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  1. Evaluation of the WHO 2010 grading and AJCC/UICC staging systems in prognostic behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B Araujo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence and heterogeneous behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (iNETs pose a clinicopathological challenge. Our goal was to decribe the prognostic value of the new WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems for iNETs. Moreover, outcomes of patients treated with somatostatin analogs were assessed. METHODS: We collected epidemiological and clinicopathological data from 93 patients with histologically proven iNETs including progression and survival outcomes. The WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems were applied for all cases. RECIST criteria were used to define progression. Kaplan-Meier analyses for progression free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were performed. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 58.6 months (4-213 months. WHO 2010 grading yielded PFS and disease-specific OS of 125.0 and 165.8 months for grade 1 (G1, 100.0 and 144.2 months for G2 and 15.0 and 15.8 months for G3 tumors (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001. Using AJCC staging, patients with stage I and II tumors had no progression and no deaths. Stage III and IV patients demonstrated PFS of 138.4 and 84.7 months (p = 0.003 and disease-specific OS of 210.0 and 112.8 months (p = 0.017. AJCC staging also provided informative PFS (91.2 vs. 50.0 months, p = 0.004 and OS (112.3 vs. 80.0 months, p = 0.005 measures with somatostatin analog use in stage IV patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the complementarity of WHO 2010 and AJCC classifications in providing better estimates of iNETS disease outcomes and extend the evidence for somatostatin analog benefit in patients with metastatic disease.

  2. Comparison of the 7th and proposed 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system for non-small cell lung cancer undergoing radical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Chen, Ming; Yu, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to compare the 7th and the proposed 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system for NSCLC in a cohort of patients from a single institution. A total of 408 patients with NSCLC who underwent radical surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Survivals were analyzed using the Kaplan –Meier method and were compared using the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed by the Cox proportional hazard model. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and C-index were applied to compare the two prognostic systems with different numbers of stages. The 7th AJCC T categories, the proposed 8th AJCC T categories, N categories, visceral pleural invasion, and vessel invasion were found to have statistically significant associations with disease-free survival (DFS) on univariate analysis. In the 7th edition staging system as well as in the proposed 8th edition, T categories, N categories, and pleural invasion were independent factors for DFS on multivariate analysis. The AIC value was smaller for the 8th edition compared to the 7th edition staging system. The C-index value was larger for the 8th edition compared to the 7th edition staging system. Based on the data from our single center, the proposed 8th AJCC T classification seems to be superior to the 7th AJCC T classification in terms of DFS for patients with NSCLC underwent radical surgery. PMID:27641932

  3. The 2002 AJCC TNM classification is a better predictor of primary small cell esophageal carcinoma outcome than the VALSG staging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Ye Wang; Wei-Ming Mao; Xiang-Hui Du; Ya-Ping Xu; Su-Zhan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor with a poor prognosis.The optimal disease staging system and treatment approaches have not yet been defined.This study aimed to evaluate the prediction of different staging systems for prognosis and treatment options of SCCE.We retrospectively accessed the clinicopathologic characteristics,treatment strategy,and prognosis of 76 patients diagnosed with primary SCCE between 2001 and 2011.The 1-,2-,3-,and 5-year overall survival rates were 58%,31%,19%,and 13%,respectively.U nivariate analysis showed that the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification (P =0.002),Veterans Administration Lung Study Group (VALSG) stage (P =0.001),predisposing factors (P < 0.001),T category (P =0.023),and M category (P < 0.001) were prognostic factors for overall survival.Multivariate analysis showed that the 2002 AJCC TNM stage (P < 0.001) was the only independent prognostic factor for survival.The value of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of the 2002 AJCC TNM staging system was larger than that of VALSG staging system with regard to predicting overall survival (0.774 vs.0.620).None of the single treatment regimens showed any benefit for survival by Cox regression analysis.Thus,the 2002 AJCC TMN staging system improved the prediction of SCCE prognosis; however,the optimal treatment regimen for SCCE remains unclear.

  4. Practical Concerns Regarding the 7th Edition AJCC Staging Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Buethe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual represents a dramatic shift in the way that cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC is staged, in that it is first attempt to incorporate evidence-based medicine into the staging guidelines for cSCC. In our opinion, the changes made to the seventh edition represent a significant improvement over previous editions and will ultimately lead to improved patient stratification, more accurate prognostic data, and a better framework to guide clinical decision making. However, there are a number of issues within the latest guidelines that require clarification or are impractical for clinical practice. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the key changes to the 6th edition staging manual as they pertain to cSCC, to point out impractical component of the 7th edition and/or aspects that require further clarification, and to make recommendations that address any current shortcomings to improve subsequent editions. Specific focus will be given to the inclusion of separate guidelines for cSCC and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, the incorporation of high-risk factors as modifiers of T stage, the addition of new guidelines for advanced T stage, and the changes in stratification of lymph node status. This paper is modified from a more comprehensive treatment of the staging of nonmelanoma skin cancer by Warner and Cockerell entitled “The new 7th edition American joint committee on cancer staging of cutaneous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a critical review,” in the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (paper accepted, pending publication.

  5. Hormone profiling, WHO 2010 grading, and AJCC/UICC staging in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms, exhibiting a complex spectrum of clinical behaviors. To examine the clinico-pathological characteristics associated with long-term prognosis we reviewed 119 patients with pNETs treated in a tertiary referral center using the WHO 2010 grading and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging systems, with a median follow-up of 38 months. Tumor size, immunohistochemistry (IHC) profiling and patient characteristics-determining stage were analyzed. Primary clinical outcomes were disease progression or death. The mean age at presentation was 52 years; 55% were female patients, 11% were associated with MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia 1) or VHL (Von Hippel–Lindau); mean tumor diameter was 3.3 cm (standard deviation, SD) (2.92). The clinical presentation was incidental in 39% with endocrine hypersecretion syndromes in only 24% of cases. Nevertheless, endocrine hormone tissue immunoreactivity was identified in 67 (56.3%) cases. According to WHO 2010 grading, 50 (42%), 38 (31.9%), and 3 (2.5%) of tumors were low grade (G1), intermediate grade (G2), and high grade (G3), respectively. Disease progression occurred more frequently in higher WHO grades (G1: 6%, G2: 10.5%, G3: 67%, P = 0.026) and in more advanced AJCC stages (I: 2%, IV: 63%, P = 0.033). Shorter progression free survival (PFS) was noted in higher grades (G3 vs. G2; 21 vs. 144 months; P = 0.015) and in more advanced AJCC stages (stage I: 218 months, IV: 24 months, P < 0.001). Liver involvement (20 vs. 173 months, P < 0.001) or histologically positive lymph nodes (33 vs. 208 months, P < 0.001) were independently associated with shorter PFS. Conversely, tissue endocrine hormone immunoreactivity, independent of circulating levels was significantly associated with less aggressive disease. Age, gender, number of primary tumors, and heredity were not significantly associated with

  6. Proposal for the 8th edition of AJCC/UICC staging system for nasopharyngeal cancer in the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy%基于 IMRT 时代的第八版 AJCC/UICC鼻咽癌临床分期建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘建基; 郭巧娟; Wai Kuen Kan; 肖友平; Xu Wei; Quynh Thu Le; Christine M.Glastonbury; A.Dimtrios Colevas; Randal S.Weber; Jatin P.Shah; Anne W.M.Lee; Wai Tong Ng; 宗井凤; Lucy L.K.Chan; Brian O’Sullivan; 林少俊; Henry C.K.Sze; 陈韵彬; Horace C.W.Choi

    2016-01-01

    Objective An accurate staging system is crucial for cancer management .With the development of cancer staging systems and therapeutic methods, the applicability and improvement of staging systems should be evaluated constantly.Methods The clinical data of 1609 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients without metastasis at initial diagnosis , who were admitted to two tumor centers in Hong Kong and Mainland China and received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), were analyzed retrospectively based on the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) or International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system, and all the patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) before treatment.Results Among the T3 /T4 patients without involvement of other anatomic structures, overall survival (OS)showed no significant differences between the patients with masticator space (medial pterygoid muscle and/or lateral pterygoid muscle) involvement, prevertebral muscle involvement, and parapharyngeal space involvement.The OS was similar between the patients with extensive soft tissue (soft tissues other than the structures mentioned above) involvement and those with intracranial involvement or cranial nerve involvement.Only2% of the patients had lymph node metastasis >6 cm above the supraclavicular fossa (SCF), with an OS similar to that of the patients with lower cervical lymph node metastasis .Replacing SCF with the lower neck(below the caudal border of the cricoid cartilage ) did not affect the risk difference between different N stages.With the proposed T and N staging systems, the OS showed no significant differences between T 4N 0-2 and T1-4 N3 patients.Conclusions After a review by AJCC/UICC staging system preparatory committees, the changes recommended for the 8th edition include changing medial pterygoid muscle or lateral pterygoid muscle involvement from T4 to T2 , adding prevertebral muscle involvement to T2 stage, replacing SCF with the lower neck and

  7. Impact of esophageal cancer staging on overall survival and disease-free survival based on the 2010 AJCC classification by lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study investigated the effect of modifications presented in the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Manual for staging esophageal cancer on the characterization of the effectiveness of post-operative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, as measured by overall and disease-free survival. The seventh edition of the AJCC Manual classifies the number of lymph nodes (N) positive for regional metastasis into three subclasses. We used the AJCC classification system to characterize the cancers of 413 Chinese patients with esophageal cancer who underwent radical resection plus regional lymph node dissection over a 10-year period. The 10-year survival rate was 14.3% for stage N1 patients and 6.1% for stage N2 patients. Only one stage N3 patient was followed >4 years (53.4 months). The 10-year disease-free rate was 13.6% for stage N1 patients. Patients with stage N2 or N3 cancer were more likely to have tumor recurrences, metastases or death than patients with stage N1 cancer. Post-operative radiotherapy provided no survival benefit, and may have had a negative effect on survival. In this study, the N stage of esophageal cancer was an independent factor affecting overall and disease-free survival. Our results did not clarify whether or not radiotherapy after radical esophagectomy offers any survival benefit to patients with esophageal cancer. (author)

  8. Use of S-100B to Evaluate Therapy Effects during Bevacizumab Induction Treatment in AJCC Stage III Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kruijff, S.; Bastiaannet, E.; Brouwers, A. H.; Nagengast, W. B.; Speijers, M.J.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.; Hospers, G. A.; Hoekstra, H J

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the feasibility of using bevacizumab to improve the survival of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III melanoma patients, we investigated how a single bevacizumab treatment affected nodal disease and a panel of biomarkers in clinically fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT)-staged, stage III melanoma patients, prior to therapeutic lymph node dissection (TLND). Methods Four weeks before TLND, nine patients (median age ...

  9. Diagnostic performance of 64-section CT using CT gastrography in preoperative T staging of gastric cancer according to 7th edition of AJCC cancer staging manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woong [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Center for Aging and Geriatrics, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Suk Hee; Lim, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoo Duk [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Pathology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Kyu [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Surgery, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Hwan [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of 64-section multidetector CT with CT gastrography for determining the depth of mural invasion in patients with gastric cancer according to the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual. A total of 127 patients with gastric cancer and who had undergone both esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy and 64-section CT were included in this study. Two radiologists independently reviewed the preoperative CT images with respect to the detectability and T-staging of the gastric cancers. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and overall accuracy of each reviewer for the T staging of gastric cancer were calculated. Overall, gastric cancer was detected in 123 (96.9%) of the 127 cancers on the CT images. Reviewer 1 correctly staged 98 gastric cancers, and reviewer 2 correctly classified 105 gastric cancers. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the T staging was 77.2% (98/127) for reviewer 1 and 82.7% (105/127) for reviewer 2. 64-section CT using CT gastrography showed a reasonable diagnostic performance for determining the T staging in patients with gastric cancer according to the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual. (orig.)

  10. Vitronectin and dermcidin serum levels predict the metastatic progression of AJCC I-II early-stage melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Martínez, Idoia; Gardeazabal, Jesús; Erramuzpe, Asier; Sanchez-Diez, Ana; Cortés, Jesús; García-Vázquez, María D; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Izu, Rosa; Luís Díaz-Ramón, Jose; de la Fuente, Ildefonso M; Asumendi, Aintzane; Boyano, María D

    2016-10-01

    Like many cancers, an early diagnosis of melanoma is fundamental to ensure a good prognosis, although an important proportion of stage I-II patients may still develop metastasis during follow-up. The aim of this work was to discover serum biomarkers in patients diagnosed with primary melanoma that identify those at a high risk of developing metastasis during the follow-up period. Proteomic and mass spectrophotometry analysis was performed on serum obtained from patients who developed metastasis during the first years after surgery for primary tumors and compared with that from patients who remained disease-free for more than 10 years after surgery. Five proteins were selected for validation as prognostic factors in 348 melanoma patients and 100 controls by ELISA: serum amyloid A and clusterin; immune system proteins; the cell adhesion molecules plakoglobin and vitronectin and the antimicrobial protein dermcidin. Compared to healthy controls, melanoma patients have high serum levels of these proteins at the moment of melanoma diagnosis, although the specific values were not related to the histopathological stage of the tumors. However, an analysis based on classification together with multivariate statistics showed that tumor stage, vitronectin and dermcidin levels were associated with the metastatic progression of patients with early-stage melanoma. Although melanoma patients have increased serum dermcidin levels, the REPTree classifier showed that levels of dermcidin stage II patients. These data suggest that vitronectin and dermcidin are potent biomarkers of prognosis, which may help to improve the personalized medical care of melanoma patients and their survival. PMID:27216146

  11. Circulating Tyrosinase and MART-1 mRNA does not Independently Predict Relapse or Survival in Patients with AJCC Stage I–II Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Sørensen, Boe S; Sjoegren, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    The detection of melanoma cells in peripheral blood has been proposed to select patients with a high risk of relapse. In this study, tyrosinase and melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1) mRNA expression was evaluated in serial samples obtained before definitive surgery and during follow......-up in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I-II melanoma. Serial samples (n=2,262) were collected from 236 patients from 1997 to 2002. Analyses of the RNA samples were performed with a calibrated reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Gender, age, primary tumor site, ulceration, thickness, Clark...... with relapse-free survival in the univariate analyses: tyrosinase, MART-1, gender, ulceration, thickness, Clark level, and histological subtype. Entering these covariates into a multivariate Cox analysis resulted in thickness as the single independent prognostic factor (P

  12. Circulating tyrosinase and MART-1 mRNA does not independently predict relapse or survival in patients with AJCC stage I-II melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Sørensen, Boe Sandahl; Sjøgren, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    The detection of melanoma cells in peripheral blood has been proposed to       select patients with a high risk of relapse. In this study, tyrosinase and       melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1) mRNA expression was       evaluated in serial samples obtained before definitive surgery...... and during       follow-up in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I-II       melanoma. Serial samples (n=2,262) were collected from 236 patients from       1997 to 2002. Analyses of the RNA samples were performed with a calibrated       reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Gender, age, primary....... The following variables       were significantly associated with relapse-free survival in the univariate       analyses: tyrosinase, MART-1, gender, ulceration, thickness, Clark level,       and histological subtype. Entering these covariates into a multivariate       Cox analysis resulted in thickness...

  13. Applications of a novel tumor-grading-metastasis staging system for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Tan, Chun-Lu; Zhang, Yi; Ke, Neng-Wen; Zeng, Lin; Li, Ang; Zhang, Hao; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Guo, Zi-Heng; Tian, Bo-Le; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The ability to stratify patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) into prognostic groups has been hindered by the absence of a commonly accepted staging system. Both the 7th tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging guidelines by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the 2010 grading classifications by the World Health Organization (WHO) were validated to be unsatisfactory. We aim to evaluate the feasibility of combining the latest AJCC and WHO criteria to devise a novel tumor-grading-metastasis (TGM) staging system. We also sought to examine the stage-specific survival rates and the prognostic value of this new TGM system for p-NETs. Data of 120 patients with surgical resection and histopathological diagnosis of p-NETs from January 2004 to February 2014 in our institution were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Based on the AJCC and WHO criteria, we replaced the stage N0 and N1 with stage Ga (NET G1 and NET G2) and Gb (NET G3 and MANEC) respectively, without changes of the definition of T or M stage. The present novel TGM staging system was grouped as follows: stage I was defined as T1–2, Ga, M0; stage II as T3, Ga, M0 or as T1–3, Gb, M0; stage III as T4, Ga–b, M0 and stage IV as any T, M1. The new TGM staging system successfully distributed 55, 42, 12, and 11 eligible patients in stage I to IV, respectively. Differences of survival compared stage I with III and IV for patients with p-NETs were both statistically significant (P current proposed TGM staging system was predictive for overall survival of p-NETs and could be more widely applied in clinical practice. PMID:27428224

  14. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is important in determining the best treatment plan. Several classification systems have been suggested to determine the operability and extent of surgery. Longitudinal tumor extent is especially important in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma because operative methods differ depending on the tumor extent. The Bismuth-Corlette classification system provides useful information when planning for surgery. However, this classification system is not adequate for selecting surgical candidates. Anatomic variation of the bile duct and gross morphology of the tumor must be considered simultaneously. Lateral spread of the tumor can be evaluated based on the TNM staging provided by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, there is a potential for ambiguity in the distinction of T1 and T2 cancer from one another. In addition, T stage does not necessarily mean invasiveness. Blumgart T staging is helpful for the assessment of resectability with the consideration of nodal status and distant metastasis as suggested by the AJCC cancer staging system. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the primary tools used in the assessment of longitudinal and lateral spread of a tumor when determining respectability. Diagnostic laparoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) may play additional roles in this regard. (orig.)

  15. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  16. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  17. Developing a novel nodal grading system to standardize nodal classification in gastric cancer patients with limited lymph node resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To develop an easy applicable novel nodal grading system to improve the standardization of nodal classification in patients with limited lymphadenectomy. Methods: We formulated a new approach of nodal classification to classify this category of patients. Log-rank test was used for univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. We used linear trendχ2 tests, likelihood ratioχ2 test and Akaike information criterion (AIC) value to assess the homogeneity, discriminatory ability and monotonicity of gradients of the two nodal staging systems.Results:Statistical analysis supported that both the hypothesized N’ stage and hypothesized TN’M stage outperforms the present AJCC/UICC staging system.Conclusion:We developed an easy applicable and reproducible novel nodal grading system that has a greater predicting value than the current AJCC/UICC staging system to classify gastric cancer patients with limited lymphadenectomy.

  18. The New Lung Cancer Staging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank C. Detterbeck,MD, FCCP; Daniel J. Boffa, MD; Lynn T, Tanoue, MD, FCCP

    2009-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) has conducted an extensive initiative to inform the revision of the lung cancer staging system. This involved development of an international database along with extensive analysis of a large population of patients and their prognoses. This article reviews the recommendations of the IASLC International Staging Committee for the definitions for the TNM descriptors and the stage grouping in the new non-small cell lung cancer staging system.

  19. Defining a Valid Age Cutoff in Staging of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Iain J.; Kuk, Deborah; Wreesmann, Volkert; Morris, Luc; Palmer, Frank L.; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal G.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok R.; Gönen, Mithat; Shah, Jatin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Age 45 years is used as a cutoff in the staging of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) as it represents the median age of most datasets. The aim of this study was to determine a statistically optimized age threshold using a large dataset of patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods Overall, 1807 patients with a median follow-up of 109 months were included in the study. Recursive partitioning was used to determine which American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) variables were most predictive of disease-specific death, and whether a different cutoff for age would be found. From the resulting tree, a new age cutoff was picked and patients were restaged using this new cutoff. Results The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) by Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) stage was 99.6, 100, 96, and 81 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Using recursive partitioning, the presence of distant metastasis was the most powerful predictor of DSS. For M0 patients, age was the next most powerful predictor, with a cutoff of 56 years. For M1 patients, a cutoff at 54 years was most predictive. Having reviewed the analysis, age 55 years was selected as a more robust age cutoff than 45 years. The 10-year DSS by new stage (using age 55 years as the cutoff) was 99.2, 98, 100, and 74 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Conclusion A change in age cutoff in the AJCC/UICC staging for WDTC to 55 years would improve the accuracy of the system and appropriately prevent low-risk patients being overstaged and overtreated. PMID:26215199

  20. Stage 2 vapor recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, W.H.; Strock, D.J.; Butkovich, M.S.; Hartman, H.B.

    1993-05-25

    A vapor recovery system is described, comprising: a set of elongated underground storage tanks, each storage tank containing a different grade of gasoline; vent pipes; a series of dispensing units; fuel flow lines; vapor return lines; an array of fuel pumps for pumping gasoline from said storage tanks to said dispenser units; an elongated condensate liquid pickup tube; an elongated inner spout providing a fuel conduit and having an outer tip defining a fuel outlet for discharging gasoline into a filler pipe of a motor vehicle tank during fueling; an outer spout assembly; extending into and engaging said spout-receiving socket, said outer spout assembly comprising an outer spout providing a vapor return conduit and defining apertures providing a vapor inlet spaced from said fuel outlet for withdrawing, removing, and returning a substantial amount of gasoline vapors emitted during said fueling; an elongated liquid sensing tube; a manually operable level; a flow control valve assembly; an automatic shutoff valve assembly; and a venturi sleeve assembly positioned in said venturi sleeve receiving chamber.

  1. Staging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  2. The staging system: Display and edit module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E.; Bernier, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Display and Edit (D and E) Module described is one of six major modules being developed for the STAGING (STructural Analysis through Generalized INteractive Graphics) System. Several remarks are included concerning the computer environment and the architecture of the data base. The utility of this module is emphasized.

  3. Multi-stage LTL transport systems in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to unify concepts and to describe the multi-stage transport systems and their integratyion to supply chain management. Multi-stage distribution systems are common logistics management, and often they are assimilated to multi-stage transport strategies. However, transport is often considered as an external operation or a specific stage, even when it is a multi-stage system. First, the paper presents the main concepts of multi-stage transport systems by defining the concept an m...

  4. Multi Staged Gasification Systems - A New Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M.B.; Koidl, F.; Kreutner, G.; Giovannini, A. (MCI - Univ. of Applied Science for Environmental-, Process- and Biotechnology, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)); Kleinhappl, M.; Roschitz, C.; Hofbauer, H. (Austrian Bioeneregy Centre, Graz (Austria)); Gruber, F. (GE Jenbacher, Jenbach (Austria)); Krueger, J. (SynCraft Engineering, Schwaz (Austria))

    2008-10-15

    Multi-staged fixed bed (MFB) gasification systems represent one of the most promising and effective methods of transforming solid biomass into power and heat (CHP). The underlying magic of this gasification process is, that a clean producer gas suitable for gas engines at high cold-gas efficiency rates can be produced. These two attributes allow multi-staged gasification systems to minimize the efforts for gas cleaning, while maximizing the energy retrieval out of the biomass. Though already demonstrated in small-scale, MFB gasification becomes a challenge when thinking of commercial-sized plants above 150kW{sub el}. In such a dimension especially the pressure loss over the char bed and bulk instabilities become the major process obstacles. After years of investigation the MCI developed a new process pathway which allows avoiding these bottle necks while maintaining the advantages of MFB systems. The core of the new staged alignment is the combination of a partial-oxidation-accelerator with a floating-bed-reduction-reactor. The process has already achieved technical proof of concept during ongoing investigations at a 250 kW{sub th} pilot plant in Jenbach and will be upscaled to demonstration plant size as soon as sufficient long time experience is gained

  5. A simplified staging system based on the radiological findings in different stages of ochronotic spondyloarthropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Jebaraj; Binita Riya Chacko; George Koshy Chiramel; Thomas Matthai; Apurve Parameswaran

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a group of 26 patients with ochronotic spondyloarthropathy who were on regular treatment and follow-up at a tertiary level hospital and proposes a simplified staging system for ochronotic spondyloarthropathy based on radiographic findings seen in the thoracolumbar spine. This proposed classification makes it easy to identify the stage of the disease and start the appropriate management at an early stage. Four progressive stages are described: an inflammatory stage (stage ...

  6. Prediction of Pathological Stage in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Neuro-Fuzzy Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Cosma

    Full Text Available The prediction of cancer staging in prostate cancer is a process for estimating the likelihood that the cancer has spread before treatment is given to the patient. Although important for determining the most suitable treatment and optimal management strategy for patients, staging continues to present significant challenges to clinicians. Clinical test results such as the pre-treatment Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA level, the biopsy most common tumor pattern (Primary Gleason pattern and the second most common tumor pattern (Secondary Gleason pattern in tissue biopsies, and the clinical T stage can be used by clinicians to predict the pathological stage of cancer. However, not every patient will return abnormal results in all tests. This significantly influences the capacity to effectively predict the stage of prostate cancer. Herein we have developed a neuro-fuzzy computational intelligence model for classifying and predicting the likelihood of a patient having Organ-Confined Disease (OCD or Extra-Prostatic Disease (ED using a prostate cancer patient dataset obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA Research Network. The system input consisted of the following variables: Primary and Secondary Gleason biopsy patterns, PSA levels, age at diagnosis, and clinical T stage. The performance of the neuro-fuzzy system was compared to other computational intelligence based approaches, namely the Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy C-Means, Support Vector Machine, the Naive Bayes classifiers, and also the AJCC pTNM Staging Nomogram which is commonly used by clinicians. A comparison of the optimal Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC points that were identified using these approaches, revealed that the neuro-fuzzy system, at its optimal point, returns the largest Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC, with a low number of false positives (FPR = 0.274, TPR = 0.789, AUC = 0.812. The proposed approach is also an improvement over the AJCC pTNM Staging Nomogram (FPR

  7. Prediction of Pathological Stage in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Neuro-Fuzzy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Giovanni; Brown, David; Rees, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of cancer staging in prostate cancer is a process for estimating the likelihood that the cancer has spread before treatment is given to the patient. Although important for determining the most suitable treatment and optimal management strategy for patients, staging continues to present significant challenges to clinicians. Clinical test results such as the pre-treatment Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) level, the biopsy most common tumor pattern (Primary Gleason pattern) and the second most common tumor pattern (Secondary Gleason pattern) in tissue biopsies, and the clinical T stage can be used by clinicians to predict the pathological stage of cancer. However, not every patient will return abnormal results in all tests. This significantly influences the capacity to effectively predict the stage of prostate cancer. Herein we have developed a neuro-fuzzy computational intelligence model for classifying and predicting the likelihood of a patient having Organ-Confined Disease (OCD) or Extra-Prostatic Disease (ED) using a prostate cancer patient dataset obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. The system input consisted of the following variables: Primary and Secondary Gleason biopsy patterns, PSA levels, age at diagnosis, and clinical T stage. The performance of the neuro-fuzzy system was compared to other computational intelligence based approaches, namely the Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy C-Means, Support Vector Machine, the Naive Bayes classifiers, and also the AJCC pTNM Staging Nomogram which is commonly used by clinicians. A comparison of the optimal Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) points that were identified using these approaches, revealed that the neuro-fuzzy system, at its optimal point, returns the largest Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC), with a low number of false positives (FPR = 0.274, TPR = 0.789, AUC = 0.812). The proposed approach is also an improvement over the AJCC pTNM Staging Nomogram (FPR = 0.032, TPR

  8. Proposed Lymph Node Staging System Using the International Consensus Guidelines for Lymph Node Levels Is Predictive for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients From Endemic Areas Treated With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Fei; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Mo [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Li-Zhi [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Ai-Hua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To propose a lymph node (N) staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) based on the International Consensus Guidelines for lymph node (LN) levels and MRI-determined nodal variables. Methods and Materials: The MRI scans and medical records of 749 NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic significance of nodal level, laterality, maximal axial diameter, extracapsular spread, necrosis, and Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) size criteria were analyzed. Results: Nodal level and laterality were the only independent prognostic factors for distant failure and disease failure in multivariate analysis. Compared with unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (hazard ratio [HR] 1), retropharyngeal lymph node involvement alone had a similar prognostic value (HR 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.17; P=.17), whereas bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.06-2.58; P=.03) and levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement (HR 3.47; 95% CI 1.92-6.29; P<.01) both significantly increased the HR for distant failure. Thus we propose that the N category criteria could be revised as follows: N0, no regional LN metastasis; N1, retropharyngeal lymph node involvement, and/or unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N2, bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N3, levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement. Compared with the 7th edition of the UICC/AJCC criteria, the proposed N staging system provides a more satisfactory distinction between the HRs for regional failure, distant failure, and disease failure in each N category. Conclusions: The proposed N staging system defined by the International Consensus Guidelines and laterality is predictive and practical. However, because of no measurements of the maximal nodal diameter on MRI slices

  9. Computerized System for Staging Peritoneal Surface Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Sammartino, Paolo; Biacchi, Daniele; Cornali, Tommaso; Accarpio, Fabio; Sibio, Simone; Luraschi, Bernard; Impagnatiello, Alessio; Di Giorgio, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Background Peritoneal surface malignancies (PSMs) are usually staged using Sugarbaker’s Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) and completeness of cytoreduction score (CC-s). Although these staging tools are essential for selecting patients and evaluating outcome after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), both scoring models lack some anatomic information, thus making staging laborious and unreliable. Maintaining Sugarbaker’s original concepts, we therefo...

  10. A proposed staging system and stage-specific interventions for familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynch, Patrick M; Morris, Jeffrey S; Wen, Sijin;

    2016-01-01

    scores were within ±1 stage of the mode. Sixty percent agreed on the intervention, and 86% chose an intervention within ±1 level of the mode. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed FAP colon polyposis staging system and stage-specific intervention is based on a high degree of agreement on the part of experts in the...... polyp burden as a sufficient chemoprevention trial treatment endpoint requiring a measure of "clinical-benefit." To develop endpoints for future industry-sponsored chemopreventive trials, the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors (InSIGHT) developed an FAP staging and intervention...... classification scheme for lower GI tract polyposis. METHODS: Twenty-four colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy videos were reviewed by 26 clinicians familiar with diagnosis and treatment of FAP. The reviewers independently assigned a stage to a case using the proposed system and chose a stage-specific intervention for...

