N; Usui, F; Ohyama, Y; Onaka, T; Yano, K; Kochi, C

    2016-01-01

    We perform revised spectral calibrations for the AKARI near-infrared grism to quantitatively correct for the effect of the wavelength-dependent refractive index. The near-infrared grism covering the wavelength range of 2.5--5.0 micron with a spectral resolving power of 120 at 3.6 micron, is found to be contaminated by second-order light at wavelengths longer than 4.9 micron which is especially serious for red objects. First, we present the wavelength calibration considering the refractive index of the grism as a function of the wavelength for the first time. We find that the previous solution is positively shifted by up to 0.01 micron compared with the revised wavelengths at 2.5--5.0 micron. In addition, we demonstrate that second-order contamination occurs even with a perfect order-sorting filter owing to the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. Second, the spectral responses of the system from the first- and second-order light are simultaneously obtained from two types of standard objects with dif...

  9. Timeline analysis and wavelet multiscale analysis of the AKARI All-Sky Survey at 90 micron

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingyu; Yamamura, Issei; Shibai, Hiroshi; Savage, Rich; Oliver, Seb; Thomson, Matthew; Rahman, Nurur; Clements, Dave; Figueredo, Elysandra; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsuura, Shuji; Muller, Thomas G; Nakagawa, Takao; Pearson, Chris P; Serjeant, Stephen; Shirahata, Mai; White, Glenn J

    2008-01-01

    We present a careful analysis of the point source detection limit of the AKARI All-Sky Survey in the WIDE-S 90 $\\mu$m band near the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP). Timeline Analysis is used to detect IRAS sources and then a conversion factor is derived to transform the peak timeline signal to the interpolated 90 $\\mu$m flux of a source. Combined with a robust noise measurement, the point source flux detection limit at S/N $>5$ for a single detector row is $1.1\\pm0.1$ Jy which corresponds to a point source detection limit of the survey of $\\sim$0.4 Jy. Wavelet transform offers a multiscale representation of the Time Series Data (TSD). We calculate the continuous wavelet transform of the TSD and then search for significant wavelet coefficients considered as potential source detections. To discriminate real sources from spurious or moving objects, only sources with confirmation are selected. In our multiscale analysis, IRAS sources selected above $4\\sigma$ can be identified as the only real sources at the Point Sourc...

  10. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF SDSS-SELECTED BLUE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-4.5 μm) spectroscopic survey of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-selected blue early-type galaxies (BEGs) has been conducted using the AKARI. The NIR spectra of 36 BEGs are secured, which are well balanced in their star formation (SF)/Seyfert/LINER-type composition. For high signal-to-noise ratio, we stack the BEG spectra in its entirety and in bins of several properties: color, specific star formation rate, and optically determined spectral type. We estimate the NIR continuum slope and the equivalent width of 3.29 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission. In the comparison between the estimated NIR spectral features of the BEGs and those of model galaxies, the BEGs seem to be old-SSP(simple stellar population)-dominated metal-rich galaxies with moderate dust attenuation. The dust attenuation in the BEGs may originate from recent SF or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and the BEGs have a clear feature of PAH emission, evidence of current SF. BEGs show NIR features different from those of ULIRGs from which we do not find any clear relationship between BEGs and ULIRGs. We find that Seyfert BEGs have more active SF than LINER BEGs, in spite of the fact that Seyferts show stronger AGN activity than LINERs. One possible scenario satisfying both our results and the AGN feedback is that SF, Seyfert, and LINER BEGs form an evolutionary sequence: SF → Seyfert → LINER.

  11. AKARI Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of SDSS-Selected Blue Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Jong Chul; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    A near-infrared (NIR; 2.5 - 4.5 micron) spectroscopic survey of SDSS(Sloan Digital Sky Survey)-selected blue early-type galaxies (BEGs) has been conducted using the AKARI. The NIR spectra of 36 BEGs are secured, which are well balanced in their star-formation(SF)/Seyfert/LINER type composition. For high signal-to-noise ratio, we stack the BEG spectra all and in bins of several properties: color, specific star formation rate and optically-determined spectral type. We estimate the NIR continuum slope and the equivalent width of 3.29 micron PAH emission. In the comparison between the estimated NIR spectral features of the BEGs and those of model galaxies, the BEGs seem to be old-SSP(Simple Stellar Population)-dominated metal-rich galaxies with moderate dust attenuation. The dust attenuation in the BEGs may originate from recent star formation or AGN activity and the BEGs have a clear feature of PAH emission, the evidence of current SF. BEGs show NIR features different from those of ULIRGs, from which we do not f...

  12. The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: The evolution of the blue fraction in groups and the field

    CERN Document Server

    Gerke, B F; Faber, S M; Cooper, M C; Croton, D J; Davis, M; Willmer, C N A; Yan, R; Coil, A L; Guhathakurta, P; Koo, D C; Weiner, B J; Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Croton, Darren J.; Davis, Marc; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the behavior of the blue galaxy fraction over the redshift range 0.75 <= z <= 1.3 in the DEEP2 Survey, both for field galaxies and for galaxies in groups. The primary aim is to determine the role that groups play in driving the evolution of galaxy colour at high z. The colour segregation observed between local group and field samples is already in place at z ~ 1: DEEP2 groups have a significantly lower blue fraction than the field. At fixed z, there is also a correlation between blue fraction and galaxy magnitude, such that brighter galaxies are more likely to be red, both in groups and in the field. In addition, there is a negative correlation between blue fraction and group richness. In terms of evolution, the blue fraction in groups and the field remains roughly constant from z=0.75 to z ~ 1, but beyond this redshift the blue fraction in groups rises rapidly with z, and the group and field blue fractions become indistinguishable at z ~ 1.3. Careful tests indicate that this effect does not ...

  13. The spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the Chandra deep fields: a theoretical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Marulli, Federico; Branchini, Enzo; Gilli, Roberto; Moscardini, Lauro; Springel, Volker

    2009-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the framework of hierarchical co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies and dark matter haloes. To this end, we have applied the model developed by Croton et al.(2006), De Lucia & Blaizot(2007) and Marulli et al.(2008) to the output of the Millennium Run and obtained hundreds of realizations of past light-cones from which we have extracted realistic mock AGN catalogues that mimic the Chandra deep fields. We find that the model AGN number counts are in fair agreement with observations, except at fluxes <1e-15 erg/cm^2/s. The spatial two-point correlation function predicted by the model is well described by a power-law relation out to 20 Mpc/h, in close agreement with observations. Our model matches the correlation length r_0 of AGN in the Chandra Deep Field North but underestimates it in the Chandra Deep Field South. When fixing the slope to gamma = 1.4, as in Gilli et al. (2005), the statistical significance of the mismat...

  14. Deep diving odontocetes foraging strategies and their prey field as determined by acoustic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo

    Deep diving odontocetes, like sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and pilot whales are known to forage at deep depths in the ocean on squid and fish. These marine mammal species are top predators and for this reason are very important for the ecosystems they live in, since they can affect prey populations and control food web dynamics through top-down effects. The studies presented in this thesis investigate deep diving odontocetes. foraging strategies, and the density and size of their potential prey in the deep ocean using passive and active acoustic techniques. Ecological Acoustic Recorders (EAR) were used to monitor the foraging activity of deep diving odontocetes at three locations around the world: the Josephine Seamount High Sea Marine Protected Area (JHSMPA), the Ligurian Sea, and along the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. In the JHSMPA, sperm whales. and beaked whales. foraging rates do not differ between night-time and day-time. However, in the Ligurian Sea, sperm whales switch to night-time foraging as the winter approaches, while beaked whales alternate between hunting mainly at night, and both at night and at day. Spatial differences were found in deep diving odontocetes. foraging activity in Hawaii where they forage most in areas with higher chlorophyll concentrations. Pilot whales (and false killer whales, clustered together in the category "blackfishes") and Risso's dolphins forage mainly at night at all locations. These two species adjust their foraging activity with the length of the night. The density and size of animals living in deep sea scattering layers was studied using a DIDSON imaging sonar at multiple stations along the Kona coast of Hawaii. The density of animals was affected by location, depth, month, and the time of day. The size of animals was influenced by station and month. The DIDSON proved to be a successful, non-invasive technique to study density and size of animals in the deep sea. Densities were found to be an

  15. SELFI: an object-based, Bayesian method for faint emission line source detection in MUSE deep field data cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Céline; Chatelain, Florent; Michel, Olivier; Bacon, Roland; Piqueras, Laure; Bacher, Raphael; Ayasso, Hacheme

    2016-04-01

    We present SELFI, the Source Emission Line FInder, a new Bayesian method optimized for detection of faint galaxies in Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) deep fields. MUSE is the new panoramic integral field spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) that has unique capabilities for spectroscopic investigation of the deep sky. It has provided data cubes with 324 million voxels over a single 1 arcmin2 field of view. To address the challenge of faint-galaxy detection in these large data cubes, we developed a new method that processes 3D data either for modeling or for estimation and extraction of source configurations. This object-based approach yields a natural sparse representation of the sources in massive data fields, such as MUSE data cubes. In the Bayesian framework, the parameters that describe the observed sources are considered random variables. The Bayesian model leads to a general and robust algorithm where the parameters are estimated in a fully data-driven way. This detection algorithm was applied to the MUSE observation of Hubble Deep Field-South. With 27 h total integration time, these observations provide a catalog of 189 sources of various categories and with secured redshift. The algorithm retrieved 91% of the galaxies with only 9% false detection. This method also allowed the discovery of three new Lyα emitters and one [OII] emitter, all without any Hubble Space Telescope counterpart. We analyzed the reasons for failure for some targets, and found that the most important limitation of the method is when faint sources are located in the vicinity of bright spatially resolved galaxies that cannot be approximated by the Sérsic elliptical profile. The software and its documentation are available on the MUSE science web service (muse-vlt.eu/science).

  16. Observations of the Optical Transient in NGC 300 with AKARI/IRC: Possibilities of Asymmetric Dust Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohsawa, R; Sakon, I.; Onaka, T.; M. Tanaka; Moriya, T.; Nozawa, T; Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K.; Tominaga, N.; Usui, F.; Matsuhara, H.; Nakagawa, T.; H. Murakami

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared (NIR) multi-epoch observations of the optical transient in the nearby galaxy NGC300 (NGC300-OT) at 398 and 582 days after the discovery with the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard AKARI. NIR spectra (2--5 um) of NGC300-OT were obtained for the first time. They show no prominent emission nor absorption features, but are dominated by continuum thermal emission from the dust around NGC300-OT. NIR images were taken in the 2.4, 3.2, and 4.1 um bands. The spectral...

  17. A Comparison between Deep and Shallow Stress Fields in Korea Using Earthquake Focal Mechanism Inversions and Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rayeon; Chang, Chandong; Hong, Tae-kyung; Lee, Junhyung; Bae, Seong-Ho; Park, Eui-Seob; Park, Chan

    2016-04-01

    We are characterizing stress fields in Korea using two types of stress data: earthquake focal mechanism inversions (FMF) and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (HF). The earthquake focal mechanism inversion data represent stress conditions at 2-20 km depths, whereas the hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, mostly conducted for geotechnical purposes, have been carried out at depths shallower than 1 km. We classified individual stress data based on the World Stress Map quality ranking scheme. A total of 20 FMF data were classified into A-B quality, possibly representing tectonic stress fields. A total of 83 HF data out of compiled 226 data were classified into B-C quality, which we use for shallow stress field characterization. The tectonic stress, revealed from the FMF data, is characterized by a remarkable consistency in its maximum stress (σ1) directions in and around Korea (N79±2° E), indicating a quite uniform deep stress field throughout. On the other hand, the shallow stress field, represented by HF data, exhibits local variations in σ1 directions, possibly due to effects of topography and geologic structures such as faults. Nonetheless, there is a general similarity in σ1 directions between deep and shallow stress fields. To investigate the shallow stress field statistically, we follow 'the mean orientation and wavelength analysis' suggested by Reiter et al. (2014). After the stress pattern analysis, the resulting stress points distribute sporadically over the country, not covering the entire region evenly. In the western part of Korea, the shallow σ1directions are generally uniform with their search radius reaching 100 km, where the average stress direction agrees well with those of the deep tectonic stress. We note two noticeable differences between shallow and deep stresses in the eastern part of Korea. First, the shallow σ1 orientations are markedly non-uniform in the southeastern part of Korea with their search radius less than 25 km

  18. Far-Ultraviolet Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field North: Star Formation in Normal Galaxies at z<1

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, H I; Brown, T M; Chary, R; Colbert, J W; Conselice, C J; De Mello, D F; Dickinson, M; Ferguson, H C; Gardner, J P; Menanteau, F; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet (FUV) imaging of the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) taken with the Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS/SBC) and the FUV MAMA detector of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The full WFPC2 deep field has been observed at 1600 Angstroms. We detect 134 galaxies and one star down to a limit of FUV_{AB} ~ 29. All sources have counterparts in the WFPC2 image. Redshifts (spectroscopic or photometric) for the detected sources are in the range 0field of view. Six of the 13 Chandra sources at z<0.85 in the HDF-N are detected in the FUV, and those are consistent with starbursts rather than AGN. Cross-correlating with Spitzer sources in the field, we find that the FUV detections show general agreement with the expected L_IR/L_UV vs. Beta relationship. We...

  19. The VVDS-VLA Deep Field II. Optical and near infrared identifications of VLA S(1.4GHz)>80 microJy sources in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey VVDS-02h field

    CERN Document Server

    Ciliegi, P; Bondi, M; Pozzetti, L; Bolzonella, M; Garilli, L G B; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Mellier, Y; Radovich, M; De Ruiter, H R; Parma, P; Bottini, D; Le Brun, V; Lefèvre, O; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnaboldi, M; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mathez, G; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Merluzzi, P; Paltani, S; Pollo, A; Zucca, E; Bongiorno, A; Busarello, G; Gavignaud, I; Pellò, R; Ripepi, V; Rizzo, D

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the optical and near-infrared identifications of the 1054 radio sources detected in the 20cm deep radio survey down to a 5sigma flux limit of about 80 microJy obtained with the VLA in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey VVDS-02h deep field. Using U,B,V,R,I and K data, we identified 718 radio sources (~74% of the whole sample). The photometric redshift analysis shows that, in each magnitude bin, the radio sample has a higher median photometric redshift than the whole optical sample, while the median (V-I) color of the radio sources is redder than the median color of the whole optical sample. These results suggest that radio detection is preferentially selecting galaxies with higher intrinsic optical luminosity. From the analysis of the optical properties of the radio sources as function of the radio flux, we found that while about 35% of the radio sources are optically unidentified in the higher radio flux bin (S> 1.0 mJy), the percentage of unidentified sources decreases to about 25% in the fai...

  20. Design of Low-Power Data Logger of Deep Sea for Long-Term Field Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; CHEN Ying; YANG Can-jun; CAO Jian-wei; GU Lin-yi

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a data logger for the real-time in-situ monitoring of hydrothermal systems.A compact mechanical structure ensures the security and reliability of data logger when used under deep sea.The data logger is a battery powered instrument,which can connect chemical sensors ( pH electrode,H2S electrode,H2 electrode) and temperature sensors.In order to achieve major energy savings,dynamic power management is implemented in hardware design and software design.The working current of the data logger in idle mode and active mode is 15 μA and 1.44 mA respectively,which greatly extends the working time of battery.The data logger has been successfully tested in the first Sino-American Cooperative Deep Submergence Project from August 13 to September 3,2005.

  1. Novel methods and circuits for field shaping in deep brain stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, V.

    2011-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a clinical tool used to treat various neurological disorders, including tremor, Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dystonia. Today’s routine use of this therapy is a result of the pioneering work of Benabid and colleagues, who assessed the benefits of applying high-frequency stimulation to the ventral intermediate nucleus and reported substantial long-term improvements in PD patients. Clinical applications of DBS, however, have preceded research and le...

  2. The assembly of massive galaxies from NIR observations of the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, A; D'Odorico, S; Donnarumma, I; Giallongo, E; Menci, N; Nonino, M; Poli, F; Saracco, P; Vanzella, E; Obs, INAF-Padova; Obs, INAF-Trieste

    2003-01-01

    We use a deep K(AB)2 is 20^{+20}_{-5} % of the local value. In the mass--limited subsample at z>2, the fraction of passively fading galaxies is at most 25%, although they can contribute up to about 40% of the stellar mass density. On the other hand, star--forming galaxies at z>2 form stars with an average specific rate at least ~4 x10^{-10} yr$^{-1}$, 3 times higher than the z2.

  3. Tic related local field potentials in the thalamus and the effect of deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome : Report of three cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bour, L. J.; Ackermans, L.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Cath, D.; van der Linden, C.; Vandewalle, V. Visser; Tijssen, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Three patients with intractable Tourette syndrome (TS) underwent thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). To investigate the role of thalamic electrical activity in tic generation, local field potentials (LFP), EEG and EMG simultaneously were recorded. Methods: Event related potentials and

  4. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: The K-band follow-up in the 0226-04 field

    CERN Document Server

    Temporin, S; Bolzonella, M; McCracken, H J; Scodeggio, M; Garilli, B; Bottini, D; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Cucciati, O; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Vergani, D; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Brinchmann, J; De la Torre, S; Lamareille, F; Mellier, Y; Walcher, C J

    2008-01-01

    AIMS. We present a new Ks-band survey that represents a significant extension to the previous wide-field Ks-band imaging survey within the 0226-04 field of the VIMOS-VLT deep survey (VVDS). The new data add ~ 458 arcmin^2 to the previous imaging program, thus allowing us to cover a total contiguous area of ~ 600 arcmin^2 within this field. METHODS. Sources are identified both directly on the final K-band mosaic image and on the corresponding, deep chi^2-g'r'i' image from the CFHT Legacy Survey in order to reduce contamination while ensuring us the compilation of a truly K-selected catalogue down to the completeness limit of the Ks-band. The newly determined Ks-band magnitudes are used in combination with the ancillary multiwavelength data for the determination of accurate photometric redshifts. RESULTS. The final catalogue totals ~ 52000 sources, out of which ~ 4400 have a spectroscopic redshift from the VVDS first epoch survey. The catalogue is 90% complete down to K_Vega = 20.5 mag. We present K_s-band gala...

  5. Akari Observations of Brown Dwarfs. II CO2 as Probe of Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuji, Takashi; Sorahana, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations with the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI have shown that the CO2 bands at 4.2 micron in three brown dwarfs are much stronger than expected from the unified cloudy model (UCM) based on recent solar C & O abundances. This result has been a puzzle, but we now find that this is simply an abundance effect: We show that these strong CO2 bands can be explained with the UCMs based on the classical C & O abundances (log Ac and log Ao), which are about 0.2 dex larger compared to the recent values. Since three other brown dwarfs could be well interpreted with the recent solar C & O abundances, we require at least two model sequences based on the different chemical compositions to interpret all the AKARI spectra. The reason for this is that the CO2 band is especially sensitive to C & O abundances, since the CO2 abundance depends approximately on AcAo^2 --- the cube of C & O abundances. For this reason, even low resolution spectra of very cool dwarfs, especially of CO2 cannot ...

  6. BRIGHTNESS AND FLUCTUATION OF THE MID-INFRARED SKY FROM AKARI OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the smoothness of the mid-infrared sky from observations by the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. AKARI monitored the north ecliptic pole (NEP) during its cold phase with nine wave bands covering from 2.4 to 24 μm, out of which six mid-infrared bands were used in this study. We applied power-spectrum analysis to the images in order to search for the fluctuation of the sky brightness. Observed fluctuation is explained by fluctuation of photon noise, shot noise of faint sources, and Galactic cirrus. The fluctuations at a few arcminutes scales at short mid-infrared wavelengths (7, 9, and 11 μm) are largely caused by the diffuse Galactic light of the interstellar dust cirrus. At long mid-infrared wavelengths (15, 18, and 24 μm), photon noise is the dominant source of fluctuation over the scale from arcseconds to a few arcminutes. The residual fluctuation amplitude at 200'' after removing these contributions is at most 1.04 ± 0.23 nW m–2 sr–1 or 0.05% of the brightness at 24 μm and at least 0.47 ± 0.14 nW m–2 sr–1 or 0.02% at 18 μm. We conclude that the upper limit of the fluctuation in the zodiacal light toward the NEP is 0.03% of the sky brightness, taking 2σ error into account.

  7. Difference in the spatial distribution between H_2O and CO_2 ices in M82 found with AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Onaka, Takashi; Shimonishi, Takashi; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Minh, Young Chol

    2013-01-01

    With AKARI, we obtain the spatially-resolved near-infrared (2.5 - 5.0 um) spectra for the nearby starburst galaxy M82. These spectra clearly show the absorption features due to interstellar ices. Based on the spectra, we created the column density maps of H_2O and CO_2 ices. As a result, we find that the spatial distribution of H_2O ice is significantly different from that of CO_2 ice; H_2O ice is widely distributed, while CO_2 ice is concentrated near the galactic center. Our result for the first time reveals variations in CO_2/H_2O ice abundance ratio on a galactic scale, suggesting that the ice-forming interstellar environment changes within a galaxy. We discuss the cause of the spatial variations in the ice abundance ratio, utilizing spectral information on the hydrogen recombination Br{\\alpha} and Br{\\beta} lines and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 um emission appearing in the AKARI near-infrared spectra.

  8. Albedo Properties of Main Belt Asteroids Based on the Infrared All-Sky Survey of the Astronomical Satellite AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mueller, Thomas G; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the Standard Thermal Model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes. Main belt asteroids, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06 to 3.27 AU. AcuA provides a complete data set of all main belt asteroids brighter than the absolute magnitude of H 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the main belt asteroids is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite ...

  9. The AGN content of deep radio surveys and radio emission in radio-quiet AGN. Why every astronomer should care about deep radio fields

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Miller, N; Kellermann, K I; Mainieri, V; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vattakunnel, S

    2014-01-01

    We present our very recent results on the sub-mJy radio source populations at 1.4 GHz based on the Extended Chandra Deep Field South VLA survey, which reaches ~ 30 {\\mu}Jy, with details on their number counts, evolution, and luminosity functions. The sub-mJy radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet AGN evolving at a similar, strong rate and declining radio-loud AGN. While the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star-forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub-mJy sky. Our results shed also light on a fifty-year-old issue, namely radio emission from radio-quiet AGN, and suggest that it is closely related to star formation, at least at z ~ 1.5 - 2. The implications of our findings for future, deeper radio surveys, including those with the Square Kilometre Array, are also discussed. One of the main messages, especially to non-radio astronomers, is that radio surveys are reaching such f...

  10. X-ray Spectroscopy and Variability of AGN Detected in the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, F. E.; Vignali, C.; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K.; Schneider, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the faint X-ray source population through X-ray spectroscopy and variability analyses of 136 AGN detected in the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North survey with > 200 background-subtracted 0.5-8.0 keV counts [F(0.5-8.0 keV)=(1.4-200)e-15 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1}]. Our preliminary spectral analyses yield median spectral parameters of Gamma=1.61 and intrinsic N_H=6.2e21 cm^{-2} (z=1 assumed when no redshift available) when the AGN spectra are fitted with a simple absorbed power...

  11. The spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the Chandra deep fields: a theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marulli, Federico; Bonoli, Silvia; Branchini, Enzo; Gilli, Roberto; Moscardini, Lauro; Springel, Volker

    2009-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of X-ray selected AGN in the framework of hierarchical co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies and dark matter haloes. To this end, we have applied the model developed by Croton et al.(2006), De Lucia & Blaizot(2007) and Marulli et al.(2008) to the output of the Millennium Run and obtained hundreds of realizations of past light-cones from which we have extracted realistic mock AGN catalogues that mimic the Chandra deep fields. We find...

  12. The multiple gas-liquid subsea separation system: development and qualification of a novel solution for deep water field production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrand, Stephanie; Butin, Nicolas; Shaiek, Sadia; Hallot, Raymond [Saipem S.p.A., Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Subsea processing is more and more considered as a viable solution for the development of deep and ultra deep water fields. SAIPEM has developed a deep water gas separation and liquid boosting system, based on its proprietary 'Multi pipe' separator concept, providing a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and un-steady multiphase input streams using a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The Multi pipe Concept features an array of vertical pipes for gas/liquid separation by gravity and adequate liquid hold up volumes. The operating principle is the same as standard gravity vessels. Specific inlet pipe arrangements have been worked out to enhance the separation efficiency and internals can be implemented to further optimize the performances. The limited diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes make the Multi pipe Concept particularly suited for deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure conditions where the selection of a single separator vessel could lead to unpractical wall thicknesses. In most cases, standard API or ASME pipes can be utilized for the Multi pipe Separator, thus enabling conventional fabrication methods, and in turn reducing cost and delivery time and opening opportunities for local content. The qualification testing program has seen two subsequent phases. The first qualification phase aimed at the confirmation of the hydrodynamic behavior of the system. In particular, the homogeneous distribution of the multiphase stream into the pipes and the stability of the liquid levels under un-steady inlet conditions were continuously assessed during the tests. This first qualification phase gave confidence in the viability of the Multi pipe and in its good hydrodynamic behavior under the different inlet conditions that can be encountered during field production. It proved that, having the same liquid level in all the separator pipes, whatever the inlet conditions are, the Multi pipe separator can be

  13. The contribution of high-redshift galaxies to cosmic reionization: new results from deep WFC3 imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Andrew J.; Wilkins, Stephen; Ellis, Richard S.; Stark, Daniel P.; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Chiu, Kuenley; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt J.; Hickey, Samantha

    2010-12-01

    We have searched for star-forming galaxies at z ~ 7-10 by applying the Lyman-break technique to newly released Y-, J- and H-band images (1.1, 1.25 and 1.6μm) from Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. By comparing these images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) z'-band (0.85μm) images, we identify objects with red colours, (z' - Y)AB > 1.3, consistent with the Lyman α forest absorption at z ~ 6.7-8.8. We identify 12 of these z'-drops down to a limiting magnitude YAB image to eliminate contaminant low-mass Galactic stars, which typically have redder colours than z ~ 7 galaxies. One of our z'-drops is probably a T-dwarf star. The z ~ 7z'-drops appear to have much bluer spectral slopes than Lyman-break galaxies at lower redshift. Our brightest z'-drop is not present in the NICMOS J-band image of the same field taken 5 years before, and is a possible transient object. From the 10 remaining z ~ 7 candidates we determine a lower limit on the star formation rate density of 0.0017Msolaryr-1Mpc-3 for a Salpeter initial mass function, which rises to 0.0025-0.004Msolaryr-1Mpc-3 after correction for luminosity bias. The star formation rate density is a factor of ~10 less than that of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 3-4, and is about half the value at z ~ 6. We also present the discovery of seven Y-drop objects with (Y - J)AB > 1.0 and JAB 0.5), and the clumping factor of the Universe is low. Even then, we need to invoke a large contribution from galaxies below our detection limit (a steep faint-end slope). The apparent shortfall in ionizing photons might be alleviated if stellar populations at high redshift are of low metallicity or have a top-heavy initial mass function.

  14. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mei, S. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bartlett, J. G. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  15. Control of deep lithospheric roots on crustal scale GOCE gravity and gradient fields evident in Gondwana reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Mariani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The GOCE gravity field is globally homogeneous at the resolution of about 80km or better allowing for the first time to analyze tectonic structures at continental scale. Geologic correlation studies based on age determination and mineral composition of rock samples propose to continue the tectonic lineaments across continents to the pre-breakup position. Tectonic events which induce density changes, as metamorphic events and magmatic events, should then show up in the gravity field. Therefore gravity can be used as a globally available supportive tool for interpolation of isolated samples. Applying geodynamic plate reconstructions to the GOCE gravity field places today's observed field at the pre-breakup position. In order to test the possible deep control of the crustal features, the same reconstruction is applied to the seismic velocity models, and a joint gravity-velocity analysis is performed. The geophysical fields allow to control the likeliness of the hypothesized continuation of lineations based on sparse surface outcrops. Total absence of a signal, makes the cross-continental continuation of the lineament improbable, as continental-wide lineaments are controlled by rheologic and compositional differences of lithospheric mantle. It is found that the deep lithospheric roots as those found below cratons control the position of the positive gravity values. The explanation is that the deep lithospheric roots focus asthenospheric upwelling outboard of the root protecting the overlying craton from magmatic intrusions. The study is carried out over the African and South American continents. The background for the study can be found in the following publications where the techniques which have been used are described: Braitenberg, C., Mariani, P. and De Min, A. (2013). The European Alps and nearby orogenic belts sensed by GOCE, Boll. Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, 54(4), 321-334. doi:10.4430/bgta0105 Braitenberg, C. and Mariani, P. (2015). Geological

  16. Characteristics of microbial communities in crustal fluids in a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Suiyo Seamount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo eKato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To directly access the sub-seafloor microbial communities, seafloor drilling has been done in a deep-sea hydrothermal field of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific. In the present study, crustal fluids were collected from the boreholes, and the bacterial and archaeal communities in the fluids were investigated by culture-independent molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Bottom seawater, sands, rocks, sulfide mound and chimneys were also collected around the boreholes and analyzed for comparisons. Comprehensive analysis revealed the characteristics of the microbial community composition in the crustal fluids. Phylotypes closely related to cultured species, e.g., Alteromonas, Halomonas, Marinobacter, were relatively abundant in some crustal-fluid samples, whereas the phylotypes related to Pelagibacter and the SUP05-group were relatively abundant in the seawater samples. Phylotypes related to other uncultured environmental clones in Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were relatively abundant in the sand, rock, sulfide mound and chimney samples. Furthermore, comparative analysis with previous studies of the Suiyo Seamount crustal fluids indicates the change in the microbial community composition for three years. Our results provide novel insights into the characteristics of the microbial communities in crustal fluids beneath a deep-sea hydrothermal field.

  17. A deep X-ray spectroscopic survey of the ESO imaging survey fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene;

    1998-01-01

    V, we propose to perform a spectroscopic survey with SODART and push these telescopes to the limit at the high energies. By selecting the four ESO Imaging Survey fields EIS teach 6 deg(2)) we will take full advantage of the large, systematic effort ESO is putting into the optical survey of these fields...

  18. The VVDS-VLA deep field. II. Optical and near infrared identifications of VLA S1.4 GHz > 80 μ Jy sources in the VIMOS VLT deep survey VVDS-02h field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliegi, P.; Zamorani, G.; Bondi, M.; Pozzetti, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Gregorini, L.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Radovich, M.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Parma, P.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Merluzzi, P.; Paltani, S.; Pollo, A.; Zucca, E.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Gavignaud, I.; Pellò, R.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper we present the optical and near-infrared identifications of the 1054 radio sources detected in the 20 cm deep radio survey down to a 5σ flux limit of ~80 μJy obtained with the VLA in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey VVDS-02h deep field. Using U,B,V,R,I and K data, with limiting magnitudes of UAB˜25.4, BAB˜26.5, VAB˜26.2, RAB˜25.9 IAB˜25.0, JAB˜24.2, KAB˜23.9 (50% completeness) we identified 718 radio sources (~74% of the whole sample). The photometric redshift analysis shows that, in each magnitude bin, the radio sample has a higher median photometric redshift than the whole optical sample, while the median (V-I)AB color of the radio sources is redder than the median color of the whole optical sample. These results suggest that radio detection is preferentially selecting galaxies with higher intrinsic optical luminosity. From the analysis of the optical properties of the radio sources as function of the radio flux, we found that while about 35% of the radio sources are optically unidentified in the higher radio flux bin (S> 1.0 mJy), the percentage of unidentified sources decreases to about 25% in the faintest bins (Simaging have a median radio flux of 0.15 mJy, equal to that of identified sources. Given the very faint optical limits, these unidentified radio sources probably contain a significant fraction of obscured and/or high redshift galaxies.

  19. A Deep Catalog of Variable Stars in a 0.66deg^2 Lupus Field

    CERN Document Server

    Weldrake, David T F

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted a wide-field photometric survey in a single 52'x52' field towards the Lupus Galactic Plane in an effort to detect transiting Hot Jupiter planets. The planet Lupus-TR-3b was identified from this work. The dataset also led to the detection of 494 field variables, all of which are new discoveries. This paper presents an overview of the project, along with the total catalog of variables, which comprises 190 eclipsing binaries (of contact, semi-contact and detached configurations), 51 miscellaneous pulsators of various types, 237 long period variables (P>=2d), 11 delta Scuti stars, 4 field RR Lyrae (3 disk and 1 halo) and 1 irregular variable. Our survey provides a complete catalog of W UMa eclipsing binaries in the field to V=18.8, which display a Gaussian period distribution of 0.277+/-0.036d. Several binary systems are likely composed of equal mass M-dwarf components and others display evidence of mass transfer. We find 17 candidate blue stragglers and one binary that has the shortest period k...

  20. The Evolution of the Luminosity Function in Deep Fields A Comparison with CDM Models

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, F; Giallongo, E; Fontana, A; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S

    2001-01-01

    The galaxy Luminosity Function (LF) has been estimated in the rest frame B luminosity at 0deep multicolor surveys in the HDF-N, HDF-S, NTT-DF. The results have been compared with a recent version of galaxy formation models in the framework of hierarchical clustering in a flat Cold Dark Matter Universe with cosmological constant. The results show a general agreement for z<= 1, although the model LF has a steeper average slope at the faint end; at z~3 such feature results in an overprediction of the number of faint (I_{AB}~ 27) galaxies, while the agreement at the bright end becomes critically sensitive to the details of dust absorption at such redshifts. The discrepancies at the faint end show that a refined treatement of the physical processes involving smaller galaxies is to be pursued in the models, in terms of aggregation processes and/or stellar feedback heavily affecting the luminosity of the low luminosity objects. The implications of our resul...

