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Sample records for ajo morado allium

  1. Formación in vitro del bulbo del ajo morado (Allium sativum L. In vitro formation of purple garlic (Allium sativum L. bulb

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    H Mujica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la bulbificación in vitro del ajo morado (Allium sativum L. se extrajeron ápices caulinares de los "dientes" del bulbo previamente grelados y desinfectados. Estos ápices se cultivaron en el medio de Murashige y Skoog con 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2 isopenteniladenina (2ip; 0,1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA y 30 g.L-1 de sacarosa. Los cultivos crecieron a 41,54 mmol.m-2 s-1 de luminosidad, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz y 23 ±2ºC. Las vitroplantas regeneradas fueron seccionadas a 2 cm de longitud desde la corona de la planta, se eliminaron sus raíces y se cultivaron en un medio para inducir la bulbificación, constituido por los mismos componentes anteriores, excluyendo el ANA y aumentando la sacarosa a 90 g.L-1. Para los estudios histológicos se realizaron cinco muestreos de tres vitroplantas cada uno, entre los 0 y 28 días de cultivo. En la bulbificación in vitro se distinguieron dos etapas de desarrollo. La primera correspondió al estado morfogénico iniciado desde el día 0 hasta los 20 días de cultivo, y la segunda, al llenado y maduración del bulbo a partir del día 7 de la inducción a la bulbificación. El bulbo se desarrolló por organogénesis directa, siendo su estructura similar al de cebolla hasta los 21 días, para luego diferenciarse por la formación de los "dientes". Las raíces adventicias se originaron de los meristemos en una región cerca al ápice del tallo.With the purpose of studying the in vitro bulb formation of the purple garlic (Allium sativum L. shoot tips of the "teeth" of the bulbs were extracted, sprouted, and disinfected. These shoot tips were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium with 2.0 mg.L-1 of isopenteniadenine (2ip; 0.1 mg.L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (ANA and 30 g.L-1 of sucrose. The cultures grew up at 41.54 mmol.m-2.s-1 luminosity, 16 hours of light, and 23 + 2ºC. The in vitro regenerated plants were cut off at 2 cm of length from the plant neck; their roots were cut off and

  2. Evaluación de cultivares de ajo morado y blanco por su rendimiento agronómico e industrial en Irapuato, Guanajuato

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    Luis Pérez Moreno; Paulo Manuel García Rincón; Rafael Ramírez Malagón; José Luis Barrera Guerra

    2003-01-01

    Se evaluó el rendimiento, variables de calidad del bulbo y rendimiento industrial de cultivares de ajo (Allium sativum L.), durante los ciclos otoño-invierno 1988-1989, 1989-1990, 1991-1992 y 2001-2002, en el Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas de la Universidad de Guanajuato. Se emplearon genotipos de color morado y blanco, con resultados variables de acuerdo con su genotipo y ciclo vegetativo. Ninguno de los cultivares precoces calificó para rendimiento de campo, calidad o rendimiento industria...

  3. Semejanzas entre el ajo (Allium sativum) costarricense y el ajo asiático según secuencias de ADN ribosomal

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    Karina Barboza Rojas; Alejandro Hernández Soto; Claudia Zúñiga Vega

    2012-01-01

    En Costa Rica, la producción de ajo (Allium sativum) es escasa y se limita principalmente a las regiones de Llano Grande de Cartago. Sin embargo, por el precio que tiene actualmente en el mercado, el ajo costarricense se vislumbra como una hortaliza que podría constituirse en un recurso valioso para los productores nacionales. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se presenta la caracterización mediante secuencias ribosomales de materiales de ajo provenientes Costa Rica y su comparación con ajo i...

  4. Efecto hipotensor del extracto de ajo (Allium sativum) macerado por 18 semanas en un modelo experimental in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    David Chaupis-Meza; Juan Rojas; Manuel Gasco; Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar si el extracto de ajo (Allium sativum) macerado por 18 semanas tiene igual o mejor efecto hipotensor que el captopril en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio experimental in vivo con ratas machos Holtzman, clasificados en cinco grupos: 100, 500 y 1000 mg/kg de extracto de ajo, Captopril de 100 mg/kg y un grupo vehículo. El L-NAME (N- -nitro L-arginina-metil-éster) administrado vía intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg desde el inicio del experimento, elevó la presión ar...

  5. Semejanzas entre el ajo (Allium sativum costarricense y el ajo asiático según secuencias de ADN ribosomal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Barboza Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica, la producción de ajo (Allium sativum es escasa y se limita principalmente a las regiones de Llano Grande de Cartago. Sin embargo, por el precio que tiene actualmente en el mercado, el ajo costarricense se vislumbra como una hortaliza que podría constituirse en un recurso valioso para los productores nacionales. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se presenta la caracterización mediante secuencias ribosomales de materiales de ajo provenientes Costa Rica y su comparación con ajo importado de China. El ADN se extrajo a partir de hojas de vitroplantas de ajo mantenidas en un congelador a -70°C, pulverizadas en un mortero. El ADN ribosomal se amplificó, purificó y secuenció. Se realizó el análisis bioinformático de las secuencias ribosomales. El BLASTn permitió determinar que los productos de PCR amplificados corresponden a la secuencia parcial de los genes 28S y 18S (sitios de unión de los cebadores y a la secuencia completa de la región ITS-1, 5.8S e ITS-2. Se encontró que todas las secuencias alinearon en casi un 100% con la accesión EU626375.1 publicada en la base de datos del GeneBank, correspondiente al clon Allium sativum voucher BF-ALL-037. En general, las secuencias mostraron ser muy conservadas. Los puntajes obtenidos del alineamiento realizado con ClustalW reflejaron una identidad del 97 al 99% entre las secuencias.El presente estudio es el primer reporte de este tipo que se realiza sobre ajo costarricense y generó información básica e indispensable para continuar con los estudios moleculares de este cultivo.

  6. Efecto hipotensor del extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas en un modelo experimental in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chaupis-Meza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar si el extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas tiene igual o mejor efecto hipotensor que el captopril en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio experimental in vivo con ratas machos Holtzman, clasificados en cinco grupos: 100, 500 y 1000 mg/kg de extracto de ajo, Captopril de 100 mg/kg y un grupo vehículo. El L-NAME (N- -nitro L-arginina-metil-éster administrado vía intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg desde el inicio del experimento, elevó la presión arterial desde el tercer día. El análisis estadístico consistió en las pruebas T de Student para medias pareadas, ANOVA y comparación múltiple de Scheffe. Resultados. El ajo macerado extraído por un proceso hidroalcohólico durante 18 semanas provocó una disminución de la presión arterial en animales de experimentación. El análisis de los tratamientos sobre la presión arterial media (PAM, obtuvieron diferencias significativas desde el tercer día. La comparación sobre la PAM final versus PAM basal (medias no diferentes y el efecto hipotensor (% fueron: ajo-100 (p=0,008, 59,8%; ajo-500 (p=0,021, 80,6%; ajo-1000 (p=0,034, 88,5%, Captopril (p=0,437, 99,9% y vehículo (p=0,001, 0%. Conclusiones. El ajo macerado a un periodo de 18 semanas resultó eficaz para producir un efecto hipotensor en ratas, inducidas a hipertensión arterial por L-NAME

  7. Efecto hipotensor del extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas en un modelo experimental in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chaupis-Meza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar si el extracto de ajo (Allium sativum macerado por 18 semanas tiene igual o mejor efecto hipotensor que el captopril en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio experimental in vivo con ratas machos Holtzman, clasificados en cinco grupos: 100, 500 y 1000 mg/kg de extracto de ajo, Captopril de 100 mg/kg y un grupo vehículo. El L-NAME (N- -nitro L-arginina-metil-éster administrado vía intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg desde el inicio del experimento, elevó la presión arterial desde el tercer día. El análisis estadístico consistió en las pruebas T de Student para medias pareadas, ANOVA y comparación múltiple de Scheffe. Resultados. El ajo macerado extraído por un proceso hidroalcohólico durante 18 semanas provocó una disminución de la presión arterial en animales de experimentación. El análisis de los tratamientos sobre la presión arterial media (PAM, obtuvieron diferencias significativas desde el tercer día. La comparación sobre la PAM final versus PAM basal (medias no diferentes y el efecto hipotensor (% fueron: ajo-100 (p=0,008, 59,8%; ajo-500 (p=0,021, 80,6%; ajo-1000 (p=0,034, 88,5%, Captopril (p=0,437, 99,9% y vehículo (p=0,001, 0%. Conclusiones. El ajo macerado a un periodo de 18 semanas resultó eficaz para producir un efecto hipotensor en ratas, inducidas a hipertensión arterial por L-NAME

  8. El ajo

    OpenAIRE

    Carda Paredes, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El Ajo es del género ALLIUM, AJO, de la familia de las LILIACEAS. El ajo es una planta exótica, herbácea, anual, que fue traída de España junto con la cebolla, su congénere, en la época de la Colonia, y se aclimató muy bien en los climas fríos. El ajo es también planta bulbífera, y el bulbo llamado vulgarmente CABEZA está compuesto de varios bulbillos llamados DIENTES, cubiertos cada uno de una túnica muy delgada, seca y blanquecina. El olor del ajo es más fuerte y más difusible q...

  9. Aislamiento e identificación de patógenos de la estirpe silvestre del ajo (Allium sativum L.)

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    Karina Astorga-Quirós; Claudia Zúñiga-Vega; William Rivera-Méndez

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo del ajo (Allium sativum L.) en Costa Rica se podría convertir en una alternativa rentable para la producción y diversificación de los agricultores de hortalizas. Sin embargo, el tipo de reproducción vegetativa que presenta facilita la transmisión y diseminación de enfermedades, lo que provoca un debilitamiento progresivo de los bulbos. Actualmente, se buscan alternativas de manejo diferentes al control químico, para disminuir el impacto ecológico y ambiental de los patógenos qu...

  10. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Guatemala, definida por marcadores de ADN

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    Fredy Uber Rosales-Longo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de las poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Gua temala, definida por mar cado res de ADN. En Guatemala es escasa la in for ma ción sobre la diversidad genética de ajo. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: incidir en el mejoramiento de Allium sativum, so bre la base del conocimiento de su variabilidad genética, así mismo, establecer una colección in vi tro de la co lec ción de las poblaciones cultivadas en Guatemala. Los experimentos fueron realizados entre octubre de 2005 y marzo de 2006. La determinación de las variaciones de ADN se realizaron me dian te la téc ni ca de AFLP™. La información se analiza por medio de análisis de componentes principales, análisis de coordenadas principales y análisis de conglomerados. Mediante la inspección de los pro duc tos de AFLP™ y análi sis estadísticos, se detectó una alta variabilidad genética entre los materiales vegetales colectados. Las muestras clasificadas co mo del ti po “Chi leno”, correspondieron a los tipos “Criollo”. Nueve bien diferenciados grupos genéticos se conformaron en un dendrograma y se con fir mó que la diversidad genética descubierta es una función del lugar don de se cul ti van las po bla cio nes de ajo. Se identificó una mayor diversidad genética entre las mues tras de ajo del ti po “Crio llo” que las que se tienen en tre los ma te ria les del ti po “Chileno”, como producto de la mayor dispersión espacial de los primeros. Los materiales genéticos de ajo se encuentran actualmente preservados en un Banco de Germoplasma in vi tro en la Uni dad de Bio tec no lo gía del IC TA.

  11. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum) en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

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    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  12. Aislamiento e identificación de patógenos de la estirpe silvestre del ajo (Allium sativum L.

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    Karina Astorga-Quirós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del ajo (Allium sativum L. en Costa Rica se podría convertir en una alternativa rentable para la producción y diversificación de los agricultores de hortalizas. Sin embargo, el tipo de reproducción vegetativa que presenta facilita la transmisión y diseminación de enfermedades, lo que provoca un debilitamiento progresivo de los bulbos. Actualmente, se buscan alternativas de manejo diferentes al control químico, para disminuir el impacto ecológico y ambiental de los patógenos que lo afectan. El control biológico es una de ellas, pero presenta dificultades para el aislamiento y la identificación certera de patógenos asociados a pudriciones que se dan en el suelo. Por lo anterior, el objetivo general de esta investigación consistió en aislar e identificar a nivel de especie cepas de Pseudomonas marginalis, Penicillium sp. y Sclerotium cepivorum a partir de material vegetativo de ajo en campo, para su utilización en futuros trabajos de control biológico de estas enfermedades. La metodología seguida permitió aislar e identificar con un alto porcentaje de certeza a P. marginalis, así como obtener cultivos monospóricos de Penicillium sp. y cultivos puros de S. cepivorum. Las técnicas descritas constituyen la base para futuros trabajos relacionados con las fitopatologías en el cultivo del ajo.

  13. El Ajo

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    Carda Paredes Antonio

    1942-08-01

    Full Text Available El Ajo es del género ALLIUM, AJO, de la familia de las LILIACEAS. El ajo es una planta exótica, herbácea, anual, que fue traída de España junto con la cebolla, su congénere, en la época de la Colonia, y se aclimató muy bien en los climas fríos. El ajo es también planta bulbífera, y el bulbo llamado vulgarmente CABEZA está compuesto de varios bulbillos llamados DIENTES, cubiertos cada uno de una túnica muy delgada, seca y blanquecina. El olor del ajo es más fuerte y más difusible que el de la cebolla y basta que se le despoje de su cubierta o película que lo cubre para que este olor se deje sentir vivamente a alguna distancia. Examinado químicamente el ajo, contiene las siguientes sustancias: mucílago, azúcar, azufre, sales y un aceite volátil amarillo muy acre y de sabor muy fuerte. A este aceite se atribuyen las propiedades excitantes del bulbo. El aceite volátil del ajo se extrae por destilación de los bulbos frescos. Este acéite contiene azufre y es más pesado que el agua. El ajo no es alimenticio pero es un condimento indispensable en todas las preparaciones del arte culinario.

  14. Patogenicidad de cuatro aislamientos mexicanos Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. En tres cultivares de ajo (Allium sativum L.)

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    Jesús Ricardo Sánchez Pale; Emma Zavaleta Mejía; Gustavo Mora Aguilera; Luis Pérez Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Cuatro aislamientos de S. cepivorum obtenidos de cuatro regiones productoras de ajo en el Centro Norte de México (San Juan de Acozac, Pue., Calera de Rosales, Zac., Salamanca, Gto., y San Miguel de Allende, Gto.), fueron inoculados en los genotipos de ajo Chileno Santa Martha, Pocitas-0 y Pocitas 750-4. Hubo diferencias significativas en la intensidad y tasas de avance de la enfermedad, así como en la supervivencia del inóculo en el suelo y en su habilidad para macerar tejidos, indicando una ...

  15. Presencia de Virus en el Cultivo de Ajo (Allium sativum L.) en Zacatecas, México

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    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle; Yasmín Ileana Chew-Madinaveitia; Mario Domingo Amador-Ramírez; Manuel Reveles-Hernández

    2010-01-01

    El cultivo del ajo en Zacatecas, México se enfrenta a diversas enfermedades como las provocadas por virus. Acerca de este tipo de enfermedades existe poca información en el estado, consecuentemente, el objetivo del trabajo consistió en identificar los virus presentes en las parcelas comerciales o experimentales de ajo en Zacatecas. Durante los ciclos 2007 - 2008 y 2008 - 2009 se identificaron el Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV, virus del enanismo amarillo de la cebolla), Garlic common latent v...

  16. Establecimiento de plántulas in vitro de clones de ajo peruano (Allium sativum L.)

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    Leidy López Quintero; Hugo Escobar Velásquez; Madeleyne Parra Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó el establecimiento in vitro de dos clones de ajo peruano mediante el uso de procesos estandarizados de desinfección e introducción in vitro de meristemos de ajo de clones nacionales. Se validó el uso de hipocloritode calcio (1 g.L-1) e hipoclorito de sodio (0.1%) como desinfectantes, permitiendo la eliminación total de los microorganismos presentes en los explantes yuna viabilidad del 66.3 y 64.5% en los clones P-007A y P-007B. El establecimiento in vitro de las plántulas se realizó...

  17. Establecimiento de plántulas in vitro de clones de ajo peruano (Allium sativum L.

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    Leidy López Quintero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el establecimiento in vitro de dos clones de ajo peruano mediante el uso de procesos estandarizados de desinfección e introducción in vitro de meristemos de ajo de clones nacionales. Se validó el uso de hipocloritode calcio (1 g.L-1 e hipoclorito de sodio (0.1% como desinfectantes, permitiendo la eliminación total de los microorganismos presentes en los explantes yuna viabilidad del 66.3 y 64.5% en los clones P-007A y P-007B. El establecimiento in vitro de las plántulas se realizó en medio de cultivo MS con 0,5 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalen acético (ANA y 0,64 mg.L-1 de 2-Isopentil adenina(2ip, donde el clon P-007A desarrollo plántulas de 15mm con 2.52 hojas, mientras en el clon P-007B las plántulas tenían 13.6mm con 2.16 hojas. Las plántulas establecidas de ajo de los clones peruanos lograron los parámetros de desarrollo indicados para la etapa de establecimiento de la especie.

  18. Establecimiento de un protocolo in vitro para el cultivo del ajo (Allium sativum en Costa Rica

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    Jaime Brenes-Madríz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del ajo en Costa Rica tiende a desaparecer, debido a la importación de esta hortaliza desde China y Taiwán y a la pérdida de calidad y vigor de la semilla, lo que ha provocado una reducción del área de siembra en el país. Para la investigación que se presenta en este artículo se utilizaron ajos cultivados en la zona de Llano Grande, Cartago, que pertenecen a pequeños agricultores que siembran con semilla heredada de generación en generación. Se evaluaron cuatro desinfecciones con hipoclorito de sodio a diferentes concentraciones y tiempos de exposición, además de cuatro medios de cultivo M&S (1962, con diferentes reguladores de crecimiento. La mayor sobrevivencia para el establecimiento in vitro se obtuvo lavando los bulbillos con agua y jabón y pasándolos después a una solución de Zetaran® y Agri-mycim® 5 g/l de cada uno por 45 minutos. Luego se realizó una segunda desinfección con hipoclorito de sodio al 3,5% p/v por 20 minutos en una cámara de flujo laminar y se realizaron tres lavados con agua bidestilada estéril. El medio de cultivo que presentó los mejores resultados fue el Murashige y Skoog (1962, complementado con 1mg/L de 2-isopenteniladenina (2ip y 2,5 mg/L de ácido indolacético (AIA. La tasa de sobrevivencia de los explantes oscila alrededor del 28,7% y se obtuvo un promedio de 1,6 brotes por explante, lo que se considera una tasa de brotación muy baja.

  19. Experiencias de la asociación ajo Allium Sativum y verdura de hoja en la región semiárida pampeana

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    Lara, Gabriel; Urbano, Valeria; Anzorena, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    La región semiárida pampeana resulta un ambiente propicio para el cultivo de ajo, sin embargo los productores encuentran algunas desventajas que hace que sean reticentes a su plantación, se menciona el largo periodo de utilización del terreno; obtención de una única cosecha al final del ciclo; entre otros. Se experimentó el policultivo de Ajo Allium Sativum + Acelga Beta vulgaris var cicla y luego Ajo + Espinaca Spinacia oleracea, tanto en riego por surco como en riego por goteo. La experienc...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE DIFERENTES SUSTRATOS EN LA ACLIMATIZACIÓN DE VITROPLANTAS Y MICROBULBILLOS DE AJO (Allium sativum L.

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    H. Izquierdo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El ajo es una planta anual, que presenta la limitante que solo se reproduce de forma asexual, por lo que la aplicación de diferentes técnicas biotecnológicas y la posterior adaptación a las condiciones ambientales son de gran importancia para su cultivo en Cuba. Teniendo en cuenta lo antes expuesto, se desarrollóeste trabajo en el Instituto de Investigaciones Hortícolas "Liliana Dimitrova", con el objetivo de evaluar comparativamente el desarrollo de las vitroplantas y los microbulbillos de ajo en la fase de adaptación, determinar el sustrato más efectivo en el desarrollo de los microbulbillos en la fase de aclimatización y el efecto del genotipo frente a estos. Para el estudio se tomaron vitroplantas provenientes del tercer subcultivo de multiplicación y microbulbillos inducidos in vitro con 75 g.L-1 de sacarosa de los clones "Criollo-3", "Criollo-6", "Criollo-9", "Martínez" y "Vietnamita"; se plantaron en un sustrato compuesto por 50 % de cachaza y 50 % de suelo. Posteriormente, se plantaron los microbulbillos en diferentes sustratos y se evaluó en cada caso el porcentaje de supervivencia y enraizamiento, altura y número de hojas/planta. El diseño empleado fue de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas y los datos se procesaron mediante análisis de varianza de clasificación simple. Se obtuvo como resultado que los microbulbillos se adaptan mejor que las vitroplantas a las condiciones ambientales y alcanzan un porcentaje de supervivencia superior, y la combinación de zeolita (25 % y cachaza (75 % como sustrato fue donde las plantas provenientes de los microbulbillos obtuvieron mayor supervivencia y enraizamiento en los cinco genotipos de ajo.

  1. 'VIETNAMITA', UN CLON DE AJO (Allium sativum L. DE ALTA CALIDAD FITOSANITARIA Y BUEN POTENCIAL DE RENDIMIENTO

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    H. Izquierdo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se inició con una prospección a los mejores productores de ajo de La Habana, donde se seleccionaron diferentes genotipos por su rendimiento. Se presentan las principales características del clón 'Vietnamita', que se introdujo en Cuba en la década del 80, se saneó y rejuveneció mediante la técnica de cultivo de tejidos. Mostró un buen comportamiento ante las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan al cultivo y buena calidad de la semilla así como un elevado potencial de rendimiento.

  2. Low Genetic Diversity Among Garlic (Allium sativum L. Accessions Detected Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Escasa Diversidad Genética entre Accesiones de Ajo (Allium sativum L. Detectada Mediante ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD

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    Mario Paredes C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a species of vegetative propagation, showing high morphological diversity. Besides, its clones have specific adaptations to different agroclimatic regions. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 65 garlic clones collected in Chile and introduced from different countries, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Fourty random primers of 10 mers generated a total of 398 bands with an 87% of polymorphism. Each primer amplified between two and 20 bands. The size of the fragments obtained fluctuated between 3200 and 369 bp. The results showed that the clones analyzed had a genetic similarity rate of 94%. In addition, 70% of them were clustered in one major group. However, in spite of that situation several clones have different agronomic characteristicsEl ajo (Allium sativum L. es una especie de propagación vegetativa, que presenta una amplia variabilidad morfológica. Los clones de esta especie tienen una adaptación específica a diferentes regiones agroclimáticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diversidad genética existente en 65 clones de ajos colectados en Chile e introducidos desde diferentes países, utilizando RAPD (ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar. Para esta evaluación se utilizaron 40 partidores de 10-mers. Los partidores generaron entre dos y 20 bandas, observándose un alto número de patrones con bandas múltiples. Los fragmentos generados difieren en su tamaño entre 3.200 y 369 pb. Los partidores generaron 398 bandas, de las cuales un 87% fueron polimórficas. El análisis estadístico realizado detectó una similitud genética alta, de un 94% entre las accesiones evaluadas, donde aproximadamente un 70% de los clones formaron un grupo homogéneo. Sin embargo, este grupo incluye clones que presentan diferentes características agronómicas

  3. Detección del virus del enanismo amarillo de la cebolla (OYDV y el virus latente común del ajo (GCLV en ajo (Allium sativum L costarricense

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    Anny Vannesa Guillén Watson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades virales son responsables de pérdidas importantes en el rendimiento del cultivo de ajo alrededor del mundo, ya que limitan su producción. En esta investigación se analizó material de ajo costarricense para determinar la incidencia de los virus: Garlic Common Latent Virus (GCLV y Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV, mediante la técnica DAS-ELISA, con el fin de conocer el estado fitosanitario del material criollo. Se utilizaron bulbos de campo de apariencia normal (N, normales con túnica amarilla (TA y con deformaciones (D; y hojas de campo normales (N, sintomáticas (S y con presencia de posibles vectores  virales (VT. Se analizaron vitroplantas producto de la introducción de ápices de 1,0 y 0,5cm de longitud procedentes de dientes normales (N y con túnica amarilla (TA; así como dos lotes de bulbillos obtenidos in vitro de introducciones de ápices de 1,0cm de largo a partir de bulbos de apariencia normal. Se encontró que el 33% de los bulbos de campo analizados para GCLV fueron positivos (TA, mientras que OYDV se detectó en el 100%, sin importar la apariencia. El 100% de las hojas fue positivo para GCLV, y para OYDV soloaquellas de apariencia normal (33%. El 100% de las vitroplantas no presentaron infección de GCLV, mientras que para OYDV solo las introducidas de ápices de 1,0cm provenientes de bulbos con túnica amarillenta no mostraron incidencia. Se determinó GCLV en el 100% de lasmuestras para ambos lotes de bulbificación in Vitro, y OYDV solo en el 50%. Se concluye que los virus OYDV y GCLV están presentes en el ajo costarricense y se detectaron mediante la técnica DASELISA, con una alta incidencia en el material local y con infección diferencial según el órgano analizado. Se recomienda combinar diversas metodologías junto con el cultivo de ápices in vitro, para obtener mayor eficacia en la limpieza viral, lo que contribuiría a incrementar el valor y potenciar el cultivo de la semilla local.

  4. Estudio de los genes allinasa y quitinasa en el ajo costarricense (Allium sativum L. Study of the genes alliinase and chitinase in materials of costarican garlic (Allium sativum L

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    Karina Barboza Rojas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del ajo en Costa Rica se ha visto afectado por la calidad y cantidad de semillas almacenadas. La producción de los bulbos también se ve deteriorada por las enfermedades. Sin embargo, este cultivo es apetecido por su sabor, considerado superior al del ajo importado de China. La pungencia del ajo está dada en parte por la acción de la enzima allinasa. Además, la resistencia a ciertos hongos patógenos está influenciada por la actividad de la enzima quitinasa. En el presente estudio se analizaron los genes que codifican para ambas enzimas, utilizando plántulas in vitro obtenidas a partir de materiales de las zonas de Llano Grande, Santa Ana, Miramar, San Ramón y de ajo importado de China. Se compararon y estudiaron las secuencias de ADN utilizando estos genes, con el fin de encontrar diferencias que permitieran la caracterización de distintos materiales. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron la presencia de distintas copias del gen allinasa. El gen de la quitinasa presentó una secuencia muy conservada en todos los materiales analizados. Se encontraron dos intrones altamente conservados en el germoplasma costarricense y el material de referencia asiático. Se concluyó que el ajo costarricense es muy similar al asiático. Y se presenta el primer informe de la existencia de intrones en la quitinasa del ajo.Garlic production in Costa Rica has been affected by the quality and quantity of the harvested seeds. Bulb production has also been deteriorated by diseases. However, this crop is preferred for its flavor, considered superior to the one imported from China. Pungency of garlic is partially due to the action of the alliinase enzyme. Furthermore, the resistance to certain pathogenic fungi is influenced by the chitinase enzyme activity. The encoding genes for both enzymes were analyzed in this study, by using in vitro plantlets obtained from local materials from Llano Grande, Santa Ana, Miramar and San Ramon zones and garlic imported

  5. Detección molecular de potyvirus en hojas y minibulbillos de ajo, Allium sativum, asociados a un programa de producción de semilla limpia

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Hernandez Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L), reproduces vegetatively using bulbils, condition that favors the spread of diseases, especially bacteria, fungi and viruses, which affect the quality and crop yield. For this reason, the molecular identification by RT-PCR of potyvirus: LYSV and OYDV in the production system of clean seed garlic of three national clones were implemented. In the production phase of clean seed was establishing garlic meristems micropropagation. Potyvirus presence in 586 seedlings was a...

  6. Detección molecular de potyvirus en hojas y minibulbillos de ajo, Allium sativum, asociados a un programa de producción de semilla limpia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernandez Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L, reproduces vegetatively using bulbils, condition that favors the spread of diseases, especially bacteria, fungi and viruses, which affect the quality and crop yield. For this reason, the molecular identification by RT-PCR of potyvirus: LYSV and OYDV in the production system of clean seed garlic of three national clones were implemented. In the production phase of clean seed was establishing garlic meristems micropropagation. Potyvirus presence in 586 seedlings was analyzed by ELISA and for RT-PCR in 70. RNA was extracted from leaves and small bulbs, yielding 1.7 to 226 ng/µl, and with this RNA, between 35 to 50 ng of cDNA. The results showed that the disinfection protocol produced a 73.6% viability of plants. ELISA analysis showed 96% sanitation of seedling to potyvirus, whereas, Leek Yellow Strip Virus, LYSV was identified in 8.6% of samples used RT-PCR methodology. Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV was not detected in any sample. The results show that the in vitro culture of meristem of garlic, is an excellent alternative for seed production, showing a 92% efficiency. Moreover, efficient diagnostics of LYSV potyvirus was validated in leaves and small bulbs of garlic.

  7. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  8. Respuesta del ajo a un gradiente de humedad

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Mendoza Roncancio; Luis Alejandro Ramírez; Manuel Rincón

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo consistió en conocer la respuesta en el rendimiento del ajo (Allium Sativum L.) a diferentes niveles de humedad, utilizando para ello la metodología del riego por gradiente, con un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar. Con la aplicación de tratamientos de agotamiento de humedad en el suelo (stress) en tres etapas del ciclo vegetativo se estableció el período más crítico del cultivo al déficit de humedad.

  9. Respuesta del ajo a un gradiente de humedad

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    Germán Mendoza Roncancio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo consistió en conocer la respuesta en el rendimiento del ajo (Allium Sativum L. a diferentes niveles de humedad, utilizando para ello la metodología del riego por gradiente, con un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar. Con la aplicación de tratamientos de agotamiento de humedad en el suelo (stress en tres etapas del ciclo vegetativo se estableció el período más crítico del cultivo al déficit de humedad.

  10. Evaluación de rendimiento de compuestos de ajo tipo Taiwán

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Pérez Moreno; Martha Juana Navarro León; Briseida Mendoza Celedón; Rafael Ramírez Malagón

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el rendimiento y variables de calidad de compuestos de ajo (Allium sativum L.), durante el ciclo otoño-invierno 2008-2009, en San Luis de la Paz, Gto., México. Se emplearon compuestos de ajo del tipo Taiwán, con resultados variables de acuerdo a su genotipo. Entre los compuestos sobresalieron por su altura de planta, rendimiento de bulbo, mayor peso promedio de bulbo y menor número de dientes por bulbo los siguientes: el Compuesto 4 (El pato, bodegas, Salamanca, Gto.), el Compuesto ...

  11. VIRUS FITOPATÓGENOS EN INSECTOS ASOCIADOS AL AJO

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    Octavio Gustavo García-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La propagación vegetativa del ajo ( Allium sativum es la principal vía de transmisión de virus para este cultivo. No obs - tante, no se debe descartar la dispersión por insectos vectores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue detectar, mediante la prueba de ELISA, la presencia de virus en insectos colectados en plantas de ajo. El experimento se llevó a cabo durante el ciclo Otoño-Invierno 2008-2009. La toma de muestras de insectos se realizó en tres fechas después de la siembra. La identificación de las especies de insectos se realizó utilizando un estereomicroscopio Zeiss de 30X y claves taxonómicas. La detección de virus fue mediante la técnica de DAS-ELISA para los potyvirus Virus del rayado amarillo del puerro ( Leek yellow spot virus : LYSV y Virus del enanismo amarillo de la cebolla ( Onion yellow dwarf virus: OYDV; los carlavirus Virus latente común del ajo ( Garlic common latent virus : GCLV y Virus latente del chalote ( Shallot latent virus : SLV; y el tospovirus Virus del manchado amarillo del iris ( Iris yellow spot virus : IYSV. Se identificaron 19 especies de insectos, de los que destacaron Thrips tabaci Lindeman, como positivo en 18 muestras para GCLV y dos muestras para IYSV, y Collops quadrimaculatus , como positivo en una muestra para GCLV.

  12. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L.) y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll; Gloria Eugenia López P; Ricardo Torres Ch

    2008-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC), ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in wate...

  13. Manejo de la pudrición blanca (sclerotium cepivorum berk.) del ajo en Guanajuato, México

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Delgadillo Sánchez; Emma Zavaleta Mejía; Arturo Aguilar Laguna; Alfredo Arévalo Valenzuela; Irineo Torres Pacheco; Ramón Valdivia Alcalá; José Antonio Garzón Tiznado

    2004-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto de la aplicación separada o combinada del aceite sintético de ajo, la solarización y el uso del fungicida tebuconazole sobre la densidad de poblaciones naturales de esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum Berk., para reducir la incidencia de la pudrición blanca e incrementar el rendimiento del ajo (Allium sativum L.) cv. Probajío. La investigación se realizó en tres fases, en Cortazar, Guanajuato, México, durante el período de noviembre de 1995 a mayo de 1997; en la primera...

  14. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez; Sahily Rojas Pérez; Nilvia Norma Agüero Batista

    2016-01-01

    Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los ...

  15. Investigaciones actuales del empleo de Allium sativum en medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey María Sánchez Dominguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Desde tiempos ancestrales el ajo Allium sativum ha sido utilizado por sus propiedades medicinales, ampliamente conocidas. Posee múltiples efectos beneficiosos; tales como: antimicrobiano, hipolipidémico, antitrombótico, actividad antitumoral, antihipertensivo, entre otras. Los compuestos sulfurados presentes en el mismo, principalmente alicina y ajoene, constituyen los principios activos responsables de las actividades biológicas referidas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: Medline, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews y MedicLatina, para revisar el estado actual de las investigaciones del ajo en medicina. Existen evidencias científicas que avalan su uso, comprobando los efectos antes referidos. En los últimos años predominan artículos que se centran en el estudio de diferentes formulaciones del ajo: extracto añejo, extracto acuoso, aceite, ajo crudo. En algunas de las referencias consultadas se reconocen limitaciones metodológicas en estas investigaciones. Es consenso que las diferentes formulaciones elaboradas a partir el ajo deben utilizarse como tratamiento complementario.

  16. Determinación de Indice de Color en Ajo Picado Determination of Color Index in Minced Garlic

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    Lucía A Vignoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha determinado el índice de color como medida de la calidad del ajo picado. Para ello, se emplearon las cultivares Perla, Gostoso, Sureño, Morado, Castaño, Norteño, Nieve, Lican, Fuego y Unión. Los bulbos seleccionados, pelados y picados se envasaron en bolsas de poliamida coextrusada con polietileno de 80 micrones y se conservaron a 0±2°C y 85±5% de humedad relativa. Semanalmente, se digitalizaron las muestras mediante escáner calibrado para la identificación del valor medio de color por los sistemas RGB y Lab, con muestreo fue al azar. Se calculó el índice de color y diseñó la paleta de colores. Se realizó evaluación visual para determinar el fin de la vida útil, mediante panel semi entrenado (n=8 relacionando los resultados con el Indice de Color. Algunas variedades, como Unión y Nieve, presentaron una vida útil prolongada (90 días con un índice de color siempre inferior a 2, partiendo de valores poco mayores a 0.5. Otras cultivares, como Perla, Lican, Castaño y Morado, a los 22 días presentaron índice de color cercanos a 3. El índice de color de 2 coincidió con el límite de la vida útil visual. En base este, es posible desarrollar una cartilla de colores para el uso en la determinación de vida útil de ajo picado.The color index of minced garlic was determined as a measure of its quality. This study included observations on Perla, Gostoso, Sureño, Morado, Castaño, Norteño, Nieve, Lican, Fuego and Unión garlic varieties. Selected bulbs were peeled and minced, and packed in polyamide bags coextruded with 80 micron polyethylene. The samples were stored at 0±2°C and 85±5% of relative humidity. Samples were digitalized weekly using a scanner in order to identify the mean color value by RGB and Lab Systems on samples selected at random. A color index was calculated and a color guide was designed. A visual examination was carried out in order to determine the end of shelf life using a semi-trained panel (N=8

  17. Uso del aceite de ajo en la cicatrizacion de los tejidos blandos en una fractura expuesta contaminada en un canino.

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    Cocco R, MV; Bertone, Patricia, MV; Perotti,C, MV; Salvi, M, MV MSC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El ajo (Allium Sativum ha sido utilizado desde tiempos remotos como una especie culinaria y hierba medicinal. Ha sido cultivado en el Oriente Medio por más de 5.000 años, usándose principalmente, para curar las infecciones de la piel y ha sido parte importante de la Medicina Tradicional China (Jesse y col., 1997; Langer, 1998; De Hoyo, 1999; Allen, 2000; Foster, 2000.Además de ser un elemento esencial en muchas recetas, es uno de los remedios naturales de más estudio por parte de los investigadores. Se estudia con detenimiento lo que por décadas se decía del ajo, como sus características de ser un antiséptico, antihipertensivo, antibiótico y estimulante (Jesse y col. 1997; De Hoyo, 1999; Foster, 2000.

  18. Uso del aceite de ajo en la cicatrizacion de los tejidos blandos en una fractura expuesta contaminada en un canino.

    OpenAIRE

    Cocco R, MV; Bertone, Patricia, MV; Perotti,C, MV; Salvi, M, MV MSC

    2005-01-01

    El ajo (Allium Sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos remotos como una especie culinaria y hierba medicinal. Ha sido cultivado en el Oriente Medio por más de 5.000 años, usándose principalmente, para curar las infecciones de la piel y ha sido parte importante de la Medicina Tradicional China (Jesse y col., 1997; Langer, 1998; De Hoyo, 1999; Allen, 2000; Foster, 2000).Además de ser un elemento esencial en muchas recetas, es uno de los remedios naturales de más estudio por parte de los invest...

  19. Evaluación del antagonismo de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus subtilis contra tres patógenos del ajo

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Astorga-Quirós; Karla Meneses-Montero; Claudia Zúñiga-Vega; Jaime Brenes-Madriz; William Rivera-Méndez

    2014-01-01

    La producción y calidad del cultivo del ajo criollo (Allium sativum) se ven limitadas por diversas enfermedades de origen fungoso y bacterial, que llevan al productor a aplicar estrategias de control químico y en algunos casos abandonar la actividad por un incremento en las pérdidas. El control biológico es una estrategia útil para combatir este tipo de microorganismos. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar el antagonismo in vitro de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus subtilis contra...

  20. Comportamiento al impacto de gotas sobre hojas de repollo morado (brassica oleracea l. var. capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Pizarro, Ricardo; Skurtys, Olivier; Osorio Lira, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Debido a su importancia en varias aplicaciones industriales, el impacto de gotas sobre superficies sólidas ha sido bastante estudiado. Sin embargo, las investigaciones en impactos de gotas sobre superficies de vegetales son muy escasas. En este trabajo se determina el comportamiento del impacto de gotas en superficies de repollo morado y se evalúa la influencia de la viscosidad y la tensión superficial. El comportamiento frente al impacto de los fluidos evaluados sobre la superficie de repoll...

  1. Evaluación del antagonismo de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus subtilis contra tres patógenos del ajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Astorga-Quirós

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La producción y calidad del cultivo del ajo criollo (Allium sativum se ven limitadas por diversas enfermedades de origen fungoso y bacterial, que llevan al productor a aplicar estrategias de control químico y en algunos casos abandonar la actividad por un incremento en las pérdidas. El control biológico es una estrategia útil para combatir este tipo de microorganismos. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar el antagonismo in vitro de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus subtilis contra tres de los principales patógenos del ajo: Sclerotium cepivorum, Penicillium sp. y Pseudomonas marginalis. Las especies mencionadas se aislaron e identificaron con pruebas bioquímicas y claves taxonómicas respectivamente y se determinó su actividad antagónica y efecto inhibitorio utilizando el crecimiento en platos duales. La cepa de B. subtilis mostró un potencial con valores bajos de PICR: 14,087 ante S. cepivorum y 3,328 ante Penicillium sp., por lo que se clasifica como un mal biocontrolador. Por su parte, Trichoderma presentó un potencial muy alto, con valores de PICR de 40,210 frente a S. cepivorum y de 45,034 ante Penicillium sp., lo que indica que es un muy buen controlador. Los resultados apoyan el potencial de las cepas de Trichoderma sp. como agentes de control biológico frente a la pudrición causada por Penicillium del ajo, la bacteriosis por P. marginalis y la pudrición blanca por S. cepivorum. No así Bacillus subtilis, pues la cepa aislada demostró poco potencial como biocontrolador.

  2. Ajo-oikeuspäätökset Pirkanmaan poliisilaitoksessa

    OpenAIRE

    Välimäki, Marita

    2009-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoitus on antaa selkeä kuva poliisin ajo-oikeuspäätösten valmistelusta, itse päätöksenteosta ja siihen vaikuttavista laeista, ohjeista ja käytännöistä. Pirkanmaan poliisilaitos aloitti toimintansa 1.1.2009. Sitä ennen ajo-oikeuskäsittelyjä käsitteli Ikaalisten ja Valkeakosken kihlakunnan poliisilaitoksessa poliisipäällikkö, Tampereella ja Vammalassa ylikonstaapeli, Kangasalan ja Mäntän kihlakunnissa komisario, Nokialla ylikonstaapeli ja komisario. Uudessa organisaat...