  11. Two stage sorption type cryogenic refrigerator including heat regeneration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Wen, Liang-Chi; Bard, Steven

    1989-01-01

    A lower stage chemisorption refrigeration system physically and functionally coupled to an upper stage physical adsorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Waste heat generated by the lower stage cycle is regenerated to fuel the upper stage cycle thereby greatly improving the energy efficiency of a two-stage sorption refrigerator. The two stages are joined by disposing a first pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a first refrigerant for the lower stage refrigeration cycle within a second pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a second refrigerant for the upper stage refrigeration cycle. The first pressurization chamber is separated from the second pressurization chamber by a gas-gap thermal switch which at times is filled with a thermoconductive fluid to allow conduction of heat from the first pressurization chamber to the second pressurization chamber.

  12. Development of Wireless Dimming Control System for LED Stage Light

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Hui Qin; Bai Shi Lei

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the existing wire dimming system of LED stage light which uses the heavy light operating console to adjust the brightness of stage light, a portable wireless dimming control system for LED stage lighting is proposed, fabricated and tested in this paper. The scheme with the core of ATmega16L microcontroller is composed of wireless transmission and reception units, constant current driving circuit of LED, and the control circuit between this two modules. Through the system present...

  13. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: comparison of diffusion and perfusion characteristics between different tumour stages using intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Vincent; Li, Xiao; Huang, Bingsheng; Khong, Pek Lan [University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Ka On [University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Fong, Daniel Yee Tak [University of Hong Kong, School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, New Territories (China)

    2014-01-15

    To explore intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and relationships with different tumour stages. We prospectively recruited 80 patients with newly diagnosed undifferentiated NPC. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed and IVIM parameters (D, pure diffusion; f, perfusion fraction; D*, pseudodiffusion coefficient) were calculated. Patients were stratified into low and high tumour stage groups based on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and TNM staging for determination of the predictive powers of IVIM parameters using t test, multiple logistic regression and ROC curve analyses. D, f and D* were all statistically significantly lower in high-stage groups in AJCC, T and N staging. D, f and D* were all independent predictors of AJCC staging, f and D* were independent predictors of T staging, and D was an independent predictor of N staging. D was most powerful for AJCC and N staging, whereas f was most powerful for T staging. Optimal cut-off values (area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio) were as follows: AJCC stage, D = 0.782 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (0.915, 93.3 %, 76.2 %, 3.92, 0.09); T staging, f = 0.133 (0.905, 80.5 %, 92.5 %, 10.73, 0.21); N staging, D = 0.761 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (0.848, 87.5 %, 66.7 %, 2.62, 0.19). Multivariate analysis showed no diagnostic improvement. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has distinctive intravoxel incoherent motion characteristics parameters in different tumour staging, potentially helping pretreatment staging. (orig.)

  14. Improved Heuristics for Multi-Stage Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph D. Blackburn; Robert A. Millen

    1982-01-01

    Most of the recent studies of heuristic lot-sizing techniques for multi-stage material requirements planning systems have investigated the problem in the context of a single stage. In this paper, the multi-stage problem is first modeled analytically to indicate the potential errors inherent in the commonly proposed single-pass, stage-by-stage approaches (e.g., Wagner-Whitin). Then, based on this analysis, several simple cost modifications are suggested to improve the global optimality of thes...

  15. Compressor performance of two-stage turbocharging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the performance of high and low stage compressors and that of the system as a whole,a two-stage turbocharging system was matched,and a special two-stage turbocharging system test bench was built.For each test curve,the speeds of the two stage turbochargers were adjusted to the fixed data,and a compressor performance experiment was performed.The results showed many differences between the corrected mass flow and the actual mass flow of the high pressure (HP) stage compressor.To find out the actual supercharging effect of the two-stage turbocharging system,it is better to adopt the actual mass flow.The two-stage turbocharging system in this paper has much higher efficiency under most operating conditions if the pressure ratio assignment is 1:1.The system can get very high supercharging pressure when the speeds of the two stage turbochargers are rather low,which ensures the system's security and reliability.

  16. Macrophage markers in serum and tumor have prognostic impact in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I/II melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.O.; Schmidt, H.; Moller, H.J.;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic role of soluble CD163 (sCD163) in serum and macrophage infiltration in primary melanomas from patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I/II melanoma. The scavenger receptor CD163 is associated with anti-inflammatory macrophages, and it is s......PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic role of soluble CD163 (sCD163) in serum and macrophage infiltration in primary melanomas from patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I/II melanoma. The scavenger receptor CD163 is associated with anti-inflammatory macrophages...

  17. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  18. Classification, imaging, biopsy and staging of osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zile Singh Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary osseous malignancy excluding malignant neoplasms of marrow origin (myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia and accounts for approximately 20% of bone cancers. It predominantly affects patients younger than 20 years and mainly occurs in the long bones of the extremities, the most common being the metaphyseal area around the knee. These are classified as primary (central or surface and secondary osteosarcomas arising in preexisting conditions. The conventional plain radiograph is the best for probable diagnosis as it describes features like sun burst appearance, Codman′s triangle, new bone formation in soft tissues along with permeative pattern of destruction of the bone and other characteristics for specific subtypes of osteosarcomas. X-ray chest can detect metastasis in the lungs, but computerized tomography (CT scan of the thorax is more helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the lesion delineates its extent into the soft tissues, the medullary canal, the joint, skip lesions and the proximity of the tumor to the neurovascular structures. Tc99 bone scan detects the osseous metastases. Positron Emission Tomography (PET is used for metastatic workup and/or local recurrence after resection. The role of biochemical markers like alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase is pertinent for prognosis and treatment response. The biopsy confirms the diagnosis and reveals the grade of the tumor. Enneking system for staging malignant musculoskeletal tumors and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC staging systems are most commonly used for extremity sarcomas.

  19. End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This final rule implements a case-mix adjusted bundled prospective payment system (PPS) for Medicare outpatient end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis facilities...

  20. Acetic acid effects on methanogens in the second stage of a two-stage anaerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Keke; Guo, Chenghong; Zhou, Yan; Maspolim, Yogananda; Ng, Wun-Jern

    2016-02-01

    This study reports on biomass tolerance towards high concentrations of acetic acid (HAc) within the system. Biomass from the second stage of a two-stage anaerobic sludge digestion system was used for this study. Microbial community analysis by 454 pyrosequencing highlighted hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales was the predominant archaeal population in the second stage (>99% of the total archaeal community). Second stage biomass degraded HAc up to 4200 mg HAc L(-1) without observable lag phase. However, at HAc-shock loading of 7400 mg HAc L(-1), it showed a one day lag phase associated with decreased biomass activity. After stepwise HAc-acclimation over 27 d, the biomass degraded HAc of up to 8200 mg HAc L(-1) without observable lag phase. The dominance of Methanomicrobiales had remained unchanged in proportion - while the total archaeal population increased during acclimation. This study showed stepwise acclimation could be an approach to accommodate HAc accumulation and hence higher concentrations resulting from an enhanced first stage. PMID:26498097

  1. Stages: A system for generating strategic alternaties for forest management.

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic planning is important in forest management. However, it has never been described clearly in literature. In this study a framework for strategic planning was developed and based on this a STrategic Alternatives Generating System (STAGES) to support decision making in strategic planning for forest management. This strategic planning consists of deciding on zoning, future forest and transition management. STAGES consists of a zoning model (which addresses the zoning decision problem th...

  2. 食管癌非手术治疗临床分期新标准的对比研究%A comparative study of new clinical staging systems for esophageal carcinoma treated with non-surgical therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝淑钗; 么伟楠; 李娟; 李红云; 刘志坤; 沈文斌; 闫可

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive values of different systems for clinical staging of esophageal carcinoma in one group of patients and improve the criteria for T staging,and to provide a basis for accurate clinical staging. Methods A retrospective study was performed in 701 patients with esophageal carcinoma who received radical radiotherapy in our hospital. The prognosis was performed according to American Joint Committee on Cancer ( AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis staging system,Chinese 2004 staging system,the draft of Chinese 2009 staging system,and gross tumor volume of the primary tumor (GTV-T). Results In terms of T stage,patients evaluated according to the AJCC staging system were in relatively early stages;23. 1% of them were in stage T1,and the survival curves of T3 and T4 patients were close to each other;the survival curves plotted according to the Chinese 2004 staging system were well separated, but relatively few patients were in stages T1 and T4 , yielding an uneven distribution;according to the draft of Chinese 2009 staging system, the survival curve of T3 patients intersected that of T4 patients, and up to 43. 2% of patients were in stage T4.The new T staging was performed based on GTV and the extent of tumor invasion into the adjacent tissue and organ, and the results showed that there was no intersection between survival curves and a relatively balanced T stage distribution. In terms of N staging,patients were divided into stages N0 ,N1 ,and N2 . The TNM staging was performed by a combination of N staging and new T staging, resulting in significant separation between survival curves ( P=0. 000) . Conclusions The combination of T staging,which is based on GTV and the extent of tumor invasion,and N staging,which is based on metastasis of lymph nodes, can accurately predict the survival of non-surgically treated patients with esophageal carcinoma.%目的 比较不同食管癌临床分期对同一组病例的预测价值,并完善T分期标准,为更

  3. Automata-Based Analysis of Stage Suspended Boom Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anping He; Jinzhao Wu; Shihan Yang; Yongquan Zhou; Juan Wang

    2013-01-01

    A stage suspended boom system is an automatic steeve system orchestrated by the PLC (programmable logic controller). Security and fault-recovering are two important properties. In this paper, we analyze and verify the boom system formally. We adopt the hybrid automaton to model the boom system. The forward reachability is used to verify the properties with the reachable states. We also present a case study to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed verification.

  4. Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS): An affordable large lander system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotkin, J.; Masten, D.; Powers, J.; O'Konek, N.; Kutter, B.; Stopnitzky, B.

    The Experimental Enhanced Upper Stage (XEUS) offers a path to reduce costs and development time to sustainable activity beyond LEO by equipping existing large cryogenic propulsion stages with MSS VTVL propulsion and GNC to create a large, multi-thrust axis lander. Conventional lander designs have been driven by the assumption that a single, highly reliable, and efficient propulsion system should conduct the entire descent, approach, and landing. Compromises in structural, propulsion, and operational efficiency result from this assumption. System reliability and safety also suffer. The result is often an iterative series of optimizations, making every subsystem mission-unique and expensive. The XEUS multi-thrust axis lander concept uniquely addresses the programmatic and technical challenges of large-mass planetary landing by taking advantage of proven technologies and decoupling the deorbit and descent propulsion system from the landing propulsion system. Precise control of distributed, multi-thrust axis landing propulsion units mounted on the horizontal axis of a Centaur stage will ultimately enable the affordable deployment of large planetary rovers, uncrewed base infrastructure and manned planetary expeditions. The XEUS lander has been designed to offer a significantly improved mass fraction and mass to surface capability over conventional lander designs, while reducing airlock/payload to surface distances and distributing plume effects by using multiple gimbaled landing thrusters. In utilizing a proven cryogenic propulsion stage, XEUS reduces development costs required for development of new cryogenic propulsion stages and fairings and builds upon the strong heritage of successful Centaur and MSS RLV flights.

  5. Staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma: Currentstatus and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akiyoshi Kinoshita; Hiroshi Onoda; Nao Fushiya; Kazuhiko Koike; Hirokazu Nishino; Hisao Tajiri

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major healthconcern worldwide and the third cause of cancer-relateddeath. Despite advances in treatment as well as carefulsurveillance programs, the mortality rates in mostcountries are very high. In contrast to other cancers,the prognosis and treatment of HCC depend on thetumor burden in addition to patient's underlying liverdisease and liver functional reserve. Moreover, thereis considerable geographic and institutional variationin both risk factors attributable to the underlying liverdiseases and the management of HCC. Therefore,although many staging and/or scoring systems havebeen proposed, there is currently no globally acceptedsystem for HCC due to the extreme heterogeneityof the disease. The aim of this review is to focus oncurrently available staging systems as well as thosenewly reported in the literatures since 2012. Moreover,we describe problems with currently available stagingsystems and attempts to modify and/or add variables toexisting staging systems.

  6. A Thermoelectric Generation System and Its Power Electronics Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Junling; Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian;

    2012-01-01

    stage and signal-conditioning circuits of the load, including DC–DC conversion, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, and other power management controllers. In this paper, a survey of existing power electronics designs for TEG systems is presented first. Second, a flat, wall-like TEG...... system consisting of 32 modules is experimentally optimized, and the improved power parameters are tested. Power-conditioning circuitry based on an interleaved boost DC–DC converter is then developed for the TEG system in terms of the tested power specification. The power electronics design features...... a combined control scheme with an MPPT and a constant output voltage as well as the low-voltage and high-current output characteristics of the TEG system. The experimental results of the TEG system with the power electronics stage and with purely resistive loads are compared. The comparisons verify...

  7. Stages: A system for generating strategic alternaties for forest management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic planning is important in forest management. However, it has never been described clearly in literature. In this study a framework for strategic planning was developed and based on this a STrategic Alternatives Generating System (STAGES) to support decision making in strategic planning for

  8. Embryonic staging using a 3D virtual reality system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that Carnegie Stages could be assigned to embryos visualized with a 3D virtual reality system. METHODS: We analysed 48 3D ultrasound scans of 19 IVF/ICSI pregnancies at 7-10 weeks' gestation. These datasets were visualized as 3D 'holog

  9. 淋巴结比率对术前30 Gy/10次分割放疗后Ⅲ期直肠癌患者预后的判断价值%Prognostic value of lymph node ratio staging system in stage rectal cancer following 30 Gy/10 f preoperative radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 李忠武; 李明; 彭亦凡; 顾晋

    2014-01-01

    the prognostic value of the lymph node ratio (LNR) staging system for rectal cancer following 30 Gy/10 f preoperative radiotherapy. Methods Clinical data of 282 patients with mid-lower locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative radiotherapy and curative surgery in the Peking University Cancer Hospital from August 2003 to August 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The radiotherapy regimen was recommended by CACA. Total dose of 30 Gy was divided into 10 fragments (30 Gy/10 f), the biologically equivalent dose (BED) was 36 Gy, and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) was used. Surgery was performed 2-4 weeks after radiation. The prognostic effect of the lymph node ratio (LNR) staging system in addition to the 7th AJCC staging system were retrospectively analyze d and compared in stageⅢ cases with positive lymph node (s).Patients were divided into four groups by LNR quantiles: LNR1 (0.307). Results A total of 108 eligible cases were included in the study. The 3-year disease-free survival (3-yr DFS) was 61.1%. On univariate analysis, circumferential resection margin involvement (P=0.034), tumor differentiation (P=0.002), N stage (P=0.001), TNM stage (P=0.000) and LNR (P=0.003) were significantly associated with 3-yr DFS. On multivariate analysis, abdominoperineal resection (P=0.006,HR=2.611,95% CI:1.323-5.153), G3-4 differentiation (P=0.015, HR=2.208, 95% CI:1.163-4.192), ypN2a/N2b stage (as covariate: P=0.024, HR=2.568, 95% CI:1.135-5.810; P=0.001, HR=3.759, 95% CI:1.776-7.958) were independent risk factors for decreased 3-yr DFS. Other factors including LNR were excluded in Cox regression model. The 3-yr DFS was statistically different among subcategories of ypN stage. There was no statistical difference of 3-yr DFS in pair-wise comparison of LNR1&LNR2, LNR2&LNR3 and LNR3 &LNR4. Additional use of LNR over AJCC staging system did not improve the prediction of prognosis for ⅢB/C stages and for each stratum of ypN stages, despite the prognostic separation by

  10. Ares I Stage Separation System Design Certification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Stephen L.; Beard, Bernard B.; Smith, R. Kenneth; Patterson, Alan

    2009-01-01

    NASA is committed to the development of a new crew launch vehicle, the Ares I, that can support human missions to low Earth orbit (LEO) and the moon with unprecedented safety and reliability. NASA's Constellation program comprises the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles, the Orion crew vehicle, and the Altair lunar lander. Based on historical precedent, stage separation is one of the most significant technical and systems engineering challenges that must be addressed in order to achieve this commitment. This paper surveys historical separation system tests that have been completed in order to ensure staging of other launch vehicles. Key separation system design trades evaluated for Ares I include single vs. dual separation plane options, retro-rockets vs. pneumatic gas actuators, small solid motor quantity/placement/timing, and continuous vs. clamshell interstage configuration options. Both subscale and full-scale tests are required to address the prediction of complex dynamic loading scenarios present during staging events. Test objectives such as separation system functionality, and pyroshock and debris field measurements for the full-scale tests are described. Discussion about the test article, support infrastructure and instrumentation are provided.

  11. Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20μW at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

  12. A Thermoelectric Generation System and Its Power Electronics Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min; Kang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-06-01

    The electricity produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG) must satisfy the requirements of specific loads given the signal level, stability, and power performance. In the design of such systems, one major challenge involves the interactions between the thermoelectric power source and the power stage and signal-conditioning circuits of the load, including DC-DC conversion, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, and other power management controllers. In this paper, a survey of existing power electronics designs for TEG systems is presented first. Second, a flat, wall-like TEG system consisting of 32 modules is experimentally optimized, and the improved power parameters are tested. Power-conditioning circuitry based on an interleaved boost DC-DC converter is then developed for the TEG system in terms of the tested power specification. The power electronics design features a combined control scheme with an MPPT and a constant output voltage as well as the low-voltage and high-current output characteristics of the TEG system. The experimental results of the TEG system with the power electronics stage and with purely resistive loads are compared. The comparisons verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design. Finally, the thermal-electric coupling effects caused by current-related heat source terms, such as the Peltier effect etc., are reported and discussed, and the potential influence on the power electronics design due to such coupling is analyzed.

  13. Serum YKL-40 Predicts Relapse-Free and Overall Survival in Patients With American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage I and II Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Johansen, Julia S; Sjoegren, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the novel tumor biomarker YKL-40 in serial serum samples from patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I and II melanoma from the time of diagnosis and during routine follow-up. Macrophages, neutrophils, and cancer cells secrete YKL-40, and a high serum...

  14. Early Stage Disease Diagnosis System Using Human Nail Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S. Indi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human’s hand nail is analyzed to identify many diseases at early stage of diagnosis. Study of person hand nail color helps in identification of particular disease in healthcare domain. The proposed system guides in such scenario to take decision in disease diagnosis. The input to the proposed system is person nail image. The system will process an image of nail and extract features of nail which is used for disease diagnosis. Human nail consist of various features, out of which proposed system uses nail color changes for disease diagnosis. Here, first training set data is prepared using Weka tool from nail images of patients of specific diseases. A feature extracted from input nail image is compared with the training data set to get result. In this experiment we found that using color feature of nail image average 65% results are correctly matched with training set data during three tests conducted.

  15. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  16. Single Stage Rocket Technology's real time data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglewede, Steven D.

    1994-01-01

    The Single Stage Rocket Technology (SSRT) Delta Clipper Experimental (DC-X) Program is a United States Air Force Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) rapid prototyping initiative that is currently demonstrating technology readiness for reusable suborbital rockets. The McDonnell Douglas DC-X rocket performed technology demonstrations at the U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico from April-October in 1993. The DC-X Flight Operations Control Center (FOCC) contains the ground control system that is used to monitor and control the DC-X vehicle and its Ground Support Systems (GSS). The FOCC is operated by a flight crew of three operators. Two operators manage the DC-X Flight Systems and one operator is the Ground Systems Manager. A group from McDonnell Douglas Aerospace at KSC developed the DC-X ground control system for the FOCC. This system is known as the Real Time Data System (RTDS). The RTDS is a distributed real time control and monitoring system that utilizes the latest available commercial off-the-shelf computer technology. The RTDS contains front end interfaces for the DC-X RF uplink/downlink and fiber optic interfaces to the GSS equipment. This paper describes the RTDS architecture and FOCC layout. The DC-X applications and ground operations are covered.

  17. Wind Solar Hybrid System Rectifier Stage Topology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup M. Gakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. This paper presents a new system configuration of the multi input rectifier stage for a hybrid wind and photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load simultaneously depending on the availability of the energy sources maximum power from the sun when it is available. An adaptive MPPT algorithm with a standard perturbs and observed method will be used for the Photo Voltaic system. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to give continuous power supply to the load. The gating pulses to the inverter switches are implemented with conventional and fuzzy controller. This hybrid wind-photo voltaic system is modeled in MATLAB/ SIMULINK environment. Simulation circuit is analyzed and results are presented for this hybrid wind and solar energy system.

  18. POST-OPERATIVE STAGING AND SURVIVAL BASED ON THE REVISED TNM STAGING SYSTEM FOR NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the factors affecting post-operative staging and survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients based on the revised TNM staging system adopted by the UICC in 1977. Methods: Data were collected from 1757 consecutively operated NSCLC patients, including those receiving complete tumor excision, tumor debulking and exploratory thoractomy from April 1969 through Dec. 1993. the end point of follow-up was Nov. 30, 1998. Cumulative survival and its influencing factors were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox model of SPSS software. Results: In this series, 30 patients (1.7%) were lost from follow-up. The 5-year cumulative survival was 88.0% for patients in stage I A, and 53.9% in stage IB, 33.5% in stage II, 14.7% in stage IIIA, 5.5% in stage IIIB and 7.0% in stage IV. The overall 5-year survival rate was 28.2%. The 5-year survivals were 39.8%, 14.4% and 4.2% in patients treated with completely tumor resection, tumor debulking and explorative thoractomy, respectively. The 10-year survival rate was 31.4%, 9.5% and 0, respectively. Factors affecting long-term cumulative survival, in the order of decreasing significance, were the type of operation, lymph node status, staging, size and pathological type of the primary tumor. Conclusion: the revised staging system for NSCLC is superior to that used since 1986 as far as the end results of treatment in patients in different stage and the staging specificity are concerned. The T3N1M0 classification and the definition of M1 need to be further studied.

  19. A Multi-stage System for the Automated Detection of Epileptic Seizures in Neonatal EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Joyeeta; Glover, John R.; Ktonas, Periklis Y.; Thitai Kumar, Arun; Mukherjee, Amit; Karayiannis, Nicolaos B.; Frost, James D.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Mizrahi, Eli M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test results of a 3-stage automated system for neonatal EEG seizure detection. Stage I of the system is the initial detection stage, and identifies overlapping 5-s segments of suspected seizure activity in each EEG channel. In Stage II, the detected segments from Stage I are spatiotemporally clustered to produce multi-channel candidate seizures. In Stage III, the candidate seizures are processed further using measures of quality and context-based rules to e...

  20. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF A TWO STAGE SOLAR ADSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAIJU. V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the performance of a two stage solar adsorption refrigeration system with activated carbon-methanol pair investigated experimentally. Such a system was fabricated and tested under the conditions of National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India. The system consists of a parabolic solar concentrator,two water tanks, two adsorbent beds, condenser, expansion device, evaporator and accumulator. In this particular system the second water tank is act as a sensible heat storage device so that the system can be used during night time also. The system has been designed for heating 50 litres of water from 25oC to 90oC as well ascooling 10 litres of water from 30oC to 10oC within one hour. The performance parameters such as specific cooling power (SCP, coefficient of performance, solar COP and exergetic efficiency are studied. The dependency between the exergetic efficiency and cycle COP with the driving heat source temperature is also studied. The optimum heat source temperature for this system is determined as 72.4oC. The results show that the system has better performance during night time as compared to the day time. The system has a mean cycle COP of 0.196 during day time and 0.335 for night time. The mean SCP values during day time and night time are 47.83 and 68.2, respectively. The experimental results also demonstrate that the refrigerator has cooling capacity of 47 to 78 W during day time and 57.6 W to 104.4W during night time.

  1. Local credit systems in regions with different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ALESSANDRINI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the territorial articulation of the Italian financial system and its interaction with the different levels of economic development between regions, long overdue, has finally had a significant boost in recent years. The growing interest in this area is largely due to two reasons: the planning of the european monetary union and the reform of the banking system. These transformations have both put emphasis on the territorial problems of impact and adaptation in the presence of strong regional differences in levels of development. In this paper attention is paid to the banking systems of two peripheral regions that are at a different stage of development: Sardinia and Marche. What is of greatest interest, in the light of the available documentation, is in what way and to what extent the local credit markets are inserted in the new configuration that is emerging in the Italian financial system and, in this rapidly changing context, what are the gaps to be bridged, the resistances to be overcome, and the optimal connections to focus on.

  2. Stochastic stage-structured modeling of the adaptive immune system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, D. L. (Dennis L.); Davenport, M. P. (Miles P.); Forrest, S. (Stephanie); Perelson, Alan S.,

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed a computer model of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to antigen and the maintenance of immunological memory. Because immune responses often begin with small numbers of cells and there is great variation among individual immune systems, we have chosen to implement a stochastic model that captures the life cycle of T cells more faithfully than deterministic models. Past models of the immune response have been differential equation based, which do not capture stochastic effects, or agent-based, which are computationally expensive. We use a stochastic stage-structured approach that has many of the advantages of agent-based modeling but is more efficient. Our model can provide insights into the effect infections have on the CTL repertoire and the response to subsequent infections.

  3. Development of flying spot illumination system for stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Hisashi; Ishii, Katsunori; Koshiro, Hikari; Baba, Junko; Wakaki, Moriaki

    2014-02-01

    The system to control the area of illumination is important for the luminaires used for stages and TV studios. Presently the methods to change the distance between a lamp and lenses, or to use a zooming projection of the aperture illuminated by the lamp are used to control the area. However, these methods require many optical components or mechanical components. Moreover, the energy of the light source is partially consumed by the absorption of the shutter on adjusting the illumination area. On the other hand, the control of the illuminance over the illuminated area is not possible by the methods. In this study, we developed the lighting system which enables to control both the illuminated area and the illuminance distribution within the area by scanning the beam from a LED array light source. The area of illumination was expanded along one dimension by scanning the LED beam using a rotating polygon mirror. The selection of the illuminated width and the control of the illuminance distribution were achieved by synchronizing the pulse width modulation (PWM) control of the LED with the rotation of the mirror using a time sharing control. As a result, various illuminance distributions can be realized at real time by using software control for the luminaire. The developed system has the merits of compact and high efficiency.

  4. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  5. Conforming to cancer staging, prognostic indicators and national treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra-Long, Gwendylen R

    2011-01-01

    Clinical cancer staging and prognostic indicators guide treatment planning, and as such the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer Commission on Cancer (ACoS CoC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have recognized this as quality patient care. Overton Brooks Veterans Administration (OBVAMC) developed an organizational policy and procedure, flow algorithms, treatment plan templates, and education strategies in order to conform to this quality care approach. The purpose of this article is to share this systematic approach that is able to support clinical and working cancer stage and prognostic indicators which have been recognized by national standard setting organizations as quality patient care.

  6. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  7. METAHEURISTICS FOR OPTIMIZING SAFETY STOCK IN MULTI STAGE INVENTORY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Badurina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing the right level of inventory is critical in order to achieve the targeted level of customer service, but it also carries significant cost in supply chain. In majority of cases companies define safety stock on the most downstream level, i.e. the finished product level, using different analytical methods. Safety stock on upstream level, however, usually covers only those problems which companies face on that particular level (uncertainty of delivery, issues in production, etc.. This paper looks into optimizing safety stock in a pharmaceutical supply considering the three stages inventory system. The problem is defined as a single criterion mixed integer programming problem. The objective is to minimize the inventory cost while the service level is predetermined. In order to coordinate inventories at all echelons, the variable representing the so-called service time is introduced. Because of the problem dimensions, metaheuristics based on genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are constructed and compared, using real data from a Croatian pharmaceutical company. The computational results are presented evidencing improvements in minimizing inventory costs.

  8. Two-stage fuel cycles with accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ongoing efforts to assess nuclear fuel cycle options, four fuel cycle options based on the same two reactor technologies have been studied. All four options are composed of two stages, one which contains pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and the other, fast spectrum accelerator-driven systems (ADS). The performance characteristics and material mass flows have been determined for the fuel cycle options considered, and compared. The three major difficulties encountered when modeling and analyzing these fuel cycle options have been to maintain the PWR fuel temperature reactivity coefficient negative when multi-recycling MOX fuel, to design the ADS core to be a breeder, and to achieve a high enough keff in the ADS to avoid the accelerator power consumption to be larger than the power generated by the ADS core. The differences observed in the performance characteristics and mass flows between the four fuel cycle options analyzed are discussed in this paper. Overall it is found that despite the four fuel cycle options being based on the same reactor technologies and seemingly similar at first sight, they perform differently and offer different features: resource utilization, need for uranium enrichment, required reprocessing capacity, and material type to be stored. (author)

  9. The global stability of a delayed predator-prey system with two stage-structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengyan [College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)], E-mail: wangfy68@163.com; Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin Guangxi 537000 (China)

    2009-04-30

    Based on the classical delayed stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we introduce and study a delayed predator-prey system, where prey and predator have two stages, an immature stage and a mature stage. The time delays are the time lengths between the immature's birth and maturity of prey and predator species. Results on global asymptotic stability of nonnegative equilibria of the delay system are given, which generalize and suggest that good continuity exists between the predator-prey system and its corresponding stage-structured system.