  1. Deep-ocean field test of methane hydrate formation from a remotely operated vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Orr, Franklin M., Jr.; Friederich, Gernot; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Orange, Daniel L.; McFarlane, James; Kirkwood, William

    1997-05-01

    We have observed the process of formation of clathrate hydrates of methane in experiments conducted on the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Ventana in the deep waters of Monterey Bay. A tank of methane gas, acrylic tubes containing seawater, and seawater plus various types of sediment were carried down on Ventana to a depth of 910 m where methane gas was injected at the base of the acrylic tubes by bubble stream. Prior calculations had shown that the local hydrographic conditions gave an upper limit of 525 m for the P-T boundary defining methane hydrate formation or dissociation at this site, and thus our experiment took place well within the stability range for this reaction to occur. Hydrate formation in free seawater occurred within minutes as a buoyant mass of translucent hydrate formed at the gas-water interface. In a coarse sand matrix the filling of the pore spaces with hydrate turned the sand column into a solidified block, which gas pressure soon lifted and ruptured. In a fine-grained black mud the gas flow carved out flow channels, the walls of which became coated and then filled with hydrate in larger discrete masses. Our experiment shows that hydrate formation is rapid in natural seawater, that sediment type strongly influences the patterns of hydrate formation, and that the use of ROV technologies permits the synthesis of large amounts of hydrate material in natural systems under a variety of conditions so that fundamental research on the stability and growth of these substances is possible.

  2. A deep X-ray observation of NGC 4258 and its surrounding field

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S; Maloney, P R

    2000-01-01

    We present a deep X-ray observation of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in NGC4258 (M106) using ASCA. The soft X-ray spectrum <2keV is dominated by thermal emission from optically-thin plasma with kT~0.5keV. The hard X-ray emission is clearly due to a power-law component with photon index Gamma=1.8 absorbed by a column density of N_H=8x10^22/cm^2. The power-law is readily identified with primary X-ray emission from the AGN central engine. We also clearly detect a narrow iron K-alpha emission line at 6.4keV. No broad component is detected. We suggest that the bulk of this narrow line comes from the accretion disk and, furthermore, that the power-law X-ray source which excites this line emission (which is typically identified with a disk corona) must be at least 100GM/c^2 in extent. This is in stark contrast to many higher-luminosity Seyfert galaxies which display a broad iron line indicating a small 10 GM/c^2 X-ray emitting region. It must be stressed that this study constrains the size of the X-r...

  3. The VVDS-VLA Deep Field - IV: Radio-optical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Ciliegi, P; Gregorini, L; Zamorani, G; Bondi, M; Zanichelli, A; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Gavignaud, I; Bongiorno, A; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; MacCagni, D; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Vettolani, G; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; Lamareille, F; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pello`, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Abbas, U; Brinchmann, J; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Memeo, P; Pérez-Montero, E; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Temporin, S; De Ruiter, H R; Parma, P

    2008-01-01

    (abridged) We use the 1.4 GHz VIMOS-VLA Deep Survey and the optical VVDS and the CFHT-LS to compare the properties of radio loud galaxies with respect to the whole population of optical galaxies. The availability of multiband photometry and high quality photometric redshifts allows to derive rest frame colors and radio luminosity functions down to a limit of a B rest-frame magnitude of M=-20. Galaxy properties and luminosity functions (LFs) are estimated up to z~1 for radio loud and radio quiet early and late type galaxies. Radio loud late type galaxies are redder than radio quiet objects of the same class and this is an effect related to the presence of more dust in stronger star forming galaxies. Moreover, we estimate optical LFs, stellar masses and star formation rate distributions for radio sources and compare them with those derived for a well defined control sample, finding that the probability for a galaxy to be a radio emitter significantly increases at high values of these parameters. Radio loud earl...

  4. A Visual Astronomer's Photographic Guide to the Deep Sky A Pocket Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rumistrzewicz, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    How many times have you ‘found’ a deep sky object (DSO), ticked it off the list, and moved on, or used the ‘Tour’ function on your GO-TO ‘scope and said, ‘Oh that’s a just a smudge’ or ‘Can’t see it – I’ll move on to the next one.’ If this has happened to you, then this book is for you. It will challenge you to go back to the ‘smudge’ and really look. Can you see the faint wisp or the detail in the southeastern corner? Can you see the small cluster within the cluster? Try to classify the open cluster for yourself. Compare it to the ‘accepted’ Trumpler classification. Whether you have a GO-TO ‘scope or not, this book gets you to rediscover one of the great things that got you into this hobby in the first place – looking through the eyepiece of a telescope. So pack away the DSLR, CCD camera, the guide ‘scope, and laptop and open your pencil case! You’re in for some fun!

  5. The ATLAS 5.5 GHz Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The Second Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Huynh, M T; Hopkins, A M; Norris, R P; Seymour, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a new image of the 5.5 GHz radio emission from the extended Chandra Deep Field South. Deep radio observations at 5.5 GHz were obtained in 2010 and presented in the first data release. A further 76 hours of integration has since been obtained, nearly doubling the integration time. This paper presents a new analysis of all the data. The new image reaches 8.6 microJy rms, an improvement of about 40% in sensitivity. We present a new catalogue of 5.5 GHz sources, identifying 212 source components, roughly 50% more than were detected in the first data release. Source counts derived from this sample are consistent with those reported in the literature for S_{5.5GHz} > 0.1 mJy but significantly lower than published values in the lowest flux density bins (S_{5.5GHz} 0.5 mJy, consistent with the flattening of the spectral index observed in 5 GHz sub-mJy samples. The median spectral index of the whole sample is \\alpha_{med} = -0.58, indicating that these observations may be starting to probe the star forming...

  6. Bent-Tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghan, Siamak; Franzen, Thomas M O; Norris, Ray P; Miller, Neal A

    2015-01-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS), supplemented with the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 bent-tailed sources, four diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (one relic, two halos, and one unclassified object), and a further seven complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range $10^{22} \\leq$ $\\textrm{P}_{1.4 \\textrm{ GHz}} \\leq 10^{26}$ W Hz$^{-1}$, redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kpc up to about one Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here one is the most distant bent-tailed source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be as...

  7. Supernovae in the Subaru Deep Field: An Initial Sample, and Type Ia Rate, out to Redshift 1.6

    CERN Document Server

    Poznanski, Dovi; Yasuda, Naoki; Foley, Ryan J; Doi, Mamoru; Filippenko, Alexei V; Fukugita, Masataka; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Jannuzi, Buell T; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oda, Takeshi; Schweiker, Heidi; Sharon, Keren; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Totani, Tomonori

    2007-01-01

    Large samples of high-redshift supernovae (SNe) are potentially powerful probes of cosmic star formation, metal enrichment, and SN physics. We present initial results from a new deep SN survey, based on re-imaging in the R, i', z' bands, of the 0.25 deg2 Subaru Deep Field (SDF), with the 8.2-m Subaru telescope and Suprime-Cam. In a single new epoch consisting of two nights of observations, we have discovered 33 SNe, down to a z'-band magnitude of 26.3 (AB). We have measured the photometric redshifts of the SN host galaxies, obtained Keck spectroscopic redshifts for 17 of the host galaxies, and classified the SNe using the Bayesian photometric algorithm of Poznanski et al. (2007) that relies on template matching. After correcting for biases in the classification, 55% of our sample consists of Type Ia supernovae and 45% of core-collapse SNe. The redshift distribution of the SNe Ia reaches z ~ 1.6, with a median of z ~ 1.2. The core-collapse SNe reach z ~ 1.0, with a median of z ~ 0.5. Our SN sample is comparabl...

  8. The Metal Abundance across Cosmic Time ($\\mathcal{MACT}$) Survey I: Optical Spectroscopy in the Subaru Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A; Rigby, Jane R; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Reyes, Mithi A de los; Rhoads, James E

    2016-01-01

    Deep rest-frame optical spectroscopy is key for characterizing and understanding the physical conditions and properties of the ionized gas in galaxies. Here, we present a new spectroscopic survey called "Metal Abundances across Cosmic Time" or $\\mathcal{MACT}$, which will obtain rest-frame optical spectra for $\\sim$3,000 emission-line galaxies. This paper focuses on the optical spectroscopy that has been conducted with MMT/Hectospec and Keck/DEIMOS for $\\approx$1,900 $z=0.1-1$ emission-line galaxies selected from our narrowband and intermediate-band imaging in the Subaru Deep Field. In addition, we present a sample of 164 galaxies for which we have measured the weak [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 line (66 with at least 3$\\sigma$ detections and 98 with significant upper limits). This nebular emission line determines the gas-phase metallicity by measuring the electron temperature of the ionized gas. This paper presents the optical spectra, emission-line measurements, interstellar properties (e.g., metallicity, gas density...

  9. A rule-of-thumb approach to estimate annual deep percolation and runoff in irrigated landscapes at field to farm scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, B.; Githui, F.; Thayalakumaran, T.

    2009-04-01

    The rootzone of a field or farm in irrigated landscapes is the logical unit that can be managed or influenced by farmers, catchment managers and water authorities. Increasing scarcity, variability and expensive nature of water supplies necessitates better understanding of the rootzone water balance in irrigated landscapes. The major terms of the annual water balance in the rootzone include rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration, deep percolation below the rootzone and runoff. While information on annual rainfall, irrigation and evapotranspiration can often be readily obtained at field to farm scales, deep percolation and runoff are typically unavailable as their continuous measurement is difficult and/or uneconomical. Consequently, these terms are often calculated using models that are able to simulate the rootzone water balance. In this case study, we developed a rule-of-thumb approach to estimate annual deep percolation and runoff for the Barr Creek catchment in northern Victoria, Australia. Firstly, annual deep percolation and runoff were calculated at field to farm scales using an integrated SWAT-MODFLOW model calibrated against a comprehensive data set including drain flows and salinity, remotely sensed evapotranspiration and watertable levels. Secondly, a rule-of-thumb approach was developed to approximate annual deep percolation and runoff from readily available information on annual irrigation, rainfall, evapotranspiration, soils, watertable levels and landuse. This rule-of-thumb approach can be applied to continuously estimate deep percolation and runoff.

  10. The long term behaviour of the near-field barrier surrounding a deep underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research to identify the factors which govern or influence the long-term behaviour of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository. The near-field components include the engineered barriers and the natural rock mass although the behaviour of the rock mass is of greater significance over the long-term. The factors which govern the near-field behaviour consist of the processes which operate, and the properties or parameters of the rock mass which might be modified by them. The methods which are available for the prediction of the near-field behaviour have been identified, and the emphasis on computer based methods is noted. Summary details of generic computer techniques are provided for different process modelling requirements. An attempt is made to indicate how different processes will be important at various stages during the life of the repository and how the evaluation of performance assessment process modelling requires input from empirical models and the results of other process predictions. (Author)

  11. Revised calibration for near- and mid-infrared images from ~4000 pointed observations with AKARI/IRC

    CERN Document Server

    Egusa, Fumi; Murata, Kazumi; Yamashita, Takuji; Yamamura, Issei; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI performed ~4000 pointed observations for 16 months until the end of 2007 August, when the telescope and instruments were cooled by liquid Helium. Observation targets include solar system objects, Galactic objects, local galaxies, and galaxies at cosmological distances. We describe recent updates on calibration processes of near- and mid-infrared images taken by the Infrared Camera (IRC), which has nine photometric filters covering 2-27 um continuously. Using the latest data reduction toolkit, we created calibrated and stacked images from each pointed observation. About 90% of the stacked images have a position accuracy better than 1.5". Uncertainties in aperture photometry estimated from a typical standard sky deviation of stacked images are a factor of ~2-4 smaller than those of AllWISE at similar wavelengths. The processed images together with documents such as process logs as well as the latest toolkit are available online.

  12. Wave-current interactions in deep water conditions: field measurements and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Gilles; Rey, Vincent; Molcard, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The study of wave - current interaction has drawn interest in oceanography, ocean engineering, maritime navigation and for tides or waves power device design. In the context of the hydrodynamics study along the French Mediterranean coast, a current profiler was deployed near Toulon at the south of the "Port Cros" island. This coastal zone is characterized by a steep slope, the water depth varying from tens meters to several thousand meters over few kilometers from the coast. An ambient current, the "Northern Current", coming from the Ligurian sea (area of Genoa, Italy) and following the coast up to Toulon, is present all over the year. Its mean surface velocity is of about 0.30 m/s, its flow rate of about 1.5 Sv. The region is exposed to two dominating winds: the Mistral, coming from North-West, and Eastern winds. Both generate swell and/or wind waves in either following or opposing current conditions with respect to the Northern Current. A current profiler equipped with a wave tracking system (ACPD workhorse from RDI) was deployed from July to October 2014 in deep water conditions (depth of about 500m). The mooring system allowed the ADCP to measure the current profile from the sea surface down to 25m depth, which corresponds more or less to the depth of influence of waves of periods up to 10s. The collected data include energetic wave conditions in either following or opposing current conditions. The current intensity and its vertical profiles have shown a significant temporal variability according to the meteorological conditions. Effects of the wave conditions on the current properties are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the program BOMBYX and the ANR grant No ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  13. Deep-ocean field test of methane hydrate formation from a remotely operated vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P.G.; Orr, F.M.; Friederich, G.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Orange, D.L.; McFarlane, J.; Kirkwood, W.

    1997-01-01

    We have observed the process of formation of clathrate hydrates of methane in experiments conducted on the remotely operated vehicle (ROY) Ventana in the deep waters of Monterey Bay. A tank of methane gas, acrylic tubes containing seawater, and seawater plus various types of sediment were carried down on Ventana to a depth of 910 m where methane gas was injected at the base of the acrylic tubes by bubble stream. Prior calculations had shown that the local hydrographic conditions gave an upper limit of 525 m for the P-T boundary defining methane hydrate formation or dissociation at this site, and thus our experiment took place well within the stability range for this reaction to occur. Hydrate formation in free sea-water occurred within minutes as a buoyant mass of translucent hydrate formed at the gas-water interface. In a coarse sand matrix the Filling of the pore spaces with hydrate turned the sand column into a solidified block, which gas pressure soon lifted and ruptured. In a fine-grained black mud the gas flow carved out flow channels, the walls of which became coated and then filled with hydrate in larger discrete masses. Our experiment shows that hydrate formation is rapid in natural seawater, that sediment type strongly influences the patterns of hydrate formation, and that the use of ROV technologies permits the synthesis of large amounts of hydrate material in natural systems under a variety of conditions so that fundamental research on the stability and growth of these substances is possible.

  14. The ESO key-programme "a homogeneous bright QSO survey"; 1, the methods and the "deep" fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, S; Andreani, P; Gemmo, A; Goldschmidt, P; Miller, L; Vio, R; Barbieri, C; Bodini, L; Iovino, A; Lazzarin, M; Clowes, R G; MacGillivray, H T; Gouiffes, C; Lissandrini, C; Savage, A

    1995-01-01

    This is the first paper in a series aimed at defining a statistically significant sample of QSOs in the range 15 < B < 18.75 and 0.3 < z < 2.2. The selection is carried out using direct plates obtained at the ESO and UK Schmidt Telescopes, scanned with the COSMOS facility and searched for objects with an ultraviolet excess. Follow-up spectroscopy, carried out at ESO La Silla, is used to classify each candidate. In this initial paper, we describe the scientific objectives of the survey; the selection and observing techniques used. We present the first sample of 285 QSOs (M_B < -23) in a 153 deg^2 area, covered by the six ``deep'' fields, intended to obtain significant statistics down B \\simeq 18.75 with unprecedented photometric accuracy. From this database, QSO counts are determined in the magnitude range 17 < B < 18.75.

  15. The Anisotropy of the Microwave Background to l = 3500 Deep Field Observations with the Cosmic Background Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, B S; Readhead, A C S; Shepherd, M C; Sievers, J L; Udomprasert, P S; Cartwright, J K; Farmer, A J; Padin, S; Myers, S T; Bond, J R; Contaldi, C R; Pen, U L; Prunet, S; Pogosyan, D; Carlstrom, J E; Kovács, J; Leitch, E M; Pryke, C L; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Altamirano, P; Bronfman, L; Casassus, S; May, J; Joy, M

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation over the multipole range l ~ 200 - 3500 with the Cosmic Background Imager based on deep observations of three fields. These results confirm the drop in power with increasing l first reported in earlier measurements with this instrument, and extend the observations of this decline in power out to l \\~ 2000. The decline in power is consistent with the predicted damping of primary anisotropies. At larger multipoles, l = 2000 - 3500, the power is 3.1 sigma greater than standard models for intrinsic microwave background anisotropy in this multipole range, and 3.5 sigma greater than zero. This excess power is not consistent with expected levels of residual radio source contamination but, for sigma_8 >~ 1, is consistent with predicted levels due to a secondary Sunyaev-Zeldovich anisotropy. Further observations are necessary to confirm the level of this excess and, if confirmed, determine its origin.

  16. Review of excavation methods and their implications for the near-field barrier of a deep underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews excavation techniques for use in the construction of deep underground radioactive waste repositories, gives a summary of responses of the host rock to excavation and the means of measuring that response and discusses techniques for predicting that response. The review of excavation techniques included technical developments and current practice. To this end an extensive database was developed reviewing major excavations in rock types relevant to disposal and the techniques employed. Creation of an underground opening alters the properties of the rock mass around it. This study identifies stress, displacement, rock mass deformability and permeability as key parameters and reviews how they may be determined. Finally the report discusses the techniques available for predicting the behaviour of the near-field host rock. This concentrates on methods of numerical analysis since existing empirical or analytical methods are not considered suitable. (author)

  17. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .3. Source counts and P(D) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.J.; Goldschmidt, P.; Franceschini, A.;

    1997-01-01

    We present source counts at 6.7 and 15 mu m from our maps of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region, reaching 38.6 mu Jy at 6.7 mu m and 255 mu Jy at 15 mu m. These are the first ever extragalactic number counts to be presented at 6.7 mu m, and are three decades fainter than IRAS at 12 mu m. Both...... source counts and a P(D) analysis suggest that we have reached the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) confusion limit at 15 mu m: this will have important implications for future space missions. These data provide an excellent reference point for other ongoing ISO surveys. A no-evolution model at 15 mu m...

  18. Comparing the Evolution of the Galaxy Disk Sizes with CDM Models The Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; Poli, F; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic sizes of the field galaxies with I-19) galaxies is skewed with respect to the CDM predictions and an excess of small-size disks (R_d<2 kpc) is already present at z~ 0.5. The excess persists up to z~3 and involves brighter galaxies . Such an excess may be reduced if luminosity-dependent effects, like starburst activity in interacting galaxies, are included in the physical mechanisms governing the star formation history in CDM models.

  19. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Initial Results and Catalog from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, J R; Aird, J; Alexander, D M; Civano, F M; Hickox, R C; Lansbury, G B; Ajello, M; Assef, R; Ballantyne, D R; Balokovic, M; Bauer, F E; Brandt, W N; Boggs, S E; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Elvis, M; Forster, K; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Koss, M; LaMassa, S M; Luo, B; Madsen, K K; Puccetti, S; Saez, C; Stern, D; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Wik, D R; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    We present initial results and the source catalog from the NuSTAR survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (hereafter, ECDFS) - currently the deepest contiguous component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The survey covers the full ~30 arcmin x 30 arcmin area of this field to a maximum depth of ~360 ks (~220 ks when corrected for vignetting at 3-24 keV), reaching sensitivity limits of ~1.3 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (3-8 keV), ~3.4 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (8-24 keV) and ~3.0 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (3-24 keV). Fifty four (54) sources are detected over the full field, although five of these are found to lie below our significance threshold once contaminating flux from neighboring (i.e., blended) sources is taken into account. Of the remaining 49 that are significant, 19 are detected in the 8-24 keV band. The 8-24 keV to 3-8 keV band ratios of the twelve sources that are detected in both bands span the range 0.39-1.7, corresponding to a photon index range of Gamma ~ 0.5-2.3, with a median photon index of 1.70 +/...

  20. Effect of deep injection on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin from bare soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S. R.; Ashworth, D. J.; Zheng, W.; Knuteson, J.; van Wesenbeeck, I. J.

    2016-07-01

    Fumigating soil is important for the production of many high-value vegetable, fruit, and tree crops, but fumigants are toxic pesticides with relatively high volatility, which can lead to significant atmospheric emissions. A field experiment was conducted to measure emissions and subsurface diffusion of a mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin after shank injection to bare soil at 61 cm depth (i.e., deep injection). Three on-field methods, the aerodynamic (ADM), integrated horizontal flux (IHF), and theoretical profile shape (TPS) methods, were used to obtain fumigant flux density and cumulative emission values. Two air dispersion models (CALPUFF and ISCST3) were also used to back-calculate the flux density using air concentration measurements surrounding the fumigated field. Emissions were continuously measured for 16 days and the daily peak emission rates for the five methods ranged from 13 to 33 μg m-2 s-1 for 1,3-D and 0.22-3.2 μg m-2 s-1 for chloropicrin. Total 1,3-D mass lost to the atmosphere was approximately 23-41 kg ha-1, or 15-27% of the applied active ingredient and total mass loss of chloropicrin was soil fumigants deeper in soil.

  1. Adaptive Optics Views of the Hubble Deep Fields Final report on LLNL LDRD Project 03-ERD-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C E; Gavel, D; Pennington, D; Gibbard, S; van Dam, M; Larkin, J; Koo, D; Raschke, L; Melbourne, J

    2007-02-17

    We used laser guide star adaptive optics at the Lick and Keck Observatories to study active galactic nuclei and galaxies, with emphasis on those in the early Universe. The goals were to observe large galaxies like our own Milky Way in the process of their initial assembly from sub-components, to identify central active galactic nuclei due to accreting black holes in galaxy cores, and to measure rates of star formation and evolution in galaxies. In the distant universe our focus was on the GOODS and GEMS fields (regions in the Northern and Southern sky that include the Hubble Deep Fields) as well as the Extended Groth Strip and COSMOS fields. Each of these parts of the sky has been intensively studied at multiple wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the XMM Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and several ground-based telescopes including the Very Large Array radio interferometer, in order to gain an unbiased view of a significant statistical sample of galaxies in the early universe.

  2. From deep basin gas to diagenetic trap-An example from the Yulin Gas Field in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the updip portion of the Yulin Gas Field in the Ordos Basin, there are no any structural, stratigraphic and sedimentary lithologic seals. Using thin-section petrography, ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy, micro-thermometry and Raman microspectrometry, this paper finds out the diagenetic trap and studies the diagenetic history of this field. It was revealed that three phases of diagenesis and hydrocarbon charging happened in late Triassic, late Jurassic and the end of early Cretaceous respectively. In the first two phases, acid geofluid entered the reservoir and caused dissolution and cementation. Although the porosities had been increased, further compaction accompanying re-subsidence resulted in tight sandstone and conglomerates. Till the end of the early Cretaceous, bulk of gas migrated into the tight reservoir. Cementation, however, kept on in the updip portion of this field due to low gas saturation and formed the diagenetic trap. The mechanism for gas accumulation was changed from deep basin gas to diagenetic trap, which offers a sealing condition that can retain gas for much longer time.

  3. Effects of high-energy ionizing particles on the Si:As mid-infrared detector array on board the AKARI satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Mouri, Akio; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Yamagishi, Mituyoshi; Mori, Tatuya; Onaka, Takashi; Wada, Takehiko; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of high-energy ionizing particles on the Si:As impurity band conduction (IBC) mid-infrared detector on board AKARI, the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite. IBC-type detectors are known to be little influenced by ionizing radiation. However we find that the detector is significantly affected by in-orbit ionizing radiation even after spikes induced by ionizing particles are removed. The effects are described as changes mostly in the offset of detector output, but not in the gain. We conclude that the changes in the offset are caused mainly by increase in dark current. We establish a method to correct these ionizing radiation effects. The method is essential to improve the quality and to increase the sky coverage of the AKARI mid-infrared all-sky-survey map.

  4. A quality check of the $AKARI$ mid-infrared all-sky diffuse map toward the massive star-forming regions NGC 6334 and NGC 6357

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, Hidetoshi; Kondo, Toru; Nakamichi, Keichiro; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparative study of CO and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission toward a region including the massive star-forming regions of NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. We use the NANTEN $^{12}$CO($J$ = 1--0) data and the $AKARI$ 9 $\\mu$m All-Sky diffuse map in order to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the $AKARI$ data. We confirm that the overall CO distribution shows a good spatial correspondence with the PAH emission, and their intensities exhibit a good power-law correlation with a spatial resolution down to 4$'$ over the region of 10$^\\circ$$\\times$10$^\\circ$. We also reveal poorer correlation for small scale structures between the two quantities toward NGC 6357, due to strong UV radiation from local sources. Larger scatter in the correlation toward NGC 6357 indicates higher ionization degree and/or PAH excitation than that of NGC 6334.

  5. Infrared-Faint Radio Sources in the SERVS deep fields: Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Alessandro; Norris, Ray P; Spitler, Lee R; Mignano, Arturo; Lacy, Mark; Morganti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S_{1.4GHz} >= 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an AGN. Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest ones (S_{1.4GHz} 4). We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 mum IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for, and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that they are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z >= 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S_{1.4GHz} ~ 100 muJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z ~ 2) dust-enshrouded...

  6. Imaging the deep source of the Rotorua and Waimangu geothermal fields, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, W.; Caldwell, T. G.; Bertrand, E. A.; Hill, G. J.; Bennie, S. L.; Palmer, N. G.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetotelluric data were recorded in a 45 × 10 km band crossing the Rotorua and Waimangu geothermal fields in the northern part of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in the central North Island of New Zealand. 3-D inverse modelling of these data show that beneath the low resistivity areas marking the near surface geothermal fields, localised electrically conductive zones are present in the crust below about 2.5 and 3.5 km depth at Rotorua and Waimangu, respectively. At increasing depth these conductive zones broaden and appear to merge with a larger conductive zone at 8 km depth situated between the geothermal systems. At Rotorua the top of the conductive zone is situated directly beneath the area of greatest surface heat and gas discharge. At Waimangu the uppermost part of the deeper conductive zone is situated beneath the western part of Lake Rotomahana, also an area of intense surface thermal activity and high heat flux. The localised conductive zones are interpreted to be high temperature (quasi-magmatic) fluids rising from a broader zone of partial melt at deeper levels.

  7. Research Internship on Pulse Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) and Microwave Applications for Deep Space Exploration Medical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout my internship, I worked under Dr. Diane Byerly on Pulse Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) in the Biomedical Engineering for Exploration Space Technology Laboratory (BEEST). I conducted experiments and analyzed the impact coil size, placement, and contour have on flux densities. Using this information, I optimized coil configurations for future patient use. This was achieved by using a fiberglass leg casting and PEMF coils to evaluate the different flux densities produced at different locations on the leg. The fiberglass casting was an improvement on the prior test that used cylindrical tubing to determine the flux densities generated. The cast allowed for the natural bends of the leg to be taken into consideration in the experiment. Also, I investigated the impact that a Helmholtz coil configuration has on the flux densities produced in a leg. This configuration produces a constant magnetic field throughout the targeted area. This information supports the Helmholtz configuration for future medical testing using the PEMF technology being developed at JSC. A preliminary study using test subjects is scheduled for this summer at Methodist Hospital in Sugarland that will incorporate the data obtained from the tests I conducted to ensure accurate results. In addition, I supported the microwave laundry project for sanitizing clothes in space. I worked in the BEEST lab assisting in the preparation of bacterial inoculations and microwave testing to determine the efficacy of radiation on eradicating Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in inoculated fabric specimens. I performed S-band microwave tests to quantify the impact that increased layers of cloth and salt concentration have on both kill rate and temperature. NASA will use the information I obtained throughout my internship to aid in the design of a laundry enclosure system for the International Space Station. I also assisted in protocol development for the use of high frequency microwave energy for a number of

  8. Simultaneous Exoplanet Characterization and deep wide-field imaging with a diffractive pupil telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Olivier; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J; Bendek, Eduardo A; Milster, Thomas D; Ammons, Stephen M; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan; Martinache, Frantz; Pitman, Joe; Woodruff, Robert A; Belikov, Ruslan; 10.1088/0004-637X/767/1/11

    2013-01-01

    High-precision astrometry can identify exoplanets and measure their orbits and masses, while coronagraphic imaging enables detailed characterization of their physical properties and atmospheric compositions through spectroscopy. In a previous paper, we showed that a diffractive pupil telescope (DPT) in space can enable sub-microarcsecond accuracy astrometric measurements from wide-field images by creating faint but sharp diffraction spikes around the bright target star. The DPT allows simultaneous astrometric measurement and coronagraphic imaging, and we discuss and quantify in this paper the scientific benefits of this combination for exoplanet science investigations: identification of exoplanets with increased sensitivity and robustness, and ability to measure planetary masses to high accuracy. We show how using both measurements to identify planets and measure their masses offers greater sensitivity and provides more reliable measurements than possible with separate missions, and therefore results in a lar...

  9. The impact of deep inspiration on cardiac volume within the radiation fields for left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated that older techniques of radiation therapy (RT) to the left chest wall may result in late injury to the heart. The long-term effect of modern techniques of breast RT (which treats less heart) on cardiac function is not established. Currently, RT is delivered in a continuous 45-second pulse while the patient breathes quietly. We hypothesized that the simple respiratory maneuver of deep inspiration, which increases the distance of the breast/chest wall from the heart, would decrease the volume of irradiated myocardium. Accordingly, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the volume of cardiac irradiation during deep inspiration, forced expiration and end-tidal respiration (baseline). Material and Methods: Nine healthy female volunteers (age 23-46 yrs; weight 95-185 lbs) in sinus rhythm were studied. MRI-visible markers were placed on the subject's chest to delineate the typical radiation portals for left breast RT. Medial entrance was at the midline. MRI: Study was performed with subjects lying supine in a 1.5-T Gyroscan NT whole body scanner (Philips Medical Systems) using an ECG-triggered turbo-field echo (TFE) sequence [FOV = 305 cm, 64 x 256 matrix, TR = 7.8 ms, TE = 3.4 ms]. One transverse stack of 14 contiguous slices, each 1-cm thick, covering the entire heart, was obtained during breathholding at (1) end-tidal (ETid) volume (2) deep inspiration (Insp) and (3) forced expiration (Exp). Data Analysis: Area of heart within the radiation port was manually traced in each slice, and cardiac volume in the radiation plane was calculated for each stack (ETid cardiac volume, Insp cardiac volume, Exp cardiac volume) with a modified Simpson's rule. Absolute inspiratory and expiratory changes were also calculated: Insp Δ (ml) = Insp cardiac volume - ETid cardiac volume (Eqn. 1); Exp Δ (ml) = Exp cardiac volume - ETid cardiac volume (Eqn. 2). Anteroposterior (AP) diameter from the medial aspect of the sternum to

  10. Detection of parent H2O and CO2 molecules in the 2.5--5 micron spectrum of comet C/2007 N3 (Lulin) observed with AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Kawakita, Hideyo; Ishiguro, Masateru; Furusho, Reiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ueno, Munetaka; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Wada, Takehiko; Ohyama, Youichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Comet C/2007 N3 (Lulin) was observed with the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI in the near-infrared at a post-perihelion heliocentric distance of 1.7 AU. Observations were performed with the spectroscopic (2.5--5.0 micron) and imaging (2.4, 3.2, and 4.1 micron) modes on 2009 March 30 and 31 UT, respectively. AKARI images of the comet exhibit a sunward crescent-like shape coma and a dust tail extended toward the anti-solar direction. The 4.1 micron image (CO/CO2 and dust grains) shows a distribution different from the 2.4 and 3.2 micron images (H2O and dust grains). The observed spectrum shows distinct bands at 2.66 and 4.26 micron, attributed to H2O and CO2, respectively. This is the fifth comet in which CO2 has been directly detected in the near-infrared spectrum. In addition, CO at 4.67 micron and a broad 3.2--3.6 micron emission band from C-H bearing molecules were detected in the AKARI spectrum. The relative abundance ratios CO2/H2O and CO/H2O derived from the molecular production rates are \\sim 4%--5% a...

  11. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular gas reservoirs in high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-$z$ galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets a $\\sim1$ arcmin$^2$ region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3mm and 1mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities $L_{\\rm{}IR}>10^{11}$ L$_\\odot$, i.e. a detection in CO emission was expected. Out these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than typically found in starburst/SMG/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star-formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): The CO-detected galaxies in the U...

  12. Electric Fields Associated with Deep Injections of 10s to 100s keV Electrons in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, S.; Li, X.; Jaynes, A. N.; Zhao, H.; Malaspina, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations by HOPE and MagEIS onboard the Van Allen Probes show frequent penetration of 10s to 100s keV electrons through the slot region and into the inner belt, resulting in an abundant electron population below L=3. The conventional picture is that the source populations of these 10s to 100s keV electrons originate in the plasma sheet and are injected (along with plasma sheet ions) into the inner magnetosphere either through enhancements in the large-scale convection electric field and/or through earthward propagating dipolarization fronts associated with substorms. In such cases the inward radial limit of the injections should coincide with the plasmapause. However, these electron injections often extend inside the plasmasphere, are observed far earthward of the typically accepted "flow-braking" region for dipolarization fronts, and occur at much lower L shells than injections of ions with similar energies. We investigate the electric fields associated with these deep electron injections using data from the Van Allen Probes and THEMIS in order to shed light on the underlying mechanisms that allow them to penetrate so far into the inner magnetosphere.

  13. A Systematic Survey of Protoclusters at $z\\sim3\\mathrm{-}6$ in the CFHTLS Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Toshikawa, Jun; Overzier, Roderik; Malkan, Matthew A; Furusawa, Hisanori; Ishikawa, Shogo; Onoue, Masafusa; Ota, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niino, Yuu; Uchiyama, Hisakazu

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of three protoclusters at $z\\sim3\\mathrm{-}4$ with spectroscopic confirmation in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey Deep Fields. In these fields, we investigate the large-scale projected sky distribution of $z\\sim3\\mathrm{-}6$ Lyman break galaxies and identify 21 protocluster candidates from regions that are overdense at more than $4\\sigma$ overdensity significance. Based on cosmological simulations, it is expected that more than $76\\%$ of these candidates will evolve into a galaxy cluster of at least a halo mass of $10^{14}\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ at $z=0$. We perform follow-up spectroscopy for eight of the candidates using Subaru/FOCAS, KeckII/DEIMOS, and Gemini-N/GMOS. In total we target 462 dropout candidates and obtain 138 spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm three real protoclusters at $z=3\\mathrm{-}4$ with more than five members spectroscopically identified, and find one to be an incidental overdense region by mere chance alignment. The other four candidate regio...