  3. Estudio in vitro de la viabilidad de células Caco-2 en presencia de componentes del aceite esencial de Allium spp

    OpenAIRE

    M. Llana Ruiz-Cabello; Puerto, M.; D. Gutiérrez-Praena; S. Pichardo; Jos, A.; Cameán, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    El aceite esencial de los componentes del género Allium, principalmente ajo y cebolla, presenta propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas debidas a la presencia de compuestos azufrados en su composición. La industria alimentaria ha comenzado a desarrollar nuevos sistemas de envasado activo a partir de polímeros seleccionados, a los que se incorporan aceites esenciales que, por sus propiedades, contribuyen a aumentar la vida útil de los alimentos perecederos. En este sentido, se hace necesar...

  4. El cultivo del ajo en la provincia de Zamora

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Martín, Mauro M.

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo estudia la situación actual del cultivo del ajo en la provincia de Zamora. [EN] This paper examines the current status of garlic cultivation in the province of Zamora. Proyecto Fin de Carrera-Universidad de Salamanca, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Zamora, 2011

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE RENDIMIENTO Y NITRATOS EN AJO cv. NIEVE INTA CON RIEGO POR GOTEO Evaluation of sap nitrate and yield on garlic cv. ‘Nieve INTA’ under drip irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Gaviola; Víctor M. Lipinski

    2004-01-01

    Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: evaluar la relación entre los contenidos de nitratos en el jugo foliar (JF) de las hojas de ajo (Allium sativum L.) blanco cv. Nieve INTA, medido con un electrodo específico portátil y la densidad de plantación y fertirrigación nitrogenada; y establecer, en diferentes fechas de muestreos, los umbrales de concentración de nitratos que se relacionen con los máximos rendimientos. El ensayo fue conducido sobre un suelo franco arenoso (Tipic Torrifluvent) en Mendo...

  6. Short communication. Employment of molecular markers to develop tetraploid “supermale” asparagus from andromonoecious plants of the landrace ‘Morado de Huétor’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose J. Regalado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the development of new “supermale” genotypes retaining the highest genetic diversity possible of the tetraploid asparagus landrace ‘Morado de Huétor’. The elite andromonoecious male HT664 of the ‘Morado de Huétor’ asparagus landrace and the andromonoecious hybrid male HC027, obtained by crossing between this landrace and a commercial cultivar of Asparagus officinalis, were selected for self-pollination to produce possible “supermales” with genes of ‘Morado de Huétor’ (SMHT. To confirm the hybrid nature of HC027, we characterized this genotype with EST-SSR (Expressed Sequence Tag-derived Simple Sequence Repeats markers. We also adopted the sex-linked marker Asp1-T7 for sex determination in ‘Morado de Huétor’ and the resulting hybrids between this landrace and other commercial cultivars. Asp1-T7 marker was used for the selection and genotyping of SMHT. “All-male” cultivars with a different genetic background can be generated by crossing females with these new “supermale” genotypes, and the agronomical traits of these new cultivars would be very different from the “all-male” cultivars currently available in the market, making them extremely interesting for asparagus breeding programs.

  7. Geochemical features of the Cretaceous alkaline volcanics in the area of Morado hill, Jachal town, San Juan, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the alkaline volcanic rocks that crop out at the Morado hill located in the southern end of the Mogna ranges, which are part of the Eastern border of the pre mountain in the San Juan province, Argentina.The petrography and geochemistry study of the alkaline volcanics has allowed to classify them as tephrite basanite or basanite nephelinite, with strong alkaline chemical affinity, showing a characteristic composition of within plate geochemistry environment. The radimetric analysis, K-Ar data, has shown an average 90 ∓ 8 m.y. age for this rocks, (Cingolani et al. 1984) pointing out the Upper Cretaceous (lower section) stratigraphical position for the suite. The discussion of the results makes conspicuous the relationships of these alkaline rocks with others of the central and northwestern regions of the country that allowed to establish an alkaline petrographic province

  8. Evaluación de extractos de ocho especies vegetales en el control de mildeo velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk) en cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Enrique Cubides-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Extractos de ocho especies vegetales: eucalipto (Eucalytus globulus), cola de caballo (Equisetum bogotense), ortiga (Urtica urens), manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla), caléndula (Calendula officinalis), yerbabuena (Menta viridis), ajo (Allium sativum) y clavo (Syzygum aromaticum), preparados por el método de decocción (100 g/l), fueron evaluados en cuanto a su eficiencia en el control de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repetic...

  9. Enfermedades y fisiopatías que afectan a la calidad del ajo en postcosecha

    OpenAIRE

    Galvez Patón, Laura; García-Díaz, M.; Castillo, P.; Palmero Llamas, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Las enfermedades y fisiopatías que afectan al ajo pueden llegar a ocasionar importantes pérdidas en postcosecha, de vital importancia cuando el producto se destina a la exportación a mercados que cada día son más exigentes. En 2008, distintos agricultores de varios municipios de Castilla y León detectaron bulbos de ajo que presentaban sínt...

  10. Conservation of Allium germplasm collection by cryopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Zámečník, Jiří; Grospietsch, Martin; Kotková, Renata; Faltus, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Allium is important crop in the Czech Republic. Allium sativum L. germplasm is maintained in the field collection and this fact increases risk of accidental lost of genotype. Conservation of Allium sativum L. germplasm by means cryopreservation decreases risks of genotype lost. Allium sativum L. samples are stored at ultralow temperature that stopped all biochemical processes and the samples are stored without any changes for many years. This methodology describes procedure of material prepar...

  11. Efecto del sistema de riego y tensión de humedad del suelo en rendimiento y calidad del ajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Barrios-D\\u00EDaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el rendimiento y la calidad comercial del bulbo de ajo (Allium sativum L., se realizó un experimento durante el ciclo otoño-invierno de 2000-2001 y 2001-2002. La variedad Tacátzcuaro, tipo Taiwán, se sembró y se sometió a cuatro tratamientos de tensión de humedad del suelo (THS en riego por goteo superficial y uno más de riego por surcos con intervalo entre riegos de dos semanas. Se utilizaron tensiómetros instalados a 0.15 y 0.3 m de profundidad y los valores de la THS en cada tratamiento de riego por goteo en los dos ciclos de cultivo fueron: 5 a 10, 10 a 20, 20 a 30 y 25 a 50 kPa. El rendimiento total obtenido en estos tratamientos fue 26.9, 33.5, 35.9 y 37.3 t ha-1 en el ciclo 2000-2001 y 29.1, 38.9, 39.0 y 41.9 t ha-1 en el ciclo 2001-2002. El rendimiento en riego por surcos fue 28.7 y 32.9 t ha-1, respectivamente, en cada ciclo. El ahorro de agua de los tratamientos con riego por goteo varió entre 28 y 49% con respecto al volumen de agua aplicada en riego por surcos. Considerando el rendimiento promedio de ambos ciclos se muestra que mediante el riego por goteo se obtienen bulbos de mayor calidad que con riego por surcos. El rendimiento de los calibres de bulbo 70 mm (Super colosal fue 4.0 t ha-1 en riego por goteo y 0.9 t ha-1 en riego por surcos.

  12. "CEZAC 06": NUEVA VARIEDAD DE AJO TIPO JASPEADO PARA LA REGIÓN NORTE CENTRO DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Reveles-Hernández; Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle; María Dolores Alvarado Nava; Salvador Rubio-Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Alrededor de 5 200 hectáreas de ajo son cultivadas en México donde la región norte centro, es una de las principales áreas productoras de esta hortaliza. La falta de variedades de ajo localmente adaptadas es una seria desventaja para los productores de ajo. En este reporte se mencionan las principales características agronómicas de CEZAC 06 , una nueva variedad de ajo disponible para los productores de los estados de Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Durango, Chihuahua y Coahuila. Las principales v...

  13. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  14. Actividad antihipertensiva y antioxidante del extracto hidroalcohólico atomizado de Maíz morado (Zea mays L) en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Arroyo; Ernesto Raez; Miguel Rodríguez; Víctor Chumpitaz; Jonny Burga; Walter De la Cruz; José Valencia

    2008-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar la actividad antihipertensiva y antioxidante del extracto hidroalcohólico atomizado de Zea mays L. (maíz morado) en ratas con hipertensión arterial inducida. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó cinco grupos de seis ratas Holtzmann cada uno, uno sin hipertensión (control negativo) y cuatro con hipertensión inducida por L-NAME: control positivo y tres grupos para las dosis de 250, 500 y 1000 mg/kg, respectivamente. El tratamiento se realizó por vía oral una vez por día durant...

  15. Caracterización óptica y estructural de nanopartículas de Allium sativum L. impregnadas en lomo de bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johana Figueroa-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron las características ópticas y estructurales de nanopartículas de polvo de ajo (Allium sativum L., obtenidas por reducción y selección de tamaño, para comparación con muestras de polvo de ajo comercial. El tamaño de partícula se determinó empleando microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM y las caracterizaciones óptica y estructural se realizaron, respectivamente, por espectroscopia infrarroja transformada de Fourier (FTIR y difracción de rayos X (DRX. Para determinar el efecto de las nanopartículas de polvo de ajo cuando fueron aplicadas sobre trozos de lomo (Longissimus dorsi de bovino se utilizó la técnica de fluorescencia. Los tamaños de las partículas del polvo sometido a reducción y selección de tamaño presentaron valores entre 50 y 100 nm y las de polvo de ajo normal entre 400 y 500 nm. En los espectros de FTIR se observaron los principales grupos funcionales y los difractogramas de rayos X permitieron concluir que se trata de materiales amorfos. Por su tamaño más reducido, las nanopartículas migran más rápido al interior del músculo del bovino que las micropartículas, lo que permite una mejor absorción y aprovechamiento de sus componentes y se constituye en un resultado innovador en el campo de la ciencia de los alimentos.

  16. Identificación de especies de Fusarium en semilla de ajo en Aguascualientes, México

    OpenAIRE

    Yisa Maria Ochoa Fuentes; Ernesto Cerna Chávez; Gabriel Gallegos Morales; Jeronimo Landeros Flores; Juan Carlos Delgado Ortiz; Sandra Hernández Camacho; Raúl Rodríguez Guerra; Victor Olalde Portugal

    2012-01-01

    El ajo en México es uno de los cultivos más rentables y presenta una serie de problemas fitosanitarios entre los que destacan los ocasionados por hongos. El género Fusarium, ha mostrado mayor presencia durante los últimos ocho años, y se le ha asociado con la nueva sintomatología en los cultivares de ajo de la región de Aguascalientes y Zacatecas, denominada pudrición basal. Dada la importancia de esta enfermedad en la zona productora de ajo, se planteó identificar morfológica y molecularment...

  17. The Ajo Mining District, Pima County, Arizona--Evidence for Middle Cenozoic Detachment Faulting, Plutonism, Volcanism, and Hydrothermal Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Force, Eric R.; Wilkinson, William H.; More, Syver W.; Rivera, John S.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Ajo porphyry copper deposit and surrounding Upper Cretaceous rocks have been separated from their plutonic source and rotated by detachment faulting. Overlying middle Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been tilted and show evidence for two periods of rotation. Following these rotations, a granitic stock (23.7?0.2 Ma) intruded basement rocks west of the Ajo deposit. This stock was uplifted 2.5 km to expose deep-seated Na-Ca alteration.

  18. Tingkat Pengetahuan dan Sikap Suami tentang Vasektomi di Desa Batu Ajo Kecamatan Kota Pinang dan Kabupaten Labuhanbatu Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hardianti, Sri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Figuresmale participationin family planningin Indonesiais still low. That's because the husband's knowledge and attitudes about vasectomy still minus. Village Batu Ajo isone area that the low level of participation KB Vasectomy. Objective: to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes about vasectomy husband in the village of Batu ajo city district snut Labuhanbatu District 2015. Methodology: The study useda descriptivecross sectional approach. Number of samples 54 malec...

  19. Geology of the Sierra de los ajos (Laguna Merin basin, Rocha, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied area is located between Lascano city and Sierra de los Ajos hills (department of Rocha, East Uruguay). It is represented by volcanic deposits correspondent to Puerto Gomez and Arequita Formations which are exposed as remarkable and preserved hills in areas recovered by Cenozoic sediments and wetlands. Detailed geological mapping allowed the descriptive characterization of eight volcanic facies: five coherent facies and three volcaniclastic facies. Several structural lineaments located in a constrictive framework, according to the transcurrent system represented by the northeastern portion of the Santa Lucia - Aigua - Merin tectonic corridor (SaLAM), were identified. These lineaments (Bella Vista, India Muerta and Los Ajos) controlled the tecto-magmatic arrange in this portion of the basin, determining petrographic and structural differences in the area. Particularly, to the East of the India Muerta with structural trend No.20 felsic lavas correspondent to the Sierra de los Ajos and related volcaniclastic deposits are present. On the other hand to the West, intermediate to felsic lavas occurred and no volcaniclastic deposits have been yet identified

  20. Geology of the Sierra de los ajos (Laguna Merin basin, Rocha, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied area is located between Lascano city and Sierra de los Ajos hills (department of Rocha, East Uruguay). It is represented by volcanic deposits correspondent to Puerto Gómez and Arequita Formations which are exposed as remarkable and preserved hills in areas recovered by Cenozoic sediments and wetlands. Detailed geological mapping allowed the descriptive characterization of eight volcanic facies: five coherent facies and three volcaniclastic facies. Several structural lineaments located in a constrictive framework, according to the transcurrent system represented by the northeastern portion of the Santa Lucía - Aiguá - Merín tectonic corridor (SaLAM), were identified. These lineaments (Bella Vista, India Muerta and Los Ajos) controlled the tecto-magmatic arrange in this portion of the basin, determining petrographic and structural differences in the area. Particularly, to the East of the India Muerta with structural trend Nº20 felsic lavas corrrespondent to the Sierra de los Ajos and related volcaniclastic deposits are present. On the other hand to the West, intermediate to felsic lavas occurred and no volcaniclastic deposits have been yet identified

  1. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  2. Allium pyrenaicum Costa and Vayr. (Liliaceae en el Valle del Roncal (Pirineo Occidental, Navarra : Propuesta para su protección legal /

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorda López, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium pyrenaicum (Liliaceae se cita por primera vez para Navarra (Pirineo Occidental ; se trata de una planta endémica del Pirineo, con área disyunta en Cataluña, al Este, y en Aragón-Navarra, al Oeste. Además de los datos corológicos, en esta nota se estima el tamaño de la población y se comentan su hábitat, posibles riesgos y grado de protección. Tambien se aporta in mapa de distribución del taxón y fotografía de este ajo silvestre.

  3. Compounds Derived from Garlic as Bud Induction Agents in Organic Farming of Table Grape Compuestos Derivados de Ajo como Agentes Inductores de Brotación en Cultivo Orgánico de Uva de Mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema Vargas-Arispuro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is one of the most important economic activities in the Northwest of Mexico. A major obstacle for the economic production is the insufficient period of chilling temperatures. This problem leads to poor budbreak, which in turn results in reduced yields. This problem is aggravated when plants are cultivated using the organic farming system, mostly because there are not organically approved restbreaking agents. In this work different products derived from garlic (Allium sativum L. were obtained and evaluated as stimulate budbreak agent of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Flame Seedless and Perlette. The isolated compounds were chemically identified and include allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, 3-vynil-[4H]-1,2-ditiin and 2-vynil-[3H]-1,3-ditiin, S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl thiosulfonate. Cuttings with six buds were used to evaluate the compounds. After compounds were applied, the cuttings were transferred to a growing chamber at 24 °C. All evaluated compounds promoted budbreak in the cuttings of Flame Seedless and Perlette. The volatile compounds from S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide promoted 100% of budbreak of both cultivars. The compounds from garlic that stimulated budbreak in grapevines in this work include sulphur in their molecule; therefore we propose that sulphur could play a key role in breaking bud dormancy of grape cultivars evaluated in this studyLa viticultura es una de las principales actividades económicas en el Noroeste de México. Entre los problemas que enfrenta esta actividad está el período de frío insuficiente, lo que lleva a una pobre brotación y consecuentemente una menor producción. Este problema se agrava cuando se cultivan plantas por el método orgánico, ya que no existen agentes inductores de brotación aprobados para uso orgánico. En este trabajo se aislaron diferentes compuestos derivados de ajo (Allium sativum L. que se evaluaron

  4. Complejos tecnológicos para cebolla, ajo, col, pepino, lechuga, zanahoria y remolacha

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Valdés Roque; Jesús Cárdenas Rubio

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conformar los complejos tecnológicos para cultivos varios (hortalizas menores: cebolla, ajo, col, pepino, lechuga, zanahoria y remolacha). Para la conformación de los mismos se realizó una revisión bibliográfica relacionada con las temáticas de mecanización, donde se obtuvieron los criterios y orientaciones fundamentales para la selección de los equipos componentes de los complejos tecnológicos, así como las características técnicas que deben tene...

  5. Informe de nuevas variedades. CRIOLLO-3, UN GENOTIPO DE AJO DE ELEVADA PRODUCTIVIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Izquierdo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se seleccionaron los genotipos de ajo de más altos rendimientos, a partir de una prospección que se realizó a los mejores productores del cultivo en la provincia La Habana. Se presentan las características principales del genotipo "Criollo-3", que fue saneado de los virus más importantes que afectan al cultivo en nuestro país y propagado in vitro. Este clon mostró un buen comportamiento agronómico a las plagas y enfermedades, un elevado rendimiento y buena calidad de la semilla.

  6. Prepovedana trgovina s snovmi, ki tanjšajo ozonski plašč

    OpenAIRE

    Dover, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi z naslovom Prepovedana trgovina s snovmi, ki tanjšajo ozonski plašč bi rad predstavil ilegalno trgovanje z nevarnimi odpadki (klorofluoroogljikovodiki, haloni), ki uničuje našo ozonsko plast in ki je eno izmed izhodišč na področju ekološke kriminalitete. Problem, ki sem ga med pripravo naloge zasledil, je še vedno prevelik obseg illegalnega trgovanja z ozonu škodljivimi snovmi, čeprav bi ta v zadnjih letih moral upadati. Velika nevarnost preži tudi na države v razvoju (odla...

  7. Structural reinterpretation of the Ajo mining district, Pima County, Arizona, based on paleomagnetic and geochronologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Ajo mining district of southern Arizona is divided into two main structural blocks by the Gibson Arroyo fault. The eastern Camelback Mountain block contains the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary porphyry copper deposit which has been previously thought to be associated with the displaced apex of a large intrusion exposed by deeper erosion in the western Cardigan Peak block. However, unpublished U-Pb data support a mid-Tertiary age for the western intrusion. The following sequence of mid-Tertiary events in the district are indicated: 1) emplacement of the western intrusion, 2) movement along the Gibson Arroyo fault, 3) unroofing and perhaps tilting of the pluton approx 70o to the south along with the Camelback Mountain block, 4) syntectonic depositions of the Locomotive Fanglomerate and the Ajo Volcanics, 5) continued uplift and tilting to the south totaling 40o to 60o, 6) intrusion of the youngest dikes with attendant alteration and remagnetization of the host rocks, and 7) minor (?) oblique movement along the Gibson Arroyo fault.-from Authors

  8. Fitoquímica y valor ecológico del olor a ajo en los vegetales

    OpenAIRE

    López Sáez, José Antonio; Pérez Soto, Josué

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo incluye una revisión sobre la biología, etnobotánica y la composición fitoquímica de aquellos vegetales que tienen olor a ajo, haciendo hincapié en los metabolitos secundarios que les dan el olor tan característico y lo que ello supone como estrategia adaptativa

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSICA Y COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE RAZAS DE MAÍZ DE GRANO AZUL/MORADO DE LAS REGIONES TROPICALES Y SUBTROPICALES DE OAXACA

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Aragón Cuevas; Carmen Ybarra Moncada; Jessica Aguilar Villarreal; Bernabé Altunar López; Yolanda Salinas Moreno; Eliseo Sosa Montes

    2013-01-01

    En este estudio se caracterizó física y químicamente el grano de 61 colectas de maíz ( Zea mays L.) azul/morado asociadas a 10 razas procedentes de regiones tropicales y subtropicales del Estado de Oaxaca, México. Las variables físicas fueron: humedad, peso hectolítrico (PH), peso de cien granos (PCG), color, dureza (índice de flotación, IF) y porcentajes relativos de pedicelo, pericarpio y germen. Las químicas fueron proteína, aceite y contenido de antocianinas totales (CAT). Se util...

  10. Reducción del colesterol y aumento de la capacidad antioxidante por el consumo crónico de maíz morado (Zea mays L) en ratas hipercolesterolémicas

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Arroyo; Ernesto Raez; Miguel Rodríguez; Víctor Chumpitaz; Jonny Burga; Walter De la Cruz; José Valencia

    2007-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la actividad hipocolesterolémica y antioxidante del consumo crónico del extracto hidroalcohólico atomizado del maíz morado (Zea mays L) en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron cinco grupos de seis ratas Holtzmann cada uno, uno sin hipercolesterolemia (control negativo), y cuatro con hipercolesterolemia inducida por consumo de colesterol puro vía oral durante 60 días: control positivo y tres para las dosis de 250, 500 y 1000 mg/kg, respectivame...

  11. 'MARTÍNEZ', UN CLON DE AJO (Allium sativum L. CON BUEN COMPORTAMIENTO ANTE LAS ENFERMEDADES Y ALTO POTENCIAL DE RENDIMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Izquierdo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las principales características del clon 'Martínez', saneado y rejuvenecido mediante la técnica de cultivo de meristemos. Este clon mostró un buen comportamiento ante las principales plagas y enfermedades que afectan a este cultivo y la calidad de la semilla, así como un elevado potencial de rendimiento.

  12. Evaluación preliminar de actividad insecticida de lectina ASA II a partir de ajo (Allium sativum), sobre Tecia solanivora

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño Rondón, Nury Lysseth

    2013-01-01

    La polilla guatemalteca de la papa Tecia solanivora es considerada como uno de los principales insectos que ataca el cultivo de papa, causando daños a los tubérculos tanto en campo como en almacenamiento, existen reportes en Colombia que mencionan pérdidas cercanas al 25% en cultivo y hasta el 100% en almacenamiento. El uso de plaguicidas químicos es generalmente la única forma de control del insecto, sin embargo el uso de plaguicidas puede ocasionar efectos tóxicos sobre el cultivo y sobre e...

  13. Pharmaceutical and chemical analysis of the components carrying the antiplatelet activity of extracts from allium ursinum and allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Sabha, Dina Talat Tawfiq

    2012-01-01

    Allium sativum has a long tradition in medicine. While much is known about its potential healthy effects, nearly nothing is known about wild garlic (allium sativum, ramson), which is very common in the area of Leipzig and has been used as a herbal remedy since centuries. The goal of the present study was to assess a potential anti-platelet activity of these two allium species and to try to identify the chemical active principle. For that purpose various extracts (hydrophilic and lipophil...

  14. Mutagénesis inducida en microbulbos de Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pardo Roldán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un protocolo de mutagénesis en microbulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. clon Boconó cultivado in vitro. Para el efecto se realizaron dos ensayos, uno de radiosensibilidad para establecer la dosimetría apropiada de radiación gamma y otro de mutagénesis para determinar el comportamiento de los materiales hasta la etapa de almacenamiento. En el primero los microbulbos fueron tratados con cuatros dosis de radiación gamma (6, 8, 10 y 12 Krad, más un control. Para establecer la dosis óptima se consideró la sobrevivencia del 50% de los microbulbos (DL50. Se empleó un diseño de bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En el ensayo mutagénico los microbulbos fueron irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad y almacenados durante 45 días a 10 °C en condiciones de oscuridad En este caso se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres tratamientos (0, 8 y 10 Krad y 20 repeticiones por tratamiento. En ambos ensayos, los microbulbos irradiados con 8 y 10 Krad registraron los mayores promedios para peso y diámetro, lo cual permite concluir que estas dosis son adecuadas para favorecer la producción de mutantes con características agronómicas deseables en el clon Boconó

  15. Two Novel Alliin Lyase (Alliinase Genes from Twisted-Leaf Garlic (Allium obliquum and Mountain Garlic (Allium senescens var. montanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DRUGĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliinase (Alliin lyase EC 4.4.1.4, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent lyase, represents one of the major protein components of Allium species. The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein and catalyzes the synthesis of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a biologically active compound, pyruvate, and ammonia starting from the specific non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid alliin ((+S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Using newly developed specific primers two new alliinase genes from Allium obliquum and Allium senescens ssp. montanum were amplified and sequenced, as well as their homologs, from Allium fistulosum and Allium schoeonoprasum. The G+C content of the alliinase region ranges between that of other dicot plants and that reported in monocot cereal plants, in all four species. Investigations of gene expression revealed a significantly higher enzyme expression level in bulbs than in leaves in all four taxa. The deduced alliinase sequences displayed a high variability among different species, since the lowest sequence similarity was found to be 55.5% between Allium senescens var. montanum and Allium cepa, while the highest similarity is 77.5%, between Allium senescens var. montanum and Allium fistulosum. Leucine is the most common amino acid in all four alliinases, while cysteine is also more frequent that in other enzymes, suggesting a high stability of the molecules due to the possible disulfide bonds.

  16. Alkolukolla valvottu ajo-oikeus: Case: Hyvinkään käräjäoikeus

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Aino

    2010-01-01

    Alkoholi on liikenteen suurimpia vaaratekijöitä; rattijuoppo on osallisena joka viidennessä liikennekuolemassa. Näin ollen kuljettajien päihteiden käyttöä pyritään vähentämään monin keinoin. Yksi näistä keinoista on alkolukolla valvottu ajo-oikeus, jota koskeva laki astui voimaan 1.7.2008. Tätä edelsi kolmivuotinen alkolukkokokeilu. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä kattava ohjeistus alkolukolla valvotusta ajo-oikeudesta Hyvinkään käräjäoikeuden asiakkaille sekä henkilökunnalle. Ratt...

  17. Estudio in vitro de la viabilidad de células Caco-2 en presencia de componentes del aceite esencial de Allium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llana Ruiz-Cabello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite esencial de los componentes del género Allium, principalmente ajo y cebolla, presenta propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas debidas a la presencia de compuestos azufrados en su composición. La industria alimentaria ha comenzado a desarrollar nuevos sistemas de envasado activo a partir de polímeros seleccionados, a los que se incorporan aceites esenciales que, por sus propiedades, contribuyen a aumentar la vida útil de los alimentos perecederos. En este sentido, se hace necesario evaluar la seguridad asociada al uso de estas sustancias en envases alimentarios que van a estar en contacto con el consumidor a través del alimento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la citotoxicidad producida por dipropil sulfuro y dipropil disulfuro, dos de los componentes del aceite esencial de ajo y cebolla, en la línea celular Caco-2, células humanas procedentes de carcinoma de colon. Los biomarcadores ensayados fueron el contenido total de proteínas, la captación de rojo neutro y la reducción de la sal de tetrazolio (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il-5-(3-carboximetoxifenil-2-(4sulfofenil-2H-tetrazolio. Las células fueron expuestas durante 2, 4 y 8 h a concentraciones comprendidas entre 0 y 200 µM. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias significativas frente al control para ninguno de los tres marcadores, lo que demuestra que bajo las condiciones de los ensayos ambos compuestos azufrados no son citotóxicos para esta línea celular gastrointestinal y podrían ser útiles en la industria alimentaria para desarrollar envases activos.

  18. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lata S; Saxena K; Bhasin V; Saxena R; Kumar A; Srivastava V

    1991-01-01

    Oral administration of petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and ethylacetate extract of Commiphora mukul in albino rats significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level, caused by atherogenic diet. All the three agents were also found to confer significant protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on the meristematic activity of garlic (Allium sativum L. ) bulbs; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la actividad meristematica de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Aparicio, C.

    1979-07-01

    The effect of 10 krad of gamma radiation on the sprouting and mieristematic activity of garlic bulbs is studied. Results show that the Irradiation inhibits the meristematic activity of the bulbs independently of the epoch of treatment. When the treatment is applied several months after harvest (five or more), some apparent sprouting could be detected. This is due to a cellular elongation process rather than to cellular divisions. (Author) 47 refs.

  20. Statistical parameters for resource evaluation of geochemical data from the Ajo 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Barton, Harlan N.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical data are presented from a regional geochemical study of the Ajo 1? X 2? quadrangle exclusive of the Papago Indian Reservation, but including the extension of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument into the Lukeville 1? X 2? quadrangle. Frequency distribution data from the analysis of stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate samples for 31 elements have broad ranges and for most elements have maxima well above normal. Elemental associations derived from correlation and R-mode factor analysis related to regional lithologic variation and for some associations suggest mineral-resource potential.

  1. Efecto vasodilatador mediado por óxido nítrico del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L. (maíz morado) en anillos aórticos de rata Vasodilator effect mediated by nitric oxide of the Zea mays L (andean purple corn) hydroalcoholic extract in aortic rings of rat

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Moreno-Loaiza; Azael Paz-Aliaga

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta vasodilatadora e inhibidora de la vasoconstricción del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L. (maíz morado) y determinar si esta respuesta es mediada por óxido nítrico (NO). Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvo un extracto de las corontas de maíz morado maceradas durante ocho días en etanol al 70%, y posterior concentración del producto. Se trabajó con anillos aórticos de rata en cámara de órganos aislados, bañada con solución Krebs-Hensleit (K-H) y se registró la a...

  2. Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Capasso

    2013-01-01

    Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organ...

  3. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. ALAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult process due to severe inbreeding depression. Doubled haploid (DH techniques can be utilized to obtain fully homozygous Allium materials. In Alliums, gynogenesis is the major technique used to produce haploid and DH plants from unfertilized female gamets with reduced chromosome number. We are in the process of developing gynogenesis induction protocols for several edible Allium species. We showed that gynogenic embryos can be obtained from a wide range of Allium materials. About half of the gynogenic embryos continue to grow and become plantlets. In general, gynogenic plantlets are green, but some of them show chlorophyll abnomalities. Results obtained from flow cytometric analysis of nuclei isolated from gynogenic materials indicate that majority of the gynogenic Allium materials are haploid and DH plants. DH onion lines developed in our program are generally vigorous plants with high levels of fecundity. The seeds obtained from DH onions show high germination. Plants of DH onion lines grow uniformly and produce bulbs very uniform in size, shape, color and quality features. These DH lines are excellent inbreds to be used as male parents in the production of F1 hybrid onion lines. Success obtained in DH onion materials indicates that a similar approach can be applied in the breeding programs of other important Alliums.

  4. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. ALAN; A. KASKA; F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-01-01

    Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult proces...

  5. Efecto de la adición de ajo en la estabilidad y calidad sensorial de una pasta de aceituna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of garlic on the quality and stability of olive paste was evaluated. A control paste (Pc was prepared based on a Sevillana olive variety, the other was identical to Pc with 0.5g/100g of garlic (Pa. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory changes were monitored in both pastes at time zero and during storage up to 90 days at 4°C. Microbiological parameters remain within acceptable limits from the point of view of health. The addition of garlic to the olive paste leads to increased acidity (% lactic acid and a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in pH at 30 and 60 days of storage. The addition of garlic produces a lower increase in peroxide value after 90 days of storage. An instrumental color analysis indicates that Pa is brighter and has greater color intensity. Acceptability is similar between the pastes. The sensory quality indicates that Pa has better appearance, aroma, texture and flavor. Rancidity is less than perceived in Pa. The tastes sour, salty and bitter are lower in Pa. According to the results, the addition of garlic is recommended for olive paste and similar foods.

    Se evaluó el efecto de ajo en la calidad y estabilidad de una pasta de aceitunas. Se preparó una pasta control (Pc a base de aceitunas variedad Sevillana y otra idéntica con adición de ajo (Pa en concentración de 0.5g/100g. Se realizaron análisis microbiológicos, fisicoquímicos y sensoriales en ambas pastas al tiempo cero y durante el almacenamiento hasta los 90 días a 4°C. Los parámetros microbiológicos permanecen dentro de los límites aceptados desde el punto de vista sanitario. La adición de ajo a la pasta de aceitunas produce aumento de acidez, expresada como % ácido láctico, y disminución significativa (p < 0.05 de pH a los 30 y 60 días de almacenamiento. La adición de ajo produce menor aumento del índice de peróxido a los 90 días de almacenamiento. El análisis instrumental de color indica que Pa es más luminoso y m

  6. Regeneration and transformation by particle bombardment in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of experiments aiming at the genetic modification of leek ( Allium ampeloprasum L.). Leek is a vegetable grown for its edible (false) stem and belongs to the Alliaceae, together with onion ( Allium cepa ) and garlic ( Allium sativum ). The production of leek

  7. Influence of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L. essential oils on the growth of some yeasts and moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from spices, as natural antimicrobial agents, attract particular attention due to their possible role in food protection from microorganisms, and their nontoxicity, in contrast to the synthetic preservatives. In this work, inhibitory effect of Allium ampeloprasum and two onions (Allium cepa, Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar, essential oils in different concentrations (1, 4, 7 and 10% on three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula sp. and three moulds (Aspergillus tamarii, Penicillium griseofulvum and Eurotium amstelodami was investigated. All three essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. cerevisiae in concentration of only 1%. Among onions, Kupusinski jabučar essential oil had stronger influence to C. tropicalis, while Allium ampeloprasum essential oil did not show any influence on this yeast. Rhodotorula sp. was influenced only by Allium ampeloprasum essential oil. The strongest inhibitory effect on A. tamarii showed Kupusinski jabučar (57% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%, while on P. griseofulvum, the strongest influence showed Allium ampeloprasum essential oil (78.3% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%. Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar essential oils, in concentrations of 7 and 10% respectively, completely inhibited the growth of E. amstelodami.

  8. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Allium ursinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena PÂRVU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate Allium ursinum leaves and flowers extract anti-inflammatory effect. Plant extract 1:1 (w:v was prepared from A. ursinum leaves by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation (i.m. 6 mL/kg BW. The animals were randomly assigned to nine groups (n=8: negative control, inflammation, A. ursinum flower extract (AUF, A. ursinum leaves extract (AUL, indomethacin (INDO (20 mg/kg BW, aminoguanidine (AG (50 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a selective NOS2 inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (NAME (5 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-arginine (ARG (100 mg/kg b.w./d i.p., NO synthesis substrate, and Trolox (20 mg/kg b.w./d i.p as an antioxidant. At 24h from inflammation induction total oxidative status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI, nitric oxide (NOx and in vitro phagocytosis test were reduced and the total antioxidative reactivity (TAR was increased by the testes plant extracts. AUF had a better inhibitory effect than AUL. In conclusion, we provided evidence for the hypothesis that A. ursinum leaves and flowers extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the phagocytosis through the reduction of the nitro-oxidative stress.

  10. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAGUNATHAN Irulappan; PANNEERSELVAM Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 μg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 μg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells.

  11. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  12. Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nagdy, Sohair A.; Abdel-Rahman, M. O.; Heiba, H. I. [حلمي اسماعيل هيبة

    1988-01-01

    Homogenized garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) was extracted successively with organic solvents and the prostaglandin-rich fraction separated. Fractionation of the extract with column chromatography was performed. TLC of the extract indicated that prostaglandin like materials could be present. GC analysis detected prostaglandins A2 and F1? in the extract. This conclusion was confirmed by enrichment procedures using GC. Wiley Online Library

  13. The Potential Impact of Genomics for Allium Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses and is a member of the family Alliaceae in the order Asparagales. The Asparagales are a monophyletic order sister to the Commelinanae, which carries the grasses, palms, and bananas. These two important groups of...

  14. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  15. Ajos-sagens betydning for rækkevidden af EU-konform fortolkning i forhold til det almindelige EU-retlige princip om forbud mod aldersdiskrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth; Tvarnø, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Den 19.4.2016 afsagde EU-Domstolens Store Afdeling dom i Ajos-sagen (C-441/14), hvor Højesteret havde forelagt spørgsmål om rækkevidden af det almindelige EU-retlige princip om forbud mod aldersdiskrimination i sager mellem private. I artiklen diskuteres rækkevidden af dommen for, hvornår EU...

  16. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Metwally

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ day. Three aspects of drug action were investigated, the effect on S. mansoni infection, the effect on liver functions, and on liver metabolism. The parasitological investigation included worm burden and ova count. Results: Serum biochemical analysis of infected mice revealed a significant increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT , ­ glutamyltransferase (GGT , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP, acid phosphatase (AP, while a decrease in glucose, total lipids total cholesterol, high - and low- density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL and LDL, triglycerides, total proteins and albumin was observed. Liver tissue analysis of infected animals showed a marked increase in L- hydroxyproline (HP concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO activity accompanied with a reduction in total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase and phosphofructokinase (PFK enzymatic activities. Treatment with either garlic or onion oils greatly normalized liver function enzymes and variably improved the other parameters with a noticeable reduction in worm burden and ova count. Conclusions: It could be concluded that garlic or onion may play a role against the metabolic disturbances caused by S. mansoni infection, owing to an effect which may be induced by improving the immunological host system and their antioxidant activities

  17. Uptake of cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc by hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L. ) and leak (Allium por-rum L. ) plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Lenikusová, Ivana; Kotyza, Jan; Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Tsinghua: Tsinghua University Press, 2007 - (Zhu, Y.; Lepp, N.; Naidu, R.), s. 435-436 ISBN 978-7-302-15627-7. [International Conference for the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (ICOBTE). Beijing (CN), 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME730 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Allium sp * uptake * eavy metal Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  18. Regeneration and transformation by particle bombardment in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schavemaker, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of experiments aiming at the genetic modification of leek ( Allium ampeloprasum L.). Leek is a vegetable grown for its edible (false) stem and belongs to the Alliaceae, together with onion ( Allium cepa ) and garlic ( Allium sativum ). The production of leek is mainly confined to Europe. In the last few years production has increased along with consumer demands. It is propagated through seeds and gives rise to heterogeneous progeny. Problems in cultiva...

  19. Studies on the Analgesic Potential of leaf Extracts of Allium humile on Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Singh; Raveesh Kumar Gangwar; Garima Singh; Vikash S. Jadon; Shashi Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Allium humile is a medicinal plant found at the Alpine Himalayas of Uttarakhand at altitute of 2500-3000 meters height of sea level. In India, Allium humile, is used by local people as a spice and in ethano-medicine. In the present study, Allium humile leaves were explored for their analgesic potential on experimental model and compared to standard drugs. Allium humile at the doses of 100 mg/kg and aspirin 25 mg/kg exhibited significant (p>0.05) inhibition of the control writhes at the rate o...

  20. Lava Flow Lengths and Historic Eruptive Parameters: Implications for the Volcanic History of the Batamote Mountains, Ajo, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Z. R.; Clarke, A.; Greeley, R.

    2006-12-01

    Lava flow lengths and morphology depend on (1) initial viscocity, (2) rate of effusion, (3) total volume of lava extruded, (4) duration of extrusion, (5) slope of underlying surface, (6) topography, (7) rate of cooling, (8) formation of crust, and (9) other special circumstances such as ponding and flowing into water. Lava flow lengths and assumptions on lava type contain all the information needed to make educated constraints on the eruptive history of a particular volcano. By no means is this a definitive claim of eruptive histories based on present day observations, but an approximation of what might have occurred may be obtained. Lava flow lengths were measured in the Batamote Mountains in Ajo, Arizona and it was determined that this 18 million year old shield volcano erupted with effusion rates of 5 to 10 cubic meters per second, volumes of 0.00001 cubic kilometers, eruption durations on the order of days, lava yield strengths of 5000 Pa, and flow thicknesses of approximately 3 to 6 meters. These calculations add to the body of knowledge covering Arizona historical volcanism and related Basin and Range extension, but conflict with observations of basaltic volcanic fields in this region.

  1. An Alluvial Surface Chronology Based on Cosmogenic 36Cl Dating, Ajo Mountains (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument), Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beiling; Phillips, Fred M.; Pohl, Molly M.; Sharma, Pankaj

    1996-01-01

    A chronology of alluvial surfaces on piedmont slopes below the western Ajo Mountains, southern Arizona, has been obtained using cosmogenic 36Cl accumulation and AMS radiocarbon dating. The apparent 36Cl ages of individual boulders range from 520,000 to 13,000 yr, and the 14C ages of organic material in the two young terraces are 2750-2350 and 17,800 cal yr B.P. The sequence of 36Cl ages is consistent with the apparent stratigraphic order, but groupings of similar ages for different surfaces appear to result from repeated reworking of older surfaces associated with the deposition of younger ones. The youngest surface gave a distribution of 36Cl ages about 30,000 yr older than the 14C and soil ages; however, this distribution had 36Cl ages that overlapped with 36Cl ages from active channels and hillslopes. We attribute the older-than-expected exposure ages of sampled boulders to inheritance of 36Cl while residing near the surface during very slow erosion on the mountain front. Our results show that although cosmogenic nuclide accumulation can help establish chronologies for surfaces in piedmont settings, care must be used in evaluating the effects of complex exposure histories.