  10. Decision System Integrating Preferences to Support Sleep Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugon, Adrien; Sedki, Karima; Kotti, Amina; Seroussi, Brigitte; Philippe, Carole; Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel; Garda, Patrick; Bouaud, Jacques; Pinna, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Scoring sleep stages can be considered as a classification problem. Once the whole recording segmented into 30-seconds epochs, features, extracted from raw signals, are typically injected into machine learning algorithms in order to build a model able to assign a sleep stage, trying to mimic what experts have done on the training set. Such approaches ignore the advances in sleep medicine, in which guidelines have been published by the AASM, providing definitions and rules that should be followed to score sleep stages. In addition, these approaches are not able to solve conflict situations, in which criteria of different sleep stages are met. This work proposes a novel approach based on AASM guidelines. Rules are formalized integrating, for some of them, preferences allowing to support decision in conflict situations. Applied to a doubtful epoch, our approach has taken the appropriate decision. PMID:27577436

  11. Design of a Scalable Modular Production System for a Two-stage Food Service Franchise System

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, [No Value; D.T.; Rauch; E.

    2012-01-01

    The geographically distributed production of fresh food poses unique challenges to the production system design because of their stringent industry and logistics requirements. The purpose of this research is to examine the case of a European fresh food manufacturer’s approach to introduce a scalable modular production concept for an international two‐stage gastronomy franchise system in order to identify best practice guidelines and to derive a framework for the design of distributed producti...

  12. System Variable Analysis on Development Stages of Urban Agriculture in Large Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; ZHANG; Fengjun; LU; Runlian; MIAO; Yan; JIN

    2014-01-01

    China’s urban agricultural development takes on stage evolution,and functional structure,customer structure,industrial organization,innovation activity,spatial form and industrial value of each stage has significant difference. Using the system variable analysis method,this paper established the urban agricultural development system including six types of functional variables. On the basis of summarizing stage characteristics,it analyzed reasons for stage characteristics focusing on four key variables,i. e. cost,efficiency,connection,and risk. Finally,it came up with recommendations for promoting China’s urban agricultural development with the aid of stage development rules.

  13. A Hybrid System based on Multi-Agent System in the Data Preprocessing Stage

    CERN Document Server

    Kularbphettong, Kobkul; Meesad, Phayung

    2010-01-01

    We describe the usage of the Multi-agent system in the data preprocessing stage of an on-going project, called e-Wedding. The aim of this project is to utilize MAS and various approaches, like Web services, Ontology, and Data mining techniques, in e-Business that want to improve responsiveness and efficiency of systems so as to extract customer behavior model on Wedding Businesses. However, in this paper, we propose and implement the multi-agent-system, based on JADE, to only cope data preprocessing stage specified on handle with missing value techniques. JADE is quite easy to learn and use. Moreover, it supports many agent approaches such as agent communication, protocol, behavior and ontology. This framework has been experimented and evaluated in the realization of a simple, but realistic. The results, though still preliminary, are quite.

  14. Allocating the Fuzzy Resources to Two-Stage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghelej Beigi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a non-parametric approach for measuring the efficiency of decision making units (DMUs that use multiple inputs in order to produce multiple outputs. In most real applications, DMUs have a two-stage network process which can be used for management of organizations such as hospitals, insurance companies, banks, and etc. The data are crisp in the standard DEA model whereas there are many problems in the real life that data may be uncertain. Thus, in this paper, we propose a model to estimate the efficiency of DMUs with a two-stage structure and the inputs and outputs of DMUs are fuzzy data. Also, DEA can be used to allocate resources; therefore, we propose a new method to allocate resources for DMUs with a two-stage structure and fuzzy data. The main aim of this allocation is preserving the efficiency score of DMUs. We illustrate the applicability of models by using a numerical example.

  15. H∞ SYNCHRONIZATION CONTROL OF LINEAR SYSTEMS AND ITS APPLICATION TO WAFER-RETICAL STAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Di

    2005-01-01

    For the outputs of two nth-order linear control systems to work in synchronization and meanwhile to track their commands, a H∞ synchronization control scheme is presented. In terms of two uncoupled single variable linear systems, a multivariable coupled system is established by choosing one output and the difference of the two outputs as a new output vector, so that both command tracking and synchronization properties can be demonstrated by a H∞ performance index. To improve the synchronization and tracking performance and to guarantee the system robust stability, the mixed sensitivity H∞ design methodology is adopted. The presented synchronization scheme is then extended to the case where one of the two systems include two input variables, and then applied to the position synchronization control of a wafer-retical stage. The wafer-reticle stage consists of a wafer stage, a reticle coarse stage, and a reticle fine stage. The reticle coarse stage picks up the reticle fine stage. The three stages ought to tack their commands, but synchronization between the wafer stage and the reticle fine stage must be stressed in the tracking process. In the application, by appropriately determining the weighting matrices for the sensitivity function and the complementary sensitivity function, a satisfactory H∞ synchronization controller is obtained to realize highly accurate position synchronization,and to guarantee tracking performance. The above results are verified by simulation experiments.

  16. Pathological stage after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy superiorly predicts survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To assess the usefulness of pathological stage according to the 7th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control–American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC–AJCC) as a prognostic tool in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy (trimodality therapy, TMT) for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Material and methods: One hundred twenty-five eligible patients completing TMT were enrolled for analysis. The clinical (cTNM7) and pathological (ypTNM7) stage groups of their tumors were prospectively classified, and re-grouped by the 6th edition (ypTNM6). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to compare the performance of staging systems. Results: With a median follow-up of 24.6 months, 54 patients (43.2%) died. Forty patients (32%) achieved pathological complete remission (pCR). The median survival was 31.8 months. On multivariate analysis, ypTNM7 (but not pCR or pN) was the only independent factor affecting overall survival (p < 0.001). The ypTNM7 was superior to cTNM7 or ypTNM6 in predicting both overall and recurrence-free survival after TMT based on AIC values and Cox proportional hazard model analysis. Conclusions: In patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing TMT, ypTNM7 is the best predictor of survival

  17. Staging systems for predicting survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the staging systems for stratifying and predicting the prognosis of patients with hepatocel-lular carcinoma (HCC) after partial hepatectomy (PH). METHODS: Clinical data about 438 HCC patients who underwent PH from January 1991 to December 2004 at our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor stage was evaluated following the Chinese tumor node me-tastasis (TNM) and barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging systems, respectively. Survival curves for the HCC patients were plotted using ...

  18. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  19. A graph based system for multi-stage attacks recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Safaa O. Al-Mamory; Zhai Jianhong; Zhang Hongli

    2008-01-01

    Building attack scenario is one of the most important aspects in network security. This paper proposed a system which collects intrusion alerts, clusters them as sub-attacks using alerts abstraction, aggregates the similar sub-attacks, and then correlates and generates correlation graphs. The scenarios were represented by alert classes instead of alerts themselves so as to reduce the required rules and have the ability of detecting new variations of attacks. The proposed system is capable of passing some of the missed attacks. To evaluate system effectiveness, it was tested with different datasets which contain multi-step attacks. Compressed and easily understandable correlation graphs which reflect attack scenarios were generated. The proposed system can correlate related alerts, uncover the attack strategies, and detect new variations of attacks.

  20. Analysis and optimization of subcritical two-stage vapor injection heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermodynamical analysis of a two stage compression cycles. • Optimization of the displacement ratio for COP in ideal two stage cycles. • Analysis of the influence of compressor efficiency in real system. • Influence of the charge in the optimum conditions of a two stage cycle. • Control in two stage systems with electronic expansion valves. - Abstract: Two of the major problems of heat pump systems working in extreme conditions are the loss of efficiency of the system and the high compressor discharge temperatures. One possibility in order to overcome these issues is to perform the compression in two stages. In this frame the use of vapor injection two stage cycles represent an economic and effective solution. This study analyzes the influence of design parameters and injection conditions for two different configurations of two stage cycles, for four refrigerants (R407C, R290, R22 and R32). Design parameters, such as the displacement ratio, are optimized in terms of COP in ideal conditions for both injection systems. A deeper analysis taking into account the efficiencies of the compressor is done finding that two stage systems could reach improvements of 30% in terms of COP compared with one stage systems and that a bad design of this type of systems could represent a loss of improvement between 6% and 10%. Finally a method to control the system at any operating point in order to make it works in its optimum is done. From all the analysis, guidelines for the optimum design and control of such systems are obtained in terms of capacity, Coefficient of Performance (COP), seasonal performance factor and discharge temperature criteria

  1. Proposal of a new and simple staging system of colorectal liver metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikuo Nagashima; Tadahiro Takada; Hirokazu Nagawa; Tetsuichiro Muto; Kota Okinaga

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To create a new, simple and useful staging system for colorectal liver metastasis analogous to the Tumor Node Metastasis classification system of International Union Against Cancer.MFTHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of 81 consecutive patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases (group 1). Clinical and pathological features of both primary and metastatic liver cancers were entered into a multivariate analysis to determine independent variables helpful in accurately predicting long-term prognosis after hepatectomy. Using selected variables, we created a new staging system like TNM classification. The usefulness of the new staging system was examined in a series of 92 patients from another hospital (group 2).RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that 81 patients in group 1 had significant multiple hepatic tumors with the largest tumor being more than 5 cm in diameter,resectable extrahepatic distant metastases, and independent prognostic factors for poor survival after hepatectomy. Using these three variables, we created a new staging system to classify patients with colorectal liver metastases. Finally, our new staging system classified the patients both in group 1 and in group 2.CONCLUSION: Our new staging system of colorectal liver metastasis is simple and useful for staging patients.

  2. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage......In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... pays any attention to this. In this paper, we show how various capacity and time constraints influence the performance of a specific two-stage system. We study the effects of several basic scheduling and sequencing rules in the presence of these constraints in order to learn the characteristics...

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF OPEN LOOP MULTI-STAGE IMPEDANCE PUMPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism, where an elastic tube is joined to a more rigid one; a periodic asymmetrical pinching on the elastic tube will produce a unidirectional flow. This pumping concept offers a low energy, low noise alternative at both micro and macro scales. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the performance of a two-stage, open loop impedance pump. The results show that, when compared to a single stage open loop impedance pump, the two-stage impedance pump can achieve a significant pressure head and flow rate increment. A pressure head increment of 240 Pa is obtained in the single stage system compared to 480 Pa for the two-stage system. The corresponding flow rates were 5 mL/s and 8 mL/s respectively. This is an indication that impedance pumping system can be scaled up to achieve a variety of pumping assignments.

  4. Experiment and surge analysis of centrifugal two-stage turbocharging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yituan HE; Chaochen MA

    2008-01-01

    To study a centrifugal two-stage turbocharging system's surge and influencing factors, a special test bench was set up and the system surge test was performed. The test results indicate that the measured parameters such as air mass flow and rotation speed of a high pressure (HP) stage compressor can be converted into corrected para-meters under a standard condition according to the Mach number similarity criterion, because the air flow in a HP stage compressor has entered the Reynolds number (Re) auto-modeling range. Accordingly, the reasons leading to a two-stage turbocharging system's surge can be analyzed according to the corrected mass flow characteristic maps and actual operating conditions of HP and low pressure (LP) stage compressors.

  5. Brain Metastasis is Predetermined in Early-Stages of Cutaneous Melanoma by CD44v6 Expression through Epigenetic Regulation of the Spliceosome

    OpenAIRE

    Marzese, Diego M.; Liu, Michelle; Huynh, Jamie L.; Hirose, Hajime; Donovan, Nicholas C.; Huynh, Kelly T.; Kiyohara, Eiji; Chong, Kelly; Cheng, David; Tanaka, Ryo; Morton, Donald L.; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Daniel F. Kelly; Hoon, Dave S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma brain metastasis (MBM) is frequent and has a very poor prognosis with no current predictive factors or therapeutic molecular targets. Our study unravels the molecular alterations of cell-surface glycoprotein CD44 variants during melanoma progression to MBM. High expression of CD44 splicing variant 6 (CD44v6) in primary melanoma (PRM) and regional lymph node metastases from AJCC Stage IIIC patients significantly predicts MBM-development. The expression of CD44v6 also enhances the migr...

  6. Multi-stage catalyst systems and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S.; Holmgreen, Erik M.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2009-02-10

    Catalyst systems and methods provide benefits in reducing the content of nitrogen oxides in a gaseous stream containing nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O.sub.2). The catalyst system comprises an oxidation catalyst comprising a first metal supported on a first inorganic oxide for catalyzing the oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2), and a reduction catalyst comprising a second metal supported on a second inorganic oxide for catalyzing the reduction of NO.sub.2 to nitrogen (N.sub.2).

  7. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  8. Control Issues in Single-Stage Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Mastromauro, Rosa; Liserre, Marco; Dell’Aquila, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic Systems (PVS) can be easily integrated in residential buildings hence they will be the main responsible of making low-voltage grid power flow bidirectional. Control issues on both the PV side and on the grid side have received much attention from manufacturers, competing for efficiency...

  9. Advances in high rate anaerobic treatment: staging of reactor systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Zee, van der F.P.; Tan, N.C.G.; Rebac, S.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment (AnWT) is considered as the most cost-effective solution for organically polluted industrial waste streams. Particularly the development of high-rate systems, in which hydraulic retention times are uncoupled from solids retention times, has led to a world-wide acceptan

  10. Staging queues in material handling and transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gue, Kevin R.; Kang, Keebom

    2001-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference B. A. Peters, J. S. Smith, D. J. Medeiros, and M. W. Rohrer, eds. In most physical queueing applications, customers join a queue andmove forward after each service, leaving room for others to join behind them. Some queues found in material handling and transportation systems do not operate like this because the queued entities (pallets or unoccupied cars, for example) are incapable of moving forward autonomously. We ...

  11. Attainability and minimum energy of multiple-stage cascade membrane Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-08-12

    Process design and simulation of multi-stage membrane systems have been widely studied in many gas separation systems. However, general guidelines have not been developed yet for the attainability and the minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane system. Such information is important for conceptual process design and thus it is the topic of this work. Using a well-mixed membrane model, it was determined that the attainability curve of multi-stage systems is defined by the pressure ratio and membrane selectivity. Using the constant recycle ratio scheme, the recycle ratio can shift the attainability behavior between single-stage and multi-stage membrane systems. When the recycle ratio is zero, all of the multi-stage membrane processes will decay to a single-stage membrane process. When the recycle ratio approaches infinity, the required selectivity and pressure ratio reach their absolute minimum values, which have a simple relationship with that of a single-stage membrane process, as follows: View the MathML sourceSn=S1, View the MathML sourceγn=γ1, where n is the number of stages. The minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane process is primarily determined by the membrane selectivity and recycle ratio. A low recycle ratio can significantly reduce the required membrane selectivity without substantial energy penalty. The energy envelope curve can provide a guideline from an energy perspective to determine the minimum required membrane selectivity in membrane process designs to compete with conventional separation processes, such as distillation.

  12. Systemic chemo-immunotherapy for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Yin; Ming-De Lü; Li-Jian Liang; Jia-Ming Lai; Dong-Ming Li; Ming Kuang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of systemic chemo-immunotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Twenty-six patients with advanced HCC were treated by using systemic chemo-immunotherapy (PIAF regimen), which consisted of cisplatin (20 mg/m2) intravenously daily for 4 consecutive day, doxorubicin (40 mg/m2)intravenously on day 1, 5-fiuorouracil (400 mg/m2)intravenously daily for 4 consecutive day, and human recombinant α-interferon-2a (5 Mu/m2) subcutaneous injection daily for 4 consecutive day. The treatment was repeated every 3 wk, with a maximum of six cycles.RESULTS: A total of 90 cycles of PIAF treatment were administered, with a mean number of 3.9 cycles per patient.Eight patients received six cycles of treatment (group A),and the remaining 18 were subjected to two to five cycles (group B). There were 0 complete response, 4 partial responses, 9 static diseases and 13 progressive diseases,with a disease control rate of 50% (13/26). The 1-year survival rate was 24.3%, with a median survival time of 6.0 mo. Group A had a remarkably better survival as compared with group B, the 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.5% vs 6.1% and 32.3% vs 0%, and a median survival time was 12.5 mo vs 5.0 mo (P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: Systemic chemo-immunotherapy using PIAF regimen represented an effective treatment and could improve the survival rate and prolong the survival time in selected patients with advanced HCC.

  13. A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 periapical radiographs, of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian′s stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results and Discussion: The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine was found to be significant in both male and female groups. When the canine calcification stages were compared with the MP3 stages it was found that with the exception of the D stage of canine calcification the remaining stages showed a very high correlation with the modified MP3 stages. Conclusion: The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages, and the MP3 stages was found to be significant. The canine calcification could be used as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  14. Prognostic factors and staging systems of multiple myeloma:a single centre study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Zhong-fei; FU Wei-jun; YUAN Zhen-gang; WANG Dong-xing; CHEN Yu-bao; HOU Jian

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies found a range of prognostic factors but no consensus about the proper staging system for multiple myeloma has been achieved. This study explored the prognostic factors to find a staging system for multiple myeloma most suitable for Chinese patients.Methods Between February 1990 to August 2004, 206 patients (138 men and 68 women, mean aged (59±11) years)who were initially diagnosed as multiple myeloma in Changzheng Hospital (Shanghai, China) and had followup records were enrolled in this study. Potential prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Four staging systems were applied to compare their suitability for the patients.Results The median survival time of the patients was 33 months. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 80.18%,48.08% and 33.7% respectively. Factors identified as adversely affecting survival were older age, severe bone lesions,low haemoglobin, low platelet, low serum calcium, low serum albumin, high proportion of plasma cells in marrow, high serum creatinine, high serum β2 microglobulin and high C-reactive protein. Among these, only C-reactive protein, β2 microglobulin, albumin and age were the independent prognostic factors. There were statistically significant survival differences among the three groups in Durie Salmon staging system and Bataille staging system, but not in British Medical Research Council staging system or International Staging System.Conclusions High β2 microglobulin, high C-reactive protein, low albumin and old age are independent prognostic factors of multiple myeloma. Bataille staging system appears to be optimal for Chinese multiple myeloma patients.

  15. Optimal Harvesting and Stability for a Predator-prey System with Stage Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yu Song; Lan-sun Chen

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of a predator-prey system, where prey population has two stages, an immature stage and a mature stage with harvesting, the growth of predator population is of Lotka-Volterra nature, are modelled by a system of retarded functional differential equations. We obtain conditions for global asymptotic stability of three nonnegative equilibria and a threshold of harvesting for the mature prey population. The effect of delay on the population at positive equilibrium and the optimal harvesting of the mature prey population are also considered.

  16. Single-Phase Single-Stage PV-Grid System Using VSI Based on Simple Control Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Slamet Riyadi

    2012-01-01

    Integrating electric energy generated by PV with utilities has been developed. Some of these using two-stage converters and the others using single stage converters. For systems with two-stage converters, the first stage converter acts as a MPPT to maximize power generated by PV and the second stage is used as an interface to the utilities. In the single-stage system, an inverter is used for both function. In this paper, PV-Grid System using a single-stage Voltage Source Inverter is proposed....

  17. Bidirectional output stage matrix converter applied to a distributed generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Manuel; Jurado, Francisco; Roa, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In this article a new bidirectional output stage ultra-sparse matrix converter (BOSUMC) is presented. This converter is designed for connecting a hybrid electrical system to a distributed generation network. The proposed converter comprises an input stage and an output stage with six bidirectional switches in such a way that both the input and output stages are linked with a DC link, which can be coupled to an electrolyser and a fuel cell. The converter allows the current to flow in both ways in its output stage, and if there is an excess of energy in the network, it can be transformed into electric direct current and later into hydrogen for its exploitation. For verifying the control algorithm of the BOSUMC, a laboratory prototype has been prepared using among other elements a Spectrum Digital eZdsp™ TMS320F2812 card.

  18. Solar Multi-stage Refrigeration Systems on the Basis of Absorber with the Internal Evaporative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the developed schematics are presented for the alternative refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution. Multi-stage principle of construction of drying and cool contours of solar systems is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cooler. An absorber with internal evaporative cooling, allowing to remove the separate evaporated cooler, usually included after the absorber of the proper stage, is developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus of film-type, entering in the complement of drying and cool contours compatible and executed on the basis of multichannel compositions from polymeric materials. The preliminary comparative analysis of possibilities of the solar refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems is executed.

  19. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Choi

    Full Text Available Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0-new N3 according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560 were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node-positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage. Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative.

  20. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Young; An, Ji Yeong; Katai, Hitoshi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0-new N3) according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560) were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node-positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage). Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative.

  1. Low cryogen inventory, forced flow Ne cooling system with room temperature compression stage and heat recuperation

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A; Wolf, A

    2014-01-01

    We present design and commissioning results of a forced flow cooling system utilizing neon at 30 K. The cryogen is pumped through the system by a room-temperature compression stage. To decouple the cold zone from the compression stage a recuperating counterflow tube-in-tube heat exchanger is used. Commissioning demonstrated successful condensation of neon and transfer of up to 30 W cooling power to the load at 30 K using only 30 g of the cryogen circulating in the system at pressures below 170 kPa.

  2. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining...... by comparing two ΣΔ modulator designs. The proposed optimization has impact on the whole hearing-aid audio back-end system including less hardware in the interpolation filter and half the switching rate in the digital-pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) block and Class D output stage...

  3. Uniform Irradiation Systems Using a Rotatable Stage for Test Facilities of PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Bum-Sik; Kim, Kye-Ryung; Lee Seok Ki

    2005-01-01

    A new irradiation facility has been developed using not only electric magnets but also a rotatable stage. Generally, the scanning method using magnet has been widely used in most of facilities. However, in this study another new methods have been developed: Three scanning method using rotatable stage have been proved to make uniform irradiation-as large as 20 cm in diameter with more than 90% uniformity. The mechanical wobbler system makes the same effect as the wobbler system. And the beam is swept along the spiral path with a fixed and variable angular frequency during the scanning in two spiral scanning systems, respectively.

  4. A clinical staging system and treatment guidelines for maxillary osteoradionecrosis in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a clinical staging system for maxillary osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Methods and Materials: The data of maxillary ORN cases among 1,758 irradiated NPC patients were analyzed. A staging system based on the degrees of bone exposure (E), infection (I), and bleeding (B) was developed. Correlations between various clinical parameters and stages of maxillary ORN and relationships between treatment modalities and outcomes at each stage were evaluated. Cumulative success of treatment and risk factors that affect treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: The incidence of maxillary ORN was 2.7% (48/1,758). TNM stage of NPC (p < 0.001), radiation dose (p = 0.029), and tooth extraction (p < 0.001) appeared to have significant influences on disease severity. Success rates between conservative therapy and surgical treatment were not significantly different for Stage I ORN but differed significantly for Stage II (p = 0.013) and Stage III (p = 0.008) lesions. Grade 3 infection and bleeding significantly jeopardized treatment success (p = 0.043 and 0.015, respectively). The risk ratios of treatment failure for Grade 3 infection and bleeding were 2.523 (p = 0.034) and 3.141 (p = 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: More serious maxillary ORN tended to occur in cases with more advanced NPC, higher radiation dose, and history of tooth extraction. Surgical treatment was usually required in Stage II and III ORN. The grades of infection and bleeding are important factors in guidance of treatment and prediction of outcomes

  5. A two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The optimal design of distributed energy systems under uncertainty is studied. ► A stochastic model is developed using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method. ► The proposed system possesses inherent robustness under uncertainty. ► The inherent robustness is due to energy storage facilities and grid connection. -- Abstract: A distributed energy system is a multi-input and multi-output energy system with substantial energy, economic and environmental benefits. The optimal design of such a complex system under energy demand and supply uncertainty poses significant challenges in terms of both modelling and corresponding solution strategies. This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems. A two-stage decomposition based solution strategy is used to solve the optimization problem with genetic algorithm performing the search on the first stage variables and a Monte Carlo method dealing with uncertainty in the second stage. The model is applied to the planning of a distributed energy system in a hotel. Detailed computational results are presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. The impacts of demand and supply uncertainty on the optimal design of distributed energy systems are systematically investigated using proposed modelling framework and solution approach.

  6. PERIODIC SOLUTION TO A DELAYED PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM WITH STAGE STRUCTURE AND DISPERSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a delayed two-species predator-prey system with stage structure and diffiusion is investigated. Based on the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory,the suficient conditions for the existence of positive ω-periodic solution to the system are derived. The numerical simulation of an example verifies our main result.

  7. Proposal for a new staging system for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Karagozoglu; H.A. Dekker; D. Rietveld; R. de Bree; E.A.J.M. Schulten; S. Kantola; T. Forouzanfar; I. van der Waal

    2014-01-01

    A new staging system for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible has been retrospectively applied to a group of 31 patients. In this system clinicoradiographic signs and symptoms are incorporated in a simplified manner. For imaging purposes the use of plain radiographs such as periapical films and panora

  8. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of energy demand for such systems will tend asymptotically to unity as the number of sub-systems increases

  9. Usefulness of staging systems and prognostic scores for hepatocellular carcinoma treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhoute, Xavier; Penaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Le Treut, Patrice; Bollon, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Castellani, Paul; Perrier, Hervé; Bourlière, Marc

    2016-06-18

    Therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite complex owing to the underlying cirrhosis and portal vein hypertension. Different scores or classification systems based on liver function and tumoral stages have been published in the recent years. If none of them is currently "universally" recognized, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system has become the reference classification system in Western countries. Based on a robust treatment algorithm associated with stage stratification, it relies on a high level of evidence. However, BCLC stage B and C HCC include a broad spectrum of tumors but are only matched with a single therapeutic option. Some experts have thus suggested to extend the indications for surgery or for transarterial chemoembolization. In clinical practice, many patients are already treated beyond the scope of recommendations. Additional alternative prognostic scores that could be applied to any therapeutic modality have been recently proposed. They could represent complementary tools to the BCLC staging system and improve the stratification of HCC patients enrolled in clinical trials, as illustrated by the NIACE score. Prospective studies are needed to compare these scores and refine their role in the decision making process. PMID:27330679

  10. Production system and harvesting stage influence on nitrate content and quality of butterhead lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fairuz Yosoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables such as lettuce grown under different production systems may accumulate different concentrations of nitrate which may reach to the levels potentially toxic to humans. Moreover, nitrate accumulation varies in various plant parts and physiological age of the plant. Therefore, to determine the effect of production system and harvesting stage on nitrate accumulation and quality of butterhead lettuce, a study was conducted considering two lettuce production systems namely hydroponic and organic, and four different harvesting stages such as 35, 38, 41 and 44 days after transplanting (DAT. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD with four replications. Hydroponic and organic systems performed similar in terms of yield, quality and nitrate content of butterhead lettuce. Delaying harvesting can not only increase yield but also can minimize nitrate accumulation and health hazard risk as well. Delay in harvesting stage may result in quality deterioration of lettuce and increased production cost. Thus, a compromise is necessary to consider 41 DAT as the optimum stage to harvest butterhead lettuce with significantly higher reduction of nitrate content in both outer adult leaf blades and young leaves of hydroponic lettuce. Fresh weight, firmness and color of butterhead lettuce at this stage were still acceptable.

  11. A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages

    OpenAIRE

    Gautham Hegde; Nanditha Hegde; Anil Kumar; Keshavaraj,

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mand...

  12. Structural requirements and basic design concepts for a two-stage winged launcher system (Saenger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, H.; Keller, K.; Kunz, R.

    1988-10-01

    An evaluation is made of materials and structures technologies deemed capable of increasing the mass fraction-to-orbit of the Saenger two-stage launcher system while adequately addressing thermal-control and cryogenic fuel storage insulation problems. Except in its leading edges, nose cone, and airbreathing propulsion system air intakes, Ti alloy-based materials will be the basis of the airframe primary structure. Lightweight metallic thermal-protection measures will be employed. Attention is given to the design of the large lower stage element of Saenger.

  13. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push-pull......-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this cascaded structure simplifies the power management. The control strategy for the whole system is analyzed...

  14. Obtaining of hot electron plasma in two-stage beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The space region of plasma formation and heating one are separated by pressure gradient in two-stage beam-plasma system. It is shown, that the temperature of plasma electron most part can reach some hundreds electronvolt when beam of some unit kiloelectronvolt energy is injected in system. The range of basic macroscopic parameters of system (current and energy of beam, operating gas pressure, plasma column length, magnetic field strength) corresponding to electron maximum heating is determined

  15. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik Rajendran; Azam Jeihanipour; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Solmaz Aslanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system) and the other without recirculation (open system). For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; st...

  16. A Gas-Spring-Loaded X-Y-Z Stage System for X-ray Microdiffraction Sample Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Cai, Zhonghou; Lai, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a gas-spring-loaded x-y-z stage system for x-ray microdiffraction sample manipulation at the Advanced Photon Source XOR 2-ID-D station. The stage system includes three DC-motor-driven linear stages and a gas-spring-based heavy preloading structure, which provides antigravity forces to ensure that the stage system keeps high-positioning performance under variable goniometer orientation. Microdiffraction experiments with this new stage system showed significant sample manipulation performance improvement.

  17. A three-stage treatment system for highly polluted urban road runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, Rita; Schriewer, Alexander; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2013-10-15

    A three-stage treatment device for polluted urban road runoff was installed and tested at a highly trafficked urban road over a period of one year. In the first stage coarse material and particles from the runoff are removed by a special gutter system. The second stage eliminates particles using a hydrodynamic separator. In the third stage dissolved pollutants are adsorbed in a filter unit with lignite as filter material. Twenty-four rain events were sampled over the one year period and analyzed for dissolved and particulate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), suspended solids (SS), total organic carbon (TOC), sodium (Na), and pH value. The treatment system was able to safely retain all relevant pollutants during the investigated period, except Na. In the effluent of the treatment device Pb could never be detected, values measured for Zn were in the range of the detection limit. Cu, the element most frequently detected in the effluent, never exceeded the critical value of 50 μg/L set by the German Federal Soil Protection Act and Ordinance. The median Cu concentration in the effluent of the treatment system was 8.13 μg/L. The treatment system proved to be very effective. Highly polluted road runoff can be purified by the system to an extent that no contamination risk for soil and groundwater remains when infiltrated into the soil. PMID:23770438

  18. Thermodynamic Investigation of Two-Stage Absorption Refrigeration System Connected by a Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kairouani; E. Nehdi; R. B. Iffa

    2005-01-01

    The present work is to analyze a two-stage cycle based on the ammonia-water absorption system, with intermediate compression. The two generators of the system are heated by geothermal energy at low temperature. The study shows that this system makes it possible at lower generator temperature, under the limits permitted by the systems suggested up to now. For Tg = 335 K, Tc = Ta = 308 K and Te = 263 K, based on the electric consumption, the system efficiency is 8.2. The comparative study of th...