  14. THERMAL-ENERGY STORAGE IN A DEEP SANDSTONE AQUIFER IN MINNESOTA: FIELD OBSERVATIONS AND THERMAL ENERGY-TRANSPORT MODELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the feasibility of storing heated water in a deep sandstone aquifer in Minnesota is described. The aquifer consists of four hydraulic zones that are areally anisotropic and have average hydraulic conductivities that range from 0. 03 to 1. 2 meters per day. A preliminary axially symmetric, nonisothermal, isotropic, single-phase, radial-flow, thermal-energy-transport model was constructed to investigate the sensitivity of model simulation to various hydraulic and thermal properties of the aquifer. A three-dimensional flow and thermal-energy transport model was constructed to incorporate the areal anisotropy of the aquifer. Analytical solutions of equations describing areally anisotropic groundwater flow around a doublet-well system were used to specify model boundary conditions for simulation of heat injection. The entire heat-injection-testing period of approximately 400 days was simulated. Model-computed temperatures compared favorably with field-recorded temperatures, with differences of no more than plus or minus 8 degree C. For each test cycle, model-computed aquifer thermal efficiency, defined as total heat withdrawn divided by total heat injected, was within plus or minus 2% of the field-calculated values.

  15. EVOLUTION OF THE SIZES OF GALAXIES OVER 7 < z < 12 REVEALED BY THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Curtis-Lake, Emma; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique, F-75014 Paris (France); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furlanetto, Steven R., E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z ∼ 7-12 using deep images from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign, which offers two advantages over that used in earlier work. First, we utilize the increased signal-to-noise ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved measurements for known galaxies at z ≅ 6.5-8 in the HUDF. Second, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z > 8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to higher redshifts. Restricting our measurements to sources detected at >15σ, we confirm earlier indications that the average half-light radii of z ∼ 7-12 galaxies are extremely small, 0.3-0.4 kpc, comparable to the sizes of giant molecular associations in local star-forming galaxies. We also confirm that there is a clear trend of decreasing half-light radius with increasing redshift, and provide the first evidence that this trend continues beyond z ≅ 8. Modeling the evolution of the average half-light radius as a power law, ∝(1 + z) {sup s}, we obtain a best-fit index of s=-1.30{sup +0.12}{sub -0.14} over z ∼ 4-12. A clear size-luminosity relation is evident in our dropout samples. This relation can be interpreted in terms of a constant surface density of star formation over a range in luminosity of 0.05-1.0 L{sub z=3}. The average star formation surface density in dropout galaxies is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that found in extreme starburst galaxies, but is comparable to that seen today in the centers of normal disk galaxies.

  16. Variability Selected Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Paolillo, D. M.; Alexander, F. E.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Luo, B.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignail, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and other deep X-ray surveys have been highly effective at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, cosmologically distant low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) have remained a challenge to identify due to significant contribution from the host galaxy. We identify long-term X ray variability (approx. month years, observed frame) in 20 of 92 CDF-S galaxies spanning redshifts approx equals 00.8 - 1.02 that do not meet other AGN selection criteria. We show that the observed variability cannot be explained by X-ray binary populations or ultraluminous X-ray sources, so the variability is most likely caused by accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The variable galaxies are not heavily obscured in general, with a stacked effective power-law photon index of Gamma(sub Stack) approx equals 1.93 +/- 0.13, and arc therefore likely LLAGN. The LLAGN tend to lie it factor of approx equal 6-89 below the extrapolated linear variability-luminosity relation measured for luminous AGN. This may he explained by their lower accretion rates. Variability-independent black-hole mass and accretion-rate estimates for variable galaxies show that they sample a significantly different black hole mass-accretion-rate space, with masses a factor of 2.4 lower and accretion rates a factor of 22.5 lower than variable luminous AGNs at the same redshift. We find that an empirical model based on a universal broken power-law power spectral density function, where the break frequency depends on SMBH mass and accretion rate, roughly reproduces the shape, but not the normalization, of the variability-luminosity trends measured for variable galaxies and more luminous AGNs.

  17. A Catalog of Visual-like Morphologies in the 5 CANDELS Fields Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Gravet, R.; Cabrera-Vives, G.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barro, G.; Bernardi, M.; Mei, S.; Shankar, F.; Dimauro, P.; Bell, E. F.; Kocevski, D.; Koo, D. C.; Faber, S. M.; Mcintosh, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present a catalog of visual-like H-band morphologies of ˜50.000 galaxies (Hf160w Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets). The median redshift of the sample is ˜ 1.25. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S, for which visual classifications are publicly available, and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves for each galaxy the probabilities of having a spheroid or a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or a point source, and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given to a galaxy image with zero bias and ˜10% scatter. The fraction of mis-classifications is less than 1%. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness-based methods, which hit a 20%-30% contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the Rainbow database (http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public/).

  18. The Deep SWIRE Field II. 90cm Continuum Observations and 20cm-90cm Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Frazer N; Klimek, Matthew D; Greisen, Eric W

    2009-01-01

    We present one of the deepest radio continuum surveys to date at a wavelength ~1 meter, at 324.5 MHz. The data reduction and analysis are described and an electronic catalog of the sources detected above 5 sigma is presented. We also discuss the observed angular size distribution for the sample. Using our deeper 20cm survey of the same field, we calculate spectral indices for sources detected in both surveys. The spectral indices for 90cm-selected sources, defined as S ~nu^(-alpha}, shows a peak near 0.7 and only a few sources with very steep spectra. Thus no large population of very steep spectrum microJy sources seems to exist down to the limit of our survey. For 20cm-selected sources, we find similar mean spectral indices for sources with S_20>1 mJy. For weaker sources, below the detection limit for individual sources at 90cm, we use stacking to study the radio spectra. We find that the spectral indices of small (<3") 20cm-selected sources with S_20< 10 mJy have mean and median alpha(90,20)~0.3-0.5. ...

  19. Deep Ly alpha imaging of two z=2.04 GRB host galaxy fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Møller, Per; Thomsen, Bente;

    2002-01-01

    - I colour than the eastern component, suggesting the presence of at least some dust. We do not detect the host galaxy of GRB 000301C in neither Lyalpha emission nor in U and I broad-band images. The strongest limit comes from combining the narrow and U-band imaging where we infer a limit of U...... the spectral slopes (f(lambda) proportional to lambda(beta)) of the two components to beta = 2.4 +/- 0.3 (east)and -1.4 +/- 0.2 (west). This implies that both components contain at most small amounts of dust, consistent with the observed strong Lyalpha emission. The western component has a slightly redder V......(AB) > 27.7 (2sigma limit per arcsec(2)). The upper limits on the Lyalpha flux implies a Lyalpha equivalent width upper limit of similar to150 Angstrom. We find eleven and eight other galaxies with excess emission in the narrow filter in the fields of GRB 000301C and GRB 000926 respectively. These galaxies...

  20. A catalog of visual-like morphologies in the 5 CANDELS fields using deep-learning

    CERN Document Server

    Huertas-Company, M; Cabrera-Vives, G; Pérez-González, P G; Kartaltepe, J S; Barro, G; Bernardi, M; Mei, S; Shankar, F; Dimauro, P; Bell, E F; Kocevski, D; Koo, D C; Faber, S M; Mcintosh, D H

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of visual like H-band morphologies of $\\sim50.000$ galaxies ($H_{f160w}\\sim1.25$. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S for which visual classifications are publicly available and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves the probabilities for each galaxy of having a spheroid, a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or point source and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given a galaxy image with zero bias and $\\sim10\\%$ scatter. The fraction of miss-classifications is less than $1\\%$. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to CAS (Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness)-based methods, which hit a $20-30\\%$ contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the $\\href{http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public}{Rainbow\\,database}$

  1. Pontibacter amylolyticus sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea sediment hydrothermal vent field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Hong; Zhou, Peng; Jian, Shu-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Sheng; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Oren, Aharon; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated 9-2T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a hydrothermal vent field on the south-west Indian Ridge. It formed red colonies, produced carotenoid-like pigments and did not produce bacteriochlorophyll a. Strain 9-2T was positive for hydrolysis of DNA, gelatin and starch, but negative for hydrolysis of aesculin and Tween 60. The sole respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The main polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The principal fatty acids (>5%) were summed feature 4 (iso-C17:1 I and/or anteiso-C17:1 B), iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 9-2T should be assigned to the genus Pontibacter. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the new isolate and the type strains of Pontibacter species with validly published names were in the range 94.0-96.5%. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain 9-2T represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter amylolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9-2T (=CGMCC 1.12749T=JCM 19653T=MCCC 1K00278T). PMID:26827710

  2. Megacrystic pyroxene basalts sample deep crustal gabbroic cumulates beneath the Mount Taylor volcanic field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mariek E.; Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Rowe, Michael C.; Wolff, John A.; Boroughs, Scott P.

    2016-04-01

    Distributed over the ~ 2.3 m.y. history of the alkaline and compositionally diverse Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico is a widespread texturally distinct family of differentiated basalts that contain resorbed megacrysts (up to 3 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ± Ti-magnetite ± ilmenite ± orthopyroxene. These lavas have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. Gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form positive linear arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt.%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt.%). Plagioclase (An41-80) from representative thin sections analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by laser ablation ICP-MS range from 0.7036 to 0.7048. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, the pyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts appear to track the differentiation of a gabbroic pluton (or related plutons) from alkaline to Si-saturated conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. Clinopyroxene-liquid geobarometry calculations suggest that crystallization occurred near the crust-mantle transition at an average of ~ 1200 °C and 12-13 kbar. The distribution of the megacrystic pyroxene basalts suggests that a gabbroic intrusive body underlies subregions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas. The gabbro is interpreted to be a significant heat and mass input into the lower crust that is capable of driving the petrogenesis of diverse silicic compositions (through fractionation and crustal assimilation), including mugearites, trachytes, trachy-andesites and dacites, high-Si rhyolites, and topaz rhyolites of the MTVF.

  3. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.;

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...

  4. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: The EGS deep field I - Deep number counts and the redshift distribution of the recovered Cosmic Infrared Background at 450 and 850 um

    CERN Document Server

    Zavala, J A; Geach, J E; Hughes, D H; Birkinshaw, M; Chapin, E; Chapman, S; Chen, Chian-Chou; Clements, D L; Dunlop, J S; Farrah, D; Ivison, R J; Jenness, T; Michałowski, M J; Robson, E I; Scott, Douglas; Simpson, J; Spaans, M; van der Werf, P

    2016-01-01

    We present deep observations at 450 um and 850 um in the Extended Groth Strip field taken with the SCUBA-2 camera mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the deep SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS), achieving a central instrumental depth of $\\sigma_{450}=1.2$ mJy/beam and $\\sigma_{850}=0.2$ mJy/beam. We detect 57 sources at 450 um and 90 at 850 um with S/N > 3.5 over ~70 sq. arcmin. From these detections we derive the number counts at flux densities $S_{450}>4.0$ mJy and $S_{850}>0.9$ mJy, which represent the deepest number counts at these wavelengths derived using directly extracted sources from only blank-field observations with a single-dish telescope. Our measurements smoothly connect the gap between previous shallower blank-field single-dish observations and deep interferometric ALMA results. We estimate the contribution of our SCUBA-2 detected galaxies to the cosmic infrared background (CIB), as well as the contribution of 24 um-selected galaxies through a stacking technique, which ...

  5. A submillimetre galaxy at z=4.76 in the LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Coppin, Kristen; Alexander, David M; Weiss, Axel; Walter, Fabian; Swinbank, Mark; Greve, Thomas; Kovacs, Attila; De Breuck, Carlos; Dickinson, Mark; Ibar, Edo; Ivison, Rob; Reddy, Naveen; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel; Brandt, Niel; Chapman, Scott; Dannerbauer, Helmut; van Dokkum, Pieter; Dunlop, James; Frayer, David; Gawiser, Eric; Geach, James; Huynh, Minh; Knudsen, Kirsten; Koekemoer, Anton; Lehmer, Bret; Menten, Karl; Papovich, Casey; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; van der Werf, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We report on the identification of the highest redshift submm-selected source currently known: LESSJ033229.4-275619. This source was detected in the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Submillimetre Survey (LESS), a sensitive 870-um survey (~1.2-mJy rms) of the full 30'x30' ECDFS with the LABOCA camera on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The submm emission is identified with a radio counterpart for which optical spectroscopy provides a redshift of z=4.76. We show that the bolometric emission is dominated by a starburst with a star formation rate of ~1000 Msun/yr, although we also identify a moderate luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) in this galaxy. Thus it has characteristics similar to those of z~2 submm galaxies (SMGs), with a mix of starburst and obscured AGN signatures. This demonstrates that ultraluminous starburst activity is not just restricted to the hosts of the most luminous (and hence rare) QSOs at z~5, but was also occurring in l...

  6. X-ray selected Infrared Excess AGN in the Chandra Deep Fields: a moderate fraction of Compton-thick sources

    CERN Document Server

    Georgantopoulos, I; Xilouris, E M; Comastri, A; Akylas, A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the properties of the X-ray detected, Infrared Excess AGN or Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra Deep Fields (CDF). We find 26 X-ray selected sources which obey the 24 micron to R-band flux ratio criterion f_24/f_R>1000. These are at a median redshift of 2.3 while their IR luminosities are above 10^12 solar. Their X-ray luminosities are all above a few times 10^42 erg s-1 in the 2-10 keV band unambiguously arguing that these host AGN. Nevertheless, their IR Spectral Energy Distributions are split between AGN (Mrk231) and star-forming templates (Arp220). Our primary goal is to examine their individual X-ray spectra in order to assess whether this X-ray detected DOG population contains heavily obscured or even Compton-thick sources. The X-ray spectroscopy reveals a mixed bag of objects. We find that four out of the 12 sources with adequate photon statistics and hence reliable X-ray spectra, show evidence for a hard X-ray spectral index (~1) or harder,consistent with a Compton-thick spectrum....

  7. A LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South - submillimeter properties of near-IR selected galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Greve, T R; Walter, F; Smail, I; Zheng, X Z; Knudsen, K K; Coppin, K E K; Kovács, A; Bell, E F; De Breuck, C; Dannerbauer, H; Dickinson, M; Gawiser, E; Lutz, D; Rix, H -W; Schinnerer, E; Alexander, D; Bertoldi, F; Brandt, W N; Chapman, S C; Ivison, R J; Koekemoer, A M; Kreysa, E; Kurczynski, P; Menten, K; Siringo, G; Swinbank, M; Van der Werf, P P

    2009-01-01

    Using the 330hr ESO-MPG 870-micron survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) obtained with the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), we have carried out a stacking analysis at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths of a sample of 8266 near-infra-red (near-IR) selected (K_vega <= 20) galaxies, including 893 BzK galaxies, 1253 extremely red objects (EROs) and 737 distant red galaxies (DRGs), selected from the Multi-wavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). We measure average 870-micron fluxes of 0.20+-0.01mJy (20.0sigma), 0.45+-0.04mJy (11.3sigma), 0.42+-0.03mJy (14.0sigma), and 0.41+-0.04mJy (10.3sigma) for the K_vega <= 20, BzK, ERO and DRG samples, respectively. For the BzK, ERO and DRG subsamples, which overlap to some degree and are like to be at z ~ 1-2, this implies an average far-IR luminosity of ~2-6x10^{11} Lsolar and star formation rate of ~40-100Msolar. Splitting the BzK galaxies up into star-forming (sBzK) and passive (pBzK) galaxies, the f...

  8. Spectroscopic Confirmation of Faint Lyman Break Galaxies at Redshifts Four and Five in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoads, James E; Pirzkal, Norbert; Dickinson, Mark; Cohen, Seth; Grogin, Norman; Hathi, Nimish; Xu, Chun

    2008-01-01

    We present the faintest spectroscopically confirmed sample of redshift four and five Lyman break galaxies to date. The sample is based on slitless grism spectra of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field region from the GRAPES (Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science) and PEARS (Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically) projects, using the G800L grism on the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys. We report here confirmations of 39 galaxies, pre-selected as candidate Lyman break galaxies using photometric selection criteria. We compare a "traditional" V-dropout selection to a more liberal one (with V-i > 0.9), and find that the traditional criteria are about 64% complete and 81% reliable. We also study the Lyman alpha emission properties of our sample. We find that Lyman alpha emission is detected in about 1/4 of the sample, and that our broad-band color selected sample includes 55% of previously published line-selected Lyman alpha sources. Finally, we examine our stacked 2D spectra. We demonstrate that strong, ...

  9. Passively Evolving Early-type Galaxies at 1.4Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Daddi, E; Pirzkal, N; Cimatti, A; Malhotra, S; Stiavelli, M; Xu, C; Pasquali, A; Rhoads, J E; Brusa, M; Alighieri, S S; Ferguson, H C; Koekemoer, A M; Moustakas, L A; Panagia, N; Windhorst, R A

    2005-01-01

    We report on a complete sample of 7 luminous early-type galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) with spectroscopic redshifts between 1.39 and 2.47 and to K1.4. Low-resolution spectra of these objects have been extracted from the HST+ACS grism data taken over the UDF by the GRAPES project. Redshift for the 7 galaxies have been identified based on the UV feature at rest frame 2640=1.7 appears to be roughly a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of their local counterparts, further supporting the notion that such massive and old galaxies are already ubiquitous at early cosmic times. Much smaller effective radii are derived for some of the objects compared to local massive ellipticals, which may be due to morphological K corrections, evolution, or the presence of a central point-like source. Nuclear activity is indeed present in a subset of the galaxies, as revealed by them being hard X-ray sources, hinting to AGN activity having played a role in discontinuing star formation.

  10. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field Survey: Linking galaxies and halos at z=1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Manso, Jesus; Ashby, Matthew L N; Stanford, S A; Brodwin, Mark; Holder, Gilbert P; Stern, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the clustering of high-redshift galaxies in the recently completed 94 deg$^2$ Spitzer-SPT Deep Field survey. Applying flux and color cuts to the mid-infrared photometry efficiently selects galaxies at $z\\sim1.5$ in the stellar mass range $10^{10}-10^{11}M_\\odot$, making this sample the largest used so far to study such a distant population. We measure the angular correlation function in different flux-limited samples at scales $>6^{\\prime \\prime}$ (corresponding to physical distances $>0.05$ Mpc) and thereby map the one- and two-halo contributions to the clustering. We fit halo occupation distributions and determine how the central galaxy's stellar mass and satellite occupation depend on the halo mass. We measure a prominent peak in the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at a halo mass of $\\log(M_{\\rm halo} / M_\\odot) = 12.44\\pm0.08$, 4.5 times higher than the $z=0$ value. This supports the idea of an evolving mass threshold above which star formation is quenched. We estimate the large-scale...

  11. X-ray properties of UV-selected star forming galaxies at z~1 in the Hubble Deep Field North

    CERN Document Server

    Laird, E S; Adelberger, K L; Steidel, C C; Reddy, N A

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray emission from a large sample of ultraviolet (UV) selected, star forming galaxies with 0.74Deep Field North (HDF-N) region. By excluding all sources with significant detected X-ray emission in the 2 Ms Chandra observation we are able to examine the properties of galaxies for which the emission in both UV and X-ray is expected to be predominantly due to star formation. Stacking the X-ray flux from 216 galaxies in the soft and hard bands produces significant detections. The derived mean 2-10 keV rest-frame luminosity is 2.97+/-0.26x10^(40) erg/s, corresponding to an X-ray derived star formation rate (SFR) of 6.0+/-0.6 Msolar/yr. Comparing the X-ray value with the mean UV derived SFR, uncorrected for attenuation, we find that the average UV attenuation correction factor is \\~3. By binning the galaxy sample according to UV magnitude and colour, correlations between UV and X-ray emission are also examined. We find a strong positive correlation between ...

  12. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey VLT/FORS2 Spectroscopy in the GOODS-South Field: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Dickinson, M; Kuntschner, H; Nonino, M; Rettura, A; Rosati, P; Vernet, J; Césarsky, C J; Ferguson, H C; Fosbury, R A E; Giavalisco, M; Haase, J; Moustakas, L A; Popesso, P; Renzini, A; Stern, D; Team, the GOODS

    2006-01-01

    We present the second campaign of the ESO/GOODS program of spectroscopy of faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). Objects were selected as candidates for VLT/FORS2 observations primarily based on the expectation that the detection and measurement of their spectral features would benefit from the high throughput and spectral resolution of FORS2. The reliability of the redshift estimates is assessed using diagnostic diagrams and comparing the results with public data. 807 spectra of 652 individual targets have been obtained in service mode with the FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO/VLT, providing 501 redshift determinations. The typical redshift uncertainty is estimated to be sigma_z ~ 0.0009. Galaxies have been color selected in a way that the resulting redshift distribution typically spans two redshift domains: from z=0.5 to 2 and z=3.5 to 6.2. In particular, 94 B435-,V606-,i775-"dropout" Lyman break galaxies have been observed, yielding redshifts for 64 objects in the interval 3.4

  13. Unveiling Dust-enshrouded Star Formation in the Early Universe a Sub-mm Survey of the Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, D; Dunlop, J; Rowan-Robinson, M; Blain, A W; Mann, R G; Ivison, R J; Peacock, J; Efstathiou, A; Gear, W K; Oliver, S; Lawrence, A; Longair, M S; Goldschmidt, P; Jenness, T; Hughes, David; Serjeant, Steve; Dunlop, James; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Blain, Andrew; Mann, Robert G.; Ivison, Rob; Peacock, John; Efstathiou, Andreas; Gear, Walter; Oliver, Seb; Lawrence, Andy; Longair, Malcolm; Goldschmidt, Pippa; Jenness, Tim

    1998-01-01

    The advent of sensitive sub-mm array cameras now allows a proper census of dust-enshrouded massive star-formation in very distant galaxies, previously hidden activity to which even the faintest optical images are insensitive. We present the deepest sub-mm survey of the sky to date, taken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and centred on the Hubble Deep Field. The high source density found in this image implies that the survey is confusion-limited below a flux density of 2 mJy. However, within the central 80 arcsec radius independent analyses yield 5 reproducible sources with S(850um) > 2 mJy which simulations indicate can be ascribed to individual galaxies. We give positions and flux densities for these, and furthermore show using multi-frequency photometric data that the brightest sources in our map lie at redshifts z~3. These results lead to integral source counts which are completely inconsistent with a no-evolution model, and imply that massive star-formation activity continues at ...

  14. Rhythms and community dynamics of a hydrothermal tubeworm assemblage at main endeavour field - a multidisciplinary deep-sea observatory approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Cuvelier

    Full Text Available The NEPTUNE cabled observatory network hosts an ecological module called TEMPO-mini that focuses on hydrothermal vent ecology and time series, granting us real-time access to data originating from the deep sea. In 2011-2012, during TEMPO-mini's first deployment on the NEPTUNE network, the module recorded high-resolution imagery, temperature, iron (Fe and oxygen on a hydrothermal assemblage at 2186 m depth at Main Endeavour Field (North East Pacific. 23 days of continuous imagery were analysed with an hourly frequency. Community dynamics were analysed in detail for Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms, Polynoidae, Pycnogonida and Buccinidae, documenting faunal variations, natural change and biotic interactions in the filmed tubeworm assemblage as well as links with the local environment. Semi-diurnal and diurnal periods were identified both in fauna and environment, revealing the influence of tidal cycles. Species interactions were described and distribution patterns were indicative of possible microhabitat preference. The importance of high-resolution frequencies (<1 h to fully comprehend rhythms in fauna and environment was emphasised, as well as the need for the development of automated or semi-automated imagery analysis tools.

  15. Rhythms and community dynamics of a hydrothermal tubeworm assemblage at main endeavour field - a multidisciplinary deep-sea observatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Daphne; Legendre, Pierre; Laes, Agathe; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2014-01-01

    The NEPTUNE cabled observatory network hosts an ecological module called TEMPO-mini that focuses on hydrothermal vent ecology and time series, granting us real-time access to data originating from the deep sea. In 2011-2012, during TEMPO-mini's first deployment on the NEPTUNE network, the module recorded high-resolution imagery, temperature, iron (Fe) and oxygen on a hydrothermal assemblage at 2186 m depth at Main Endeavour Field (North East Pacific). 23 days of continuous imagery were analysed with an hourly frequency. Community dynamics were analysed in detail for Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms, Polynoidae, Pycnogonida and Buccinidae, documenting faunal variations, natural change and biotic interactions in the filmed tubeworm assemblage as well as links with the local environment. Semi-diurnal and diurnal periods were identified both in fauna and environment, revealing the influence of tidal cycles. Species interactions were described and distribution patterns were indicative of possible microhabitat preference. The importance of high-resolution frequencies (<1 h) to fully comprehend rhythms in fauna and environment was emphasised, as well as the need for the development of automated or semi-automated imagery analysis tools. PMID:24810603

  16. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Xu, Chun; Gronwall, Caryl; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Walsh, Jeremy; diSeregoAlighieri, Sperello

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  17. ALBEDO PROPERTIES OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS BASED ON THE ALL-SKY SURVEY OF THE INFRARED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE AKARI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the albedo properties of main belt asteroids (MBAs) detected by the All-Sky Survey of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The characteristics of 5120 asteroids detected by the survey, including their sizes and albedos, were cataloged in the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA). Size and albedo measurements were based on the standard thermal model, using inputs of infrared fluxes and absolute magnitudes measured at optical wavelengths. MBAs, which account for 4722 of the 5120 AcuA asteroids, have semimajor axes of 2.06-3.27 AU, except for the near-Earth asteroids. AcuA provides a complete data set of all MBAs brighter than the absolute magnitude of H 20 km. We confirmed that the albedo distribution of the MBAs is strongly bimodal as was already known from the past observations, and that the bimodal distribution occurs not only in the total population, but also within inner, middle, and outer regions of the main belt. The bimodal distribution in each group consists of low-albedo components in C-type asteroids and high-albedo components in S-type asteroids. We found that the small asteroids have much more variety in albedo than the large asteroids. In spite of the albedo transition process like space weathering, the heliocentric distribution of the mean albedo of asteroids in each taxonomic type is nearly flat. The mean albedo of the total, on the other hand, gradually decreases with an increase in semimajor axis. This can be explained by the compositional ratio of taxonomic types; that is, the proportion of dark asteroids such as C- and D-types increases, while that of bright asteroids such as S-type decreases, with increasing heliocentric distance. The heliocentric distributions of X-subclasses: E-, M-, and P-types, which can be divided based on albedo values, are also examined. P-types, which are the major component in X-types, are distributed throughout the main belt regions, and the abundance of P-types increases beyond 3 AU. This

  18. The Abundance of Star-Forming Galaxies in the Redshift Range 8.5 to 12: New Results from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Ono, Yoshiaki; Schenker, Matthew A; Koekemoer, Anton; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Ouchi, Masami; Rogers, Alexander B; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z~8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide Field Camera 3 images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This `UDF12' campaign completed in September 2012 doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack we find 7 promising z>8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.510 galaxies with JWST.

  19. THE ABUNDANCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 8.5-12: NEW RESULTS FROM THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z ≅ 8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). This 'UDF12' campaign completed in 2012 September doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high-redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack, we find seven promising z > 8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.5 10 galaxies with James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in enclosing rock mass surrounding deep tunnels Elasto-plastic analysis of stress field of enclosing rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; ZHANG Ya-dong; GONG Zi-ming

    2009-01-01

    The zonal disintegration phenomenon (ZDP) is a typical phenomenon in deep block rock masses. In order to investigate the mechanism of ZDP, an improved non-linear Hock-Brown strength criterion and a bi-linear constitutive model of rock mass were used to analyze the elasto-plastic stress field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep round tunnel. The radius of the plastic region and stress of the enclosing rock mass were obtained by introducing dimensionless parameters of radial distance. The results show that tunneling in deep rock mass causes a maximum stress zone to appear in the vicinity of the boundary of the elastic and the plas-tic zone in the surrounding rock mass. Under the compression of a large tangential force and a small radial force, the rock mass in the maximum stress zone was in an approximate uniaxial loading state, which could lead to a split failure in the rock mass.

  1. Evaluating lysimeter drainage against soil deep percolation modeled with profile soil moisture, field tracer propagation, and lab measured soil hydraulic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Vicente; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Iversen, Bo Vangsø;

    them have been reported. To compare among methods, one year of four large-scale lysimeters drainage (D) was evaluated against modeled soil deep percolation using either profile soil moisture, bromide breakthrough curves from suction cups, or measured soil hydraulic properties in the laboratory...... model using field q, and 572 mm with the laboratory measured soil hydraulic properties. In conclusion, lysimeters presented the lowest D and can be considered as a lower bound for D; whereas either laboratory measured soil hydraulic properties or models calibrated with profile soil moisture yielded......Quantifying recharge to shallow aquifers via soil deep percolation is needed for sustainable management of water resources. This includes modeled predictions to address the effects of climate change on recharge. Different methods to estimate soil deep percolation exist but few comparisons among...

  2. AKARI Near- to Mid-Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopic Observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud. I. Bright Point Source List

    CERN Document Server

    Ita, Y; Tanabe, T; Matsunaga, N; Matsuura, M; Yamamura, I; Nakada, Y; Izumiura, H; Ueta, T; Mito, H; Fukushi, H; Kato, D

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a near- to mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the patchy areas in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. Two 100 arcmin2 areas were imaged in 3.2, 4.1, 7, 11, 15, and 24 um and also spectroscopically observed in the wavelength range continuously from 2.5 to 13.4 um. The spectral resolving power (lambda/Delta lambda) is about 20, 50, and 50 at 3.5, 6.6 and 10.6 um, respectively. Other than the two 100 arcmin2 areas, some patchy areas were imaged and/or spectroscopically observed as well. In this paper, we overview the observations and present a list of near- to mid-infrared photometric results, which lists ~ 12,000 near-infrared and ~ 1,800 mid-infrared bright point sources detected in the observed areas. The 10 sigma limits are 16.50, 16.12, 13.28, 11.26, 9.62, and 8.76 in Vega magnitudes at 3.2, 4.1, 7, 11, 15, and 24 um bands, respectively.

  3. 3-D Dynamics of Interactions between Stellar Winds and the Interstellar Medium as Seen by AKARI and Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, Toshiya; Yamamura, Issei; Stencel, Robert E; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Mikako; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Fukushi, Hinako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Speck, Angela K

    2009-01-01

    Recent far-infrared mapping of mass-losing stars by the AKARI Infrared Astronomy Satellite and Spitzer Space Telescope have suggested that far-infrared bow shock structures are probably ubiquitous around these mass-losing stars, especially when these stars have high proper motion. Higher spatial resolution data of such far-infrared bow shocks now allow detailed fitting to yield the orientation of the bow shock cone with respect to the heliocentric space motion vector of the central star, using the analytical solution for these bow shocks under the assumption of momentum conservation across a physically thin interface between the stellar winds and interstellar medium (ISM). This fitting analysis of the observed bow shock structure would enable determination of the ambient ISM flow vector, founding a new technique to probe the 3-D ISM dynamics that are local to these interacting systems. In this review, we will demonstrate this new technique for three particular cases, Betelgeuse, R Hydrae, and R Cassiopeiae.

  4. A Signature of Chromospheric Activity in Brown Dwarfs Revealed by 2.5-5.0 Micron AKARI Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sorahana, Satoko; Yamamura, Issei

    2014-01-01

    We propose that the 2.7 micron H_2O, 3.3 micron CH_4 and 4.6 micron CO absorption bands can be good tracers of chromospheric activity in brown dwarfs. In our previous study, we found that there are difficulties in explaining entire spectra between 1.0 and 5.0 microns with the Unified Cloudy Model (UCM), a brown dwarf atmosphere model. Based on simple radiative equilibrium, temperature in a model atmosphere usually decreases monotonically with height. However, if a brown dwarf has a chromosphere, as inferred by some observations, the temperature in the upper atmosphere is higher. We construct a simple model that takes into account heating due to chromospheric activity by setting a temperature floor in an upper atmosphere, and find that the model spectra of 3 brown dwarfs with moderate H-alpha emission, an indicator of chromospheric activity, are considerably improved to match the AKARI spectra. Because of the higher temperatures in the upper atmospheres, the amount of CH_4 molecules is reduced and the absorpti...

  5. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Yasuki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$ images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm and cold dust components by decomposing 6-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of the total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morpholog...

  6. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 μm images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken, and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm, and cold dust components by decomposing six-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities, and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morphological types. In particular, they follow a power-law relation with an index of ˜3 between the total IR luminosity and radius, as expected from the conventional picture of the Strömgren sphere. The exceptions are large broken bubbles; they indicate higher total IR luminosities, lower fractional luminosities of the PAH emission, and dust heating sources located nearer to the shells. We discuss the implications of those differences for a massive star-formation scenario.