  2. Phylogeny of Chinese Allium (Liliaceae) using PCR-RFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen representative species were selected from all the nine sections of Chinese Allium on the basis of the classification of morphology and cytotaxonomy. The trnK and rpL16 gene fragments of chloroplast DNA were amplified from 18 species by PCR method. The two cpDNA fragments were digested by 26 restriction enzymes, and 303 polymorphic restriction sites were found, of which 163 were informative. The restriction site data were analyzed with PAUP (version 3.1.1) and MEGA (version 1.01) as well as PHYLIP. As a result, the genus Allium could be classified into six subgenera. The recognition of Sect. Anguinum in the Flora of China is reasonable, Sect. Rhizirideum, Sect. Haplostemon and Sect. Cepa are not monophyletic. The infrageneric system of this genus was also discussed.

  3. Antioxidant Action and Therapeutic Efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Capasso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (L. is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic.

  4. Antioxidant activity of ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović Jelena D.; Mašković Pavle Z.; Pavlović Radoš M.; Radovanović Blaga C.; Aćamović-Đoković Gordana; Cvijović Milica S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L. Ethanolic (50%; v/v) extracts of edible leek parts (stem and leaf) were prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction, which was followed by evaluation of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Total phenols were determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging the stable free ...

  5. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Allium Ursinum in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F Fallahi; M. Roghani; M Khalilzad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Allium ursinum(AU) were investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus, invitro. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, AU-treated control, diabetic glibenclamide-treated, and AU-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozocin(STZ) was intraperitoneally administered(60 mg/Kg). AU-treated groups received AU mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 1% for 2 months. Serum glucose ...

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Parađiković; Tomislav Vinković; Ivna Štolfa; Monika Tkalec; Elizabeta Has-Schön; Iva Andračić; Lea Parađiković; Jasna Kraljičak

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L.), have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cult...

  7. Garlic (Allium sativum L.): A review of potential therapeutic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae), one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase), sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacter...

  8. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of Allium sativum bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Alka Mukne

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various b...

  9. Identification of Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Compounds from Allium gramineum Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Lasha Mskhiladze; David Chincharadze; Monique Tits; Jean-Noël Wauters; Akeila Bellahcène; Vincent Castronovo; Ange Mouithys-Mickalad; Thierry Franck; Michel Frédérich

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the in vitro anticancer, antiplasmodial and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic crude extract from the flowers of Allium gramineum growing in Georgia and of one flavonol and two steroidal glycosides which were isolated from this plant. The flowers were extracted with ethanol and this total extract was subjected to successive bioguided fractionations to provide glycosides 1-3. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectrometric data in co...

  10. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds: do they help prevent cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bianchini; Vainio, H.

    2001-01-01

    Allium vegetables have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases, including cancer. Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives have been reported to protect against stomach and colorectal cancers, although evidence for a protective effect against cancer at other sites, including the breast, is still insufficient. The protective effect appears to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds and mainly allyl derivatives, which inhibit carcinogenesis in the forestomach, esoph...

  11. Polyploid induction of Allium ascalonicum L. by colchicine

    OpenAIRE

    SUMINAH; SUTARNO; AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2002-01-01

    The low production rate of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) in Indonesia could be caused by rarely excellent cultivars. Colchicine was one of the mutation agents frequently used in plant breeding in order to get polyploidy of cultivars. The aim of this research was to find out the differentiation of morphometric evidences and ploidy of shallot chromosomes induced by colchicines 1%. Preparation was made by squash method and stained by acetocarmine. The results indicated that the amount, length ...

  12. Tolerance to heavymetals by hydroponically cultivated chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Makhmudova, M.; Barazani, O.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Golan-Goldhirsh, A.

    Pisa: CNR Research Campus, 2005. s. 49. [Phytotechnologies to promote sustainable land use and improve food safety . Scientific Workshop and Management Committee Meeting /1./. 14.06.2005-16.06.2005, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/04/0135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : heavy metals * Allium schoenoprasum L. * uptake Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  13. Resistance to Penicillium allii in accessions from a National Plant Germplasm System Allium collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessions of Allium sativum (garlic), A. ampeloprasum (elephant garlic) and A. acuminatum, A. aflatunense, A. atroviolaceum, A. canadense, A. longicuspis, A. moly, A. ponticum, A. roseum, A. scorodoprasum, A. senescens, A. stipitatum, and Allium sp. (wild or ornamental species) were screened for re...

  14. Tubulin cytoskeleton during microsporogenesis in the male-sterile genotype of Allium sativum and fertile Allium ampeloprasum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Tchórzewska, Dorota; Deryło, Kamil; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Winiarczyk, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Key message Microsporogenesis in garlic. Abstract The male-sterile Allium sativum (garlic) reproduces exclusively in the vegetative mode, and anthropogenic factors seem to be the cause of the loss of sexual reproduction capability. There are many different hypotheses concerning the causes of male sterility in A. sativum; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been comprehensively elucidated. Numerous attempts have been undertaken to understand the causes of male sterility...

  15. Maps showing anomalous copper concentrations in stream sediments and heavy-mineral concentrates from the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Barton, H.N.

    1987-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ° x 2° quadrangles, Arizona, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program. Other publications in this folio include U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps MF-1831-A and MF-1831-B and Open-File Reports 82-119, 82–599, and 83–734. Open-File Reports 82-119 and 83–731 constitute the basic data and initial interpretation on which this discussion is predicated.

  16. Comparative effect of garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and black seed (Nigella sativa) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Bastaki, Salim

    2011-01-01

    Naheed Amir, Amina Al Dhaheri, Najla Al Jaberi, Fatma Al Marzouqi, Salim MA BastakiDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesAbstract: Protective roles of raw and boiled garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) in comparison with black seed (Nigella sativa) on acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and gastric acid secretion in rats in vivo have been investigated. Raw or boiled Nigella sativa, gar...

  17. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  18. Polyploid induction of Allium ascalonicum L. by colchicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUMINAH

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The low production rate of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L. in Indonesia could be caused by rarely excellent cultivars. Colchicine was one of the mutation agents frequently used in plant breeding in order to get polyploidy of cultivars. The aim of this research was to find out the differentiation of morphometric evidences and ploidy of shallot chromosomes induced by colchicines 1%. Preparation was made by squash method and stained by acetocarmine. The results indicated that the amount, length and shape of chromosomes altered by the application of the agent. The polyploids produced could be grouped into tetraploids, pentaploids, hexaploids, octaploids, and nonaploids.

  19. Interaction of Natural Dye (Allium cepa with Ionic Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Chandravanshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa is a natural dye that has been extracted from onion skin with the help of soxhlet apparatus. The pigment in the dye pelargonidin was found to be 2.25%. The interaction of the dye with ionic surfactants, namely, cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and anionic (sodium lauryl sulphate has been studied by spectrophotometrically, conductivity, and surface tension measurements. The thermodynamic and surface parameters have been evaluated for the interaction process. The results indicate {surfactant-dye} complex formation and domination of adsorption in comparison to micellization.

  20. Radiation induction of multiaberrant cells in Allium cepa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Rogue' cells determined by human geneticists as the cells with many chromosome aberrations. The main enigma of this phenomenon is its levels are unexpected higher in many studies. Frequently, these cells emergence in human are linked with radiation or viruses. 'Rogue' cells supposed to be very important in mutagenesis, oncogenesis and even in evolution process. We use plant assay (Allium cepa L.) to analyze the induction of cells with many chromosome aberration of different types. Cytogenetic damage of gamma-irradiation as frequency of multiaberrant cells in the root tip cells of Allium was determined. The empiric numbers of cells with many aberrations were compared with those expected in theoretical distributions (Poisson, geometric and Pascal). The frequency of multiaberrant cells in root tip cells was increased up to 83,33 ± 10,76 % under gamma-irradiation in various doses. Gamma-irradiation induced more multiaberrant cells in A. cepa meristems than expected in theoretical distributions. We supposed dependency of chromosome aberrations origin in the same cell after irradiation. The data obtained elucidate that under gamma-irradiation accumulation of aberrations in aberrant cells are not random, the appearance of one aberration in cell induced the appearance of others in the same cell. (author)

  1. Biological effects of 12C6+ heavy ions irradiation on Allium fistulosum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study biological effects of 12C6+ heavy ions irradiation on Allium fistulosum L., the dry seeds were treated by 12C6+ heavy ion beam with different doses. Obvious 'parabola' trends were observed in the characteristics of germination rate and height of Allium fistulosum L. seedling when irradiated doses increased. With irradiation of an appropriate dose of 12C6+ heavy ion beam, 30Gy, the germination rate of Allium fistulosum L. is increased and the seedlings can resist drought and lodging, and grow better than the control. At the same time, the formation frequency of micronucleus and chromosomal aberration were surveyed in root-tip cells. The highest formation frequency of micronucleus and chromosomal aberration treated with 180Gy could reach to 9.09% and 10.03% respectively. This study laid the basis for further work on breeding and improvement of Allium fistulosum L. irradiated by 12C6+ heavy ion beam. (authors)

  2. Effect of Media on Gynogenesis Induction in Leek (allium ampeloprasum L.) Breeding Materials

    OpenAIRE

    A. KASKA; F. CELEBI TOPRAK; A. R. ALAN

    2014-01-01

    Leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) is one of the economically important members of the genus Allium (family:Alliaceae). It is a self-compatible, outbreeding, tetraploid (2n=4X= 32) crop species that is very difficult to improve through traditional breeding strategies. Entegration of doubled haploid (DH) techniques such as gynogenesis into the leek breeding programs may speed up the variety development. In order to optimize a gynogenesis induction protocol for leek, we carried out experiments by cu...

  3. Repairing Effect of Allium Cepa on Testis Degeneration Caused by Toxoplasma Gondii in The Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Yagoob Garedaghi; Seyed Razi Bahavarnia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, infectS a large proportion of the world population yearly. This study was investigated to evaluate the remedial effects of allium cepa on testis degeneration in male rats infected by T.gondii, RH strain. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=40) divided into control (n=10) and experimental (n=30) groups. The experimental groups were divided into two groups; allium cepa group (n=10) received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily and th...

  4. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    OpenAIRE

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of...

  5. Histo-Anatomical Studies in Allium saxatile, a Specie with Ornamental Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia DRAGHIA; Lăcrămioara IVĂNESCU; Elena-Liliana CHELARIU; Monica BOSCAIU; Nicoleta Luminiţa PARASCHIV

    2013-01-01

    The current paper presents some characteristics of the anatomy of vegetative organs (adventive root and leaf) of Allium saxatile M. Bieb., a species rare in the Romanian flora, which have not been described before in the literature. Histo-anatomical studies performed on Allium saxatile plants sampled from three local populations identified in the Dobrogea area, complete already existing data from other species of this genus, and represent the beginning of future studies on ecological anatomy,...

  6. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo:; María Boffill Cárdenas; Emoe Betancourt Morgado; Raylen Escobar Román; Ignacio Igualada Correa; Bennia Alonso Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium ...

  7. Protective Effect of Allium sativum against Liver Injury Induced by Anti-Tubercular Drugs in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, B; A.M. Wudil

    2012-01-01

    Allium sativum has been reported to have a lot of therapeutic potentials such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial and hypocholesterolemic. This study has investigated its effect on anti-tubercular drugs hepatotoxicity. Wistar albino rats were pretreated and co-administered orally with aqueous solution of Allium sativum. Eighteen rats were divided into six groups of three rats each. Group 1 were normal, while Group 2 were test control administered with anti-tubercular drugs; isoniazid (27 mg/kg...

  8. The organisation and evolution of a repeated DNA sequence family in related Allium species

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Ian Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    A large proportion of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Allium comprises repetitive sequence DNA, a component implicated as a cause of the large variation in C-values between even closely related species. The work presented here represents part of the first phase in the characterisation of some of these repetitive sequences in a number of Allium species. One repetitive DNA sequence family, BIOOO, isolated from the genome of A. sativum, has been characterised with respect to the...

  9. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  10. A descriptive mutagenicity assessment of tretinoin in Allium sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is primarily designed to assess the mutagenicity of tretinoin by applying the Allium test. Furthermore, it has the following objectives: to evaluate the macroscopic abnormalities caused by tretinoin based on root length and root form parameters; to investigate whether tretinoin can induce aberrances in cell division such as the formation of micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky chromosome, stretched chromosome, vagrant chromosome and precocious chromosome; to determine the variation in the aberrations in the different concentration of tretinoin. Procedure: eight hundred equal-sized garlic bulbs were immersed in various concentrations of tretinoin and in tap water as control. These were divided into two groups. Six hundred bulbs were evaluated for macroscopic parameters while the remaining two hundred bulbs were fixed for microscopic observations. The Allium test set-ups were placed in the plant laboratory of UP-Manila. The were harvested on the third and on the fifth day. The fixed roots were examined in the Cytogenetics Laboratory of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The data gathered for macroscopic parameter was statistically tested using Complete Randomized Design and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference. The microscopic abnormalities were determined descriptively for every concentration. Findings: analysis of macroscopic and microscopic parameters showed that: according to the analyses of variances, the number of roots, the root length and the number of root forms such as straight, bent, bulbous and tapered were not equal in all concentrations. However, the difference in the number of curled roots was not significant.; the root length distinctly showed the toxicity effect of tretinoin. The growth or the length of roots decreases as the tretinoin concentration increases; the mitotic abnormalities observed in the garlic cells include micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase. C-metaphase, sticky

  11. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Guvenc; Haluk C. Kaymak; Sibel Duman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D') from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG), 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka') seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test...

  12. Utilization of Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) for inulinase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2015-08-18

    Inulinase production by Rhodotorula glutinis was carried out in this study, using leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) as an alternative carbon source due to its high inulin content and easy availability. Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize fermentation conditions. For this purpose, five influential factors (leek concentration, pH, incubation temperature, agitation speed, and fermentation time) related to inulinase production were selected at four convenient levels. The results showed that maximum inulinase activity was obtained as 30.89 U/mL, which was close to the predicted result (30.24 U/mL). To validate the obtained results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. Consequently, leek has a great potential as an effective and economical carbon source for inulinase production, and the use of Taguchi DOE enhanced enzyme activity about 2.87-fold when compared with the unoptimized condition. PMID:25036570

  13. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. PMID:26901781

  14. Garlic (Allium sativum L.: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae, one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase, sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin. Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacterial, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipidaemic, anticarcinogenic, immunostimulant and hypoglycaemic properties. Clinically, garlic has been investigated for a variety of indications, namely, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidaemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  15. In vitro micropropagation of chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubomski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on micropropagation of Allium schoenoprasum embraced shoot formation from cultured shoot tips, shoot multiplication, root formations, and cold storage of rooted plants. All explants were cultured on modified Murashige-Skoog medium. Surface disinfection of shoots derived from stock plants was not necessary to obtain no infection culture. The highest shoot multiplication was obtained on medium with 20 g l-1 sucrose and 1.0 mg 1-1 6-benzylo-arninopurine (BA. Root formation was observed in both indoleacetic acid (IAA and indolebutyric acid (IBA. Rooted plants were successfully kept in cold storage (5°C ± 1°C darkness. Only 20% of plants died after 6 months of storage.

  16. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3. PMID:23179713

  17. Evaluación de extractos de ocho especies vegetales en el control de mildeo velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk en cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Cubides-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extractos de ocho especies vegetales: eucalipto (Eucalytus globulus, cola de caballo (Equisetum bogotense, ortiga (Urtica urens, manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla, caléndula (Calendula officinalis, yerbabuena (Menta viridis, ajo (Allium sativum y clavo (Syzygum aromaticum, preparados por el método de decocción (100 g/l, fueron evaluados en cuanto a su eficiencia en el control de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y siete aplicaciones (52, 60, 68, 76,84, 92 y 100 días después del trasplante, incluyendo un testigo químico Ridomil (metalaxil + mancozeb (2 g/l y el testigo absoluto; se evaluaron la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor, y el número y el peso de bulbos cosechados. El ANOVA mostró que de las siete aplicaciones realizadas, la última presentó efectos estadísticos en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor. El extracto de manzanilla superó al Ridomil en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor sin diferencias estadísticas entre sí, y fue significativamente mejor al observado con los extractos de eucalipto, cola de caballo, caléndula y el testigo; el extracto de manzanilla superó al testigo químico en el número y peso de bulbos de cebolla sin presentar diferencias estadísticas, y fue significativamente mejor al obtenido con los extractos de eucalipto, cola de caballo, ortiga, caléndula, yerbabuena, clavo y el testigo absoluto. El extracto de manzanilla es una alternativa ecológica que se debe tener en cuenta en el manejo integrado de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo.

  18. Optimizing the Utility of Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum (sibuyas Tagalog for the Allium Test by Elucidating its Mitotic Periodicity and Rhythmicity Under Varying Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrocio Melvin A. Matias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pattern of mitotic activity has long been studied in different plants; in the onion Allium cepa, determination of its mitotic activity has led to its utilization in the Allium test for cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of test substances. In this study, the pattern of mitotic activity of A. cepa var. aggregatum and the effect of light exposure on mitotic activity were determined to test the utility of A. cepa L. var. aggregatum as an alternative to the common onion, A. cepa, for the Allium test. Bulblets of A. cepa var. aggregatum were allowed to root for three days in tap water under three different set-ups: constant light exposure set-up (Light, constant dark set-up (Dark and 12 hours light-12 hours dark set-up (Light-Dark. The root tips from the bulblets were then excised and subjected to microscopic observation for the mitotic index (MI every hour after the third day. The results showed no significant difference observed across the three set-ups. However, MI for the Dark and Light set-ups were periodic, showing peaks or maxima of MI falling between 11 AM and 12 PM, whereas that of Light-Dark set-up was rhythmic, having an hourly fluctuation, but also showed maximum between 11 AM and 12 PM. It is recommended that A. cepa var. aggregatum root tips be excised between 11 AM and 12 PM for the Allium test.

  19. Establishing an efficient explant superficial sterilization protocol for in vitro micropropagation of bear’s garlic (Allium ursinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska-Sowa Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Allium ursinum L. has a commercial value due to its high contents of bio-active compounds and mild, garlic-like taste. In vitro culture played an important role in obtaining Allium species with the desired characteristics and in the production of healthy reproductive material.

  20. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  1. Testicular toxicity and sperm quality following cadmium exposure in rats: Ameliorative potentials of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serah F Ige

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Allium cepa crude extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6. Group 1 was used as control, group 2 was administered 0.3 mg/kgBW of cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 intraperitoneally for 3 days, group 3 was pretreated with 1 ml/100 g BW of Allium cepa (AcE for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kgBW of CdSO 4 in the last 3 days of experiment, and group 4 was administered 1 ml/100 g BW of AcE throughout the experiment. Testicular weight and semen analysis revealing the sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology was carried out. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation status were also carried out in testes. Results: The study demonstrated that Allium cepa ameliorated CdSO 4 -induced alteration in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. It also showed that Allium cepa attenuated the derangement of lipid peroxidation profile in testicular tissues caused by CdSO 4 exposure. Conclusions: The findings in the study showed that pre-treatment of rat model with Allium cepa extract prevented CdSO 4 -induced reproductive toxicity by improving sperm quality and enhancing testicular lipid peroxidation status.

  2. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. against acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Adult male NMRI mice were used. They were orally administered soft extracts of the plants at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg for three consecutive days before inducing hepatotoxicity. Clinical signs of toxicity and hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated; in addition, the morphological analysis of the liver was performed. Results: the biochemical parameters showed highly significant differences, but only three groups had results similar to the untreated control group. No macroscopic changes in the liver were confirmed. Microscopically, the absence of histopathological changes prevailed in the groups treated with Ocimum basilicum L. at both doses and Allium sativum L. at 200mg/kg; slight damage was observed by administering 400mg/kg of Allium sativum L., with significant differences from the untreated control group. Conclusions: soft extracts of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. at a dose of 200mg/kg have greater hepatoprotective activity against the toxic action of acetaminophen.

  3. "CEZAC 06": nueva variedad de ajo tipo Jaspeado para la región norte centro de México "CEZAC 06": new Jaspeado garlic cultivar for the northem-central region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Reveles-Hernández

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Alrededor de 5 200 hectáreas de ajo son cultivadas en México donde la región norte centro, es una de las principales áreas productoras de esta hortaliza. La falta de variedades de ajo localmente adaptadas es una seria desventaja para los productores de ajo. En este reporte se mencionan las principales características agronómicas de "CEZAC 06", una nueva variedad de ajo disponible para los productores de los estados de Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Durango, Chihuahua y Coahuila. Las principales ventajas de esta variedad son rendimientos más altos, bulbos consistentemente redondos, menor número de dientes por bulbo y maduración homogénea. En parcelas comerciales el rendimiento se ha mejorado en 9-17% y se han alcanzado rendimientos de hasta 30 t ha-1 con el uso de "CEZAC 06".About 5 200 hectares of garlic are cultivated in Mexico; the north-central region is one of the main producing areas of this vegetable. The lack of locally adapted varieties of garlic is a serious disadvantage for garlic producers. In this paper are mentioned the main agronomic characteristics of "CEZAC 06", a new garlic variety available for producers of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Durango, Chihuahua and Coahuila. The main advantages of this variety are higher yield, consistently round bulbs, fewer numbers of cloves per bulb and homogeneous maturation. In commercial plots, yield has improved in 9-17% and there have been achieved yields of up to 30 t ha-1 using "CEZAC 06".

  4. Histo-Anatomical Studies in Allium saxatile, a Specie with Ornamental Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia DRAGHIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents some characteristics of the anatomy of vegetative organs (adventive root and leaf of Allium saxatile M. Bieb., a species rare in the Romanian flora, which have not been described before in the literature. Histo-anatomical studies performed on Allium saxatile plants sampled from three local populations identified in the Dobrogea area, complete already existing data from other species of this genus, and represent the beginning of future studies on ecological anatomy, taxonomy and ex situ conservation strategies. Some of the obtained results confirm data from literature, but additional observations have been made that show features not reported previously for any specie of the Allium genus, such as the presence of colenchymatized cells in the internal mesophyll at the lamina level; or the presence, at sheath level, of epidermal cells with uniformly lignified and thick walls.

  5. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  6. Analysis of Chromosome Number in Some Allium and Silene Wild Species with Ornamental Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia DRAGHIA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the number of somatic chromosomes in plant species with ornamental value, in Romanian indigenous flora, Allium (A. flavum L., A. saxatile Bieb. and Silene (S. compacta Fischer., S. supina M.Bieb.. The biological material was identified and harvested in the South-Eastern part of Dobrogea (Tulcea and Constanţa counties, area in the South-Eastern part of Romania, situated between the Danube and the Black Sea. Individuals from two populations of Allium flavum and Allium saxatile, respectively from Tulcea county (Turcoaia town and Constanţa county (from Cheile Dobrogei were analyzed. In the case of Silene compacta and Silene supina, plants of one population in Tulcea county, Turcoaia town, were used. The aim of the analysis was the quantification and comparison of the somatic chromosomes of plants from the same species but different populations, as is the case of the two Allium species, but also to relate them to results from specialty literature, reported by others. The chromosome number was determined in the roots of the small plants that were obtained from seeds collected in their natural habitat. Except the case of Silene supina species, where only diploid forms were identified (2n=24, when in specific literature tetraploid forms are mentioned (2n=48, found in other areas, all other analyzed taxa register similar data to that reported in other geographic regions. Respectively, 2n= 16 in the case of Allium flavum and Allium saxatile and 2n= 24 in the case of Silene compacta.

  7. Efecto vasodilatador mediado por óxido nítrico del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L. (maíz morado en anillos aórticos de rata Vasodilator effect mediated by nitric oxide of the Zea mays L (andean purple corn hydroalcoholic extract in aortic rings of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Moreno-Loaiza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta vasodilatadora e inhibidora de la vasoconstricción del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L. (maíz morado y determinar si esta respuesta es mediada por óxido nítrico (NO. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvo un extracto de las corontas de maíz morado maceradas durante ocho días en etanol al 70%, y posterior concentración del producto. Se trabajó con anillos aórticos de rata en cámara de órganos aislados, bañada con solución Krebs-Hensleit (K-H y se registró la actividad vasomotora con un transductor de tensión isométrica. Se produjo una contracción basal con KCl 120 mM sobre la cual determinó el efecto vasodilatador de tres dosis del extracto: 0,1; 0,5 y 1,0 mg/mL. Se utilizó L-NG-Nitroarginina metil ester (L-NAME para comprobar que la vasodilatación depende de la óxido nítrico sinteasa (NOs. Luego se comparó la inhibición de la contracción vascular tras la incubación durante 30 minutos, con extracto de maíz morado y captopril 10-5 M. Resultados. Se observó una reducción de la contracción máxima (100% a 85,25 ± 2,60%, 77,76 ± 3,23% y 73,3 ± 4,87%, para las dosis de 0,1; 0,5 y 1,0 mg/mL, respectivamente. La vasodilatación fue inhibida por la incubación previa con L-NAME. El extracto de maíz morado no inhibió la contracción vascular, a diferencia del captopril (reducción a 75,27 ± 8,61%. Conclusión. El extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L produce vasodilatación dependiente de la síntesis de NO.Objective: To evaluate the vasodilator response of the hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn and to determine if this response is mediated by nitric oxide (NO. Material and methods: We obtained an extract by maceration for eight days of Andean purple corn cobs in 70% ethanol and subsequent concentration of the product. Thoracic aortic rings were evaluated in an isolated organ chamber, bathed with Krebs-Hensleit solution (KH, and vasomotor activity was recorded

  8. Antioxidant activity of ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jelena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the ultrasonic extracts of leek Allium porrum L. Ethanolic (50%; v/v extracts of edible leek parts (stem and leaf were prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction, which was followed by evaluation of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Total phenols were determined using the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by scavenging the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The results of antioxidant activity were compared with control antioxidants: vitamin C and BHT. The higher content of phenols (69.46 mg GAE/g dry extract and flavonoids (33.53 mg CE/g dry extract was found in the ethanolic extract of leek stem. The measured values of IC50 were 98.90 g/ml and 61.05 g/ml for the ethanolic extract of leek leaf and stem, respectively.

  9. Antimycobacterial and antibacterial activity of Allium sativum bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Studies on the mitotic chromosome scaffold of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJIAN; SHAOBOJIN; 等

    1995-01-01

    An argentophilic structure is present in the metaphase chromosomes of garlic(Allium sativum),Cytochemical studies indicate that the main component of the structure is non-histone proteins(NHPs).The results of light and electron microscopic observations reveal that the chromosme NHP scaffold is a network which is composed of fibres and granules and distributed throughout the chromosomes.In the NHP network,there are many condensed regions that are connected by redlatively looser regions.The distribution of the condensed regions varies in individual chromosomes.In some of the chromosomes the condensed regions are lognitudinally situsted in the central part of a chromatid while in others these regions appear as coillike transverse bands.At early metaphase.scaffolds of the sister chromatids of a chromosome are linked to each other in the centromeric region,meanwhile,they are connected by scafold materials along the whole length of the chromosome.At late metaphase,however,the connective scaffold materials between the two sister chromatids disappear gradually and the chromatids begin to separate from one another at their ends.but the chromatids are linked together in the centromeric region until anaphase.This connection seems to be related to the special structure of the NHP scaffold formed in the centromeric region.The morphological features and dynamic changes of the chromosome scaffold are discussed.

  11. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  12. Cytogenetics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in vitro culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants obtained from the culture of meristem tips, flower heads and/or basal plates showed no deviations in phenotype and chromosome number. Regenerants from meristem culture comprised solid tetraploids alongside diploids and mixoploids after colchicine treatment. Karyological instability was observed in the course of callus induction and long-term culture. Polyploid cells originated de novo in the in vitro culture. The final chromosomal constitution was dependent on the genotype of the donor plant, the type of the initial explant and the hormonal composition of the nutrient media. Garlic plants regenerated via callus cultures were phenotypically and karyologically variable, but even some regenerants with the unchanged karyotype showed differences in the phenotype. The nutrient medium induced neither mitotic aberrations in the Allium test nor point mutations in the Tradescantia test. The method of differential staining of sister chromatids in callus cells represents a novel approach to the study of in vitro plant genome instability. Higher sister-chromatid exchange frequencies and different cell-replication patterns in garlic callus were observed as compared to the intact meristem. (author)

  13. Uji Efek Repellent Nabati Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.) Terhadap Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Yanti

    2016-01-01

    Repellent is a substance used as a repellent or insect or other pest deterrent. Repellent is one part of the pesticide.Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill or control pests. In fact, the use of chemical pesticides that are not rational cause negative effects in terms of the environment, especially in terms of human health. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a natural substance that has many benefits and rewards. Bulb of garlic (Allium sativum L.) contain substances that are toxic to ins...

  14. Configuration of nucleolarDNA in situ in nucleolus ofAllium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The location and configuration of nucleolar DNA have not beendetermined for a long time. In this paper, we have observed the nucleolar ultrastructure and the character of nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells by conventional electron microscopy and the cytochemical NAMA-Ur DNA specific staining method. Furthermore, we have properly improved the NAMA-Ur method so as to analyze the location and configuration of nucleolar DNA in situ. Our results indicated that the nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells is mainly located at the border between fibrillar centers and dense fibrillar component, especially distributed in the configuration of encircling the fibrillar centers.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  16. Identification of Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Compounds from Allium gramineum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasha Mskhiladze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the in vitro anticancer, antiplasmodial and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic crude extract from the flowers of Allium gramineum growing in Georgia and of one flavonol and two steroidal glycosides which were isolated from this plant. The flowers were extracted with ethanol and this total extract was subjected to successive bioguided fractionations to provide glycosides 1-3. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectrometric data in comparison with the existing literature and have been identified as: isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, diosgenin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (Prosapogenin A of dioscin (2, diosgenin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4-]-β-D-glucopyranoside (Deltonine (3. The ethanolic extract has been shown to strongly inhibit the growth of breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, with an IC50 of 4.5 ± 0.7μg/mL for MDAMB-231 and 4.8 ± 0.9μg/mL for MCF-7 cells. The cytotoxic activity was related to 2 and 3 which exhibited potent cytotoxicity, with an IC50 of ± 3μM. Concerning antiplasmodial activities, only weak activities were observed using the ethanolic extract and the two saponins. The flavonoid was almost inactive. Finally, the radical-scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested in presence of ABTS•+ solution. A decrease of the absorbance intensity was observed, with an IC50 value of 22.1 ± 0.6μg/mLwhile trolox, used as Standard drug, showed a pronounced activity (IC50 = 12.7±0.5μM. The glycoside 1 showed the lowest IC50 value of 20.1 ± 0.8μM while both 2 and 3 exhibited very weak radical scavenging activity.

  17. Allium test peculiarities for toxicity assessment of water and soil samples from radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of allium test application for toxicity estimation of water and soil samples from Semipalatinsk Experimental Test Site (SET) are presented. Comparative analysis of water and soil samples cyto- and genotoxicyty from SET areas, contrasting on radionuclide composition, was carried out. The analysis results has shown the need of the biotesting modification for taking into account external gamma-irradiations in sampling area

  18. Studies on the Analgesic Potential of leaf Extracts of Allium humile on Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium humile is a medicinal plant found at the Alpine Himalayas of Uttarakhand at altitute of 2500-3000 meters height of sea level. In India, Allium humile, is used by local people as a spice and in ethano-medicine. In the present study, Allium humile leaves were explored for their analgesic potential on experimental model and compared to standard drugs. Allium humile at the doses of 100 mg/kg and aspirin 25 mg/kg exhibited significant (p>0.05 inhibition of the control writhes at the rate of 64.25%, 44.54%, 44.54% and 59.89% respectively when compared to that of control. Thus, methanolic extract of the plant can be fully explored for its analgesic potential which has not been reported so far. The plant extract showed a relative low toxicity hence justifies the folkloric use of plant by the local people in Western Himalayan region for curing inflammation and painful conditions.

  19. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only mean

  20. Antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of Allium sativum.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, L E; Shen, J K; Cai, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Commercial Allium sativum (garlic) extract was given intravenously to two patients with cryptococcal meningitis and three patients with other types of meningitis. Plasma titers of anti-Cryptococcus neoformans activity rose twofold over preinfusion titers. Anti-C. neoformans activity was detected in four of five cerebrospinal fluid samples but not in pooled normal cerebrospinal fluid.

  1. Genotoxicity of hydrated sulfur dioxide on root tips of Allium sativum and Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huilan; Meng, Ziqiang

    2003-05-01

    Genotoxicity of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and its hydrates (bisulfite and sulfite) in human lymphocytes and other mammalian cells have been found earlier in our laboratory. In the present studies, we used Allium stavium and Vicia faba cytogenetic tests, which are the highly sensitive and simple plant bioassays. A mixture of sodium bisulfite and sodium sulfite (1:3), at various concentrations from 1 x 10(-4) to 2 x 10(-3)M was used for the treatment. Genotoxicity was expressed in terms of anaphase aberration (AA) frequencies in the Vicia-AA test and in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequencies in both Vicia-MCN test and Alllium-MCN test. On average, the results showed a 1.7-3.9-fold increase of AA frequencies and a 3.5-4.5-fold increase of MCN frequencies in Vicia root tips as compared with the negative control. Similarly, results of Allium-MCN test also showed a significant increase in MCN frequencies in the treated samples. In addition, pycnotic cells (PNC) appeared in Allium root tips of treated groups. The frequencies of MCN, AA and PNC increased dose-dependently and the cell cycle delayed at the same time in bisulfite treated samples. Results of the present study suggest that the Vicia and Allium cytogenetic bioassays are efficient, simple and reproducible in genotoxicity studies of bisulfite. PMID:12742512

  2. Biomonitoring of low levels of mercurial derivatives in water and soil by Allium micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1988-02-01

    The Allium micronucleus (MNC) assay was developed to monitor low levels of mercury in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Four mercurial derivatives namely mercuric chloride (MC), methyl mercuric chloride (MMC), phenyl mercuric acetate (PMA) and a methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride based fungicide, Emisan-6, were tested to assess the sensitivity and versatility of the Allium MNC assay. Allium bulbs were set directly on water and soil contaminated with known levels of mercurial derivatives (0.0001-10.00 ppm). On the 5th day the endpoints measured were root length, mitoses with spindle abnormality and cells with MNC in root meristems. The effective concentrations of the test chemicals that cause 50% of root length as compared to control (EC50) were determined from dose-response curves so obtained. The lowest effective concentration tested (LECT) and highest ineffective concentration tested (HICT) for each of the mercurial derivatives for the induction of spindle malfunction and MNC were determined. It was found that EC50, LECT and HICT values for mercurial derivatives in soil were higher than those in water. The frequencies of cells with MNC and mitoses with spindle abnormality were highly correlated indicating that MNC is a good parameter of spindle malfunction. The present approach increased the sensitivity of the Allium assay by 10-fold, the detection limit being 0.001-0.1 ppm and 0.1-1.0 ppm in aquatic and terrestrial environments respectively, depending on the species of mercury. PMID:3340089

  3. Allium telomeres unmasked: the unusual telomeric sequence (CTCGGTTATGGG)(n) is synthesized by telomerase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajkus, Petr; Peška, Vratislav; Sitová, Z.; Fulnečková, Jana; Dvořáčková, Martina; Gogola, M.; Sýkorová, Eva; Hapala, J.; Fajkus, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2016), s. 337-347. ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-10948P Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Allium * unusual telomere * telomerase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  4. Factors influencing induction, propagation and regeneration of mature zygotic embryo-derived callus from Allium cepa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study on the effects of subspecies, cultivar, basal medium, sucrose concentration and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentration on callus induction, propagation and subsequent plant regeneration in Allium cepa has been carried out. Mature zygotic embryos from two onion (cvs. Sturon a

  5. Corn gluten meal as a preemergence herbicide for spring-transplanted onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas. Corn gluten meal is a certified organic material used for preemergence or preplant incorporated weed control. In 2002 and 2003 field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Lane, OK) to determine the ...

  6. Diploidni kariotipovi vrste Allium subhirsutum L. u hrvatsko-jadranskim populacijama

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčinović, Mira

    1993-01-01

    Izvršena je kariotipska analiza populacija vrste Allium subhirsutum L. sekcije Molinm G. Don ex Koch s jadranskog obalnog područja u Hrvatskoj. U svim slučajevima dobiven je diploidni broj kromosoma, 2n = 14 s kariotipskom formulom 12 m + 2 sm ili lom + 4 sm kromosoma koji u regularnoj mejozi formiraju bivalente, n = 7.

  7. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  8. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  9. GC-MS Investigation of Essential oil and antioxidant activity of Egyptian White Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmed El-Wakil; Mortada Mohamed El-Sayed; Ezzat El-Sayed Abdel-Lateef

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study carried out to investigate the chemical constituents of white onion (Allium cepa L.) essential oil as well as evaluate the antioxidant activities, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of their different extracts. Methods: The Essential oil of white onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were extracted by hydro distillation method and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to determine the chemical composition of the volatile compounds. The an...

  10. Role of Bioinoculant (AM Fungi) Increasing in Growth, Flavor Content and Yield in Allium sativum L. under Field Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh BORDE; Mayura DUDHANE; Paramjit Kaur JITE

    2009-01-01

    Present investigation deals with the beneficial effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) fungal species Glomus fasciculatum on growth performance of Allium sativum under field condition. In AM inoculated garlic plant showed significant increase in plant growth parameters like plant height, total biomass and bulb diameters, bulb weight, and yield. There was 21.10 % increment in yield of Allium bulb as compared to non AM inoculated garlic plant. Percentage of AM colonization occurred at all samplin...

  11. Pengaruh Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum) Terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Mencit (Mus Musculus L. Strain DDW) yang Diinduksi Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Borhan, Siti Nabilah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes changes in glucose homeostasis above normal. Diabetes causes various metabolic complication such as hyperlipidemia. So for the management is not for hyperglycemia but also for hyperlipidemia. One alternative by herbal remedy for treating diabetes is garlic (Allium Sativum.) Aim of Study:This study is about the effect of garlic (Allium Sativum) on cholesterol levels in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Metode: T...

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Sharma; Veena Sharma; Leena Kansal

    2009-01-01

    Allium sativum (Meaning pungent) belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The ...

  13. Potential therapeutic effect of Allium cepa L. and quercetin in a murine model of Blomia tropicalis induced asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Tatiane Teixeira; Campos, Keina Maciele; Cerqueira-Lima, Ana Tereza; Cana Brasil Carneiro, Tamires; da Silva Velozo, Eudes; Ribeiro Melo, Ingrid Christie Alexandrino; Figueiredo, Eugênia Abrantes; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; de Vasconcelos, Darizy Flávia Silva Amorim; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma is an inflammatory condition characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic inflammation. The resolution of inflammation is an essential process to treat this condition. In this study we investigated the effect of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on cytokine and on smooth muscle contraction in vitro and its therapeutic potential in a murine model of asthma. Methods AcE was obtained by maceration of Allium cepa L. and it was standardized in terms of qu...

  14. RAPD and ISSR analysis of some economically important species, varieties, and cultivars of the genus Allium (Alliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    MUKHERJEE, Ashutosh; SIKDAR, Biswanath; Ghosh, Biplab; Banerjee, Anuradha; GHOSH, Enakshi; BHATTACHARYA, Moimee; ROY, Satyesh Chandra

    2013-01-01

    RAPD and ISSR markers have been used to reveal the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of some economically important species of Allium. Two plants related to Allium were also included for better understanding of the phylogeny. ISSR showed more polymorphism within A. cepa and A. sativum, while RAPD showed more polymorphism within A. porrum. Overall, RAPD revealed more intraspecific diversity than ISSR, while ISSR showed more interspecific diversity than RAPD. This showed the usefulnes...

  15. Maps showing anomalous concentrations of lead, molybdenum, bismuth, and tungsten in stream sediment and heavy-mineral concentrate from parts of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Barton, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    These maps are part of a folio of maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1° x 2° quadrangles, Arizona, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program. Other publications in this folio include U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps MF-1834-A, 1834–B, and 1834–C and U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports 82–419, 82–599, and 83–734. Open-File Reports 82–419 and 83–734 constitute the basic data and initial interpretation on which this discussion is predicated. Open-File Report 82–599 is an aeromagnetic map.

  16. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  17. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  18. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, van, A.G.J.M.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has proved to be effective in controlling the nematodes. Due to a high incidence of infected stocks of bulbs a study was conducted to establish if the efficacy of the treatment could be improved by alterin...