  19. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, R J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of ener...

  20. Design and optimization of a single stage centrifugal compressor for a solar dish-Brayton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongsheng; Wang, Kai; Tong, Zhiting; Lin, Feng; Nie, Chaoqun; Engeda, Abraham

    2013-10-01

    According to the requirements of a solar dish-Brayton system, a centrifugal compressor stage with a minimum total pressure ratio of 5, an adiabatic efficiency above 75% and a surge margin more than 12% needs to be designed. A single stage, which consists of impeller, radial vaned diffuser, 90° crossover and two rows of axial stators, was chosen to satisfy this system. To achieve the stage performance, an impeller with a 6:1 total pressure ratio and an adiabatic efficiency of 90% was designed and its preliminary geometry came from an in-house one-dimensional program. Radial vaned diffuser was applied downstream of the impeller. Two rows of axial stators after 90° crossover were added to guide the flow into axial direction. Since jet-wake flow, shockwave and boundary layer separation coexisted in the impeller-diffuser region, optimization on the radius ratio of radial diffuser vane inlet to impeller exit, diffuser vane inlet blade angle and number of diffuser vanes was carried out at design point. Finally, an optimized centrifugal compressor stage fulfilled the high expectations and presented proper performance. Numerical simulation showed that at design point the stage adiabatic efficiency was 79.93% and the total pressure ratio was 5.6. The surge margin was 15%. The performance map including 80%, 90% and 100% design speed was also presented.

  1. New J-STAGE system accelerates digitization and distribution of academic journals from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryuichi; Kubota, Soichi; Aoyama, Kota; Tsuchiya, Eri; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    13 years have passed since J-STAGE was launched. At present no one could deny that its user interface and functions were already out of date comparing to foreign established e-journals. So JST has developed a new system called “J-STAGE3” in order to offer better usability and give powerful dissemination of academic papers from Japan. As the result of it, they will be able to enjoy the following things: 1) integration of two databases, Journal@rchive and J-STAGE, 2) new design/interface, 3) introduction of international standard XML format, 4) advanced subscription management, 5) saving cost of publishers, and 6) improving J-STAGE online submission and review system. At the end of March 2011, we conducted a market research on current status of digitization on Japanese society journals. The report told us that digitization ratio of those was 62% in total but it was 34% in humanities/social sciences. Or it was 92% in English journals and 55% in Japanese ones. It means that we need further promotion of digitization. In this paper, we discuss functions and direction of J-STAGE3 as well as our role in promotion of digitization of Japanese society journals.

  2. 78 FR 72155 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Register, a final rule (76 FR 70228 through 70316) titled, ``Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease... January 1, 2012, did function for 3 or more years (76 FR 70289). The 3-year MLR is designed to represent a...) Prospective Payment System (PPS) On August 12, 2010, we published in the Federal Register a final rule (75...

  3. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  4. The Validity of Preservice Teacher Use of Kohlberg's Issue Stage Scoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Social studies preservice teachers received background information on Kohlberg's theory of moral development and were trained to use one of the rater guides in his new "issue stage scoring system." They were directed to score sample moral thought statements, some on an intuitive basis and some with the rater guides. No overall differences between…

  5. Global Attracting Behavior of Non-autonomous Stage-structured Population Dynamical System with Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-hua Lu; Xue-bin Chi; Lan-sun Chen

    2003-01-01

    A non-autonomous single species dispersal model is considered, in which individual member of the population has a life history that goes through two stages, immature and mature. By applying the theory of monotone and concave operators to functional differential equations, we establish conditions under which the system admits a positive periodic solution which attracts all other positive solutions.

  6. Well staged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, Godfrey

    2011-06-15

    Packers Plus Energy Services Inc. has commercially launched QuickFRAC, a multi-stage completition system which can fracture four to five isolated stages in one treatment and set up a record of 23-stage slickwater frac in less than 10 hours. It could take up to 40 days to do 100 fracture treatments with other systems. This technology makes it possible to distribute fluid at each port thanks to the limited entry system. In order to make multiple isolated stages within one treatment zone, each zone includes multiple QuickPORT sleeves with packers on either side. The other technology which made this possible is the repeater port system, it allows them to perform more frac stages. This technology could be useful in the future since the need for stages will be doubling soon with microdarcy shale oil extraction which is more difficult than gas.

  7. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this...

  8. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System (POP–Q) – a new era in pelvic prolapse staging

    OpenAIRE

    Persu, C; Chapple, CR; Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Geavlete, P

    2011-01-01

    The prolapse of one or several pelvic organs is a condition that has been known by medicine since its early days, and different therapeutic approaches have been proposed and accepted. But one of the main problems concerning the prolapse of pelvic organs is the need for a universal, clear and reliable staging method. Because the prolapse has been known and recognized as a disease for more than one hundred years, so are different systems proposed for its staging. But none has proved itself to r...

  9. EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGES AND RANGE SYSTEMS ON VEGETATION ATTRIBUTES, CARRYING CAPACITY, STOCKING RATE AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY, NORTH KORDOFAN, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Moniem M.A. El hag

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The range vegetation attributes, carrying capacity, stocking rates and forage productivity were studied in close and open range systems at the flowering and seed setting stages during the September and November 2010, respectively, in El Rosa (El-khuwei locality. Sampling was done by locating 2Km2 in close and open range systems in a radiating manner from the centre of each site. Completely Randomized Design (CRD was used to analyses treatments. Biomass production of plants and plant cover at the flowering stage in the close range system were significantly (P<0.0001 higher than that at the seed setting stage in the open range system. The plant density was significant (P<0.05 higher in the close rang system at the flowering stage and lower at the seed setting stage in the open range system. Bare soil and litter was significantly higher (P<0.0001 in the open range system during the seed setting stage and lower in the close range system during the flowering stage. Forage productivity of plants and shrubs browse kg/ha on rangeland was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the close range system during the flowering stage and lower in open range system at the seed setting stage. Carrying capacity was significantly higher (P<0.0001 in the close range system at the seed setting stage and lower in the open range at the flowering stage. Stoking rates in open range system during the seed setting stage was significantly higher (P<0.0001 and lower in the close range system during the seed setting stage. The frequencies of Huskneet (Cenchrus biflorus, Bano, (Eragrostis tremula, Difra (Echinocloa colonum, leflef Luffa aegyptiaca, Gaw (Aristida sp, Shuleny Zornia glochidiata and Aborakhus Andropogon gayanus were higher in close system during the two stages of growth. Plants such as Abodaib Ceraotheca sesamoid, Bigual Blepharis linarifolia, Tmrfar (Oldenlandia senegalensis, Rabaa (Zalea sp, Himeira Hymerocardia, Diresa (Tribulus terrestris and Huntot Merremia pinnata

  10. Effect of growth stages and systems on range vegetation characteristics in el Rosa, north Kordofan, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M.A. El Hag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The range vegetation characteristics were studied in closed and open systems at flowering and seeding in (El Rosa El khuwei locality at September and November 2009. Sampling was using 2Km2 plots in a radiating manner from the centre of plot. CRD was used to analyses all parameters. Results of biomass, plant density and plant cover in the closed systems at the flowering were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher. These parameters were significantly lower in the open system at seeding. Bare soil and litter were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher in the open system at seeding. Total forage productivity kg/ha was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in the closed system at the flowering and least in the open system at seeding. Carrying capacity was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher in closed system at seeding and leas in open at flowering. Stoking rates in the closed system at flowering were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher and least in the open system at seeding. Plant frequencies were higher in the closed system at the two growth stages than open system like Huskneet (Cenchrus biflorus Bano (Eragrostis tremula Gaw (Aristida sp Difra (Echinocloa colonum Aboelrakhus (Andropogon gayanus Fisiya (Fimbristyls hispidula and Tmrfar (Oldenlandia senegalensis had higher frequencies. However leflef (Luffa aegyptiaca and Himeira (Hymenocardia acida had lower frequencies.  Simeima (Sesamum alatum Buid (Commelinia subulata Abodaib (Ceraotheca sesamoid Shuleny (Zornia glochidiata and Rabaa (Zalea sp were found only in the closed system at flowering. Nuida (Sida cordofolia were only found in the open system at the two growth stages. It was concluded that the closed system had higher plant density and cover, biomass, plant frequencies and forage production. Bare soil and litter were higher in open system at seeding. Carrying capacity was higher in the closed system at seeding. Stoking rates in the closed system at flowering were higher. Indicate that direct effects on

  11. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the

  12. A monitoring system based on electric vehicle three-stage wireless charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, T.; Liu, Z. Z.; Yang, Y.; Hongxing, CHEN; Zhou, B.; Zeng, H.

    2016-08-01

    An monitoring system for three-stage wireless charging was designed. The vehicle terminal contained the core board which was used for battery information collection and charging control and the power measurement and charging control core board was provided at the transmitting terminal which communicated with receiver by Bluetooth. A touch-screen display unit was designed based on MCGS (Monitor and Control Generated System) to simulate charging behavior and to debug the system conveniently. The practical application shown that the system could be stable and reliable, and had a favorable application foreground.

  13. Scout fourth stage attitude and velocity control (AVC) system feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout fourth stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, generation of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. Fourth stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.

  14. Design of an Image-Servo Mask Alignment System Using Dual CCDs with an XXY Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jer Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mask alignment of photolithography technology is used in many applications, such as micro electro mechanical systems’ semiconductor process, printed circuits board, and flat panel display. As the dimensions of the product are getting smaller and smaller, the automatic mask alignment of photolithography is becoming more and more important. The traditional stacked XY-Θz stage is heavy and it has cumulative flatness errors due to its stacked assembly mechanism. The XXY stage has smaller cumulative error due to its coplanar design and it can move faster than the traditional XY-Θz stage. However, the relationship between the XXY stage’s movement and the commands of the three motors is difficult to compute, because the movements of the three motors on the same plane are coupling. Therefore, an artificial neural network is studied to establish a nonlinear mapping from the desired position and orientation of the stage to three motors’ commands. Further, this paper proposes an image-servo automatic mask alignment system, which consists of a coplanar XXY stage, dual GIGA-E CCDs with lens and a programmable automatic controller (PAC. Before preforming the compensation, a self-developed visual-servo provides the positioning information which is obtained from the image processing and pattern recognition according to the specified fiducial marks. To obtain better precision, two methods including the center of gravity method and the generalize Hough Transformation are studied to correct the shift positioning error.

  15. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  16. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  17. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  18. Single-Phase Single-Stage PV-Grid System Using VSI Based on Simple Control Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Riyadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating electric energy generated by PV with utilities has been developed. Some of these using two-stage converters and the others using single stage converters. For systems with two-stage converters, the first stage converter acts as a MPPT to maximize power generated by PV and the second stage is used as an interface to the utilities. In the single-stage system, an inverter is used for both function. In this paper, PV-Grid System using a single-stage Voltage Source Inverter is proposed. The simple control circuit to make PV generate maximum power and keeping power equilibrium between PV and inverter output power is used. To verify the analysis, simulations are done.

  19. Analysis of Fourth Stage of Automatic Depressurization System Failure to Open in AP1000 LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guozhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Depressurization System (ADS is a very important part of passive core cooling system in passive safety nuclear plant AP1000. ADS have four stages with each stage having two series and only ADS4 utilizes squib valves. During the accident, emergency core injecting is realized by gravity driven passive safety injection system like makeup tank (CMT, accumulator and In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST. The objective e of this study is to analyze the system response and phenomenon under part of failure of ADS in AP1000 LOCA. The plant model is built by using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD 3.4 code. The chosen accident scenario is small and medium LOCAs followed by failure of ADS4 to open, whose location is different from the other three stages. The results indicate that long time core cooling from IRWST is postponed greatly through intentional depressurization only by ADS1, 2, 3. In addition, LOCAs with equivalent diameter 25.4 cm and 34.1 cm will not lead to core melt while 5.08 cm break LOCA will. Meanwhile, high water level in the pressurizer will appear during all of three LOCAs.

  20. Influence of the Application of MRI on the T, N Staging System of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuanmiaoXie; BilingLiang; HaogaoUn; PeihongWu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the influence of utilizing MRI on the T, N staging system (the 5th edition, UICC) and on the 1992 China staging systems (Fuzhou-Guangzhou,China) by comparing the results of CT and MRI examinations of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).METHODS All 56 NPC patients, which were confirmed by histology,accepted both CT and MRI examinations. CT system scans were obtained by using an Elscient CT Twin Flash with the conventional axial scan. Three cases were examined by an additional coronary scan and 16 patients received an enhanced CT. The MR imaging was performed with a 0.5T MR system (Philips T5- II Ultra-Magnetic). The conventional axial, sagittal and coronary sections with SE sequences were obtained. The scan field was from the supra sellar cistern to the inferior border of C2. Most patients (50/56) accepted contrast enhanced MRI.RESULTS The pharyngobasilar fascia can clearly be seen on MRI but not on CT, so MRI can accurately determine the lesion in the nasopharyngeal cavity. MRI is more sensitive for evaluation of tumor involvement of soft tissue such as the Iongus colli muscle (14 cases by CT and 26 by MRI), tensor veli patalini muscle and levator veli palatini muscle (17 cases by CT and 23 by MRI), and skull-base bone marrow invasion (15 cases by CT and 42 by MRI). MRI can also demonstrate the invasion of the carotid sheath area and the enlargement of retropharyngeal lymph nodes more definitely than CT.The involvement of the trigeminal nerve can be detected on MRI, which may influence the clinical staging directly.CONCLUSION Of the 56 cases examined, 16 (28.6%) changed the staging based on UICC staging; while 33.9% (19/56) cases changed based on the 1992 China-stagin9 system. The major influence of MRI examinations on the 1992 staging was to differentiate the involvement of the carotid sheath area from metastasis of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. There also was a significant difference in finding early invasion of the skull base.

  1. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR = 11.53, p = 0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR = 12.00, p = 0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR = 3.19, p = 0.010). Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women

  2. Experimental and modeling study of a two-stage pilot scale high solid anaerobic digester system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Zhao, Quanbao; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Chen, Shulin

    2012-11-01

    This study established a comprehensive model to configure a new two-stage high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) system designed for highly degradable organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). The HSAD reactor as the first stage was naturally separated into two zones due to biogas floatation and low specific gravity of solid waste. The solid waste was retained in the upper zone while only the liquid leachate resided in the lower zone of the HSAD reactor. Continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and advective-diffusive reactor (ADR) models were constructed in series to describe the whole system. Anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was used as reaction kinetics and incorporated into each reactor module. Compared with the experimental data, the simulation results indicated that the model was able to well predict the pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production.

  3. Flash flood detection through a multi-stage probabilistic warning system for heavy precipitation events

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, L.; Velasco, D.; Thielen, J.

    2011-01-01

    The deadly combination of short to no warning lead times and the vulnerability of urbanized areas makes flash flood events extremely dangerous for the modern society. This paper contributes to flash flood early warning by proposing a multi-stage warning system for heavy precipitation events based on threshold exceedances within a probabilistic framework. It makes use of meteorological products at different resolutions, namely, numerical weather predictions (NWP), radar-NWP b...

  4. Improved Duct Systems Task Report with StageGate 2 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Neil [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Stroer, Dennis [Calcs-Plus, Venice, FL (United States)

    2007-12-31

    This report is about Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership's work with two industry partners, Davalier Homes and Southern Energy Homes, in constructing and evaluating prototype interior duct systems. Issues of energy performance, comfort, DAPIA approval, manufacturability and cost is addressed. A stage gate 2 analysis addresses the current status of project showing that there are still refinements needed to the process of incorporating all of the ducts within the air and thermal boundaries of the envelope.

  5. Block Two-stage Methods for Singular Systems and Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Migallón Gomis, Violeta; Penadés, Jose; Szyld, Daniel B.

    2007-01-01

    Research Report 95-121, Department of Mathematics, Temple University, December 1995. This paper appeared, in revised form, in Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications, vol. 3 (1996) 413-426. The use of block two-stage methods for the iterative solution of consistent singular linear systems is studied. In particular, hypotheses are provided for the convergence of non-stationary methods, i.e., when the number of inner iterations may vary from block to block and from one outer iteration to ...

  6. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  7. Puesta al día: estadificación del carcinoma de células renales Update on staging of renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Paganini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de células renales o adenocarcinoma renal es el tumor renal maligno más frecuente en adultos, con una incidencia mayor entre la cuarta y sexta décadas de la vida. Los hombres se afectan el doble que las mujeres. En Argentina, por año se calcula una incidencia de 6,1 casos por 100.000 habitantes, con una mortalidad anual de 3,4 casos por 100.000 habitantes. Para la estadificación se utiliza el sistema TNM de la American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC, actualizado en su séptima edición (2010. Allí se reflejan algunos cambios en el T, con subdivisión de la categoría T2 (T2a > 7 cm y 10 cm. Asimismo, se considera T4 a la invasión por contigüidad de la glándula suprarrenal homolateral y T3a al compromiso de la vena renal. También se simplificó el N en N0 y N1.Renal cell cancer or renal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignant renal tumor in adults, with a higher incidence between the fourth and sixth decades of life. It is twice more frequent in men than in women. In Argentina, the estimated incidence is 6.1 cases per 100000 inhabitants per year with a mortality rate of 3.4 cases per 100000 inhabitants per year. Staging is performed using the TNM system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC, which has been updated in its seventh edition, (2010 reflecting changes in T, with T2 subdivision (T2a > 7 cm and 10 cm, reclassification of ipsilateral adrenal involvement as T4 if there is contiguous invasion and reclassification of renal vein involvement as T3a. Nodal involvement was simplified to N0 and N1.

  8. Performance comparison between a conventional vapor compression and compression-absorption single-stage and double-stage systems used for refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports a comparison from the first and second law of thermodynamics of a conventional vapor compression cooling system, a compression-absorption single-stage (CASS) system, and a compression-absorption double-stage (CADS) system operating with CO2 and R134a in the compression cycle and H2O/LiBr in the absorption cycles. The CADS system is being by the first time proposed in the literature. The performance of the systems were analyzed as function of diverse operating parameters. It was found that the electrical energy consumption in the refrigeration cycles was about 45% lower than in the classical compression refrigeration cycles using CO2 and R134a as refrigerants under the same operating conditions. The results showed that the COP for the CADS could be 50% higher than those obtained with the CASS system. The systems operating with R134a always achieved higher COP than those obtained using CO2. From the exergy analysis it was clear that the highest irreversibilities occurs in the absorber and the evaporator for both mixtures. It was also found that the irreversibilities of the proposed system using R134a in the compression cycle were 17% lower than those obtained with the system using CO2 - Highlights: • A compression-absorption double-stage (CADS) system is by the first time proposed. • The compression power in cascade cycles was 45% lower than in compression cycles. • The COP for proposed system was up to 45.2% higher than those with other systems. • The systems operating with R134a achieved higher COP than those obtained using CO2. • The irreversibilities for the CADS using R134a were 17% lower than using CO2

  9. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. PMID:26210232

  10. Generalized Yule-walker and two-stage identification algorithms for dual-rate systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng DING

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, two approaches are developed for directly identifying single-rate models of dual-rate stochastic systems in which the input updating frequency is an integer multiple of the output sampling frequency. The first is the generalized Yule-Walker algorithm and the second is a two-stage algorithm based on the correlation technique. The basic idea is to directly identify the parameters of underlying single-rate models instead of the lifted models of dual-rate systems from the dual-rate input-output data, assuming that the measurement data are stationary and ergodic. An example is given.

  11. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Elderly vs Young Patients: A Comparative Analysis using STNMP Staging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Syedmukith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the foremost type of oral cancer usually seen in elderly patients. The intention of this study is to correlate clinicopathological fea- tures and recurrence of OSCC between patients who are above 40 years of age with that of patients below 40 years of age using site, tumor, node, metastasis and pathology (STNMP system. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients who reported with OSCC and underwent treatment. A total of 50 patients above 40 years of age (group I and 25 patients below 40 years of age (group II were included. Clinico- pathologic data, treatment, and follow-up for 5 years were obtained from archives of concerned departments. The relevant details required for STNMP grading of patients and recurrence within a period of 5 years was recorded. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of all the patients reported with OSCC in 8 years, 22.14% were below 40 years of which 64% were males. Among younger patients, overall STNMP stages were in higher stages when compared with elder patients. Comparison of percen- tage of uncontrolled cases between groups did not show any signi fi cant difference; also this study showed higher the stage at diagnosis more the recurrence after treatment in both groups. Interpretation and conclusion : OSCC is in alarming raise among young patients, showing higher stages clinicopatho- logically at presentation. However, these higher stages at diag- nosis did not affecting the treatment outcome when compared to elder patients hence, advanced studies on OSCC affecting younger patients are very crucial

  12. ARM Based Automatic Control System of Nano Positioning Stage for Micromanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh Naruka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A microcontroller based control system to drive the Physik Instrumente (PI piezoelectric ultrasonic nano-positioning (PUN sta ge for a micro-factory has been proposed by the author. The tuning parameters of th e PI Line Controller are chosen such that the PUN stage shows optimum step response . The microcontroller i.e. LPC2478R provides the user with the choices of oper ations on the 3.2” QVGA LCD screen and the choice can be made by a 5-key joysti ck. The PUN stage moves in different geometrical patterns as chosen by the use r. The stage is placed in the workspace of the Clark-MXRR,Inc. CPA-2101 femto-sec ond laser. Different patterns are made on the material in question. As compared t o the previous works in this area, the user is given the power for position control, r eal time tracking, and trajectory planning of the actuator. The user interface has be en made very easy to comprehend. The repeatability of tasks, portability of the as- sembly, the reduction in the size of the system , power consumption and the human involvemen t are the major achievements after the inclusion of a microcontroller

  13. Detection of Integrase Gene in E. coli Isolated from Pigs at Different Stages of Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia de la Torre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrons are one of the genetic elements involved in the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The aim of the present research is to investigate the presence of integrons in commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, isolated from pigs at different stages of production system and from the environment in an Argentinian farm. Five sows postpartum and five randomly chosen piglets from each litter were sampled by rectal swabs. They were sampled again at day 21 and at day 70. Environmental samples from the farm were also obtained. E. coli containing any integron class or combination of both integrons was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 100% of sows and in piglets at different stages of production: farrowing pen stage 68.1%;, weaning 60%, and growing/finishing 85.8%, showing an increase along the production system. From environmental samples 78.4% of E. coli containing any integron class was detected. We conclude that animals and farm environment can act as reservoirs for potential spread of resistant bacteria by means of mobile genetic elements as integrons, which has a major impact on production of food animals and that can reach man through the food chain, constituting a problem for public health.

  14. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes, mainly urbanization and climatic change, leads to increased runoff and peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to reduce potential damage and inconvenience. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the conveyance capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. Contemporary practice is to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in the climate- and the urban environment, this approach is no longer appropriate, and explicit consideration of gradual changes during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and responses over the analysis period. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  15. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes mainly, the urbanization and the climatic change leads to increased runoff and increased peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to overcome possible damage and inconveniences caused by the induced flooding. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. The traditional practice was to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in climate-environment, this approach is no longer economically viable and safe, and explicit consideration of changes that gradually take place during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and amounts throughout the lifespan of the drainage network. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  16. Organic semiconductor wastewater treatment using a four-stage Bardenpho with membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Fleege, Daniel; Ong, Say Kee; Lee, Yong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic wastewater from a semiconductor plant was treated with a pilot-scale four-stage Bardenpho process with membrane system. The system was operated over a 14-month period with an overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 9.5 to 30 h. With a few exceptions, the pilot plant consistently treated the electronic wastewater with an average removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen of 97% and 93%, respectively, and achieving effluent quality of COD<15 mg/L, turbidity<1, and silt density index<1. Based on removal efficiencies of the pilot plant, it is possible to lower the HRT to less than 9.5 h to achieve comparable removal efficiencies. An energy-saving configuration where an internal recycle line was omitted and the biomass recycle was rerouted to the pre-anoxic tank, can reduce energy consumption by 8.6% and gave removal efficiencies that were similar to the Bardenpho process. The system achieved pre-anoxic and post-anoxic specific denitrification rate values with a 95% confidence interval of 0.091 ± 0.011 g NO₃-N/g MLVSS d and 0.087 ± 0.016 g NO₃-N/g MLVSS d, respectively. The effluent from the four-stage Bardenpho with membrane system can be paired with a reverse osmosis system to provide further treatment for reuse purposes.

  17. Precision control system of two-DOF stage with linear ultrasonic motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanlei ZHANG; Yunlai SHI; Chunsheng ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Using an appropriate control method, linear ultrasonic motors can be used in applications requiring high position accuracy. In this paper, a closed loop PI control system is designed to achieve high position accu-racy during the control of a two-DOF stage driven by linear ultrasonic motors, Two ultrasonic motors are mounted on the stage to generate motion in two ortho-gonal directions. The PI control algorithm is used to increase the stability and accuracy of position control. The x-axis mover covers 30 mm forward and backward in less than 0.3 s settling time and the y-axis mover in less than 0.4 s. Experimental results denote that the control strategy proposed in this paper appears to have high effi-ciency, quick response, and high accuracy.

  18. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  19. Novel design and sensitivity analysis of displacement measurement system utilizing knife edge diffraction for nanopositioning stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, ChaBum; Lee, Sun-Kyu; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and sensitivity analysis of a knife edge-based optical displacement sensor that can be embedded with nanopositioning stages. The measurement system consists of a laser, two knife edge locations, two photodetectors, and axillary optics components in a simple configuration. The knife edge is installed on the stage parallel to its moving direction and two separated laser beams are incident on knife edges. While the stage is in motion, the direct transverse and diffracted light at each knife edge is superposed producing interference at the detector. The interference is measured with two photodetectors in a differential amplification configuration. The performance of the proposed sensor was mathematically modeled, and the effect of the optical and mechanical parameters, wavelength, beam diameter, distances from laser to knife edge to photodetector, and knife edge topography, on sensor outputs was investigated to obtain a novel analytical method to predict linearity and sensitivity. From the model, all parameters except for the beam diameter have a significant influence on measurement range and sensitivity of the proposed sensing system. To validate the model, two types of knife edges with different edge topography were used for the experiment. By utilizing a shorter wavelength, smaller sensor distance and higher edge quality increased measurement sensitivity can be obtained. The model was experimentally validated and the results showed a good agreement with the theoretically estimated results. This sensor is expected to be easily implemented into nanopositioning stage applications at a low cost and mathematical model introduced here can be used for design and performance estimation of the knife edge-based sensor as a tool. PMID:25273778

  20. Optimization of Peltier current lead for applied superconducting systems with optimum combination of cryo-stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Emoto, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Sun, Jian; Ivanov, Yury; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    2012-06-01

    The reduction of electric power consumption of the cryo-cooler during the working conditions of applied superconducting systems is important, as superconductivity can only be stored at low temperature and the power required for the cooling determines the efficiency of the systems employed. Use of Peltier current leads (PCLs) represents one key solution to effect heat load reduction on the terminals in systems. On the other hand, the performance of cryo-coolers generally increases as the temperature increases given the higher Carnot efficiency. Therefore, combination with suitable mid-stage temperatures represents one possible approach since the thermal anchor can enhance the performance of the system by reducing the electric power consumption of the cryo-coolers. In this paper, we discuss this possibility utilizing an advanced configuration of PCL with a commercially available high temperature cooler. Over 50% enhancement of the performance is estimated.

  1. Robust H∞ stabilization of a hard disk drive system with a single-stage actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harno, Hendra G.; Kiin Woon, Raymond Song

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers a robust H∞ control problem for a hard disk drive system with a single stage actuator. The hard disk drive system is modeled as a linear time-invariant uncertain system where its uncertain parameters and high-order dynamics are considered as uncertainties satisfying integral quadratic constraints. The robust H∞ control problem is transformed into a nonlinear optimization problem with a pair of parameterized algebraic Riccati equations as nonconvex constraints. The nonlinear optimization problem is then solved using a differential evolution algorithm to find stabilizing solutions to the Riccati equations. These solutions are used for synthesizing an output feedback robust H∞ controller to stabilize the hard disk drive system with a specified disturbance attenuation level.

  2. Multi-Stage Optimization Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic voltage control (AVC) system for power systems with limited continuous voltage control capability. The objective is to minimize the operational cost over a period, which consists of the power loss in the grid, the shunt switching cost, the transformer tap change...... cost and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal...... electricity control center, where study cases based on the western Danish power system demonstrate the superiority of the proposed AVC system in term of the cost minimization. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to verify the proposed method on the robustness improvements....