  7. Real-time monitoring of nitrate transport in the deep vadose zone under a crop field - implications for groundwater protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeltaub, Tuvia; Kurtzman, Daniel; Dahan, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate is considered the most common non-point pollutant in groundwater. It is often attributed to agricultural management, when excess application of nitrogen fertilizer leaches below the root zone and is eventually transported as nitrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table. A lag time of years to decades between processes occurring in the root zone and their final imprint on groundwater quality prevents proper decision-making on land use and groundwater-resource management. This study implemented the vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) under a commercial crop field. Data obtained by the VMS for 6 years allowed, for the first time known to us, a unique detailed tracking of water percolation and nitrate migration from the surface through the entire vadose zone to the water table at 18.5 m depth. A nitrate concentration time series, which varied with time and depth, revealed - in real time - a major pulse of nitrate mass propagating down through the vadose zone from the root zone toward the water table. Analysis of stable nitrate isotopes indicated that manure is the prevalent source of nitrate in the deep vadose zone and that nitrogen transformation processes have little effect on nitrate isotopic signature. The total nitrogen mass calculations emphasized the nitrate mass migration towards the water table. Furthermore, the simulated pore-water velocity through analytical solution of the convection-dispersion equation shows that nitrate migration time from land surface to groundwater is relatively rapid, approximately 5.9 years. Ultimately, agricultural land uses, which are constrained to high nitrogen application rates and coarse soil texture, are prone to inducing substantial nitrate leaching.

  8. Sub-mm emission line deep fields: CO and [C II] luminosity functions out to z = 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popping, Gergö; van Kampen, Eelco; Decarli, Roberto; Spaans, Marco; Somerville, Rachel S.; Trager, Scott C.

    2016-09-01

    Now that Atacama Large (Sub)Millimeter Array is reaching its full capabilities, observations of sub-mm emission line deep fields become feasible. We couple a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with a radiative transfer code to make predictions for the luminosity function of CO J =1-0 out to CO J = 6-5 and [C II] at redshifts z= 0-6. We find that (1) our model correctly reproduces the CO and [C II] emission of low- and high-redshift galaxies and reproduces the available constraints on the CO luminosity function at z ≤ 2.75; (2) we find that the CO and [C II] luminosity functions of galaxies increase from z = 6 to z = 4, remain relatively constant till z = 1 and rapidly decrease towards z = 0. The galaxies that are brightest in CO and [C II] are found at z ˜ 2; (3) the CO J = 3-2 emission line is most favourable to study the CO luminosity and global H2 mass content of galaxies, because of its brightness and observability with currently available sub-mm and radio instruments; (4) the luminosity functions of high-J CO lines show stronger evolution than the luminosity functions of low-J CO lines; (5) our model barely reproduces the available constraints on the CO and [C II] luminosity function of galaxies at z ≥ 1.5 and the CO luminosity of individual galaxies at intermediate redshifts. We argue that this is driven by a lack of cold gas in galaxies at intermediate redshifts as predicted by cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  9. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wardlow, J. L. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  10. Deep-fault connection characterization from combined field and geochemical methodology; examples from Green River and Haiti fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadine, E. Z.; Frery, E.; Leroy, S.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Momplaisir, R.

    2011-12-01

    Fault transfer properties are depending on different parameters, such as fault plane geometry, regional to local offset guiding the morphology through time, but are also very sensitive on other factors which may vary through time and space. Detailed along-strike observations and analyses of the Green River Fault system (Utah) outline the strong impact of several parameters; pre-existing structures or basement heterogeneities, lateral variation of the host-rock mechanical properties, the change of paleostress field through time which creates complex fault intersections. This last parameter, is often associated either with along-and-across fluid drainage (fault leaking) or with abnormal sealing deformation and uplifts corresponding to the locked fault segments. Along the Green River anticline, which is dissected by Salt wash and Little Grand wash major faults, several leaking segments are distributed. They have been analysed for geochemical characterization. In fact, carbon dioxide rich waters expelled from natural or artificial (well-driven geyser) springs, are located preferentially at structural intersection points. Changes in fault transfer properties has been proved as discontinuous from detailed datings (U/Th datings: see Frery et al AGU 2011 this meeting) on the top-fault travertines precipitation. The correlation with fault mineralisation at depth is still under investigation. In this area, not considered as very seismic one compared to the adjacent Basin and Ranges area, fault activity relates both on slow processes indicating a long seismic recurrence time, and on local reservoir short-time de-pressurisation processes. The same methods of investigation will be used on the very active Haitian fault system. The new constraints applied on the Enriquillo-Plantain-garden Fault (EPGF) responsible for the initial deep tectonic stress release (12 January 2010), have not been expressed by a clear surface fault rupture (surface locked segment), but by a northward

  11. DIFFERENCE IN THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN H{sub 2}O AND CO{sub 2} ICES IN M 82 FOUND WITH AKARI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimonishi, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Suzuki, Toyoaki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Minh, Young Chol, E-mail: yamagishi@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-20

    With AKARI, we obtain the spatially resolved near-infrared (NIR) (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectra for the nearby starburst galaxy M 82. These spectra clearly show absorption features due to interstellar ices. Based on the spectra, we created the column density maps of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} ices. As a result, we find that the spatial distribution of H{sub 2}O ice is significantly different from that of CO{sub 2} ice; H{sub 2}O ice is widely distributed, while CO{sub 2} ice is concentrated near the galactic center. Our result reveals for the first time variations in CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance ratio on a galactic scale, suggesting that an ice-forming interstellar environment changes within a galaxy. We discuss the cause of the spatial variations in the ice abundance ratio, utilizing spectral information on the hydrogen recombination Br{alpha} and Br{beta} lines and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 {mu}m emission appearing in the AKARI NIR spectra.

  12. Deep Learning in Bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current res...

  13. Modelling of the Electric Field Distribution in Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Adolescence, in the Adulthood, and in the Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Longhi, Michela; Ravazzani, Paolo; Roth, Yiftach; Zangen, Abraham; Parazzini, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has been used for the treatment of depressive disorders, which affect a broad category of people, from adolescents to aging people. To facilitate its clinical application, particular shapes of coils, including the so-called Hesed coils, were designed. Given their increasing demand and the lack of studies which accurately characterize their use, this paper aims to provide a picture of the distribution of the induced electric field in four realistic human models of different ages and gender. In detail, the electric field distributions were calculated by using numerical techniques in the brain structures potentially involved in the progression of the disease and were quantified in terms of both amplitude levels and focusing power of the distribution. The results highlight how the chosen Hesed coil (H7 coil) is able to induce the maxima levels of E mainly in the prefrontal cortex, particularly for the younger model. Moreover, growing levels of induced electric fields with age were found by going in deep in the brain, as well as a major capability to penetrate in the deepest brain structures with an electric field higher than 50%, 70%, and 90% of the peak found in the cortex. PMID:27069502

  14. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, O.; Dufresne, A.; Pédrot, M.; Chatton, E.; Labasque, T.; Ben Maamar, S.; Burté, L.; de la Bernardie, J.; Guihéneuf, N.; Lavenant, N.; Petton, C.; Bour, O.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydro-logical systems. Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is observed in an 130m deep artesian well. Borehole video logs show an important colonization of the well by the biofilm in the shallower part (0 to 60m), while it is inexistent in the deeper part (60 to 130m). As flow is localized in a few deep and shallow fractures, we presume that the spatial distribution of biofilm is controlled by mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. To verify this hypothesis we conducted a field campaign with joint characterization of the flow and chemical composition of water flowing from the different fractures, as well as the microbiological composition of the biofilm at different depth, using pyrosequencing techniques. We will discuss in this presentation the results of this interdisciplinary dataset and their implications for the occurrence of hotspots of microbiological activity in the subsurface.

  15. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Pédrot, Mathieu; Labasque, Thierry; Lavenant, Nicolas; Petton, Christophe; Dufresne, Alexis; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Chatton, Eliot; De la Bernardie, Jérôme; Aquilina, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization Olivier Bochet1, Tanguy Le Borgne1, Mathieu Pédrot1, Thierry Labasque1, Nicolas Lavenant1, Christophe Petton1, Alexis Dufresne2,Sarah Ben Maamar1-2, Eliot Chatton1, Jérôme de la Bernardie1, Luc Aquilina1 1: Géosciences Rennes, CNRS UMR 6118, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu bât 14B, Rennes, France 2: Ecobio, CNRS UMR 6553, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, bât 14, Rennes, France Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydrological systems. Their development can have either positive impacts on groundwater quality (e.g. attenuation of contaminants under natural or stimulated conditions), or possible negative effects on subsurface operations (e.g. bio-clogging of geothermal dipoles or artificial recharge systems). Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is

  16. Evolution of the Sizes of Galaxies over 7Deep Field Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; McLure, Ross J; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Rogers, Alexander B; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z~7-12 using deep images from the UDF12 campaign, data which offers two distinct advantages over that used in earlier work. Firstly, we utilize the increased S/N ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved size measurements for known galaxies at z=6.5-8 in the HUDF. Specifically, we stack the new deep F140W image with the existing F125W data in order to provide improved measurements of the half-light radii of z-dropouts. Similarly we stack this image with the new deep UDF12 F160W image to obtain new size measurements for a sample of Y-dropouts. Secondly, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z>8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to significantly higher redshifts. Restricting our size measurements to sources which are now detected at >15sigma, we confirm earlier indications that the average hal...

  17. 深海热液速度场测量重建算法比较%Comparison of reconstruction algorithm in deep-sea hydrothermal velocity field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白燕; 毛洁; 樊炜; 潘华辰

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at measuring and reconstruction of the deep-sea hydrothermal velocity field, the basic theory of acoustic velocity field measurement in deep-sea hydrothermal vents was introduced. Based on single and double-peaked velocity field model, the reconstruction of velocity field via least square method and Fourier regularization mehods were presented. The absolute, the relative error and flow flux analysis of the reconstructed velocity fields were given. It shows that Fourier regularization method has a better result than least square method to single and double-peaked velocity field model.%针对深海热液中速度场的测量与重建的问题,介绍了利用声学方法测最深海热液速度场的基本原理.对单峰、双峰速度场模型,采用最小二乘法和傅里叶正则化方法分别进行了重建仿真,并对重建结果进行了流量分析.比较了最小二乘法与正则化方法对单峰、双峰速度场模型的重建效果.仿真重建的绝对误差、相对误差以及流量分析结果表明:正则化方法对单峰模型速度场和双峰模型速度场比最小二乘法有更好的还原效果.

  18. 3D-HST Data Release v3.0: Extremely Deep Spectra in the UDF and WFC3 Mosaics in the 3D-HST/CANDELS Fields

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind E; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2013-01-01

    3D-HST is a 248-orbit Treasury program to provide WFC3 and ACS grism spectroscopy over four extra-galactic fields (AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-South, and UDS), augmented with previously obtained data in GOODS-North. We present a new data release of the 3D-HST survey, version v3.0. This release follows the initial v0.5 release that accompanied the survey description paper (Brammer et al. 2012). The new v3.0 release includes the deepest near-IR HST grism spectra currently in existence, extracted from the 8-17 orbit depth observations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Contamination-corrected 2D and 1D spectra, as well as derived redshifts, are made available for >250 objects in this 2'x2'field. The spectra are of extraordinary quality, and show emission features in many galaxies as faint as F140W=26-27, absorption features in quiescent galaxies at z~2, and several active galactic nuclei. In addition to these extremely deep grism data we provide reduced WFC3 F125W, F140W, and F160W image mosaics of all five 3D-HST/CANDELS...

  19. Numerical modeling of deep oceanic slab dehydration: Implications for the possible origin of far field intra-continental volcanoes in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Liao, Jie; Gerya, Taras

    2016-03-01

    Intra-continental volcanoes have different origins compared to arc volcanoes, and several conflicting geodynamic mechanisms of intra-continental magmatism have been proposed, which require quantitative testing. In this paper, we investigate numerically possible influences of deep subducted slab dehydration processes for the development of intra-continental volcanoes distributed in northeastern China. We employ 2D thermo-mechanical numerical models to investigate the complex dynamics of long-term subduction process, including slab interaction with mantle transition zone, deep oceanic plate dehydration, trench rollback, and back-arc extension. Our experiments show systematically that water can be transported to the transition zone by stagnant slabs hydrating the overlaying deep asthenospheric mantle. Positively buoyant partially molten hydrous plumes arising from the hydrated area formed atop the slabs can propagate upwards and form partially molten mantle regions under the far field continental plate. Our numerical models thus suggest that the development of widely distributed intra-continental volcanism in northeastern China could be related to the rising of multiple relatively small hydrous plumes triggered by stagnant paleo-Pacific slab dehydration in the transition zone.

  20. A Study of Near to Far Fields of JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) Antennas for RFI Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of calculating the gain and power distribution of DSN antennas in the Fresnel (middle zone) and Fraunhofer (far zone) as a function of the distance from the DSN antenna and the off-boresight angle. Calculating the near and mid fields of DSN antennas are of interest in the receive mode where the transmitting signals from nearby flying objects such as helicopters and airplanes transmitting in the DSN frequency range, interfere with the operation of sensitive RF receiving system of the DSN antennas, and in the transmit mode where fields from high-powered DSN antennas interfere with receivers on nearby flying objects such as helicopters or other systems. Computing the exact fields of a large DSN antenna is, in general, a very complicated and arduous task. Even far-field calculations, which are less complicated compared to near and mid zone fields, take considerable computer time. These calculations become even more involved and time-consuming in very near field and back field regions. We provide two approaches for addressing the radio frequency interference (RFI) issue. In this paper, actual fields in mid and far zones are calculated using a relatively simple formulation that is accurate enough for the purposes of RFI analysis. In a future paper, we study and develop simple reference models that provide upper limit bounds or envelopes of the far field patterns as a function of the antenna diameter and frequency, which can be used for obtaining the field at any given point in space.

  1. My Most Memorable AAS Meeting, or How Stephen Hawking's Chauffeur and Chubby Wise's Fiddle Are Related to the Hubble Deep Field (At Least In My Mind and Experience!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Sometimes, in the most extraordinary conditions and times, strange things happen which remind us of just how small a world we really inhabit, and how so many varied things may suddenly be juxtaposed in our lives, and in the lives of others. My most memorable AAS meeting involves not only the meeting but events while getting there. It was January 1996, and we had just finished our observations and initial data reduction of the Hubble Deep Field, the members of the HDF working group doggedly coming in to the STScI by various means over the December holidays and the New Year, in the midst of several blizzards which even closed STScI for a number of days. Not surprisingly, work on the HDF AAS presentations was ongoing until the last minute, until people left snowy Baltimore for sunny San Antonio. My street was plowed for the first time in a week a few hours before my 6AM flight, so after digging out my car, with no time for sleep, between 3AM and 6AM on the morning I left, I soon discovered my own surprising connections between Stephen Hawking's chauffeur, Chubby Wise's fiddle, and the Hubble Deep Field. I'll elaborate in this paper if you're curious!

  2. Optimization and Field Application of Hydraulic Fracturing Techniques in Deep Shale Reservoirs%深层页岩压裂工艺优化与现场试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 蒋廷学; 卞晓冰; 段华

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale reveals that high injection pressure ,low fracture conduc‐tivity ,limited stimulated reservoir volume ,and unsatisfactory primary production are mainly due to deep burial ,variable lithology and high in‐situ stresses .Based on the comprehensive evaluation of geological characteristics and fracturing potential of deep shale reservoirs ,technical difficulties in volumetric stimula‐tion were discussed and relevant countermeasures were proposed .Then ,a fracturing optimization method for deep shales was proposed ,and it combined a numerical simulation of the gas reservoir ,a calculation of induced stress and fracturing simulation .Fracturing segment/cluster ,perforation and stimulation treat‐ment parameters were analyzed .Taking Well Dingye 2HF as an example ,the implementation and control of deep shale fracturing techniques were discussed ,and the responses of stimulation pressure in field appli‐cation were identified .Through stage‐by‐stage optimization and fine adjustment of parameters in aspects of pad volume ,fracture initiation by gel ,and initial sand and fluid ratio .Finally ,a composite fracturing treatment procedure was formed ,i .e .pre acid + moderate viscosity gel + slick water + low viscosity gel+ moderate viscosity gel .The fracturing of deep shales has been improved successfully through the appli‐cation of the proposed procedure .In field application of Well Dingye 2HF ,12 stages of fracturing stimula‐tion were completed with initial gas production of 10 .5 × 104 m3/d after the treatment .This procedure will provide technical reference for hydraulic fracturing in similar deep shale gas reservoirs in the future .%深层页岩埋藏深、岩性差异大、地应力高,压裂改造时存在施工压力高、裂缝导流能力低、改造体积偏小、压后初产效果差等问题。在分析深层页岩地质特征参数和综合评价可压性的基础上,分析了体积改造面临的技术难

  3. The FLARE mission: deep and wide-field 1-5um imaging and spectroscopy for the early universe: a proposal for M5 cosmic vision call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarella, D.; Levacher, P.; Vives, S.; Dohlen, K.; Pascal, S.

    2016-07-01

    FLARE (First Light And Reionization Explorer) is a space mission that will be submitted to ESA (M5 call). Its primary goal (~80% of lifetime) is to identify and study the universe before the end of the reionization at z > 6. A secondary objective (~20% of lifetime) is to survey star formation in the Milky Way. FLARE's strategy optimizes the science return: imaging and spectroscopic integral-field observations will be carried out simultaneously on two parallel focal planes and over very wide instantaneous fields of view. FLARE will help addressing two of ESA's Cosmic Vision themes: a) the universe originate and what is it made of? » and b) « What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? >> and more specifically, >. FLARE will provide to the ESA community a leading position to statistically study the early universe after JWST's deep but pin-hole surveys. Moreover, the instrumental development of wide-field imaging and wide-field integral-field spectroscopy in space will be a major breakthrough after making them available on ground-based telescopes.

  4. Monitoring the movement of the cooler fluids in the deep geothermal reservoirs of Greater Tongonan geothermal field, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of cooler fluids are present in the Greater Tongonan geothermal field, namely the reinjected waste brine in the Tongonan reservoir and the shallow groundwater in the Mahanagdong reservoir. The influx of reinjection fluids in the production area of Tongonan became apparent in 1990 after seven years of commercial operations of the first power plant. The wells that previously delivered highly two-phase fluids started to become liquid-saturated. As a consequence, the fluid temperatures dropped by 10 deg. C and the field enthalpy declined from 2,200 kJ/kg to 1,600 kJ/kg. The new distribution of stable isotopes shows isotopic enrichment in the western part of the field [+1.00 per mille δ18O] where waste brine injection takes place. In Mahanagdong, the field started to generate 180 MW of power in July 1997 that brought about changes to the physical and chemical characteristics of the reservoir. After about one year of commercial operation, the production sector closest to the western part of the field sustained decline in fluid temperature and salinity ultimately leading to decline in bore output. The present stable isotope distribution across the field illustrates invasion of isotopically depleted fluids from the west to the production part of the field, passing through a northwest-trending structure. (author)

  5. Natural gas geological characteristics and great discovery of large gas fields in deep-water area of the western South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate the petroleum exploration in deep sea of China, since the period of “the 11th Five-Year Plan”, the sedimentary process, source rock formation and hydrocarbon generation and expulsion process in deep-water area of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the western South China Sea have been studied systematically using the data like large-area 3D seismic survey, logging, drill core (cuttings and geochemical analysis, providing three innovative understandings, i.e. excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, good accumulation conditions, and grouping and zonal distribution of large exploration targets. From the study, the following conclusions are drawn. First, the deep-water area located in the southern and central parts of the Qiongdongnan Basin was formed under the control of such tectonic events as Indosinian–Eurasian Plate collision, Himalayan uplifting and South China Sea expansion, and experienced Paleogene lift and Neogene depression stages. Second, accompanied by lacustrine deposition, faulting activity was violent in Eocene; whereas in Early Oligocene, rift continued to develop under a sedimentary environment of marine–terrestrial transitional facies and littoral-neritic facies. Third, oil generation predominated Eocene lacustrine mudstone and gas generation predominated Lower Oligocene marine–terrestrial transitional facies coal-measure strata compose two sets of major source rocks. Fourth, analysis in respect of thermal evolution level, hydrocarbon generation volume and hydrocarbon generation intensity shows that Ledong, Lingshui, Baodao and Changchang sags belong to potential hydrocarbon-rich kitchens, among which Ledong and Lingshui sags have been proved to have great hydrocarbon generation potential by drilling. Fifth, researches of deep-water sedimentology and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics reveal that Paleogene and Neogene plays are developed vertically, and favorable hydrocarbon accumulation zones like the Central

  6. The Arctic Gakkel Vents (AGAVE) Expedition: Technology Development and the Search for Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Fields Under the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reves-Sohn, R. A.; Singh, H.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.; Jakuba, M.; Kunz, C.; Murphy, C.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal fields on the Gakkel Ridge beneath the Arctic ice cap provide perhaps the best terrestrial analogue for volcanically-hosted chemosynthetic biological communities that may exist beneath the ice-covered ocean of Europa. In both cases the key enabling technologies are robotic (untethered) vehicles that can swim freely under the ice and the supporting hardware and software. The development of robotic technology for deep- sea research beneath ice-covered oceans thus has relevance to both polar oceanography and future astrobiological missions to Europa. These considerations motivated a technology development effort under the auspices of NASA's ASTEP program and NSF's Office of Polar Programs that culminated in the AGAVE expedition aboard the icebreaker Oden from July 1 - August 10, 2007. The scientific objective was to study hydrothermal processes on the Gakkel Ridge, which is a key target for global studies of deep-sea vent fields. We developed two new autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for the project, and deployed them to search for vent fields beneath the ice. We conducted eight AUV missions (four to completion) during the 40-day long expedition, which also included ship-based bathymetric surveys, CTD/rosette water column surveys, and wireline photographic and sampling surveys of remote sections of the Gakkel Ridge. The AUV missions, which lasted 16 hours on average and achieved operational depths of 4200 meters, returned sensor data that showed clear evidence of hydrothermal venting, but for a combination of technical reasons and time constraints, the AUVs did not ultimately return images of deep-sea vent fields. Nevertheless we used our wireline system to obtain images and samples of extensive microbial mats that covered fresh volcanic surfaces on a newly discovered set of volcanoes. The microbes appear to be living in regions where reducing and slightly warm fluids are seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain. These discoveries

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IR sources spectroscopy in the AKARI NEP (Shim+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, H.; Im, M.; Ko, J.; Jeon, Y.; Karouzos, M.; Kim, S. J.; Lee, H. M.; Papovich, C.; Willmer, C.; Weiner, B. J.

    2013-09-01

    Most of the targets for the spectroscopic observation were selected from the optical to mid-infrared band-merged photometry catalog over the NEP-Wide field (Kim et al. 2012, Cat. J/A+A/548/A29). The observations, with the MMT/Hectospec spectrograph, were executed in queue mode: a total of five configurations were observed between 2008 May and November, with each configuration covering an area within a 1deg diameter circle. The observations used the 270 line/mm grating covering ~3700Å to ~8500Å, with a spectral resolution of about 6.2Å. We obtained optical spectra using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on WIYN, the 3.5m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, on the nights of 2008 June 27-30. The covered wavelength range is 4500-9000Å, yet the spectrum quality is very poor beyond 8000Å. We used 98 red fibers feeding the bench spectrograph with a 316 lines/mm grating, yielding a spectral resolution of 5.7Å. (2 data files).

  8. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nakajima

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331 on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014 where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the

  9. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  10. High connectivity of animal populations in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields in the Central Indian Ridge relevant to its geological setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Beedessee

    Full Text Available Dispersal ability plays a key role in the maintenance of species in spatially and temporally discrete niches of deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments. On the basis of population genetic analyses in the eastern Pacific vent fields, dispersal of animals in the mid-oceanic ridge systems generally appears to be constrained by geographical barriers such as trenches, transform faults, and microplates. Four hydrothermal vent fields (the Kairei and Edmond fields near the Rodriguez Triple Junction, and the Dodo and Solitaire fields in the Central Indian Ridge have been discovered in the mid-oceanic ridge system of the Indian Ocean. In the present study, we monitored the dispersal of four representative animals, Austinograea rodriguezensis, Rimicaris kairei, Alviniconcha and the scaly-foot gastropods, among these vent fields by using indirect methods, i.e., phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. For all four investigated species, we estimated potentially high connectivity, i.e., no genetic difference among the populations present in vent fields located several thousands of kilometers apart; however, the direction of migration appeared to differ among the species, probably because of different dispersal strategies. Comparison of the intermediate-spreading Central Indian Ridge with the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise and slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge revealed the presence of relatively high connectivity in the intermediate- and slow-spreading ridge systems. We propose that geological background, such as spreading rate which determines distance among vent fields, is related to the larval dispersal and population establishment of vent-endemic animal species, and may play an important role in controlling connectivity among populations within a biogeographical province.

  11. The ATLAS3D project - XXIX. The new look of early-type galaxies and surrounding fields disclosed by extremely deep optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Karabal, Emin; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology based on star counts is instrumental to reconstruct the past mass assembly of Local Group galaxies. The development of new observing techniques and data reduction, coupled with the use of sensitive large field of view cameras, now allows us to pursue this technique in more distant galaxies exploiting their diffuse low surface brightness (LSB) light. As part of the ATLAS3D project, we have obtained with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope extremely deep, multiband images of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). We present here a catalogue of 92 galaxies from the ATLAS3D sample, which are located in low- to medium-density environments. The observing strategy and data reduction pipeline, which achieve a gain of several magnitudes in the limiting surface brightness with respect to classical imaging surveys, are presented. The size and depth of the survey are compared to other recent deep imaging projects. The paper highlights the capability of LSB-optimized surveys at detecting new prominent structures that change the apparent morphology of galaxies. The intrinsic limitations of deep imaging observations are also discussed, among those, the contamination of the stellar haloes of galaxies by extended ghost reflections, and the cirrus emission from Galactic dust. The detection and systematic census of fine structures that trace the present and past mass assembly of ETGs are one of the prime goals of the project. We provide specific examples of each type of observed structures - tidal tails, stellar streams and shells - and explain how they were identified and classified. We give an overview of the initial results. The detailed statistical analysis will be presented in future papers.

  12. A new (2+1)D cluster finding algorithm based on photometric redshifts: large scale structure in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Trevese, Dario; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele

    2006-01-01

    Aims: We study galaxy clustering and explore the dependence of galaxy properties on the the environment up to a redshift z~1, on the basis of a deep multi-band survey in the Chandra Deep Field South. Methods: We have developed a new method which combines galaxy angular positions and photometric redshifts to estimate the local galaxy number-density. This allows both the detection of overdensities in the galaxy distribution and the study of the properties of the galaxy population as a function of the environmental density. Results: We detect two moderate overdensities at z~0.7 and z~1 previously identified spectroscopically. We find that the fraction of red galaxies within each structure increases with volume density, extending to z~1 previous results. We measure ``red sequence'' slopes consistent with the values found in X-ray selected clusters, supporting the notion that the mass-metallicity relation hold constant up to z~1. Conclusions: Our method based on photometric redshifts allows to extend structure det...

  13. A Systematic Search for Periodically Varying Quasars in Pan-STARRS1: An Extended Baseline Test in Medium Deep Survey Field MD09

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; Burgett, W; Chambers, K; Draper, P; Hodapp, K; Huber, M; Kudritzki, R -P; Magnier, E; Metcalfe, N; Tonry, J; Wainscoat, R; Waters, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic search for periodically varying quasars and supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidates in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey's MD09 field. From a color-selected sample of 670 quasars extracted from a multi-band deep-stack catalog of point sources, we locally select variable quasars and look for coherent periods with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. 3 candidates from our sample demonstrate strong variability for more than ~3 cycles, and their PS1 light curves are well fitted to sinusoidal functions. We test the persistence of the candidates' apparent periodic variations detected during the 4.2 years of the PS1 survey with archival photometric data from the SDSS Stripe 82 survey or new monitoring with the Large Monolithic Imager at the Discovery Channel Telescope. None of the 3 periodic candidates (including PSO J334.2028+1.4075, Liu et al. (2015)) remain persistent over the extended baseline of 7 - 14 years, corresponding to a detection rate of 5 cycles) is crucial to our sear...

  14. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Continuum number counts, resolved 1.2-mm extragalactic background, and properties of the faintest dusty star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Bauer, Franz E; Carilli, Christopher; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto J; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Bacon, Roland; Bouwens, Rychard; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; Sheth, Kartik; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of a deep (1$\\sigma$=13 $\\mu$Jy) cosmological 1.2-mm continuum map based on ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. In the 1 arcmin$^2$ covered by ASPECS we detect nine sources at $>3.5\\sigma$ significance at 1.2-mm. Our ALMA--selected sample has a median redshift of $z=1.6\\pm0.4$, with only one galaxy detected at z$>$2 within the survey area. This value is significantly lower than that found in millimeter samples selected at a higher flux density cut-off and similar frequencies. Most galaxies have specific star formation rates similar to that of main sequence galaxies at the same epoch, and we find median values of stellar mass and star formation rates of $4.0\\times10^{10}\\ M_\\odot$ and $\\sim40~M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, respectively. Using the dust emission as a tracer for the ISM mass, we derive depletion times that are typically longer than 300 Myr, and we find molecular gas fractions ranging from $\\sim$0.1 to 1.0. As noted by previous studies, these values ar...

  15. The Atlas3D project -- XXIX. The new look of early-type galaxies and surrounding fields disclosed by extremely deep optical images

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Karabal, Emin; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Galactic archeology based on star counts is instrumental to reconstruct the past mass assembly of Local Group galaxies. The development of new observing techniques and data-reduction, coupled with the use of sensitive large field of view cameras, now allows us to pursue this technique in more distant galaxies exploiting their diffuse low surface brightness (LSB) light. As part of the Atlas3D project, we have obtained with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope extremely deep, multi--band, images of nearby early-type galaxies. We present here a catalog of 92 galaxies from the Atlas3D sample, that are located in low to medium density environments. The observing strategy and data reduction pipeline, that achieve a gain of several magnitudes in the limiting surface brightness with respect to classical imaging surveys, are presented. The size and depth of the survey is compared to other recent deep imaging projects. The paper highlights the capability of LSB--optimized surveys at detecting new pr...

  16. Up-Scaling Field Observations to Ground Truth Seismic Interpretations and Test Dynamic Models of Deep Water Rifted Margins: What are the Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatschal, G.; Nirrengarten, M.; Epin, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances on the study of rifted margins resulted from the development of new, high-resolution seismic imaging methods and dynamic modelling that enable to image the crustal scale structure of rifted margins and experiment under what conditions they formed. However, both the used parameter space as well as the seismic interpretations and model results need to be ground truth by direct observations and data. In the case of deep-water rifted margins, the problem is that drill hole data is expensive, rare and only available from a handful of examples worldwide. In contrast, remnants preserving kilometre-scale outcrops of former deep-water rifted margins have been described from the Alps and the Pyrenees in Western Europe. These large-scale outcrops provide a direct access to mantle and crustal rocks and the associated sedimentary sequences and magmatic additions. The combination of world-class outcrops, classical, field-based mapping and analytical methods can provide the missing data that is necessary to calibrate and test dynamic models as well as to ground truth seismic interpretations. In my presentation I will use observations and data from key outcrops from the most distal fossil Alpine Tethys margins exposed in SE Switzerland with the aim to describe the deformation processes and conditions during final rifting and to test rift modes (semi-ductile flow vs. brittle poly-phase faulting). I will in particular focus on the way strain is distributed and the bulk rheology evolves during hyper-extension and mantle exhumation and compare the observations with model results and seismic interpretations. Up-and down scaling observations/data and bridging multiple spatial and temporal scales is a key to understand the large-scale extensional processes that are at the origin of the formation of hyper-extend and exhumed mantle domains. The major challenge is to understand how the learnings obtained from the well-documented examples in the Alps and Pyrenees can be used

  17. Ediacaran paleomagnetic field records from Laurentia: Insights into the evolution of the diversity of life and Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, R. K.; Tarduno, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Ediacaran to early Cambrian interval (~635-530 Ma) marks a tremendous increase in biotic diversity known as the Cambrian explosion. The magnitude of the biotic evolution has motivated hypotheses evoking a role for abiotic/environmental causal factors. For example, a rotation of the entire solid Earth by 90°, in what has been called an inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event, has been linked to these events. One of the primary data sets motivating IITPW has been the report of nearly orthogonal directions from the Sept-Îles (ca. 565 Ma) intrusion (Quebec, Canada) on the basis of whole rock paleomagnetic analyses. We have found that only one direction (shallow) from our sampling of the Sept-Îles intrusion is carried by single domain magnetic grains and thus can be considered primary (Bono and Tarduno, Geology, 2015). Moreover, we find that the geomagnetic field was reversing during cooling of the intrusion; the small spatial scales on which we see antipodal directions suggest a very rapid reversal rate. Preliminary total-TRM paleointensity results from the Sept-Îles intrusion suggest a low field strength. The high geomagnetic reversal rate and low geomagnetic field intensity that characterize a portion of the Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) may be an analog for field behavior during the Ediacaran to early Cambrian. This model may provide insight into the development of Earth's interior; if high thermal core conductivity values are correct, the onset of inner core growth is predicted to have an age similar to that of our directional and paleointensity data. To test these linkages, we investigate dated localities of the Grenville dikes (ca. 590 Ma) from which classic paleomagnetic results on whole rocks (Murthy, 1971) have long figured into debates over the paleolatitude history of Laurentia. New rock- and paleo-magnetic experiments testing single crystal feldspars from Laurentian Ediacaran intrusive units will be discussed, along with new estimates of

  18. Robots for applications in deep water for development of offshore oil and gas fields; Meeresroboter fuer die Erschliessung mariner Oel- und Gasfelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aust, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Niemann, H.R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1996-12-31

    About 10 years ago the use of industrial robots e.g. in facilities for the production of oil and gas in deep water was a forward-looking vision. Today the first robot prototype exists and is qualified for work in 1 100 m water depth. German scientistis have particular knowledge in this subject and are leading in this robot development. The report highlights the course and main development steps and indicates some fields of future applications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Noch vor 10 Jahren war der Einsatz unterwassertauglicher Industrieroboter z.B. im Bereich der Oel- und Gasgewinnung aus dem Meer eine Zukunftsvision. Heute hat diese Vision mit dem ersten Roboter-Prototyp fuer 1 100 m Wassertiefe konkrete Gestalt angenommen. Noch stehen deutsche Forscher mit in vorderster Front dieser Roboter-Spezialentwicklung. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den Weg bis zur abschliessenden Erprobung, wesentliche Schritte der Entwicklung und Moeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Anwendungen. (orig.)