  19. The evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaka-Kincl, V; Stegnar, P; Lovka, M; Toman, M J

    1996-07-01

    The bulbs of Allium cepa were grown in test liquids of various pollution levels as follows: undiluted industrial and municipal waste water; biological treatment plant output water; water from the Drava river upstream and downstream of the city of Maribor; and non-chlorinated drinking water as a negative control test. The paper presents the response of the Allium cepa genetic material to the presence of potential cytotoxic and genotoxic substances in test liquids and the suitability of the Allium cepa testing procedure as a method for short-term determination of water pollution level. The suitability of the Allium test procedure as a system for environmental monitoring is presented. The influence of water pollution on macroscopic and cytologic parameters of the common onion by application of the biological testing method was examined. The macroscopic parameter was inhibition of root growth. The cytological parameters were: aberrant cells in metaphase and anaphase, index of micronuclei appearance and inhibition of cell division. The possibility of categorization the different polluted test liquids into quality classes is presented according to the influence of the test liquids on macroscopic and cytologic parameters. Test liquids are divided into 8 quality classes: the first class is the least polluted surface waters, the second and the third classes are more polluted surface water, the fourth and the fifth classes are biological treatment plant output waters, the sixth till the eighth quality classes are untreated waste waters. The most polluted test liquids (untreated industrial and municipal waste waters) caused sublethal and even lethal effects. The most polluted tested liquids cause the inhibition of root growth over 50% (even up to 74%), decrease of mitotic index over 36% (even up to 66%), increase of presence of interphase cells with micronuclei over 3% and increase of presence of aberrant cells for more than 10 times in comparison to control test. PMID

  20. Novel strategies for optimized delivery of select components of Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash G Phadatare; Vivek Viswanathan; Alka Mukne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Garlic (Allium sativum) has been known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities which are attributed mainly to the organosulfur compounds present in it. Allicin and garlic oil, components obtained from garlic, have been explored and found to be biologically active on various fronts. Allicin is known to have major stability issues due to rapid degradation even at low temperatures, whereas garlic oil, being lipophilic, shows poor bioavailability after oral administratio...

  1. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent ligh...

  2. Phenolic compounds from allium schoenoprasum, tragopogon pratensis and rumex acetosa and their antiproliferative effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Saha; Otakar Rop; Pavel Valasek; Petr Humpolicek; Jiri Mlcek; Zdenka Kucekova

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC) in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive), Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify) and Rumex acetosa (common sorrel) and their effect on proliferation of HaCaT cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated in vitro using the following concentrations of phenolic compounds in cultivation medium: 10...

  3. Modulating effect of Allium cepa on kidney apoptosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghub gharadaghi; Saeedeh Shojaee; Arash Khaki; Amir Hatef; Hamid Reza Ahmadi Ashtiani; Hossin Rastegar; Fatemeh Fathiazad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of warm blooded animals as well as humans. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effects of allium cepa on renal failur in male rats which experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain. Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40) were allocated into four groups, group one that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip) (n=10), group two that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip), plus fresh onion ...

  4. Content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Kavalcová; Judita Bystrická; Pavol Trebichalský; Miriama Kopernická; Miroslava Hrstková; Marianna Lenková

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops widely consumed in the world. The bulb onion is grown as fresh shoots and as bulbs for consuming uncooked, cooked, and pickled or production of seed and sets. They can be eaten raw, boiled, steamed and roasted. Onion has high nutritional value. Onions are a good source of vitamins, minerals and major component like polyphenols, flavonoids, fructooligosaccharides, thiosulfinates and other sulfur compounds. Polyphen...

  5. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Kavalcová; Judita Bystrická; Tomáš Tóth; Beáta Volnová; Miriama Kopernická; Ľuboš Harangozo

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme). In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of to...

  6. Heavy metal uptake and stress responses of hydroponically cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cu and Ni) by Allium sativum plants was followed under hydroponic conditions. The toxic metals were applied at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.25 mM). The effects of heavy metals on chlorophyll and carotenoid content, root length and amino acid exudation were examined to evaluate the impact of heavy metal accumulation on plant growth and development. A significant hyperaccumulation of cadmium by garlic roots was observed. Cobalt stimulated carotenoid p...

  7. Efficient transient expression of the $\\beta$-glucuronidase reporter gene in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Esther; Linares, Concha; González, Juan,

    2000-01-01

    International audience A biolistic particle delivery system was used to introduce DNA containing a $\\beta$-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in three different garlic (Allium sativum L.) tissues: embryogenic calli, leaves and basal plate discs. Expression of the reporter gene was assayed histochemically and fluorimetrically when the tissues were bombarded with 1 $\\mu$m diameter gold particles coated with DNA, at a distance of 3 cm from the stopping...

  8. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Three Varieties of Allium sativum L. Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Narendhirakannan, R. T.; K.Rajeswari

    2010-01-01

    Many herbs possess antioxidant ingredients that provide efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Allium sativum L. is a strong astringent, used for the treatment of liver and spleen diseases, rheumatism and tumors. The antioxidant activities of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of garlic bulb of three varieties were determined by the four assays i.e. DPPH radical scavenging assay, reducing power ability, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity. Du...

  9. In-vitro Sensitivity of Selected Enteric Bacteria to Extracts of Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Musa O. AREKEMASE; David O. ADETITUN; Ganiyu P. OYEYIOLA

    2013-01-01

    Garlic has been used throughout all of recorded history for culinary and medicinal reasons. The portion of the plant most often consumed is an underground storage structure called a head. The antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic) against some bacterial isolates were investigated using the agar diffusion well method. Standard methods were used to carry out the investigation. Photochemical analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites such as sa...

  10. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic) Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Taji; Hedayatollah Shirzad; Kurosh Ashrafi; Neda Parvin; Soleiman Kheiri; Abdolrasul Namjoo; Azam Asgari; Roya Ansari; Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic).Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-mon...

  11. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum).

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, N; Smith, S M; Eng, R H

    1983-01-01

    A fresh extract of garlic (Allium sativum) was administered orally to human volunteers. At intervals, serum and urine were collected and assayed for antifungal activity. The maximum tolerable dose was determined to be 25 ml of garlic extract. Larger amounts caused severe burning sensations in the esophagus and the stomach and vomiting. After oral ingestion of 25 ml of the extract, anticandidal and anticryptococcal activities were detected in undiluted serum 0.5 and 1 h after ingestion. No det...

  12. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine Fehri; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Jean-Marc Aiache

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10...

  13. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its wild relatives from Central Asia: evaluation for fertility potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kamenetsky, R.; London Safir, I.; Baizerman, M.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Rabinowitch, H. D.

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) a popular condiment, is completely sterile, and thus is propagated only vegetatively. According to modern taxonomy, A. sativum and its closest wild relative A. longicuspis form a species complex. The collection of a large number of accessions of these taxa is the only means available for expansion of the genetic variability with regard to yield, quality, tolerance to biotic and abiotic traits, as well as flowering and possibly fertility restoration. A large number o...

  14. ALCOHOLIC TINCTURE OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) ON GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOPARASITES OF SHEEP- SHORT COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Carlini Cunha Santos; Neventon Ubirajara Moreira Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The continuous and indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has caused a growing problem of parasite resistance to conventional treatments. In this context, plant essential oils and active components can be used as alternatives or in association with current anthel¬mintic treatment. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a herbal medicine with various therapeutic properties: immunostimulating, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic. The aim of this experiment w...

  15. Combined acoustic-mechanical analysis during storage of scallion (Allium fistulosum) minimally processed

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea González; Gabriela Cáez; Fabián Moreno; Natalia Rodríguez; Indira Sotelo

    2012-01-01

    Scallion (Allium fistulosum) is a highly perishable green vegetable due to its moisture content, its high metabolic rate and their poor conditions of post-harvest during to harvest and transport. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between visual deterioration´s product and changes generated in the mechanical and acoustic properties of the same. The scallion grown in Aquitania, Boyacá Colombia was stored under different conditions of storing: vacuum pa...

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM HIRTIFOLIUM ESSENTIAL OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddese Mahboubi; Nastaran Kazempour

    2014-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium belongs to Alliaceae family is traditionally used as flavoring agent and as natural remedy for treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we analyzed A. hirtifolium essential oil by GC and GC-MS; the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. hirtifolium essential oil were evaluated in vitro condition. 5-chloroorcylaldehyde (55.1%), methyl methylthiomethyl disulfide (24.6%) were the major components of oil. The antioxidant activity of oil (IC50 = 1.59%) wer...

  17. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda L. Gindri; Ana Paula D. Coelho; Solange B. Tedesco; Athayde, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L) and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quanti...

  18. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak; Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND), USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa) to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage) as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA...

  19. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.; Umezurike, Gabriel M.

    1981-01-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. c...

  20. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. Th...

  1. Biological activities of Allium sativum essential oil against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaubey Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Allium sativum was isolated and investigated for its repellent, insecticidal, ovipositional and egg hatching inhibition activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). A. sativum essential oil repelled bruchid adults at a very low concentration in choice oviposition assay. A. sativum essential oil caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults in a concentration dependent manner. Oviposition potency of C. chinensis adults...

  2. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa-Leon Rubi; Vera-Ku Marina; Peraza-Sanchez Sergio R.; Ku-Chulim Carlos; Horta-Baas Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo...

  3. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin—a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 1...

  4. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres; César Soria-Fregozo; Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez; José L. Moreno-Hernández-Duque

    2014-01-01

    Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-...

  5. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Tasnim; Parsa Sanjana Haque; Md. Sazzadul Bari; Md Monir Hossain; Sardar Mohd. Ashraful Islam; Mohammad Shahriar; Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan; Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subje...

  6. Purification and Properties of Superoxide Dismutase(SOD) in Allium Sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Li-rong; WANG Ya-jun; WU Min; HONG Shui-sheng; CHEN Jia; Meng Qing-fan; LIU Lan-ying

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases(SODs) were purified to homogeneity from Allium Sativum by means of ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography with DEAE-cellulose(DE52) and Sephadex G-75. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-AGE), Allium Sativum is predicted to contain four SODs. The molecular weights of the native SODs are 41.3 kD, 37.0 kD, 35.2 kD and 31.0 kD, which consist of subunits of 20.7 kD, 18.4 kD, 17.7 kD and 15.4 kD respectively. Because of their specific sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, cyanogens potassium and chloroform-alcohol, the SODs in Allium Sativum appear to be Cu, Zn-SOD isoenzymes. The isoelectric analysis indicates that three of the four isoenzymes are acidic proteins with isoelectric points at pH 3.5, 3.7 and 4.0, respectively, and the fourth one is a basic protein with isoeletric point at pH 8.5.

  7. Chromosomal and Nuclear Alterations in Root Tip Cells of Allium Cepa L. Induced by Alprazolam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefic, Hilada; Musanovic, Jasmin; Metovic, Azra; Kurteshi, Kemajl

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine used in panic disorders and other anxiety states. Target organ of Alprazolam is CNS, causing depression of respiration and consciousness. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the genotoxic potential of Alprazolam using Allium cepa test. Methods: Allium cepa is one of the most suitable plants for detecting different types of xenobiotics. The test enables the assessment of different genetic endpoints making possible damage to the DNA of humans to be predicted. Results: Alprazolam induced chromosomal (anaphase bridges, breaks, lagging and stickiness, abnormal spiralisation, multipolarity and polyploidy) and cytological aberrations, especially nuclear alterations (nuclear buds, fragmented nucleus and apoptotic bodies, cells without nucleus, binucleated and micronucleated cells), morphological alterations in shape and size of cells, spindle disturbance and polar deviation in root tip meristem cells of Allium cepa at all tested concentrations. Alprazolam also caused significant inhibition of mitotic index in these cells. Conclusion: These changes in cells are indicators of genotoxic potential of Alprazolam suggesting a need for further in vitro studies on animal and human lymphocytes as well as in vivo studies. PMID:25568504

  8. Cytological damage and molecular biology effect of 12C6+ heavy ions on allium fistulosum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Allium fistulosum L. seeds were irradiated by 12C6+ heavy ions to the dosages of 30, 90, 180 Gy, the mutagenic effect in the aspect of the cell level and the agronomy was studied and the RAPD analysis was carried out. Comparison with the conclusion of M1 generation indicates that the Cytological damage, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration caused by radiation formed in the cells of Allium fistulosum L., and this kind of effect still existed in the M2 generation. There is a negative correlation between some of the growth indexes such as plant height, diameter of onion white and irradiation dosage to a certain extent, the growth indexes in the 30 Gy dosage exposure group are better than those in control group. The Allium fistulosum L. nutrients, including the total water-soluble protein and the Vitamin C content are the highest for the 30 Gy group and the lowest in 90 Gy group. Consistent with the M1 generation, the chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus and the DNA polymorphism rate by RAPD analysis are still positive correlations with the radiation dose in M2 generation respectively. However, the overall rates decline. The result indicated that the DNA variation induced by the high energy heavy ion exposure is repaired and eliminated to a certain extent in the M2 generation. (authors)

  9. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antifungal Activity Screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Vasile Bagiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to summarize the methods for isolating and identifying natural sulfur compounds from Allium ursinum (ramson and to discuss the active constituents with regard to antifungal action. Using chromatographic techniques, the active constituents were isolated and subsequently identified. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC suggested that these compounds were sulfur constituents, with a characteristic absorbance at 250 nm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses allowed the chemical structures of the isolated constituents to be postulated. We adopted the same methods to identify the health-giving profiling of ramsons and the effects are thought to be primarily derived from the presence and breakdown of the alk(enylcysteine sulphoxide, alliin and its subsequent breakdown to allicin (sulfur-compounds of ramson in connection with antifungal action. The aim of the study was the characterization of the chemical composition of ramsons and the testing of the action of the in vitro extracts, on different strains of Candida albicans. The main goal was to highlight the most efficient extracts of Allium ursinum that can provide long-term antifungal activity without remissions. The extracts from Allium ursinum plants, inhibited growth of Candida spp. cells at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, while that of adherent cells at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to > 4.0 mg/mL, depending on the yeast and plant species.

  10. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a

  11. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation. PMID:26028758

  12. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W F

    1982-11-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for the clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction (i.e., causing chromosome aberrations), 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals. PMID:7177154

  13. Maps showing anomalous concentrations of zinc, silver, antimony, manganese, barium and strontium in stream sediment and heavy-mineral concentrate from parts of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Barton, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program. Other publications in this folio include U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports 82-419 (Barton and others, 1982), 82-599 (Klein, 1982), and 830734 (Theobald and Barton, 1983), and Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps MF-1834-A (Peterson and Tosdal, 1986), MF-1834-B (Peterson and others, 1987), MF-1834-C (Theobald and Barton, 1987), and MF-1834-D (Theobald and Barton, 1988). Open-File Reports 82-419 and 83-734 constitute the basic data and initial interpretation on which this discussion is predicated. MF-1834-C and D show the distributions of anomalous concentrations of copper, lead, molybdenum, bismuth, and tungsten.

  14. A Study of the Shrinkage Changes and Mathematical Modeling of Garlic (Allium sativumL.) During Convective Drying

    OpenAIRE

    M Rasouli; S Seiiedlou

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativumL.) is one of the most important Allium spice. From an economic point of view, the dried garlic slices are valuable products. In this research, garlic slices as a thin layer were dried in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer, under air flow of 1.5 m/s, air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70˚C and slice thicknesses of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The mean values of shrinkage of garlic slices obtained 69.8%. In addition, the effects of the drying variables on the shrinkage of dried garlic were e...

  15. Evaluación de doce materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. para deshidratación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval A. Héctor L.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del ensayo fue la introducción de materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. de día corto para la deshidratación. Se realizaron observaciones de campo y análisis de laboratorio para determinar sus cualidades industriales.The objective of this assay was the introduction of materials of bulb's onion (Allium cepa L., for short day, to dehydrate. Observations to determinate their field behavior, and laboratories analysis to determinate their industrial characteristics were realized.

  16. Effect of Media on Gynogenesis Induction in Leek (allium ampeloprasum L. Breeding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KASKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leek (Allium ampeloprasum L. is one of the economically important members of the genus Allium (family:Alliaceae. It is a self-compatible, outbreeding, tetraploid (2n=4X= 32 crop species that is very difficult to improve through traditional breeding strategies. Entegration of doubled haploid (DH techniques such as gynogenesis into the leek breeding programs may speed up the variety development. In order to optimize a gynogenesis induction protocol for leek, we carried out experiments by culturing immature flower buds on various tissue culture media. Among the media tested, BDS and MS-based media with various combinations of plant growth regulators provided gynogenic embryos. Frequencies of gynogenic plantlet development were generally low and plantlets were obtained from almost all media included in the experiments. A total of 48 gynogenic plants were produced from approximately 30 thousand immature flower buds from six donor materials included in the experiments. In the DNA amount measurements performed with flow cytometry, it was found that gynogenic A. ampeloprasum plants were mostly diploid (55.56 % and the others were tetraploid (44.44 %. Diploid and tetraploid gynogenic plants were transferred to in vivo for further evaluation and grown in a greenhouse to produce selfed seed. Our studies with leek and several other Alliums indicate that gynogenesis induction frequencies are generally low due to genotypic effect. In order to obtain sufficient numbers of gynogenic lines from leek breeding populations, high numbers of immature flowers should be cultured on gynogenesis induction media. We suggest use of large size flower buds collected several days prior to anthesis while establishing gynogenesis induction cultures in leek. BDS medium that is commonly used in onion gynogenesis studies can also be used for the production of gynogenic leek lines.

  17. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Wojciechowska; Anna Kołton

    2014-01-01

    The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador...

  18. The effectiveness of garlic extract (Allium sativum linn) in controlling aflatoxicosis in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Romsyah Maryam; Yulvian Sani; Siti Juariah; Rachmat Firmansyah; Miharja .

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a disease generated as the consequence of aflatoxin contamination in foods and feeds. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), a natural spice known to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins in poultry. Twenty five laying hens were used to study the effectiveness of garlic extract in reducing aflatoxicosis. The animals were divided into 5 groups i.e (1) control group, (2) group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH, (3) group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH and 4% garlic extract in feed, (4) group treated wi...

  19. Towards a framework PCR-based map of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    McCallum, J; Pither-Joyce, M.; Clarke, A; Kik, C.; Heusden, van, A.W.; Jakse, J.; Havey, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic analysis of onion has been hampered by a lack of portable co-dominant markers based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The public release of a relatively large set of non-redundant onion expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in 2003 has provided the opportunity to develop such markers for use in Allium research and industry. We have mined this collection for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and screened over 200 primer sets designed to flank SSRs for their ability to amplify low-copy poly...

  20. Genotoxicity and toxicity evaluations of ECF cellulose bleaching effluents using the Allium cepa L. test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, O; Yeber, M C; Venegas, W

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity and genotoxicity tests were performed on root cells of Allium cepa in order to evaluate wastewater quality following an ECF cellulose bleaching process. The results revealed a toxic effect of the effluent, with inhibition of meristem growth and generally lower values of metaphase, anaphase and telophase indices at pH 10.5 than pH 7 for all effluent concentrations. The genotoxicity effect was different from the toxic effect given that the micronucleus and the chromosomal aberration tests in anaphase-telophase cells were low over all ranges of the studied effluent concentrations. PMID:22990817

  1. Amelioration of lead induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue-gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine am...

  2. Cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1, K2, and H1-extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komota, Yusuke; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Saku, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Koki; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Newly identified cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1 (1), K2 (2), and H1 (3)-were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum. Garlicnin H1 (3) demonstrated potential to suppress tumor cell proliferation by regulating macrophage activation. The structures of garlicnins K1 and K2, 3,4-dimethyl-5-allyl-tetrahydrothiophen-2-one-S-oxides, and the structure of garlicnin H1, 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-allylsulfoxide-tetrahydrothiophen-2-(ethane-1,2-diol)-S-oxide were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. PMID:25748782

  3. Multiplication vegetative et conservation in vitro chez le poireau (Allium porrum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dore, Claire

    1988-01-01

    La multiplication végétative est nécessaire pour répondre à des objectifs de production de semences chez plusieurs Allium cultivés. Le clonage in vitro apporte une solution intéressante mais l’effectif obtenu à partir de la plante mère est insuffisant. La méthode de multiplication par cycles successifs mise au point chez le poireau consiste à stimuler l’activité les méristèmes latents du plateau basal des plantules. La conservation in vitro permet de différer le repiquage en terre jusqu’...

  4. KERUSAKANKROMOSOM BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepaL. AKIBAT PERENDAMAN DENGAN ETIDIUM BROMIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Fibayani Imaniar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify thedamage of onion’s(AlliumcepaL. chromosomes causedbyethidiumbromide submersion for 6and12hoursat 500ppm. The methodused to study chromosome damage of onionroot tip wassquash technique. The result showed several types of chromosomedamagesuch as the formation of, micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosome bridges. At 6 hours submersion,the average percentageof chromosomal damage was 2.99 %, while in submersion for 12 hours, the average percentage of chromosomal damage was 6.81 %. Keywords:Ethidium bromide, chromosome damage, Allium cepa L.

  5. Cytotoxicity of Aloe vera gel extracts on Allium cepa root tip cells

    OpenAIRE

    İLBAŞ, Ali İrfan; GÖNEN, Umut; YILMAZ, Semih; DADANDI, Mehmet Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Aloe vera L. is a valuable medicinal plant and is currently used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries worldwide. In the present study, the effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera leaf gel extracts was investigated on mitotic and phase indexes of Allium cepa L. root tip cells for 24 and 48 h durations. The EC50 value of gel extracts was found to be 20% and was used to determine the experimental concentrations. The results indicated that the mitotic index and root growth rate ...

  6. Cytological Effects of Irradiated Guayabano Fruit Juice on Native Onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros Serrana; Adoracion Arañez

    1993-01-01

    Thirty bottles of guayabano fruit juice were exposed to gamma ray doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy. These bottles were then stored for 0, 4 and 8 days and used for treatment of Allium fistulosum L. root meristems. For each treatment, 2000 cells were scored to obtain data on mitotic index and types and frequency of cytological aberrations. The newly irradiated juice did not inhibit mitosis but storage showed marked effects on the mitotic index. Both irradiated or unirradiated juice stored for 8 d...

  7. Combined effects of ionising gamma radiation and some chemical substances on the Allium sativum growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co 60 - gamma ionising radiations act in different doses and flows on Allium sativum. They accelerate the germination of bulblets with a couple of days by comparison with the sample. The 10 Gy dose stimulates the plants growth. The 30 Gy dose or 'shock dose' related to the radiation flow and with chemicals used in the treatment, produces strong decays or raises of biological parameter values. The growth region which is implied in growing regulators synthesis is perturbed. The calculation of nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes of nucleus-cytoplasm ratio confirms the perturbation at this level. (Author)

  8. The role of crop waste and soil in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar porri infection of leek (Allium porrum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Koenraadt, H.; Visser, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, the causal agent of bacterial blight of leek, is a current threat for leek (Allium porrum) production in the Netherlands. The roles of post-harvest crop waste and plant invasion from soil in leek plant infection was investigated with the purpose to gain better underst

  9. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  10. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p < 0.01). Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p < 0.01) the mentioned parameters in deltamethrin-treated rats. For genotoxic evaluation, deltamethrin treatment showed a significant increase in frequencies of micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. Micronucleus formation is an indicator of chromosomal damage which has been increasingly used to detect the genotoxic potential of environmental pests. The present study showed that Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. PMID:26974685

  11. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava S; Pathak P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P

  12. Inhibitive and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Allium Cepa for the Corrosion of -?Brass in HNO3 Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fouda, Abd El-Aziz S.; Nofal, Ashraf M.; Maher, Reham

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of allium cepa has been evaluated as a green corrosion inhibitor for ?-brass in HNO3 solutions using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that this extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the extract concentration, but decreases with raising the temperature. The adsorpt...

  13. A new autumn-flowering species of Allium (Liliaceae) from the island of Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit; Tzanoudakis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Allium apolloniensis is described as a species new to science, illustrated and compared with related species of A. sect. Codonoprasum. It is apparently restricted to the Cyclades in the central Aegean and of particular interest for the phylogeny of the genus because it is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32)....

  14. Effect of Cardioactive Principle of Methanolic Extract of Allium Humile Leaves on Global Ischaemic Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Dobhal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In present study efficacy of active principle (AH-1 of Methanolic extract of Allium humile leaves has been evaluated to limit myocardial injury in ischaemic rat heart. Material and Methods: Various extracts of A. humile leaves were prepared using solvents of increasing polarity. Methanolic extract among all other extracts further purified using chromatographic technique results four major fractions A1, A2, A3, and A4. Cardioprotective potentials. Among these fractions A4 was found to be active fraction. AH-1 (active principle was isolated from the fraction A4 using column chromatography technique and evaluated for Cardioprotective effect. Results: The Methanolic extract of A. humile leaves and further fraction A4 of Methanolic extract significantly prevented myocardial infarct size as compared with that of standard Ramipril in the study. From fraction A4 of Methanolic extract, the isolated active principle AH-1 showing cardio protective effect at dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: The study suggests that AH-1 is active Cardioprotective principle of Methanolic extract of Allium humile leaves and was found significant (p<0.05.

  15. Jack bean urease inhibition by crude juices of Allium and Brassica plants. Determination of thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olech, Zofia; Zaborska, Wiesława; Kot, Mirosława

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was the elucidation of the inhibitory influence of Allium (garlic, onion, leek) and Brassica (cabbage, Brussels sprouts) plants juices, on jack bean urease activity. Concentrations of thiosulfinates, the compounds responsible for the inhibition, were determined in studied materials. The kinetics and mechanism of the inhibitions were investigated. Biphasic, time-dependent courses of the inhibition reactions were observed for all tested Allium and Brussels sprouts from Brassica. The cabbage material caused the monophasic course of the inhibition. In the presence of dithiothreitol, a total reactivation of the inhibited urease proceeded for the tested plants except for the onion. The onion juice modified urease, regained only half of the initial activity. The irreversible contribution was related to the presence of 1-propanethial-S-oxide, cepaenes and zwiebelanes formed in the onion juice. It was found that the thermal processing of the plant juices, results in the decrease of thiosulfinates concentration, as well as the efficiency of urease inhibition. PMID:24128461

  16. Evaluation of Cytogenetic Effects of Isoproturon on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To validate the use of Allium sativum as a reliable test model for genotoxicity, isoproturon, a substituted phenylalkylurea herbicide, was evaluated on the root meristem cells by this plant system. Method Test concentrations were selected by determining EC50 and root tips were exposed to various concentrations for 6 or 24 hr. EC50 concentration was calculated to be 70.8 ppm for the root growth. In addition to root growth retardation exposure to isoproturon induced morpholoogical changes like discolouration and stiffness of roots. Results Exposure to various experimental concentrations of isoproturon (35-280 ppm), including EC50, significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the mitotic index and induced chromosome breaks/mitotic aberrations at 6 or 24 hr. Conclusion The frequency of aberrations was found to be decreased in a dose dependant manner at 24 or 48 hr post exposure, however in comparison of control cells the frequency of aberrations was considerably high which indicates genotoxicity potentials of isoproturon. Further, present study also suggests that Allium sativum is a sensitive, efficient, and reliable test system for measuring the genotoxicity potential of environmental chemicals.

  17. Evaluation of Cytogenetic Effects of Isoproturon on the Root Meristem Cells of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.K.S.ChAUHAN; P.N.SAXENA; 等

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To validate the use of Allium sativum sativum as a reliable test model for gentoxicity,isoproturon,a substituted phenylalkylures herbicide,was evaluated on the root meristem cells by this plant system.ethod :Test concentrations were selected by determining EC50 and root tips were exposed to various concentrations for 6 or 24hr.EC50 concentration was calculated to be 70.8ppm for the root growth.In addition on root growth retardation exposure to isoproturon induced morpholoogical changes like discoloruation and stiffness of roots.Results:Exposure to various experimental concentrations of isoproturon(35-280ppm),including EC50,significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the mitotic index and induced chromosome breaks/mitotic aberrations at 6 or 24 hr.Conclusion:The frequency of aberrations was found to be decreased in a dose dependant manner at 24 or 48hr post exposure.howerver in comparison of control cells the frequency of aberrations was considerably high which indicates genotoxicity potentials of isoproturon.Further,present study also suggests that Allium satiuvum is a sensitive,efficient,and reliable test system for measuring the genotoxicity potential of environmental chemicals.

  18. Protective effects of five allium derived organosulfur compounds against mutation and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Kwang; Chen, Tai-Yuan; Lin, Jou-Hsing; Wang, Chen-Ya; Wang, Bor-Sen

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we examined the ability of five allium-derived organosulfur compounds to protect cells against mutation and oxidation. The compounds tested were 1-propylmercaptan (PM), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), propyl disulfide (PDS), and 2,5-dimethylthiophene (DMT). Our results showed that when used at concentrations of 100-400 μmol/l, the five compounds inhibited the mutagenicity of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, a direct mutagen, and benzo[a]pyrene, an indirect mutagen, toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Furthermore, at these concentrations, all five of the compounds protected HepG2 cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. The compounds likely enhanced cell viability by suppressing the formation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of glutathione depletion in cells. DMT and PM inhibited mutation and oxidation to a greater extent than DMDS, DADS, and PDS. These results demonstrate for the first time that DMT and PM can contribute to the antimutagenic and the antioxidative property of Allium vegetables. PMID:26617023

  19. Evaluation of the anti-alternaria solani activity of allium hirtifolium boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of 100 plant species from 45 plant families were investigated on mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight of tomatoes, based on paper disc diffusion method. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The results showed that methanolic extracts of 21 species exhibited measurable inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani. The stongest inhibitory effect was obtained for the extracts of Allium hirtifolium and Teucrium chamaedrys with radius inhibitory zones of 19.08 mm +- 0.48 and 15.58 mm +- 0.48, respectively. Furthermore, an experiment was performed to investigate synergistic effect of A. hirtifolium, Ferula assa-foetida and Artemisia sieberi separately and in combinations with each other based on agar dilution method on the growth of A. solani. Results indicated that a mixture of Allium hirtifolium and F. assa-foetida extracts caused complete mycelial growth inhibition of A. solani. The IC50 and IC95 values for A. hirtifolium bulbs were equal to 78 and 946 ppm, respectively. Moreover, methanolic extract of A. hirtifolium bulb significantly showed the highest inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of A. solani when compared with other plant parts. The results of inhibitory effect of fractions obtained by thin layer chromatography of A. hirtifolium bulbs showed that one band with Rf= 0.41 had an inhibitory effect against A. solani. (author)

  20. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  1. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALLIUM CEPA LINN. (LILIACEAE IN RATS

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    Riyaz Shaik et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have chosen a plant named Allium cepa Linn (Liliaceae to evaluate its hepatoprotective activity in experimental animals. Different pharmacological activities are reported with different parts of this plant. Some of its medicinal properties reported are as stimulant, diuretic, anti-tubercular, anthelmintic, and used for various diseases like diabetes, skin diseases, rheumatism, asthma, nausea and constipation. From the literature we found that A. cepa has also been traditionally indicated for treatment of hepatic disorders. This prompt us to select bulb extracts of this plant for the study of hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Phytochemical screening of A. cepa revealed the presence of Saponins, carbohydrate, steroids, Flavonoids. The present study was made to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Allium cepa in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic injury in experimental animals. Hepatoprotective activity of A. cepa was studied by estimating the serum levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, direct and total bilirubin. The treatment with AEAC and AQEAC showed significant reduction of CCl4 and paracetamol induced elevated serum enzyme and pigment levels. Histopathology of liver shows hepatoprotective effect of these extracts.

  2. In-vitro Sensitivity of Selected Enteric Bacteria to Extracts of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa O. AREKEMASE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used throughout all of recorded history for culinary and medicinal reasons. The portion of the plant most often consumed is an underground storage structure called a head. The antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic against some bacterial isolates were investigated using the agar diffusion well method. Standard methods were used to carry out the investigation. Photochemical analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites such as saponins, tannins, alkaloid steroids and glycosides. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the agent (garlic was determined for both the aqueous and ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous extract, inhibiting all the test organisms. While the aqueous extracts was effective against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Garlic extracts are strictly broad-spectrum with immune boosting phytonutrients from Allium ‘family’. Further research will need to be done to carry out the purification of the active ingredients which have potential for combating human disease. Also, toxicological studies need to be evaluated.

  3. Chromosomal aberrations induced by Glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells

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    N.Panneerselvam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycidol is used as a stabilizer in the manufacture of vinyl polymers and natural oils and as an intermediate in the synthesis of glycerol, glycidyl ethers, and amines. It is also used as an alkylating agent,demulsifier, and dye-leveling agent and for sterilizing milk of magnesia. Glycidol is an alkylating agent which reacts readily with glutathione; it causes a decrease in glutathione content in rat liver, probably reflecting its binding to glutathione. It is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. The study investigated the cytotoxic effects of glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells. Different concentrations of glycidol ranging 10, 20, 40 and 50μg/ml for 1, 2, 3 and 5h were treated with root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. Fuelgen squash technique was used to determine the aberrations in root tip cells. For each concentration 3000 well-spread cells were scored and cytological abnormalities such as break, gap, exchange, multiple breaks and chromosome fragments were observed. One way analysis of variance was used the study the significant different control and treatment exposed root tip cells.Significant difference between control and glycidol exposed cells were observed. Increasing concentrations increased the number of chromosomal aberrations.

  4. RBE of d(50)-Be neutrons for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBE/absorbed dose relationship of d(50)-Be neutrons was determined for the induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots. Neutrons are produced at the cyclotron 'Cyclone' by bombarding a thick beryllium target with 50 MeV deuterons. Two biological criteria were selected: (1) mean number of aberrations (mainly breaks) per cell in anaphase and telophase, (2) fraction of intact cells in anaphase and telophase. For the two criteria, RBE increases continuously from about 7 to 12 as the neutron absorbed dose decreases from 0.4 to 0.1 Gy. RBE values for the first criterion are slightly higher than for the second one. This observation is interpreted in terms of the analysis of the distribution of the aberrations in the cells. In logarithmic coordinates, RBE/absorbed dose relationships for the two criteria are almost linear with a slope close to - 1/2. RBE values observed for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa are higher than those generally observed for biological effects related to mammalian cell lethality. (orig.)

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity of onion (allium cepa) against clinical isolates of vibrio cholera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cholera is a major public health problem in developing countries of the world. Bacterial resistance, lack of surveillance data and proper microbiological facilities are major problems regarding diagnosis of cholera. The spread of microbial drug resistance is a global public health challenge that results in increased illness and death rate. Newer antimicrobials or agents are urgently required to overcome this problem. This work was therefore done to investigate the antimicrobial potential of onion against thirty-three clinical isolates of Vibrio cholera. Methods: The extract was prepared by reflux extraction method. Antibacterial screening of clinical isolates of V. cholerae was done by agar well diffusion method. Agar dilution method was used to assess the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results: All tested strains of V. cholerae were sensitive to onion (Allium cepa) extracts of two types (purple and yellow). Purple type of extract had MIC range of 19.2-21.6 mg/ml. The extract of yellow type onion had an MIC range of 66-68.4 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicated that onion (Allium cepa) has an inhibitory effect on V. cholerae. Keeping in view the anti-bacterial activity of this compound can be exploited as a therapeutic agent in an animal model. This finding is a positive point for further investigation of this herb of traditional medicine. (author)

  6. Cytological effects and RAPD analysis of Allium fistulosum L. irradiated by 12C6+ heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytological effects and RAPD analysis of root-tip cells of Allium fistulosum L., the dry seeds were irradiated by 12 C6+ heavy ions, were studied. Micronucleus and chromosomal aberration observed in the root-tip cells showed that obvious 'linear rise' trend was in the frequency of micronucleus, multi-micronucleus and total chromosomal aberration. But a 'U- formed' trend was observed only in the chromosomal aberration frequency. At the same time, RAPD analysis revealed 12C6+ heavy ions exerted great effect on DNA variation of Allium fistulosum L.. Flawing bands, increasing bands and the ones with different transport ratios were observed in amplified bands of 28 selected primers. The DNA variation rate for 30, 90 and 180Gy treatments was 29.91%, 41.05% and 22.14%, respectively. This study also found that high micronucleus frequency and chromosomal variation lead to high lethality, resulting in low DNA variation rate in the survived plants which seeds were irradiated with high doses. (authors)

  7. In Vivo Antinociceptive Effects of Persian Shallot (Allium hirtifolium in Male Rat

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    Mohammadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The tendency toward using herbal plants instead of synthetic drugs is increasing in recent years because of their lower adverse effects and high varieties of efficient components. Objectives In this investigation, analgesic effects of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Allium hirtifolium were studied in male rats. Materials and Methods A total of 48 adult male rats were divided eight groups: control, intraperitoneal 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of extract, 200 mg/kg of A. hirtifolium extract plus aspirin, aspirin (1 mg/kg, morphine (1 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg of A. hirtifolium extract plus naloxone (1 mg/kg. The analgesic effects of A. hirtifolium were assessed with writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests. The data were compared with control by one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Results Alliumhirtifolium extract at (200 mg/kg dosage, alone and in combination with aspirin, had shown antinociceptive effect in writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests (P < 0.01. Allium hirtifolium extract (at 100 mg/kg dosage had just shown analgesic effects on tail-flick and formalin (chronic phase tests. Conclusions It looks that A. hirtifolium has antinociceptive effects that might be due to flavonoids and saponins in plant the analgesic effect of which was demonstrated previously.

  8. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    OpenAIRE

    S.J. Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a worldwide scale. A. cepa is cultivated mainly as a biennial but some types are treated as perennials. It is propagated by seeds, bulbs, or sets (small bulbs). TThe bulbs of common onion are large, ...

  9. Role of Topical Cream Extract Garlic (Allium sativum) in Wound Healing Fibroblasts Judging from the Strain Wistar Rats with Acute Injury Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zaenal Zaenal; Suryani As???ad; Veni Hadju; Agussalim Bukhari

    2016-01-01

    Wound will cause problems if handled poorly, causing chronic wounds. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a typical plant of the tropics, including Indonesia, the tubers are often used in traditional medicine, among them to heal wound. This laboratory experimental study using randomized designs Post Test Control Group aims to determine the effect of the use of Topical Cream Extract garlic (Allium sativum) on wound healing in topical administration, with a view histopathologic consisting of fibroblasts...

  10. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF EXTRACT OF BULB OF ALLIUM SATIVUM LINN. USING DPPH AND FRAP ASSAYS WITH EVALUATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Manorma Kumari*; Navi Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    The methanolic extracts of Allium sativum were investigated for its antioxidant activity by using 1,1-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. This study indicated that Allium sativum L. exhibited the high antioxidant activity and phenolic contents and can be used potentially as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidant. Due to its natural o...

  11. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  12. Disponibilidade hídrica e germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L. Water availability and germination of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.

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    Z. Piana

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência do teor de água do substrato na germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de ambiente de laboratório. Os efeitos de cinco níveis de água no substrato solo x areia (3:1, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% da capacidade de retenção foram avaliados através da porcentagem de emergência no 14° dia da semeadura e pesos da matéria verde e seca das plântulas normais. Para tanto, 200 sementes do cultivar Pira Ouro por tratamento, em quatro repetições de 50, foram semeadas a 1,5 cm de profundidade, mantendo-se constantes os níveis de água no substrato. Os resultados possibilitaram concluir que os níveis de umidade do solo indicados para germinação de sementes de cebola são de 40% e 60% da capacidade de retenção do substrato, por possibilitarem uma melhor emergência, peso da matéria verde e seca das plântulas.One essay was conducted under laboratory conditions, in order to verify the influence of substrate water content on the germination of onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. The effect of five water levels in the medium soil x sand (3:1 - 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% retention capacity-were evaluated through the emergence percentage 14 days after seedling and the weight of fresh and dry matters of normal seedlings. For that purpose, 200 treated seeds of Pira Ouro cultivar were sown 1.5 cm deep in four replicátions of 50, with a constant water content in the medium. The best results showed that the soil moisture levels suggested for the germination of onion seeds were 40% to 60% of the substrate retention capacity, once they provide better emergence, weight of the fresh and dry matters of seedlings.