  3. Predictive properties of different multidimensional staging systems in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oga T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Toru Oga1, Mitsuhiro Tsukino2, Takashi Hajiro3, Akihiko Ikeda4, Koichi Nishimura5 1Department of Respiratory Care and Sleep Control Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hikone Municipal Hospital, Hikone, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Japan; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kobe, Japan; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is considered to be a respiratory disease with systemic manifestations. Some multidimensional staging systems, not based solely on the level of airflow limitation, have been developed; however, these systems have rarely been compared. Methods: We previously recruited 150 male outpatients with COPD for an analysis of factors related to mortality. For this report, we examined the discriminative and prognostic predictive properties of three COPD multidimensional measurements. These indices were the modified BODE (mBODE, which includes body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity; the ADO, composed of age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction; and the modified DOSE (mDOSE, comprising dyspnea, airflow obstruction, smoking status, and exacerbation frequency. Results: Among these indices, the frequency distribution of the mBODE index was the most widely and normally distributed. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analyses revealed that the scores on three indices were significantly predictive of 5-year mortality of COPD (P < 0.001. The scores on the mBODE and ADO indices were more significantly predictive of mortality than forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the Medical Research Council dyspnea score, and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score. However, peak oxygen uptake on progressive cycle ergometry was more significantly related to mortality than the scores on

  4. America's Next Great Ship: Space Launch System Core Stage Transitioning from Design to Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstock, Benjamin; Kauer, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is essential to achieving the Nation's and NASA's goal of human exploration and scientific investigation of the solar system. As a multi-element program with emphasis on safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS is becoming America's next great ship of exploration. The SLS Core Stage includes avionics, main propulsion system, pressure vessels, thrust vector control, and structures. Boeing manufactures and assembles the SLS core stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA, a historical production center for Saturn V and Space Shuttle programs. As the transition from design to manufacturing progresses, the importance of a well-executed manufacturing, assembly, and operation (MA&O) plan is crucial to meeting performance objectives. Boeing employs classic techniques such as critical path analysis and facility requirements definition as well as innovative approaches such as Constraint Based Scheduling (CBS) and Cirtical Chain Project Management (CCPM) theory to provide a comprehensive suite of project management tools to manage the health of the baseline plan on both a macro (overall project) and micro level (factory areas). These tools coordinate data from multiple business systems and provide a robust network to support Material & Capacity Requirements Planning (MRP/CRP) and priorities. Coupled with these tools and a highly skilled workforce, Boeing is orchestrating the parallel buildup of five major sub assemblies throughout the factory. Boeing and NASA are transforming MAF to host state of the art processes, equipment and tooling, the most prominent of which is the Vertical Assembly Center (VAC), the largest weld tool in the world. In concert, a global supply chain is delivering a range of structural elements and component parts necessary to enable an on-time delivery of the integrated Core Stage. SLS is on plan to launch humanity into the next phase of space exploration.

  5. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring pressure of flow. When the monitored data exceeds the normal range, some failure may occur in the stage hydraulic system. If any failure occurs in the circuit, the maintainers can be informed immediately, which can greatly improve maintenance efficiency, ensuring the failure to be eliminated in time. Meanwhile, we can take advantage of wireless sensor network (WSN to connect the multiple loops and then monitor the loops by using ZigBee technology, which greatly improves the efficiency of monitoring.

  6. Analysis of effects of a new environmental pollutant, bisphenol A, on antioxidant systems in soybean roots at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Li, Xingyi; Zhou, Li; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material. Because of its widespread use and increasing release into environment, BPA has become a new environmental pollutant. Previous studies about BPA’s effects in plants focus on a certain growth stage. However, the plant’s response to pollutants varies at different growth stages. Therefore, in this work, BPA’s effects in soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the reactive oxygen species levels, membrane lipid fatty acid composition, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant systems. The results showed that low-dose BPA exposure slightly caused membrane lipid peroxidation but didn’t activate antioxidant systems at the seedling stage, and this exposure did not affect above process at other growth stages; high-dose BPA increased reactive oxygen species levels and then caused membrane lipid peroxidation at all growth stages although it activated antioxidant systems, and these effects were weaker with prolonging the growth stages. The recovery degree after withdrawal of BPA exposure was negatively related to BPA dose, but was positively related to growth stage. Taken together, the effects of BPA on antioxidant systems in soybean roots were associated with BPA exposure dose and soybean growth stage.

  7. Evaluation of Eight Different Clinical Staging Systems Associated with Overall Survival of Chinese Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer in China, an area of high hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Although several staging systems are available, there is no consensus on the best classification to use because multiple factors, such as etiology, clinical treatment and populations could affect the survival of HCC patients. Methods: This study analyzed 743 HBV-related Chinese HCC patients who received surgery first and evaluated the predictive values of eight different commonly used staging systems in the clinic. Results: The overall 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rates and a median survival were 91.5%, 70.3%, 55.3% and 72 months respectively. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC staging systems had the best stratification ability and showed the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC values (2896.577, followed by tumor-node-metastasis 7 th (TNM 7 th (AIC = 2899.980, TNM 6 th (AIC = 2902.17, Japan integrated staging score (AIC = 2918.085, Tokyo (AIC = 2938.822, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (AIC = 2941.950, Chinese University Prognostic Index grade (AIC = 2962.027, and Okuda (AIC = 2979.389. Conclusions: BCLC staging system is a better staging model for HBV infection patients with HCC in Chinese population among the eight currently used staging systems. These identifications afford a large group of Chinese HCC patients with HBV infection and could be helpful to design a new staging system for a certain population.

  8. Thermodynamic Investigation of Two-Stage Absorption Refrigeration System Connected by a Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kairouani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is to analyze a two-stage cycle based on the ammonia-water absorption system, with intermediate compression. The two generators of the system are heated by geothermal energy at low temperature. The study shows that this system makes it possible at lower generator temperature, under the limits permitted by the systems suggested up to now. For Tg = 335 K, Tc = Ta = 308 K and Te = 263 K, based on the electric consumption, the system efficiency is 8.2. The comparative study of the hybrid system and vapor compression systems shows the superiority of the proposed system. Supplied by the geothermal sources of the Tunisian south, the system makes it possible to obtain for a pilot geothermal station, a production of 75 tons of ice per day. The greenhouse gas emissions should thus be reduced by about 2.38 tons of CO2 per day. Therefore, based on the typical geothermal energy sources in Tunisia which present a global refrigeration potential of 4.4 MW, the daily quantity of ice that could be produced is about 865 tons. The greenhouse gas emissions should thus be reduced by about 10,000 tons of CO2 per year.

  9. Maximum Power Point Tracking and Reactive Power Control of Single Stage Grid Connected Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hoseynpoor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Single-stage grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV systems have advantages such as simple topology, high efficiency, etc. However, since all the control objectives such as the maximum power point tracking (with the utility voltage, and harmonics reduction for output current need to be considered simultaneously, the complexity of the control scheme is much increased. In this paper a new type of grid connected photovoltaic (PV system with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT and reactive power simultaneous control system is presented. System has two controlling loops to obtain the maximum power from the PV array and also has reactive power control (RPC. In order to decrease the complexity, cost and the number of converters, a singlestage PV system is applied. Using RPC and MPPT controllers, reference current is calculated and the current with low THD (<5% is injected to grid through Adaptive Predictive Current Control (APCC and current Controlled Voltage Source Inverter (CCVSI. The operation of the system is classified in to two day and night modes. In day mode MPPT and RPC control is accomplished and in night mode RPC control is accomplished like STATCOM operation. Reactive power control is continuously performed correctly with appropriate speed in two inductive and capacitive modes in both day and night modes. Thus, System Utilization Factor (SUF increases to 100% which is just 20% for common PV systems. Mathematical modeling of the system and the results of simulations in MATLAB/SIMULINK software are presented to investigate the correctness of the results.

  10. Evaluation of High Step-Up Power Electronics Stages in Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min; Wu, Hongfei; Xing, Yan; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2013-07-01

    To develop practical thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems, especially radioisotope thermoelectric power supplies for deep-space exploration, a power conditioning stage with high step-up gain is indispensable. This stage is used to step up the low output voltage of thermoelectric generators to the required high level. Furthermore, maximum power point tracking control for TEG modules needs to be implemented into the power electronics stages. In this paper, the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of a thermoelectric generator are analyzed in depth. Three typical high step-up power converters suitable for TEG applications are discussed: an interleaved boost converter, a boost converter with a coupled inductor, and an interleaved boost converter with an auxiliary transformer. A general comparison of the three high step-up converters is conducted to study the step-up gain, conversion efficiency, and input current ripples. The interleaved boost converter with an auxiliary transformer is found to be the most suitable topology for TEG applications, which is verified by experiments.

  11. Mortality prediction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comparing the GOLD 2007 and 2011 staging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Joan B; Lamprecht, Bernd; Ramírez, Ana S;

    2015-01-01

    collected individual data for 15 632 patients from 22 COPD cohorts from seven countries, totalling 70 184 person-years. Mean age of the patients was 63·9 years (SD 10·1); 10 751 (69%) were men. Based on FEV1 alone (GOLD 2007), 2424 (16%) patients had mild (I), 7142 (46%) moderate (II), 4346 (28%) severe...... accuracy of the staging documents for mortality. METHODS: We searched reports published from Jan 1, 2008, to Dec 31, 2014. Using data from cohorts that agreed to participate and had a minimum amount of information needed for GOLD 2007 and 2011, we did a patient-based pooled analysis of existing data....... With use of raw data, we recalculated all participant assignments to GOLD 2007 I-IV classes, and GOLD 2011 A-D stages. We used survival analysis, C statistics, and non-parametric regression to model time-to-death data and compare GOLD 2007 and GOLD 2011 staging systems to predict mortality. FINDINGS: We...

  12. Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2013-10-01

    The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system.

  13. Multifunctional Solar Systems Based On Two-Stage Regeneration Absorbent Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of multifunctional dehumidification solar systems, heat supply, cooling, and air conditioning based on the open absorption cycle with direct absorbent regeneration developed. The solar systems based on preliminary drainage of current of air and subsequent evaporated cooling. The solar system using evaporative coolers both types (direct and indirect. The principle of two-stage regeneration of absorbent used in the solar systems, it used as the basis of liquid and gas-liquid solar collectors. The main principle solutions are designed for the new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors. Analysis of the heat losses in the gas-liquid solar collectors, due to the mechanism of convection and radiation is made. Optimal cost of gas and liquid, as well as the basic dimensions and configuration of the working channel of the solar collector identified. Heat and mass transfer devices, belonging to the evaporative cooling system based on the interaction between the film and the gas stream and the liquid therein. Multichannel structure of the polymeric materials used to create the tip. Evaporative coolers of water and air both types (direct and indirect are used in the cooling of the solar systems. Preliminary analysis of the possibilities of multifunctional solar absorption systems made reference to problems of cooling media and air conditioning on the basis of experimental data the authors. Designed solar systems feature low power consumption and environmental friendliness.

  14. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Reginald; Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2001-01-01

    Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to all other systems, as is the case with SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In particular, the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results in high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately calculate the TPS mass of this type of vehicle several engineering disciplines and analytical tools must be used preferably in an environment that data is easily transferred and multiple iterations are easily facilitated.

  15. Two-stage reflective optical system for achromatic 10 nm x-ray focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Hiroto; Mimura, Hidekazu

    2015-12-01

    Recently, coherent x-ray sources have promoted developments of optical systems for focusing, imaging, and interferometers. In this paper, we propose a two-stage focusing optical system with the goal of achromatically focusing pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), with a focal width of 10 nm. In this optical system, the x-ray beam is expanded by a grazing-incidence aspheric mirror, and it is focused by a mirror that is shaped as a solid of revolution. We describe the design procedure and discuss the theoretical focusing performance. In theory, soft-XFEL lights can be focused to a 10 nm area without chromatic aberration and with high reflectivity; this creates an unprecedented power density of 1020 W cm-2 in the soft-x-ray range.

  16. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  17. Stability and Hopf bifurcation in a ratio-dependent predator-prey system with stage structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Rui [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Shijiazhuang Mechanical Engineering College, No. 97 Heping West Road, Shijiazhuang 050003, Hebei Province (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)], E-mail: rxu88@yahoo.com.cn; Ma Zhien [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A ratio-dependent predator-prey model with stage structure for the predator and time delay due to the gestation of the predator is investigated. By analyzing the characteristic equations, the local stability of a positive equilibrium and a boundary equilibrium is discussed, respectively. Further, it is proved that the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation at the positive equilibrium when {tau} = {tau}{sub 0}. By using an iteration technique, sufficient conditions are derived for the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium. By comparison arguments, sufficient conditions are obtained for the global stability of the boundary equilibrium. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main results.

  18. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  19. Markers, Cofactors and Staging Systems in the Study of HIV Disease Progression: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Portela

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive review of markers, cofactors and staging systems used for HIV disease, focusing on some aspects that nowadays could even be considered historical, and advancing in current issues such as the prognostic value of viral load measurements, viral genotypic and phenotypic characterization, and new HIV disease treatment protocols. CD4+ cell values, combined with the new viral markers mentioned are promising as a parsimonious predictor set for defining both severity and progression. An adequate predictor of patient resource use for planning purposes still needs to be defined

  20. Dynamics of a Delayed Predator-prey System with Stage Structure for Predator and Prey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Juan; Zhang Zi-zhen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a predator-prey system with two discrete delays and stage structure for both the predator and the prey is investigated. The dynamical be-haviors such as local stability and local Hopf bifurcation are analyzed by regarding the possible combinations of the two delays as bifurcating parameter. Some explicit formulae determining the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by using the normal form method and the center manifold theory. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to support the theoretical analysis.

  1. China National Unified System for Certification on Information Security Products Entering the Stage of Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recently, China National Administrative Committee for Certification on Information Security Products was officially established,symbolizing that the established national unified system for certification on information security products has entered the stage of implementation. Director of General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine of P. R.China (AQSIQ) Li Changjiang, Director of Certification and Accreditation Administration of P. R. China(CNCA) Wang Fengqing and Vice Director of the State Council Office for informationization work Qu Weizhi addressed at the establishing meeting.

  2. The microfossils in phosphate deposit in Doushantuo stage, Sinian System, Weng'an, Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the microfossils in phosphate deposit in the Doushantuo stage, Sinian System, Weng'an, Guizhou Province. Based on the detailed observation in morphology and microstructures, it is considered that those acritarchs with interior spicules probably belong to sponge animals. However, some explanations for a part of soft-tissue are still contrioversial. The reliable conclusion still needs more evidence to study. The scientific significance of this study and the key questions for further studies are suggested here.

  3. Actualization the risks local payment systems on the present stage of the national payment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeinikova Olga Mikhailovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented and estimated systematically possibilities of minimization the general and specific risks local payment systems and their participants, which actualized due to the activation of formation of national payment system in Russia amid increasing global political and financial risks and the need for economic security.

  4. Two-stage scheduling algorithm based on priority table for clusters with inaccurate system parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU An-feng; CHEN Zhi-gang; XIONG Ce

    2006-01-01

    A new two-stage soft real-time scheduling algorithm based on priority table was proposed for task dispatch and selection in cluster systems with inaccurate parameters. The inaccurate characteristics of the system were modeled through probability analysis. By taking into account the multiple important system parameters, including task deadline, priority, session integrity and memory access locality, the algorithm is expected to achieve high quality of service. Lots of simulation results collected under different load conditions demonstrate that the algorithm can not only effectively overcome the inaccuracy of the system state, but also optimize the task rejected ratio, value realized ratio, differentiated service guaranteed ratio, and session integrity ensured ratio with the average improvement of 3.5%, 5.8%, 7.6% and 5.5%, respectively. Compared with many existing schemes that cannot deal with the inaccurate parameters of the system, the proposed scheme can achieve the best system performance by carefully adjusting scheduling probability. The algorithm is expected to be promising in systems with soft real-time scheduling requirement such as E-commerce applications.

  5. Evaluation of Pachymetric Measurements with Scheimpflug Photography-Based System and Optical Coherence Tomography Pachymetry at Different Stages of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül İlkay Sezgin Akçay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the central and peripheral pachymetric measurements determined with Sirius system and Visante OCT and evaluate the agreement between them at different stages of keratoconus. Measurements were not significantly different in all patients and subgroups and showed high correlation for the corneal thicknesses of the entire cornea in different stages of keratoconus.

  6. Predicting prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma; comparison of staging system in pakistani cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical, biochemical and radiological prognostic indicators and to compare the performance of six staging systems in patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Study Design:Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gastroenterology, Doctors Hospital, Lahore, from October 2007 to December 2013. Methodology:Patients with HCC were included. Baseline clinical, hematological and radiological variables were noted. Patients were followed for 5 years or till death. Survival predictors were identified using Cox proportional hazard analysis and 6 prognostic staging systems were evaluated by determining homogeneity, discriminatory ability and monotonicity. Results: Of the 228 patients included, male to female ratio was 2.6/1 (165/63) and mean age was 56.5 ± 10.4 years. Majority of patients 189 (82.9%) were anti-HCV positive. Solitary HCC lesion was seen in 121 (53.1%) patients, 16 (7%) had 2 lesions while 73 (32%) had 3 or more lesions. Only 36 (15.8%) patients had palliative therapy for HCC. Survival rate was 45.2%, 25%, 12.3%, 7%, 2.2% and 1% for 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years respectively. Male gender, portal vein thrombosis, serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl, tumor size =6 cm and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) =147 U/ml were bad prognostic indicators. OKUDA, GRETCH and early stages of CLIP had better homogeneity while CLIP showed superior discriminatory ability and monotonicity for predicting survival. Conclusion: Male gender, presence of portal vein thrombosis, low serum albumin, large tumor size and high AFP level are poor prognostic indicators in patients of HCC. CLIP has better performance in predicting mortality. (author)

  7. Development of the excretory system in a polyplacophoran mollusc: stages in metanephridial system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeumler Natalie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two types of excretory systems, protonephridia and metanephridial systems are common among bilaterians. The homology of protonephridia of lophotrochozoan taxa has been widely accepted. In contrast, the homology of metanephridial systems – including coelomic cavities as functional units – among taxa as well as the homology between the two excretory systems is a matter of ongoing discussion. This particularly concerns the molluscan kidneys, which are mostly regarded as being derived convergently to the metanephridia of e.g. annelids because of different ontogenetic origin. A reinvestigation of nephrogenesis in polyplacophorans, which carry many primitive traits within molluscs, could shed light on these questions. Results The metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata develops rapidly in the early juvenile phase. It is formed from a coelomic anlage that soon achieves endothelial organization. The pericardium and heart are formed from the central portion of the anlage. The nephridial components are formed by outgrowth from lateral differentiations of the anlage. Simultaneously with formation of the heart, podocytes appear in the atrial wall of the pericardium. In addition, renopericardial ducts, kidneys and efferent nephroducts, all showing downstream ciliation towards the internal lumen, become differentiated (specimen length: 0.62 mm. Further development consists of elongation of the kidney and reinforcement of filtration and reabsorptive structures. Conclusions During development and in fully formed condition the metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata shares many detailed traits (cellular and overall organization with the protonephridia of the same species. Accordingly, we suggest a serial homology of various cell types and between the two excretory systems and the organs as a whole. The formation of the metanephridial system varies significantly within Mollusca, thus the mode of formation cannot be used

  8. Design of a linear-motion dual-stage actuation system for precision control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actuators with high linear-motion speed, high positioning resolution and a long motion stroke are needed in many precision machining systems. In some current systems, voice coil motors (VCMs) are implemented for servo control. While the voice coil motors may provide the long motion stroke needed in many applications, the main obstacle that hinders the improvement of the machining accuracy and efficiency is their limited bandwidth. To fundamentally solve this issue, we propose to develop a dual-stage actuation system that consists of a voice coil motor that covers the coarse motion, and a piezoelectric stack actuator that induces the fine motion, thus enhancing the positioning accuracy. The focus of this present research is the mechatronics design and synthesis of the new actuation system. In particular, a flexure hinge based mechanism is developed to provide a motion guide and preload to the piezoelectric stack actuator that is serially connected to the voice coil motor. This mechanism is built upon parallel plane flexure hinges. A series of numerical and experimental studies are carried out to facilitate the system design and the model identification. The effectiveness of the proposed system is demonstrated through open-loop studies and preliminary closed-loop control practice. While the primary goal of this particular design is aimed at enhancing optical lens machining, the concept and approach outlined are generic and can be extended to a variety of applications

  9. Design and evaluation of multiple level data staging for Blue Gene systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaila, F.; Blas, J. G.; Carretero, J.; Latham, R.; Ross, R. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. Carlos III de Madrid)

    2011-06-01

    Parallel applications currently suffer from a significant imbalance between computational power and available I/O bandwidth. Additionally, the hierarchical organization of current Petascale systems contributes to an increase of the I/O subsystem latency. In these hierarchies, file access involves pipelining data through several networks with incremental latencies and higher probability of congestion. Future Exascale systems are likely to share this trait. This paper presents a scalable parallel I/O software system designed to transparently hide the latency of file system accesses to applications on these platforms. Our solution takes advantage of the hierarchy of networks involved in file accesses, to maximize the degree of overlap between computation, file I/O-related communication, and file system access. We describe and evaluate a two-level hierarchy for Blue Gene systems consisting of client-side and I/O node-side caching. Our file cache management modules coordinate the data staging between application and storage through the Blue Gene networks. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture achieves significant performance improvements through a high degree of overlap between computation, communication, and file I/O.

  10. Research on coal staged conversion poly-generation system based on fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjiang Ni; Chao Li; Mengxiang Fang; Qinhui Wang; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

    2014-01-01

    A new coal staged conversion poly-generation system combined coal combustion and pyrolysis has been developed for clean and high efficient utilization of coal. Coal is the first pyrolysed in a fluidized pyrolyzer. The pyrolysis gas is then purified and used for chemical product or liquid fuel production. Tar is collected during purification and can be processed to extract high value product and to make liquid fuels by hydro-refining. Semi-coke from the pyrolysis reactor is burned in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor for heat or power generation. The system can realize coal multi-product generation and has a great potential to increase coal utilization value. A 1 MW poly-generation system pilot plant and a 12 MW CFB gas, tar, heat and power poly-generation system was erected. The experimental study focused on the two fluidized bed operation and characterization of gas, tar and char yields and compositions. The results showed that the system could operate stable, and produce about 0.12 m3/kg gas with 22 MJ/m3 heating value and about 10 wt%tar when using Huainan bituminous coal under pyrolysis temperature between 500 and 600 ?C. The produced gases were mainly H2, CH4, CO, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6 and C3H8. The CFB combustor can burn semi-coke steadily. The application prospect of the new system was discussed.

  11. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Rajendran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system and the other without recirculation (open system. For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; starch and cotton. The digestion of starch and cotton in the closed system resulted in production of 91% and 80% of the theoretical methane yield during the first 60 days. In contrast, in the open system the methane yield was decreased to 82% and 56% of the theoretical value, for starch and cotton, respectively. The OLR could successfully be increased to 4 gVS/L/day for cotton and 10 gVS/L/day for starch. It is concluded that the recirculation supports the microorganisms for effective hydrolysis of polyhydrocarbons in CSTR and to preserve the nutrients in the system at higher OLRs, thereby improving the overall performance and stability of the process.

  12. Development of an automated multi-stage modal synthesis system for NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, D. N.; Hoesly, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mode synthesis development to be scheduled in the NASTRAN multi-level substructuring system for general dynamics applications is described. The method combines the better features of several state of the art mode synthesis techniques, yet is general enough to provide for any arbitrary combination of boundary degrees of freedom and normal mode boundary conditions. Normal modes or complex eigenvectors may be used in the definition of a structure component which may be combined with other components of any type. Combination structures fabricated from component modes may be processed as normal substructures, including further multi-stage mode synthesis reductions. Included are discussions of the user control of the system and advantages in actual application.

  13. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  14. Optimization of Adaboost Algorithm for Sonar Target Detection in a Multi-Stage ATR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung Han (Hank)

    2011-01-01

    JPL has developed a multi-stage Automated Target Recognition (ATR) system to locate objects in images. First, input images are preprocessed and sent to a Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regions-of-interest (ROIs). Second, feature extraction operations are performed using Texton filters and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the features are fed to a classifier, to identify ROIs that contain the targets. Previous work used the Feed-forward Back-propagation Neural Network for classification. In this project we investigate a version of Adaboost as a classifier for comparison. The version we used is known as GentleBoost. We used the boosted decision tree as the weak classifier. We have tested our ATR system against real-world sonar images using the Adaboost approach. Results indicate an improvement in performance over a single Neural Network design.

  15. [SIMS REIN: a multi-source information system for end-stage renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, Paul; Simonet, Ana; Guillon, Didier; Jacquelinet, Christian; Ben Saïd, Mohamed; Mugnier, Claude; Simonet, Michel

    2002-04-01

    In France, the prevalence of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is not precisely known. The sources of information are scattered and not coordinated. Consequently, care is ill adapted to meet the demand. The Multi-Source Information System is the basis of the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN). It is dedicated to improve and organise our medical and epidemiological knowledge of ESRD and to aid public health decision-making in this area. The proposed approach is based on the datawarehouses. This model allows a unified vision of scattered data into distinct databases, for a better management, be it particular (patient follow-up) or global (regional follow-up), with a finality of aid in decision-making. Several categories of problems were considered: the global conception of the information system, the organisation of the datawarehouse, which offers different viewpoints of the data, the integration of heterogeneous data coming from different sources, data exchange and definition of a specific ontology.

  16. Performance study on three-stage power system of compressed air vehicle based on single-screw expander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new compressed-air engine system based on three-stage single screw expander was proposed to improve the performance of power system.Three different structure styles were presented,and the studies on the power performance and the distribution of expansion ratios between stages were carried out by programming and mathematical modeling of each style.Research results indicated that the best matches of expansion ratios with equal heat temperature for the air tank of pressure 30 MPa were seven-five-three for"first-stage heating"style,eight-five-three for"two-stage heating"style and five-five-four for"three-stage heating"style,respectively.Results also showed that heating up inlet air or increasing the expander efficiency might improve the power performance.The output power of the"two-stage heating"style is far higher than that of"first-stage heating"style and is a little lower than that of"three-stage heating"style.The new system showed good structure and power performances.

  17. Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Reginald Andrew; Stanley, Thomas Troy

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system and in the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately determine insulation masses for a vehicle such as the one described above, the aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thickness that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to reduce

  18. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  19. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Lloyd Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bartram, Brian Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morris, John Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures.The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.

  20. Briefly introduction of developing trends of stage lighting system%灯光系统发展趋势浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈令梅; 胡定平

    2003-01-01

    It briefly introduces some new techniques which are used in stage lighting system, included dimmer network protocol such as ACN protocol, ARTNET protocol, LGBT technique, LCD monitor, and intelligent lamp and so on.

  1. The ISUP system of staging, grading and classification of renal cell neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamali Samaratunga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant changes in the staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia in recent times. Major changes have occurred in our understanding of extra-renal extension by renal cell cancer and how gross specimens must be handled to optimally display extra-renal spread. Since the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO classification of renal tumors, in which only a handful of different entities were reported, many new morphological types have been described in the literature, resulting in 50 different entities reported in the 2004 WHO classification. Since 2004, further new entities have been recognized and reported necessitating an update of the renal tumor classification. There have also been numerous grading systems for renal cell carcinoma with Fuhrman grading, the most widely used system. In recent times, the prognostic value and the applicability of the Fuhrman grading system in practice has been shown to be, at best, suboptimal. To address these issues and to recommend reporting guidelines, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP undertook a review of adult renal neoplasia through an international consensus conference in Vancouver in 2012. The conduct of the conference was based upon evidence from the literature and the current practice amongst recognized experts in the field. Working groups selected to deal with key topics evaluated current data and identified points of controversy. A pre-meeting survey of the ISUP membership was followed by the consensus conference at which a formal ballot was taken on each key issue. A 65% majority vote was taken as consensus. This review summarizes the outcome and recommendations of this conference with regards to staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia.

  2. Thermal Design and Analysis of a Multi-Stage 30K Radiative Cooling System for EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator further cools a large focal plane to approx.100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented approx. 45 degrees relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at approx. 0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  3. Two-Stage orders sequencing system for mixed-model assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemczak, M.; Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, the authors focus on the NP-hard problem of orders sequencing, formulated similarly to Car Sequencing Problem (CSP). The object of the research is the assembly line in an automotive industry company, on which few different models of products, each in a certain number of versions, are assembled on the shared resources, set in a line. Such production type is usually determined as a mixed-model production, and arose from the necessity of manufacturing customized products on the basis of very specific orders from single clients. The producers are nowadays obliged to provide each client the possibility to determine a huge amount of the features of the product they are willing to buy, as the competition in the automotive market is large. Due to the previously mentioned nature of the problem (NP-hard), in the given time period only satisfactory solutions are sought, as the optimal solution method has not yet been found. Most of the researchers that implemented inaccurate methods (e.g. evolutionary algorithms) to solving sequencing problems dropped the research after testing phase, as they were not able to obtain reproducible results, and met problems while determining the quality of the received solutions. Therefore a new approach to solving the problem, presented in this paper as a sequencing system is being developed. The sequencing system consists of a set of determined rules, implemented into computer environment. The system itself works in two stages. First of them is connected with the determination of a place in the storage buffer to which certain production orders should be sent. In the second stage of functioning, precise sets of sequences are determined and evaluated for certain parts of the storage buffer under certain criteria.

  4. CAT SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR SINGLE STAGE SUPPLY CHAIN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH FIXED CHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manimaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO Algorithm is proposed for single stage supply chain distribution system with a fixed cost. This paper considers two kinds of cost: a continuous cost, that linearly increases with the amount transported between a supplier and a customer and a fixed cost, which is incurred whenever a non-zero quantity is transported between a supplier and a customer and it is independent of the amount transported. The aim of this paper is to determine the quantities to be distributed to satisfy the customer demand with minimum cost. Since fixed costs results discontinuities in the objective function, solution procedures are become more difficult and are known to be non-deterministic polynomial (NP hard. In this paper Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO Algorithm is proposed for the optimization of single stage supply chain problem to provide optimal or near optimal solution. The results of the proposed model of this paper have been compared with a spanning tree-based Genetic Algorithm and binary coded Genetic Algorithm. Computational results show the superiority of CSO algorithm over other algorithms.