  19. Rapid and Deep Proteomes by Faster Sequencing on a Benchtop Quadrupole Ultra-High-Field Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Christian D; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Batth, Tanveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage is...... evaluated by four different acquisition methods and benchmarked across three generations of Q Exactive instruments (ProteomeXchange dataset PXD001305). We find the ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer capable of attaining a sequencing speed above 20 Hz and it routinely exceeds 10 peptide spectrum matches......-shot phosphoproteomics, where we identify 7600 unique HeLa phospho-peptides in one gradient hour and find the quality of fragmentation spectra to be more important than quantity for accurate site assignment....

  20. WINGS: A WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey. II. Deep optical photometry of 77 nearby clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, J.; D'Onofrio, M.; Marmo, C.; Fasano, G.; Bettoni, D.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Kjærgaard, P.; Moles, M.; Pignatelli, E.; Poggianti, B. M.; Valentinuzzi, T.

    2009-04-01

    Context: This is the second paper of a series devoted to the WIde Field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS). WINGS is a long term project which is gathering wide-field, multi-band imaging and spectroscopy of galaxies in a complete sample of 77 X-ray selected, nearby clusters (0.04 Issac Newton Telescope (2.5 m-INT) sited at Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Spain), and the MPG/ESO-2.2 m Telescope sited at La Silla (Chile). Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/497/667

  1. Electrodril system field test program. Phase II: Task C-1-deep drilling system demonstration. Final report for Phase II: Task C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P D

    1981-04-01

    The Electrodril Deep Drilling System field test demonstrations were aborted in July 1979, due to connector problems. Subsequent post test analyses concluded that the field replacable connectors were the probable cause of the problems encountered. The designs for both the male and female connectors, together with their manufacturing processes, were subsequently modified, as was the acceptance test procedures. A total of nine male and nine female connectors were manufactured and delivered during the 2nd Quarter 1980. Exhaustive testing was then conducted on each connector as a precursor to formal qualification testing conducted during the month of October 1980, at the Brown Oil Tool test facility located in Houston, Texas. With this report, requirements under Phase II, Task C-1 are satisfied. The report documents the results of the connector qualification test program which was successfully completed October 28, 1980. In general, it was concluded that connector qualification had been achieved and plans are now in progress to resume the field test demonstration program so that Electrodril System performance predictions and economic viability can be evaluated.

  2. The influence of vent fluid chemistry on trophic structure at two deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields on the Mid-Cayman Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sarah; Van Dover, Cindy; Coleman, Max

    2014-05-01

    The two known deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields along the Mid-Cayman Rise are separated by a distance of only 21 km, yet their chemistry and faunal diversity are distinct. The deeper of the two vent fields, Piccard (with active venting from Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods and Beebe Sea), at 4980 m is basalt hosted. The shallower vent field, Von Damm, at 2300 m appears to have an ultramafic influence. The Von Damm vent field can be separated into two sites: The Spire and The Tubeworm Field. The dominant vent fluids at the Tubeworm Field are distinct from those at the Spire, as a result of fluid modification in the sub-surface. Von Damm and Piccard vent fields support abundant invertebrates, sharing the same biomass-dominant shrimp species, Rimicaris hybisae. Although there are some other shared species (squat lobsters (Munidopsis sp.) and gastropods (Provanna sp. and Iheyaspira sp.)) between the vent fields, they are much more abundant at one site than the other. In this study we have examined the bulk carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope composition of microbes and fauna at each vent field. With these data we have deduced the trophic structure of the communities and the influence of vent fluid chemistry. From stable isotope data and end-member vent fluid chemistry, we infer that the basis of the trophic structure at Piccard is dominated by sulfur, iron, and hydrogen-oxidizing microbial communities. In comparison, the basis of the Von Damm trophic structure is dominated by microbial communities of sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, sulfate reducers and methanotrophs. This microbial diversity at the base of the trophic structure is a result of chemical variations in vent fluids and processes in the sub-surface that alter the vent fluid chemistry. These differences influence higher trophic levels and can be used to explain some of the variability as well as similarity in fauna at the vent sites. Part of this work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California

  3. Spotting from The Rightmost Deep: A Temporal Field Advantage in A Behavioural Task of Attention And Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Gálvez-García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, animal and human physiological studies have suggested that subcortical structures that are part of the extrageniculate pathways have an important role to play in the attentive selection of targets and the filtering of distractors. However, not much has been done to investigate the filtering of distractors in purely behavioural experiments through cues that might reveal extrageniculate functions, such as the asymmetry in performance between the nasal and the temporal visual fields. Here, under monocular conditions, participants viewed laterally and tachistoscopically presented sets of visual stimuli and were required to decide whether a target was present in the set or not. The manipulation of attention demands was achieved by varying the degree of spatial organization of the stimuli. A temporal field advantage in detection accuracy was found, and was observed only for disorganised sets of stimuli, that is, when demands on attention were greater. Furthermore, this pattern was found only for stimuli projected to the right hemisphere. The results suggest that the extrageniculate pathways of the right hemisphere in humans are involved in filtering out distractors. They are discussed in light of findings and theories about extrageniculate mediation of selective attention.

  4. Oil-material fractionation in Gulf deep water horizontal intrusion layer: Field data analysis with chemodynamic fate model for Macondo 252 oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A T; Thibodeaux, L J; Parsons, A R; Overton, E; Valsaraj, K T; Nandakumar, K

    2016-04-15

    Among the discoveries of the Deepwater Horizon blowout was the so-called "sub-surface plume"; herein termed the "oil-trapping layer". Hydrocarbons were found positioned at ~1100-1300m with thickness ~100-150m and moving horizontally to the SW in a vertically stratified layer at the junction of the cold abyssal water and the permanent thermocline. This study focuses on its formation process and fate of the hydrocarbons within. The originality of this work to the field is two-fold, first it provides a conceptual framework which places layer origin in the context of a horizontal "intrusion" from the near-field, vertical, blow-out plume and second, it offers a theoretical model for the hydrocarbon chemicals within the horizontal layer as it moves far-afield. The model quantifies the oil-material fractionation process for the soluble and fine particle. The classical Box model, retrofitted with an internal gradient, the "G-Box", allows an approach that includes turbulent eddy diffusion coupled with droplet rise velocity and reactive decay to produce a simple, explicit, transparent, algebraic model with few parameters for the fate of the individual fractions. Computations show the soluble and smallest liquid droplets moving very slowly vertically through the layer appearing within the trapping layer at low concentration with high persistence. The larger droplets move-through this trapping zone quickly, attain high concentrations, and eventually form the sea surface slick. It impacts the field of oil spill engineering science by providing the conceptual idea and the algorithms for projecting the quantities and fractions of oil-material in a deep water, horizontal marine current being dispersed and moving far afield. In the field of oil spill modeling this work extends the current generation near-field plume source models to the far-field. The theory portrays the layer as an efficient oil-material trap. The model-forecasted concentration profiles for alkanes and aromatics

  5. A Public, K-Selected, Optical-to-Near-Infrared Catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) from the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC)

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Edward N; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Quadri, Ryan F; Gawiser, Eric; Bell, Eric F; Barrientos, L Felipe; Blanc, Guillermo A; Castander, Francisco J; Damen, Maaike; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Hall, Patrick B; Herrera, David; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Maza, José; Rudnick, Gregory; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C Megan; Willis, Jon P; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    We present a new K-selected, optical-to-near-infrared photometric catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), making it publicly available to the astronomical community. The dataset is founded on publicly available imaging, supplemented by original zJK imaging data obtained as part of the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). The final photometric catalog consists of photometry derived from nine band U-K imaging covering the full 0.5x0.5 sq. deg. of the ECDFS, plus H band data for approximately 80% of the field. The 5sigma flux limit for point-sources is K = 22.0 (AB). This is also the nominal completeness and reliability limit of the catalog: the empirical completeness for 21.75 < K < 22.00 is 85+%. We have verified the quality of the catalog through both internal consistency checks, and comparisons to other existing and publicly available catalogs. As well as the photometric catalog, we also present catalogs of photometric redshifts and restframe photometry derived from the ten b...

  6. Piranema Field: developing economically small reserves in deep waters; Campo de Piracema: o desafio de desenvolver economicamente pequenas reservas em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Renilton M. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Piranema Field is located southeast of the city of Aracaju, in deep waters, sub-basin of Sergipe, about 25 km from the coast, with water depth varying from 200 and 2,000 meters. The biggest challenges for the production of this field, with high quality oil (41 to 44 API), were small reserves, the presence of large submarine canyons separating various geological structures and difficulty installation of pipelines and wax formation in production lines, which could cause its blocking. After several studies, we decided to exploit in two phases, using an FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading), cylindrical, completely innovative, whose cost of construction could make the project economically attractive and gas produced entirely re-injected, which would increase considerably recovery factor. The development will be in two phases, with the first one lasting about 7 years and the second 4 years. It is expected a recovery factor of around 40% over the eleven years of production, with a peak production of around 30,000 bbl/d. The total project cost will be $ 1.1 bi, including investments, operating costs and taxes. (author)

  7. Microbial community structure and nitrogenase gene diversity of sediment from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuehong; CAO Yi; WANG Chunsheng; WU Min; AHARON Oren; XU Xuewei

    2014-01-01

    A sediment sample was collected from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent field located at a depth of 2 951 m on the Southwest Indian Ridge. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on the prokaryotic community using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Within the Archaea, the dominant clones were from marine benthic group E (MBGE) and marine group I (MGI) belonging to the phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota, respectively. More than half of the bacterial clones belonged to the Proteobacteria, and most fell within the Gammaproteobacteria. No epsilonproteobacterial sequence was observed. Additional phyla were detected including the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, and candidate divisions OD1, OP11, WS3 and TM6, confirming their existence in hydrothermal vent environments. The detection of nifH gene suggests that biological nitrogen fixation may occur in the hydrothermal vent field of the South-west Indian Ridge. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that only Clusters I and III NifH were present. This is consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of the microbial 16S rRNA genes, indicating that Bacteria play the main role in nitrogen fixation in this hydrothermal vent environment.

  8. Sub-millimetre source identifications and the micro-Jansky source population at 8.4 GHz in the William Herschel Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, I; Hill, M D; Metcalfe, N; Rawlings, S; Shanks, T; Smirnov, O M

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] Sub-mm observations of the William Herschel Deep Field using LABOCA revealed possible counterparts for 2 X-ray absorbed QSOs. The aim here is to exploit EVLA imaging at 8.4 GHz to establish the QSOs as radio/sub-mm sources. The challenge in reducing the EVLA data was the presence of a strong 4C source in the field. A new calibration algorithm was applied to the data to subtract it. The resulting thermal noise limited radio map covers the 16'x16' Extended WHDF. It contains 41 sources above a 4-sigma limit, 17 of which have primary beam corrected flux. The radio observations show that the absorbed AGN with LABOCA detections are coincident with radio sources, confirming the tendency for X-ray absorbed AGN to be sub-mm bright. These sources show strong ultraviolet excess (UVX) suggesting the nuclear sightline is gas- but not dust-absorbed. Of the 3 remaining LABOCA sources within the ~5' half-power beam width, 1 is identified with a faint nuclear X-ray/radio source in a nearby galaxy, 1 with a faint ra...

  9. Integrated TLWP-FPSO (Tension Leg Wellhead Platform-Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Vessel) solution for deep water field development offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Neil; Heidari, Homayoun; Large, Sean [SBM Atlantia, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A development strategy for some deep water fields offshore Brazil consists of a TLWP (Tension-Leg Wellhead Platform) connected by a fluid transfer line to a nearby FPSO. The TLWP provides dry tree riser support, drilling capability, manifolding, test separation, and multiphase pumping, while all other functions including full processing, accommodations, gas compression, power generation, water and chemical injection, storage and offloading, and gas export are provided by the FPSO. In one such scenario, the TLWP and FPSO could be connected using SBM's GAP mid-water fluid transfer line technology, with SBM Atlantia's FourStar{sup TM} hull concept for the TLWP. The FourStar{sup TM} is designed to be quayside- or float over-integrable, thus eliminating the need for a heavy lift installation vessel; while being structurally and hydrodynamically superior to other TLP alternatives. This paper presents a description of the technical development of the FourStar{sup TM} TLP and an overview of the GAP technology, and discusses the characteristics of an integrated TLWP-GAP-FPSO field development solution for a typical application offshore Brazil (author)

  10. The MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) Survey: Rest-Frame Optical Spectroscopy For ~1500 H-Selected Galaxies at 1.37 < z < 3.8

    CERN Document Server

    Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L; Mobasher, Bahram; Freeman, William R; de Groot, Laura; Price, Sedona H; Sanders, Ryan; Shivaei, Irene; Brammer, Gabriel B; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Skelton, Rosalind E; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E; Aird, James; Azadi, Mojegan; Kassis, Marc; Bullock, James S; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Keres, Dusan; Krumholz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. The MOSDEF survey aims to obtain moderate-resolution (R=3000-3650) rest-frame optical spectra (~3700-7000 Angstrom) for ~1500 galaxies at 1.37fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, and GOODS-N. Targets are selected in three redshift intervals: 1.37

  11. Deep ultraviolet laser direct write for patterning sol-gel InGaZnO semiconducting micro/nanowires and improving field-effect mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Cheng; Stehlin, Fabrice; Soppera, Olivier; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Li, Chang-Hung; Wieder, Fernand; Ponche, Arnaud; Berling, Dominique; Yeh, Bo-Hung; Wang, Kuan-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) laser was used to directly write indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) precursor solution and form micro and nanoscale patterns. The directional DUV laser beam avoids the substrate heating and suppresses the diffraction effect. A IGZO precursor solution was also developed to fulfill the requirements for direct photopatterning and for achieving semi-conducting properties with thermal annealing at moderate temperature. The DUV-induced crosslinking of the starting material allows direct write of semi-conducting channels in thin-film transistors but also it improves the field-effect mobility and surface roughness. Material analysis has been carried out by XPS, FTIR, spectroscopic ellipsometry and AFM and the effect of DUV on the final material structure is discussed. The DUV irradiation step results in photolysis and a partial condensation of the inorganic network that freezes the sol-gel layer in a homogeneous distribution, lowering possibilities of thermally induced reorganization at the atomic scale. Laser irradiation allows high-resolution photopatterning and high-enough field-effect mobility, which enables the easy fabrication of oxide nanowires for applications in solar cell, display, flexible electronics, and biomedical sensors. PMID:26014902

  12. Deep IRAC1,2 Imaging of the Extended Tidal Debris Fields for the Complete HST-GOALS Sample of (U)LIRGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Barnes, Josh; Chan, Ben; Evans, Aaron; Frayer, David; Howell, Justin; Kewley, Lisa; Koda, Jin; Lord, Steve; Mazzarella, Joseph; Surace, Jason; U, Vivian

    2010-06-01

    We propose to obtain IRAC1,2 observations (~1400 sec) of a flux-limited sample of 88 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) originally selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Survey, in order to measure the full extent and internal structure of the large tidal debris fields that have recently been revealed (~70-130 kpc diameter) in deep optical imaging of these objects using the Subaru 8m Telescope on Mauna Kea. Our 88 targets are part of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS), for which we are obtaining both spacecraft and ground-based data at a wide range of wavelengths (radio thru X-Rays). All of our targets have previous shallow (~150 sec) IRAC observations, which are insufficient for detecting all but the brightest, and much less extended tidal features. Our deeper IRAC observations will allow us to better characterize the history, geometry and morphology of the interaction for comparison with new sets of model calculations using 'IDENTIKIT' (Barnes & Hibbard, 2009). We also plan to combine our new IRAC1,2 data with deep optical (Subaru and VLT) and NIR (HST-NIC, -WFC3) data to determine spectral energy distributions, and to measure stellar masses as well as detect warm dust in these extended features. These new data will also allow us for the first time to obtain a clearer picture of the possible interrelatedness of nearby objects (e.g. putative tidal dwarf galaxies, and other previously disconnected arms, shells, etc.) to the merger history of this complete sample of local (U)LIRGs.

  13. Deep IRAC1,2 Imaging of the Extended Tidal Debris Fields for the Complete GOALS Sample of LIRGs (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Barnes, Josh; Chan, Ben; Evans, Aaron; Frayer, David; Howell, Justin; Kewley, Lisa; Koda, Jin; Lord, Steve; Mazzarella, Joseph; Surace, Jason; U, Vivian

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain IRAC1,2 observations (~1400 sec) to complete our flux-limited sample of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Survey, in order to measure the full extent and internal structure of the large tidal debris fields that have recently been revealed (~70-130 kpc diameter) in deep optical imaging of these objects using the Subaru 8m Telescope on Mauna Kea. Our 115 targets represent the lower luminosity objects in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS), defining the important transition region between LIRGs and ULIRGs, for which we are obtaining both spacecraft and ground-based data at a wide range of wavelengths (radio thru X-Rays). All of our targets have previous shallow (~150 sec) IRAC observations, which are insufficient for detecting all but the brightest, and much less extended tidal features. Our deeper IRAC observations will allow us to fully characterize the history, geometry and morphology of the interaction (major and minor mergers) for comparison with new sets of model calculations using 'IDENTIKIT' (Barnes & Hibbard, 2009). We also plan to combine our new IRAC1,2 data with deep optical (Subaru and VLT) and NIR (HST-NIC, -WFC3) data to determine spectral energy distributions, and to measure stellar masses as well as detect warm dust in these extended features. These new data will also allow us for the first time to obtain a clearer picture of the possible interrelation of nearby objects (e.g. putative tidal dwarf galaxies, other disconnected debris arms, shells, etc.) to the merger history of our complete sample of local (U)LIRGs.

  14. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging at 3 T field strength in patients with lower limb deep vein thrombosis: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of imaging lower limb deep vein thrombosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3.0 T magnetic field strength with an optimized a T1 magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo technique (MP-RAGE) in patients with normal volunteers as controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with deep vein thrombosis (n=4), thrombophlebitis (n=2) and healthy volunteers (n=9) were studied. MRI of the distal thigh and upper calf was performed at 3.0 T with MP-RAGE using two pre-pulses to suppress blood and fat (flip angle 15o, echo time 5 ms, and repetition time 10 ms). A qualitative analysis was performed for detection of thrombi and image quality. Contrast-to-noise ratios were determined in thrombosed and patent veins. RESULTS: Thrombi were clearly visible as high-signal intensity structures with good suppression of the anatomical background. A blinded reader accurately diagnosed 15 out of 16 cases. The contrast-to-noise ratio measurements showed a positive contrast of thrombus over background muscle 16.9 (SD 4.3, 95% CI: 12.5-21.3) and a negative contrast of the lumen to muscle in patent veins of normal volunteers -7.8 (SD 4.3, 95% CI: -11.1 to -4.5), with p=0.0015. CONCLUSION: Thrombi generate high signal intensity at 3.0 T allowing for their direct visualization if flowing blood, stationary blood and fat are sufficiently suppressed. This preliminary data supports the development of these techniques for other vascular applications

  15. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/15 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome D.; Machado, Luiz; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-22

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  16. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft inter

  17. Deep versus shallow controlling factors of the regional thermal field in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (Arctic Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Lewerenz, B.

    2011-12-01

    The present-day temperature distribution of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin as observed in boreholes indicates large-scale thermal anomalies which have been related to specific tectonic domains and heat transported by convection along major discontinuities (Chen et al., 2008). We have integrated seismic and well data into a crust-scale 3D structural model of the basin, which we have additionally constrained by 3D gravity modelling. This structural model is composed of seven Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonostratigraphic units which - as a result of a complex foreland depositional and erosional history - tend to be younger, less compacted, and thus less thermally conductive towards the north. The underlying continental crust comprises a low-density upper part (2720 kg/m3 ) and a moderately dense lower part (2850 kg/m3), and it thins considerably towards the north where it passes over to oceanic crust (2900 kg/m2 ). We use the structural model to calculate the 3D conductive thermal field of the basin based on a Finite-Element method, thereby taking one step further towards a quantification of heat transporting processes in this petroliferous region. For the validation of the modelling results, we make use of public domain temperature data from more than 230 wells reaching depths of up to 5000 m. Thermal conductivities are assigned to the different units according to available data sets including also the observed lithology-dependent relationship between conductivity and porosity in the region. The upper boundary condition for the thermal calculations is provided by the well-known depth distribution of the base of permafrost (0 °C isotherm). Assuming a constant heat flow of 30 mW/m2 at the Moho, we find that the modelled temperatures are widely consistent with the observed temperatures in most parts of the basin. Only where large tectonic discontinuities structure the margins of the basin, the misfits are considerable, thus indicating convective heat transport to be an

  18. ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: A concentration of dusty starbursts in a z=3.09 protocluster core

    CERN Document Server

    Umehata, H; Kohno, K; Ivison, R J; Alexander, D M; Geach, J; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Ikarashi, S; Kato, Y; Izumi, T; Kawabe, R; Kubo, M; Lee, M; Lehmer, B; Makiya, R; Matsuda, Y; Nakanishi, K; Saito, T; Smail, I; Yamada, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yun, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of $1^{\\prime}.5 \\times3^{\\prime}$ mapping at 1.1~mm with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward the central region of the $z=3.09$ SSA22 protocluster. By combining our source catalog with archival spectroscopic redshifts, we find that eight submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with flux densities, $S_{\\rm 1.1~mm}=0.7-6.4$~mJy ($L_{\\rm IR}\\sim10^{12.1}-10^{13.1}L_\\odot$) are at $z=3.08-3.10$. Not only are these SMGs members of the protocluster but they in fact reside within the node at the junction of the 50 Mpc-scale filamentary three-dimensional structure traced by Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) in this field. The eight SMGs account for a star formation rate density (SFRD) $\\sim$10 $M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ in the node, which is two orders of magnitudes higher than the global SFRD at this redshift. We find that four of the eight SMGs host a X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our results suggest that the vigorous star formation activity and the growth of ...

  19. LOFAR/H-ATLAS: A deep low-frequency survey of the Herschel-ATLAS North Galactic Pole field

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J; van Weeren, R J; Williams, W L; Best, P N; de Gasperin, F; Rafferty, D A; Read, S C; Sabater, J; Shimwell, T W; Smith, D J B; Tasse, C; Bourne, N; Brienza, M; Brüggen, M; Brunetti, G; Chyży, K T; Conway, J; Dunne, L; Eales, S A; Maddox, S J; Jarvis, M J; Mahony, E K; Morganti, R; Prandoni, I; Röttgering, H J A; Valiante, E; White, G J

    2016-01-01

    We present LOFAR High-Band Array (HBA) observations of the Herschel-ATLAS North Galactic Pole survey area. The survey we have carried out, consisting of four pointings covering around 142 square degrees of sky in the frequency range 126--173 MHz, does not provide uniform noise coverage but otherwise is representative of the quality of data to be expected in the planned LOFAR wide-area surveys, and has been reduced using recently developed `facet calibration' methods at a resolution approaching the full resolution of the datasets ($\\sim 10 \\times 6$ arcsec) and an rms off-source noise that ranges from 100 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ in the centre of the best fields to around 2 mJy beam$^{-1}$ at the furthest extent of our imaging. We describe the imaging, cataloguing and source identification processes, and present some initial science results based on a 5-$\\sigma$ source catalogue. These include (i) an initial look at the radio/far-infrared correlation at 150 MHz, showing that many Herschel sources are not yet detect...

  20. Faint blue objects on the Hubble Deep Field North and South as possible nearby old halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, R A

    1999-01-01

    Using data derived from the deepest and finest angular resolution images of the universe yet acquired by astronomers at optical wavelengths using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in two postage-stamp sections of the sky (Williams et al. 1996a,b), plus simple geometrical and scaling arguments, we demonstrate that the faint blue population of point-source objects detected on those two fields (Méndez et al. 1996) could actually be ancient halo white dwarfs at distances closer than about 2 kpc from the Sun. This finding has profound implications, as the mass density of the detected objects would account for about half of the missing dark matter in the Milky-Way (Bahcall and Soneira 1980), thus solving one of the most controversial issues of modern astrophysics (Trimble 1987, Ashman 1992). The existence of these faint blue objects points to a very large mass locked into ancient halo white dwarfs. Our estimate indicates that they could account for as much as half of the dark matter in our Galaxy, confirming the su...

  1. Deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of field-grown Medicago sativa L. crown buds acclimated to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yue; Shu, Yongjun; Bai, Yan; Guo, Changhong

    2016-09-01

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) 'Zhaodong' is an important forage legume that can safely survive in northern China where winter temperatures reach as low as -30 °C. Survival of alfalfa following freezing stress depends on the amount and revival ability of crown buds. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of frost tolerance in alfalfa, we used transcriptome sequencing technology and bioinformatics strategies to analyze crown buds of field-grown alfalfa during winter. We statistically identified a total of 5605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in freezing stress including 1900 upregulated and 3705 downregulated DEGs. We validated 36 candidate DEGs using qPCR to confirm the accuracy of the RNA-seq data. Unlike other recent studies, this study employed alfalfa plants grown in the natural environment. Our results indicate that not only the CBF orthologs but also membrane proteins, hormone signal transduction pathways, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathways indicate the presence of a special freezing adaptation mechanism in alfalfa. The antioxidant defense system may rapidly confer freezing tolerance to alfalfa. Importantly, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and phenylalanine metabolism, which is of potential importance in coordinating freezing tolerance with growth and development, were downregulated in subzero temperatures. The adaptive mechanism for frost tolerance is a complex multigenic process that is not well understood. This systematic analysis provided an in-depth view of stress tolerance mechanisms in alfalfa.

  2. A DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE GIANT H II REGION N11. I. X-RAY SOURCES IN THE FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazé, Yaël [GAPHE, Department AGO, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17 Bat. B5C, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Wang, Q. Daniel [Department of Astronomy, B619E-LGRT, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Oskinova, Lida, E-mail: naze@astro.ulg.ac.be [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    A very sensitive X-ray investigation of the giant H II region N11 in the Large Megallanic Cloud was performed using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The 300 ks observation reveals X-ray sources with luminosities down to 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}, increasing the number of known point sources in the field by more than a factor of five. Among these detections are 13 massive stars (3 compact groups of massive stars, 9 O stars, and one early B star) with log (L {sub X}/L {sub BOL}) ∼–6.5 to –7, which may suggest that they are highly magnetic or colliding-wind systems. On the other hand, the stacked signal for regions corresponding to undetected O stars yields log (L {sub X}/L {sub BOL}) ∼–7.3, i.e., an emission level comparable to similar Galactic stars despite the lower metallicity. Other point sources coincide with 11 foreground stars, 6 late-B/A stars in N11, and many background objects. This observation also uncovers the extent and detailed spatial properties of the soft, diffuse emission regions, but the presence of some hotter plasma in their spectra suggests contamination by the unresolved stellar population.

  3. Deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis of field-grown Medicago sativa L. crown buds acclimated to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yue; Shu, Yongjun; Bai, Yan; Guo, Changhong

    2016-09-01

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) 'Zhaodong' is an important forage legume that can safely survive in northern China where winter temperatures reach as low as -30 °C. Survival of alfalfa following freezing stress depends on the amount and revival ability of crown buds. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of frost tolerance in alfalfa, we used transcriptome sequencing technology and bioinformatics strategies to analyze crown buds of field-grown alfalfa during winter. We statistically identified a total of 5605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in freezing stress including 1900 upregulated and 3705 downregulated DEGs. We validated 36 candidate DEGs using qPCR to confirm the accuracy of the RNA-seq data. Unlike other recent studies, this study employed alfalfa plants grown in the natural environment. Our results indicate that not only the CBF orthologs but also membrane proteins, hormone signal transduction pathways, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathways indicate the presence of a special freezing adaptation mechanism in alfalfa. The antioxidant defense system may rapidly confer freezing tolerance to alfalfa. Importantly, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and phenylalanine metabolism, which is of potential importance in coordinating freezing tolerance with growth and development, were downregulated in subzero temperatures. The adaptive mechanism for frost tolerance is a complex multigenic process that is not well understood. This systematic analysis provided an in-depth view of stress tolerance mechanisms in alfalfa. PMID:27272950

  4. ALMA DEEP FIELD IN SSA22: A CONCENTRATION OF DUSTY STARBURSTS IN A z = 3.09 PROTOCLUSTER CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umehata, H.; Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Izumi, T.; Makiya, R. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Alexander, D. M.; Smail, I. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Hatsukade, B.; Kato, Y.; Kawabe, R.; Lee, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Saito, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hughes, D. H. [Department of astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ikarashi, S. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Kubo, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Lehmer, B., E-mail: humehata@eso.org [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 226 Physics Building, 835 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); and others

    2015-12-10

    We report the results of 1.′5 × 3′ mapping at 1.1 mm with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array toward the central region of the z = 3.09 SSA22 protocluster. By combining our source catalog with archival spectroscopic redshifts, we find that eight submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with flux densities, S{sub 1.1} {sub mm} = 0.7–6.4 mJy (L{sub IR} ∼ 10{sup 12.1}–10{sup 13.1} L{sub ⊙}) are at z = 3.08–3.10. Not only are these SMGs members of the protocluster, but they in fact reside within the node at the junction of the 50 Mpc scale filamentary three-dimensional structure traced by Lyα emitters in this field. The eight SMGs account for a star formation rate density (SFRD) ∼10 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} Mpc{sup −3} in the node, which is two orders of magnitudes higher than the global SFRD at this redshift. We find that four of the eight SMGs host an X-ray-luminous active galactic nucleus. Our results suggest that the vigorous star formation activity and the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) occurred simultaneously in the densest regions at z ∼ 3, which may correspond to the most active historical phase of the massive galaxy population found in the core of the clusters in the present universe. Two SMGs are associated with Lyα blobs, implying that the two populations coexist in high-density environments for a few cases.

  5. LOFAR/H-ATLAS: a deep low-frequency survey of the Herschel-ATLAS North Galactic Pole field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.; Gürkan, G.; van Weeren, R. J.; Williams, W. L.; Best, P. N.; de Gasperin, F.; Rafferty, D. A.; Read, S. C.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T. W.; Smith, D. J. B.; Tasse, C.; Bourne, N.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Brunetti, G.; Chyży, K. T.; Conway, J.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S. A.; Maddox, S. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mahony, E. K.; Morganti, R.; Prandoni, I.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Valiante, E.; White, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    We present Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) High-Band Array observations of the Herschel-ATLAS North Galactic Pole survey area. The survey we have carried out, consisting of four pointings covering around 142 deg2 of sky in the frequency range 126-173 MHz, does not provide uniform noise coverage but otherwise is representative of the quality of data to be expected in the planned LOFAR wide-area surveys, and has been reduced using recently developed `facet calibration' methods at a resolution approaching the full resolution of the data sets (˜10 × 6 arcsec) and an rms off-source noise that ranges from 100 μJy beam-1 in the centre of the best fields to around 2 mJy beam-1 at the furthest extent of our imaging. We describe the imaging, cataloguing and source identification processes, and present some initial science results based on a 5σ source catalogue. These include (i) an initial look at the radio/far-infrared correlation at 150 MHz, showing that many Herschel sources are not yet detected by LOFAR; (ii) number counts at 150 MHz, including, for the first time, observational constraints on the numbers of star-forming galaxies; (iii) the 150-MHz luminosity functions for active and star-forming galaxies, which agree well with determinations at higher frequencies at low redshift, and show strong redshift evolution of the star-forming population; and (iv) some discussion of the implications of our observations for studies of radio galaxy life cycles.

  6. Tectonic Framework and Deep Structure of South China and Their Constraint to Oil-Gas Field Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingchen; LIU Jinsong; DU Zhili; CAI Liguo

    2009-01-01

    South China could be divided into one stable craton,the Yangtze Craton(YzC),and several orogenic belts in the surrounding region,that is the Triassic Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt(QDOB)in river Orogenic Belt(TOB)in the west,the Youjiang Orogenic Belt(YOB)in the southwest,the Middle Paleozoic Huanan Orogenic Belt (HOB) in the southeast, and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Maritime Orogenic Belt(MOB)along the coast.Seismic tomographic images reveal that the Moho depth is deeper than 40 km and the lithosphere iS about 210 km thick beneath the YzC.The SGOB is characterized by thick crust (>40 km)and thin lithosphere(<150 km).The Hob.Yob and Mob have a thin crnst (<40 km)and thin lithosphere(<150 km).Terrestrial heat flow survey revealed a distribution pattern with a low heat flow region in the eastern YzC and western HOB and two high heat flow regions in the TOB and MOB respectively.Such a"high-low-high"heat flow distribution pattern could have resulted from Cenozoic asthenosphere upwelling.All oil-gas fields are concentrated in the central part of the YzC.Remnant oil pools have been discovered along the southern margin of the YzC and its adjacent orogenic belts.From a viewpoint of geological and geophysical structure, regions in South China with thick lithosphere and low heat flOW value.as well as weak deformation.might be the ideal region for further petroleum exploration.