  13. Tradescantia-SH and Allium-assays as biomonitors of radiation pollutions genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We used Tradescantia stamen hair (Trad-SH) assay on induction of the pink mutations to test the samples of polluted soils were taken from Chernobyl and Kopachi. The levels of radionuclide cesium 137 and americium 241 in Kopachi soil sample was approximately ten times as big as those in Chernobyl soil sample (20.8+0.1 kBq/kg for radionuclide cesium 137 and 87+7 kBq/m2 for radionuclide americium 241 versus 1.12+0.1 kBq/kg and 13+2 kBq/m2 accordingly). The plants of Tradescantia clone 02 on tested and control soil samples were grown and Trad-SH assay during 20-25 days were analyzed. The clastogenic effects of gamma-irradiation in Allium-assay on induction of chromosome aberrations in model experiments were estimated. Air-dry seeds of A. cepa L. were gamma-irradiated in dose range 1-40 and 50-300 Gy using arrangement with the Cobalt 60 isotopes. The root tip cells test-system for the cytogenetic effects studying was used. All results were statistically processed, comparison between the experimental variants and controls were conducted by kappa2method and t-test. The level of pink mutation events in Tradescantia-SH induced by soil samples from Chernobyl 0.30+0.08% was lower then that induced by sample from Kopachi 0.48+0.04%, but both levels were statistically higher then compared with control (0.16+0.08%). In addition to high level of gene mutations the plants which were grown on most polluted soils samples from Kopachi demonstrated the morphological abnormalities such as stamen union and alteration, flowers underdevelopment etc. In Allium-test the effects on all parameters analyzed were shown. Statistically reliable increase of chromosome aberrations level was shown when dose of gamma-irradiation was risen to 5 Gy and effects were intensified gradually when dose increased. It is interestingly, then the dose was 40 Gy and higher the cells with unidentified plural chromosome aberrations were detected and theirs the number of gradually increased with dose

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:27318800

  15. Composition of the essential oil of leaves and roots of Allium schoenoprasum L. (Alliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis BUITRAGO DÍAZ; Janne ROJAS VERA; Luís ROJAS FERMÍN; Antonio MORALES MÉNDEZ; Rosa APARICIO ZAMBRANO; Luís RODRÍGUEZ CONTRERAS

    2011-01-01

    Los aceites esenciales de hojas y raíces de Allium schoenoprasum L. (Alliaceae fueron analizados por CG/EM. La extracción por hidrodestilación mostró un rendimiento de 0.02% y 0.03% para las hojas y raíces, respectivamente. Cinco (99.12 % hojas) y cuatro (98.32 % raíces) compuestos fueron identificados siendo el bis-(2-sulfidietil)-disulfuro (72.06 % hojas, 56.47 % raíces) el compuesto mayoritario en los dos aceites mientras que 2,4,5-tritiahexano (5.45 % hojas, 15.90 % raíces) y tris (metilt...

  16. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donghua Liu; Ingrid Kottke

    2003-06-01

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium sativum L. exposed to three different concentrations of Cd (100 M, 1 mM and 10 mM) for 9 days was carried out. The results showed that Cd induced several significant ultrastructural changes – high vacuolization in cytoplasm, deposition of electron-dense material in vacuoles and nucleoli and increment of disintegrated organelles. Data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed that Cd was localized in the electron-dense precipitates in the root cells treated with 10 mM Cd. High amounts of Cd were mainly accumulated in the vacuoles and nucleoli of cortical cells in differentiating and mature root tissues. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of Cd are briefly explained.

  17. A Comprehensive Review on Nickel (II And Chromium VI Toxicities - Possible Antioxidant (Allium Sativum Linn Defenses

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    Kusal K.Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity associated with nickel (II and chromium (VI is mainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS with subsequent oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. Both nickel and chromium can generate free radicals (FR directly from molecular oxygen in a two step process to produce superoxide anion and in continued process, produce highly toxic hydroxyl radical. The pro-oxidative effects are compounded by fact that they also inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione. Garlic (Allium sativum has played an important dietary and medicinal role throughout the history of mankind. Garlic has the potential to enhance the endogenous antioxidant status in nickel as well as hexavalent chromium induced lipid peroxidation in normal and diabetic rats.

  18. Antioxidant activity of garlic essential oil (Allium Sativum) grown in north Indian plains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reena lawrence; Kapil lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil isolated from fresh rhizomes of garlic (Allium sativum) of the family Alliaceae in an yield of 0.2% (v/w). Methods:2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitrogen oxide scavenging, reducing power and毬-carotene bleaching assays were conducted. BHT and gallic acid were kept as standards.Results:IC50 values observed for DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays were 0.5 mg/mL and 50毺g/mL respectively. In reducing power assay absorbance increased linearly with increasing concentration of the oil, in毬-carotene bleaching method also there is 84% bleaching in first one hour and it decreased to 45 % by the completion of second hour. Conclusions: The results clearly indicate garlic essential oil is effective in scavenging free radical and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.

  19. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells. PMID:27176674

  20. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26036599

  1. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. PMID:26166823

  2. The effect of Allium sativum on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatti Rajbir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum extract on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury has been studied. Hearts from adult albino rats of Wistar strain were isolated and immediately mounted on Langendorff′s apparatus for retrograde perfusion. After 15 minutes of stabilization, the hearts were subjected to four episodes of 5 min ischemia, interspersed with 5 min reperfusion (to complete the protocol of ischemic preconditioning, 30 min global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In the control and treated groups, respective interventions were given instead of ischemic preconditioning. The magnitude of cardiac injury was quantified by measuring Lactate Dehydrogenase and creatine kinase concentration in the coronary effluent and myocardial infarct size by macroscopic volume method. Our study demonstrates that garlic extract exaggerates the cardio protection offered by ischemic preconditioning and per se treatment with garlic extract also protects the myocardium against ischemia reperfusion induced cardiac injury.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the storage and vitamin C concentration of allium cepa onion samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storage, germination and vitamin C concentration of local onion (Allium cepa). 5 onion samples were irradiated with 5 different radiation doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 k Gray) using cobalt-60 irradiator (Nor din) compared to non irradiated samples as controls. The irradiated and control onions were stored at room temperature for three months. The results of this study showed that the non irradiated samples were either deteriorated or grown while all the irradiated samples were not. Regarding the concentration of vitamin C it was clear that it decreased with the dose increase from 30.53 to 14.44 mg/100 g. This study concluded that the irradiation is very effective in prevention of spoilage, elongation of germination period and decrease of vitamin C concentration.(Author)

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF WILD GARLIC (Allium ursinum FROM ROMANIAN SPONTANEOUS FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA LUPOAE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild Romanian spontaneous garlic’s (Allium ursinum antimicrobial activity was tested in order to establish the inhibition potential of growth of some microorganisms. As test microorganisms were used pure cultures of fungs (Aspergillus glaucus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor mucedo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria (Bacillus subtilis isolated from food microbiota. There were also, used microbial strains isolated from different pathological products: wound secretions (Staphylococcus aureus, throat swab (Streptococcus pyogenes, urine (Escherichia coli and oral mucosa (Candida albicans. The antimicrobial potential of used extracts is highlighted depending on the type of the vegetal tissue (leaves, roots, bulbs and the nature of the solvent used for extraction. Extracts used in these experiments are recommended to use in food industry to preserve the stability and to improve the organoleptic quality of products.

  5. Cytological Effects of Irradiated Guayabano Fruit Juice on Native Onion (Allium fistulosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Serrana

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty bottles of guayabano fruit juice were exposed to gamma ray doses of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy. These bottles were then stored for 0, 4 and 8 days and used for treatment of Allium fistulosum L. root meristems. For each treatment, 2000 cells were scored to obtain data on mitotic index and types and frequency of cytological aberrations. The newly irradiated juice did not inhibit mitosis but storage showed marked effects on the mitotic index. Both irradiated or unirradiated juice stored for 8 days caused a significant inhibition of mitosis. The irradiated juice induced the production of anaphase bridges, binucleate cells, cells, cells with elongated nucleus and cells with obliquely oriented equatorial plate.

  6. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  7. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7 with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231 with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis and Hd3a (rice, with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day, LD (long-day, and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101 and LM (late maturation, 36122. The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  8. Repairing Effect of Allium Cepa on Testis Degeneration Caused by Toxoplasma Gondii in The Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, infectS a large proportion of the world population yearly. This study was investigated to evaluate the remedial effects of allium cepa on testis degeneration in male rats infected by T.gondii, RH strain. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=40 divided into control (n=10 and experimental (n=30 groups. The experimental groups were divided into two groups; allium cepa group (n=10 received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily and the toxoplasmose infected group (n =20 were subdivided into two groups of 10. One of the toxoplasma groups also received 1cc of fresh onion juice daily; however, control group just received distilled water. Animals were kept in a standard condition. On day 30 after inducing Toxoplasmosis infection, 5 ml blood sample of each rat was taken to measure serum protein and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels. IgG and IgM were tested by the ELISA method. Testicular tissue of each Rat was removed and sperms were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Results: Serum proteins and testis weight were significantly decreased in the T.gondii groups compared with the control and onion groups. Testis degeneration significantly increased in toxoplasmosis group compared with the control group (P<0.05. TAC level was significantly increased in the groups that received onion juice (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed T. gondii has diverse effects on serum proteins, TAC, and testis. Results confirmed fresh onion juice could significantly modify harmful effects and increase the sperm number, viability, and motility so it seems eating onion is useful in toxoplasmosis infection.

  9. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Leguminosae) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae) against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50), test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect ...

  10. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF ALLIUM SATIVUM ESSENTIAL OIL COMPARED TO DIFFERENT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAINS IN EASTERN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzouz Dekhil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Allium sativum bulbs harvested in the region of El Harrouch in Skikda was studied by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry; six compounds were identified which predominant materials are: methyl allyl trisulfide (34.61�20and diallyl disulfide (31.65� The antibacterial activity was tested on 52 clinical strains and one reference strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by both variants of the dilution method, the dilution method in liquid medium and the dilution method in solid medium. The results showed that the essential oil of Allium sativum has an inhibitory activity of growth compared to over 50�0of strains tested with MICs relatively averages between 32 and 128 μg•mL-1.

  11. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review

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    Catia Dini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  12. Role of Bioinoculant (AM Fungi Increasing in Growth, Flavor Content and Yield in Allium sativum L. under Field Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh BORDE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation deals with the beneficial effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM fungal species Glomus fasciculatum on growth performance of Allium sativum under field condition. In AM inoculated garlic plant showed significant increase in plant growth parameters like plant height, total biomass and bulb diameters, bulb weight, and yield. There was 21.10 % increment in yield of Allium bulb as compared to non AM inoculated garlic plant. Percentage of AM colonization occurred at all sampling and the colonization was higher during bulb initiation. Mycorrhiza inoculated garlic plant showed more alliin and allinase enzyme activity as compared to non inoculated garlic plant. The results reveal that mycorrhiza contribute to growth and development of garlic plant under field condition.

  13. Experimental chemotherapy with Allium sativum (Liliaceae) methanolic extract in rodents infected with Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani

    OpenAIRE

    Byrum W. Wabwoba, Christopher O. Anjili, Moses M. Ngeiywa, Peter K. Ngure, Elizabeth M. Kigondu, Johnstone Ingonga & Judith Makwali

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several plant products have been tested and found to possess antileishmanialactivity. The present study was undertaken to establish whether methanolic extract ofAllium sativum Linn has antileishmanial activity in comparison to standard drugs.Methods: Methanolic extract of A. sativum bulbs was screened for in vitro and in vivo antileishmanialactivity against Leishmania major strain (NLB 145) and L. donovani strain (NLB 065). Pentostam®and Amphotericin B® were used as s...

  14. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R Vahdani; S Mehrabi; J Malekzadeh; R Jannesar; H Sadeghi; A Shafaeifar

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats) and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative...

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF ALLIUM SATIVUM ESSENTIAL OIL COMPARED TO DIFFERENT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA STRAINS IN EASTERN ALGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzouz Dekhil; Nafissa Boutefnouchet; Sihem Khadri

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Allium sativum bulbs harvested in the region of El Harrouch in Skikda was studied by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry; six compounds were identified which predominant materials are: methyl allyl trisulfide (34.61�20and diallyl disulfide (31.65� The antibacterial activity was tested on 52 clinical strains and one reference strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by both variants of the dilution method, the dilution method in li...

  16. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Moon Park; Dong Woo Kim; Seung Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence w...

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium sativum linn) terhadap Kadar Gula Darah pada Mencit Diabetes yang Diinduksi Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Ajeemah Binti Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disease characterized and diagnosed with a chronic increase in blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. One of the traditional medicine that is believed to have hypoglycemic properties is garlic (Allium sativum). Allisin and alliin compound serves as an anti-diabetic agents through the stimulation of the pancreas to release more insulin. Objective: Assessing the effect ...

  18. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum) Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Saray Quintero-Fabián; Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún; Manuel Vázquez-Carrera; Rocío Ivette López-Roa

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory ef...

  19. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sashank Srivastava; P. H. Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, ...

  20. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K.; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Methods: Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic includ...

  1. Influence of gamma irradiation on chromosomal instability in seeds of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) at storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of chromosomal instability and germinating capacity of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) seeds were studied in control and gamma-irradiated (5 and 10 Gy) groups of seeds. We compared relative chromosome destabilizing effects of the seed age at the moment of irradiation and the time period of storage after irradiation to germination. The second factor was significantly more effective than the first one. It increased the rate of chromosomal aberration and decreased the germinative capacity of seeds. (authors)

  2. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Anzabi Younes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry), Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi) and Allium cepa L. (Onions) on the standard strain (ATCC:19114) of Listeria monocytogenes (L. mo...

  3. The Diversity and Abundance of Small Arthropods in Onion, Allium cepa, Seed Crops, and their Potential Role in Pollination

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, M.K.; Howlett, B. G.; Wallace, A.R.; Mccallum, J. A.; Teulon, D.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that sma...

  4. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    OpenAIRE

    Bandna Chand

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract s...

  5. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other mola...

  6. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas ...

  7. Molecular Phylogeny Analysis of Allium Sativum in Alliaceae%大蒜在葱科的分子分类地位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯进慧; 李同祥; 蔡文佳

    2014-01-01

    通过扩增获得18S rRNA和叶绿体16S rRNA基因序列,测序并提交GenBank ,登录号分别是JF719285和JF719286.利用大蒜和GenBank相关序列构建系统发育树,进行分子演化分析.结果表明:大蒜18S rRNA 基因与球序韭、韭菜、茖葱等葱科植物序列相似度高;叶绿体16S rRNA基因与龙舌兰科和薯蓣科的物种序列相似度高.大蒜与葱科植物在18S rRNA序列上具有较高的同源性.18S rRNA序列在植物演化方面的区分度比16S rRNA高.%In the paper ,molecular phylogeny of Allium sativum were discussded with the analysis of rRNA gene .18S rRNA gene and chloroplast 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified .The two rRNA genes were submitted to Genbank and the accession numbers were JF719285 and JF719286 .Gene sequences of Allium sativum was analyzed with related species in GenBank .The results showed that :Allium sativum 18S rRNA gene has a high homology with many species within Alliaceae ,such as Allium thunbergii ,Allium tuberosum and Allium victorialis .Allium sativum and Alliaceae plants has a high similarity in 18S rDNA . The discrimination accusation of 18Sr RNA sequences in plant phylogeny analysis is better than that of 16S rRNA .

  8. Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rainho, Claudia R; Kaezer, Andréa; Aiub, Claudia A F; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2010-12-01

    N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), can be formed by the reaction of secondary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH) using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25 mM) genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water) and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30 mg/mL). After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI) and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM), showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity, but not for Trad-SH test. PMID:21152767

  9. The taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal micromorphological characters in distinguishing 43 species of allium L. (amaryllidacae Central Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Allium is comprised of more than 800 species, and although previous studies have been useful in identifying the species, there is a paucity of easy-to-observe morphological characters with which to distinguish them. Thus, we determined the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis of 43 species of Allium from Central Asia using light microscopy and evaluated their taxonomic significance. Our study examined variability in epidermal cell shape and size and the stomatal apparatus. The stomatal apparatus is ellipsoid, anomocytic and amphistomatic. The shape (rectangular or rhomboid) of epidermal cells, pattern (straight or arched) of anticlinal walls, and stomatal index are stable within a species, while there are differences among species that allow for species delimitation. Based on the shape and pattern of anticlinal walls of leaf epidermal cells, the 43 sampled species could be divided into three distinct types of epidermal cells: type 1, rhomboid cell shape and straight anticlinal walls; type 2, rhomboid cell shape and arched anticlinal walls; and type 3, rectangular cell shape and straight anticlinal walls. These leaf epidermal micromorphological characters prove to be the taxonomic significance in distinguishing and delimitating species in Allium. (author)

  10. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (Ptreatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants. PMID:22239909

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (Meaning pungent belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on lead induced toxicity in mice. Chronic dose of lead (2 mg/Kg body weight, i.p., showed significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and the nonenzymatic antioxidant as glutathione (GSH and total protein content in the liver, kidney and brain. This decrease was accompanied with significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level. Also, there were disturbances in the liver, kidney and brain functions manifested by significant changes in their functional markers. Efficacy of garlic to reduce tissue lead concentration was also evaluated. Mostly, all of the investigated parameters were restored nearly to the normal values after raw garlic extract treatment. In conclusion, garlic exerts its effects not only as an antioxidant but also as a sulfur donor. So, garlic has a promising role and it is worth to be considered as a natural chelating agent for lead intoxication.

  12. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m3 of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 1015 Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: 90Sr - 1.4x103 Bq/l; 137Cs - 3 Bq/l; 3H - 7x102 Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10-1 Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed slides of root tips meristem were dyed with aceto

  13. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  14. Allium cepa anaphase-telophase root tip chromosome aberration assay on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, maleic hydrazide, sodium azide, and ethyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1997-04-24

    The Allium anaphase-telophase assay was used to show genotoxicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), maleic hydrazide (MH), sodium azide (NaN3) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). All agents induced chromosome aberrations at statistically significant levels. The rank of the lowest doses with positive effect was as follows: NaN3 0.3 mg/l Allium test for NaN3 and EMS were in a lower range than that found for the other plant assays. EMS and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate), two chemicals used as positive controls in mutagenicity testing, were compared in the Allium test, and MMS was found to be about ten times more potent in inducing chromosome aberrations than EMS. Recording of micronuclei in interphase cells showed that this endpoint does not give more information of clastogenicity than recording of chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase cells. PMID:9150760

  15. Assessment of Anti-Influenza activity and hemagglutination inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Dilip Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. Objective: To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1pdm09. Materials and Methods: Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. Results: A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Conclusions: Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research.

  16. Detection irradiated shallot (Allium Cepa) and spices using technique of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL) in detecting the food that has been irradiated qualitatively and quantitatively. The samples used were onions (Allium Cepa) and spices. The shallots which are from India and Thailand was irradiated using Gamma Cell at dose of 0 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.4 kGy and 1.0. While for the spices, there were 10 types of spices used such as powder of paprika, parsley, turmeric, tarragon, coriander, mint leaves, basil, rosemary flower, chives and herbs mixture which was irradiated at the dose of 0 kGy and 8.7 kGy respectively. The result shows that the PSL method could differentiate samples which are irradiated and not irradiated. Even though the PSL value increases proportionally to the radiation dose, the relationship between these two means are not that clearly clarified and needed to be studied furthermore.(author)

  17. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation

  18. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-01

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  19. Novel strategies for optimized delivery of select components of Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash G Phadatare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic (Allium sativum has been known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities which are attributed mainly to the organosulfur compounds present in it. Allicin and garlic oil, components obtained from garlic, have been explored and found to be biologically active on various fronts. Allicin is known to have major stability issues due to rapid degradation even at low temperatures, whereas garlic oil, being lipophilic, shows poor bioavailability after oral administration. Objective: To develop novel strategies for optimum delivery of allicin and garlic oil so as to achieve effective availability in the physiological system. Materials and Methods: Garlic cloves were lyophilized to obtain allicin-releasing garlic powder (ARGP. This powder was analyzed spectrophotometrically and was used to formulate buccal tablets. Garlic oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of garlic cloves and analyzed by gas chromatography. Self-nanoemulsifying systems (SNS containing garlic oil were prepared using suitable surfactants and cosurfactants. The SNS were adsorbed on Aerosil 200 and filled in hard gelatin capsules. Both the formulations were suitably evaluated. Results: Buccal tablets containing ARGP showed satisfactory physical parameters as well as in vitro drug release, mucoadhesive strength, moisture uptake capacity and drug content. Evaluation of capsules containing SNS of garlic oil also gave satisfactory results. The adsorbed SNS when dispersed in water formed nanoemulsions. Conclusion: Buccal tablets as well as capsules containing garlic oil SNS provide promising strategies to overcome the difficulties associated with formulation of allicin and garlic oil.

  20. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15 μg/disc) was in the range of 28.8 ± 0.31 to 67.7 ± 1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15 μg/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7 μg/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. PMID:25456419

  1. Overcoming seed dormancy of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium) through cold stratification, gibberellic acid, and acid scarification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshad Dashti; Hojat Ghahremani-Majd; Mahmood Esna-Ashari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) is bulbous perennial herb widely used in pharmaceutical and food industry in Iran.We studied germination of mooseer seeds in two separate experiments.In the first experiment,we evaluated four treatments:sulfuric acid scarification,sandpaper scarification,cold stratification,and gibberellic acid (GA3)application.In the second experiment,we evaluated combinations of these treatments.All treatments in the first experiment had no effect on seed germination,suggesting that mooseer seeds have physical and physiological dormancy.In the second experiment,the highest germination percentage (86.6%) was observed after five minutes scarification with sulfuric acid (75% v/v),followed by 60 days of cold stratification.Duration of sulfuric acid scarification (5,10,and 20 min) did not affect germination rates,but increasing duration of cold stratification (from 15to 60 days),increased germination from 28.3% to 86.6%.Our study showed that mooseer seeds have both physical and physiological dormancy.

  2. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations and CO2 exchange in onion, Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, G T; Loboda, T; Black, C C; Brown, R H

    1995-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) plants were examined to determine the photosynthetic role of CO2 that accumulates within their leaf cavities. Leaf cavity CO2 concentrations ranged from 2250 μL L(-1) near the leaf base to below atmospheric (CO2 concentrations with minimum values near midday and maximum values at night. Conductance to CO2 from the leaf cavity ranged from 24 to 202 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and was even lower for membranes of bulb scales. The capacity for onion leaves to recycle leaf cavity CO2 was poor, only 0.2 to 2.2% of leaf photosynthesis based either on measured CO2 concentrations and conductance values or as measured directly by (14)CO2 labeling experiments. The photosynthetic responses to CO2 and O2 were measured to determine whether onion leaves exhibited a typical C3-type response. A linear increase in CO2 uptake was observed in intact leaves up to 315 μL L(-1) of external CO2 and, at this external CO2 concentration, uptake was inhibited 35.4±0.9% by 210 mL L(-1) O2 compared to 20 mL L(-1) O2. Scanning electron micrographs of the leaf cavity wall revealed degenerated tissue covered by a membrane. Onion leaf cavity membranes apparently are highly impermeable to CO2 and greatly restrict the refixation of leaf cavity CO2 by photosynthetic tissue. PMID:24307095

  3. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  4. Exploring the structural basis of mercury/selenium antagonism in green onion. Allium fistulosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. While significant efforts have been devoted to deciphering the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, a limited number of studies have investigated the potential antagonism between mercury and selenium in plants, which may provide useful information for the purpose of phytoremediating mercury. In this study, the Allium fistulosum, green onion, was used to investigate the metabolic fate of mercury in conjunction with selenium. The plants were grown in perlite media and supplemented with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Data from x-ray fluorescence mapping of a freshly excised root and capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection of homogenized root extract, suggest the plausible formation of a mercury-selenium species and a similarly structured mercury-sulfur species, predominantly residing in the cell wall of the epidermal root tissue. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to probe the local environment of mercury and selenium in order to help elucidate the varying metabolites. A putative molecular basis for the formation of the mercury-selenium species will be discussed.

  5. Cytogenetic damage in shallot ( Allium cepa) root meristems induced by oil industry "high-density brines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaković-Cifrek, Z; Pavlica, M; Regula, I; Papes, D

    2002-10-01

    Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg x dm(-3) and 1.61 kg x dm(-3), respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry "high-density brines." In our experiment they were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) to study their cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). All tested solutions in concentrations of 0.075 and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) caused significant inhibition of shallot root growth. CaBr (2) showed this effect in concentration 0.05 mol x dm(-3). The investigated solutions in all concentrations applied decreased mitotic activity in root tip cells. The most of mitotic abnormalities were the consequence of spindle failure and chromosome stickiness. Furthermore, the cell microtubules were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm that most abnormalities observed were the consequence of spindle failure. The present study, as well as previously done Lemna tests and Chlorella tests showed that investigated samples have certain effects on plants, so constant control of their presence in the environment is needed. PMID:12202923

  6. Allium sativum produces terpenes with fungistatic properties in response to infection with Sclerotium cepivorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, Mariela; Bottini, Rubén; Burba, José Luis; Piccoli, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated terpene biosynthesis in different tissues (root, protobulb, leaf sheath and blade) of in vitro-grown garlic plants either infected or not (control) with Sclerotium cepivorum, the causative agent of Allium White Rot disease. The terpenes identified by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) in infected plants were nerolidol, phytol, squalene, α-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene, whose levels significantly increased when exposed to the fungus. Consistent with this, an increase in terpene synthase (TPS) activity was measured in infected plants. Among the terpenes identified, nerolidol, α-pinene and terpinolene were the most abundant with antifungal activity against S. cepivorum being assessed in vitro by mycelium growth inhibition. Nerolidol and terpinolene significantly reduced sclerotia production, while α-pinene stimulated it in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to fungal growth inhibition, electron microscopy observations established morphological alterations in the hyphae exposed to terpinolene and nerolidol. Differences in hyphal EtBr uptake suggested that one of the antifungal mechanisms of nerolidol and terpinolene might be disruption of fungal membrane integrity. PMID:25819001

  7. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%) followed by trinucleotides (28.50%) and dinucleotides (13.39%). Among the individual SSRs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest number (137; 21.33%) followed by (G/C)n (74; 11.52%) and (AAG)n (63;9.81%). Primers designed from a robust set of 7 AsESTSSRs resulted in the amplification of 63 polymorphic alleles in 14 accessions of garlic. The resolving power of the markers varied from 4.286 (AsSSR7) to 18.143 (AsSSR13) while the average marker index (MI) was 5.087. These EST-SSRs markers for garlic could be useful for the improvement of garlic linkage map and could be used for evaluating genetic variation and comparative genomics studies in Allium species. PMID:25987765

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM HIRTIFOLIUM ESSENTIAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium belongs to Alliaceae family is traditionally used as flavoring agent and as natural remedy for treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we analyzed A. hirtifolium essential oil by GC and GC-MS; the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. hirtifolium essential oil were evaluated in vitro condition. 5-chloroorcylaldehyde (55.1%, methyl methylthiomethyl disulfide (24.6% were the major components of oil. The antioxidant activity of oil (IC50 = 1.59% were compared with BHT (IC50 = 0.002%. In β-carotene test, the oil (1.59% showed 32.3% inhibition, while 0.002% BHT showed 99.3% inhibition. The MIC and MLC values of A. hirtifolium oil were in the ranges of 0.06-2 and 0.25-2 µl/ml, respectively. Aspergillus flavus was more sensitive to oil than that of other microorganism. A. hirtifolium oil exhibited high antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeast and fungi. So, A. hirtifolium can be added to foods as antimicrobial or antioxidant agent in addition of its flavoring effect.

  9. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  10. Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant. PMID:22865357

  11. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiah Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent.

  12. Evaluation of the cytogenotoxicity of textile effluents using Allium cepa L.

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    Sandro Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the raw (EB and treated (ET effluents of two textile mills located in south of Minas Gerais State that have their effluents treated at the same Effluent Treatment Plant was investigated using the Allium cepa test system. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the root elongation and mitotic index (MI endpoints and the genotoxicity was assessed by de determination of chromosome aberrations (CA.The effluent samples were tested at the concentrations 0 (ultrapure water, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % (v/v. A Completely Randomized Design with four replicates of 30 seeds was used. The effluent samples in almost all tested concentrations promoted an increase in root elongation compared to the negative control and this effect was probably related to nutrients levels and organic matter in effluent samples. A lower MI at all concentrations of ET compared to EB. The highest MI was observed at 100% (v/v concentration of both effluents. The highest rates of CA occurred at concentrations 75% (v/v of EB and 100% (v/v of both effluents. The effluent samples showed no cytotoxic effect, but cell division occurred disorderly, leading to increase rate of AC, revealing a genetoxic effect. Improvements in the wastewater treatment are needed to reduce environmental impacts.

  13. Effects of Pterocaulon polystachyum DC. (Asteraceae on onion (Allium cepa root-tip cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Frainer Knoll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil leaf infusions of the plant Pterocaulon polystachyum DC (Asteraceae are used to treat digestive problems. We used plants from six P. polystachyum populations to prepare fresh aqueous leaf infusions at the concentration normally used in Brazil (2.5 g L-1 and at twice (5 g L-1 and four times (10 g L-1 this concentration. We rooted onion bulbs in a water control or one of the infusions for 24 h and used the in vivo onion (Allium cepa root-tip cell test to investigate the potential mutagenicity of the infusions by calculating the mitotic index for the control and the experimental treatments and comparing them using the Chi-squared test (chi2, p = 0.05. There was a highly significant decrease in the mitotic index of root-tip cells treated with infusion as compared to those exposed to water only. These results indicate that P. polystachyum infusions present cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity and therefore have therapeutic potential.

  14. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine. PMID:26909640

  15. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salmiah; Jalilian, Farid Azizi; Talebpour, Amir Hossein; Zargar, Mohsen; Shameli, Kamyar; Sekawi, Zamberi; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL) suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent. PMID:23484141

  16. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuicui; Ye, Yangyang; Song, Ce; Chen, Dian; Jiang, Baiwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in the world, usually with a two-year life cycle. The bulbs form in the first year after sowing, then bolting and flowering are induced by low temperature in the following year. Previous studies have shown that LEAFY gene is an inflorescence tissue specific gene, and that it is also the ultimate collection channel of all flowering pathway. In this study, using homologous gene cloning and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we isolated an inflorescence meristem specific LEAFY cDNA, AcLFY (JX275962), from onion. AcLFY contains a 1119 bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 372 amino acids, with ∼70% homology to the daffodils LEAFY and >50% homology to LEAFY proteins from other higher plants. Fluorescence quantitative results showed that AcLFY gene has the highest expression level in inflorescence meristem during early bolting, and is still expressed in leaves after the formation of flower organs. Overexpression of AcLFY gene in Arabidopsis thaliana induced early bolting and flowering, whereas knockdown of the endogenous LEAFY gene by RNAi caused a significant delay in bolting. In addition, transgenic plants also exhibited significant morphological changes in rosette leaves, branches, and plant height. PMID:27074580

  17. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM STEROIDAL AND TRITERPENOID SAPONIN FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Papiya Bigoniya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum L. (Liliacea is a perennial bulb with a tall, erect flowering stem. The bulb of the plant has been used in many parts of the world as a stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, anthelmintic and diuretic. This study has been planned to assess the diuretic activity of fresh garlic bulb extract targeting the steroidal and triterpenoidal saponin content. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 animal each as vehicle control (2 % tragacanth suspension, standard drug frusemide (20 mg/kg, p.o, and n-butanol extract (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o treated. Urine was collected in a graduated cylinder and its volume was measured for next 5 hr. Na+, K+ and Cl- concentrations were measured. Phytochemical analysis of A. sativum n-butanol fraction showed presence of steroids, triterpenoidal saponins and carbohydrates. At 20 mg/kg dose onset of diuresis and total volume of urine formed was significantly (P<0.01-0.05 higher. Fifth hour urine volume at 20 mg/kg dose was 9.3 ml as compared to 5.5 ml of control. Extract at 20 mg/kg dose produced 24.57% increase in Na+ excretion against 132.65% increase by frusemide when compared to control signifying natriuretic and aquaretic response. The study confirmed the ethnopharmacological and Ayurvedic use of A. sativum as a diuretic agent.

  19. Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos mediated genotoxic and cytotoxic assessment on root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhghatulla Shaikh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are direct recipients of agro – toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. The meristematic mitotic cell of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. Onion root tips were grown on moistened filter paper in petri dish at room temperature. Germinated root tips were then exposed to three concentrations of each pesticide for 24 h. About 1 – 2 mm length of root tip was cut, fixed in cornoy’s fixative, hydrolyzed in warm 1 N HCL, stained with acetocarmine and squashed on glass slide. About 3000 cells were scored and classified into interphase and normal or aberrant division stage. Cytotoxicity was determined by comparing the mitotic index (MI of treated cells with that of the negative control. The MI of cells treated with Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos at one or more concentration was half or less than that of control are said to be cytotoxic. Genotoxicity was measured by comparing the number of cells/1000 in aberrant division stages at each dose with the negative control using Mann – Whitney U test. Both Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos are genotoxic at higher concentrations i.e. 0.001%, 0.002% and 0.028%, 0.056% inducing chromosome fragment, chromosome lagging and bridges, stick chromosome and multipolar anaphase.

  20. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation. PMID:26563916

  1. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments. PMID:26043852

  2. Determination of gamma ray doses suitable for mutation induction in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (Control, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 rads). The cloves were planted in 4 replicates at Deer Alhajar station of the Dept. of Radiation Agriculture. Number of surviving plants was recorded at 2 months after planting and at harvest. Length of foliage was measured at harvest time and weight of cloves was taken two weeks after harvest. Visual readings in the field on plant shape and leaf color were also taken. The results indicated a negative effect of gamma radiation on plant survival especially at doses of 750 and 1000 rads where no plants survived until harvest. Plant length and clove weight were reduced even at 500 rad dose. Percentage of yellow and necrotic plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. No stimulation of plant growth was noticed as a result of irradiation with low doses of gamma rays. Treatment with 500 rads of gamma radiation was considered the best among tested doses for garlic mutagenesis (Using cloves) since it gave acceptable rate of survival and morphologic variation. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  3. Inhibitory effects of Enteromorpha linza polysaccharide on micronucleus of Allium sativum root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Liu, Chongbin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the antimutagenic function of the polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with the micronucleus test of Allium sativum root cells induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet was studied. The concentration-effect relation of the two inducers was firstly evaluated. The results showed that an increase of genotoxicity damage was demonstrated and micronuclei frequency induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet displayed dose dependent increases. All the doses of polysaccharide did affect the micronuclei frequency formation compared with the negative control. And also, the significant increase in inhibition rate of micronuclei frequency was observed with the increase of the dose of polysaccharide. It was showed maximum inhibition of micronuclei frequency cells (71.74% and 66.70%) at a concentration of 200g/mL in three experiments. The low molecular weight polysaccharide showed higher inhibition rate than raw polysaccharide at the higher concentration (50g/mL) in the absence of sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet. It was confirmed to be a good mutant inhibitor. PMID:26927934

  4. 沙葱提取物抗菌效果的研究%Antibacterial Effect of Extracts from Allium mongolicum Regel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚蕾; 罗瑞明

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on antibacterial activity and stability of the ethanol extracts from Allium mongolicum Regel. [Method] Taking Allium mongolicum Regel.(AMR) as experimental material, the antibacterial and stability test, antibacterial capacity and antibacterial activity substance stability of extracts were studied. [Result] Size order of antibacterial effect of extracts on these 5 strains tended to be:Saccharomyces cerevisiae > Penicillium sp.> Aspergillusniger> Staphylococcusaureus> Escherichia coli; under neutral or slight alkaline conditions, optimum antibacterial effect presented best; and UV light irradiation basically had no influence on tested strains. [Conclusion] Antibacterial effect of ethanol extract shows great difference among these strains, and antibacterial activity substance is of good heat and UV light stability.

  5. Assessment of constituents in Allium by multivariate data analysis, high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition assay and HPLC-SPE-NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jeppe Secher; Nyberg, Nils; Stærk, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Bulbs and leaves of 35 Allium species and cultivars bought or collected in 2010–2012 were investigated with multivariate data analysis, high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition assays and HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR with the aim of exploring the potential of Allium as a future functional food for management...... of type 2 diabetes. It was found that 30 out of 106 crude extracts showed more than 80% inhibition of the α-glucosidase enzyme at a concentration of 40 mg/mL (dry sample) or 0.4 g/mL (fresh sample). High-resolution α-glucosidase biochromatograms of these extracts allowed fast identification of three...

  6. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-d-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum

    OpenAIRE

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of thre...

  7. Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Allium fistulosum and Allium sativum Rust Leaves%葱蒜锈病叶的红外光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志遥; 刘海丽; 吴秋娟; 周湘萍; 刘刚; 董勤; 俞帆

    2011-01-01

    [目的]采用傅里叶变换红外光谱对葱蒜锈病叶进行了研究,探讨中红外光谱在作物病害诊断中的应用潜力.[方法]用傅里叶变换红外光谱测试了葱蒜正常绿叶及锈病叶,分析其光谱差异.[结果]葱、蒜绿叶的红外光谱主要显示了多糖类物质、蛋白质、酯类振动;正常绿葱蒜叶和锈病葱蒜叶光谱在1 800~1 000cm-1指纹范围显示了差异,与正常绿叶相比,锈病葱叶在1 640cm-1的酰胺Ⅰ振动峰变强,在1 103 cm-1处的肩峰不明显;锈病叶的吸收强度比A1640/A1063、A1640/A1736、A1640/A2924和A1063/A2924较正常叶相应比值A1638/A1059、A1638/A1738、A1638/A2922和A1059/A2922变大.正常蒜叶的多糖振动峰1056 cm-1为指纹区的最强峰,而锈病叶在1 634 cm-1处峰为指纹区的最强峰;锈病蒜叶的吸收强度比A1 634/A1069、A1634/A41099、A1409/A2 923和A1634/A1737较正常叶的相应比值A1627/A1056、A1627/A1104、A1411/A2920和A1627/A1740变大,锈病叶的A1634/A2923、A1069/A2923和A1737/A2923较相应正常叶的A1627/A2920,A1056/A2920,A1740/A2920变小.[结论]根据红外光谱差异可以区分绣病叶与正常叶,红外光谱可望发展成为作物病害检测的方法.%[Objective ] Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study Allium fistulosum and Allium sativum rust leaves, so as to explore the application potential of mid - infrared spectroscopy in the diagnosis of crop disease. [ Method ] The normal green leaves and rust leaves of A. Fistulosum and A. Sativum were tested using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and their spectral differences were analyzed. [Result] The infrared spectra of green leaves of A. Fistulosum and A. Sativum mainly demonstrated the vibrational bands of polysaccharides, protein and ester. Normal and rust leaves exhibited differences in the fingerprint interval of 1 800 - 1 000 cm" , in which the band at 1 640 cm-1 in the spectrum of A. Fistulosum rust leaf become stronger

  8. Pemberian Tepung Bawang Putih (Allium Sativum L.) Dalam Ransum Terhadap Performas Itik Peking Umur 1–8 Minggu (The Usage Of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) Powder In Feed On Performance Of Peking Duck 1–8 Weeks Of Age)

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Eniza; Hestiwahyuni, Tri; Saragih, Ganda Parulian

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this experiment was to observe the respon of The Usage of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.) in several levels on feed consumption, average daily gain (ADG) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and income over feed cost (IOFC) of Peking Duck 1–8 weeks of age. This research was conducted by using completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications each replication consist of 5 peking duck. The treatments were T0 = without garlic powder, T1 = 1,25% garlic powder...

  9. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vahdani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative control group received 1% ethylene glycol in water during the study. The low dose and high dose preventive groups received 750 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of Allium Jesdianum with 1% ethylene glycol every day. The 24-hour urine samples of rats were collected on days 1, 15 and 30 of the study. Then, under anesthesia, blood samples were taken directly from the heart. All rats were then killed and pathology of kidneys was checked for crystals of calcium oxalates in renal tubules. Data analysis was done by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA. Results: The number of calcium oxalate crystals in the negative control group (18.7 ±26.1, the low dose preventive group (5.3±8.2 and high dose preventive group (80.6±82.8 in comparison to the healthy control group were increased and this difference in the high dose preventive group and healthy control group was significant (p <0.05 . Urinary oxalate in the 30th day was more in both preventive groups and negative control group in comparison to healthy control group and this diference was statistically significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that Allium Jesdianum doesn't have a preventive effect on the formation of renal stones, and it also increases calcium oxalate crystals in kidney of male wistar rats that need more studies.

  10. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  11. GC-MS Investigation of Essential oil and antioxidant activity of Egyptian White Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed El-Wakil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study carried out to investigate the chemical constituents of white onion (Allium cepa L. essential oil as well as evaluate the antioxidant activities, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of their different extracts. Methods: The Essential oil of white onion (Allium cepa L. bulbs were extracted by hydro distillation method and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS to determine the chemical composition of the volatile compounds. The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of white onion and its derived fractions (n-butanol and water fractions were determined by using two different spectrophotometric techniques as DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and phosphomolybdenum assay. Also, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined. Results: In total, GC-MS analysis showed 40 compounds representing 93.89 % of the total oil composition were identified. The major compound in this essential oil was dodecane (28.69 % and the other predominant constituents were represented 65.20% contains hydrocarbons, alkaloids and organosulfur compounds. The antioxidant results showed that the butanolic fraction has the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay (SC50 = 59.21 ± 0.35 μg/ml and phosphomolybdnum assay (127.92 ± 1.00 mg ascorbic acid eq. /g ext.. Also, the butanolic fraction has high total phenolic (41.05± 0.34 mg gallic acid eq. /g ext. and flavonoid contents (3.82± 0.24 (mg rutin eq. /g ext.. Conclusion: The essential oil content and the antioxidant results of white onion (Allium cepa L. may be have great potential for their application in food preservation and natural health products.