  5. Inspection logistics planning for multi-stage production systems with applications to semiconductor fabrication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kyle Dakai

    Since the market for semiconductor products has become more lucrative and competitive, research into improving yields for semiconductor fabrication lines has lately received a tremendous amount of attention. One of the most critical tasks in achieving such yield improvements is to plan the in-line inspection sampling efficiently so that any potential yield problems can be detected early and eliminated quickly. We formulate a multi-stage inspection planning model based on configurations in actual semiconductor fabrication lines, specifically taking into account both the capacity constraint and the congestion effects at the inspection station. We propose a new mixed First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) and Last-Come-First-Serve (LCFS) discipline for serving the inspection samples to expedite the detection of potential yield problems. Employing this mixed FCFS and LCFS discipline, we derive approximate expressions for the queueing delays in yield problem detection time and develop near-optimal algorithms to obtain the inspection logistics planning policies. We also investigate the queueing performance with this mixed type of service discipline under different assumptions and configurations. In addition, we conduct numerical tests and generate managerial insights based on input data from actual semiconductor fabrication lines. To the best of our knowledge, this research is novel in developing, for the first time in the literature, near-optimal results for inspection logistics planning in multi-stage production systems with congestion effects explicitly considered.

  6. The development of an expert system for finding fragility curves of building structural systems in the preliminary design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is a starting point for the development of an expert system for determining seismic fragility curves of structural systems in a nuclear power plant or conventional building at the preliminary design stage. The resulting system assists an engineer with moderate engineering background and limited reliability knowledge to analyze the failure functions of building structures. It simulates the performance of an expert in identifying the potential failure modes and their variabilities for a structure of interest. On reviewing the methodology of seismic fragility evaluation for existing building structures in the nuclear power plant industry, one finds that the investigation process starts with the identification of critical components or substructures, whose failures result in the functional failure of safety related equipment or the failure of structural integrity itself, and follows with complicated numerical analyses to estimate the capacity functions associated with the limit states of these components or substructures

  7. Technical and scale efficiency of cassava production system in Delta State, Nigeria: an application of Two-Stage DEA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the level of pure technical and scale efficiencies of cassava production system including its sub-processes (that is production and processing stages of 278 cassava farmers/processors from three regions of Delta State, Nigeria by applying Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach. Results reveal that pure technical efficiency (PTE is significantly lower at the production stage 0.41 vs 0.55 for the processing stage, but scale efficiency (SE is high at both stages (0.84 and 0.87, implying that productivity can be improved substantially by reallocation of resources and adjusting operation size. The socio-economic determinants exert differential impacts on PTE and SE at each stage. Overall, education, experience and main occupation as farmer significantly improve SE while subsistence pressure reduces it. Extension contact significantly improves SE at the processing stage but reduces PTE and SE overall. Inverse size-PTE and size-SE relationships exist in cassava production system. In other words, large/medium farms are technically and scale inefficient. Gender gap exists in performance. Male farmers are technically efficient at processing stage but scale inefficient overall. Farmers in northern region are technically efficient. Investments in education, extension services and infrastructure are suggested as policy options to improve the cassava sector in Nigeria.

  8. Russian and Brazil media systems at the modern stage of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova Viktoria Alexandrovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main characteristics of modern mass communication and media systems in Russia and Brazil. The so-called first-level media - are of elite character, aimed at the ruling classes. They are strengthening their position in the global space and almost are blurring geographical and cultural boundaries. Media audience of the second level is national, they usually focus on the middle and lower segment of the audience, if to divide it by income, education and culture. Informatization and digitalization of media lead to the formation of hybrid media systems, where there is a growing role of new media, in particular, social networks and Twitter. It is important to emphasize that the nature of the social, spiritual and cultural changes caused by informatization, depends not only on information technology, but also on the social conditions of the socioeconomic system where the implemented processes of mass communication are realized. The paper discusses the factors that determine the possibility of functioning of media systems at the present stage: the willingness of the reader to consume information and pay for it by the example of Russia and Brazil, describes the processes of globalization, information technology and digitalization of society and the media. It is presented media preferences and trust in the media in Russia and Brazil in the XXI century, as well as the main indicators of the advertising market in these countries.

  9. Design and demonstration of Bolt Retractor Separation system for X-38 Deorbit Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.; Johnston, A. S.; Garrison, J. C.; Gaines, J. L.; Waggoner, J. D.

    2003-09-01

    A separation system was designed for the X-38 experimental crew return vehicle program to allow the Deorbit Propulsion Stage (DPS) to separate from the X-38 lifting body during reentry operations. The configuration chosen was a spring-loaded plunger, known as the Bolt Retractor Subsystem (BRS), that retracts each of the six DPS-to-lifting body attachment bolts across the interface plane after being triggered by a separation nut mechanism. The system was designed to function on the ground in an atmospheric environment as well as in space. The BRS provides the same functionality as that of a completely pyrotechnic shear separation system that would normally be considered ideal for this application, but at a much lower cost. This system also could potentially be applied to future space station crew return vehicles. The design goal of 40 ms retraction time was successfully met in a series of demonstrations performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Pyrotechnic Shock Facility (PSF) and Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL). It must be emphasized that a full-scale test series was not performed on the BRS due to program schedule and cost constraints.

  10. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  11. Multi-Stage Admission Control for Load Balancing in Next Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu; Luo, Jijun;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a load-dependent multi-stage admission control suitable for next generation systems. The concept uses decision polling in entities located at different levels of the architecture hierarchy and based on the load to activate a sequence of actions related to the admission...... of a user to the network, i.e., the ranking of the intermediate decisions is dynamic. The decision is controlled by passing a token between the base station (BS) and the gateway (GW), thereby considering the load status of the BS and the backhaul network. A token is assigned to the entity with the highest...... load. Each admission request will issue a flag whose colour will reflect the load level in this entity and will determine the correct sequence of the required admission control actions....

  12. Artificial immune system and sheep flock algorithms for two-stage fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Devika; Govindan, Kannan; Soleimani, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we cope with a two-stage distribution planning problem of supply chain regarding fixed charges. The focus of the paper is on developing efficient solution methodologies of the selected NP-hard problem. Based on computational limitations, common exact and approximation solution...... approaches are unable to solve real-world instances of such NP-hard problems in a reasonable time. These approaches involve cumbersome computational steps in real-size cases. In order to solve the mixed integer linear programming model, we develop an artificial immune system and a sheep flock algorithm...... to achieve better solutions in comparison to earlier approaches. The evaluations are set up based on two phases; first, comparing performances of two proposed algorithms with two previous studies with the same data (two previously proposed genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization methods) and second...

  13. A multi-stage approach for damage detection in structural systems based on flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, E.; Imbimbo, M.

    2016-08-01

    The paper proposes a fusion approach for damage detection in structural applications in the case of multiple damage locations and three-dimensional systems. Based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, a multi-stage approach is proposed with the mode shapes assumed as primary sources and local decisions based on a flexibility method. The proposed approach has been applied to two case studies, a a fixed end beam analyzed in other papers and a three dimensional structures codified in a Benchmark problem. Both the case studies have shown the ability and the efficiency of the proposed approach to detect damage also in the case of multiple damage, limited number of identified parameters and noise measurements.

  14. Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2007-01-01

    In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through...... the dedication of a storage tank. This type of situation has hardly been investigated, although planners struggle with it in practice. This paper aims at investigating the fundamental effect of prioritization and dedicated storage in a two-stage production system, for various product mixes. We show...... the performance improvements for the prioritized product, as well as the negative effects for the other products. We also show how the effect decreases with more storage tanks, and increases with more products....

  15. Affective systems induce formal thought disorder in early-stage psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Breier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been described since early conceptualizations of psychosis, its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests FTD may be influenced by affective and cognitive systems; however, few have examined these relationships-with none focusing on early-stage psychosis (EP). In this study, positive FTD and speech production were measured in sex- and race-matched EP (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 19) groups by assessing "reactivity"-a change in experimental compared with baseline conditions-across baseline, affective, and cognitive conditions. Relationships with functioning were also examined within each group. Three key findings emerged: (a) the EP group displayed large differences in positive FTD and speech production, (b) those with EP exhibited affective reactivity for positive FTD, and (c) positive FTD and affective reactivity were linked with poor real-world functioning in EP and these relationships did not considerably change when controlling for positive symptom (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) severity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that affective, but not cognitive, systems play a critical role in positive FTD. Affective reactivity, in particular, may aid in predicting those with EP who go on to develop serious social impairments. Future work should focus on whether affective systems differentially influence those at separate points on the psychosis-spectrum in an effort to establish evidence-based treatments for FTD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999283

  16. Centrifugal contactor modified for end stage operation in a multistage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubin, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    A cascade formed of a plurality of centrifugal contactors useful for countercurrent solvent extraction processes such as utilizable for the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels is modified to permit operation in the event one or both end stages of the cascade become inoperative. Weir assemblies are connected to each of the two end stages by suitable conduits for separating liquids discharged from an inoperative end stage based upon the weight of the liquid phases uses in the solvent extraction process. The weir assembly at one end stage is constructed to separate and discharge the heaviest liquid phase while the weir assembly at the other end stage is constructed to separate and discharge the lightest liquid phase. These weir assemblies function to keep the liquid discharge from an inoperative end stages on the same weight phase a would occur from an operating end stage.

  17. Experimental study on an innovative multifunction heat pipe type heat recovery two-stage sorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative multifunction heat pipe type sorption refrigeration system is designed, in which a two-stage sorption thermodynamic cycle based on two heat recovery processes was employed to reduce the driving heat source temperature, and the composite sorbent of CaCl2 and activated carbon was used to improve the mass and heat transfer performances. For this test unit, the heating, cooling and heat recovery processes between two reactive beds are performed by multifunction heat pipes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cycled characteristics of two-stage sorption refrigeration system with heat recovery processes. The two sub-cycles of a two-stage cycle have different sorption platforms though the adsorption and desorption temperatures are equivalent. The experimental results showed that the pressure evolutions of two beds are nearly equivalent during the first stage, and desorption pressure during the second stage is large higher than that in the first stage while the desorption temperatures are same during the two operation stages. In comparison with conventional two-stage cycle, the two-stage cycle with heat recovery processes can reduce the heating load for desorber and cooling load for adsorber, the coefficient of performance (COP) has been improved more than 23% when both cycles have the same regeneration temperature of 103 deg. C and the cooling water temperature of 30 deg. C. The advanced two-stage cycle provides an effective method for application of sorption refrigeration technology under the condition of low-grade temperature heat source or utilization of renewable energy

  18. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the feasibility and the toxicity of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We analyzed 77 previously untreated and histologically confirmed advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy at the Seoul National University Hospital between 1984 and 1996. The stage distribution was as follows: AJCC stage 111-2, stage IV-75. Sixty-six patients received infusion of 5-FU (1000 mg/m2, on Day 1-5) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2, on Day 1), eleven patients received infusion of 5.FU (1000 mg/m2, on Day 1-5) and carboplatin (300 mg/m2, on Day 1) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 44 months. The overall chemotherapy response rates were 87%. The toxicities of chemotherapy were mild. Only 3 patients experienced Grade 3 toxicities (1 for cytopenia, 2 for nausea/vomiting). The degree of radiation induced mucositis was not severe, and ten patients developed Grade 2 mucositis. The 5-year overall survival rates were 68% and the 5-year disease free survival rates were 65%. The 5-year freedom from distant metastasis rates were 82% and 5-year locoregional control rates were 75%. This single institution experience suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves overall survival and disease free survival for patients with advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma without increase of toxicity

  19. Staged discharge out of hospital of the Novacor left ventricular assist system (LVAS) recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganó, M; Scuri, S; Cobelli, F; Opasich, C; Pagani, F M; Minzioni, G; Martinelli, L; Tavazi, L; Viganó, M

    1997-04-01

    The mobility afforded by the wearable Novacor LVAS provides the possibility for the recipients to leave the hospital, with undoubted improvements in their quality of life. A staged program for discharging LVAS recipients from the hospital has been set up at the Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia together with the Rehabilitation Center of Montescano and Baxter Novacor Service support, in order to proceed smoothly towards patient's self sufficiency and to minimize any associated risk. The steps are: stay in the hospital ward, discharge to Rehabilitation Center and discharge to home. Several excursions with and without an LVAS team member are encouraged before final discharge to home. Simple criteria of eligibility must be fulfilled to move to the next step. Every move towards a reduced presence of specialized personnel includes an appropriate training of the patient and relatives and a technical checkout of the needed equipment. During the stay at the Rehabilitation Center primarily the physical training and psychological preparation are taken care of by means of tailored programs. When the patient is discharged to home, the check of patient condition is performed weekly at the Rehab Center, bloodwork and technical evaluation is assessed once every two weeks and technical inspections at home twice per year. Complications are reported as in hospital protocol. Control parameters of the LVAS are reported only in case of alarms or abnormal operation. Periodic review of patient training is performed during the check visits, mostly focused on how to address emergency situations. The hospital is responsible for providing one LVAS operator available on call (all hours). Up to date, 11 patients received an implant of LVAS, 9 of them with the wearable system. All of these 9 patients made excursions out of the hospital and 4 patients have successfully undergone the staged program, showing a satisfactory general condition and restoration to social life. PMID:9271181

  20. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-07-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  1. Circadian rhythm of rest activity and autonomic nervous system activity at different stages in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Fumitoshi; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nakagawa, Masanori; Imanishi, Jiro

    2011-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often suffer from non-motor symptoms, including sleep and autonomic dysfunctions, controlled by circadian regulation. To evaluate the alteration of circadian rhythm in PD patients, we investigated both rest activities and autonomic functions. Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic PD and 30 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Group comparisons of controls (mean age: 68.93 years), early-PD patients classified as Hoehn-Yahr (HY) stage 1&2 (mean age: 70.78 years), and advanced-PD as HY 3&4 (mean age: 68.61 years) were conducted. Measurement of rest activities was performed using Actigraph for 7 continuous days, and included measuring rhythm patterns (activity patterns recorded in or out of bed) and circadian rhythm amplitudes (power of the cycle being closest to 24h). A power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) using 24-hour ambulatory ECG was also performed. The actigraphic measurements indicated that statistically PD patients have lower activity levels when out of bed and higher activity levels when in bed, and that, the circadian rest-activity rhythm in PD decreases with disease severity. The HRV analysis showed that the total frequency component and low frequency/high frequency ratio were low in PD patients, suggesting that autonomic activities and the circadian rhythm of the sympathetic nervous system are attenuated in PD. This study elucidated the disorganization in the rest activities and HRV of PD patients as well as the gradual alterations in the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm disturbances are important to consider the mechanism of non-motor symptoms that occur from early stage of PD.

  2. Stages in the development of a dedicated positron emission tomography system for imaging small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stages in the development of a small diameter positron emission tomograph for the study of small animals are described. Initial experiments were performed with a pair of commercial, 4 mm multicrystal detectors at an inter-detector separation of 100 mm. The system's performance in this geometry was evaluated using physical and biological studies. These indicated the feasibility of using such detectors at this separation to delineate regional tracer kinetic information from small experimental animals. A small diameter, septa-less tomograph incorporating the detectors was simulated and biological data acquired which indicated the benefits of tomography compared with planar studies for imaging small animals. A tomograph incorporating 16 of the latest generation of block detector (3 mm crystals) in a ring diameter of 115 mm was constructed. The detectors were mounted on a 1 m2 vertical gantry and the system incorporated commercial hardware and software for data acquisition. The physical performance of the tomograph indicated that the spatial resolutions expected from the crystal size could be achieved at the centre of the field of view for all axes. However, the small diameter of the system resulted in larger degradation of the spatial resolution off-axis due to non-uniformity of detector sampling and photon penetration into neighbouring crystals. In spite of the physical problems posed by the small diameter of the system, useful in vivo studies on small animals are being routinely performed which assist in the development of novel radioligands and the interpretation of clinical positron emission tomography data and, in addition, provide a unique methodology to study the serial aspects of animal models of human disease. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Performance Comparison of Single-Stage and Cascade Refrigeration Systems Using R134a as the Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    HOŞÖZ, Murat

    2005-01-01

    This study presents an experimental comparison of single-stage and cascade vapour-compression refrigeration systems using R134a as the refrigerant. The experimental plants employ a vapour-compression refrigeration cycle serving as a base unit, a cooling tower and another vapour-compression refrigeration cycle serving as a higher-temperature unit in the cascade operation. In the single-stage operation the condenser of the base unit was connected to the cooling tower, whereas in the ca...

  4. Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen; Mashek, Debra J; Strong, Greg; Li, Haifang; Brown, Lucy L

    2005-07-01

    Early-stage romantic love can induce euphoria, is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates. It has an important influence on social behaviors that have reproductive and genetic consequences. To determine which reward and motivation systems may be involved, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and studied 10 women and 7 men who were intensely "in love" from 1 to 17 mo. Participants alternately viewed a photograph of their beloved and a photograph of a familiar individual, interspersed with a distraction-attention task. Group activation specific to the beloved under the two control conditions occurred in dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation, namely the right ventral tegmental area and the right postero-dorsal body and medial caudate nucleus. Activation in the left ventral tegmental area was correlated with facial attractiveness scores. Activation in the right anteromedial caudate was correlated with questionnaire scores that quantified intensity of romantic passion. In the left insula-putamen-globus pallidus, activation correlated with trait affect intensity. The results suggest that romantic love uses subcortical reward and motivation systems to focus on a specific individual, that limbic cortical regions process individual emotion factors, and that there is localization heterogeneity for reward functions in the human brain. PMID:15928068

  5. THE STAGES OF FORMATION THE BUSINESS ASSOCIATION SYSTEM OF SMALL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE SERVICES SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zhilinkova I.N.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Integrated structures whose goal is to increase competitiveness and effectiveness of their members while preserving their independence are constantly becoming more popular. However the history of their development in Russia has not been analyzed yet. We introduce three stages of development of these structures in Russia: First stage (mid-1990-beginning 2000), when creation of these business unions was organized mostly by state. Second stage (beginning 2000-2007), when common busin...

  6. Analysis of an Impulsive One-Predator and Two-Prey System with Stage-Structure and Generalized Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An impulsive one-predator and two-prey system with stage-structure and generalized functional response is proposed and analyzed. By reasonable assumption and theoretical analysis, we obtain conditions for the existence and global attractivity of the predator-extinction periodic solution. Sufficient conditions for the permanence of this system are established via impulsive differential comparison theorem. Furthermore, abundant results of numerical simulations are given by choosing two different and concrete functional responses, which indicate that impulsive effects, stage-structure, and functional responses are vital to the dynamical properties of this system. Finally, the biological meanings of the main results and some control strategies are given.

  7. Design and modelling of an innovative three-stage thermal storage system for direct steam generation CSP plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Pierre; Vuillerme, Valéry; Olcese, Marco; El Mourchid, Nadim

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Energy Storage systems (TES) for a Direct Steam Generation (DSG) solar plant feature preferably three stages in series including a latent heat storage module so that steam can be recovered with a limited temperature loss. The storage system designed within the Alsolen Sup project is characterized by an innovative combination of sensible and latent modules. A dynamic model of this three-stage storage has been developed and applied to size the storage system of the Alsolen Sup® plant demonstrator at CEA Cadarache. Results of this simulation show that this promising concept is an efficient way to store heat in DSG solar plants.

  8. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    - order, oversampling ratio (OSR) and number of bits in the quantizer - including their impact on interpolation filter design as well. The system is kept in digital domain up to the input of the Class D power stage including the digital pulse width modulation (DPWM) block. Notes on the impact of the DPWM......This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...

  9. 2005 PRETEXT: a revised staging system for primary malignant liver tumours of childhood developed by the SIOPEL group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Daniel; Clapuyt, Philippe; Czauderna, Piotr; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Gauthier, Frédéric; MacKinlay, Gordon; Maibach, Rudolf; McHugh, Kieran; Olsen, Øystein E.; Otte, Jean-Bernard; Pariente, Danièle; Plaschkes, Jack; Childs, Margaret; Perilongo, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, various oncology groups throughout the world have used the PRETEXT system for staging malignant primary liver tumours of childhood. This paper, written by members of the radiology and surgery committees of the International Childhood Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL), presents various clarifications and revisions to the original PRETEXT system. PMID:17186233

  10. Off-design Characteristics of IGCC System Based on Two-stage Coal-slurry Gasification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU gaoxin; WU Shaohua; LI Zhenzhong; WANG Yang

    2012-01-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle system (IGCC) is often operated at off-design condition which has attracted much attention. But little research has been done on the IGCC system based on the two-stage coalslurry gasification technology which can increase the cold gas efficiency and decrease the oxygen consumption.

  11. Least Squares Based and Two-Stage Least Squares Based Iterative Estimation Algorithms for H-FIR-MA Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenwei Shi; Zhicheng Ji

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the identification of Hammerstein finite impulse response moving average (H-FIR-MA for short) systems. A new two-stage least squares iterative algorithm is developed to identify the parameters of the H-FIR-MA systems. The simulation cases indicate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  12. UVC-induced lysis and detritus production of Oscillatoria limnetica in a two-stage continuous-flow system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hannen, E.J.; Gons, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study in model systems the role of heterotrophic micro-organisms in the aquatic microbial food web, a natural food source consisting of senescent primary producer cells is indispensable. A two-stage continuous-flow system with the ability to produce detritus continuously is presented. In

  13. The role of Magnetic resonance sialography in evaluating radiation-induced xerostomia for patients with early stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance sialography (MRS) as a noninvasive tool in evaluating major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Methods: From August 2009 to June 2010, patients with stage I and IIa (AJCC/UICC 2002) nasopharyngeal carcinoma were enrolled. All the patients were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy alone. MRS with salivary stimulation was performed in patients before and after RT on a 3.0T MR scanner. An MRS categorical scoring system was used to compare the visibility of ducts pre-RT and post-RT. The relationship between MRS score and EORTC Core QOL and EORTC Head and Neck QOL was analyzed. Spearman rank correlation test was performed to analyze the non-stimulated and stimulated MRS findings and the clinical severity of xerostomia. Results: All 10 enrolled patients completed planned treatment.The mean dose of the parotid glands and submandibular glands were (37.99 ± 3.70) Gy and (55.65 ± 2.99) Gy, respectively. Good-quality MRS images were obtained. The visibility scores of both the parotid and submandibular ducts were increased after secretion stimulation. Irradiation decreased the visualization of the salivary ducts and attenuated the response to secretion stimulation. There were specific correlations between post-RT secretion response of the parotid gland and EORTC QLQ scales (global QOL scale in QLQ-C30 (rs =0.636, P =0.048) and xerostomia scale in QLQ H and N35 (rs =- 0.694, P =0.026)). Conclusions: MRS can be used as a non-invasive way to evaluated of the functional changes of major salivary glands before and after RT and as a promising approach for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia. (authors)

  14. 78 FR 40835 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... published in the Federal Register a final rule (75 FR 49030 through 49214) titled, ``End-Stage Renal Disease... rule (77 FR 67450 through 67531) titled, ``Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective... more years (76 FR 70289). The 3-year MLR is designed to represent a minimum threshold for...

  15. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. PMID:27521934

  16. A New Soil Infiltration Technology for Decentralized Sewage Treatment: Two-Stage Anaerobic Tank and Soil Trench System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Chun; HU Zhan-Bo; KONG Hai-Nan; WANG Xin-Ze; HE Sheng-Bing

    2008-01-01

    The low removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) is one of the main disadvantages of traditional single stage subsurface infiltration system,which combines an anaerobic tank and a soil filter field.In this study,a full-scale,two-stage anaerobic tank and soil trench system was designed and operated to evaluate the feasibility and performances in treating sewage from a school campus for over a one-year monitoring period.The raw sewage was prepared and fed into the first anaerobic tank and second tank by 60% and 40%,respectively.This novel process could decrease chemical oxygen demand with the dichromate method by 89%-96%,suspended solids by 91%-97%,and total phosphorus by 91%-97%.The denitrification was satisfactory in the second stage soil trench,so the removals of TN as well as ammonia nitrogen (NH+4-N) reached 68%-75% and 96%-99%,respectively.It appeared that the removal efficiency of TN in this two-stage anaerobic tank and soil trench system was more effective than that in the single stage soil infiltration system.The effluent met the discharge standard for the sewage treatment plant (GB18918-2002) of China.

  17. Optimization of the method of stages through genetic algorithms for unavailable protection systems analysis considering aging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a safety system is under aging the failure times follow non-exponential distributions, and its interstate transition rates become time-dependent. It follows, therefore, that the stochastic process employed in the modeling becomes Nonmarkovian. In this thesis, this analysis is developed using an alternative method, called the device of stages which allows the transformation of Nonmarkovian models into equivalent Markovian ones. That transformation consists in reshaping the state transition diagram with time-dependent transition rates into a new one where fictitious states (called stages) are added and whose transition rates are constant. The number of added stages and their connections are identification parameters of the device of stages used for the equivalent Markovian model and requires a robust and efficient optimization tool. In order to perform a global search in such a topologically complex space, a genetic algorithm has been developed to automatically determine the stages combination and set of parameters which better represent the analyzed distribution. The developed genetic algorithm has demonstrated a good ability for optimizing the method of stages. Results concerning the application to a nuclear reactor protection system are shown and commented, in which the Weibull distribution is employed for modelling failure times. (author)

  18. Extinction and permanence in delayed stage-structure predator-prey system with impulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin, Guangxi 537000 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Wang Fengyan [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Chen Lansun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Based on the classical stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, an impulsive delayed differential equation to model the process of periodically releasing natural enemies at fixed times for pest control is proposed and investigated. We show that the conditions for global attractivity of the 'pest-extinction' ('prey-eradication') periodic solution and permanence of the population of the model depend on time delay. We also show that constant maturation time delay and impulsive releasing for the predator can bring great effects on the dynamics of system by numerical analysis. As a result, the pest maturation time delay is considered to establish a procedure to maintain the pests at an acceptably low level in the long term. In this paper, the main feature is that we introduce time delay and pulse into the predator-prey (natural enemy-pest) model with age structure, exhibit a new modelling method which is applied to investigate impulsive delay differential equations, and give some reasonable suggestions for pest management.

  19. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yun Chen,1,* Qian Li,1,2,* Qingsheng Wu1 1Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai; 2Shanghai Institute of Quality Inspection and Technical Research, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4 at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded. Keywords: stearic acid, emulsion solvent evaporation method, drug delivery, cis-DIDP, in vitro

  20. A stage-structured, spatially explicit migration model for Myotis bats: mortality location affects system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Russell, Robin E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Jennifer A. Szymanski; Jennifer A. Szymanski

    2014-01-01

    Bats are ecologically and economically important species because they consume insects, transport nutrients, and pollinate flowers.  Many species of bats, including those in the Myotis genus, are facing population decline and increased extinction risk.  Despite these conservation concerns, few models exist for providing insight into the population dynamics of bats in a spatially explicit context.  We developed a model for bats by considering the stage-structured colonial life history of Myotis bats with their annual migration behavior.  This model provided insight into network dynamics.  We specifically focused on two Myotis species living in the eastern United States: the Indiana bat (M. sodalis), which is a Federally listed endangered species, and the little brown bat (M. lucifugus), which is under consideration for listing as an endangered species.  We found that multiple equilibria exist for the local, migratory subpopulations even though the total population was constant.  These equilibria suggest the location and magnitude of stressors such as White-nose Syndrome, meteorological phenomena, or impacts of wind turbines on survival influence system dynamics and risk of population extirpation in difficult to predict ways.

  1. Health-related quality of life evaluated by tumor node metastasis staging system in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Xia Qiao; Xiao-Feng Zhai; Chang-Quan Ling; Qing-Bo Lang; Hui-Juan Dong; Qun Liu; Mou-Duo Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate and evaluate the change in healthrelated quality of life (HRQoL) by tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:A total of 140 patients diagnosed with HCC between June 2008 and April 2009 in our department were enrolled to this study.One hundred and thirty-five (96.5%) patients had liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection,73 (54.07%) of them being HBV DNA positive; the other etiologies of liver cirrhosis were alcoholic liver disease (1.4%),hepatitis C (1.4%)or cryptogenic (0.7%).All subjects were fully aware of their diagnosis and provided informed consent.HRQoL was assessed before treatment using the functional assessment of cancer therapy-hepatobiliary (FACTHep) questionnaire.Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate demographics and disease-specific characteristics of the patients.One-way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests were used to compare the overall FACT-Hep scores and clinically distinct TNM stages.Scores for all FACT-Hep items were analyzed by frequency analyses.The mean scores obtained from the FACT-Hep in different Child-Pugh classes were also evaluated.RESULTS:The mean FACT-Hep scores were reduced significantly from TNM Stage Ⅰ to Stage Ⅱ,Stage ⅢA,Stage ⅢB group (687 ± 39.69 vs 547 ± 42.57 vs 387 ± 51.24 vs 177 ± 71.44,P =0.001).Regarding the physical and emotional well-being subscales,scores decreased gradually from Stage Ⅰ to Stage ⅢB (P =0.002 vs Stage Ⅰ ; P =0.032 vs Stage Ⅱ; P =0.033 vs Stage ⅢA).Mean FACT-Hep scores varied by Child-Pugh class,especially in the subscales of physical well-being,functional well-being and the hepatobiliary cancer (P =0.001 vs Stage Ⅰ; P =0.036 vs Stage Ⅱ ; P =0.032 vs Stage ⅢA).For the social and family well-being subscale,only Stage ⅢB scores were significantly lower as compared with Stage Ⅰ scores (P =0.035).For the subscales of functional well-being and

  2. The Prognostic Value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for Early Recurrence in Operable Breast Cancer: Comparison with TNM Stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O, Joo Hyun; Choi, Woo Hee; Han, Eun Ji; Choi, Eunkyoung; Chae, Byung Joo; Park, Yonggyu; Kim, Sung Hoon [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We evaluated whether the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of primary tumor from the initial staging by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) of patients with breast cancer could identify patients at risk for early recurrence within 2 years, particularly in comparison to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage. We reviewed the staging {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images of patients with primary breast cancer and their medical records. The SUV{sub max} of the primary tumor was measured. The presence or absence of FDG uptake in the axillary lymph node (ALN) was also assessed. The patient's pathologic primary tumor stage (pT), pathologic regional lymph node stage (pN), stage grouping, age, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy history were evaluated with the FDG uptake parameters for recurrence within 2 years following the end of first-line therapy. Recurrence within 2 years was present in 9.1%(n =40) out of the 441 patients assessed. The FDG uptake in ALN, pT, pN, stage grouping and neoadjuvant chemotherapy history were prognostic for early recurrence, while primary tumor SUV{sub max}, age, and ER or PR status were not significant on logistic regression. On multivariate analysis, only the stage grouping (odds ratio 2.79; 95 % CI 1.73, 4.48; p <0.0001) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy history (odds ratio 2.70; 95 % CI 1.22, 5.98; p =0.0141) could identify patients at increased risk for recurrence within 2 years. Primary tumor FDG uptake measured by SUV{sub max}, and visual assessment of FDG uptake in the ALN in the initial staging PET/CT of patients with breast cancer may not have additional prognostic value compared with the AJCC stage grouping for early recurrence.