  7. The Swift serendipitous survey in deep XRT GRB fields (SwiftFT). I. The X-ray catalog and number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccetti, S.; Capalbi, M.; Giommi, P.; Perri, M.; Stratta, G.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Cusumano, G.; Gehrels, N.; Moretti, A.; Nousek, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: An accurate census of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a key step in investigating the nature of the correlation between the growth and evolution of super massive black holes and galaxy evolution. X-ray surveys provide one of the most efficient ways of selecting AGN. Methods: We searched for X-ray serendipitous sources in over 370 Swift-XRT fields centered on gamma ray bursts detected between 2004 and 2008 and observed with total exposures ranging from 10 ks to over 1 Ms. This defines the Swift Serendipitous Survey in deep XRT GRB fields, which is quite broad compared to existing surveys (~33 square degrees) and medium depth, with a faintest flux limit of 7.2 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5 to 2 keV energy range (4.8 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 at 50% completeness). The survey has a high degree of uniformity thanks to the stable point spread function and small vignetting correction factors of the XRT, moreover is completely random on the sky as GRBs explode in totally unrelated parts of the sky. Results: In this paper we present the sample and the X-ray number counts of the high Galactic-latitude sample, estimated with high statistics over a wide flux range (i.e., 7.2 × 10-16 ÷ ~ 5 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band and 3.4 × 10-15 ÷ ~ 6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band). We detect 9387 point-like sources with a detection Poisson probability threshold of ≤ 2 × 10-5, in at least one of the three energy bands considered (i.e. 0.3-3 keV, 2-10 keV, and 0.3-10 keV), for the total sample, while 7071 point-like sources are found at high Galactic-latitudes (i.e. |b| ≥ 20 deg). The large number of detected sources resulting from the combination of large area and deep flux limits make this survey a new important tool for investigating the evolution of AGN. In particular, the large area permits finding rare high-luminosity objects like QSO2, which are poorly sampled by other surveys, adding precious information for the luminosity function

  8. Luciola Hypertelescope Space Observatory. Versatile, Upgradable High-Resolution Imaging,from Stars to Deep-Field Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Le Coroller, Herve; Dejonghe, Julien; Lardiere, Olivier; Aime, Claude; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mourard, Denis; Lyon, Richard; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2008-01-01

    missions, the spectral coverage can be extended from 120nm to 20 microns, using four detectors carried by two to four focal spacecraft. The number of collector mirrors in the flotilla can also be increased from 12 to 100 and possibly 1,000. The imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets in the mid infra-red then becomes feasible once the collecting area reaches 6m2 , using a specialized mid infra-red focal spacecraft. Calculations ( Boccaletti et al., 2000) have shown that hypertelescope coronagraphy has unequalled sensitivity for detecting, at mid infra-red wavelengths, faint exoplanets within the exo-zodiacal glare. Later upgrades will enable the more difficult imaging and spectroscopy of these faint objects at visible wavelengths, using refined techniques of adaptive coronagraphy (Labeyrie. & Le Coroller, 2004). Together, the infra-red and visible spectral data carry rich information on the possible presence of life. The close environment of the central black-hole in the Milky Way will be imageable with unprecedented detail in the near infra-red . Cosmological imaging of remote galaxies at the limit of the known universe is also expected, from the ultra-violet to the near infra-red, following the first upgrade, and with greatly increasing sensitivity through successive upgrades. These areas will indeed greatly benefit from the upgrades, in terms of dynamic range, limiting complexity of the objects to be imaged, size of the elementary Direct Imaging Field , and limiting magnitude, approaching that of an 8-meter space telescope when 1000 apertures of 25cm are installed. Similar gains will occur for addressing fundamental problems in physics and cosmology, particularly when observing neutron stars and black holes, single or binary, including the giant black holes, with accretion disks and jets, in active galactic nuclei beyond the Milky Way. Gravitational lensing and micro-lensing patterns, including time-variable patterns and perhaps millisecond lensing flasheshich

  9. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The AGN Fraction and X-ray Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S X; Luo, B; Smail, I; Alexander, D M; Danielson, A L R; Hodge, J A; Karim, A; Lehmer, B D; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Walter, F; Wardlow, J L; Xue, Y Q; Chapman, S C; Coppin, K E K; Dannerbauer, H; De Breuck, C; Menten, K M; van der Werf, P

    2013-01-01

    The large gas and dust reservoirs of submm galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with ALMA and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submm-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey (ALESS). We found 10 X-ray sources associated with SMGs (median redshift z = 2.3), of which 8 were identified as AGNs using several techniques that enable cross-checking. The other 2 X-ray detected SMGs have levels of X-ray emission that can be plausibly explained by the...

  10. Galaxy Zoo CANDELS Data Release I: Morphologies of ~50,000 Galaxies With z ≤ 3 in Deep Hubble Legacy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brooke; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen; Willett, Kyle; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Closson Ferguson, Henry; Faber, Sandra M.; Galaxy Zoo Team, CANDELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present quantified visual morphologies of approximately 48,000 galaxies in rest-frame optical to z ~ 3, using galaxies observed in three Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields by the Cosmic And Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. Each galaxy received an average of 43 independent classifications, which we combine into detailed morphological information on galaxy features such as clumpiness, bar instabilities, spiral structure, and merger and tidal signatures. We apply a consensus-based classifier weighting method that preserves classifier independence while effectively down-weighting significantly errant classifications. Comparing the Galaxy Zoo classifications to previous human and machine classifications of the same galaxies shows very good agreement; in some cases the high number of independent classifications provided by Galaxy Zoo provides an advantage in selecting galaxies with a particular morphological profile, while in others the combination of Galaxy Zoo with other classifications is a more promising approach than using any one method alone. We combine the Galaxy Zoo classifications of "smooth" galaxies with parametric morphologies to select a sample of featureless disks at 1 ≤ z ≤ 2, which may represent a dynamically warmer progenitor population to the settled disk galaxies seen at later epochs.

  11. The Luminosity Function and Star Formation Rate between Redshifts of 0.07 and 1.47 for Narrow-band Emitters in the Subaru Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, C; Kashikawa, N; Shimasaku, K; Doi, M; Nagao, T; Iye, M; Kodama, T; Morokuma, T; Motohara, K; Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matt A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Doi, Mamoru; Nagao, Tohru; Iye, Masanori; Kodama, Tadayuki; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Abridged: Subaru Deep Field line-emitting galaxies in four narrow-band filters at low and intermediate redshifts are presented. Broad-band colors, follow-up optical spectroscopy, and multiple NB filters are used to distinguish Ha, [O II], and [O III] emitters between redshifts of 0.07 and 1.47 to construct their luminosity functions (LFs). These LFs are derived down to faint magnitudes, which allows for a more accurate determination of the faint end slope. With a large (N~200-900) sample for each redshift interval, a Schechter profile is fitted to each LF. Prior to dust extinction corrections, the [O III] and [O II] LFs reported in this paper agree reasonably well with those of Hippelein et al. The z=0.08 Ha LF, which reaches two orders of magnitude fainter than Gallego et al., is steeper by 25%. This indicates that there are more low luminosity star-forming galaxies for z1, the star-formation rate densities are more or less constant. The latter is consistent with previous UV and [O II] measurements. Below z&...

  12. The Evolution of Normal Galaxy X-ray Emission Through Cosmic History: Constraints from the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmer, B D; Mineo, S; Brandt, W N; Eufrasio, R T; Fragos, T; Hornschemeier, A E; Luo, B; Xue, Y Q; Bauer, F E; Gilfanov, M; Ranalli, P; Schneider, D P; Shemmer, O; Tozzi, P; Trump, J R; Vignali, C; Wang, J -X; Yukita, M; Zezas, A

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from $z \\approx$ 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed- frame < 1 keV emission at $z < 1$. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity ($L_{\\rm X}$) and star-formation rate (SFR) is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass ($M_\\star$) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at $z \\approx$ 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) an...

  13. Detection of an ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC/ASTE

    CERN Document Server

    Ikarashi, S; Aguirre, J E; Aretxaga, I; Arumugam, V; Austermann, J E; Bock, J J; Bradford, C M; Cirasuolo, M; Earle, L; Ezawa, H; Furusawa, H; Furusawa, J; Glenn, J; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Iono, D; Ivison, R J; Johnson, S; Kamenetzky, J; Kawabe, R; Lupu, R; Maloney, P; Matsuhara, H; Mauskopf, P D; Motohara, K; Murphy, E J; Nakajima, K; Nakanishi, K; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Perera, T A; Scott, K S; Takagi, T; Takata, T; Tamura, Y; Tanaka, K; Tsukagoshi, T; Wilner, D J; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Zmuidzinas, J

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of an extremely bright ($\\sim$34 mJy at 1100 $\\mu$m and $\\sim$73 mJy at 880 $\\mu$m) submillimeter galaxy (SMG), AzTEC-ASTE-SXDF1100.001 (hereafter referred to as SXDF1100.001), discovered in 1100 $\\mu$m observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC on ASTE. Subsequent CARMA 1300 $\\mu$m and SMA 880 $\\mu$m observations successfully pinpoint the location of SXDF1100.001 and suggest that it has two components, extended (FWHM of $\\sim$4^{\\prime\\prime}) and compact (unresolved) ones. Z-Spec on CSO has also been used to obtain a wide band spectrum from 190 to 308 GHz, although no significant emission/absorption lines are found. The derived upper limit to the line-to-continuum flux ratio is 0.1--0.3 (2 $\\sigma$) across the Z-Spec band. Based on the analysis of the derived spectral energy distribution from optical to radio wavelengths of possible counterparts near the SMA/CARMA peak position, we suggest that SXDF1100.001 is a lensed, optically dark SMG lying at $z \\sim 3.4$ behin...

  14. The Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Optical spectroscopy of faint X-ray sources with the VLT and Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Salvato, M; Hasinger, G; Bergeron, J; Capak, P; Szokoly, G; Finoguenov, A; Gilli, R; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vignali, C; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W N; Lehmer, B D; Luo, B; Rafferty, D; Xue, Y Q; Balestra, I; Bauer, F E; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A M; Miyaji, T; Schneider, D P; Treister, E; Wisotski, L; Schramm, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a program to acquire high-quality optical spectra of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S and its central area. New spectroscopic redshifts are measured for 283 counterparts to Chandra sources with deep exposures (t~2-9 hr per pointing) using multi-slit facilities on both the VLT and Keck thus bringing the total number of spectroscopically-identified X-ray sources to over 500 in this survey field. We provide a comprehensive catalog of X-ray sources detected in the E-CDF-S including the optical and near-infrared counterparts, and redshifts (both spectroscopic and photometric) that incorporate published spectroscopic catalogs thus resulting in a final sample with a high fraction (80%) of X-ray sources having secure identifications. We demonstrate the remarkable coverage of the Lx-z plane now accessible from our data while emphasizing the detection of AGNs that contribute to the faint end of the luminosity function at 1.5

  15. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Search for [CII] line and dust emission in $6

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Carilli, Christopher; Bauer, Franz E; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Bacon, Roland; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for [CII] line and dust continuum emission from optical dropout galaxies at $z>6$ using ASPECS, our ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF). Our observations, which cover the frequency range $212-272$ GHz, encompass approximately the range $6$4.5 $\\sigma$, two of which correspond to blind detections with no optical counterparts. At this significance level, our statistical analysis shows that about 60\\% of our candidates are expected to be spurious. For one of our blindly selected [CII] line candidates, we tentatively detect the CO(6-5) line in our parallel 3-mm line scan. None of the line candidates are individually detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. A stack of all [CII] candidates results in a tentative detection with $S_{1.2mm}=14\\pm5\\mu$Jy. This implies a dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) of $(3\\pm1)$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We find that the two highest--SFR objects have candidate [CII] lines with luminosities that are consistent with the low-redshift $L_{\\rm [C...

  16. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO luminosity functions and the evolution of the cosmic density of molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Popping, Gergö; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the {\\em Hubble} Ultra Deep Field (UDF) in band 3 and band 6, to place blind constraints on the CO luminosity function and the evolution of the cosmic molecular gas density as a function of redshift up to $z\\sim 4.5$. This study is based on galaxies that have been solely selected through their CO emission and not through any other property. In all of the redshift bins the ASPECS measurements reach the predicted `knee' of the CO luminosity function (around $5\\times10^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$). We find clear evidence of an evolution in the CO luminosity function with respect to $z\\sim 0$, with more CO luminous galaxies present at $z\\sim 2$. The observed galaxies at $z\\sim 2$ also appear more gas-rich than predicted by recent semi-analytical models. The comoving cosmic molecular gas density within galaxies as a function of redshift shows a factor 3-10 drop from $z \\sim 2$ to $z \\sim 0$ (with significant error bars), and possibly a decline at $z>3$. This tre...

  17. Keck Deep Fields. III. Luminosity-dependent Evolution of the Ultraviolet Luminosity and Star Formation Rate Densities at z~4, 3, and 2

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, M; Sawicki, Marcin; Thompson, David

    2006-01-01

    We use the Keck Deep Fields UGRI catalog of z~4, 3, and 2 UV-selected galaxies to study the evolution of the rest-frame 1700A luminosity density at high redshift. The ability to reliably constrain the contribution of faint galaxies is critical and our data do so as they reach to M*+2 even at z~4 and deeper still at lower redshifts. We find that the luminosity density at high redshift is dominated by the hitherto poorly studied galaxies fainter than L*, and, indeed, the the bulk of the UV light in the high-z Universe comes from galaxies in the luminosity range L=0.1-1L*. It is these faint galaxies that govern the behavior of the total UV luminosity density. Overall, there is a gradual rise in luminosity density starting at z~4 or earlier, followed by a shallow peak or a plateau within z~3--1, and then followed by the well-know plunge at lower redshifts. Within this total picture, luminosity density in sub-L* galaxies evolves more rapidly at high redshift, z>~2, than that in more luminous objects. However, this...

  18. The Number Density of Old Passively-Evolving Galaxies at z=1 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, T; Akiyama, M; Furusawa, H; Iwata, I; Kajisawa, M; Iye, M; Ouchi, M; Sekiguchi, K; Shimasaku, K; Simpson, C; Tanaka, I; Yoshida, M; Yamada, Toru; Kodama, Tadayuki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Iwata, Ikuru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Iye, Masanori; Ouchi, Masami; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Simpson, Chris; Tanaka, Ichi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2005-01-01

    We obtained the number counts and the rest-frame B-band luminosity function of the color-selected old passively-evolving galaxies (OPEGs) at z=1 with very high statistical accuracy using a large and homogeneous sample of about 4000 such objects with z' <25 detected in the area of 1.03 deg^2 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field. Our selection criteria are defined on the i'-z' and R-z' color-magnitude plane so that OPEGs at z=0.9-1.1 with formation redshift z_f=2-10 are properly sampled. The limiting magnitude corresponds to the luminosity of galaxies with M_*+3 at z=0. We made a pilot redshift observations for 99 OPEG candidates with 19 < z' < 22 and found that at least 78% (73/93) of the entire sample, or 95% (73/77) of these whose redshifts were obtained are indeed lie between z=0.87 and 1.12 and the most of their spectra show the continuum break and strong Ca H and K lines, indicating that these objects are indeed dominated by the old stellar populations. We then compare our results wi...

  19. An ALMA survey of Sub-millimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Physical properties derived from ultraviolet-to-radio modelling

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Elisabete; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Simpson, James; Decarli, Roberto; Hodge, Jacqueline; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Cox, Pierre; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Karim, Alexander; Thomson, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    [abridged] The ALESS survey has followed-up a sample of 122 sub-millimeter sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South at 870um with ALMA, allowing to pinpoint the positions of sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) to 0.3'' and to find their precise counterparts at different wavelengths. This enabled the first compilation of the multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a statistically reliable survey of SMGs. In this paper, we present a new calibration of the MAGPHYS modelling code that is optimized to fit these UV-to-radio SEDs of z>1 star-forming galaxies using an energy balance technique to connect the emission from stellar populations, dust attenuation and dust emission in a physically consistent way. We derive statistically and physically robust estimates of the photometric redshifts and physical parameters for the ALESS SMGs. We find that they have a median stellar mass $M_\\ast=(8.9\\pm0.1)\\times10^{10} M_\\odot$, SFR$=280\\pm70 M_\\odot$/yr, overall V-band dust attenuation $A_V=1.9\\pm0.2$ mag...

  20. Rhythms and Community Dynamics of a Hydrothermal Tubeworm Assemblage at Main Endeavour Field – A Multidisciplinary Deep-Sea Observatory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Daphne; Legendre, Pierre; Laes, Agathe; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2014-01-01

    The NEPTUNE cabled observatory network hosts an ecological module called TEMPO-mini that focuses on hydrothermal vent ecology and time series, granting us real-time access to data originating from the deep sea. In 2011–2012, during TEMPO-mini’s first deployment on the NEPTUNE network, the module recorded high-resolution imagery, temperature, iron (Fe) and oxygen on a hydrothermal assemblage at 2186 m depth at Main Endeavour Field (North East Pacific). 23 days of continuous imagery were analysed with an hourly frequency. Community dynamics were analysed in detail for Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms, Polynoidae, Pycnogonida and Buccinidae, documenting faunal variations, natural change and biotic interactions in the filmed tubeworm assemblage as well as links with the local environment. Semi-diurnal and diurnal periods were identified both in fauna and environment, revealing the influence of tidal cycles. Species interactions were described and distribution patterns were indicative of possible microhabitat preference. The importance of high-resolution frequencies (<1 h) to fully comprehend rhythms in fauna and environment was emphasised, as well as the need for the development of automated or semi-automated imagery analysis tools. PMID:24810603

  1. A Molecular Line Scan in the Hubble Deep Field North: Constraints on the CO Luminosity Function and the Cosmic H2 Density

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, F; Sargent, M; Carilli, C; Dickinson, M; Riechers, D; Ellis, R; Stark, D; Weiner, B; Aravena, M; Bell, E; Bertoldi, F; Cox, P; Da Cunha, E; Daddi, E; Downes, D; Lentati, L; Maiolino, R; Menten, K M; Neri, R; Rix, H W; Weiss, A

    2013-01-01

    We present direct constraints on the CO luminosity function at high redshift and the resulting cosmic evolution of the molecular gas density, $\\rho_{\\rm H2}$(z), based on a blind molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our line scan of the entire 3mm window (79-115 GHz) covers a cosmic volume of ~7000 Mpc$^3$, and redshift ranges z2. We use the rich multiwavelength and spectroscopic database of the HDF-N to derive some of the best constraints on CO luminosities in high redshift galaxies to date. We combine the blind CO detections in our molecular line scan (presented in a companion paper) with stacked CO limits from galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts (slit or mask spectroscopy from Keck and grism spectroscopy from HST) to give first blind constraints on high-z CO luminosity functions and the cosmic evolution of the H2 mass density $\\rho_{\\rm H2}$(z) out to redshifts z~3. A comparison to empirical predictions of $\\rho_{\\rm H2}$(z) s...

  2. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  3. SU-E-T-426: Dose Delivery Accuracy in Breast Field Junction for Free Breath and Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to verify the accuracy of the dose distribution along the field junction in a half beam irradiation technique for breast cancer patients receiving radiation to the breast or chest wall (CW) and the supraclavicular LN region for both free breathing and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique. Methods: We performed in vivo measurements for nine breast cancer patients receiving radiation to the breast/CW and to the supraclavicular LN region. Six patients were treated to the left breast/CW using DIBH technique and three patients were treated to the right breast/CW in free breath. We used five microMOSFET dosimeters: three located along the field junction, one located 1 cm above the junction and the fifth microMOSFET located 1 cm below the junction. We performed consecutive measurements over several days for each patient and compared the measurements to the TPS calculation (Eclipse, Varian™). Results: The calculated and measured doses along the junction were 0.97±0.08 Gy and 1.02±0.14 Gy, respectively. Above the junction calculated and measured doses were 0.91±0.08 Gy and 0.98±0.09 Gy respectively, and below the junction calculated and measured doses were 1.70±0.15 Gy and 1.61±0.09 Gy, respectively. All differences were not statistically significant. When comparing calculated and measured doses for DIBH patients only, there was still no statistically significant difference between values for all dosimeter locations. Analysis was done using the Mann-Whitney Rank-Sum Test. Conclusion: We found excellent correlation between calculated doses from the TPS and measured skin doses at the junction of several half beam fields. Even for the DIBH technique, where there is more potential for variance due to depth of breath, there is no over or underdose along the field junction. This correlation validates the TPS, as well an accurate, reproducible patient setup

  4. Galactic distributions of carbon- and oxygen-rich AGB stars revealed by the AKARI mid-infrared all-sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Onaka, Takashi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Matsuura, Mikako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Context: The environmental conditions for asympotic giant branch (AGB) stars to reach the carbon-rich (C-rich) phase are important to understand the evolutionary process of AGB stars. The difference between the spatial distributions of C-rich and oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB stars is essential for the study of the Galactic structure and the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). Aims: We quantitatively investigate the spatial distributions of C-rich and O-rich AGB stars in our Galaxy. We discuss the difference between them and its origin. Methods: We classify a large number of AGB stars newly detected by the AKARI id-infrared all-sky survey. In the color-color diagrams, we define their occupation zones based on the locations of known objects. We then obtain the spatial distributions of C-rich and O-rich AGB stars, assuming that they have the same luminosity for a given mass-loss rate. Results: We find that O-rich AGB stars are concentrated toward the Galactic center and that the density decreases wi...

  5. AKARI near-infrared spectroscopy of the extended green object G318.05+0.09: Detection of CO fundamental ro-vibrational emission

    CERN Document Server

    Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Ardaseva, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared (2.5--5.4um) long-slit spectroscopy of the extended green object (EGO) G318.05+0.09 with AKARI. Two distinct sources are found in the slit. The brighter source has strong red continuum emission with H2O ice, CO2 ice, and CO gas and ice absorption features at 3.0, 4.25um, 4.67um, respectively, while the other greenish object shows peculiar emission that has double peaks at around 4.5 and 4.7um. The former source is located close to the ultra compact HII region IRAS 14498-5856 and is identified as an embedded massive young stellar object. The spectrum of the latter source can be interpreted by blue-shifted (-3000 ~ -6000km/s) optically-thin emission of the fundamental ro-vibrational transitions (v=1-0) of CO molecules with temperatures of 12000--3700K without noticeable H2 and HI emission. We discuss the nature of this source in terms of outflow associated with the young stellar object and supernova ejecta associated with a supernova remnant.

  6. Properties of dust in the Galactic center region probed by AKARI far-infrared spectral mapping - detection of a dust feature

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, H; Onaka, T; Kawada, M; Murakami, N; Nakagawa, T; Okada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of interstellar dust in the Galactic center region toward the Arches and Quintuplet clusters. With the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the AKARI/Far-Infrared Surveyor, we performed the far-infrared (60 - 140 cm^-1) spectral mapping of an area of about 10' x 10' which includes the two clusters to obtain a low-resolution (R = 1.2 cm^-1) spectrum at every spatial bin of 30" x 30". We derive the spatial variations of dust continuum emission at different wavenumbers, which are compared with those of the [O III] 88 micron (113 cm^-1) emission and the OH 119 micron (84 cm^-1) absorption. The spectral fitting shows that two dust modified blackbody components with temperatures of ~20 K and ~50 K can reproduce most of the continuum spectra. For some spectra, however, we find that there exists a significant excess on top of a modified blackbody continuum around 80 - 90 cm^-1 (110 - 130 microns). The warmer dust component is spatially correlated well with the [O III] emission and hence lik...

  7. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Infrared Excess of UV-selected z=2-10 galaxies as a function of UV-continuum Slope and Stellar Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwens, Rychard; Aravena, Manuel; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; da Cunha, Elisabete; Labbe, Ivo; Bauer, Franz; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Chapman, Scott; Daddi, Emanuele; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ivison, Rob; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le

    2016-01-01

    We make use of deep 1.2mm-continuum observations (12.7microJy/beam RMS) of a 1 arcmin^2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 330 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z=2-10 (to ~2-3 Msol/yr at 1sigma over the entire range). Given the depth and area of ASPECS, we would expect to tentatively detect 35 galaxies extrapolating the Meurer z~0 IRX-beta relation to z>~2 (assuming T_d~35 K). However, only 6 tentative detections are found at z>~...

  8. Magma-derived CO2 emissions in the Tengchong volcanic field, SE Tibet: Implications for deep carbon cycle at intra-continent subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maoliang; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Lihong; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2016-09-01

    Active volcanoes at oceanic subduction zone have long been regard as important pathways for deep carbon degassed from Earth's interior, whereas those at continental subduction zone remain poorly constrained. Large-scale active volcanoes, together with significant modern hydrothermal activities, are widely distributed in the Tengchong volcanic field (TVF) on convergent boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. They provide an important opportunity for studying deep carbon cycle at the ongoing intra-continent subduction zone. Soil microseepage survey based on accumulation chamber method reveals an average soil CO2 flux of ca. 280 g m-2 d-1 in wet season for the Rehai geothermal park (RGP). Combined with average soil CO2 flux in dry season (ca. 875 g m-2 d-1), total soil CO2 output of the RGP and adjacent region (ca. 3 km2) would be about 6.30 × 105 t a-1. Additionally, we conclude that total flux of outgassing CO2 from the TVF would range in (4.48-7.05) × 106 t a-1, if CO2 fluxes from hot springs and soil in literature are taken into account. Both hot spring and soil gases from the TVF exhibit enrichment in CO2 (>85%) and remarkable contribution from mantle components, as indicated by their elevated 3He/4He ratios (1.85-5.30 RA) and δ13C-CO2 values (-9.00‰ to -2.07‰). He-C isotope coupling model suggests involvement of recycled organic metasediments and limestones from subducted Indian continental lithosphere in formation of the enriched mantle wedge (EMW), which has been recognized as source region of the TVF parental magmas. Contamination by crustal limestone is the first-order control on variations in He-CO2 systematics of volatiles released by the EMW-derived melts. Depleted mantle and recycled crustal materials from subducted Indian continental lithosphere contribute about 45-85% of the total carbon inventory, while the rest carbon (about 15-55%) is accounted by limestones in continental crust. As indicated by origin and evolution of the TVF

  9. A DEEP, WIDE-FIELD, AND PANCHROMATIC VIEW OF 47 Tuc AND THE SMC WITH HST: OBSERVATIONS AND DATA ANALYSIS METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Anderson, Jay; Dotter, Aaron, E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2012-01-15

    In Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cycle 17, we imaged the well-known globular star cluster 47 Tucanae for 121 orbits using the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and both the UV/visible (UVIS) and IR channels of the newly installed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument (GO-11677, PI: H. Richer). This unique data set was obtained to address many scientific questions that demand a very deep, panchromatic, and panoramic view of the cluster's stellar populations. In total, the program obtained over 0.75 Ms of imaging exposure time with the three HST cameras, over a time span of 9 months in 2010. The primary ACS field was imaged in the two broadband filters F606W and F814W, at 13 orientations, for all 121 orbits. The parallel WFC3 imaging provides a panchromatic (0.4-1.7 {mu}m) and contiguous imaging swath over a 250 Degree-Sign azimuthal range at impact radii of 6.5-17.9 pc in 47 Tuc. This imaging totals over 60 arcmin{sup 2} in area and utilizes the F390W and F606W broadband filters on WFC3/UVIS and the F110W and F160W broadband filters on WFC3/IR. In this paper, we describe the observational design of the new survey and one of the methods used to analyze all of the imaging data. This analysis combines over 700 full-frame images taken with the three HST cameras into a handful of ultra-deep, well-sampled combined images in each of the six filters. We discuss in detail the methods used to calculate accurate transformations that provide optimal alignment of the input images, the methods used to perform sky background offsets in the input stack and the flagging of deviant pixels, and the balance reached between the input-pixel drop size onto an output supersampled pixel grid. Careful photometric, morphological, and astrometric measurements are performed on the stacks using iterative PSF-fitting techniques, and reveal unprecedented color-magnitude diagrams of the cluster extending to >30th magnitude in the optical, 29th magnitude in the UV, and

  10. Deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

  11. The Evolution of Normal Galaxy X-Ray Emission through Cosmic History: Constraints from the 6 MS Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Mineo, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Eufrasio, R. T.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; Gilfanov, M.; Ranalli, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Tozzi, P.; Trump, J. R.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.; Yukita, M.; Zezas, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z\\quad ≈ 0–7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the ≈6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame ≲1 keV emission at z ≲ 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity ({L}{{X}}) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass ({M}\\star ) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z\\quad ≈ 0–7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with {M}\\star and SFR, respectively. We find {L}2-10{keV}(LMXB)/{M}\\star \\propto {(1+z)}2-3 and {L}2-10{keV}(HMXB)/SFR \\propto \\quad (1+z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.

  12. A molecular line scan in the Hubble deep field north: Constraints on the co luminosity function and the cosmic H{sub 2} density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F.; Decarli, R.; Da Cunha, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sargent, M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Carilli, C. [NRAO, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickinson, M.; Daddi, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Riechers, D. [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ellis, R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, D.; Weiner, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Bell, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cox, P.; Downes, D.; Neri, R. [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M., E-mail: walter@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2014-02-20

    We present direct constraints on the CO luminosity function at high redshift and the resulting cosmic evolution of the molecular gas density, ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z), based on a blind molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our line scan of the entire 3 mm window (79-115 GHz) covers a cosmic volume of ∼7000 Mpc{sup 3}, and redshift ranges z < 0.45, 1.01 < z < 1.89 and z > 2. We use the rich multiwavelength and spectroscopic database of the HDF-N to derive some of the best constraints on CO luminosities in high redshift galaxies to date. We combine the blind CO detections in our molecular line scan (presented in a companion paper) with stacked CO limits from galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts (slit or mask spectroscopy from Keck and grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope) to give first blind constraints on high-z CO luminosity functions and the cosmic evolution of the H{sub 2} mass density ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) out to redshifts z ∼ 3. A comparison to empirical predictions of ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) shows that the securely detected sources in our molecular line scan already provide significant contributions to the predicted ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) in the redshift bins (z) ∼ 1.5 and (z) ∼ 2.7. Accounting for galaxies with CO luminosities that are not probed by our observations results in cosmic molecular gas densities ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) that are higher than current predictions. We note, however, that the current uncertainties (in particular the luminosity limits, number of detections, as well as cosmic volume probed) are significant, a situation that is about to change with the emerging ALMA observatory.

  13. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks.

  14. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. PMID:27491648

  15. Automatic speech recognition a deep learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the recent advancement in the field of automatic speech recognition with a focus on discriminative and hierarchical models. This will be the first automatic speech recognition book to include a comprehensive coverage of recent developments such as conditional random field and deep learning techniques. It presents insights and theoretical foundation of a series of recent models such as conditional random field, semi-Markov and hidden conditional random field, deep neural network, deep belief network, and deep stacking models for sequential learning. It also discusses practical considerations of using these models in both acoustic and language modeling for continuous speech recognition.

  16. Deep Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Victor Tochon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical essay is to clarify what could be a deeper approach to education and its characteristics. The deep approach is a broad phenomenon that encompasses several domains. It manifest a turning point in the way we reflect on a variety of disciplines such as ecology, economy, engineering, mathematics, cross-cultural communication, psychology, and languages. The trend is influenced by semiotics—the science of meaningful signs—as an overarching discipline, process philosophy and complexity theory to address ontological dualism. The deep approach is an applied trend that is revolutionizing the ways we think about what should be accomplished in Education and Teacher Education, and how it should be done.It defines a move towards deeper conceptions of curricula in any disciplines and towards curriculum interconnectedness.

  17. Near-Field High-Resolution Seismic, Strain and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Source Studies in Deep Mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J.; Reches, Z.; van Aswegan, G.; McGarr, A.; Lockner, D.; Sellers, E.; Ben Zion, Y.; Williams, C.

    2004-12-01

    Unique access to information on the physics of the earthquake source (earthquake nucleation, fault rupture, heat generation, stress state, seismic wave propagation, fault displacement, material properties and particularly changes in some of these parameters prior to rupture) exists in the near-field of mining-induced earthquakes in deep gold mines in South Africa. The new NSF funded Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) will provide seismic velocity/acceleration, ground strain, temperature, fault displacement, acoustic emission (AE), and perhaps self-potential (SP) data in small 3-D arrays across and within active faults in two different mines. 3-component accelerometers to be installed in or near the faults have a range from micro g to 0.5 g in the band 0.05 - 500 Hz. Fault displacement meters (creepmeters) to be installed at low angles across faults within boreholes have a range of microns to 0.2 m and cover the frequency range from DC to 100 Hz. Successful measurement of total displacement will depend on the creepmeter reference length surviving the fault rupture. Temperature will be measured to millidegrees C at points within, and at increasing distances from fault zones, to capture the heat generated by future and past earthquakes. Strain transients will be measured with 3-component near-fault borehole strainmeters with capacitance displacement transducers providing a resolution transducers will be installed together with each accelerometer and supplement the current mine seismic network. AE and SP will be measured within boreholes crossing faults if recording capability is sufficient. All data will be digitally sampled and transmitted to the surface in real-time for analysis to focus on unraveling the physics of the nucleation process, non-linear deformation prior to rupture, propagating aseismic slip, and variation in the material properties of near-fault materials (e.g. state/rate dependent friction). Similar high-resolution borehole

  18. The SCUBA HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) - V. Submillimetre properties of near-infrared-selected galaxies in the Subaru/XMM -Newton deep field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, T.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Shimasaku, K.; Coppin, K.; Pope, A.; Ivison, R. J.; Hanami, H.; Serjeant, S.; Clements, D. L.; Priddey, R. S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Takata, T.; Aretxaga, I.; Chapman, S. C.; Eales, S. A.; Farrah, D.; Granato, G. L.; Halpern, M.; Hughes, D. H.; van Kampen, E.; Scott, D.; Sekiguchi, K.; Smail, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2007-11-01

    We have studied the submillimetre (submm) properties of the following classes of near-infrared-selected (NIR-selected) massive galaxies at high redshifts: BzK-selected star-forming galaxies (BzKs); distant red galaxies (DRGs); and extremely red objects (EROs). We used the SCUBA HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES), the largest uniform submm survey to date. Partial overlap of SIRIUS/NIR images and SHADES in Subaru/XMM-Newton deep field has allowed us to identify four submm-bright NIR-selected galaxies, which are detected in the mid-IR, 24μ m, and the radio, 1.4GHz. We find that all of our submm-bright NIR-selected galaxies satisfy the BzK selection criteria, i.e. BzK ≡ (z - K)AB - (B - z)AB >= -0.2, except for one galaxy whose B - z and z - K colours are however close to the BzK colour boundary. Two of the submm-bright NIR-selected galaxies satisfy all of the selection criteria we considered, i.e. they belong to the BzK-DRG-ERO overlapping population, or `extremely red' BzKs. Although these extremely red BzKs are rare (0.25 arcmin-2), up to 20 per cent of this population could be submm galaxies. This fraction is significantly higher than that found for other galaxy populations studied here. Via a stacking analysis, we have detected the 850-μ m flux of submm-faint BzKs and EROs in our SCUBA maps. While the contribution of z ~ 2 BzKs to the submm background is about 10-15 per cent and similar to that from EROs typically at z ~ 1, BzKs have a higher fraction (~30 per cent) of submm flux in resolved sources compared with EROs and submm sources as a whole. From the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting analysis for both submm-bright and submm-faint BzKs, we found no clear signature that submm-bright BzKs are experiencing a specifically luminous evolutionary phase, compared with submm-faint BzKs. An alternative explanation might be that submm-bright BzKs are more massive than submm-faint ones.