  12. Chromatographic analysis and antiproliferative potential of aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peels using the Allium cepa test

    OpenAIRE

    Andrielle Wouters Kuhn; Marília Tedesco; Aline Augusti Boligon; Margareth Linde Athayde; Haywood Dail Laughinghouse IV; Solange Bosio Tedesco

    2015-01-01

    Punica granatum L., locally known as romanzeira, is native to Asia but found throughout Brazil. P. granatum is used for treating inflammatory, infectious and respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chromatography and genotoxicity of an aqueous extract of P. granatum (pomegranate) fruit peel using the Allium cepa L. test. The experiment set-up entailed 7 treatments: T1-distilled water, T2-tea 5 g.L-1, T3-tea 10 g.L-1, T4-glyphosate at 9.6%, T5-glyphosate with subsequent...

  13. Shoots and roots profiles of metabolites, enzymes and anatomy of Allium schoenoprasum grown in heavy metal contaminated solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makhmudova, M.; Soudek, Petr; Ljubenova, L.; Ostrozhenkova, E.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Schröder, P.; Eisenreich, W.; Bacher, A.; Golan-Goldhirsh, A.

    Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2006, s. 38. [Scientific Meeting of WG1 /1./ Root to shoot translocation of pollutants and nutrients. COST Action /859./. Santiago de Compostela (ES), 22.06.2006-24.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP522/06/P002; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Allium schoenoprasum * enzymes * heavy metals Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  14. Zapažanja o infekciji češnjaka (Allium sativum L.) virusom mozaika krastavca

    OpenAIRE

    Štefanac, Zlata; Miličić, Davor

    1992-01-01

    Virus mozaika krastavca (CMV), već prije izdvojen iz nepoznatog kultivara jesenskog češnjaka (Allium sativum L. subsp. sagittatum Kuzn.), prenijeli smo na češnjak cv. Moravan koji je već bio zaražen latentnim nitastim virusima. Prenošenje virusa CMV postizali smo uz pomoć Myzus persicae no samo iz zaraženih primjeraka Nicotiana megálosiphon, N. glutinosa i Chenopodium quinoa, ali ne iz češnjaka. Zaražene biljke koje su rasle na otvorenom pokazivale su malobrojne klorotične pruge na listovima ...

  15. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh BORDE; Mayura DUDHANE; Paramjit Kaur JITE

    2010-01-01

    Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl...

  16. The Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Some Quality Properties and Shelf-Life of Set and Stirred Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞDU, Engin; ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; DAĞDEMİR, Elif

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine some properties of set and stirred type yoghurts containing 0.5% and 1% garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage period of 28 days at 4±1 °C. Some microbiological, physical, chemical, and sensory properties of yoghurts were determined in days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the storage period. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all samples during the storage period ( 0.05) and sensory scores of yoghurts decreased during the storage period. It was also shown ...

  17. The effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on growth and immune responses of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, J.; Ndong, D.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O.aureus) were held in 1000 l fiberglass tanks at 27 ºC supplied with a filter and an aeration system. Garlic (Allium sativum) was incorporated into diets (0 %, 0.5 % and 1 %) of juvenile hybrid tilapia, O. niloticus x O. aureus (25.5 ± 1.0 g). Non-specific cellular and humoral responses were evaluated at the beginning and after 2-4 weeks. Total leucocyte count, respiratory burst, phagyctic activity, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were ...

  18. Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia R. de Rainho; Andréa Kaezer; Claudia A. F. Aiub; Israel Felzenszwalb

    2010-01-01

    N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), can be formed by the reaction of secundary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH) using T...

  19. Relative biological effectiveness of d(50)-Be neutrons determined for induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of d(50)-Be neutrons, as a function of absorbed dose, was determined using as biological criterion induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots. Two endpoints were used: mean number of aberrations per cell and percentage of intact cells, in anaphase and telophase. For both endpoints, RBE increases regularly from 7 to 12 when neutron absorbed dose decreases from 0.4 to 0.1 Gy. On the other hand, RBE/absorbed dose relationships are almost straight lines, in logarithmic coordinates, with a slope close to -1/2

  20. Cytological effects of single and combined treatments with x-rays, IAA and GA3 in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatments with IAA and GA3 singly and especially after x-irradiation produced significant reduction in mitotic index in root meristem of Allium cepa. Pre- and post-irradiation treatments with IAA and GA3 also showed significant reduction in x-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations. The percentage of protection ranged from 18-55 with IAA and 14-53 with GA3. These growth hormones were considered to have reduced aberrant cells by providing protection against initial radiation damage and also by stimulating restitution presumably by affecting DNA synthesis and also by stimulating protein synthesis respectively. (author)

  1. Incorporation of Allium sativum in yogurt: In vitro study on inhibition of diabetes- and hypertension-associated enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Shabboo Amirdivani Amirdivani

    2015-01-01

    The effects of inclusion of Allium sativum on yogurt formation and subsequent storage (4°C, up to 28 days) on proteolysis, microbial activity, the inhibition of a-amylase, a-glucosidase and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE-1) in vitro were investigated. A. sativum-yogurt showed higher rates of pH reduction and increment of TA than plain-yogurt during incubation at 41°C. Highest proteolysis,  on day 7 showed in A. sativum-yogurt (62.7±0.80 mg/mL), which was 2-flod higher than plain yogurt ...

  2. Actividad antioxidante e inhibidora de a-glucosidasa y a-amilasa de tres variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia X. López-Martínez; Luisa M. Aguilar Cisneros; Octavio Dublán-García

    2014-01-01

    La cebolla (Allium cepa L.) ha sido cultivada durante miles de años y es utilizada como un componente importante en la dieta del ser humano. Estudios recientes sugieren que su consumo puede reducir o prevenir problemas de salud como asma, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes, debido a sus efectos antioxidantes. En este estudio se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, la capacidad antiradical y la inhibición de las enzimas α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de extractos acuosos y ...

  3. Investigation of Proline, Chlorophyll and Carotenoids Changes Under Drought Stress in Some Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    HANCI, Fatih; CEBECİ, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the major limitations for vegetable growth and productivity all over the World. In this study the effects of drought stress on proline, chlorophyll a/b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids were investigated in some onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars (Kantartopu-3, Akgun-12 and Texas Early Grano) under the early plant growth phase. Seeds were germinated in peat material and transferred to plastic pots after 21 days of sowing. The plants have been grown in vermiculite by “substrat...

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Allium hookeri consumed in Xishuangbanna, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren; Wang, Yuan-Fei; Sun, Qian; Hu, Hua-Bin

    2014-06-01

    The essential oil from the rhizomes of Allium hookeri Thwaites, obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction, was analyzed by GC-MS. Di-2-propenyl trisulfide (31.8%), diallyl disulfide (28.4%), and dipropyl trisulfide (8.4%) were the main constituents among the thirteen identified components. The essential oil showed strong activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans with MIC (the minimal inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) values ranging from 32-64 microg/mL. These results suggest that the essential oil from the rhizomes of A. hookeri could be used as a potential antimicrobial ingredient in the food industry. PMID:25115101

  5. Respons Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Bawang Merah (Allium ascalonicum L.) Terhadap Pemberian Kompos TKKS dan Jarak Tanam di Dataran Rendah

    OpenAIRE

    Simangunsong, Tombang Romario

    2016-01-01

    This research was to study the response of the growth and production of onion (Allium ascalonicum L.) due to the giving of oil palm empty fruit bunches compost and the plant spacing in the lowlands. This research was conducted at the land of citizens in Jl. Pasar I No. 89, Tanjung Sari Village, District of Medan Selayang from May to July 2015, and used Split Plot Design, with 2 factors and three replications. Main plot is the plant spacing (20 cm x 20 cm, 20 cm x 15 cm and 2...

  6. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD) were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts) were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC) of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day) were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p ...

  7. Powdery mildew of Allium species caused by Oidiopsis taurica in Brazil Oídio em espécies do gênero Allium, causado por Oidiopsis taurica, no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (Syn. Oidiopsis sicula Scalia was identified as the causal agent of a powdery mildew disease occurring on distinct Allium species in Brazil. This disease was initially observed in plastic house and field-grown garlic (Allium sativum and leek (A. porrum accessions in Brasília (Federal District and in field-grown and greenhouse onion (A. cepa cultivars in Belém do São Francisco (Pernambuco State and Brasília, respectively. Typical symptoms consisted of chlorotic areas on the leaf surface corresponding to a fungal colony. These lesions turned to a brownish color with the progress of the disease. Fungi morphology was similar to that described for O. taurica. Endophytic mycelium emerging through estomata, light pale conidia were dimorphic (lanceolate primary conidia and somewhat cylindrical secondary conidia, fibrosin bodies were absent, conidia formed predominantly single (not in chains, and appressoria were non-lobed. Its sexual stage, Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arnaud, was not observed. Inoculations were performed with the O. taurica isolates from distinct Allium hosts. These isolates were also pathogenic to sweet pepper and tomato, indicating an apparent absence of host specialization. One bunching onion (A. fistulosum accessions was not infected by O. taurica suggesting that this species might carry useful resistance alleles to this pathogen. This is the first formal report of a powdery mildew disease on species of the genus Allium in Brazil. This disease might become important on these vegetable crops especially in hot and dry areas such as those in the Central and Northeast regions of Brazil.O fungo Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (= Oidiopsis sicula Scalia foi identificado como sendo o agente causal de uma nova doença do tipo oídio em alho (Allium sativum, alho porró (A. porrum e cebola (A. cepa no Brasil. Esta doença foi observada tanto em condições de casa de vegetação quanto a campo em Brasília e Pernambuco. O

  8. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  9. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  10. Radioprotective Properties of Allium sativum (Garlic Extract on Cultured Human Lymphocytes against Electron Beam Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama N Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The radioprotective effects of naturally occurring compounds from herbs have been investigated in vitro and in vivo considering their ethnopharmacological role in prevention and treatment of cancer. Allium sativum supplementation in diet has been shown to be beneficial to cancer patients. The present study was designed to detect the radioprotective effect of garlic extract (GE on cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Garlic bulbs were extracted using ethanol and water separately followed by assays on antioxidant activities to assess the efficiency of radical scavenging capacity of various extracts. Lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of GE for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr periods. Cell survival was determined by tryphan blue dye exclusion assay, single strand DNA damage by alkaline comet assay and in vitro cytogenetic damages were evaluated by micronucleus assays. Ethanol boiled GE showed highest radical scavenging capacity and reducing property. Treatment of GE to lymphocytes before and after exposure to 4Gy of electron beam radiation (EBR the percentage of tail DNA was reduced from 24.06±3.92 to 2.87±0.18. The elevated micronucleus formation in radiation control group (13.15±0.75 was significantly reduced in various concentrations of GE treated groups (10.35±0.44, 7.05±1.17, 6.42±0.47 respectively. Cells treated with GE at 10µg/mL showed maximum viability after exposure to EBR. Present investigations indicate that ethanol boiled GE shows good radiation protection at 10µg/mL concentration. However, increase in concentration above this dose though resulted in higher protection, increased cell toxicity was also noticed.

  11. The effectiveness of garlic extract (Allium sativum linn in controlling aflatoxicosis in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romsyah Maryam

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxicosis is a disease generated as the consequence of aflatoxin contamination in foods and feeds. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn., a natural spice known to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins in poultry. Twenty five laying hens were used to study the effectiveness of garlic extract in reducing aflatoxicosis. The animals were divided into 5 groups i.e (1 control group, (2 group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH, (3 group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH and 4% garlic extract in feed, (4 group treated with 5 mg/kg BH, and (5 group treated with 5.0 mg/kg BH and 4% garlic extract in feed. Body weight gains, eggs production, and the activity of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, and γ-glutamytransferase (γ- GT enzymes were observed every week. The residue levels of the aflatoxin and metabolites were measured in the eggs using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results indicated that group treated with 0.4 mg AFB1/kg BH dan 5.0 mg AFB1/kg BH resulted in decreasing body weight gains, egg production, and increasing the level of GOT, GPT and γ-GT. The addition of 4% garlic extract in the feed was effective to improve the body weight gain and egg production only in the group of chicken treated with 0.4 mg AFB1/kg BH. However, it decreased the enzymes activities of the GOT, GPT, and γ-GT, as well as reduced the aflatoxin residues and metabolites in the groups at both aflatoxin levels (0.4 and 5.0 mg/kg BH. Aflatoxin residues decreased up to 42.2% for the group treated with the low dose of AFB1 (0.4 mg/kg and 49.0% for the group treated with the high dose of AFB1 (5 mg/kg.

  12. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4′-glucoside (Q4′G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4′G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1–256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  13. Ultrapathological evaluation of the anticancer effect of blackseed (Nigella sativa and garlic (Allium sativum in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Gamal Nouh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, 120 virgin female mice (body weight 40±10 gm were divided into 6 equal groups. Mice in Group 1 served as a control. Mice in Groups 2 and 3 were fed on a basal diet provided with 100 mg/kg b.wt from each of blackseed (Nigella sativa and garlic (Allium sativum, respectively, for one month. Mice in Group 4 were inoculated subcutanously (S/C with Ehrlich tumor cells after one month from the start of the experiment. Mice in Groups 5 and 6 were treated similarly to those in Groups 3 and 4, respectively, for one month and then immediately inoculated S/C with Ehrlich tumor cells (ETC, 0.1 mL/mouse. Blood samples were taken from mice of Groups 1, 2 and 3 at one month of experiment and tissue specimens were collected from mice in all groups two weeks after inoculation of Ehrlich tumor cells. Histopathologically, Groups 2 and 3 showed proliferation of mononuclear phagocytic system and mild degeneration of internal organs. In Group 4, histopathology revealed neoplastic mass with signs of malignancy, ultrastructurely exhibited pleomorphism, degenerated organelles with activated euo- and heterochromatin and cavitations of the cytoplasm. Groups 5 and 6 revealed much smaller neoplastic growth with necrosis and hemorrhage. The necrotic neoplastic cells replaced by empty cavities with congested blood vessels, the others showed pyknotic or karryolytic nuclei. In Groups 5 and 6, the electron microsopic appearance of the neoplastic growth exhibited degenerated and swollen cells with multiple cavitations. Most of the cytoplasmic organelles were degenerated with activation of lysozymes. It could be concluded that, both garlic and black seed minimize the histopathological and electron microscopic alterations of ETC in mice.

  14. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  15. Sperm immobilization activity of Allium sativum L. and other plant extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KausikiChakrabarti; SulagnaPal; AsokK.Bhattacharyya

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To identify possible spermicidal agents through screening a number of edible medicinal plants with antimicrobial activity. Methods: Initial screening was made on the basis of ram cauda epididymal sperm immobiliza-tion immediately after addition of extracts. The most potent extract was selected and was evaluated on both ram and human spermatozoa. To unravel its mode of action several sperm functional tests were carried out, namely viability of cells, hypo-osmotic swelling test for membrane integrity and assays of membrane-bound enzyme 5'-nucleotidase and acrosomal marker enzyme acrosin. Results: The crude aqueous extract of the bulb ofAllium sativum L. Showed the most promising results by instant immobilization of the ram epididymal sperm at 0.25 g/mL and human ejaculated sperm at 0.5 g/mL. Sperm immobilizing effects were irreversible and the factor of the extract responsible for immobilization was thermostable up to 90℃. On boiling at 100℃ for 10 minutes, this activity was markedly reduced. Moreover, this extract was able to cause aggregation of ram sperms into small clusters after 30 minutes of incubation at 37℃. However this property was not found in human spermatozoa. More than 50 % reduction in sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling occurred in treated sperm as compared with the controls, indicating the possibility of plasma membrane disintegration which was further supported by the significant reduction in the activity of membrane bound 5''-nucleotidase and acrosomal acrosin. Conclusion: The crude aqueous extract of A. Sativum bulb possesses spermicidal activity in vitro. (Asian J Androl 2003 Jun, 5:131-135 )

  16. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  17. In vitro assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic (allium sativum) extracts on pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S K; Saha, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K

    2015-04-01

    The study was aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of crude and aqueous extract of garlic (Allium stivum) against standard strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and antibiotic Imipenem were also determined with the help of broth dilution method. Inhibitory effect of crude garlic extract (CGE) was determined by inoculation of bacteria in CGE incorporated nutrient agar (NA) media and for AGE antibacterial effect was determined by disc diffusion method. All experiments except disc diffusion procedure were reconfirmed by subculture in pure NA media. In case of CGE the growth inhibition of test organism was observed in 30% CGE incorporated NA media. On the other hand sensitivity of AGE also determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 7 mm, 12 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. The MICs of AGE and Imipenem were 600 μg/ml and 1μg/ml. The MIC of imipenen was far less in comparison with the MIC of AGE. From the findings it is clearly determined that both the extracts have definite antibacterial effect upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. Only then the Garlic extracts fulfilled the criteria for its therapeutic use. Still then external application advised for burn and superficial skin infections and may be used in food poisoning, and respiratory tract infection along with conventional antibiotics which are used in those conditions. PMID:26007246

  18. Exploring the structural basis for selenium/mercury antagonism in Allium fistulosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNear, Jr., David H.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A. (UCIN); (Kentucky)

    2012-12-10

    While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a 'background' of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, Se{sup 0} and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(II) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(II) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg{sup 0} in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.

  19. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Gindri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quantified in the roots and leaves infusions by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD, with the mobile phase of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5: acetonitrile at 95:5 (v/v. To the genotoxicity test, onion bulbs were used. After the rootlets germination, each bulb was submitted for 24 h of the individual treatments. Were analyzed 1000 cells per bulb, in a total of 5000 cells per treatment. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of roots infusions induced chromosomes abnormalities, except for the highest, that caused a substantial inhibition in the mitosis, precluding to be observed abnormalities. In the leaves infusions, only the two higher concentrations caused the highest values of damage in the cellular cycle. The oxalic acid also caused abnormalities in the mitosis, and may be considered responsible by part of the genotoxic action of U. baccifera. Conclusions: Oxalic acid can be responsible by part of the chromosomal abnormalities caused by U. baccifera, although, there must have more metabolites that evoke the same effect promoting the genotoxic effect of this nettle.

  20. Antiinflammatory and neurological activity of pyrithione and related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides from Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejčová, Petra; Kučerová, Petra; Stafford, Gary Ivan;

    2014-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum) is a bulbous plant native to Turkey, Iran and Central Asia. It is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including inflammation and stress. Antiinflammatory and neurological activities of...

  1. The specification of cultivation technology in Allium mongolicum and Cherry%樱桃、沙葱套种高效栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永; 扈顺; 李凤臻; 刘燕; 朱春侠

    2015-01-01

    沙葱是内蒙古新兴发展的一种特色野生蔬菜。为了发展新型种植模式,提高农民收益,通过多年试验,根据樱桃和沙葱的生长发育特性及种植习性,从土壤及整地要求、品种选择、播种时间、种植模式、水肥管理、病虫防治、采收晾晒等方面探索出樱桃套种沙葱(野生蔬菜)高效栽培与管理模式,旨在为樱桃套种沙葱技术提供科学依据。%Allium mongolicum is one species of new and developing characteristic wild vegetable in Inner Mongolia. In order to develop late-model and enhance income of farmer,By repeatedly experiment,according to growing developing and habit of Cherry and Allium mongolicum, some measures of efficient artificial domesticated cultivation of Cherry and Allium mongolicum were put forward,such as soil demand,introductive source,sowing time, productive technology,fertilizer and water management,pest control and the harvest,storage and transportation of seeds. It aimed to provide the direction for standardized cultivation of Cherry and Allium mongolicum.

  2. The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2003-01-01

    Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the s

  3. Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerab

  4. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on survival of salmonella and E.coli O157:H7 in soil and translocation into allium porrum roots and stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern agriculture disrupts the natural symbiotic relationship arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have with most vegetable plants, which may affect translocation of human pathogens into the plant. Five-month-old Allium porrum (leek) plants (with or without AMF [Glomus intraradices]) were used as a m...

  5. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  6. Genotoxicity of Thermopsis turcica on Allium cepa L. roots revealed by alkaline comet and random amplified polymorphic DNA assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Cenkci, Süleyman; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa; Konuk, Muhsin

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate genotoxic potential of Thermopsis turcica aqueous extracts on the roots of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.) by comet assay and random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. The Allium root growth inhibition test indicated that the EC50 and 2×EC50 values were 8 and 16 mg/ml concentrations of T. turcica aqueous extracts, respectively. The negative control (distilled water), positive control (methyl methane sulfonate, 10 mg/l) and 8 and 16 mg/ml concentrations of T. turcica extracts were introduced to the roots of onion bulbs for 24 and 96 h. The root growth, DNA damage in root cells and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of root tissue were used as endpoints of the genotoxicity. The comet assay clearly indicated that dose-dependent single strand DNA breaks in the root nuclei of onions were determined for the treatment concentrations of T. turcica extracts. In comparison to RAPD profile of negative control group, RAPD polymorphisms became evident as disappearance and/or appearance of RAPD bands in treated roots. The diagnostic and phenetic numerical analyses of RAPD profiles obviously indicated dose-dependent genotoxicity induced by Thermopsis extracts. In conclusion, the results clearly indicated that water extract of T. turcica has genotoxic potential on the roots of onion bulbs as shown by comet assay and RAPD technique. PMID:25550040

  7. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. PMID:26607106

  8. Dose-response of x-ray-induced anaphase aberrations in the mitotic root tip chromosomes of allium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified Allium root mitotic chromosome aberration assay by using only the aberrant anaphases (fragments, laggards and bridges) as the end-points were developed by Rank and Nielsen (1993) for screening water soluble chemicals and complex mixtures. A dose-response curve was established by Meir et al., (1994) using a known clastogen, 4-nitroquinolene-N-oxide between the dose range of 0.1-0.5 ug/ml. In order to further validate this assay for clastogen detection, a series of X-ray dose response experiments was carried out. Allium roots were germinated in tapwater for 48 h and treated with a series of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 R (80 Kvp, 5 ma, dose rate 60 R/min) dosages. After an 18 hr recovery time, the root tips were hydrolyzed in 45% acetic and 1 N HC1 acid (9:1 ratio) solution under 50 degrees C for 5 min and stained with aceto-carmine. Each of the data points were derived from scoring 7-10 slides (15-50 anaphases/slide). The corrrelation coefficient, slope and intercept values of the dose-response curve are: 0.954, 0.515 and 1.155 respectively

  9. Water Quality of Urban Streams: The Allium cepa Seeds/Seedlings Test as a Tool for Surface Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gonçalves Athanásio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P<0.05. The sample from Pedras downstream site also caused a decrease in mitotic index (P<0.08 and increase in micronuclei (P<0.08 frequency, indicating potential cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. The Pedras stream receives mixed industrial and urban wastewater, while the Lajeado and Preto streams receive wastewater predominantly domestic in nature, which may partially explain the difference in toxicity among the samples. Moreover, the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF SULPHUR ON THE CONTENT OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur is essential in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with high nutritional value that typically accumulate in Allium species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sulphur on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L. variety Mundo. The content of total polyphenols was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR and the content ranged from 352.46±16.22 to 899.16±33.84 mg.kg-1. At II. a III. collection we found a slight statistically positive correlation between the content of sulphur in soil and the content of total polyphenols in onion (P-value = 5.57.10-2, P-value = 1.80.10-2. Antioxidant activity (AOA in plant material was determined by free radical DPPH•. The results shown a slight increase in the value of the antioxidant activity compared to the control variant, but no statistically significant relationship was not recorded (P-value 0.05.

  11. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration. PMID:27453278

  12. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Donghua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electron microscopy (EM techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10-5 to 10-3 M of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10-3 to 10-4 M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. Results After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Conclusions Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification

  13. Correlation between heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, lead concentrations and root length of Allium cepa L. in polluted river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Moreno Palacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed using the common onion (Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator of toxicity of heavy metals in river water. The test waters were collected at two sampling sites: at the beginning and the end of the Toledo River. The bulbs of A. cepa L. were grown in test water with nine concentration levels of copper, zinc and lead from 0.1 to 50 ppm. In the laboratory, the influence of these test liquids on the root growth was examined during five days. For test liquids containing below 0.03-ppm dissolved Cu the root growth was reduced by 40% However, the same reduction occurred for 1-ppm dissolved Zn. For dissolved Pb, results reveal toxicity above 0.1 and 0.6 ppm at the beginning and the end of the Toledo river water, respectively.O presente trabalho foi realizado utilizando a cebola comum (Allium cepa L. como bioindicador da toxicidade de metais pesados em água de rio. As águas de teste foram coletadas em dois locais: na nascente e na foz do rio Toledo. Os bulbos de A. cepa L. foram cultivados em água de teste com nove níveis de concentração de cobre, zinco e chumbo de 0,1 a 50 ppm. Em laboratório a influência destes líquidos de teste em crescimento de raiz foi examinada durante cinco dias. Em todos os líquidos de teste o metal dissolvido contido foi medido pela técnica TXRF. Para líquidos de teste contendo 0,1-ppm de Cu dissolvido o crescimento da raiz foi reduzido em 50%. Entretanto, ocorreu a mesma redução para 1-ppm de Zn dissolvido. Para Pb dissolvido, o método do Allium teste revela toxidade acima de 0,1 e 0,5 ppm para a nascente e a foz do rio Toledo, respectivamente.

  14. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini; Marcia Flores da Silva; Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva Machado

    1999-01-01

    A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas), em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM) do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim con...

  15. EFEITO DA COBERTURA MORTA NO CRESCIMENTO E NA PRODUÇÃO DO ALHO (Allium sativum L. THE EFFECT OF THE MULCHING IN THE GROWTH AND BULB PRODUCTION OF GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi avaliado o efeito das coberturas mortas do solo: palha de arroz, casca de arroz, cepilho de madeira, grama cortada e folhas de árvores, no crescimento e na produção do alho (Allium sativum L. cultivar Cateto Roxo. Os tratamentos de cobertura do solo foram feitos logo após o plantio e em camada suficiente apenas para cobrir o solo. Concluiu-se que a cobertura morta favoreceu o crescimento inicial e a produção de bulbos. Os materiais testados em cobertura do solo mostraram-se equivalentes, porém com tendência para o tratamento com casca de arroz superar os demais.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alho; AIlium sativum; cobertura morta dos solos; produção.

    The effect of flue mulching in the growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L. cv. ‘Cateto Roxo’, was evaluated. The soil cover treatments: rice straw, rice husk, smoothing plane, cut grass and dry leaves of tree, was done just after planting and in layers just to cover the soil. It was concluded that mulching favoured initial growing and bulb production. Tested materials were showed to be equivalent however with tendency to rice husk overcome the other ones.

    KEY-WORDS: Garlic; production; mulching; growth.

  16. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery by onion (Allium cepa) as influenced by N and S application in a sulphur deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted in a sulphur deficient sandy loam soil to evaluate the fertilizer N-utilization by onion (Allium cepa) using 15N-labelled urea. The fresh bulb yield of onion significantly increased with the application of both nitrogen and sulphur. The recovery of fertilizer N by onion was 23.4 to 34.4 per cent at 60 kg N/ha and between 17.5 and 19.3 per cent at 120 kg/ha level. Application of nitrogen with sulphur at 20 kg S/ha through gypsum resulted in significant increase in per cent utilization of urea nitrogen. Nearly 57 to 68 per cent of the residual fertilizer N could be traced in soil after the harvest of onion crop, whereas, 9 to 14 per cent of the applied fertilizer N could not be accounted for. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  17. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE was studied on free amino acids (FAA level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P<0.01 increase in Free amino acid (FAA level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with 4ml/kg body weight of garlic extract there was a not significant increase in Free Amino Acid (FAA level was observed.

  18. Dažu smago metālisko elementu noteikšana ķiplokos (Allium sativum)

    OpenAIRE

    Bleidele, Zaiga

    2016-01-01

    Dažu smago metālisko elementu noteikšana ķiplokos (Allium sativum). Bleidele Z., zinātniskais vadītājs Dr. ķīm., prof. Vīksna A. Bakalaura darbs, 48 lappuses, 21 attēli, 19 tabulas, 45 literatūras avoti, 5 pielikumi. Latviešu valodā. Darbā tika analizēti Latvijā un Ķīnā audzēti ķiploki un lielveikalos nopirktās ķiploku garšvielas. Eksperimentāli tika noteikts cinka un vara masas koncentrācijas izmantojot liesmas atomabsorbcijas spektrometriju, bet svina un kadmija masas koncentrācijas noteikš...

  19. Cytogenetic effects of the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on root-tip cells of Allium sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K.N.; Benner, J.F.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1978-02-01

    Chromosomal and mitotic abnormalities induced by the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on the root-tips of garlic, Allium sativum L., were investigated. Chromosomal abnormalities in the form of breakages, bridges, lags, stickiness, and differential condensation were observed. In addition, multinucleate cells, polyploid cells, and multipolar mitotic divisions were observed. In general the results indicate that the percentage of abnormalities increased when root-tips were exposed to higher numbers of smoke puffs. The effect of the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke on the mitotic index is striking. It shows a slight increase at a low number of puffs and a decrease at high numbers, particularly at the 10, 15 and 20 puff levels. The results indicate that the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke induces significant effects on chromosome structure and number.

  20. RBE of 650-MeV helium ions at different depths for chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction of chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa onion roots has been used as biological criterion in order to determine the RBE of 650-MeV helium ions as a function of depth. These experiments were carried out at the synchrotron Saturne at Saclay (France). The Bragg peak of the helium ion beam was spread out, over a depth of about 5 cm, by means of a 'ridge filter'. RBE of the 650-MeV helium ions was determined at the beginning (13 cm in depth), middle (15 cm) and end (17 cm) of the spread-out Bragg peak using as reference radiation quality the initial plateau (2 cm in depth). (orig./MG)

  1. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  2. Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. de Rainho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, can be formed by the reaction of secundary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25mM genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30mg/mL. After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM, showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity, but not for Trad-SH test.Nitrocompostos, como N-nitrosodietilamina (NDEA, podem ser formados pela reação entre uma amina secundária e agentes nitrosantes e são suspeitos de estarem envolvidos na formação de tumores em humanos. NDEA é considerada um carcinógeno fraco e ensaios genotóxicos provavelente pela utilização de um sistema de ativação ineficiente e/ou pela utilização de um eficiente sistema de reparo. Neste trabalho, nós avaliamos a sensibilidade de ensaios com Alliu cepa L. e Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-SH à genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade induzidas por diferentes concentrações de NDEA (0,1; 0,5; 5 e 25mM por 3h, por 3 dias consecutivos, incluindo controle

  3. Allium compounds, dipropyl and dimethyl thiosulfinates as antiproliferative and differentiating agents of human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Merhi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Faten Merhi1, Jacques Auger2, Francine Rendu1, Brigitte Bauvois11UMR 7131 UPMC Paris Universitas/CNRS, Groupe Hospitalier Broussais-HEGP, Paris, France; 2University F. Rabelais, IRBI, UPRESA CNRS 6035, Tours, FranceAbstract: Epidemiologic studies support the premise that Allium vegetables may lower the risk of cancers. The beneficial effects appear related to the organosulfur products generated upon processing of Allium. Leukemia cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML display high proliferative capacity and have a reduced capacity of undergoing apoptosis and maturation. Whether the sulfur-containing molecules thiosulfinates (TS, diallyl TS (All2TS, dipropyl TS (Pr2TS and dimethyl TS (Me2TS, are able to exert chemopreventative activity against AML is presently unknown. The present study was an evaluation of proliferation, cytotoxicity, differentiation and secretion of AML cell lines (U937, NB4, HL-60, MonoMac-6 in response to treatment with these TS and their related sulfides (diallylsulfide, diallyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide. As assessed by flow cytometry, ELISA, gelatin zymogaphy and RT-PCR, we showed that Pr2TS and Me2TS, but not All2TS and sulfides, 1 inhibited cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner and this process was neither due to cytotoxicity nor apoptosis, 2 induced macrophage maturation, and 3 inhibited the levels of secreted MMP-9 (protein and activity and TNF-α protein, without altering mRNA levels. By establishing for the first time that Pr2TS and Me2TS affect proliferation, differentiation and secretion of leukemic cell lines, this study provides the opportunity to explore the potential efficiency of these molecules in AML.Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, thiosulfinate, proliferation, differentiation, matrix metalloproteinase-9

  4. Free amino acid and cysteine sulfoxide composition of 11 garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Harnly, James M

    2005-11-16

    Two garlic subspecies (n = 11), Allium sativum L. var. opioscorodon (hardneck) and Allium sativum L. var. sativum (softneck), were evaluated for their free amino acid composition. The free amino acid content of garlic samples analyzed ranged from 1121.7 to 3106.1 mg/100 g of fresh weight (mean = 2130.7 +/- 681.5 mg/100 g). Hardneck garlic had greater methiin, alliin, and total free amino acids contents compared to softneck garlic. The major free amino acid present in all but one subspecies was glutamine (cv. Mother of Pearl had aspartic acid as the major free amino acid). Cv. Music Pink garlic (a rocambole hardneck variety) contained the most methiin, alliin, and total free amino acids. The solid-phase extraction, alkylchloroformate derivatization, GC-FID, and GC-MS methods used in this study were simple and rapid, allowing 18 free amino acids in garlic to be separated within 10 min. PMID:16277408

  5. Efeito da administração do Allium sativum sobre as alterações cardiovasculares de ratos Wistar com infarto do miocárdio.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, T. U.; V.D Pinto; F. C.R. LESSA; J. V.M. FRANQUINI; W. N. OLIVEIRA NETO; W. C.S. COUTO; Santiago, M B; Nascimento, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    O alho (Allium sativum) apresenta várias ações benéficas ao sistema circulatório, tais como diminuição dos níveis de colesterol total, LDL-colesterol e da pressão arterial, além de efeito antioxidante. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da administração do Allium sativum sobre as alterações da hemodinâmica cardiovascular e estruturais macroscópicas do coração de animais com infarto induzido experimentalmente. Ratos Wistar foram tratados, previamente e após indução do infarto, com ho...

  6. 山东莱州发现三倍体薤白%Discovery of Triploid Allium macrostemon Bunge in Laizhou City of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云; 王艳化; 任晓莉; 张琳丰

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze the karyotype of Allium macrostemon Bunge in Laizhou City of Shandong Province. [Method] The root tip of A.macrostemon was pretreated with 8-hydroxyquinoline solution, fixed, dissociated and stained for preparing the glass slide to reveal the chromosome number via the microscopic examination; the sparse cells with good chromosome morphology were photographed under microscope. [Result] Allium macrostemon Bunge in Laizhou City introduced in this study was triploid; its somatic chromosome number was 24 and karyotype formula was K(2n)=3x=24m(2SAT)+1Bs, thus the karyotype belongs to 1A type. One of the chromosome No. 3 contained satellite, and chromosome deletion may be existed in one of the chromosome No. 5. In addition, B chromosome was observed in some cells. [Conclusion] This introduction of triploid A.macrostemon found in China was the first time.

  7. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle), Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya) dan Bawang Putih (Allium sativum) terhadap Penyerangan Ektoparasit pada Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Desita Sari Br

    2014-01-01

    The aimed of this research is to know effectiveness of use extract from garlic (Allium sativum ), betel leaf (Piper betle), and leaves pepaya (Carica papaya) against infection ectoparasite on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to know immunity from some ectoparasite against each treatment. Parameters water quality observed are temperature and degrees acidity ( ph ). Research is done in the 45 day. Analysis of variance calculations used to determine the effect of ectoparasites plants against ...

  8. In Vitro Evaluation Of Selected Plant Extracts As Biocontrol Agents Against Black Mold Aspergillus Niger Van Tieghem Of Onion Bulbs Allium Cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    SAIFELDIN A. F. EL-NAGERABI; Awad H. M. Ahmed; ABDULKADIR E. ELSHAFIE

    2015-01-01

    Black mold disease caused by Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh. is the most devastating infection occurs in onions Allium cepa L. under field and store conditions. The use of biocontrol agents is ecofriendly approach for controlling seedborne and soilborne diseases compared to the use of toxic synthetic fungicides. This study has been designed to assess the contamination levels of onion seeds with A. niger and its effect on seed germination and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Prunus ...

  9. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integra...

  10. The Application of the Cluster Analysis in Recognizing Weather Patterns Conducive to Large and Small Crops of Mid-late Onion Cultivars (Allium cepa L.) in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Robert KALBARCZYK

    2010-01-01

    This study uses 40 years valuable of data (1966-2005) obtained by the Polish Research Centre for Cultivar Testing and the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management to recognize weather conditions conducive to large and small crops of onion (Allium cepa L.), more specifically-its mid-late cultivars cultivated in Poland. We found three clusters of agrometeorological conditions, determining different sizes of onion crops. Cluster no. 1 included observations which were characterized by...

  11. In vitro investigation of the toxic effects of extracts of Allium sativum bulbs on adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus

    OpenAIRE

    F. Nchu; S.R. Magano; Eloff, J N

    2005-01-01

    The toxic effects of the extracts of Allium sativum (Garlic) were evaluated against adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and Rhipicephalus pulchellus using three types (Types A, B and C) of contact toxicity bioassays. A. sativum bulbs were extracted with acetone, ethanol and dichloromethane (DCM) solvents. Among these three solvents, it is the DCM extract of A. sativum that appears to have anti-tick activity. In the Type A contact toxicity bioassay, DCM extracts of A. sativum demonstrated a ...

  12. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kusal K. Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Swastika N. Das; Amrita Das Gupta

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...

  13. Multiplikace česneku kuchyňského (Allium sativum L.) v podmínkách in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Palíšek, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on study of Allium sativum multiplication and the composition of cultivation media. The best elaborated method is the multiplication of isolated apical meristem. Many different kinds of media have been tried, the results implies that each variety of garlic has different requirements for nutrients and growth regulators. In this work we can find descriptions of successful multiplication methods of and descriptions of used media, including the response of garlic to them. I...

  14. Development of an Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System and Production of Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Plants in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-01-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest...

  15. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Allium Sativum L.), Metformin dan Glibenklamid terhadap Kadar Gula Darah pada Mencit Diabetes yang Diinduksi Aloksan Tahun 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Syazwani Binti Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a physiological disease of glucose homeostasis changes that cause blood glucose levels (KGD) above normal. This condition is often called hyperglycemic. One alternative by herbal remedy that is believed to have hypoglycemic properties is garlic (Allium sativum l.). It contains Allisin and alliin serves as an anti-diabetic agents through a mechanism of insulin stimulation of the pancreas to release more. Objective: Assessing the impact of garlic extract...

  16. Evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a biopesticide against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nwachukwu Ifeanyi Daniel; Asawalam Elechi Franca

    2014-01-01

    Freshly prepared garlic (Allium sativum L.) juice, containing the antimicrobial allicin, was evaluated as a possible grain pro-tectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Each experiment was set out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications, and there was a control treatment. Adult mortality and weight loss percentage were investigated. There was an observed increase in adult mortality following days of exposure in all treatments. Statistically significa...

  17. Binding of 1-nitro-9- (3-dimethylaminopropylamino-acridine to the DNA of the apical meristem cells of adventitious onion (Allium cepa L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Antosiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was established that one half of the ledakrin (I-nitro-9-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino-acridine bound to the DNA in the cells of the studied onion root tips (Allium cepa L., forms labile complexes with it, the remaining half is covalently attached to only one strand of the DNA. One molecule of covalently bound ledakrin falls on average to 104-2X104 pairs of bases.

  18. Effect of Water Based Infusion of Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum on The Performance of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal Raziq, Sarzamin Khan*, Naila Chand, Asad Sultan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Rafiullah, Sayed Muhammad Suhail1 and Alam Zeb2

    2012-01-01

    Present study explored the potentials of medicinal plants (Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sativum) mixture in broiler chicks at a ratio of 1:3:1:2:1, respectively. For this purpose 240 chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups, namely; A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into two subgroups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. One of the subgroups was vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND), Infectious bronchit...

  19. Valgomojo svogūno (Allium cepa L.) ginogenezė ir homozigotinių linijų kūrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Juškevičienė, Danguolė

    2006-01-01

    Peculiarities of edible onions (Allium cepa L.) gynogenesis investigated in the dissertation work. Conditions for creation of dihaploid plants evaluated. Biological assumptions for preparation of methodical suggestions, that would enable improving of gynogenesis, determined. Stimulation effect of using TDZ and NAR in media on the formation of edible onion embryogenic tissue has been revealed for the first time. Characteristic higher frequency of gynogenesis of unfertilized flower of edible on...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove) and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit)

    OpenAIRE

    OO Johnson; GA Ayoola; T Adenipekun

    2013-01-01

    The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum) and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata) were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity....