  3. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  4. Different lymph node staging systems in patients with gastric cancer from Korean: What is the best prognostic assessment tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Won; Ali, Bandar; Park, Cho Hyun; Song, Kyo Young

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) system is a more accurate prognostic tool than the number-based (pN) or ratio-based (rN) lymph node staging system in Korean patients with gastric cancer (GC).The LODDS is a recently proposed staging modality in surgical oncology. However, it is unclear whether LODDS is superior to the pN or rN system in terms of predicting the prognosis of GC patients who underwent radical gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy and had a greater number of retrieved lymph nodes.Clinicopathological data from 3929 patients who had undergone curative gastrectomy for GC were reviewed. In addition, overall survival rates according to pN and rN classification stratified by the LODDS were analyzed. A multivariate analysis of survival rate was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model.pN, rN, and LODDS were significantly correlated with 5-year survival rate. Spearman correlation test showed no correlation between LODDS and number of lymph nodes retrieved. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that the 3 staging systems had comparable prognostic accuracy (P system demonstrated that LODDS is superior to pN and rN.The LODDS is independently and significantly associated with the OS of Korean patients with GC, and its prognostic value is superior to that of the other lymph node staging systems in Korean patients. PMID:27336871

  5. Management accounting and control systems used by R&D intensive firms in different organizational life-cycle stages

    OpenAIRE

    Silvola, H. (Hanna)

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation investigates the use of management accounting and control systems in R&D intensive firms in different organizational life-cycle stages. The thesis consists of four essays focusing on two categories of management accounting and control systems: capital budgeting decisions and management control systems. First, we investigate the evaluation and financing of investment projects in R&D intensive firms. Second, we moreover investigate how R&D intensive fir...

  6. A Stage-Structured Predator-Prey System with Impulsive Effect and Holling Type-II Functional Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Shu WANG; Rui XU; Guang Hui FENG

    2011-01-01

    A stage-structured predator-prey system with impulsive effect and Holling type-II functional response is investigated.By the Floquet theory and small amplitude perturbation skills,it is proved that there exists a global stable pest-eradication periodic solution when the impulsive period is less than some critical values.Further,the conditions for the permanence of system are established.Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the impulsive effect on the dynamics of the system.

  7. Correlation of immunoglobulin G expression and histological subtype and stage in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokai Yang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recently, growing evidence indicates that immunoglobulins (Igs are not only produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells, but also by various normal cells types at immune privileged sites and neoplasm, including breast cancer. However, the association of breast cancer derived IgG with genesis and development of the disease has not yet been established. METHODS: In this study we examined the expression of IgG in 186 breast cancers, 20 benign breast lesions and 30 normal breast tissues. Both immunohistochemistry with antibodies to Igκ (immunoglobulin G κ light chain and Igγ (immunoglobulin G heavy chain and in situ hybridization with an antisense probe to IgG1 heavy chain constant region gene were performed. Various clinicopathological features were also analyzed. RESULTS: We found that IgG is specifically expressed in human breast cancer cells. Both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma had significantly greater numbers of Igκ and Igγ positive cancer cells as compared with medullary carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, and benign lesions (all p<0.05. In addition, IgG expression was correlated with breast cancer histological subtypes (p<0.01 and AJCC stages (p<0.05, with more abundance of IgG expression in more malignant histological subtypes or in more advanced stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: IgG expression in breast cancer cells is correlated with malignancy and AJCC stages of the cancers. This suggests that breast cancer derived IgG may be associated with genesis, development and prognosis of the cancer.

  8. The Early Stages of Formation of a Solar System Dust Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Ashley J.; Dermott, S. F.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    A solar system dust band is formed as the dust released in the catastrophic disruption of an asteroid in the main belt decays under the effects of radiation forces and is sculpted by gravitational perturbations. There are currently known to be at least three full dust band pairs (Low et al., 1984) and these have been associated with several-million-year-old asteroidal disruptions (Dermott et al., 2002; Nesvorny et al., 2003; 2008). A method of coadding the IRAS data set to increase the signal-to-noise ratio revealed the existence of an additional, very faint, partially-formed dust band at 17 degrees inclination (Espy et al., 2009), likely a confirmation of the M/N pair suggested by Sykes (1988). Partial dust bands represent a very early stage of the dynamical evolution of the dust released in the catastrophic disruption of a parent asteroid. We build a model of the formation of this partial band, in order to determine the main dynamical mechanisms controlling dust band formation. Comparison of this model to the coadded IRAS observations also allows us to put strong constraints on the node, semi-major axis, inclination and age of the source body, as well as the cross-sectional area and size-distribution of dust in the band. Because of the young age of partial dust bands, typically much less than a million years old, collisions have not yet begun to play an important role and the size-distribution is closer to that created in the original disruption. Additionally, less of the dust produced in the disruption has been lost to removal by P-R drag than in the older, fully-formed dust bands. These factors imply that partial dust bands provide important information about the dust originally produced in the catastrophic disruption of an asteroid.

  9. Stage dependent aberrant regulation of cytokine-STAT signaling in murine systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Hale

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a complex autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that involves multiple interacting cell types driven by numerous cytokines and autoimmune epitopes. Although the initiating events leading to SLE pathology are not understood, there is a growing realization that dysregulated cytokine action on immune cells plays an important role in promoting the inflammatory autoimmune state. We applied phospho-specific flow cytometry to characterize the extent to which regulation of cytokine signal transduction through the STAT family of transcription factors is disturbed during the progression of SLE. Using a panel of 10 cytokines thought to have causal roles in the disease, we measured signaling responses at the single-cell level in five immune cell types from the MRLlpr murine model. This generated a highly multiplexed view of how cytokine stimuli are processed by intracellular signaling networks in adaptive and innate immune cells during different stages of SLE pathogenesis. We report that robust changes in cytokine signal transduction occur during the progression of SLE in multiple immune cell subtypes including increased T cell responsiveness to IL-10 and ablation of Stat1 responses to IFNalpha, IFNgamma, IL-6, and IL-21, Stat3 responses to IL-6, Stat5 responses to IL-15, and Stat6 responses to IL-4. We found increased intracellular expression of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 protein correlated with negative regulation of Stat1 responses to inflammatory cytokines. The results provide evidence of negative feedback regulation opposing inflammatory cytokines that have self-sustaining activities and suggest a cytokine-driven oscillator circuit may drive the periodic disease activity observed in many SLE patients.

  10. Single stage biological nitrogen removal by nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in biofilm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, C; Tromm, C; Hippen, A; Rosenwinkel, K H; Seyfried, C F; Kunst, S

    2001-01-01

    In full scale wastewater treatment plants with at times considerable deficits in the nitrogen balances, it could hitherto not be sufficiently explained which reactions are the cause of the nitrogen losses and which micro-organisms participate in the process. The single stage conversion of ammonium into gaseous end-products--which is henceforth referred to as deammonification--occurs particularly frequently in biofilm systems. In the meantime, one has succeeded to establish the deammonification processes in a continuous flow moving-bed pilot plant. In batch tests with the biofilm covered carriers, it was possible for the first time to examine the nitrogen conversion at the intact biofilm. Depending on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, two autotrophic nitrogen converting reactions in the biofilm could be proven: one nitritation process under aerobic conditions and one anaerobic ammonium oxidation. With the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, ammonium as electron donor was converted with nitrite as electron acceptor. The end-product of this reaction was N2. Ammonium and nitrite did react in a stoichiometrical ratio of 1:1.37, a ratio which has in the very same dimension been described for the ANAMMOX-process (1:1.31 +/- 0.06). Via the oxygen concentration in the surrounding medium, it was possible to control the ratio of nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the nitrogen conversion of the biofilm. Both processes were evenly balanced at a DO concentration of 0.7 mg/l, so that it was possible to achieve a direct, almost complete elimination of ammonium without addition of nitrite. One part of the provided ammonium did participate in the nitritation, the other in the anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Through the aerobic ammonium oxidation into nitrite within the outer oxygen supplied layers of the biofilm, the reaction partner was produced for the anaerobic ammonium oxidation within the inner layers of the biofilm. PMID:11379106

  11. Chance-constrained two-stage fractional optimization for planning regional energy systems in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A chance-constrained two-stage fractional regional energy model is developed. • CTFO-REM generates useful results for planning British Columbia’s energy systems. • Results allow in-depth analyses of objectives, scenarios, and expansions. • A conventional model is also considered to demonstrate CTFO-REM’s advantages. • Results of two models show significant differences between CTFO-REM and TCMIP. - Abstract: In this study, a chance-constrained two-stage fractional optimization (CTFO) method is proposed for planning regional energy systems in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Through simultaneously integrating two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), chance-constrained programming (CCP), and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) techniques into a linear fractional programming (LFP) framework, CTFO can effectively tackle multiobjective and capacity-expansion issues, as well as uncertainties described as probability distributions in the constraints and objectives. Based on the developed CTFO method, a chance-constrained two-stage fractional regional energy model (CTFO-REM) is developed in this study for supporting energy management in the province of British Columbia. Conflicts between environmental protection that maximizes the renewable energy resource utilization and economic development that minimizes the system cost can be effectively addressed through the CTFO-REM model without setting a factor for each objective. The results also indicate that the CTFO-REM model can facilitate dynamic analysis of the interactions among efficiency, policy scenarios, economic cost, and system reliability

  12. Performance characteristics of a two-stage dark fermentative system producing hydrogen and methane continuously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyazze, G; Dinsdale, R; Guwy, A J; Hawkes, F R; Premier, G C; Hawkes, D L

    2007-07-01

    The performance of a mesophilic two-stage system generating hydrogen and methane continuously from sucrose (10-30 g/L) was investigated. A hydrogen-generating CSTR followed by an upflow anaerobic filter were both inoculated with anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and ORP, pH, gas output, %H(2), %CH(4) and %CO(2) monitored. pH was controlled with NaOH, KOH or Ca(OH)(2). Using NaOH as alkali with 10 g/L sucrose, yields of 1.62 +/- 0.2 mol H(2)/mol hexose added and 323 mL CH(4)/gCOD added to the hydrogen and methane reactors respectively were achieved. The overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was 92.6% with 0.90 +/- 0.1 g/L sodium and 316 +/- 40 mg/L residual acetate in the methane reactor. Operation at 20 g/L sucrose and NaOH as alkali led to impaired volatile fatty acid (VFA) degradation in the methane reactor with 2.23 +/- 0.2 g/L sodium, 1,885 mg/L residual acetate, a hydrogen yield of 1.47 +/- 0.1 mol/mol hexose added, a methane yield of 294 mL/gCOD added and an overall COD reduction of 83%. Using Ca(OH)(2) as alkali with 20 g/L sucrose gave a hydrogen yield of 1.29 +/- 0.3 mol/mol hexose added, a methane yield of 337 mL/gCOD added and improved the overall COD reduction to 91% with residual acetate concentrations of 522 +/- 87 mg/L. Operation at 30 g/L sucrose with Ca(OH)(2) gave poorer overall COD reduction (68%), a hydrogen yield of 1.47 +/- 0.2 mol/mol hexose added, a methane yield of 138 mL/gCOD added and residual acetate 7,343 +/- 715 mg/L. It was shown that sodium toxicity and overloading are important issues for successful anaerobic digestion of effluent from biohydrogen reactors in high rate systems. PMID:17163512

  13. Comorbidity, age, race and stage at diagnosis in colorectal cancer: a retrospective, parallel analysis of two health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Krista L

    2008-11-01

    earlier stage of CRC diagnosis. Multiple factors, perhaps including increased interactions with the healthcare system due to comorbidity, might contribute to this finding. Such increased interactions are seen among patients within a healthcare system like the VA system in the US versus sporadic interactions which may be seen with FFS healthcare.

  14. Optimization of Unbalanced Multi-stage Logistics Systems Based on Prüfer Number and Effective Capacity Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unbalanced multi-stage logistics systems are optimized using an improved genetic algorithm based on the Prüfer number and the effective capacity coding. The improved decoding procedure uses the node capacity of the logistics system as an important factor, which influences the decoding procedure. As a result, any Prüfer number produced stochastically can be decoded to a feasible logistics pattern, which matchs the node capacities of the logistics system. With effective capacity coding, an unbalanced logistics system can be converted to a set of balanced systems. The effective capacity coding was combined with the Prüfer number to construct the chromosome for the new method to search the whole solution space of the unbalanced multi-stage logistics system. Simulation results show that the new method finds a better solution with less computational time than st-GA. Although using a little more memory, the new method is still an efficient and robust method for optimizing unbalanced multi-stage logistics systems.

  15. Biogas upgrading by injection of hydrogen in a two-stage Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura;

    An innovative method for biogas upgrading (i.e. CH4 content more than 90%) combines the coupling of H2, which could be produced by water electrolysis using surplus renewable electricity produced from wind mills, with the CO2 of the biogas. CO2 is biologically converted to CH4 by hydrogenotrophic...... methanogens. In this study, a novel serial biogas reactor system is presented, in which the produced biogas from the first stage reactor was introduced in the second stage, where also H2 was injected. The effects of the H2 addition on the process performance and on the microbial community were investigated...

  16. Radiation monitoring during the last stage of the dismantling of the system in the CIEMAT-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various operations which include the removal of irradiated fuel storage ten wells have been during this final stage. The SPR has established since the start of these operations a radiological surveillance program of workers that includes the use of official external dosimetry and direct-reading, and the control of internal contamination (direct and indirect measurements), in addition to daily monitoring of environmental pollution and external contamination. After decontamination and dismantling operations, there are plans to tackle the final characterisation of the installation and the declassification of the material generated as declassificable. As stage one of these processes has been developed an isotope-type from the analytical results of samples operational s taken from the Home of this last stage of dismantling. (Author)

  17. Optimization of two-stage production/inventory systems under order base stock policy with advance demand information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Koichi; Yokozawa, Shiori

    2016-08-01

    It is important to share demand information among the members in supply chains. In recent years, production and inventory systems with advance demand information (ADI) have been discussed, where advance demand information means the information of demand which the decision maker obtains before the corresponding actual demand arrives. Appropriate production and inventory control using demand information leads to the decrease of inventory and backlog costs. For a single stage system, the optimal base stock and release lead time have been discussed in the literature. In practical production systems the manufacturing system has multiple processes. The multiple stage production and inventory system with ADI, however, has been analyzed by simulation or assuming exponential processing time. That is, their theoretical analysis and optimization of release lead time and base stock level have little been obtained because of its difficulty. In this paper, theoretical analysis of a two-stage production inventory system with advance demand information is developed, where the processing time is assumed deterministic and identical; demand arrival process is Poisson, and an order base stock policy is adopted. Using the analytical results, optimal release lead time and optimal base stock levels for minimizing the average cost on the holding and backlog costs are explicitly derived.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF OPEN LOOP MULTI-STAGE IMPEDANCE PUMPING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI; K. C. WOO; YOUSIF A. ABAKR; VINCENT C. C. LEE

    2011-01-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism, where an elastic tube is joined to a more rigid one; a periodic asymmetrical pinching on the elastic tube will produce a unidirectional flow. This pumping concept offers a low energy, low noise alternative at both micro and macro scales. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the performance of a two-stage, open loop impedance pump. The results show that, when compared to a single stage open loop impedance pump, the two-st...

  19. Calibration of the Hall Measurement System for a 6-DOF Precision Stage Using Self-Adaptive Hybrid TLBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers.

  20. Mouse embryo motion and embryonic development from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage using mechanical vibration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yuka; Matsuura, Koji

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of mechanical stimuli on mouse embryonic development from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage to evaluate physical factors affecting embryonic development. Shear stress (SS) applied to embryos using two mechanical vibration systems (MVSs) was calculated by observing microscopic images of moving embryos during mechanical vibration (MV). The MVSs did not induce any motion of the medium and the diffusion rate using MVSs was the same as that under static conditions. Three days of culture using MVS did not improve embryonic development. MVS transmitted MV power more efficiently to embryos than other systems and resulted in a significant decrease in development to the morula or blastocyst stage after 2 days. Comparison of the results of embryo culture using dynamic culture systems demonstrated that macroscopic diffusion of secreted materials contributes to improved development of mouse embryos to the blastocyst stage. These results also suggest that the threshold of SS and MV to induce negative effects for mouse embryos at stages earlier than the blastocyst may be lower than that for the blastocyst, and that mouse embryos are more sensitive to physical and chemical stimuli than human or pig embryos because of their thinner zona pellucida. PMID:23697534

  1. Calibration of the Hall Measurement System for a 6-DOF Precision Stage Using Self-Adaptive Hybrid TLBO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyu; Liu, Yang; Fu, Zhenxian; Song, Shenmin; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization) is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers. PMID:27314349

  2. Calibration of the Hall Measurement System for a 6-DOF Precision Stage Using Self-Adaptive Hybrid TLBO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyu; Liu, Yang; Fu, Zhenxian; Song, Shenmin; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-06-14

    To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization) is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers.

  3. Design of a control system for a macro-micro dual-drive high acceleration high precision positioning stage for IC packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A macro-micro dual-drive positioning system showing good potential for high acceleration and high precision positioning required in IC packaging applications is devised in this paper. The dual-drive positioning stage uses a VCM (voice coil motor) driven macro positioning stage and a PZT piezo-electric driven micro positioning stage. The coupling characteristics of the system are analyzed to produce a control structure with a micro positioning stage that can dynamically compensate for the positioning error produced by the macro positioning stage. Models of the two positioning stages are described. The models cover both the mechanism and the actuator. For the macro positioning stage, friction characteristics are taken into account, and a controller with an LQG (linear-quadratic-Gaussian) control algorithm combining a feed-forward compensation algorithm is derived. A PID controller is used to control the micro positioning stage. Detailed designs are derived for the proposed approach, and the performance is validated by simulation.

  4. 76 FR 70227 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System and Quality Incentive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Budget-Neutrality Adjustment'') published on April 6, 2011 (76 FR 18930). Additionally, effective January 12, 2012 the interim rule amending 42 CFR Part 414, published on January 16, 2009 (74 FR 2873), is... Federal Register, a final rule (75 FR 49030 through 49214), entitled, ``End-Stage Renal...

  5. Asymptotic behavior of a delay predator-prey system with stage structure and variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Hernandez-Pinzon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish a global attractor for a Lotka-Volterra type reaction-diffusion predator-prey model with stage structure for the predator, delay due to maturity and variable coefficients. This attractor is found by the method of upper and lower solutions and is given in terms of bounds for the coefficients.

  6. 77 FR 40951 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Administration FI/MAC Fiscal Intermediary/Medicare Administrative Contractor FY Fiscal Year GDP Gross Domestic... decline in utilization associated with the implementation of the expanded bundle, the 1 percent target for... rule (75 FR 49030 through 49214) titled, ``End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment...

  7. 77 FR 67449 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Administrative Contractor FQHC Federally Qualified Health Center FY Fiscal Year GDP Gross Domestic Product HAI... MAP amount drops from $78.00 to $59.42. Because of the decline in utilization associated with the..., 2010, we published in the Federal Register a final (75 FR 49030) titled, ``End-Stage Renal...

  8. Treatment of natural rubber processing wastewater using a combination system of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, D; Syutsubo, K; Hatamoto, M; Fukuda, M; Takahashi, M; Choeisai, P K; Yamaguchi, T

    2016-01-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of natural rubber processing wastewater treatment was conducted using a combination system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for more than 10 months. The system achieved a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 95.7% ± 1.3% at an organic loading rate of 0.8 kgCOD/(m(3).d). Bacterial activity measurement of retained sludge from the UASB showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), especially hydrogen-utilizing SRB, possessed high activity compared with methane-producing bacteria (MPB). Conversely, the acetate-utilizing activity of MPB was superior to SRB in the second stage of the reactor. The two-stage UASB-DHS system can reduce power consumption by 95% and excess sludge by 98%. In addition, it is possible to prevent emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as methane, using this system. Furthermore, recovered methane from the two-stage UASB can completely cover the electricity needs for the operation of the two-stage UASB-DHS system, accounting for approximately 15% of the electricity used in the natural rubber manufacturing process. PMID:27120630

  9. STATE SPACE MODELING OF DIMENSIONAL MACHINING ERRORS OF SERIAL-PARALLEL HYBRID MULTI-STAGE MACHINING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Lifeng; DU Shichang

    2007-01-01

    The final product quality is determined by cumulation, coupling and propagation of product quality variations from all stations in multi-stage manufacturing systems (MMSs). Modeling and control of variation propagation is essential to improve product quality. However, the current stream of variations (SOV) theory can only solve the problem that a single SOV affects the product quality. Due to the existence of multiple variation streams, limited research has been done on the quality control in serial-parallel hybrid multi-stage manufacturing systems (SPH-MMSs). A state space model and its modeling strategies are developed to describe the multiple variation streams stack-up in an SPH-MMS. The SOV theory is extended to SPH-MMS. The dimensions of system model are reduced to the production-reality level, and the effect and feasibility of the model is validated by a machining case.

  10. Modular Adaptive System Based on a Multi-Stage Neural Structure for Recognition of 2D Objects of Discontinuous Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Topalova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a new system for invariant recognition of 2D objects with overlapping classes, that can not be effectively recognized with the traditional methods. The translation, scale and partial rotation invariant contour object description is transformed in a DCT spectrum space. The obtained frequency spectrums are decomposed into frequency bands in order to feed different BPG neural nets (NNs. The NNs are structured in three stages - filtering and full rotation invariance; partial recognition; general classification. The designed multi-stage BPG Neural Structure shows very good accuracy and flexibility when tested with 2D objects used in the discontinuous production. The reached speed and the opportunuty for an easy restructuring and reprogramming of the system makes it suitable for application in different applied systems for real time work.

  11. Exergy and energy analysis of three stage auto refrigerating cascade system using Zeotropic mixture for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zeotropic mixture of R290/R23/R14 works with 22.6% increased exergic efficiency. • Zeotropic mixture of mass fraction 0.218:0.346:0.436 offers COP of 0.253. • Since emphasis on COP, evaporating temperature 0.253 COP became the only alternate. • This is the only alternate refrigerant mixture for three stage ARC system at −97 °C. - Abstract: The Zeotropic mixture of environment friendly refrigerants (HC’s and HFC’s) being the only alternatives for working fluid in low temperature refrigeration system and hence three stage auto refrigerating cascade (ARC) system was studied for the existence using two combinations of (R290/R23/R14, R1270/R170/R14) three component Zeotropic mixture of five different refrigerants. The exergy analysis confirmed the existence of three stage ARC system. The performances of the system like Coefficient of Performance (COP), exergy lost, exergic efficiency, efficiency defect and the evaporating temperature achieved were investigated for different mass fractions in order to verify the effect of mass fraction on them. In accordance with the environmental issues and the process of sustainable development, the three component Zeotropic mixture of R290/R23/R14 with the mass fraction of 0.218:0.346:0.436 was performing better and hence can be suggested as an alternative refrigerant for three stage ARC system operating at very low evaporating temperature in the range of 176 K (−97 °C) at COP of 0.253 with 58.5% exergic efficiency (comparatively 22.6% increased value)

  12. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume. PMID:20390881

  13. Complementary system for monitoring and control of neutron flux during a fuel outage and during reactor start up stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is an example for that, how with modern technical instruments is possible to compensate disadvantage and to increase technical resources of the old systems, without a change of given system totally with new one. The system detail design and implementation was possible mostly, due to the international conferences and courses organised by IAEA and technical information provided by the agency. The designed system plays a role of complementary system to the in-situ operational systems for monitoring and control of the reactor core neutron flux, allowing its measurement and control during a fuel outage and during reactor start up stage. Additionally, the system recalculates the reactivity in beta units and according to its value the reactor criticality fixed up reactivity is defined. (author)

  14. A mathematical model for predicting the performance of the solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system, with one-rotor six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The desiccant wheels used honeycombed silica gel six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system was studied. • The mathematical model has been validated with the experimental data. • The optimal rotation speed increases with increasing the inlet temperature of the regeneration air. - Abstract: A mathematical model for predicting the performance of solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system (SEAHACS) is presented. The honeycombed silica gel desiccant wheel is used in this study. One-rotor six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system, (two-stage dehumidification process, two-stage pre-cooling process and two-stage regeneration process) are realized by only one wheel. Three air streams are involved in the present system. The mathematical model has been validated with the experimental data. The range of regeneration air inlet temperature changed from 65 to 140 °C, area ratio of process air to regeneration air change from 1 to 3.57, regeneration air inlet velocity from 1.5 to 5.5 m/s have been examined for a range of rotation speed from 6 to 20 rev/h. The optimization of these parameters is conducted based on the moisture removal capacity D, relative moisture removal capacity, dehumidification coefficient of performance and thermal coefficient of performance. At last, the influences of these main parameters on optimal rotation speed are discussed

  15. Determination of the archaeal and bacterial communities in two-phase and single-stage anaerobic systems by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspolim, Yogananda; Zhou, Yan; Guo, Chenghong; Xiao, Keke; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-10-01

    2-Phase anaerobic digestion (AD), where the acidogenic phase was operated at 2day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the methanogenic phase at 10days HRT, had been evaluated to determine if it could provide higher organic reduction and methane production than the conventional single-stage AD (also operated at 12days HRT). 454 pyrosequencing was performed to determine and compare the microbial communities. The acidogenic reactor of the 2-phase system yielded a unique bacterial community of the lowest richness and diversity, while bacterial profiles of the methanogenic reactor closely followed the single-stage reactor. All reactors were predominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, mainly Methanolinea. Unusually, the acidogenic reactor contributed up to 24% of total methane production in the 2-phase system. This could be explained by the presence of Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter, and their activities could also help regulate reactor alkalinity during high loading conditions through carbon dioxide production. The enrichment of hydrolytic and acidogenic Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Bacteroidetes in the acidogenic reactor would have contributed to the improved sludge volatile solids degradation, and ultimately the overall 2-phase system's performance. Syntrophic acetogenic microorganisms were absent in the acidogenic reactor but present in the downstream methanogenic reactor, indicating the retention of various metabolic pathways also found in a single-stage system. The determination of key microorganisms further expands our understanding of the complex biological functions in AD process. PMID:26456614

  16. Combined intra-arterial infusion and systemic chemoradiotherapy for stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to show the effectiveness of combining intra-arterial infusion and systemic chemotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy for treatment of stage IV mandibular gingival cancer. A total of 23 patients with mandibular gingival cancer were treated with either docetaxel by intra-arterial infusion followed by systemic chemoradiotherapy with cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil as a monthly regimen, or with docetaxel and cisplatinum by intra-arterial infusion followed by systemic chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil as a weekly or biweekly regimen. Tumor responses, locoregional control, overall survival, disease-specific survival, and adverse events were evaluated. Of the 23 patients enrolled in the study, 22 completed the treatment. With regard to clinical stages, 82% were diagnosed as IVA and 18% IVB. Complete and partial response was observed in 82 and 18%, respectively. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and locoregional control were 51, 70, and 72%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was seen between the monthly regimen and the weekly plus biweekly regimen, although the latter resulted in longer survival and 88% control. Combined intra-arterial infusion and systemic chemoradiotherapy may be an effective treatment for patients with stage IV mandibular gingival cancer. (author)

  17. Two-stage open-loop velocity compensating method applied to multi-mass elastic transmission system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Deli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel vibration-suppression open-loop control method for multi-mass system is proposed, which uses two-stage velocity compensating algorithm and fuzzy I + P controller. This compensating method is based on model-based control theory in order to provide a damping effect on the system mechanical part. The mathematical model of multi-mass system is built and reduced to estimate the velocities of masses. The velocity difference between adjacent masses is calculated dynamically. A 3-mass system is regarded as the composition of two 2-mass systems in order to realize the two-stage compensating algorithm. Instead of using a typical PI controller in the velocity compensating loop, a fuzzy I + P controller is designed and its input variables are decided according to their impact on the system, which is different from the conventional fuzzy PID controller designing rules. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed velocity compensating method is effective in suppressing vibration on a 3-mass system and it has a better performance when the designed fuzzy I + P controller is utilized in the control system.