  19. Building Program Vector Representations for Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Lili; Li, Ge; Liu, Yuxuan; Peng, Hao; Jin, Zhi; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Deep learning has made significant breakthroughs in various fields of artificial intelligence. Advantages of deep learning include the ability to capture highly complicated features, weak involvement of human engineering, etc. However, it is still virtually impossible to use deep learning to analyze programs since deep architectures cannot be trained effectively with pure back propagation. In this pioneering paper, we propose the "coding criterion" to build program vector representations, whi...

  20. China's first deep manned submersible,JIAOLONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; CUI WeiCheng; LI XiangYang

    2010-01-01

    @@ A deep manned submersible is indispensable to deep ocean exploration.No other equipment can bring scientists to extreme sea floor depths to do research in situ.Marine geology, seafloor geophysics, marine biology, and oceanic chemistry are the fields that scientists are particularly eager to study [1-6].Chinese scientists have long dreamed of using their own submersible to probe the deep sea.China's recent fast development of a deep manned submersible has realized that dream.

  1. MOOC与翻转课堂融合的深度学习场域建构%The Construction of a Deep Learning Field by Fusing MOOC and Flipped Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾明星; 李桂平; 周清平; 徐洪智; 董坚峰; 覃遵跃; 郭鑫

    2016-01-01

    MOOC与翻转课堂是当前备受教育界关注的两种教学模式,各有其优缺点,如何实现两者的有机融合并建构一种充满意义的深度学习场域,是值得深入探索的问题.MOOC与翻转课堂的融合是指将MOOC资源进行本土化加工后融入翻转课堂教学全过程,为翻转课堂提供高效网络学习平台、学习工具与优质学习资源.以MOOC与翻转课堂融合为基础的深度学习场域由情境、交互、体验和反思四个要素构成.其中,情境是深度学习显在场域的物理基础与核心,交互、体验、反思分别是深度学习潜在场域知识建构与理解、知识迁移应用、问题解决与创新的形成性要素与关键.场域中的各要素是各种社会关系尤其是权力关系的体现.管理者是学习场域中经济资本的主要支配者,可以运用职位权力向"域内"调配资源与资本.教师可依赖拥有的文化资本、社会资本和符号资本,形成自己的权力与权威,共同推进深度学习场域建构并形塑与之相匹配的惯习,塑造"域内"优势,引导学生"入场",吸引学生"在场",减少学生"离场",促进学生深度学习的发生.%MOOC and flipped classroom are the two advanced teaching modes being concerned by current education field for their features, and how to realize the organic fusion of the two modes and construct a meaningful deep learning field is an exploring-worthy problem. The integration of MOOC and flipped classroom refers to turning the MOOC resources after localization processing into flipped classroom teaching processes. And it will provide efficient network learning platforms, learning tools, and high quality learning resources for flipped classroom. The deep learning field by fusing MOOC and flipped classroom is made up of elements including situation, interaction, experience and reflection. Situation is the physical base as well as the core for a deep learning apparent field. Interaction, experience

  2. HerMES: deep number counts at 250, 350, and 500 microns in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields and the build-up of the cosmic infrared background

    CERN Document Server

    Béthermin, M; Ilbert, O; Conley, A; Lagache, G; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Casey, C M; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Heinis, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Kartaltepe, J S; Levenson, L; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Salvato, M; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    ABRIGED Herschel/SPIRE has provided confusion limited maps of deep fields at 250, 350, and 500um, as part of the HerMES survey. Due to confusion, only a small fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background can be resolved into individually-detected sources. Our goal is to produce deep galaxy number counts and redshift distributions below the confusion limit, which we then use to place strong constraints on the origins of the cosmic infrared background and on models of galaxy evolution. We individually extracted the bright SPIRE with a method using the positions, the flux densities, and the redshifts of the 24um sources as a prior, and derived the number counts and redshift distributions of the bright SPIRE sources. For fainter SPIRE sources, we reconstructed the number counts and the redshift distribution below the confusion limit using the deep 24um catalogs associated with photometric redshift and information provided by the stacking of these sources into the deep SPIRE maps. Finally, by integrating all these c...

  3. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep ...

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  5. Calypso Deep

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Matthew Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Delve into fantastical sexual exploits, futuristic world building, and the underwater world of mermaids in this page flipping erotic adventure. Follow the ruggedly handsome Jack Remy as he makes love to those illustrious and beautiful creatures of the deep. This novel will no doubt whet your voluptuous appetite! Told through Jack’s voice, we follow one man’s adventures in an effort to learn more about himself and the true meaning of love and sex. So, go down, down, down on Jack Remy, down b...

  6. Time series current meter data from buoys in the North Atlantic as part of the Deep Circulation in the Gulf of Maine Field Program from platforms GYRE and MARY LOUISE between July 25th, 1985 and August 2nd, 1987 (NODC Accession 0053940)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A two-year field study to investigate the deep flow between the major basins in the Gulf of Maine. This deep flow of warm-salty Slope water is an important driving...

  7. Some Low Field Transport Properties of LPE grown GaAs and AlAs Mixed Alloys and Saxena's Deep Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Saxena

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available GaAs and AlAs mixed crystals offer the possibilities of their potential applications in various modern optical, electrical and microwave heterostructure devices to realize complete systems performing various operations for both civil and defence operations. For x >~ 0.25, a deep level, known as Saxena's deep donor dominated the electrical characteristics of Ga/sub 1-x/Al/sub x/As crystals and its activation energy increases with x, being 0.170 eV at x = 0.44, the energy of this level below the X minima decreases with x, reaching a value of 0.106 eV at x = 0.78. The results show that the lowest energy indirect minima is L in GaAs lying 0.280 eV above the T-L cross-over composition is x = 0.47. A long lifetime (T < 50 K photoconductivity effect is also observed, which is associated with the indirect nature of the deep level. An increase in photo-Hall mobility at low temperatures over the dark mobility shows that this level has the properties of an acceptor-like centre. Shallow donor levels are also present in the crystals, but are heavily compensated. The Hall to drift mobility ratio peaks near the direct-indirect minima cross-over composition and has a peak value of ~ 3.8 at x = 0.42.

  8. Deep blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    From southern New Mexico to the Great Slave Lake of Canada, scientists from the United States and Canada recently detonated 10 underground chemical explosions to generate a clearer picture of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. Called Project Deep Probe, the experiment is designed to see through the crust and into the upper mantle to a depth of 300 miles.In the United States, Earth scientists from Rice University, Purdue University, and the University of Oregon are participating in the project. “Researchers hope to get a picture of the upper mantle beneath the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, to understand the role the mantle played in formation and uplift,” says Alan Levander of Rice. To enhance that “picture,” 750 portable seismographs were placed along a roughly north-south line extending from Crownpoint, New Mexico to Edmonton, Alberta. The seismic recordings will be used to enhance weak seismic waves that penetrated the upper mantle.

  9. CALCULUS ON FRACTALS BASED UPON LOCAL FIELDS In memory of Founding Editor Professor M. T. Cheng with great respect and deep sorrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The main contents in this note are: 1. introduction; 2. locally compact groups and local fields ; 3. calcaius on fractals based upon local fields; 4. fractional calculus and fractals; 5. fractal function spaces and PDE on fractals.

  10. Deep Mapping and Spatial Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the Humanities Special Issue on “Deep Mapping”. It sets out the rationale for the collection and explores the broad-ranging nature of perspectives and practices that fall within the “undisciplined” interdisciplinary domain of spatial humanities. Sketching a cross-current of ideas that have begun to coalesce around the concept of “deep mapping”, the paper argues that rather than attempting to outline a set of defining characteristics and “deep” cartographic features, a more instructive approach is to pay closer attention to the multivalent ways deep mapping is performatively put to work. Casting a critical and reflexive gaze over the developing discourse of deep mapping, it is argued that what deep mapping “is” cannot be reduced to the otherwise a-spatial and a-temporal fixity of the “deep map”. In this respect, as an undisciplined survey of this increasing expansive field of study and practice, the paper explores the ways in which deep mapping can engage broader discussion around questions of spatial anthropology.

  11. Star formation and dust extinction properties of local galaxies from the AKARI-GALEX all-sky surveys . First results from the most secure multiband sample from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T. T.; Buat, V.; Heinis, S.; Giovannoli, E.; Yuan, F.-T.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Murata, K. L.; Burgarella, D.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We explore spectral energy distributions (SEDs), star formation (SF), and dust extinction properties of galaxies in the Local Universe. Methods: The AKARI all-sky survey provided the first bright point source catalog detected at 90 μm. Beginning with this catalog, we selected galaxies by matching the AKARI sources with those in the IRAS point source catalog redshift survey. We measured the total GALEX FUV and NUV flux densities with a photometry software we specifically developed for this purpose. In a further step we matched this sample with the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) and 2 micron all sky survey (2MASS) galaxies. With this procedure we obtained a basic sample which consists of 776 galaxies. After removing objects whose photometry was contaminated by foreground sources (mainly in the SDSS), we defined the “secure sample” which contains 607 galaxies. Results: The sample galaxies have redshifts of ⪉0.15, and their 90-μm luminosities range from 106 to 1012 L_⊙, with a peak at 1010 L_⊙. The SEDs display a large variety, especially more than four orders of magnitude at the mid-far-infrared (M-FIR), but if we sort the sample with respect to 90 μm, the average SED shows a coherent trend: the more luminous an SED at 90 μm, the redder the global SED becomes. The Mr - NUV - r color-magnitude relation of our sample does not show bimodality, and the distribution is centered on the green valley. We established formulae to convert the FIR luminosity from the AKARI bands to the total IR (TIR) luminosity LTIR. The luminosity related to the SF activity (LSF) is dominated by LTIR even if we take into account the FIR emission from dust heated by old stars. At a high SF rate (SFR) (>20 M_⊙ yr-1), the fraction of the directly visible SFR, SFRFUV, decreases. We also estimated the FUV attenuation AFUV from the FUV-to-TIR luminosity ratio. We examined the LTIR/LFUV-UV slope (FUV - NUV) relation. The majority of the sample has LTIR/LFUV ratios five to ten

  12. Deep Percolation in Devegetated Hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B. A.; Hinckley, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    Deep percolation has recently been recognized as a critical component in hillslope hydrology studies. In devegetated hillslopes where vegetation is killed and, in some cases, removed, deep percolation may be substantially enhanced beyond pre-disturbance magnitudes. We discuss two examples of devegetated hillslopes where water balance partitioning shifted to favor increased deep percolation fluxes for some hydrologic conditions. The first is the Coos Bay Experimental Catchment in Oregon, USA, where commercial forestry resulted in the complete removal of trees. An intensive field campaign in the 1990's resulted in a long term record of precipitation, discharge, piezometric response, and groundwater levels. Hydrologic response modeling confirms hypotheses from the field-data analysis and points to unresolved questions regarding feedbacks between deep percolation and near-surface hydrologic processes. The second example is the area burned by the Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA, where a severe wildland fire removed all vegetation from a north-aspect hillslope in 2010. Precipitation, atmospheric conditions, soil-water content, matric potential, and runoff have been measured since the fire devegetated the site. Subsurface sampling of the vadose zone is accomplished using suction lysimeters to capture total nitrate, ammonium, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Darcian flux calculations of net infiltration from the shallow soil into fractured granodiorite bedrock are used to estimate solute fluxes to a deeper groundwater system. Virtual experiments using numerical models of unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport further elucidate the temporal dynamics of deep percolation and associated solute fluxes during spring snowmelt and frontal rainstorms, which are the major hydrologic drivers of deep percolation in this fire-impacted system. Together, these examples serve to illustrate the critical importance of deep percolation in disturbed landscapes. The

  13. Identification of a Complete 160 micron Flux-Limited Sample of Infrared Galaxies in the ISO Lockman Hole 1-Deg^2 Deep Fields: Source Properties and Evidence for Strong Evolution in the FIR Luminosity Function for ULIRGs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Bradley A; Rupke, David S N; Aussel, Herve; Frayer, David T; Ilbert, Olivier; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kim, Dong-Chan; Floc'h, Emiric Le; Murayama, Takashi; Smolcic, Vernesa; Surace, Jason A; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Veilleux, Sylvain; Yun, Min S

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a complete, flux-limited, (S_160>120 mJy), sample of 160 micron-selected sources from Spitzer observations of the 1-deg^2 ISO Deep Field region in the Lockman Hole. Ground-based UV, optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and optical spectroscopy have been used to determine colors, redshifts and masses for the complete sample of 40 galaxies. Spitzer-IRAC+MIPS photometry, supplemented by ISOPHOT data at 90 micron and 170 micron, has been used to calculate accurate total infrared luminosities, LIR(8-1000 micron), and to determine the IR luminosity function (LF) of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). The maximum observed redshift is z~0.80 and the maximum total infrared luminosity is log(L_IR/L_Sun)=12.74. Over the luminosity range log(L_IR/L_Sun)=10-12, the LF for LIRGs in the Lockman Hole Deep Field is similar to that found previously for local sources at similar infrared luminosities. The mean host galaxy mass, log(M/M_Sun)=10.7, and dominance of HII-region spectral types, is also simila...

  14. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...

  15. Deep Extreme Learning Machine and Its Application in EEG Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shifei Ding; Nan Zhang; Xinzheng Xu; Lili Guo; Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deep learning has aroused wide interest in machine learning fields. Deep learning is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network algorithm. Deep learning has the advantage of approximating the complicated function and alleviating the optimization difficulty associated with deep models. Multilayer extreme learning machine (MLELM) is a learning algorithm of an artificial neural network which takes advantages of deep learning and extreme learning machine. Not only does MLELM appr...

  16. Evidence for a fast evolution of the UV luminosity function beyond redshift 6 from a deep HAWK-I survey of the GOODS-S field

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, M; Boutsia, K; Grazian, A; Pentericci, L; Bouwens, R; Dickinson, M; Giavalisco, M; Santini, P; Cristiani, S; Fiore, F; Gallozzi, S; Giallongo, E; Maiolino, R; Mannucci, F; Menci, N; Moorwood, A; Nonino, M; Paris, D; Renzini, A; Rosati, P; Salimbeni, S; Vanzella, E

    2009-01-01

    We perform a deep search for galaxies in the redshift range 6.51, Y-J6 (M_1500 ~- 19.5 to -21.5). After accounting for the expected incompleteness, we rule out at a 99% confidence level a Luminosity Function constant from z=6 to z=7, even including the effects of cosmic variance. For galaxies brighter than M_1500=-19.0 we derive a luminosity density rho_UV=1.5^{+2.0}_{-0.9} 10^25 erg/s/Hz/Mpc3, implying a decrease by a factor 3.5 from z=6 to z~6.8. On the basis of our findings, we make predictions for the surface densities expected in future surveys, either based on ULTRA-VISTA or on HST-WFC3, evaluating the best observational strategy to maximise their impact.

  17. Lyman-Alpha Emitter Galaxies at z ~ 2.8 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South: I. Tracing the Large-Scale Structure via Lyman-Alpha Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Rhoads, James E; Finkelstein, Steven L; Wang, Jun-Xian; Jiang, Chun-Yan; Cai, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    We present a narrowband survey with three adjacent filters for z=2.8--2.9 Lyman Alpha Emitter (LAE) galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), along with spectroscopic followup. With a complete sample of 96 LAEs in the narrowband NB466, we confirm a large-scale structure at z~ 2.8. Compared to the blank field in NB470 and NB475, the LAE density excess in the NB466 field is ~6.0+/-0.8 times the standard deviation expected at z~2.8, assuming a linear bias of 2. The overdense large scale structure in NB466 can be decomposed into 4 protoclusters, whose overdensities are 4.6 - 6.6. These 4 protoclusters are expected to evolve into a Coma-like cluster at z~ 0. In the meanwhile, we investigate the average star-formation rates derived from Ly{\\alpha}, rest-frame UV and X-ray, the Ly{\\alpha} luminosity functions, the Ly{\\alpha} photon densities and their dependence on the environment. We find that the Ly{\\alpha} photon density in the overdense field (NB466) is ~50\\% higher than that in the blank field ...

  18. Effects of External Electric Field on AlN Precipitation and Recrystallization Texture of Deep-drawing 08Al Killed Steel Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang ZHAO; Zhuochao HU; Liang ZUO

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an electric field on AlN precipitation and recrystallization texture were investigated. Cold-rolled 08Al killed steel sheets were annealed at 550℃ according to the two-step processes, for various maintaining times, with and without applying an electric field. It was found that the electric field promotes the precipitation of the second phase (AlN particles), strengthens the γ-fiber and weakens the α-fiber texture component in the recrystallized specimens. A possible explanation for the reinforcement of γ-fiber texture by the electric field is that the second phase AlN particle promotes the growth of γ-fiber at the expense of differently oriented grains.

  19. Remote intervention in deep waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-09-01

    The project for Petrobras in Brazil's Marlim field marked a milestone in the development of remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and remote intervention capabilities. The ability to provide remotely operated intervention support for these deep water operations was the result of a concerted 18-month programme to develop and acquire the necessary technologies. This paper describes that programme. (author)

  20. Research Proposal for Distributed Deep Web Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien-Tsoi T.E.

    2010-01-01

    This proposal identifies two main problems related to deep web search, and proposes a step by step solution for each of them. The first problem is about searching deep web content by means of a simple free-text interface (with just one input field, instead of a complex interface with many input fiel

  1. A NEW INFRARED COLOR CRITERION FOR THE SELECTION OF 0 < z < 7 AGNs: APPLICATION TO DEEP FIELDS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR JWST SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that observations at mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths enable the selection of galaxies with nuclear activity, which may not be revealed even in the deepest X-ray surveys. Many mid-IR color-color criteria have been explored to accomplish this goal and tested thoroughly in the literature. Besides missing many low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs), one of the main conclusions is that, with increasing redshift, the contamination by non-active galaxies becomes significant (especially at z ∼> 2.5). This is problematic for the study of the AGN phenomenon in the early universe, the main goal of many of the current and future deep extragalactic surveys. In this work new near- and mid-IR color diagnostics are explored, aiming for improved efficiency—better completeness and less contamination—in selecting AGNs out to very high redshifts. We restrict our study to the James Webb Space Telescope wavelength range (0.6-27 μm). The criteria are created based on the predictions by state-of-the-art galaxy and AGN templates covering a wide variety of galaxy properties, and tested against control samples with deep multi-wavelength coverage (ranging from the X-rays to radio frequencies). We show that the colors Ks – [4.5], [4.5] – [8.0], and [8.0] – [24] are ideal as AGN/non-AGN diagnostics at, respectively, z ∼ 2.5-3. However, when the source redshift is unknown, these colors should be combined. We thus develop an improved IR criterion (using Ks and IRAC bands, KI) as a new alternative at z ∼50%-90% level of successful AGN selection). We also propose KIM (using Ks , IRAC, and MIPS 24 μm bands, KIM), which aims to select AGN hosts from local distances to as far back as the end of reionization (0 2.5. Overall, KIM shows a ∼30%-40% completeness and a >70%-90% level of successful AGN selection. KI and KIM are built to be reliable against a ∼10%-20% error in flux, are based on existing filters, and are suitable for immediate use.

  2. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: implications for spectral line intensity mapping at millimeter wavelengths and CMB spectral distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Carilli, C L; Decarli, R; Walter, F; Aravena, M; Wagg, J; Popping, G; Cortes, P; Hodge, J; Weiss, A; Bertoldi, F; Riechers, D

    2016-01-01

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99GHz and 242GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for specrtal line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the 'ASPECS' survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [CII] 158$\\mu$m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ($z \\sim 6$ to 7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early Universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean...

  3. 辽西深反射地震勘探采集试验%Field Test on Deep Seismic Reflection Acquisition in the West of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海青; 姜弢; 徐学纯; 葛利华; 杨志超

    2014-01-01

    深反射地震勘探是目前研究和分析地下深部构造最有效的方法之一。为了查明辽西地区深部构造信息,在该地区布设一条16.9 km 的深反射地震剖面。由于该地区的地震地质资料有限,为了能够获取深部地层的地震反射信号,开展了辽西地区的深反射地震勘探采集参数试验。本次地震采集参数试验采用炸药震源、428XL 地震仪和 SG 10低频检波器,固定采集参数为:采样间隔1 ms、道间距20 m、记录长度15 s。采集参数试验主要针对激发因素(激发深度、药量、组合井激发)和接收因素(组合低频检波器)进行了较为全面的试验工作。依据采集的地震记录确定所研究的主要目的层为6.5 s 反射信号,通过对不同激发因素和接受因素单炮记录中目的层信号能量及信噪比的比较,确定适合于该地区的最佳激发参数和接收参数为:井深15 m、药量12 kg;井组合采用单井和三井组合相结合;检波器组合采用点组合方式。研究结果表明,在辽西地区,通过增加激发深度、增加药量、采用组合井激发和组合低频检波器、延长记录时间等措施可以获得地下更深部的反射信息。%Seismic exploration is one of the most effective method on the research and analysis of underground structures.In order to find out the deep structural information of the west of Liaoning Provience,we emplaced a deep reflection seismic profile of 16.9 km in the region.As the region’s seismic and geological data is limited,we carried out a test on the parameters of deep reflection seismic acquisition for the obtaining of seismic reflection signals from the deep strata.This test uses dynamite source,428XL seismograph and SG 10 low-frequency detectors,fixing acquisition parameters as sampling interval 1 ms, channel spacing 20 m, and record length 15 s. A more comprehensive experimental work on the acquisition parameters

  4. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Infrared Excess of UV-selected z=2-10 galaxies as a function of UV-continuum Slope and Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, Rychard; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; da Cunha, Elisabete; Labbe, Ivo; Bauer, Franz; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Chapman, Scott; Daddi, Emanuele; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ivison, Rob; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; van der Werf, Paul; Weiss, Axel; Cox, Pierre; Elbaz, David; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Oesch, Pascal; Wagg, Jeff; Wilkins, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We make use of deep 1.2mm-continuum observations (12.7microJy/beam RMS) of a 1 arcmin^2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 330 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z=2-10 (to ~2-3 Msol/yr at 1sigma over the entire range). Given the depth and area of ASPECS, we would expect to tentatively detect 35 galaxies extrapolating the Meurer z~0 IRX-beta relation to z>~2 (assuming T_d~35 K). However, only 6 tentative detections are found at z>~2 in ASPECS, with just two at >>3sigma. Subdividing z=2-10 galaxies according to stellar mass, UV luminosity, and UV-continuum slope and stacking the results, we only find a significant detection in the most massive (>10^9.75 Msol) subsample, with an infrared excess (IRX=L_{IR}/L_{UV}) consistent with previous z~2 results. However, the infrared excess we measure from our large selection of sub-L* (~2 galaxies. We furthermore find that the evolution of IRX-stellar mass relationship depends on the evolution of the dust temp...

  5. The Evolution of the Far-UV Luminosity Function and Star Formation Rate Density of the Chandra Deep Field South from z=0.2-1.2 with Swift/UVOT

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Lea M Z; Gronwall, Caryl; Wolf, Christopher; Siegel, Michael H; Page, Mathew; Hagen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use deep Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) near-ultraviolet (1600A to 4000A) imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South to measure the rest-frame far-UV (FUV; 1500A) luminosity function (LF) in four redshift bins between z=0.2 and 1.2. Our sample includes 730 galaxies with u < 24.1 mag. We use two methods to construct and fit the LFs: the traditional V_max method with bootstrap errors and a maximum likelihood estimator. We observe luminosity evolution such that M* fades by ~2 magnitudes from z~1 to z~0.3 implying that star formation activity was substantially higher at z~1 than today. We integrate our LFs to determine the FUV luminosity densities and star formation rate densities from z=0.2 to 1.2. We find evolution consistent with an increase proportional to (1+z)^1.9 out to z~1. Our luminosity densities and star formation rates are consistent with those found in the literature, but are, on average, a factor of ~2 higher than previous FUV measurements. In addition, we combine our UVOT data with the MUSYC ...

  6. Deep 1.1 mm-wavelength imaging of the GOODS-South field by AzTEC/ASTE -- II. Redshift distribution and nature of the submillimetre galaxy population

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Min S; Guo, Yicheng; Aretxaga, I; Giavalisco, M; Austermann, J E; Capak, P; Chen, Yuxi; Ezawa, H; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Iono, D; Johnson, S; Kawabe, R; Kohno, K; Lowenthal, J; Miller, N; Morrison, G; Oshima, T; Perera, T A; Salvato, M; Silverman, J; Tamura, Y; Williams, C C; Wilson, G W

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of the counterpart identification and a detailed analysis of the physical properties of the 48 sources discovered in our deep 1.1mm wavelength imaging survey of the GOODS-South field using the AzTEC instrument on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). One or more robust or tentative counterpart candidate is found for 27 and 14 AzTEC sources, respectively, by employing deep radio continuum, Spitzer MIPS & IRAC, and LABOCA 870 micron data. Five of the sources (10%) have two robust counterparts each, supporting the idea that these galaxies are strongly clustered and/or heavily confused. Photometric redshifts and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived by analyzing UV-to-optical and IR-to-radio SEDs. The median redshift of z~2.6 is similar to other earlier estimates, but we show that 80% of the AzTEC-GOODS sources are at z>2, with a significant high redshift tail (20% at z>3.3). Rest-frame UV and optical properties of AzTEC sources are extremely diverse, spanning 10 magni...

  7. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  8. Deep 1.1 mm-wavelength imaging of the GOODS-S field by AzTEC/ASTE - I. Source catalogue and number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, K S; Wilson, G W; Austermann, J E; Aguilar, E; Aretxaga, I; Ezawa, H; Ferrusca, D; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Iono, D; Giavalisco, M; Kawabe, R; Kohno, K; Mauskopf, P D; Oshima, T; Perera, T A; Rand, J; Tamura, Y; Tosaki, T; Velazquez, M; Williams, C C; Zeballos, M

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] We present the first results from a 1.1 mm confusion-limited map of the GOODS-S field taken with AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. We imaged a 270 sq. arcmin field to a 1\\sigma depth of 0.48 - 0.73 mJy/beam, making this one of the deepest blank-field surveys at mm-wavelengths ever achieved. Although our GOODS-S map is extremely confused, we demonstrate that our source identification and number counts analyses are robust, and the techniques discussed in this paper are relevant for other deeply confused surveys. We find a total of 41 dusty starburst galaxies with S/N >= 3.5 within this uniformly covered region, where only two are expected to be false detections. We derive the 1.1mm number counts from this field using both a "P(d)" analysis and a semi-Bayesian technique, and find that both methods give consistent results. Our data are well-fit by a Schechter function model with (S', N(3mJy), \\alpha) = (1.30+0.19 mJy, 160+27 (mJy/deg^2)^(-1), -2.0). Given the depth of this survey, we put the first tight con...

  9. Field-based landslide risk of deep-seated landslides reactivating based on changes in infrastructure: an example from Kelso, Washington, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Large, deep-seated landslides always have the potential to reactivate in the future - generally locally and not the whole slide. How does one determine if one of these large landslides has reactivated if there are houses on it? In April of 2014 a 25 year old house was investigated to see if it was creeping on an ancient landslide near Kelso, Washington. In 1998 we had worked on nearby prehistoric slides to determine if they had reactivated. We developed a list of 17 points to investigate on a lot and in a house that showed that stress was causing movement. Inside the house we checked for: propagation of cracks in the walls, nails popping out of the walls, bulging walls, separation of internal and external chimney from walls, creaking and popping noises in the house, light switches coming out of the walls, doors and windows that are hard to shut, twisted ceiling and floor beams, cracks in concrete floors, and water seeping into the basement. On the lot outside we looked for changes in surface water drainage, bulges in retaining walls, scarps developing in the soils, pistol butt trees, and broken sewage and water lines. A stable site is defined as a site having none of the above characteristics. Slight movement is defined as having 1-5 of the above characteristics. Moderate movement is from 6 to 10 and considerable movement is from 11+. The house we investigated had a score of 14 - definitely was moving! It had had two electrical fires in the past year from severed electrical wires. We recommend that areas of slight movement be monitored, and lots with moderate to considerable movement to be dewatered to slow the movement. If engineering geologists know that movement has started early enough, proper mitigation can be installed that might stop the movement and save the homes.

  10. Field Deployment of Novel Approach in Acquiring Deep Groundwater Samples at Sandia National Laboratories; Nevada Test Site; and Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P.; Russell, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater sampling is routinely conducted at hundreds of wells at numerous U.S. Department of Energy facilities to monitor changes in the groundwater that occur over time. Some of these wells are very deep (greater than 600 meters), consequently presenting unique problems that must be overcome in order to obtain representative, undisturbed samples. Samples are being collected at these facilities using current technology, including submersible pumps, discrete bailers, and various manufactured systems. Each system or method has particular advantages and special uses. One of the greatest limitations to routine groundwater sampling is the cost associated with acquiring samples. Thus, innovations that allow purging and collection of groundwater at minimal expense are highly desirable. A novel solution for economically collecting groundwater samples is presented. In this approach, a pneumatic sampler employs compressed air to force a polyurethane pig up and down a borehole. This sampler employs two moving parts and is completely automated. Purge rates between 3-4 liters per minute have been demonstrated thus far, and greater purge rates are possible. Successive prototypes of the sampler have been deployed in wells at Sandia National Laboratories; Nevada Test Site; and Nye County, Nevada, adjacent to Yucca Mountain. A functionality test was conducted during the Sandia deployment. The initial prototype of the sampler was improved during deployment to the Nevada Test Site where rudimentary comparisons were made between tritium samples collected by the pneumatic sampler and samples collected through pumping and bailing operations. In the Nye County deployment, various types of groundwater samples were collected and compared to those collected using established groundwater sampling techniques. In addition, durability of the sampler will be assessed over long periods during the Nye County deployment.

  11. Identification of new NE-trending deep-seated faults and tectonic pattern updating in northern Tunisia (Mogodos-Bizerte region), insights from field and seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, El Mabrouk; Kadri, Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi; Zargouni, Fouad

    2016-07-01

    The northern Tunisia is occupied by the Tellian domain constituent the eastern end of the Maghrebides, Alpine fold-thrust belt. Study area includes partially the Tellian domain (Mogodos belt) and its foreland (Bizerte region). Most of this region outcrops consist of Numidian thrust sheet flysch attributed to the lower Oligocene-Burdigalian. In the study area, the major fault systems are still subject of discussion. The Numidian nappe structure, the distribution of basalt and Triassic outcrops within and at the front of this Tellian domain deserve more explanation. In this work we intend to update the structural scheme and the tectonic evolution of the northern Tunisia, taking into account salt tectonics and magmatism. The updated tectonic evolution will be integrated in the geodynamic framework of the Central Mediterranean. For this purpose, we have analyzed morphologic, seismic and structural data. The compilation of the results has allowed the identification of new regional NE-trending faults dipping towards the NW: the Bled el Aouana-Bizerte, the Sejnane-Ras Enjla and the Oued el Harka faults. They correspond to the reactivation of deep-seated normal faults splaying on the Triassic evaporites. This fault system constitutes the main component of the northern Tunisia structural scheme and has influenced its tectonic evolution marked by the main following stages. The Tellian thrust-sheets were immobilized at the uppermost Langhian. During the major Tortonian NW-trending compressive phase, these faults were reactivated with reverse kinematics and controlled the distribution of the post-nappes Neogene continental deposits. At the early Pleistocene, a compressive NNW-trending event has reactivated again these faults with sinistral-reverse movements and deformed the post-nappes Neogene series. Late Quaternary to Actual, the tectonic regime continues to be compressive with a NNW-trending maximum horizontal stress.

  12. Lyα Emitter Galaxies at z∼ 2.8 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. I. Tracing the Large-scale Structure via Lyα Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Wang, Jun-Xian; Jiang, Chun-Yan; Cai, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    We present a narrowband survey with three adjacent filters for z = 2.8–2.9 Lyman alpha (Lyα) emitter (LAE) galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), along with spectroscopic follow-up. With a complete sample of 96 LAE candidates in the narrowband NB466, we confirm the large-scale structure at z ∼ 2.8 suggested by previous spectroscopic surveys. Compared to the blank field detected with the other two narrowband filters NB470 and NB475, the LAE-density excess in NB466 (900 arcmin2) is ∼ 6.0 ± 0.8 times the standard deviation expected at z ∼ 2.8, assuming a linear bias of 2. The overdense large-scale structure in NB466 can be decomposed into four protoclusters, whose overdensities (each within an equivalent comoving volume 153 Mpc3) relative to the blank field (NB470+NB475) are in the range of 4.6–6.6. These four protoclusters are expected to evolve into a Coma-like cluster (M ≥ 1015 M ⊙) at z ∼ 0. We also investigate the various properties of LAEs at z = 2.8–2.9 and their dependence on the environment. The average star formation rates derived from the Lyα, rest-frame UV, and X-ray bands are ∼4, 10, and Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. Automatic Segmentation and Deep Learning of Bird Sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Hendrik Vincent; Van Balen, J.M.H.; Wiering, F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on automatic birdsong recognition with deep neural networks using the BIRDCLEF2014 dataset. Through deep learning, feature hierarchies are learned that represent the data on several levels of abstraction. Deep learning has been applied with success to problems in fields such as mu

  14. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  15. Abundance of volatile and organic species in intermediate temperature fluids from the Von Damm and Piccard deep sea hydrothermal fields, Mid-Cayman Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J. M.; Seewald, J.; Reeves, E. P.; German, C. R.; Sylva, S. P.; Klein, F.