  1. In vitro effect of essential oils from Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon and Allium sativum on two intestinal flagellates of poultry, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner L.; Callait M.P.; Granier C.; Chauve C.

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils may be effective preventive or curative treatments against several flagelated poultry parasites and may become primordial either to organic farms, or as more drugs are bannished. The anti-flagellate activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves of Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon pericarps and Allium sativum bulbs was investigated in vitro on Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis. On T. gallinarum, the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) at 24 hours w...

  2. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas, em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim contribuir para o crescimento das raízes de A. cepa expostas às concentrações de 5-aminouracil estudadas. As células meristemáticas da raiz de A. cepa parecem suportar um certo nível de danos não reparados no DNA, os quais não impedem a divisão celular e o conseqüente crescimento dos tecidos. Esta flexibilidade genética do genoma de vegetais deve se constituir numa resposta metabólica adaptativa para sustentar condições ambientais adversas.Cytological preparations of Allium cepa meristematic cells were examined under a light microscope to evaluate the effect of prolonged exposure (at least two-cell cycle to 5-aminouracil (5-AU on mitotic cell division in the roots. The results are a cytological demonstration that a lower concentration of 5-AU than usually employed for synchronizing proliferating cells in A. cepa root meristems induces chromosomal abnormalities and formation of micronucleus but does not fully block the cell flow into mitosis, and that micronucleated cells can proceed in mitosis and contribute to the enhancement of root length values reported by other authors. A. cepa root tip cells seems to support a certain damage level in DNA (around 10% of micronucleated cells in mitosis without having any negative effect on cellular proliferation and growth of the roots. This genetic flexibility of vegetable genomes may permit an attenuation of the adaptative metabolic-response to sustained adverse environmental conditions.

  3. Diversidade genética de cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L. por meio de marcador molecular rapd Genetic diversity of the cultivars of garlic (Allium sativum L. for molecular marker rapd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hortêncio Mota

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de determinar a diversidade genética entre doze cultivares de alho, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. Foram utilizados seis cultivares nobres e seis cultivares seminobres. A análise de agrupamento das similaridades genéticas foi realizada pelo método UPGMA, gerando um dendrograma utilizando o índice de Jaccard. Houve a formação de dois grupos, sendo o primeiro grupo formado pelas cultivares nobres (Roxo Pérola de Caçador, Chonan, Contestado 12, Caçador 30, Caçador 40 e Quitéria 595, ou seja, cultivares que precisam de vernalização para a formação do bulbo, e um segundo formado pelas cultivares seminobres (Gigante Curitibanos, Gigante Roxo, Gigante Roxão, Gravatá, Amarante e Cateto Roxo ou que não precisam de vernalização para a formação do bulbo. As cultivares nobres e seminobres apresentaram 57,1% e 54,2% de similaridade, respectivamente. Pelos resultados, pode-se concluir que o marcador molecular RAPD foi eficiente em separar dois grupos de cultivares de Allium sativum.The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity among twelve garlic cultivars, with RAPD molecular marker. Six cultivars noble and six cultivars half-noble were tested. The analysis of grouping by genetic similarities was carried out by the method of UPGMA with generated a dendrogram using the Jaccard index. Have the formation of two groups, being the first group formed by the cultivars noble (Roxo Pérola de Caçador, Chonan, Contestado 12, Caçador 30, Caçador 40 and Quitéria 595 those that need vernalization for the formation of the bulb and a second group formed by the cultivars half-noble (Gigante Curitibanos, Gigante Roxo, Gigante Roxão, Gravatá, Amarante and Cateto Roxo which do not need vernalization for formation of the bulb. The cultivars noble and half-noble presented 57,1% and 54,2% of similarity, respectively. The results allowed to conclued that RAPD molecular marker were

  4. Efecto del extracto de puerro (Allium porrum L. sobre la supervivencia de esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum Effect of leek extract (Allium porrum L. on the survival of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Argüello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de estimulantes de la germinación de los esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, colocados antes de la implantación del cultivo, son una alternativa de manejo de la enfermedad. Se evaluó el efecto de un extracto de puerro (Allium porrum L. sobre la supervivencia de los esclerocios del patógeno. Extracto de puerro fue colocado en cajas de Petri con 50 esclerocios, mezclados con 10 g de suelo, a las concentraciones 50, 75 y 100% (extracto en agua. Se determinó la eficiencia sobre la germinación de los esclerocios y la viabilidad de los recuperados, no germinados, ambos a los 30 y 60 días. El extracto de puerro disminuyó el porcentaje de esclerocios recuperados. Con extracto al 100% y 75% germinaron un 32-38,5% y 31,5-35,5%, respectivamente, de los esclerocios en los dos tiempos evaluados, y valores menores se encontraron con extracto al 50%. La viabilidad de los esclerocios recuperados disminuyó entre 66,5 y 54,5%, para el extracto al 100%, y entre 68,5% y 51,5% para el extracto al 75%, a los 30 y 60 días, respectivamente. La supervivencia de los esclerocios disminuyó por la estimulación de la germinación y por la pérdida de viabilidad luego de aplicados los extractos.The use of sclerotial germination stimulants of Sclerotium cepivorum prior to crop planting is an alternative for the management of the disease. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of leek extract (Allium porrum L. on the survival of sclerotia of S. cepivorum. Aqueous leek extract at concentrations of 50, 75 and 100% were placed in Petri dishes containing 50 sclerotia mixed with 10 g soil. Both the efficacy of the extract on sclerotia germination and the viability of recovered ungerminated sclerotia were determined after 30 and 60 days. Leek extract reduced the percentage of recovered sclerotia in all cases. Percentages of germinated sclerotia ranged from 32 to 38.5% and from 31.5% to 35.5% at 100% and 75% extract concentration respectively, at

  5. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

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    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal, coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH, green leafhopper (GLH and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH. Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice

  6. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  7. Allergenicity assessment of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin, a potential candidate protein for developing sap sucking insect resistant food crops.

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    Hossain Ali Mondal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL is highly antinutritional and toxic to various phloem-feeding hemipteran insects. ASAL has been expressed in a number of agriculturally important crops to develop resistance against those insects. Awareness of the safety aspect of ASAL is absolutely essential for developing ASAL transgenic plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following the guidelines framed by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, the source of the gene, its sequence homology with potent allergens, clinical tests on mammalian systems, and the pepsin resistance and thermostability of the protein were considered to address the issue. No significant homology to the ASAL sequence was detected when compared to known allergenic proteins. The ELISA of blood sera collected from known allergy patients also failed to show significant evidence of cross-reactivity. In vitro and in vivo assays both indicated the digestibility of ASAL in the presence of pepsin in a minimum time period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With these experiments, we concluded that ASAL does not possess any apparent features of an allergen. This is the first report regarding the monitoring of the allergenicity of any mannose-binding monocot lectin having insecticidal efficacy against hemipteran insects.

  8. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

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    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  10. Detection of GLV, OYDV and LYSV in potato onion (Allium cepa L.,Aggregatum group) by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qijiang; CHEN Dian; TONG Youli; LI Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Three pairs of primers were designed and synthesized from nucleotide sequences of garlic latent virus (GLV), onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) by using PCR primer design software. The expected fragments about 170 bp,287 bp, and 191 bp were amplified by RT-PCR for GLV, OYDV, and LYSV, respectively in disease-infected plants of potato onion(Allium cepa L., Aggregatum group), but such fragments were not obtained from healthy-looking plants and virus-free seedlings of shoot-tips. The amplified products ofGLV, OYDV and LYSV were cloned into pGEM-T vectors, and transformed into Escherichia coli.JM109. The recombinant plasmids were obtained and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank by performing a NCBI BLAST. The analysis showed that their homology attained 75% toplants was diluted to a series of 10-1 to 10-5 and the detection sensitivity of RT-PCR was 10-4 (about 4 ng). Thus, a method of identification and detection by RT-PCR of GLV, OYDV, and SLYV was established.

  11. Accepted 15 March 2012Available online 20 May 2012%Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts of Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balaji Meriga; Ramgopal Mopuri; T MuraliKrishna

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bulb extracts ofAllium sativum(A. sativum).Methods:Dried bulbs ofA. sativum were extracted with different solvents and evaluated for insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.Results:Aqueous and methanol extracts showed highest insecticidal activity (mortality rate of81% and 64% respectively) against the larvae ofSpodoptera litura (S. litura) at a concentration of1 000 ppm. With regard to antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract exhibited antibacterial activity against gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureu,) and gram negative (Escherichia coliandKlebsiella pneumonia) strains and antifungal activity againstCandida albicans. While methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested micro organisms except two (Staphylococcus aureus andCandida albicans), the extracts of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate did not show any anti microbial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous and methanol extracts against tested bacterial and fungal strains was100-150 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the bulb extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2’-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl. Aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity(80%-90% of the standard).Conclusions: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against the tested organisms therefore, provides scientific basis for its utilization in traditional and folk medicine. Also, our results demonstrated the insecticidal efficacy ofA. sativum againstS. litura, a polyphagous insect.

  12. Nuclear lamina—like filaments and nuclear matrix in allium cepa as revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOSHUI

    1992-01-01

    In this study,freeze-fractured specimens of allium cepa root tip meristems were examined under the scanning electron microscope(SEM),This technique permitted the visualization of the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope with nuclear pore complexes and polyribosomes.Some of the cell nuclei prepared with this procedure had fissures of various widths on their nuclear envelopes through which the nuclear lamina-like filaments(LLF) undernearth the nucleoplasmic side of the envelopes were clearly visible.The diameters of these filaments veried between 25 and 125nm.Many of the LLFs showed granular thickenings at places,and were attached to the inner surface of nuclear envelope in some regions .Similar LLFs were also seen at the peripheries of the freeze-fractured faces of nuclei.Meanwhile,the spatial relation between the nuclear matrix filaments(NMF) and other nuclear structures(nucleoli,chromation and peripheral lamina-like filaments) was revealed in these fractured preparations.In addition,the methods and techniques in studying the nuclear lamina morphology and the roles played by NMFs in activities of various nuclear sturctures were discessed in brief.

  13. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ponmurugan Karuppiah; Shyamkumar Rajaram

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiberofficinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods: The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results: Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 μg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions: Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  14. AM Fungi Influences the Photosynthetic Activity, Growth and Antioxidant Enzymes in Allium sativum L. under Salinity Condition

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    Mahesh BORDE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Potential of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in alleviating adverse salt effects on growth was tested in garlic (Allium sativum L.. Towards this objective we analyzed the AM root colonization and the activities of various antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM salinity levels. The activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied were found to be increased in AM garlic plants. Antioxidant activity was maximum in 100 and 200 mM NaCl (sodium chloride in AM and non-AM plants. Proline accumulation was induced by salt levels and it was more in leaves as well as roots of AM plants as compared to non-AM plants, this indicating that mycorrhiza reduced salt injury. Growth parameters of garlic plants like leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight and antioxidant enzyme activities were higher at moderate salinity level. This work suggests that the mycorrhiza helps garlic plants to perform better under moderate salinity level by enhancing the antioxidant activity and proline content as compared to non-AM plants.

  15. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adedayo O Ademiluyi; Ganiyu Oboh; Tosin R Owoloye; Oluwaseun J Agbebi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 d. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant indices. Results: Gentamycin induces hepatic damage as revealed by significant (P<0.05) elevation of liver damage marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase) and reduction in plasma albumin level. Gentamycin also caused a significant (P<0.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione and super oxygen dehydrogenises) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde content; however, there was a significant (P<0.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with significant (P<0.05) decrease in the tissues’ malondialdehyde content, following consumption of diets containing garlic. Conclusions: These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents.

  16. Garlic (Allium sativum Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashank Srivastava

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.

  17. Alliin, a Garlic (Allium sativum Compound, Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Quintero-Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been used to alleviate a variety of health problems due to its high content of organosulfur compounds and antioxidant activity. The main active component is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, a potent antioxidant with cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions. In addition, it helps to decrease serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric acid, as well as insulin resistance, and reduces cytokine levels. However its potential anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. We examined the effects of alliin in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by RT-PCR, Western blot, and microarrays analysis of 22,000 genes. Incubation of cells for 24 h with 100 μmol/L alliin prevented the increase in the expression of proinflammatory genes, IL-6, MCP-1, and Egr-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to 100 ng/mL LPS for 1 h. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is involved in LPS-induced inflammation in adipocytes, was decreased following alliin treatment. Furthermore, the gene expression profile by microarrays evidentiate an upregulation of genes involved in immune response and downregulation of genes related with cancer. The present results have shown that alliin is able to suppress the LPS inflammatory signals by generating an anti-inflammatory gene expression profile and by modifying adipocyte metabolic profile.

  18. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. PMID:25366263

  19. Preventive effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on oxidative stress and histopathology of cardiac tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, R; Mohaddes, G; Mohammadi, M; Alihemmati, A; Badalzadeh, R; Ghaznavi, R; Ghyasi, R; Mohammadi, Sh

    2015-12-01

    Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of garlic (Allium sativum) were investigated in the blood and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, garlic, diabetic, and diabetic+garlic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in male rats. Rats were fed with raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) six days a week by gavage for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the 6th week blood samples and heart tissues were collected and used for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological evaluation. Induction of diabetes increased MDA levels in blood and homogenates of heart. In diabetic rats treated with garlic, MDA levels decreased in blood and heart homogenates. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic increased SOD, GPX and CAT in blood and heart homogenates. Histopathological finding of the myocardial tissue confirmed a protective role for garlic in diabetic rats. Thus, the present study reveals that garlic may effectively modulate antioxidants status in the blood and heart of streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats. PMID:26690030

  20. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Extracts of Allium sativum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ocimum basilicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Stan; Adriana Popa; Dana Toloman; Teofil-Danut Silipas; Dan Cristian Vodnar

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized by chemical method (coprecipitation) and biological method using aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum),rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and basil (Ocimum basilicum).The influence of plant extract on the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of green synthesized nanoparticles was investigated.The X-ray diffraction studies reveal that all ZnO samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure.The particle size of ZnO NPs estimated by transmission electron microscopy analysis (between 14 and 27 nm) varies depending on the synthesis method of nanoparticles and the type of extracts from the plants used.The functional groups involved in the biosynthetic procedure were evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.The presence of Mn2+ ions,Zn vacancy complexes and oxygen vacancies in ZnO samples was highlighted by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.The green synthesized ZnO NPs have shown a good bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains.ZnO NPs synthesized using extracts of the selected plant species have been found to exhibit more enhanced antibacterial and antioxidant activities as compared to chemical ZnO NPs.

  1. Immunolcocalization of actin in intact and DNA—and histone—depleted nuclei and chromosomes of allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANLIHONG; MIAOXING

    1998-01-01

    The presence of actin in eukaryotic nuclei and chromosomes,and especially in higher plant nuclei and chromosomes,has not been well established.We detected actin in meristematic cells of Allium cepa with indirect immunofluorescence technique and observed bright fluorescence in the intact nuclei and chromosomes,indicating that actin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of the higher plant.We labeld sections of the meristematic cells of A.cepa with immunogold technique,gold parti cles were concentrated in condensed chromatin and nucleoli,confirming the results of the immunofluoresence observations.We traeated the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa with DNase I and 2M NaCl and obtained DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chromosomes.Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the DNA-and histonedepleted nuclei and chromosomes reacted positively with the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that actin exists not only in intact nuclei and chromosomes,but also in DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chrmosomes of the plant.In addition,our immuno-fluorescence tests indicate that tropomyosin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa.

  2. RBE/dose relationship for neutrons produced by 50MeV deuterons determined by chromosome aberrations in Allium cepa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBE of neutrons produced at ''CYCLONE'' (Louvain-la-Neuve) was investigated for chromosome aberrations in onion roots (Allium Cepa). In experimental conditions, it was observed that the best criteria for evaluation of RBE were: criterion 1: the % of cells in anaphase or telophase showing at least one aberration or; criterion 2: the average number of aberrations per cell in anaphase or telophase. Five independent experiments were performed. For the first criterion, following RBE values were obtained as a function of the (neutron) absorbed dose; RBE=11, 8, 7 and 6.5 for 10, 20, 30 and 40 rad (neutron absorbed dose) respectively. RBE values obtained for the second criteria were somewhat higher: RBE=12, 10, 8 and 7 for 10, 20, 30 and 40 rad (neutron absorbed dose) respectively. When plotted in a logarithmic scale as a function of the neutron absorbed dose, RBE values obtained for the two criteria are situated on two rather parallel straight lines with a slope slightly less than -1/2

  3. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of an Allium-based commercial product in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Jos, A; Cameán, A M

    2016-04-01

    Proallium AP(®) is a commercial Allium extract intended to be used in active food packaging as the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of some organosulfur compounds are well known. However, there is little information on its toxicity and the Scientific Committee on Food (UE) requires the safety assessment of substances used in food contact materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct for the first time a subchronic oral toxicity study of Proallium AP(®) with groups of 10 males and 10 females Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet containing 0, 25, 100, 400 mg/kg/d for 90 days. No treatment-related clinical signs or mortality were noted. Besides, no treatment-related effects with regard to any of the toxicological biomarkers considered were observed, including biochemical, haematological and histopathology parameters. In conclusion, the non-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Proallium AP(®) in rats was determined to be a dietary dose of 400 mg/kg/d under the present experimental conditions, a value 500-fold higher than the exposure derived from its potential use in active packaging. PMID:26827789

  5. Subcellular localization of cadmium in the root cells of Allium cepa by electron energy loss spectroscopy and cytochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donghua Liu; Ingrid Kottke

    2004-09-01

    The ultrastructural investigation of the root cells of Allium cepa L. exposed to 1 mM and 10 mM cadmium (Cd) for 48 and 72 h was carried out. The results indicated that Cd induced several obvious ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolation, condensed cytoplasm with increased density of the matrix, reduction of mitochondrial cristae, severe plasmolysis and highly condensed nuclear chromatin. Electron dense granules appeared between the cell wall and plasmalemma. In vacuoles, electron dense granules encircled by the membrane were aggregated and formed into larger precipitates, which increase in number and volume as a consequence of excessive Cd exposure. Data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) confirmed that these granules contained Cd and showed that significantly higher level of Cd in vacuoles existed in the vacuolar precipitates of meristematic or cortical parenchyma cells of the differentiating and mature roots treated with 1 mM and 10 mM Cd. High levels of Cd were also observed in the crowded electron dense granules of nucleoli. However, no Cd was found in cell walls or in cells of the vascular cylinder. A positive Gomori-Swift reaction showed that small metallic silver grains were abundantly localized in the vesicles, which were distributed in the cytoplasm along the cell wall.

  6. Occurrence of differential meiotic associations and additional chromosomes in the embryo-sac mother cells of Allium roylei Stearn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geeta Sharma; Ravinder N. Gohil

    2011-04-01

    A small population of complex translocation heterozygote plants of Allium roylei from the Bani region of Jammu Province was studied for meiosis in the female track. This study resulted in identification of two variants, having embryo-sac mother cells (EMCs) with more than 16 chromosomes. EMCs of the remaining plants invariably had diploid $(2n = 16)$ chromosome complement. Female meiosis, in general, was found to be abnormal, with nearly 23% and 11% chromosomes associating as quadrivalents or trivalents at prophase I and at metaphase I, respectively. This was followed by irregular segregation of chromosomes at anaphase I. Amongst the variants; one had 38% EMCs with eight bivalents plus two small sized chromosomes. Their small size, dispensable nature and tendency to affect the pairing behaviour of normal complement are some of the features that latter chromosomes share with the B chromosomes. Seventeen to nineteen chromosomes were observed in 35% EMCs of other variant; the remaining cells had 16 chromosomes. Chromosomal behaviour in both kind of cells (euploid and aneuploid) was more or less similar. Unlike female meiocytes, male meiocytes analysed earlier of this strain always had 16 chromosomes which paired to form extremely complex associations involving 3–16 chromosomes. The most likely cause of this asynchrony with regards to number of chromosomes involved in multivalent formation seems to be interaction of genes controlling chiasma formation with the different physiological conditions of male and female meiocytes.

  7. Cytotoxicity of zinc nanoparticles fabricated by Justicia adhatoda L. on root tips of Allium cepa L.--a model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranath, T C; Patil, Bheemanagouda N; Santosh, T U; Sharath, B S

    2015-06-01

    Zinc nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Justicia adhatoda L. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characteristic absorption peak of the UV spectrum was recorded at 379 nm. The FTIR data revealed the possible biomolecules involved in bioreduction and capping of zinc nanoparticles for efficient stabilization. AFM and HR-TEM images have shown that the size of zinc nanoparticles ranges from 55 to 83 nm and they are spherical in shape. The biogenic zinc nanoparticles were evaluated for their toxic effect on mitotic chromosomes of Allium cepa as a model system. Experiments were conducted in triplicate to assay the effect of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of zinc nanoparticles on mitotic chromosomes at an interval of 6 h duration for 24 h. The investigation revealed that the mitotic index (MI) was decreased with increased concentration of zinc nanoparticles and exposure duration. The results revealed that zinc nanoparticles have induced abnormalities like anaphase bridge formation, diagonal anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky metaphase, laggards, and sticky anaphase at different percentages and times of exposure. It is evident from the observation that mitotic cell division becomes abortive at 100 % treatment of zinc nanoparticles. PMID:25586613

  8. Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Allium ursinum Liophylisate: Impact on Lipoprotein Homeostasis and Cardiac Biomarkers in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombicz, Mariann; Priksz, Daniel; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Kertesz, Attila; Lengyel, Peter; Balogh, Peter; Csupor, Dezso; Hohmann, Judit; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Haines, David D; Juhasz, Bela

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation evaluates the capacity of Allium ursinum (wild garlic) leaf lyophilisate (WGLL; alliin content: 0.261%) to mitigate cardiovascular damage in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: (i) cholesterol-free rabbit chow (control); (ii) rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol (hypercholesterolemic, HC); (iii) rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol + 2% WGLL (hypercholesterolemic treated, HCT); for eight weeks. At the zero- and eight-week time points, echocardiographic measurements were made, along with the determination of basic serum parameters. Following the treatment period, after ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemodynamic parameters were measured using an isolated working heart model. Western blot analyses of heart tissue followed for evaluating protein expression and histochemical study for the atheroma status determination. WGLL treatment mediated increases in fractional shortening; right ventricular function; peak systolic velocity; tricuspidal annular systolic velocity in live animals; along with improved aortic and coronary flow. Western blot analysis revealed WGLL-associated increases in HO-1 protein and decreases in SOD-1 protein production. WGLL-associated decreases were observed in aortic atherosclerotic plaque coverage, plasma ApoB and the activity of LDH and CK (creatine kinase) in plasma. Plasma LDL was also significantly reduced. The results clearly demonstrate that WGLL has complex cardioprotective effects, suggesting future strategies for its use in prevention and therapy for atherosclerotic disorders. PMID:27517918

  9. Study of the effects of ionizing radiation on the biochemical and biological properties of garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic is used since sevral hundred years to deal with various health issues. During last decades sevral works was interested to specify these problems, in this work we studied the effects of the gamma irradiation on the physico-chemical and biological properties of Allium sativum. This study was undertaken on the bulb irradiated by implying amounts of differents irradiation from 140 to 260Gy. First we proceeded to analyse the effects of these irradiations on the composition of garlic such as : allicin, protein, reducing sugars, total sugars, triglycerides and polyphenols. Second we tested the effect of these extracts radiotreated on the cell multiplication and the enzymatic activity of salmonella Hadar. The obtained results showed that the irradiated garlic extracts, present a slight nonsignificant reduction in the allicine proteinn sugar reducers, triglyceride and polyphenols concentration. However, this reduction is significant during application of the amount 260Ky. In addition, a deterioration of the growth observed after treatment by different concentrations of aqueous irradiated garlic extract. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of aqueous extract of garlic used and the used irradiation dose. These observations would be in favor that the irradiations induce a slight midification of physico-chemical properties and they affect the anbacterial activity against salmonella Hdar. (Author)

  10. An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Synergy of Garlic (Allium sativum and Utazi (Gongronema latifolium on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eja, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the on-going search for potent and resistance-free antimicrobial medicinal plants, the antimicrobial and synergistic effects of the plants, Allium sativum (E1 and Gongronema latifolium (E2 on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The sensitivities of E. coli and S. aureus to E1 and E2 and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the plant extracts, individually and in combination with themselves, and with ciprofloxacin (CPX and ampicillin (AMP, were tested using standard procedures. E1 and E2 individually showed appreciable antimicrobial effect (zones of inhibition > 16mm. The combination of E1 and E2 against the test organisms was not effective due to antagonism between E1 and E2. E1 or E2 when combined with CPX, completely suppressed the effect of CPX against E. coli, and rather produced additive effect on S. aureus similar to the combination of E2 and AMP against S. aureus, although CPX alone was more effective than either E1 or E2, unlike AMP. Synergism was observed in the combination of E1 and AMP against S. aureus. It is concluded that synergism associated with the combination of medicinal plants is doubtful. However, the synergistic or additive effect between garlic and conventional drugs to some strains of bacteria which are resistant to some conventional drugs, gives hope of fighting drug resistance.

  11. De Novo Assembly and Annotation of the Chinese Chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spr. Transcriptome Using the Illumina Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Zhou

    Full Text Available Chinese chive (A. tuberosum Rottler ex Spr. is one of the most widely cultivated Allium species in China. However, minimal transcriptomic and genomic data are available to reveal its evolution and genetic diversity. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to produce large transcript sequences using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument. We produced 51,968,882 high-quality clean reads and assembled them into 150,154 contigs. A total of 60,031 unigenes with an average length of 631 bp were identified. Of these, 36,523 unigenes were homologous to existing database sequences, 35,648 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant (Nr sequence database, and 23,509 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. A total of 26,798 unigenes were assigned to 57 Gene Ontology (GO terms, and 13,378 unigenes were assigned to Cluster of Orthologous Group categories. Using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway database, we mapped 21,361 unigenes onto 128 pathways. Furthermore, 2,125 sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified. This new dataset provides the most comprehensive resource currently available for gene expression, gene discovery, and future genomic research on Chinese chive. The sequence resources developed in this study can be used to develop molecular markers that will facilitate further genetic research on Chinese chive and related species.

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandna Chand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic and Zingiber officinale (ginger has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus only. In addition, agar well diffusion method showed higher zone in inhibition when compared with the zone of inhibition produced by the spice of same concentration against the test microorganism by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic sensitivity of the four different bacteria was tested with commercially available antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin; Oxytetracycline; Vancomycin; Streptomycin; Gentamicin; Tetracycline; Novobiocin; Amikacin and Penicillin G. Penicillin G produced the highest zone of inhibition of 40.00±0.00against Staphylococcus aureus and the lowest zone of inhibition of 0.00±0.00against Escherichia coli.

  13. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system. PMID:26694086

  14. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity of Electronic Waste Leachate from Iloabuchi Electronic Market, Diobu, Rivers State, Nigeria on Allium Cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Babatunde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human and environmental impact of electronic waste is increasing due to its careless disposal. Cytogenotoxicity of electronic waste from Iloabuchi electronic market, Diobu, Rivers State was investigated using the Allium cepa bioassay comprised of the root elongation and chromosome aberration tests. Leachate samples of e-waste analysed were above maximum permissible limits. Toxicity to root growth of A. cepa was evaluated at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% showed root growth inhibition at all concentrations of the samples compared to the control and root growth inhibition was concentration dependent. An effective concentration (EC50 at which root growth amounted to 50 % of control for the sample was 37.5%. Various morphological defects of the onion roots were observed including short, crochet roots, C-tumor roots and severe toxic effects where no growth was observed. In the in vivo genotoxity assay, all samples lowered the frequency of mitotic cells in the meristematic region of the roots at statistically significant levels (P < 0.05 compared to the control and mitotic inhibition was also concentration dependent. There was significant induction of aberrations at all concentrations tested compared to control. The high metal content of the e-waste leachate may be responsible for observed cytotoxicity in A. cepa roots cells.

  15. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of zinc oxide-eugenol cement to Allium cepa L. - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.17925

    OpenAIRE

    Elisângela de Fátima Rezende; Maria Cristina Mendes-Costa; Johnson Campideli Fonseca; Alex de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement in Allium cepa L. Dental materials can induce local and systemic effects. The Allium cepa assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity of zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE) at different proportions. The ZOE solution was tested at the concentration of 1 drop of eugenol (in each drop of liquid, the approximate concentration of eugenol is 85%) and 1 portion of zinc oxide cement (treatment I), and twice the concentration of ...

  16. Estabelecimento de uma metodologia de cultura in vitro visando a limpeza de infecções virais de material clonal de populações de Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Isabel Gomes da

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia Molecular, Biotecnologia e Bioempreendedorismo em Plantas O género Allium encontra-se distribuído por todo o mundo e é de grande importância económica. O alho (Allium sativum L.) é a segunda espécie mais importante deste género tanto pelo seu uso na dieta humana, como pelas suas propriedades terapêuticas. Um dos principais problemas que afectam a produtividades desta cultura e a qualidade do bolbo são as doenças virais sistémicas. Associações...

  17. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells

    OpenAIRE

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhy...

  18. Composition of the Essential Oil of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of the aerial parts of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo collected in Sicily were analyzed by gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds were identified in the oil and the main components were found to be (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.1%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.6%), dimethyl trisulfide (9.6%), camphor (7.4%), methyl allyl disulfide (6.8%) and 1-methyl-3-allyl trisulfide (5.8%). The essential oil showed good antimicrobial activity against 11 strains of test microorganisms, including several species infesting historical material. PMID:26632947

  19. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation

    OpenAIRE

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2–10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the enviro...

  20. Alterations in the blood glucose, serum lipids and renal oxidative stress in diabetic rats by supplementation of onion (Allium cepa. Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hyeon-A; Cho, Young-Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the anti-diabetic effect of onion (Allium cepa. Linn) in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder (7% w/w) and diabetic rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) in citrate buffer. The animals were fed each of the experimental diet for 5 weeks. Blood glucose levels of rats supplement...

  1. Evaluación preliminar de la micorriza versículo-arbuscular en dos sistemas: pastizal y cebolla de bulbo Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz F. Jaime Eduardo; Sánchez de Prager Marina; Bastidas Vanessa

    1993-01-01

    Se evaluó durante dos semestres la micorriza en dos sistemas: pastizal y cultivo de Allium cepa, en un mismo sitio con un contenido de P alto. Para el pastizal se tomaron muestras en cinco lotes identificando las especies presentes y su abundancia relativa, en A. cepa se tomaron muestras en cinco edades del cultivo. En ambos sistemas se evaluó porcentaje de infección por MVA (PI), número de esporas por 50 g de suelo (NES), se identificaron las especies de MVA y se obtuvo su frecuencia. En el ...

  2. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelli de Sousa Leite; Alisson Ferreira Dantas; George Laylson da Silva Oliveira; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; Sidney Gonçalo de Lima; Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó; de Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; José Arimateia Dantas Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuS...

  3. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on growth factors, some hematological parameters and body compositions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Farahi; Milad Kasiri; Mohammad Sudagar; Mohsen S. Iraei; Morteza D. Shahkolaei

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on growth factors,some hematological parameters and body compositions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A totalnumber of 360 fish (average weight 20.88±0.25 g) was used. Fish were divided into four groups fed ondiets containing garlic in different levels; 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group dietwas without garlic. The experiment extended for two months. The results showed that, weight gain a...

  4. Effective production of S-allyl-L-cysteine through a homogeneous reaction with activated endogenous γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in garlic (Allium Sativum)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaobian; Miao, Yelian; Chen, Jie Yu; Zhang, Qimei; Wang, Jining

    2013-01-01

    S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) is a bioactive compound in garlic (Allium sativum). A novel process including soaking and homogeneous reaction was applied for the effective production of SAC with endogenous γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP, EC 2.3.2.2) in garlic. The effects of temperature and CaCl2 concentration on γ-GTP activity in soaking, and the relationship of SAC production with γ-GTP activity in homogeneous reaction were investigated, using fresh garlic as raw material. The experimental resul...

  5. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in gar...

  6. Geno-toxicity assay of sediment and water samples from the Upper Silesia post-mining areas, Poland by means of Allium-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, S.; Oudalova, A.; Michalik, B.; Dikareva, N.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology & Agroecology RAAS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Genotoxic potential of two environmental compartments (water and sediment) from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (USCB), Poland were evaluated and compared by employing root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The clear genotoxic effect of water and sediment sampled was shown, with an important contribution of severe types of cytogenetic abnormalities. The most biologically relevant pollutants were revealed through multivariate statistical analysis of relationships between biological effects registered and the environment contamination. Overall, results of simultaneous use of conventional monitoring methods and biological tests suggested that contemporary levels of persistent pollutants in post-mining areas of the USCB may enhance the risk both for human health and biological components of natural ecosystems.

  7. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L. F.) Willd. (Asteraceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, M G; T.S. Canto-Dorow; A.P.D. Coelho; S.B. Tedesco

    2014-01-01

    As plantas com potencial medicinal têm sido muito utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de infusões de Mikania cordifolia (L.F.) Willd. sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Foram coletadas duas populações no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, e, para cada uma, foram preparados dois tratamentos em duas concentrações: 4g/500mL e 16g/500mL, além de um controle positivo composto por 10% de glifos...

  8. Optical properties of the epidermis of leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) after enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of the epidermis of two crops grown in Nordic countries, leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), were investigated after exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation in a glasshouse. Enhanced UV-B radiation was given to cabbage and leek during the growth period. A significant increase in extractable UV-absorbing pigments was found in the epidermis of UV-irradiated leek compared to control plants, whereas no such difference was found in the epidermis of cabbage. The pigments produced had absorption maxima at approximately 340 nm and were most likely flavonoids

  9. Avaliação do efeito do alho (Allium sativum L.) sobre o colesterol plasmático em coelhos com hipercolesterolemia induzida

    OpenAIRE

    B. Klassa; M.M. Grosseli; A.K. Kiyomura; M.J.Q.F. Alves

    2013-01-01

    A utilização de plantas no tratamento de doenças ou como meio curativo é uma tradição popular e altamente difundida, sendo que muitos trabalhos abordam as propriedades terapêuticas e farmacológicas do alho na redução das hiperlipidemias. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência do extrato aquoso (E.A.) do alho (Allium sativum L.) no tratamento do colesterol plasmático em coelhos com hipercolesterolemia experimental. Os animais foram divididos em G1 (grupo controle) e G2 (grupo trat...

  10. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp. monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 +/- 7.90 mu g/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 +/- 0.69 mu g/g DW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 +/- 0.21 mu g/g 1.65 +/- 0.61 mu g/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 +/- 0.10...

  11. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  12. Evaluación de la asociación ácaros-hongos causantes del amarillamiento de la cebolla junca Allium fistulosum Evaluation of the mite-fungus association responsible for the yellowing in the Welsh onion Allium fistulosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ALFONSO MUÑOZ B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de campo, invernadero y laboratorio, el estudio evaluó la asociación ácaros-hongosamarillamiento de la cebolla junca Allium fistulosum en cultivos recién establecidos y en cultivos de edad avanzada, en las localidades de San Francisco y Alianza (Pasto, Colombia, ubicadas a 2.650 msnm, con una temperatura de 12°C y precipitación media de 1.100 mm anuales. En los cultivos recién establecidos se encontraron una incidencia de amarillamiento del 11,0% y 14,2% respectivamente, sin presentar diferencias significativas para las dos localidades. De igual manera no hubo diferencias significativas entre localidades para los cultivos de edad avanzada, con una incidencia de 38,4% y 43,4%, respectivamente. En las muestras de cada localidad se encontraron dos tipos de ácaros como causantes de amarillamiento de la cebolla, Rhizoglyphus echinophus y Rhizoglyphus vincatus (Acari: Acaridae, siendo R. echinopus el que presentó el mayor porcentaje de plantas afectadas (56,7%. Los hongos causantes del daño al cultivo de cebolla fueron: Phoma sp., Botrytis sp., Gliocladium sp. y Fusarium oxysporum. En invernadero el mayor porcentaje de plantas afectadas se presentó con F. oxysporum (43,3% y con el complejo F. oxysporum y Phoma sp. (40,0%. La asociación del ácaro R. echinopus y el hongo F. oxysporum, produjo el mayor porcentaje de plantas afectadas (80,0%. Además, se encontró que R. echinopus presentó mayor descendencia en presencia de F. oxysporum (78 individuos a las 72 horas.Under field, greenhouse and laboratory conditions, the study evaluated the mite-fungus-yellowing association in the Welsh onion Allium fistulosum, in recently established and mature crops, in the localities of San Francisco and Alianza (Pasto, Colombia, located at 2650 m elevation, with a temperature of 12°C and an average annual rainfall of 1100 mm annual. In recently established crops, the incidence of yellowing was 11.0% and 14.2%, respectively, with no

  13. Efeitos agudos dos extratos hidroalcoólicos do alho (Allium sativum L. e do capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf sobre a pressão arterial média de ratos anestesiados Acute effects of Allium sativum L. and Cympobongon citratus (DC Stapf hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Singi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar os efeitos da aplicação aguda endovenosa dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Allium sativum e de Cymbopogon citratus sobre a pressão arterial de ratos. Foram usados Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, anestesiados, traqueostomizados e canulados através da veia jugular e da artéria carótida. Foram injetadas doses de 1 mg dos extratos separadamente e em associação (1mg + 1mg, em volumes de 0,2mL. A pressão arterial média (PAM foi registrada com um sistema Biopac, modelo MP100. O Allium sativum diminuiu a PAM de 124±2 mmHg, no controle, para 108±2 mmHg aos 15s. Da mesma forma, o Cymbopogon citratus diminuiu a PAM de 122±2 mmHg, no controle, para 106± 2 mmHg aos 15s. A associação de ambos também diminuiu a PAM de 126±3 mmHg, no controle, para 113±3 mmHg aos 15s. Os efeitos das duas plantas foram iguais e não foram incrementados quando associadas.This work aimed to verify the effects of acute intravenous applications of Allium sativum and Cymbopogon citratus hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats. Adult male rats (Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, were used. The rats were anesthetized, tracheotomy and cannulation of both jugular and carotid were carried out. The injected doses were 1 mg separately as well as the association of both extracts, in volumes of 0,2 mL. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was recorded with a Biopac System, model MP100. The Allium sativum decreased the MAP only from 124±2 mmHg (control to 108±2 mmHg at 15s. The Cymbopogon citratus also decreased the MAP from 122±2 mmHg (control to 106±2 mmHg after 15s. The 1mg of Allium sativum + 1mg of Cymbopogon citratus also decreased the MAP from 126±3 mmHg (control to 113±3 mmHg after 15s. The effects of the two plants were the same and were not increased when in association.

  14. EFFECT OF CYANAZINE AND LINURON ON WEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY IN ONION CROP (Allium cepa L. EFEITO DE CYNAZINE E LINURON NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS DANINHAS E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA CEBOLA (Allium cepa L.d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Perino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This work presents the results of a field experiment carried out in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil, to estimate the efficiency of herbicides in controlling weeds in onion crop of Texas Early Grano 502. Cyanazine controlled Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus spp. till 45 days, and Commelina virginica. Eleusine indica and Brachiaria plantaginea till 30 days after application. Linuron controlled P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. and B. plantaginea during 45 days. Both herbicides showed phytotoxicity decreasing the onion productivity.

    Foi realizado um experimento com cebola (Allium cepa L. cv . Texas Early Grano - 502, transplantada em Goiânia, Goiás, no período de junho a novembro de 1988, visando ao controle de plantas daninhas com cyanazine e linuron aplicados após o transplante da cultura. Nas condições em que o ensaio foi realizado, concluiu-se que cyanazine e linuron provocaram fitotoxicidade na cultura da cebola, causando redução na produção em relação à testemunha. Cyanazine controlou Portulaca oleracea e Amaranthus spp. até 45 dias e Commelina virginica, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea até 30 dias após a aplicação. Linuron controlou P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. e B. plantaginea até 45 dias após a aplicação, mas não controlou eficientemente C. virginica, E. indica e Digitaria horizontalis.

  15. Experimental chemotherapy with Allium sativum (Liliaceae methanolic extract in rodents infected with Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrum W. Wabwoba, Christopher O. Anjili, Moses M. Ngeiywa, Peter K. Ngure, Elizabeth M. Kigondu, Johnstone Ingonga & Judith Makwali

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several plant products have been tested and found to possess antileishmanialactivity. The present study was undertaken to establish whether methanolic extract ofAllium sativum Linn has antileishmanial activity in comparison to standard drugs.Methods: Methanolic extract of A. sativum bulbs was screened for in vitro and in vivo antileishmanialactivity against Leishmania major strain (NLB 145 and L. donovani strain (NLB 065. Pentostam®and Amphotericin B® were used as standard drugs. BALB/c mice and golden hamsters(Mesocricetus auratus were used in in vivo studies on L. major and L. donovani respectively.Results: The extract exhibited very low cytotoxicity (IC50 >450 μg/ml against Vero cells. Theextract had significantly better (p <0.001 leishmanicidal activity against both species (IC50 34.22μg/ml to L. major, 37.41 μg/ml to L. donovani than Pentostam. However, the activity wassignificantly lower (p <0.001 than that of Amphotericin B against both the species. At aconcentration of 250 μg/ml, the extract induced the production of 60 μM of nitric oxide, a ten-foldup-regulation in activated macrophages. The multiplication indices for L. major amastigotes treatedin 100 μg/ml were significantly different (p <0.05. Treatment with the extract, daily for 28 daysled to a significant reduction (p <0.05 in footpad swelling in BALB/c mice; similar activitynoticed in the treatment with standard drugs. The Leishman-Donovan Units (LDU for the extracttreated animals were significantly higher (p <0.05 than those of standard drugs, but lower comparedto the negative control.Interpretation & conclusion: Since the mechanism of action for the methanolic extract is apparentlyimmunomodulatory, garlic compounds could be purified and tried as complementary medicine inthe management of leishmaniases.

  16. 大蒜有机硫化合物的研究%Studies on organosulfur compounds in Allium sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆茂松; 闵吉梅; 王夔

    2001-01-01

    目的对大蒜Allium sativum的有机硫化合物进行了研究.方法利用硅胶柱层析、硅胶薄层层析、高效液相色谱进行分离,根据化合物的光谱数据鉴定其结构.结果从大蒜环己烷提取物中分得9个化合物,分别鉴定为Z-1,6,11-三烯-4,5,9-三硫杂十二烷-9-氧化物(Z-ajoene,J),E-1,6,¨-三烯-4,5,9-三硫杂十二烷-9-氧化物(E-ajoene,Ⅱ),Z-1,6,11-三烯-4,5,9-三硫杂十二烷-9,9-二氧化物(Ⅲ),E-1,6,¨-三烯-4,5,9-三硫杂十二烷-9,9-二氧化物(Ⅳ),E-1,7,11-三烯-4,5,9-三硫杂十二烷-9,9-二氧化物(V),Z-4,9-二烯-2,3,7-三硫杂癸烷-7-氧化物(Ⅵ),2-乙烯基-4H-1,3-二硫杂苯(Ⅶ),3-乙烯基-6H-1,2-二硫杂苯-2-氧化物(Ⅷ),2-乙烯基-4H-1,3-二硫杂苯-3-氧化物(Ⅸ).结论化合物Ⅴ,Ⅵ,Ⅷ,Ⅸ为新化合物.

  17. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae e de seu extrato aquoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae, in natura, e do extrato aquoso, frente à Candida albicans (Ca e a Estreptococos do grupo B (EGB. O alho in natura e os extratos aquosos 30% e 170%, foram submetidos à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana usando os métodos de Difusão em Ágar pela técnica do disco e do poço. Os resultados mostraram que o alho, in natura, apresentou halo de inibição de 55,3 ± 2,6 milímetros (mm frente a Ca e de 27,1 ± 2,6 mm frente à EGB, enquanto o halo de inibição do miconazol foi de 24 ± 0,5 mm e o da Penicilina G de 29,8 ± 0,3 mm. O extrato aquoso de alho a 30% não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana frente à Ca e à EGB Já o extrato aquoso de alho a 170% apresentou halo de inibição frente a Ca, de 11,3 ± 0,7 mm na técnica do disco e de 14,5 ± 0,9 mm na técnica do poço, porém não inibiu o crescimento da EGB Conclui-se que o alho in natura apresentou melhor efeito inibitório frente às cepas de Ca e de EGB

  18. Selection of functional lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaesik; Ji, Yosep; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Park, Soyoung; Yeo, Soyoung; Shin, Hyunkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-17

    The purpose of this research was to find safe and suitable starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler), also known as garlic chives or Oriental garlic. This traditional herb has several functional properties and a strong flavour; its leaves are used as food material. Eighteen strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from well-fermented leek kimchi. Controlled fermentation of the leek leaves was conducted with 2 strains (Weissella confusa LK4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LK8), selected as potential starter cultures on the basis of their safety properties, and on the pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and viable cell numbers [colony forming units (CFUml(-1))] achieved during the fermentation. Microbial dynamics was also followed during fermentation by using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) on DNA level. To analyse bioactive compounds such as thiols and allicin (diallyl thiosulfinates), the total flavonoid and polyphenolic contents were determined by colorimetric methods. Functional properties were assessed on the basis of anti-oxidative capacities by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). W. confusa LK4 rapidly increased during the first stage of leek fermentation, and was mainly responsible for accelerated fermentation during the early period in contrast to L. plantarum LK8, a stronger acid producer during the later stages of fermentation. After 48 h fermentation, leeks fermented with W. confusa LK4 showed the highest radical scavenging effects and reducing ability. The detectable amount of allicin of fermented leeks decreased relative to the change in pH, whereas the concentration of thiols significantly increased. Total flavonoid and poly-phenolic contents changed during fermentation and showed correlation with anti-oxidant effects. We therefore suggest the suitability of W. confusa LK4 as a potential starter

  19. Actividad antioxidante e inhibidora de a-glucosidasa y a-amilasa de tres variedades de cebolla (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia X. López-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La cebolla (Allium cepa L. ha sido cultivada durante miles de años y es utilizada como un componente importante en la dieta del ser humano. Estudios recientes sugieren que su consumo puede reducir o prevenir problemas de salud como asma, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes, debido a sus efectos antioxidantes. En este estudio se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, la capacidad antiradical y la inhibición de las enzimas α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de extractos acuosos y etanólicos de tres variedades de cebolla (blanca, amarilla y morada. El contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales varió de 6.59 a 9.25 mg/100 g y la actividad antiradical expresada como % DPPH- se encontró entre 20.4% a 39.6% y de 46.8 a 89.2% para los extractos acuosos y etanólicos respectivamente. Todos los extractos etanólicos fueron capaces de inhibir la actividad α-glucosidasa y α-amilasa de 58% a 34%% y 33 y 22% respectivamente, mientras que los extractos acuosos fueron menos efectivos. Entre los extractos estudiados, el extracto etanólicos de cebolla morada presenta la mayor concentración de compuestos fenólicos totales y la mayor actividad antiradical e inhibidora de α-glucosidasa. Las diferencias encontradas entre la concentración de compuestos fenólicos y las distintas actividades estudiadas parecen depender del perfil único de compuestos fenólicos que posee cada variedad de cebolla.

  20. Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthy S K Vajhala

    Full Text Available Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601 employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects.

  1. Efek Rimpang Kunyit (Curcuma longa L. dan Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L. terhadap Sensitivitas Insulin pada Tikus Galur Wistar

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    Evi Sovia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown the antidiabetic effect of turmeric and garlic. However their mechanism of action remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of three turmeric (Curcuma longa L. and garlic extracts (Allium sativum L., that are, hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract on blood glucose levels with glucose tolerance test. Furthermore the most effective extracts and its active compound (curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine tested with insulin tolerance test. Forty Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups that was normal group, group that treated with a high fat emulsion (control group and remaining groups were treated with a high fat emulsion and turmeric extract 50 mg/kgBW, garlic extract 50 mg/kgBW, curcuminoid 25 mg/kgBW, S-methyl cysteine 25 mg/kgBW, turmeric-garlic extract combination each 25 mg/kgBW and curcuminoid-S-methyl cysteine combination each 12,5 mg/kgBW for 10 days. Insulin resistance was evaluated by insulin tolerance test. This study conducted from August–October 2010 at Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati (SITH Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB. Results of this study showed that insulin tolerance test constanta (KITT were bigger in animals that treated with garlic extract (7.2±0.84, curcuminoid (7.14±0.74 and combination of curcuminoid-S-methyl cysteine (7.46±0.64 compared with positive control group (3.2±1.92. In conclusions garlic extract, curcuminoid and combination of curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine improve insulin sensitivity.

  2. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

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    Anzabi Younes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry, Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi and Allium cepa L. (Onions on the standard strain (ATCC:19114 of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes, as it seems that it is possible to find some important organic and health safe anti-Listerial compounds. Materials and Methods: After collecting the mentioned plants phytology study was done. Then methanol extracts of named plants were prepared and antibacterial effects of these plants against the mentioned strain of L. monocytogenes by the Disk Diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC methods were performed. Also Ampicillin (10 μg/disc was used as the reference antibacterial substance. In order to find the relationship between antibacterial properties of plants extracts independent t test, chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were used. Results: Results showed that the extracts of all the three studied plants had antibacterial effects on L. monocytogenes. Average diagonal of growing area in disk diffusion test for barberry, kiwi and onions in order was 12, 15.5 and 11 mm. Also MIC of mentioned plants extracts in order was 125, 62.5, and 125 μg/ml and MBC of named plants was 500, 250 and 500 μg/ ml, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this work showed that methanol extracts of kiwi had stronger anti-Listerial effect than barberry’s and onion’s extracts.

  3. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L. upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.

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    Mengyi eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L. could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK, eggplant/normal garlic relay intercropping (NG, and eggplant/green garlic relay intercropping (GG. In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26% and 7.80% respectively in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield.

  4. Honey/Chitosan Nanofiber Wound Dressing Enriched with Allium sativum and Cleome droserifolia: Enhanced Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Activity.

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    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-03-01

    Two natural extracts were loaded within fabricated honey, poly(vinyl alcohol), chitosan nanofibers (HPCS) to develop biocompatible antimicrobial nanofibrous wound dressing. The dried aqueous extract of Cleome droserifolia (CE) and Allium sativum aqueous extract (AE) and their combination were loaded within the HPCS nanofibers in the HPCS-CE, HPCS-AE, and HPCS-AE/CE nanofiber mats, respectively. It was observed that the addition of AE resulted in the least fiber diameter (145 nm), whereas the addition of the AE and CE combination resulted in the least swelling ability and the highest weight loss. In vitro antibacterial testing against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed in comparison with the commercial dressing AquacelAg and revealed that the HPCS-AE and HPCS-AE/CE nanofiber mats allowed complete inhibition of S. aureus and the HPCS-AE/CE exhibited mild antibacterial activity against MRSA. A preliminary in vivo study revealed that the developed nanofiber mats enhanced the wound healing process as compared to the untreated control as proved by the enhanced wound closure rates in mice and by the histological examination of the wounds. Moreover, comparison with the commercial dressing Aquacel Ag, the HPCS, and HPCS-AE/CE demonstrated similar effects on the wound healing process, whereas the HPCS/AE allowed an enhanced wound closure rate. Cell culture studies proved the biocompatibility of the developed nanofiber mats in comparison with the commercial Aquacel Ag, which exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. The developed natural nanofiber mats hold potential as promising biocompatible antibacterial wound dressing. PMID:26909753

  5. Seasonal variation in mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots of Allium tricoccum (wild leek) in a mature mixed hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewins, Charlotte R; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Burke, David J

    2015-08-01

    The community of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonizing roots of the forest herb Allium tricoccum Ait. (wild leek) was examined to assess whether colonization varied seasonally and spatially within the forest. Whole plants were collected to coincide with observed phenological stages, and the perennial tissue (i.e., the bulb) was used to analyze total C, N, and P over the growing season. AM fungal community composition, structure, and abundance were assessed in roots by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and quantitative PCR. It was found that A. tricoccum rDNA co-amplified using the general AM primers NS31/AM1, and a new primer for qPCR was designed that discriminated against plant DNA to quantify AM colonization. Community structure of AM fungi did not vary seasonally, but did change spatially within the forest, and AM fungal communities were correlated with the presence of overstory tree species. Fungal colonization of roots, however, did change seasonally with a maximum observed in late winter and early spring following leaf emergence. Maximum AM fungal colonization was associated with declines in bulb N and P, suggesting that leaf emergence and growth were responsible for both declines in stored nutrients and increases in AM fungal colonization. Plant N and P contents increased between late summer and early spring while C contents remained unchanged. The observed increase in nutrient content during a time when A. tricoccum lacks leaves indicates that the roots or AM fungi are metabolically active and acquire nutrients during this time, despite an absence of photosynthesis and thus a direct supply of C from A. tricoccum. PMID:25634800

  6. Incorporation of Allium sativum in yogurt: In vitro study on inhibition of diabetes- and hypertension-associated enzymes

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    Shabboo Amirdivani Amirdivani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inclusion of Allium sativum on yogurt formation and subsequent storage (4°C, up to 28 days on proteolysis, microbial activity, the inhibition of a-amylase, a-glucosidase and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE-1 in vitro were investigated. A. sativum-yogurt showed higher rates of pH reduction and increment of TA than plain-yogurt during incubation at 41°C. Highest proteolysis,  on day 7 showed in A. sativum-yogurt (62.7±0.80 mg/mL, which was 2-flod higher than plain yogurt (31.0±0.96 mg/mL. Bacterial counts in A.sativum-yogurt were higher for Lactobacillus spp. but lower for S. thermophillus (p<0.05 compared to those in plain yogurt throughout refrigerated storage. Highest inhibitory activities for α-amylase were recorded on day 14 of storage for A. sativum- and plain-yogurts (IC50= 13.7±1.99and 26.3±2.15mg respectively; p<0.05 and on day 7 for α-glucosidase (IC50= 120.7±22.71 and 192.3±33.24mg respectively; p<0.05. The highest anti-ACE-I activity was observed on day 7 of refrigerated storage with A. sativum-yogurt (IC50=6.9±0.23mg being more potent than plain-yogurt (IC50=9.7±0.12mg; p<0.05. A. sativum-yogurt was not favoured for overall aroma, sourness and bitterness in the sensory evaluations but recorded the same overall preference as plain yogurt. A. sativum enhanced the fermentation of yogurt in favour of the population of Lactobacillus spp, stimulated proteolysis of milk proteins and increased the in vitro inhibition of key enzymes associated with diabetes and hypertension.

  7. An Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentials of Onion (Allium cepa L. on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rabbits

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    G.G. Akunna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism whose prevalence is raising globally, especially the resource -starved countries such as Nigeria. Since antiquity, diabetes has been treated with plant medicines. Several investigations have confirmed the efficacy of many of these traditional preparations, some of which have proven efficacy. In the present study, the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (A.cepa aqueous extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 15 adult male rabbits, using 200 mg kg-1 of alloxan monohydrate as a single intraperitoneal injection. These alloxan -diabetic rabbits were then divided into three groups; one group was administered aqueous extract of A. cepa 100 mg Kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days, another group received A. Cepa 300 mg kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days and the last group of diabetic rabbits received peanut oil (the vehicle instead of A. cepa to serve as the diabetic control. There were also five rabbits which received neither alloxan nor A. cepa (the negative control group. All the liver histological derangements caused by diabetes were attenuated in the A. cepa-treated group. Increasing dosages of A. cepa aqueous extract produced a dose-dependent significant reduction in the blood glucose levels. Additionally, A. cepa remarkably improved the reduction of antioxidant parameters-Superoxide dismutase, catalase (SOD, catalase (CAT Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx , Reduced Glutathione (GSH and increased malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation. It is concluded based on these findings that A. cepa may be effective in ameliorating diabetics related hepatotoxicity and alterations of biochemical parameters.

  8. Improvement of garlic (Allium Sativum L.) resistance to white rot and storability using gamma irradiation induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6, and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotia and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (author)

  9. Effects of Cadmium Pollution in Soil on Physiological and Biochemical Index of Allium sativum L.%土壤镉污染对大蒜生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱翌; 杨立杰

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to study the effects of cadmium pollution in soil on physiological and biochemical index of Allium sativum L. and provided reference for the recovery of cadmium pollution in soil. [Method]By setting eleven Cd concentrations from 0.21 to 500 mg/kg in soil and the pot test, ecological corresponding mechanism of plant height, chlorophyll (Chl) content, catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) of Allium sativum L. was analyzed. [Result] The plant height had a strong tolerance to cadmium pollution in soil, while the total chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a content had no significant difference compared with control treatment, except Cd concentration was 500 mg/kg. The high Cd concentration would increase the damage to membrane of Allium sativum L. however with the regulation of physiological mechanism, the damage was gradually decreased.[Conclusion] Allium sativum L. had strong eco-physiological adaptability to Cd contaminated soil and it had potential for recovering Cd contaminated soil.

  10. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus sou

  11. Estudo da atividade mutagênica das plantas, Euphorbia milii Des Moulins e Ricinus communis L através do teste de Allium cepa

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    Sueli A. da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a mutagenicidade e o grau de toxicidade de duas plantas tóxicas, a "mamona" (Ricinus communis e a "coroa-de-cristo" (Euphorbia milii, utilizando infusões das sementes de mamona e o látex da coroa-de-cristo, em células meristemáticas de Allium cepa. Foram analisados: o índice mitótico (IM, as anomalias do ciclo mitótico (ACM, anomalias interfásicas, (AI e o total de anomalias (TA. As soluções testes foram preparadas em três concentrações: MT1 - 0,5 g/l, MT2 - 1,0 g/l, MT3 - 2,0 g/l, e MT4 como controle. Da coroa-de-cristo extraiu-se o látex e dissolveu-se em água destilada nas concentrações CT1 -0,5 ml/l, CT2 - 1,0 ml/l, CT3 - 2,0 ml/l, e CT4 controle. Os resultados constataram que somente a mamona aumentou a freqüência de anomalias do ciclo mitótico, assim como, as anomalias interfásicas, demonstrando, dessa forma, uma ação tóxica para o material genético, através do teste de Allium cepa.

  12. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of zinc oxide-eugenol cement to Allium cepa L. - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.17925

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    Elisângela de Fátima Rezende

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement in Allium cepa L. Dental materials can induce local and systemic effects. The Allium cepa assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity of zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE at different proportions. The ZOE solution was tested at the concentration of 1 drop of eugenol (in each drop of liquid, the approximate concentration of eugenol is 85% and 1 portion of zinc oxide cement (treatment I, and twice the concentration of eugenol (treatment II. Treated roots appeared to be yellowish-brown, fewer in number, thicker and less turgid compared with the control, suggesting a cytotoxic activity of ZOE. A significant difference was found in the root size between the control and treatment II. This treatment reduced by 79% the size of the root compared with the control, and the mitotic index was 66%, indicating a 22.4% reduction relative to the control, which in turn evidenced the cytotoxicity of ZOE. The significant increase in anaphase bridges suggests a genotoxic effect.

  13. Mutagenic potential of pollutans in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, Tremembé, SP, Brazil, using the Allium cepa test

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    Agnes Barbério

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenicity can be related to chromosomic breaks induced by environmental pollutants. The aim of this research was to characterize the mutagenic potential of the pollutants in the water of the Paraíba do Sul river, in Tremembé city, São Paulo State, Brazil, analyzing chromosomal changes in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, in the summer (April and winter (August of 2008. The bulbs were exposed for 72 h to the treatments: water from river, Hoagland solution (negative control and 15 µg/L from MMS – methyl methanesulfonate (positive control. In each treatment, three bulbs were exposed and for each bulb, five slides were prepared. For mitotic index (MI and micronucleus (MN frequency rate, a total of 2,000 cells per root/slide were analyzed and 100 cells for the chromosome aberrations (CA. In April, the pollutants induced a high mutagenic potential in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa, the frequency rate of MN, stickiness and CA from non-identified type were greater than the negative control. In August, the only significant change found was the chromosome bridges. There was no significant change for MI. These results indicate that the effluents which have varied sources are inducing harmful effects on the bioindicator, therefore, it is important to keep biomonitoring and adopting effluents control measures. The measures are important because these waters are used primarily for public supply and irrigation.

  14. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

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    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  15. Cytological changes in meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. root tip treated with extracts from callus of Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don

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    Agnieszka Pietrosiuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an ethanolic extract from callus of Catharanthus roseus on Allium cepa root cells divisions was investigated. Two lines: white and green callus, were established on solid B5 medium with IAA 1 mg/l and kinetin 0.1 mg/l. The HPLC analysis of callus extracts showed the presence of indole alkaloids, however not known pharmacologically active alkaloids or derivatives used in semisynthesis (vinblastine, ajmalicine, serpentine, yohimbine, vindoline and catharanthine have been found. The ethanolic extract of C. roseus callus inhibited the number of mitoses in Allium cepa root tip cells. Short (1-3 hours treatment resulted in an increase in the index of late prophases, with characteristic light spaces, and the index of metaphases with twisted chromosomes forming an equatorial plate or irregular structures of c-metaphases. At the same time, the percentage of anaphases and telophases decreased significantly. Longer treatment of the root tip inhibited mitotic activity, stopping it completely already after 12 hours. Interphase nuclei became at first denser and homogeneous, eventually their structure became , partitioned into zones and formation of chromatin territories, with distinct large nucleoli has been observed. Electron microscope observations revealed well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and thick, invaginating cell membrane.

  16. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100

  17. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H2O2 continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 μM, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also showed enhanced

  18. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

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    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  19. Effects Of Candesartan Cilexetil Drug And Allium Sativum On Certain Enzymes And Biochemical Parameters In Hyperlipidemic Mice

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    Mahmoud R. Mahmoud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the possible correlation between the effects of candesartan cilexetil (3 mg/kg b.w. and garlic; allium sativum (100 mg/kg b.w. alone and in combination on high cholesterol diet (HCD male mice . Candesartan cilexetil alone and their combination with garlic were given orally to animals fed on hypercholesterolemic diet by gavage for 12 weeks . Results of this investigation showed that animals under high cholesterol diet exhibited some sort of changes in the blood, plasma and tissue levels of leukocytes,cholesterol, triglyceride and enzymes where they increased significantly while some decrease exhibited in heart weight, LDH-cholesterol and testosterone hormone compared with that of the normal diet animals. Candesartan cilexetil garlic or their combination significantly decreased the plasma and tissue levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG , while they increased significantly the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C. On the contrary, candesartan and candesartan in combination with garlic decrease WBCs, neutrophils and platelets significantly in compared with that of the (HCD animals. This study included the total body and heart weights. Heart weight increased significantly in candesartan, garlic and their combination treated group. On the other hand, there were significantly decreases in body weight in candesartan, garlic and their combination compared with that of the high cholesterol diet treated animals. The effect of candesartan, garlic and their combination upon serum and liver levels of ALP, AST, ALT and ChE enzymes were investigated. Serum and liver ALP, AST, ALT and ChE were increased significantly in candesartan treated group but they decreased markedly in garlic and its combination with candesartan in serum and liver respectively compared with that of the high cholesterol diet animals. Candesartan decreased plasma level of testosterone while garlic and its

  20. The effect of Alcoholic garlic (Allium sativum extract on ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekpour-Dehkordi Z

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-laden macrophages, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. On the other hand, garlic, Allium sativum, and garlic extracts have been demonstrated to have potential cardiovascular benefits. Moreover, garlic has direct antiatherogenic and antiathersclerotic effects on artery walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1 in macrophages."n"nMethods: Cell viability assay was used in order to detect the cytotoxic dose of alcoholic garlic extract on macrophages. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to study the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1. Macrophage cells were treated by different concentrations of alcoholic garlic extract for 48 h. The total RNA of the treated macrophages were extracted and analyzed by real-time PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed using the Western blotting technique."n"nResults: Alcoholic garlic extract

  1. The acceleration of garlic (Allium sativum L ethanolic extract on gingival wound healing process in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Bramanti Ngatidjan Setyo Purwono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L is a medicinal plant traditionally used to relieve pain. Garlic’s active constituents, allicin and triacremonone, have been proven to have antibacterial and antiinflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of garlic ethanolic extract gel in gingival wound healing process of rats. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks with with body weight 200-250 g were subjected in this study. Rats were divided randomly into five groups with six rats in each group. Group I as negative control was given sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC base gel. Group II as positive control was given Benzydamine® gel and Group IV-V were given garlic ethanolic extract gel at dose of 20, 40 and 80%, respectively. Each group was subdivided into two sub groups of three rats according to the decapitation period which were 5th (D-5 and 7th (D-7 day after the garlic extract gel application. Excisional wounds using punch biopsy, 2.5 mm in diameter, were created at the mandibular labial gingiva between right and left incisor teeth of the rats. The garlic extract gel of each preparation dose was then applied on the wound three times a day, starting at 0 day until 7th day. The decapitation was conducted on the D-5 and D-7. Histological slides of wounded tissue were prepared. Epithelial thickness, new blood vessel, and number of fibroblast were examined. The results showed that the epithelial thickness of garlic ethanolic extract gel groups was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05, especially after 5thday application. However, the number of new blood vessels and the amount of fibroblast of those groups were not significantly higher than control group (p>0.05. In conclusion, topical application of garlic ethanolic extract gel accelerates the gingival wound healing process in rats by increasing epithelial thickness.     Keywords: garlic ethanolic extract - gingival wound healing - epithelium thickness

  2. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Riffat A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ahmad, Masood [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India)]. E-mail: smasood_ahmad@lycos.com

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 {mu}M, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also

  3. Efeitos agudos dos extratos hidroalcoólicos do alho (Allium sativum L.) e do capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf) sobre a pressão arterial média de ratos anestesiados Acute effects of Allium sativum L. and Cympobongon citratus (DC) Stapf hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats

    OpenAIRE

    G. Singi; D.D. Damasceno; E.D. D'Andréa; G. A. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou verificar os efeitos da aplicação aguda endovenosa dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Allium sativum e de Cymbopogon citratus sobre a pressão arterial de ratos. Foram usados Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, anestesiados, traqueostomizados e canulados através da veia jugular e da artéria carótida. Foram injetadas doses de 1 mg dos extratos separadamente e em associação (1mg + 1mg), em volumes de 0,2mL. A pressão arterial média (PAM) foi registrada com um sistema Biopac, mod...

  4. Influência da época de plantio na produção de classes de bulbos comerciais de cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L.) em Santa Maria, RS Planting date influence on the yield of bulb quality grades of garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars in Santa Maria, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Nadir Trevisan; Gustavo Adolfo Klippel Martins; Nara Rejane Zamberlan dos Santos

    1997-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no ano agrícola de 1984, para avaliar a influência de três épocas de plantio no rendimento de bulbos comerciais e de classes de bulbos de 10 cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L.). As épocas de plantio influenciaram o rendimento médio de bulbos comerciais e de classes de bulbos. O plantio de 18/5 agregou incremento no rendimento de bulbos comerciais, tendo sido o mais alto do experimento. As cultivares Gigante Lavínia, Gi...

  5. Influência de épocas de plantio e cultivares no rendimento total da cultura do alho (Allium sativum l.) em Santa Maria, RS Planting date and cultivar influence on the total yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Santa Maria, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Nadir Trevisan; Gustavo Adolfo Klippel Martins; Nara Rejane Zamberlan dos Santos

    1996-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no ano agrícola de 1984, afim de avaliar a influência de três épocas de plantio (27 de abril, 18 de maio e 14 de julho) na produção total de bulbos de nove cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L.). Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os maiores rendimentos totais de bulbos foram obtidos no plantio de 18 de maio. Gigante Lavínia foi a cultivar mais produtiva. As cul...

  6. Efeito da administração do Allium sativum sobre as alterações cardiovasculares de ratos Wistar com infarto do miocárdio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. ANDRADE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O alho (Allium sativum apresenta várias ações benéficas ao sistema circulatório, tais como diminuição dos níveis de colesterol total, LDL-colesterol e da pressão arterial, além de efeito antioxidante. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da administração do Allium sativum sobre as alterações da hemodinâmica cardiovascular e estruturais macroscópicas do coração de animais com infarto induzido experimentalmente. Ratos Wistar foram tratados, previamente e após indução do infarto, com homogeneizado de alho na dose de 125mg/Kg/dia durante 21 dias, por via oral (uma semana antes e duas depois do procedimento de infarto. Os grupos controle passaram por cirurgia fictícia (SHAM. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controles e infartados com (SHAMT, INFT; respectivamente ou sem (SHAM, INF; respectivamente tratamento com alho. Houve redução da hipertrofia do ventrículo direito (INF=0,75±0,05 vs. INFT=0,61±0,03 mg/Kg; p<0,01, da área de infarto (INF=29,7±4,8% vs. INFT=20,4±1,4%; p<0,05 e regularização dos níveis de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS; INF=100±8 vs. INFT=127±7 mmHg; p<0,05 e média (PAM; INF=94±4 vs. INFT=110±6 mmHg; p<0,01 dos animais INFT comparados com os INF. Houve um menor número de animais mortos após o procedimento de infarto no grupo INFT em relação ao grupo INF (20%, n=2; 45,5%, n=5; respectivamente. Esses achados indicam que o alho tem um importante papel na prevenção e no controle de alterações cardiovasculares, uma vez que houve redução do número de mortes pós-infarto e melhor perfil cardiovascular dos animais INFT. Palavras-chave: Allium sativum. Infarto do miocárdio.Hipertrofia cardíaca. Hemodinâmica cardiovascular.

  7. 大蒜抗菌活性蛋白的分离、纯化和鉴定%Isolation,Purification and Identification of Antimicrobial Proteins from Allium Sativum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏雪盈; 徐栋梁; 闫浩; 夏立新; 刘志刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate and purify the protein with antif ungal activity from Allium sativum. Methods Crude extracts were obtained from Allium sativum and antimicrobial proteins were purified by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-SephadexTM A-50, affinity chromatogra-phy on Affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on ResourceTM S. The antif ungal activity of the purified proteins was identified by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and antifungal activity test. Results The molecular mass of the purified protein was 13 ku. The protein inhibited the growth of Mycosphaerella arachidicola , but had no effects on Trichoderma viride , Aspergillus niger , Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium chrysogenum. In addition, another purified protein had a molecular mass of 4. 6 ku. The protein inhibited the growth of Trichoderma viride , but had no effects on Mycosphaerella arachidicola , Aspergillus niger , Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium chrysogenum. Conclusion Antimicrobial proteins isolated from Allium sativum can prohibit the growth of some fungi.%目的 从大蒜中分离纯化具有抗真菌活性的蛋白.方法 提取大蒜粗提液,通过DEAE-SephadexTM A-50阴离子交换层析、Affi-gel blue gel亲和层析和ResourceTM S阳离子交换层析纯化目的 蛋白.通过Tricine-SDS-PAGE、抗真菌活性检测鉴定该蛋白对不同真菌的抑制活性.结果 纯化得到的蛋白分子质量为13 ku,该蛋白对落花生褐斑病菌有明显的生长抑制活性,而对绿色木霉、黑曲霉、白地霉和产黄青霉没有生长抑制活性.纯化得到另外一种蛋白的分子质量约为4.6 ku,该蛋白对绿色木霉有明显的生长抑制活性,而对落花生褐斑病菌、黑曲霉、白地霉和产黄青霉没有生长抑制活性.结论 大蒜中存在抗真菌活性蛋白.

  8. 大蒜提取液对白鲢鱼肉的保鲜作用%Preservative Effects of Allium sativum L. Extract on Fresh Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Fillets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究大蒜(Allium sativum L.)提取液对白鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)鱼肉货架期品质的影响.[方法]测定货架期白鲢鱼肉的pH值、挥发性盐基总氮(TVBN)、TBA值和菌落总数,并进行感官评定.[结果]大蒜提取液能够有效地保持鱼肉货架期的品质,延缓鱼肉pH值、TVBN值、TBA值以及菌落总数的升高.[结论]该研究可为大蒜提取液在淡水鱼储藏保鲜方面的实际应用提供理论依据.

  9. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar - Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghirzadeh, M. [Department of Basic Science, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharaati, M.R. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran 11365-3486 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: smohammadi@aeoi.org.ir; Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for {sup 226}Ra was 12,766 Bq kg{sup -1} whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg{sup -1}. A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with {sup 226}Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  10. The effect of oleander glycosides on the germination of pollen grains and the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water solution of a mixture of glycosides from oleander (Nerium oleander L. on the germination of pollen grains and on the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L. has been studied. An inhibition of the germination and of the growth of pollen tubes was observed, proportionally to the concentration of glycosides. The pollen grains of A. cepa are more sensitive. The disturbances in mitosis lead to the formation of two or more uneven-sized doughter nuclei, or to the formation of restitution nuclei. These anomalies are more numerous in T. bracteata. From these results d t appears that pollen grains of A. cepa are characterized by a generally high physiological sensitivity and a small mitotic sensitivity, wheras for T. bracteata the opposite is true.

  11. Cyanamide mode of action during inhibition of onion (Allium cepa L.) root growth involves disturbances in cell division and cytoskeleton formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata

    2011-09-01

    Cyanamide is an allelochemical produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.). Its phyotoxic effect on plant growth was examined on roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Water solution of cyanamide (2-10 mM) restricted growth of onion roots in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of onion roots with cyanamide resulted in a decrease in root growth rate accompanied by a decrease in accumulation of fresh and dry weight. The inhibitory effect of cyanamide was reversed by its removal from the environment, but full recovery was observed only for tissue treated with this chemical at low concentration (2-6 mM). Cytological observations of root tip cells suggest that disturbances in cell division may explain the strong cyanamide allelopathic activity. Moreover, in cyanamide-treated onion the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells and cell cycle, and modifications of cytoskeleton arrangement. PMID:21573814

  12. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  13. Bio-indication-based estimates as an integral part of the environment quality assessment on an example of allium-test application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human nuclear and industrial activities can substantially increase environmental exposure levels. Concerns about the damaging effect of ionizing radiation have led to the establishment of radioprotection norms by ICRP and national regulatory authorities. A great deal of research has been carried out to specify and justify constraints for radionuclide discharges and safety levels, and regulatory decision making strategies are still an important topic for radiation protection of the environment and the public. Contamination of territories through human civil and military activities such as nuclear facilities operation, mining, nuclear weapon testing involves, however, a complex impact so that a mixture of radionuclides is often supplemented by other potentially hazardous substances (e.g. heavy or alkali metals). There is still a large lack of knowledge on actual hazard of such combined contamination and a need to fill the gap between an acquisition of spectrum and levels of environmental pollutants to possible adverse effects to biota and human health. A study was aimed at developing a complex approach for the environment health assessment integrating information on contaminants levels registered with routine techniques and bio indication-based estimates of adverse effects of their combination.Findings from two studies carried out in sites with different scenarios of long-term impact caused by human industrial activity are presented. In both studies, samples of water and/or soil were taken, and their cyto- and genotoxicity was tested with Allium cepa plant system to assess a hazardous potential of complex contamination.The present work and our previous investigations (Evseeva et al., 2005; Geraskin et al., 2005) demonstrate that an adequate environment quality assessment cannot relies only on information about pollutants concentrations. Unfortunately, limited lists of toxicants are adopted to control the levels of man-made stress to the environment. Furthermore

  14. Evaluación preliminar de la micorriza versículo-arbuscular en dos sistemas: pastizal y cebolla de bulbo Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz F. Jaime Eduardo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante dos semestres la micorriza en dos sistemas: pastizal y cultivo de Allium cepa, en un mismo sitio con un contenido de P alto. Para el pastizal se tomaron muestras en cinco lotes identificando las especies presentes y su abundancia relativa, en A. cepa se tomaron muestras en cinco edades del cultivo. En ambos sistemas se evaluó porcentaje de infección por MVA (PI, número de esporas por 50 g de suelo (NES, se identificaron las especies de MVA y se obtuvo su frecuencia. En el pastizal la especie predominante Paspalum notatum presentó los mayores PI (16.2 y 15.4 y el mayor NES, Penisetum clandestinulll no adaptada a la zona presentó el menor PI (0.1% y el menor NES; para los dos semestres hubo correlación entre PI y NES y para cada variable a través de semestres, lo que indica que el comportamiento fue similar en las dos épocas. En Allium cepa, para los dos semestres, no se presentó infección por MVA en semillero y los PI de infección fueron muy bajos, menores de 5.3%, no obstante que la especie es considerada de alta dependencia de la MVA; esto puede deberse al alto contenido de P del suelo (167 ppm, y a la aplicación de fungicidas. En ambos sistemas las especies de MVA fueron las mismas, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme, Acaulospora longula, Glomus monosporum y Glolmus sp; Entrophospora infreguens no se presentó en A. cepa. Las especies predominantes en los dos sistemas fueron Glomus geosporum y Acaulospora longula.

    During two semesters Micorriza (VAM was evaluated in two systems: pastures and Allium cepa culture, in the same place, which had a high P content. For pastures were taken samples in five lots, identifying present species and their relative abundance. In A. cepa samples were taken in five culture ages, In both systems were evaluated infection percentage (lP for VAM, number of spores for 50 g of soil (NSS, were identified the VAM species and was obtained their frequency. At the pastures

  15. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  16. Retention of testicular integrity and testosterone levels upon ingestion of garlic cloves(Allium sativum)in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adejoke; Elizabeth; Memudu; Ibukun; Dorcas; Akinrinade; Olalekan; Michael; Ogundele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aqueous garlic extract ingestion on testicular cellular integrity and serum testosterone levels.Methods: Twenty(20) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing an average of 120 g were used.Animals were divided into three groups. Group A served as control(10 rats for 28 and 56 d respectively), while treatment Groups B and C were given 200 mg/kg for Allium sativum(garlic cloves) extract for 28 and 56 d respectively.Results: Histological analysis revealed the presence of all spermatogenic lineages, appearance of proliferative activities in the interstitial cells, as well as increased serum testosterone levels.Conclusions: This study confirmed proliferative and restorative potentials in both acute and chronic garlic ingestion.

  17. Kastamonu Sarmısağının (Allium sativum L.) Kimyasal Bileşiminin Belirlenmesi Üzerine Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Artık, Nevzat; Poyrazoğlu, Ender S.

    1994-01-01

    Sarımsak (Allium sativum L.) antimikrobiyal etkisi ve çeşni verme özelliği nedeni ile üretilmektedir. Ülkemizde Kastamonu yöresinde yetiştirilen sarımsak, bileşimi ve etken maddesi nedeniyle tüm Avrupa ülkelerinde tanınmaktadır. Sarmısağın bileşim unsurları konusunda yeterli bilgi mevcut değildir. Bu araştırmada Kastamonu ilinden sağlanan 40 farklı sarımsak örneğinde fiziksel, kimyasal özellikler ve Hunter renk değerleri saptanmıştır. Sarımsak örneklerinde şeker analizleri enzimatik yönteml...

  18. Bio-indication-based estimates as an integral part of the environment quality assessment on an example of allium-test application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Dikarev, V.; Dikareva, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Michalik, B.; Chalupnik, S.; Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Kozmin, G. [State Technical University of Atomic Energy, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Human nuclear and industrial activities can substantially increase environmental exposure levels. Concerns about the damaging effect of ionizing radiation have led to the establishment of radioprotection norms by ICRP and national regulatory authorities. A great deal of research has been carried out to specify and justify constraints for radionuclide discharges and safety levels, and regulatory decision making strategies are still an important topic for radiation protection of the environment and the public. Contamination of territories through human civil and military activities such as nuclear facilities operation, mining, nuclear weapon testing involves, however, a complex impact so that a mixture of radionuclides is often supplemented by other potentially hazardous substances (e.g. heavy or alkali metals). There is still a large lack of knowledge on actual hazard of such combined contamination and a need to fill the gap between an acquisition of spectrum and levels of environmental pollutants to possible adverse effects to biota and human health. A study was aimed at developing a complex approach for the environment health assessment integrating information on contaminants levels registered with routine techniques and bio indication-based estimates of adverse effects of their combination.Findings from two studies carried out in sites with different scenarios of long-term impact caused by human industrial activity are presented. In both studies, samples of water and/or soil were taken, and their cyto- and genotoxicity was tested with Allium cepa plant system to assess a hazardous potential of complex contamination.The present work and our previous investigations (Evseeva et al., 2005; Geraskin et al., 2005) demonstrate that an adequate environment quality assessment cannot relies only on information about pollutants concentrations. Unfortunately, limited lists of toxicants are adopted to control the levels of man-made stress to the environment. Furthermore

  19. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. PMID:27283605

  20. Effects of water soluble oncostatic fraction from Rheum officinale Baill. rhizomes on Allium cepa root meristem. III. Morphological changes in cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dawidowicz-Grzegorzewska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spiral concentric and linear configurations of membraneous structures were observed in the cytoplasm of fixed meristematic cells from the root apex of Allium cepa under the light microscope. They appeared after incubation in sublethal and lethal conditions in Rheum ofiicinale rhizome extracts. During postincubation these structures disappeared. They were interpreted as ER membranes. On the basis of literature data the physiological significance of these structures is discussed. It would seem that they are an indication of enhanced metabolic activity evoked either exogenously by various injuries as a form of defence reaction of the protoplast or endogenously during cytodifferentiation. Prolonged treatment in ,noxious conditions causes the ER membranes to transform into inactive myelin structures