    2012-12-01

    Two recently discovered submarine hydrothermal systems at the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise provide a unique opportunity to investigate how mixing and cooling influence hydrothermal fluid chemistry at the deepest-yet discovered, basalt-hosted Piccard vent field (4960m) and at the Von Damm vent field (2300m), postulated to be ultramafic-hosted. Vent fluids were collected in January 2012 during R/V Atlantis cruise AT18-16 with gas-tight samplers deployed by the ROV Jason II, allowing the characterization and quantification of redox-reactive volatile species and organic compounds. Von Damm vent fluids ranged in temperature from 21 to 226°C, whereas Piccard fluids ranged from 45 to 398°C. A key feature of these systems is the variety of fluids that were actively venting from the seafloor at 100 to 200°C, substantially cooler than the hottest fluids observed at either site. The lower temperatures reflect subsurface seawater mixing and/or conductive heat loss. Fluids venting within this temperature range have rarely been sampled at other systems, and the Cayman fluids thus present an excellent opportunity to study the effect of cooling and mixing processes on enriched volatile species such as H2, H2S, CO2 and CH4. Three dominant processes are thought to affect volatile and organic species in intermediate temperature fluids. These include microbial consumption or production, thermal alteration of biomass, and abiotic reactions. The effect of these processes on fluid compositions carries implications for carbon utilization and metabolic activity of modern microbial populations hosted within hydrothermal mineral deposits and ascending plumes, carbon cycling within hydrothermal systems, and net geochemical fluxes to the ocean. Endmember CO2 concentrations at Von Damm range from slightly enriched relative to seawater in the highest temperature fluids, to measurably depleted in the cooler fluids. Such CO2 depletions have not been previously observed in other acidic

  16. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  17. China’s first deep manned submersible,JIAOLONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A deep manned submersible is indispensable to deep ocean exploration. No other equipment can bring scientists to ex-treme sea floor depths to do research in situ. Marine geology, seafloor geophysics,marine biology,and oceanic chemistry are the fields that scientists are particularly eager to study [1-6]. Chinese scientists have long dreamed of using their own submersible to probe the deep sea. China’s recent fast development of a deep manned submersible has realized that dream.

  18. Microbe-related precipitation of iron and silica in the Edmond deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the Central Indian Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microbial mats, several millimeters thick and brown-yellow to white in color, were collected in hollow inside of chimney structure from Edmond hydrothermal field on the Central Indian Ridge. Microbes with shapes of rod and helical stalk-like filaments were observed in the microbial mats, and are commonly characterized by their cells completely encrusted by thick mineralized layers, made up of large amounts of amorphous silica and minor amounts of iron oxides. Transmission Electron Microscope observation has demonstrated that the acicular Fe-bearing matter was not only heterogenously distributed on the surface of the cell wall, but also deposited in the inside of cell, suggesting that bio-precipitation of Fe had occurred both on the surface and in the interior of cell. Microbial silicification was also commonly found in the mats. Silica usually precipitated homogeneously on the surface of the microbes and forms micro-laminated layers, which might be controlled by the inorganic process of precipitation in hydrothermal environment. The biomineralization phenomenon in the microbial mats showed that the precipitation of Fe and Si was closely related to microbes in hydrothermal environment. Considering that hydrothermal activities provided required chemical elements for mineralization, it is suggested that this biomineralization process also might be driven by hydrothermal activities at the sea floor to some extent.

  19. In situ chemistry and microbial community compositions in five deep-sea hydrothermal fluid samples from Irina II in the Logatchev field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Mirjam; Gonnella, Giorgio; Hourdez, Stephane; Böhnke, Stefanie; Kurtz, Stefan; Girguis, Peter

    2013-05-01

    We present data on the co-registered geochemistry (in situ mass spectrometry) and microbiology (pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes; V1, V2, V3 regions) in five fluid samples from Irina II in the Logatchev hydrothermal field. Two samples were collected over 24 min from the same spot and further three samples were from spatially distinct locations (20 cm, 3 m and the overlaying plume). Four low-temperature hydrothermal fluids from the Irina II are composed of the same core bacterial community, namely specific Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, which, however, differs in the relative abundance. The microbial composition of the fifth sample (plume) is considerably different. Although a significant correlation between sulfide enrichment and proportions of Sulfurovum (Epsilonproteobacteria) was found, no other significant linkages between abiotic factors, i.e. temperature, hydrogen, methane, sulfide and oxygen, and bacterial lineages were evident. Intriguingly, bacterial community compositions of some time series samples from the same spot were significantly more similar to a sample collected 20 cm away than to each other. Although this finding is based on three single samples only, it provides first hints that single hydrothermal fluid samples collected on a small spatial scale may also reflect unrecognized temporal variability. However, further studies are required to support this hypothesis.

  20. The morphological mix of field galaxies to I=24.25 magnitudes (b=26 magnitudes) from a deep Hubble space telescope WFPC2 image

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, S P; Ostrander, E J; Keel, W C; Griffiths, R E; Ratnatunga, K U; Driver, Simon P; Windhorst, Rogier A; Ostrander, Eric J; Keel, William C; Griffiths, Richard E; Ratnatunga, Kavan U

    1995-01-01

    We determine the morphological mix of field galaxies down to m_{I}\\simeq 24.25 mag (m_{B}\\sim 26.0 mag) from a single ultradeep HST WFPC2 image in both the V_{606} and I_{814} filters. In total, we find 227 objects with m_{I}\\le 24.5 mag and classify these into three types: ellipticals (16%), early-type spirals (37%) and late-type spirals/Irregulars (47%). The differential number counts for each type are compared to simple models in a standard flat cosmology. We find that both the elliptical and early-type spiral number counts are well described by {\\it little or no}-evolution models, but only when normalized at b_{J} = 18.0 mag. Given the uncertainties in the luminosity function (LF) normalization, both populations are consistent with a mild evolutionary scenario based on a normal/low rate of star-formation. This constrains the end of the last {\\it major} star-formation epoch in the giant galaxy populations to z\\geq 0.8. Conversely, the density of the observed late-type/Irregular population is found to be a ...

  1. Petrobras, a pioneering deep-sea operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-01

    As most Brazilian oil reserves are located offshore, with the most promising deposits are found in deep and very deep-sea zones. Petrobras pays close attention to deep-sea drilling and production technologies. In 1992, this Brazilian company drilled 51 wells in deep water (more than 400 meters), more than doubling its previous figure. Among others, Petrobras' development program includes two deep-sea fields, Marlim and Albacora. These developments will be tackled from floating supports linked by manifolds to underwater well heads. In order to keep down investment and production costs, Petrobras has developed standard underwater equipment and vertical tubing connection technologies. Compound materials (Coflexip tubes) are used to reduce the weight of the piping. (author). 1 photo.

  2. Generative Deep Deconvolutional Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Yunchen; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    A generative Bayesian model is developed for deep (multi-layer) convolutional dictionary learning. A novel probabilistic pooling operation is integrated into the deep model, yielding efficient bottom-up and top-down probabilistic learning. After learning the deep convolutional dictionary, testing is implemented via deconvolutional inference. To speed up this inference, a new statistical approach is proposed to project the top-layer dictionary elements to the data level. Following this, only o...

  3. Quantum Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebe, Nathan; Kapoor, Ashish; Svore, Krysta M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, deep learning has had a profound impact on machine learning and artificial intelligence. At the same time, algorithms for quantum computers have been shown to efficiently solve some problems that are intractable on conventional, classical computers. We show that quantum computing not only reduces the time required to train a deep restricted Boltzmann machine, but also provides a richer and more comprehensive framework for deep learning than classical computing and leads to si...

  4. 声学法深海热液速度场测量重建算法研究%Reconstruction algorithm for acoustic measurement of velocity field of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白燕; 毛洁; 樊炜; 潘华辰; 刘云峰

    2011-01-01

    介绍了利用声学法测量深海热液速度场的基本原理.利用往返飞渡时间差与流场速度的关系,应用反问题求解技术重建测量区域的速度场.应用最小二乘法对两种典型的热液口速度场模型进行了仿真重建,分析了换能器数量、实验测量误差以及换能器的布放对重建结果的影响,并对重建结果进行了流量分析.仿真重建的绝对误差、相对误差以及流量分析结果表明,最小二乘法具有较高重建精度,增加声学换能器及细化网格可提高重建精度,换能器对称分布时具有最优重建结果.最后对声学法深海热液温度场速度场测量系统进行了介绍和说明.深海热液速度场的测量重建可为热液热通量的测量奠定基础.%The basic theory of acoustic velocity field measurement in deep-sea hydrothermal vents was introduced.The time of flight (TOF) of acoustic signals through hydrothermal vents was dependent on temperature and velocity.The velocity field was reconstructed by inverse problem solving techniques based on the relationship between the round-trip TOF difference and velocity of flow. The reconstruction of velocity field using the least square method was presented. At the same time, flow flux of reconstruction results was analyzed. The results show that the least square method has good accuracy. Increase of the number of acoustic transducers and mesh density can improve the reconstruction accuracy effectively.

  5. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  6. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper;

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...

  7. Deep Impact Spots Quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-nine days before it gets up-close-and-personal with a comet, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft successfully photographed its quarry, comet Tempel 1, at a distance of 39.7 million miles. The image, taken on April 25, 2005, is the first of many comet portraits Deep Impact will take leading up to its historic comet encounter on July 4.

  8. DeepSurveyCam--A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-28

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  9. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kwasnitschka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor, and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS. The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  10. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor. PMID:26828495

  11. DeepSurveyCam--A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor. PMID:26828495

  12. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT z {approx} 1.4 IN THE SUBARU XMM-NEWTON DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuta, K.; Akiyama, M. [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ueda, Y.; Hiroi, K.; Ohta, K.; Iwamuro, F.; Yabe, K.; Moritani, Y.; Sumiyoshi, M.; Maihara, T. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Watson, M. G. [XROA Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Silverman, J.; Tamura, N.; Kimura, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Takato, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dalton, G.; Lewis, I.; Bonfield, D.; Lee, H.; Curtis-Lake, E., E-mail: akiyama@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-12-20

    In order to investigate the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), we construct the black hole mass function (BHMF) and Eddington ratio distribution function (ERDF) of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z {approx} 1.4 in the Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field. A significant part of the accretion growth of SMBHs is thought to take place in this redshift range. Black hole masses of X-ray-selected broad-line AGNs are estimated using the width of the broad Mg II line and 3000 A monochromatic luminosity. We supplement the Mg II FWHM values with the H{alpha} FWHM obtained from our NIR spectroscopic survey. Using the black hole masses of broad-line AGNs at redshifts between 1.18 and 1.68, the binned broad-line AGN BHMFs and ERDFs are calculated using the V{sub max} method. To properly account for selection effects that impact the binned estimates, we derive the corrected broad-line AGN BHMFs and ERDFs by applying the maximum likelihood method, assuming that the ERDF is constant regardless of the black hole mass. We do not correct for the non-negligible uncertainties in virial BH mass estimates. If we compare the corrected broad-line AGN BHMF with that in the local universe, then the corrected BHMF at z = 1.4 has a higher number density above 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} but a lower number density below that mass range. The evolution may be indicative of a downsizing trend of accretion activity among the SMBH population. The evolution of broad-line AGN ERDFs from z = 1.4 to 0 indicates that the fraction of broad-line AGNs with accretion rates close to the Eddington limit is higher at higher redshifts.

  13. 秸秆深埋还田开沟扶垄犁设计及试验研究%Design and Testing of Plough for Deep Furrowing and Ridging of Straw Amendment Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞丽; 黄毅; 魏凤兰; 白雪卫; 刘鄂; 张玉龙

    2011-01-01

    针对我国北方旱作地区春玉米播种时墒情不够、肥力不足的问题,提出了在秋季收获后进行深开沟、沟内铺放秸秆、覆土起垄整垄、垄上覆膜的秸秆深埋,蓄积秋冬降水的土肥水跨季节联合调控技术.研制了秸秆深埋还田开沟扶垄犁.采用对称式可翻转犁架,实现开沟、覆土、起垄、整垄联合作业.田间性能试验结果表明:该机开沟深度可以达到40cm,沟形规整,覆土效果较好,整垄效率高,垄形符合农艺要求.采用该机进行秋季秸秆深埋还田,可以有效提高土壤水分含量,提高玉米产量.%Zn northern China, soil moisture content and fertility are low at the time of maize planting. A solution was proposed for this problem. After harvesting in the autumn, the soil was tilled to create deep furrows filled with straw and backfilled to form ridges mulched with a plastic film. A plough was designed to furrow the soil properly, bury the straw deeply, form ridges with a suitable shape, and to puncture the membranes for spring seeding. The rotary plough with a symmetrical frame was developed, built and tested. The results of field tests showed that the plough could create furrows up to a depth of 40 cm. The shaping and backfilling of the furrows were done effectively and efficiently according with agricultural standards. The use of the plough and the technique of filling the furrows with straw and mulching with a plastic film were used in a field test This technique resulted in increased soil moisture content and productivity of corn.

  14. Deep Malicious Website Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Parvatam Sriram Rohit; Krishnaveni, R.

    2013-01-01

    To search for malicious web pages, the first step is typically to use a crawler to collect URLs thatare live on the Internet. In this system, Deep Web Crawler is presented to detect the deep malicious webpages, an approach to search the web more efficiently for pages that are likely malicious. Deep Web Crawleruses the crawling infrastructure of search engines to retrieve URLs that are much more likely to be maliciousthan a random page on the web. In other words this Crawler increases the inpu...

  15. Jack Dymond's Deep Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R. E.; Delaney, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Most people do not know that Jack Dymond was a major influence on several aspects of current deep-sea research. Along with Margaret Leinen and Jack, we were part of the first Alvin dive program on the Endeavour hydrothermal field in 1984. Jack was working with Rick, on a sediment-trap study of the overall carbon fluxes in the vicinity of the Endeavour hydrothermal systems in an effort to address a question that Cindy Lee had posed about the overall carbon production from hydrothermal vents. At the time we were recognizing and naming many of the 20- to 40-meter-high sulfide structures in the Endeavour field (Hulk, Grotto, Dante, Dudley, Bastille), Jack commented that it was a shame that the world could not see these magnificent edifices or watch endlessly awesome black smokers. His feeling was that some vent sites should be converted to National Parks to preserve them from invasion by enthusiastic scientists, yet he clearly had the vision that the public should be given a sense of the grandeur involved locally, as well as the vastness of the 70,000-km ridge-crest system running through every ocean. Within a year we started talking about the RIDGE Program, and Jack was an early and enthusiastic participant in the design and development of RIDGE. Jack was among the first to encourage multi-disciplinary research at the hydrothermal vent sites. Recognizing that deep currents are important to vent processes, he urged physical oceanographers to work with the chemists, biologists, and geologists and was personally responsible for Rick becoming interested in studying vents. We, the co-authors of this abstract, became close friends as a result of having been introduced to each other by Jack. Several years ago, we co-authored the first paper ever written on the possible influence of hydrothermal activity on the circulation of the Europan Ocean, a paper that we here dedicate to the memory of Jack. Finally, it was in part because of Jack's conviction that the world should know

  16. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  17. MOIRCS Deep Survey. IX. Deep Near-Infrared Imaging Data and Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kajisawa, Masaru; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru; Akiyama, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Konishi, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Omata, Koji; Ouchi, Masami; Iwata, Ikuru; Hamana, Takashi; Onodera, Masato

    2010-01-01

    We present deep J-, H-, and Ks-band imaging data of the MOIRCS Deep Survey (MODS), which was carried out with Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) mounted on the Subaru telescope in the GOODS-North region. The data reach 5sigma total limiting magnitudes for point sources of J=23.9, H=22.8, and Ks=22.8 (Vega magnitude) over 103 arcmin^2 (wide field). In 28 arcmin^2 of the survey area, which is ultra deep field of the MODS (deep field), the data reach the 5sigma depths of J=24.8, H=23.4, and Ks=23.8. The spatial resolutions of the combined images are FWHM ~ 0.6 arcsec and ~ 0.5 arcsec for the wide and deep fields in all bands, respectively. Combining the MODS data with the multi-wavelength public data taken with the HST, Spitzer, and other ground-based telescopes in the GOODS field, we construct a multi-wavelength photometric catalog of Ks-selected sources. Using the catalog, we present Ks-band number counts and near-infrared color distribution of the detected objects, and demonstrate some sel...

  18. Deep Dysgraphia in Turkish

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhan Raman; Brendan Stuart Weekes

    2005-01-01

    Deep dysgraphic patients make semantic errors when writing to dictation and they cannot write nonwords. Extant reports of deep dysgraphia come from languages with relatively opaque orthographies. Turkish is a transparent orthography because the bidirectional mappings between phonology and orthography are completely predictable. We report BRB, a biscriptal Turkish-English speaker who has acquired dysgraphia characterised by semantic errors as well as effects of grammatical class and imageabili...

  19. Towards Deep Developmental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sigaud, Olivier; Droniou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    International audience Deep learning techniques are having an undeniable impact on general pattern recognition issues. In this paper, from a developmental robotics perspective, we scrutinize deep learning techniques under the light of their capability to construct a hierarchy of meaningful multimodal representations from the raw sensors of robots. These investigations reveal the differences between the methodological constraints of pattern recognition and those of developmental robotics. I...

  20. Reading Knee-Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, "You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it" (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading knee-deep as we…

  1. Deep Time Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Weir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An artist from London researching the effects of deprioritised subjectivity and contemporary art, Weir presents acoustic recordings made in deep geological repository sites. Repurposing these sites from their typical use as storage space for nuclear waste, Weir addresses the extra-human scale of Deep Time through sonic-fiction. Inhumanly enduring and impinging upon humanity largely imperceptibly, what agency—at what scale—is present?

  2. Learning Deep Face Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Haoqiang; Cao, Zhimin; Jiang, Yuning; Yin, Qi; Doudou, Chinchilla

    2014-01-01

    Face representation is a crucial step of face recognition systems. An optimal face representation should be discriminative, robust, compact, and very easy-to-implement. While numerous hand-crafted and learning-based representations have been proposed, considerable room for improvement is still present. In this paper, we present a very easy-to-implement deep learning framework for face representation. Our method bases on a new structure of deep network (called Pyramid CNN). The proposed Pyrami...

  3. Deep Learning in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, J. B.; Polson, N. G.; Witte, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the use of deep learning hierarchical models for problems in financial prediction and classification. Financial prediction problems -- such as those presented in designing and pricing securities, constructing portfolios, and risk management -- often involve large data sets with complex data interactions that currently are difficult or impossible to specify in a full economic model. Applying deep learning methods to these problems can produce more useful results than standard method...

  4. 高地应力深切河谷形变应力场及线路问题初探%Preliminary study on deformation and stress field and routes of deep-incised valley under high geostress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秀雯; 蒋良潍; 姚令侃; 邹宇坛

    2012-01-01

    为研究高地应力作用下河谷深切卸荷、岩体强风化的地质环境对拟建川藏铁路的影响,利用ABAQUS 对高地应力背景场由河流深切卸荷下的河谷形变—应力场特征进行数值模拟研究;考虑到岩体的宏观力学性能受到卸荷回弹变形的影响而急剧减小,利用场变量实现力学参数随卸荷动态变化,对比分析河谷形变—应力场特征;针对印度板块挤压欧亚大陆板块使河谷两岸地应力值存在差异的情况,模拟主、被动盘的差异卸荷.结果表明:自重应力与40MPa构造应力同时作用下的卸荷回弹值可达仅计自重应力场的3~6倍,出现由陡、缓倾面构成的“X”状共轭结构面,工程开挖下边坡岩体容易沿陡倾面崩塌,沿缓倾面滑移.将卸荷前后岩体偏应力比值k作为评价岩体受到卸荷影响程度的标准,高地应力作用下谷坡水平深度方向的k值介于1.5 ~2.5,地应力的量值对岩体卸荷程度有很大影响;较之不考虑岩体力学性质劣化情况,岩体塑性区范围将扩展,裂隙向谷坡上部延伸,坡体稳定性进一步下降;高地应力作用的河谷主动岸,坡面塑性区明显存在“X”状潜在滑移面,而被动岸仅有单向缓倾滑移面,主动岸对开挖扰动的抵抗力更低.据此提出相应的灾害预防措施的建议,为拟建进藏道路的区域工程地质选线提供参考.%In order to investigate the influence of unloading of the surface due to a river's cutting down and weathering of rock mass under high geostress on the planned Sichuan-Tibet railway, numerical simulations of deformation and stress field of deep-incised valley under high geostress were implemented with ABAQUS. Field variables were used to realize the dynamic change of mechanical parameters of rock mass under the influence of unloading deformation, the deformation and stress field of valley were also analyzed. A numerical model that boundary conditions on both

  5. SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arendt, R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barmby, P. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cattaneo, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Egami, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finlator, K. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, CK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grogin, N. A., E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-05-20

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg{sup 2} to a depth of 26 AB mag (3{sigma}) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 {+-} 1.0 and 4.4 {+-} 0.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  6. Deep Learning with Darwin: Evolutionary Synthesis of Deep Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Mishra, Akshaya; Wong, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Taking inspiration from biological evolution, we explore the idea of "Can deep neural networks evolve naturally over successive generations into highly efficient deep neural networks?" by introducing the notion of synthesizing new highly efficient, yet powerful deep neural networks over successive generations via an evolutionary process from ancestor deep neural networks. The architectural traits of ancestor deep neural networks are encoded using synaptic probability models, which can be view...

  7. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  8. Deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Gargi; Roy, Subesha Basu; Haldar, Swaraj; Bhattacharya, Rabindra

    2010-12-01

    Occlusive clot formation in the veins causes venous thrombosis, the site most common in the deep veins of leg, called deep vein thrombosis. The clot can block blood flow and when it breaks off, called an embolism which in turn can damage the vital organs. Venous thrombosis occurs via three mechanisms ie, Virchow's triad. The mechanisms are decreased flow rate of blood, damage to the blood vessel wall and an increased tendency of the blood to clot. There are several factors which can increase a person's risk for deep vein thrombosis. The symptoms of deep vein thrombosis in the legs are pain, swelling and redness of the part. One variety of venous thrombosis is phlegmasia alba dolens where the leg becomes pale and cool. Investigations include Doppler ultrasound examination of the limb, D-dimer blood test, plethysmography of the legs, x-rays to show vein in the affected area (venography). Hospitalisation is necessary in some cases with some risk factors. The mainstream of treatment is with anticoagulants, mostly low molecular weight heparin for 6 months. Deep venous thrombosis is a rising problem. Early diagnosis and treatment is associated with a good prognosis.

  9. How to study deep roots—and why it matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeght, Jean-Luc; Rewald, Boris; Pierret, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The drivers underlying the development of deep root systems, whether genetic or environmental, are poorly understood but evidence has accumulated that deep rooting could be a more widespread and important trait among plants than commonly anticipated from their share of root biomass. Even though a distinct classification of “deep roots” is missing to date, deep roots provide important functions for individual plants such as nutrient and water uptake but can also shape plant communities by hydraulic lift (HL). Subterranean fauna and microbial communities are highly influenced by resources provided in the deep rhizosphere and deep roots can influence soil pedogenesis and carbon storage.Despite recent technological advances, the study of deep roots and their rhizosphere remains inherently time-consuming, technically demanding and costly, which explains why deep roots have yet to be given the attention they deserve. While state-of-the-art technologies are promising for laboratory studies involving relatively small soil volumes, they remain of limited use for the in situ observation of deep roots. Thus, basic techniques such as destructive sampling or observations at transparent interfaces with the soil (e.g., root windows) which have been known and used for decades to observe roots near the soil surface, must be adapted to the specific requirements of deep root observation. In this review, we successively address major physical, biogeochemical and ecological functions of deep roots to emphasize the significance of deep roots and to illustrate the yet limited knowledge. In the second part we describe the main methodological options to observe and measure deep roots, providing researchers interested in the field of deep root/rhizosphere studies with a comprehensive overview. Addressed methodologies are: excavations, trenches and soil coring approaches, minirhizotrons (MR), access shafts, caves and mines, and indirect approaches such as tracer-based techniques. PMID

  10. How to study deep roots-and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeght, Jean-Luc; Rewald, Boris; Pierret, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The drivers underlying the development of deep root systems, whether genetic or environmental, are poorly understood but evidence has accumulated that deep rooting could be a more widespread and important trait among plants than commonly anticipated from their share of root biomass. Even though a distinct classification of "deep roots" is missing to date, deep roots provide important functions for individual plants such as nutrient and water uptake but can also shape plant communities by hydraulic lift (HL). Subterranean fauna and microbial communities are highly influenced by resources provided in the deep rhizosphere and deep roots can influence soil pedogenesis and carbon storage.Despite recent technological advances, the study of deep roots and their rhizosphere remains inherently time-consuming, technically demanding and costly, which explains why deep roots have yet to be given the attention they deserve. While state-of-the-art technologies are promising for laboratory studies involving relatively small soil volumes, they remain of limited use for the in situ observation of deep roots. Thus, basic techniques such as destructive sampling or observations at transparent interfaces with the soil (e.g., root windows) which have been known and used for decades to observe roots near the soil surface, must be adapted to the specific requirements of deep root observation. In this review, we successively address major physical, biogeochemical and ecological functions of deep roots to emphasize the significance of deep roots and to illustrate the yet limited knowledge. In the second part we describe the main methodological options to observe and measure deep roots, providing researchers interested in the field of deep root/rhizosphere studies with a comprehensive overview. Addressed methodologies are: excavations, trenches and soil coring approaches, minirhizotrons (MR), access shafts, caves and mines, and indirect approaches such as tracer-based techniques.

  11. Deep Dysgraphia in Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Raman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep dysgraphic patients make semantic errors when writing to dictation and they cannot write nonwords. Extant reports of deep dysgraphia come from languages with relatively opaque orthographies. Turkish is a transparent orthography because the bidirectional mappings between phonology and orthography are completely predictable. We report BRB, a biscriptal Turkish-English speaker who has acquired dysgraphia characterised by semantic errors as well as effects of grammatical class and imageability on writing in Turkish. Nonword spelling is abolished. A similar pattern of errors is observed in English. BRB is the first report of acquired dysgraphia in a truly transparent writing system. We argue that deep dysgraphia results from damage to the mappings that are common to both languages between word meanings and orthographic representations.

  12. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae;

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... the generative model unchanged but make the variational distribution more expressive. Inspired by the structure of the auxiliary variable we also propose a model with two stochastic layers and skip connections. Our findings suggest that more expressive and properly specified deep generative models converge...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  13. Deep Extreme Learning Machine and Its Application in EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, deep learning has aroused wide interest in machine learning fields. Deep learning is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network algorithm. Deep learning has the advantage of approximating the complicated function and alleviating the optimization difficulty associated with deep models. Multilayer extreme learning machine (MLELM is a learning algorithm of an artificial neural network which takes advantages of deep learning and extreme learning machine. Not only does MLELM approximate the complicated function but it also does not need to iterate during the training process. We combining with MLELM and extreme learning machine with kernel (KELM put forward deep extreme learning machine (DELM and apply it to EEG classification in this paper. This paper focuses on the application of DELM in the classification of the visual feedback experiment, using MATLAB and the second brain-computer interface (BCI competition datasets. By simulating and analyzing the results of the experiments, effectiveness of the application of DELM in EEG classification is confirmed.

  14. Beyond Deep Blue

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2011-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since IBM's Deep Blue computer stunned the world by defeating Garry Kasparov, the world chess champion at that time. Beyond Deep Blue tells the continuing story of the chess engine and its steady improvement. The book provides analysis of the games alongside a detailed examination of the remarkable technological progress made by the engines - asking which one is best, how good is it, and how much better can it get. Features: presents a total of 118 games, played by 17 different chess engines, collected together for the first time in a single reference; details the

  15. Distributed deep web search

    OpenAIRE

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien-Tsoi Theodorus Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The World Wide Web contains billions of documents (and counting); hence, it is likely that some document will contain the answer or content you are searching for. While major search engines like Bing and Google often manage to return relevant results to your query, there are plenty of situations in which they are less capable of doing so. Specifically, there is a noticeable shortcoming in situations that involve the retrieval of data from the deep web. Deep web data is difficult to crawl and ...

  16. Deep import of deep inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, M

    1999-01-01

    The quest goes on to try to pin down the detailed inner structure of the proton. The problem is that, the harder physicists look, the more structure they find. In the late 1960s, when experimentalists using electron beams at SLAC, Stanford, discovered that the proton contained tiny scattering centres, a new type of physics opened up: deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Ever since, physicists have tried to peer deeper and deeper into the depths of the proton. The work of the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, was to probe this inner proton structure in more detail than had ever been done before. This is one of the great success stories of HERA. However, to capitalize on this new window on the proton also calls for intense study and coordinated effort. (0 refs).

  17. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While 2012 is going away, IJHDR prepares the celebration of its 5th anniversary! This is thus a time for reflection, to ponder on the good and bad experiences, to (rethink the next steps to improve our service to readers, authors and the scientific community at large. Along these hard, but rewarding first five years, IJHDR reached many readers and was supported by many authors all over the world, it achieved recognition by important scientific databases and societies. This success is the result of the joint work of the Editorial Board members and with GIRI, our hosting scientific society. IJHDR provided the homeopathic community an open, free, multimedia and electronic venue to share high-quality information. Focused on research articles, and open to the entire field of High Dilution research, including homeopathy and hormesis, IJHDR came to occupy a special place within the scientific map. Nevertheless, the goals achieved are not enough, but further improvement is needed for IJHDR keep on growing. Our aim for the next years is to maintain the original editorial vision and mission, while increasing even more the quality of publication. IJHDR will start 2013 by revising its Board of Consultants. Five years ago, when IJHDR was an unknown journal that still had to prove its quality, friends, idealists, and invited experts kindly contributed with their expertise to make peer review a mandatory step in the evaluation of articles. However, not only IJHDR grew, but also the editorial work did! The time arrives to include new experts in our Board of Consultant,, not only to share in the work, but to have cover a broader scope of knowledge, as HD research is a cross-disciplinary and emergent field. Also the structure of the articles will be revised. Improvement in the layout will be discussed to stimulate the use of multimedia resources like video and audio files, simulations, supplementary materials, links, and color images. Special attention will

  18. Structural Geology and Tectonics in Marine Science:Perspectives in the Research of Deep Sea and Deep Interior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sanzhong; YU Shan; JIN Chong; SUO Yanhui; M.Santosh; DAI Liming; LIU Xin; MA Yun; WANG Xiaofei; ZHANG Bingkun

    2012-01-01

    The fields of structural geology and tectonics have witnessed great progress over the last decade and are poised for further expansion in the future.One of the significant breakthroughs is the establishment of the ‘Beyond Plate Tectonics Theory’where a combination of conceptual models and numerical modeling on plume tectonics and plate tectonics has enabled new insights into the structural and tectonic architecture and processes in the deep interior and deep sea.This paper Synthesizes developments of structural geology and tectonics from a macroscopic perspective in deep interior and deep sea.Four key techniques are also reviewed:satellite altimetry for surface structures in deep-sea multi-beam sea-floor mapping;tomography for tectonics of the deep interior;diverse modeling approaches and software for unfolding dynamic evolution;and techniques for HT/HP experiments on material rheology and in situ component measurements.

  19. 深冷处理温度场和组织场的有限元模拟与实验验证%FEM simulation and experimental verification of temperature field and phase transformation in deep cryogenic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎军顽; 汤磊磊; 李绍宏; 吴晓春

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the low temperature material properties and the boiling heat transfer coefficient of specimen immersed in the liquid nitrogen,a numerical model based on metallo-thermo-mechanical couple theory was established to reproduce the deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) process of a newly developed cold work die steel Cr8Mo2SiV (SDC99).Moreover,an experimental setup for rapid temperature measurement was designed to validate the simulation results.The investigation suggests that the differences in temperature and cooling rate between the surface and core of specimen are very significant.However,it should be emphasized that the acute temperature and cooling rate changes during DCT are mainly concentrated on the specimen surface region about 1/3 of the sample thickness.Subjected to DCT,the retained austenite of quenched specimen continues to transform to martensite and finally its phase volume fraction reduces to 2.3%.The predicted results are coincident well with the experimental data,which demonstrates that the numerical model employed in this study can accurately capture the variation characteristics of temperature and microstructure fields during DCT and provide a theoretical guidance for making the reasonable DCT procedure.%结合低温材料参数以及液氮浴沸腾换热系数,基于金属-热-力耦合理论建立深冷处理数值分析模型,再现新型冷作模具钢Cr8Mo2SiV(SDC99)的深冷处理过程.同时,通过设计深冷处理温度快速测量装置验证模拟结果的准确性.结果表明,深冷处理过程中试样心表温差和冷却速度的差异较大.这种温度和冷却速度的剧烈变化主要集中于从试件表面至心部的1/3厚度内.经过深冷处理后,试样内残余奥氏体将继续向马氏体转变,其最终体积分数减小为2.3%.模拟结果与实验结果非常吻合,这表明采用的数值分析方法能准确地捕捉试件在深冷处理过程中温度场和组织场的变化规

  20. Teaching for Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy Wilson; Colby, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in research focused on students' depth of learning as well as teachers' efforts to foster deep learning. Findings from a study examining the teaching practices and student learning outcomes of sixty-four teachers in seventeen different states (Smith et al. 2005) indicated that most of the learning in these classrooms…