  18. Evaluation of high step-up power electronics stages in thermoelectric generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min;

    2013-01-01

    to the required high level. Furthermore, maximum power point tracking control for TEG modules needs to be implemented into the power electronics stages. In this paper, the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of a thermoelectric generator are analyzed in depth. Three typical high step-up power...... efficiency and input current ripples. The interleaved boost converter with an auxiliary transformer is found to be the most suitable topology for TEG applications, which is verified by experiments....

  19. History of the Phoenix VTOL SSTO and recent developments in single-stage launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    The history of the VTOL SSTO (single stage to orbit) concept and the Phoenix designs is reviewed. The role the Phoenix concept played in stimulating consideration of the SSTO approach by the U.S. Government in ongoing SSTO concept studies is also discussed. It is pointed out that these studies are currently expected to lead to prototype hardware development aimed at demonstrating the SSTO approach by 1995-1997 in the form of the McDonnell-Douglas DC-Y.

  20. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes.

  1. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic mechanisms at the first stage of integration in the electroreception system of the shark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotem, Naama; Sestieri, Emanuel; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær;

    2014-01-01

    High impulse rate in afferent nerves is a common feature in many sensory systems that serve to accommodate a wide dynamic range. However, the first stage of integration should be endowed with specific properties that enable efficient handling of the incoming information. In elasmobranches......, the afferent nerve originating from the ampullae of Lorenzini targets specific neurons located at the Dorsal Octavolateral Nucleus (DON), the first stage of integration in the electroreception system. Using intracellular recordings in an isolated brainstem preparation from the shark we analyze the properties...... of this afferent pathway. We found that stimulating the afferent nerve activates a mixture of excitatory and inhibitory synapses mediated by AMPA-like and GABAA receptors, respectively. The excitatory synapses that are extremely efficient in activating the postsynaptic neurons display unusual voltage dependence...

  2. Human papillomavirus genotyping and p16 expression as prognostic factors for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech;

    2014-01-01

    -specific survival (DSS) in patients diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HPV genotyping polymerase chain reaction (high-risk subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) and immunohistochemical expression of p16 were analyzed....... In univariable survival analysis, HPV positivity was significantly correlated with improved OS (74% v 52%; P=.036) and DSS (84% v 52%; P=.002), and p16 positivity was significantly correlated with improved OS (76% v 30%; PDSS (85% v 30%; P..., p16 status, sex, T stage, N stage, and treatment, p16 positivity remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.61; P=.016) and DSS (HR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.53; P=.011). CONCLUSION: p16 positivity is an independent prognostic factor for OS and DSS...

  3. The Dynamics of an Impulsive Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biological resource management of natural resources, a stage-structured predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response, birth pulse, and impulsive harvesting at different moments is proposed in this paper. By applying comparison theorem and some analysis techniques, the global attractivity of predator-extinction periodic solution and the permanence of this system are studied. At last, examples and numerical simulations are given to verify the validity of the main results.

  4. United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Allan J.; Foley, Robert N; Gilbertson, David T.; Chen, Shu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) began in 1989 through US Congressional authorization under National Institutes of Health competitive contracting. Its history includes five contract periods, two of 5 years, two of 7.5 years, and the fifth, awarded in February 2014, of 5 years. Over these 25 years, USRDS reporting transitioned from basic incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), modalities, and overall survival, as well as focused special studies on dialysis, in th...

  5. A comparison of uterine papillary serous, clear cell carcinomas, and grade 3 endometrioid corpus cancers using 2009 FIGO staging system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ha-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to compare survival outcomes of patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) or clear cell carcinoma (CC) to those of patients with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) according to 1988 and 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging systems. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients with endometrial cancer treated at a single institution between 1995 and 2009. Among the 647 patients with endometrial cancer, 5...

  6. Silicon concentrator cells in a two-stage photovoltaic system with a concentration factor of 300x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, A.

    2005-06-15

    In this work a rear contacted silicon concentrator cell was developed for an application in a two stage concentrator photovoltaic system. This system was developed at Fraunhofer ISE some years ago. The innovation of this one-axis tracked system is that it enables a high geometrical concentration of 300x in combination with a high optical efficiency (around 78%) and a large acceptance angle of {+-}23.5 all year through. For this, the system uses a parabolic mirror (40.4x) and a three dimensional second stage consisting of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs, 7.7x). For the concentrator concept and particularly for an easy cell integration, the rear line contacted concentrator (RLCC) cells with a maximum efficiency of 25% were developed and a hybrid mounting concept for the RLCC cells is presented. The optical performance of different CPC materials was tested and analysed in this work. Finally, small modules consisting of six series interconnected RLCC cells and six CPCs were integrated into the concentrator system and tested outdoor. A system efficiency of 16.2% was reached at around 800 W/m2 direct irradiance under realistic outdoor conditions. (orig.)

  7. The Evolution of the Local and System Therapy of Breast Cancer Stage I: 27-Years’s Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyadina I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the dynamics of approaches in surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and systemic therapy for breast cancer stage I over the past 27 years. Materials and Methods. In the study included 1341 women (aged 21–88 years with invasive breast cancer stage I, who had received treatment in N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center and Clinic of RMAPE (Moscow from 1985 to 2012. The first stage of treatment for all the patients included radical surgery (43.5% patients — radical mastectomy; and 56.5% — breast-conserving surgery. More than half of the patients (58.9% received adjuvant radiotherapy; adjuvant systemic therapy was used in 821 patients (61.0%, endocrine therapy alone — in the third of patients (432 women, 32.1%, chemotherapy alone — in 124 women (9.2%, and 526 patients (19.7% received a combined systemic therapy (chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. We analyzed the change of approach to the surgical treatment, adjuvant radiotherapy and systemic therapy from 1985 to 2012. A statistical analysis was made by international statistical program SPSS 20.0. Results. Over the past 27 years local treatment structure of stage I breast cancer has changed: radiotherapy has become an indispensible part of breast conserving therapy, and was added by “boost” (radiotherapy with a dose of 14–16 Gy on tumor bed by a half of women (50.3%. The part of patients who received radiotherapy after radical mastectomy has decreased (from 14.6 to 4.5%, p < 0.05. Adjuvant systemic therapy has been used by the majority of women (86.7%: a part of patients receiving endocrine therapy has significantly increased (from 20.7 to 44.3%, chemotherapy (from 2.6 to 13.6%, or chemo-hormone therapy (from 8.4 to 28.8%, p < 0.05. Chemotherapy regimens have been changed: non-anthracycline combinations are used instead of anthracycline regimens, and after 2005 — taxanes. HER2-status detection has been used in clinical practice since 2000, and

  8. Development of hydrogen pellet acceleration system using a two-stage light gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen pellets without sabots were accelerated to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun for Heliotron-E. The primary application of this technology is plasma fueling of fusion devices. Conventional pellet injectors have limited pellet speeds in the range of 1-2km/s. Higher velocities are desirable for more flexible density profile control and for deep penetration into a high temperature plasma. By developing a new fast valve with high conductance to accelerate the piston and other components, a 2 mm-diam hydrogen pellet with a velocity of 3.2km/s has been successfully accelerated without a sabot. The pipe gun technique for freezing hydrogen isotopes in the gun barrel was used. The fundamanetal operation is simulated with the code MYKE developed by KSL. Development of new pistons instead of the plastic piston for the repetitive two-stage pellet injector is being carried out, using metal and ceramic, as the surface of the plastic piston tends to wear out through repetitive operation and also, carbon powder produced from the plastic piston may cause trouble with the fusion device. The equipment, operation of the device, experimental results will be presented in this paper

  9. Oil Migration on Single and Two Stage Heat Pump Systems (Calibration Tests and Process Design Phase 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Michele; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The subject of this project is to develop a high performance air water heat pump which is able to be introducted in the retrofit market. The system requirements of this market are heating temperatures of 65°C, at ambient temperatures descending until -12°C. To provide higher base performance ratings, the choice of the thermodynamic system is a two stage heat pump with economizer exchanger. This type of heat pump has improved performances over a large range of application. For heat output adju...

  10. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  11. Comparison of bacterial communities of conventional and A-stage activated sludge systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Lotti, T.; Garcia-Ruiz, M.J.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of 10 different wastewater treatment systems and their influents has been investigated through pyrosequencing, yielding a total of 283486 reads. These bioreactors had different technological configurations: conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and very highly

  12. Influence of maintenance policies on multi-stage manufacturing systems in dynamic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Renna, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Manufacturing systems are subject to a degradation process that leads to machine failures if no actions are taken. Machine failures decrease the performance of the manufacturing system with loss of profits. The research proposed concerns the evaluation of the manufacturing system performance in dynamic conditions when different maintenance policies are implemented in a multi-machines manufacturing system controlled by Multi Agent Architecture. There are two extreme mainten...

  13. Optimal analysis of gas cooler and intercooler for two-stage CO2 trans-critical refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simplified model for tube-fin gas cooler for CO2 refrigeration system was presented and validated. • Several parameters were investigated using 1st law and 2nd law in component and system level. • Practical guidelines of optimum for tube-fin gas cooler and intercooler were proposed. - Abstract: Energy-based 1st law and exergy-based 2nd law are both employed in the paper to assess the optimal design of gas cooler and intercooler for two-stage CO2 refrigeration system. A simplified mathematical model of the air-cooled coil is presented and validated against experimental data with good accuracy. The optimum circuit length under the influence of frontal air velocity and deep rows is investigated first. Thereafter, designed coil with optimum circuit length is further evaluated within the two-stage refrigeration system. It is found out the optimum point using 1st law does not coincide with the point using 2nd law in isolated component and the simulation results from isolated component by 2nd law are closer to system analysis. Results show optimum circuit length is much bigger for gas cooler than intercooler and the influence on the length from variation of frontal air velocity and deep rows may be neglected. There does exist optimum frontal air velocity which will decrease with more number of deep rows

  14. A pilot study of dentists' assessment of caries detection and staging systems applied to early caries: PEARL Network findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Van P; Schenkel, Andrew B; Penugonda, Bapanaiah; Wolff, Mark S; Zeller, Gregory G; Wu, Hongyu; Vena, Don; Grill, Ashley C; Curro, Frederick A

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and the Caries Classification System (CCS) are caries stage description systems proposed for adoption into clinical practice. This pilot study investigated clinicians' training in and use of these systems for detection of early caries and recommendations for individual tooth treatment. Patient participants (N = 8) with a range of noncavitated lesions (CCS ranks 2 and 4 and ICDAS II ranks 2-4) identified by a team of calibrated examiners were recruited from the New York University College of Dentistry clinic. Eighteen dentists-8 from the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network and 10 recruited from the Academy of General Dentistry-were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 5 dentists used only visual-tactile (VT) examination, 7 were trained in the ICDAS II, and 6 were trained in the CCS. Lesion stage for each tooth was determined by the ICDAS II and CCS groups, and recommended treatment was decided by all groups. Teeth were assessed both with and without radiographs. Caries was detected in 92.7% (95% CI, 88%-96%) of the teeth by dentists with CCS training, 88.8% (95% CI, 84%-92%) of the teeth by those with ICDAS II training, and 62.3% (95% CI, 55%-69%) of teeth by the VT group. Web-based training was acceptable to all dentists in the CCS group (6 of 6) but fewer of the dentists in the ICDAS II group (5 of 7). The modified CCS translated clinically to more accurate caries detection, particularly compared to detection by untrained dentists (VT group). Moreover, the CCS was more accepted than was the ICDAS II, but dentists in both groups were open to the application of these systems. Agreement on caries staging requires additional training prior to a larger validation study. PMID:27148652

  15. Evaluation of two-stage system for neutron measurement aiming at increase in count rate at Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Fusion Neutronics Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K., E-mail: shinohara.koji@jaea.go.jp; Ochiai, K.; Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kitajima, S. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sasao, M. [Organization for Research Initiatives and Development, Doshisha University, Kyoto 602-8580 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    In order to increase the count rate capability of a neutron detection system as a whole, we propose a multi-stage neutron detection system. Experiments to test the effectiveness of this concept were carried out on Fusion Neutronics Source. Comparing four configurations of alignment, it was found that the influence of an anterior stage on a posterior stage was negligible for the pulse height distribution. The two-stage system using 25 mm thickness scintillator was about 1.65 times the count rate capability of a single detector system for d-D neutrons and was about 1.8 times the count rate capability for d-T neutrons. The results suggested that the concept of a multi-stage detection system will work in practice.

  16. A Two-Stage State Recognition Method for Asynchronous SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zimu; DENG Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    A two-stage state recognition method is proposed for asynchronous SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential) based brain-computer interface (SBCI) system.The two-stage method is composed of the idle state (IS) detection and control state (CS) discrimination modules.Based on blind source separation and continuous wavelet transform techniques,the proposed method integrates functions of multi-electrode spatial filtering and feature extraction.In IS detection module,a method using the ensemble IS feature is proposed.In CS discrimination module,the ensemble CS feature is designed as feature vector for control intent classification.Further,performance comparisons are investigated among our IS detection module and other existing ones.Also the experimental results validate the satisfactory performance of our CS discrimination module.

  17. Periodic solutions of a nonautonomous predator-prey system with stage structure and time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2006-11-01

    A nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model with stage structure and time delays is investigated. It is assumed in the model that the individuals in each species may belong to one of two classes: the immatures and the matures, the age to maturity is presented by a time delay, and that the immature predators do not feed on prey and do not have the ability to reproduce. By some comparison arguments we first discuss the permanence of the model. By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of positive periodic solutions to the model. By means of a suitable Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions are obtained for the uniqueness and global stability of the positive periodic solutions to the model.

  18. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the `stone sack` to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods.

  19. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Golam Hossein; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Zarrabi, Mansur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5-10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination. PMID:24499570

  20. The Next Stage of Devolution? A (D)evolving Criminal Justice System for Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Jackie Jones

    2008-01-01

    The coalition government in Wales has committed itself to seriously consider devolving the criminal justice system for Wales. It is seen as the next possible step in the devolution process. To some extent many of the structures for a devolved criminal justice system are already being put in place to support devolved policy making and provision of criminal justice services in Wales. However, the One Wales agreement proposes to place the most emphasis on a devolved criminal justice system on yo...

  1. Prognostic Impact of the 6th and 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Staging Systems on Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The new 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system is based on pathologic data from esophageal cancers treated by surgery alone. There is no information available on evaluation of the new staging system with regard to prognosis of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the new staging system on esophageal cancer patients treated with CRT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 301 consecutive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with CRT. Comparisons were made of the prognostic impacts of the 6th and 7th staging systems and the prognostic impacts of stage and prognostic groups, which were newly defined in the 7th edition. Results: There were significant differences between Stages I and III (p < 0.01) according to both editions. However, the 7th edition poorly distinguishes the prognoses of Stages III and IV (p = 0.36 by multivariate analysis) in comparison to the 6th edition (p = 0.08 by multivariate analysis), although these differences were not significant. For all patients, T, M, and gender were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For the Stage I and II prognostic groups, survival curves showed a stepwise decrease with increase in stage, except for Stage IIA. However, there were no significant differences seen between each prognostic stage. Conclusions: Our study indicates there are several problems with the 7th TNM staging system regarding prognostic factors in patients undergoing CRT.

  2. Prognostic Impact of the 6th and 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Staging Systems on Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Motoo, E-mail: excell@hkg.odn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Shitara, Kohei [Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Hatooka, Shunzo [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Mizota, Ayako; Kondoh, Chihiro; Yokota, Tomoya; Takahari, Daisuke; Ura, Takashi; Muro, Kei [Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The new 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system is based on pathologic data from esophageal cancers treated by surgery alone. There is no information available on evaluation of the new staging system with regard to prognosis of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the new staging system on esophageal cancer patients treated with CRT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 301 consecutive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with CRT. Comparisons were made of the prognostic impacts of the 6th and 7th staging systems and the prognostic impacts of stage and prognostic groups, which were newly defined in the 7th edition. Results: There were significant differences between Stages I and III (p < 0.01) according to both editions. However, the 7th edition poorly distinguishes the prognoses of Stages III and IV (p = 0.36 by multivariate analysis) in comparison to the 6th edition (p = 0.08 by multivariate analysis), although these differences were not significant. For all patients, T, M, and gender were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For the Stage I and II prognostic groups, survival curves showed a stepwise decrease with increase in stage, except for Stage IIA. However, there were no significant differences seen between each prognostic stage. Conclusions: Our study indicates there are several problems with the 7th TNM staging system regarding prognostic factors in patients undergoing CRT.

  3. Two-stage generalized age maintenance of a queue-like production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, van G.C.; Harten, van Aart

    1998-01-01

    In general, the initiation of preventive maintenance should be based on the technical state as well as the operating state of a production system. Since the operating state of a production system is often subject to fluctuations in time, the planning of preventive maintenance at preset points in tim

  4. Two-stage Maintenance of a Production System with Exponentially Distributed On- and Off-periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, van Gerhard; Harten, van Aart

    1998-01-01

    We consider an on–off production system which is subject to failure during on-periods. In case of a failure, the production system is maintained correctively. In addition, preventive maintenance is carried out to prevent failures. The costs of both preventive and corrective maintenance are modelled

  5. Developing Adaptive Systems at Early Stages of Children's Foreign Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Ana Belen Cumbreno; Garcia, Mercedes Rico; Fuentes, Alejandro Curado; Gomez, Eva Ma Dominguez

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of hypermedia adaptive systems for foreign language learners at an early age. Our research project is concerned with exploring the relationship between language learning and information technology according to six different phases: a preliminary study of the plausible adaptive system; the development of lessons…

  6. Design of a heat pipe governed thermal control system for the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage /SEPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttner, L. E.; Wright, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A 2200-w capacity spacecraft heat rejection system designed for the SEPS and utilizing heat pipe radiator panels has been investigated. The total thermal control system consists of two radiator panels connected to the heat source by variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP's). The system was designed to operate in the 223 to 333 temperature range. The radiators have an emittance of 0.88 at their operational temperature and a fin efficiency of approximately 80 percent. The radiators are thermally isolated from the SEPS and environment by multilayer insulation and thermal shields. Butane was selected as the working fluid for the VCHP because of its low freezing point (135), which is necessary to prevent diffusion freezeout of the liquid during the cold outbond missions. Helium was selected for the control gas. This paper describes the VCHP system, discusses the system design parameters and presents the results of the analyses.

  7. In-place testing of multiple stage filter systems without disruption of plant operations in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility has a number of multiple-stage air-cleaning systems. These systems operate on a continuous basis and economic considerations require that shutting down of the ventilation systems due to in-place testing be kept to a minimum. Earlier methods of testing multiple-stage filter systems required scheduled shut down of the filter system. Methods such as injecting the test aerosol between the stages have proven costly because of the need to install temporary injection ducts and completely close off the ventilation from the process area. Also, additional personnel were needed to install and move injection and bypass ducts from one system to another. After considering these costly methods, current methods of testing were improved to prevent interruption of plant operations. The modified procedure uses a laser particle size spectrometer that has the capability of counting single particles downstream of two filter stages where decontamination factors of the first stage and overall system effectiveness is established. This procedure is similar to that of Nuclear Standard NEF 3-4IT, ''In-Place Testing of HEPA filter systems by the Single-Particle, Particle-Size Spectrometer Method.'' Decontamination factors of 109 are measured downstream of two stages. Particle size analyses of the challenge and the aerosol penetrating the first and second stages have been established. A cost estimation comparing two test methods show considerable savings in operational costs

  8. Single-stage implantation in the atrophic alveolar ridge of the mandible with the Norian skeletal repair system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzle, Frank; Bauer, Florian; Kesting, Marco R; Mücke, Thomas; Deppe, Herbert; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Swaid, Sami

    2011-10-01

    Dental implants have played a part in rehabilitation of the jaws for more than 40 years, but in some cases they alone are inadequate because of extreme alveolar resorption. Correction may necessitate a two-stage procedure with additional interventions. We have made a preliminary study of the use of the Norian skeletal repair system (SRS), a carbonated calcium phosphate bone cement used to augment the alveolar ridge as a single-stage procedure, with the placement of implants. Ten edentulous patients with insufficient vertical bone in the interforaminal area were treated. After a horizontal osteotomy and crestal mobilisation of the alveolar ridge, implants were placed through the crestal part and fixed in the basal part of the mandible. Norian SRS was used to fill the gap created. The prostheses were inserted 3 months later. Forty implants were inserted. The follow up period was 60 months, and no fractures or dislocations developed. One of the implants was lost and there was one wound dehiscence, but no surgical intervention or revision was necessary. Radiographs showed good consolidation of the bony structure in all cases. We have described a reliable, single-stage procedure for augmentation and implantation in a highly atrophic alveolar crest. A 98% survival is comparable with those of other techniques. Further clinical trials are necessary to replicate these promising results.

  9. Judicial Reform of the 1864 as a Stage of Russian Judicial System Democratic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov F. Miloserdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author considers the place of judicial reform of 1864 in the public and social reforms of Alexander II. This paper attempts to show the place of justice in the legal system of Russian Empire in the post-reform period. Author emphasizes democratic and progressive nature of judicial reform of 1864, noting lack of preconditions for the formation of democratic judicial system under the autocracy. Author analyzes relationship and development of the judicial system and the dynamics of social relations. Author also revealed the way of judicial system in the formation of civil society prerequisites. This paper attempts to show and prove that judicial reform is actually a first step towards the formation of the Russian system of powers separation. Author concludes that undertaken by the Government of Russian Empire in the mid-nineteenth century attempt of the Russian Empire judicial system democratization had neither political nor social assumptions. In conclusion, author concludes that in the present conditions of judicial system democratization in modern Russian Federation a number of principles and institutions of judicial reform of 1864 was applied.

  10. Chromium-induced modulation in the antioxidant defense system during phenological growth stages of Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Chromium-induced modulation in the enzymes and metabolites of antioxidants was investigated at various phenological stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. cv Pusa Jai Kisan)], grown with various levels of chromium (Cr) in pots under natural environmental conditions. Chromium accumulation in the root, stem and leaves increased with the advancement in the age of the plants. Growth of Indian mustard was not affected significantly by the supply of Cr up to the levels of 400 mg kg(-1) soil. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxide (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in the leaves of Cr-treated plants, when compared with control. High activities of antioxidant enzymes supported by high Cr concentrations in roots and aerial parts (except seeds) established the Indian mustard as a potential hyperaccumulator anda hypertolerant species to Cr stress. For this study, an edible crop was chosen intentionally so as to tap maximum benefit by remediating the contaminated site on one hand and getting uncontaminated seeds to raise the next generation, on the other. PMID:20734612

  11. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients

  12. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joan Young; Hwang, Ji Hye; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients.

  13. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  14. New York State energy-analytic information system: first-stage implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.; Carroll, O.; Fiore, L.

    1979-09-01

    So that energy policy by state government may be formulated within the constraints imposed by policy determined at the national level - yet reflect the diverse interests of its citizens - large quantities of data and sophisticated analytic capabilities are required. This report presents the design of an energy-information/analytic system for New York State, the data for a base year, 1976, and projections of these data. At the county level, 1976 energy-supply demand data and electric generating plant data are provided as well. Data-base management is based on System 2000. Three computerized models provide the system's basic analytic capacity. The Brookhaven Energy System Network Simulator provides an integrating framework while a price-response model and a weather sensitive energy demand model furnished a short-term energy response estimation capability. The operation of these computerized models is described. 62 references, 25 figures, 39 tables.

  15. Thermal performance of a modularized replaceable multilayer insulation system for a cryogenic stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A rugged modularized MLI system for a 2.23-meter-diameter (87.6-in.-diam) liquid hydrogen tank was designed, fabricated, and tested under simulated near-earth and deep-space environments. The two blankets of the system were each composed of 17 double-aluminized Mylar radiation shields separated by silk net. The unit area weight of the installed system was 1.54 kg/sqm (0.32 lb/sq ft). The overall average heat transferred into the insulated tank was 22.7 and 0.98 watts (77.4 and 3.3 Btu/hr) during simulated near-earth and deep-space testing, respectively. The near-earth result was only 2.6 times that predicted for an undisturbed insulation system (i.e., no seams or penetrations). Tests indicate that this insulation concept could be useful for a cryogenic space tug or orbit transfer vehicle application.

  16. The Next Stage of Devolution? A (Devolving Criminal Justice System for Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Jones

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The coalition government in Wales has committed itself to seriously consider devolving the criminal justice system for Wales. It is seen as the next possible step in the devolution process. To some extent many of the structures for a devolved criminal justice system are already being put in place to support devolved policy making and provision of criminal justice services in Wales. However, the One Wales agreement proposes to place the most emphasis on a devolved criminal justice system on youth justice and the prevention of re-offending. This is problematic in a number of ways explored in the paper, not least because the duties in the Welsh Constitution obligate the Welsh Assembly Government to ensure equality of opportunity for all and equality of treatment of both Welsh and English. Can a successful devolved fit-for-purpose criminal justice system for Wales be created?

  17. Research on the Power Recovery of Diesel Engines with Regulated Two-Stage Turbocharging System at Different Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovering the boost pressure is very important in improving the dynamic performance of diesel engines at high altitudes. A regulated two-stage turbocharging system is an adequate solution for power recovery of diesel engines. In the present study, the change of boost pressure and engine power at different altitudes was investigated, and a regulated two-stage turbocharging system was constructed with an original turbocharger and a matched low pressure turbocharger. The valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery, which formed the basis of the power recovery method, are presented here. The simulation results showed that this system was effective in recovering the boost pressure at different speeds and various altitudes. The turbine bypass valve and compressor bypass valve had different modes to adapt to changes in operating conditions. The boost pressure recovery could not ensure power recovery over the entire operating range of the diesel engine, because of variation in overall turbocharger efficiency. The fuel-injection compensation method along with the valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery was able to reach the power recovery target.

  18. A two-stage anaerobic system for biodegrading wastewater containing terephthalic acid and high strength easily degradable pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high strength easily biodegradable pollutants(represented by CODE) are strong inhibitors of terephthalic acid(TA) anaerobic biodegradation. At the same time, TA can inhibiteasily biodegradable pollutants removal under anaerobic conditionsto a limited extent. This mutual inhibition could happen and causea low removal efficiency of both TA and CODE, when the effluentfrom TA workshops containing TA and easily biodegradable pollutantsare treated by a single anaerobic reactor system. Based upon thetreatment kinetics analysis of both TA degradation and CODEremoval, a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and up-flowfixed film reactor(UASB-UAFF) system for dealing with this kind ofwastewater was developed and run successfully at laboratory scale.An UASB reactor with the methanogenic consortium as the first stageremoves the easily biodegradable pollutants(CODE). An UAFF reactor as the second stage is mainly in charge of TA degradation. At aHRT 18.5h, the CODE and TA removal rate of the system reached 89.2% and 71.6%, respectively.

  19. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yu; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pineda, Salvador;

    2015-01-01

    An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi-stag...... the plausible future realizations of the wind power production. A numerical case study is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the proposed stochastic dynamic optimization model significantly outperforms the traditional deterministic dispatch strategies....

  20. Planning and establishment of information system at the preliminary stage of a nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the practice of Hainan Nuclear Power Project, this paper analyses the urgent need of information system during the preliminary work of a nuclear power project, and presents the solution, i.e. near-term planning plus overall planning. Then the paper discusses how to implement management system at EPC mode, and puts forward the orientation and role of informationization in corporation management. (authors)

  1. An embedded pair of method of orders 6(4) with 6 stages for special systems of ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olemskoy, I. V.; Eremin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    We construct here an embedded Dormand-Prince pair of explicit methods of orders 6 and 4 for systems of ordinary differential equations with special structure, namely with two parts, in which the right-hand sides are dependent only on the unknown functions from the other group. The number of stages is six, which is fewer than for general explicit Runge-Kutta methods. The comparison to Dormand-Prince method of the same computation cost is made showing the higher accuracy of the suggested method.

  2. The minimal stage, energy preserving Runge-Kutta method for polynomial Hamiltonian systems is the Averaged Vector Field method

    OpenAIRE

    Celledoni, Elena; Owren, Brynjulf; Sun, Yajuan

    2012-01-01

    No Runge-Kutta method can be energy preserving for all Hamiltonian systems. But for problems in which the Hamiltonian is a polynomial, the Averaged Vector Field (AVF) method can be interpreted as a Runge-Kutta method whose weights $b_i$ and abscissae $c_i$ represent a quadrature rule of degree at least that of the Hamiltonian. We prove that when the number of stages is minimal, the Runge-Kutta scheme must in fact be identical to the AVF scheme.

  3. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    of recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined......Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...

  4. Wind power integration studies using a multi-stage stochastic electricity system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Barth, R.; Brand, H.;

    2007-01-01

    A large share of integrated wind power causes technical and financial impacts on the operation of the existing electricity system due to the fluctuating behaviour and unpredictability of wind power. The presented stochastic electricity market model optimises the unit commitment considering four...... kinds of electricity markets (e.g. a spot and balancing market) and taking into account the stochastic behaviour of the wind power generation and of the prediction error. It can be used for the evaluation of varying electricity prices and system costs due to wind power integration...

  5. Early renin-angiotensin system intervention is more beneficial than late intervention in delaying end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schievink, B; Kröpelin, T; Mulder, S;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To develop and validate a model to simulate progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) from early onset until end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to assess the effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) intervention in early, intermediate and advanced stages of DKD. METHODS: We used data from...

  6. Community analysis of ammonia oxidizer in the oxygen-limited nitritation stage of OLAND system by DGGE of PCR amplified 16S rDNA Fragments and FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dan; ZHANG De-min; LIU Yao-ping; CAO Wen-wei; CHEN Guan-xiong

    2004-01-01

    OLAND(oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification and denitrification) nitrogen removal system was constructed by coupling with oxygen limited nitritation stage and anaerobic ammonium oxidation stage. Ammonia oxidizer, as a kind of key bacteria in N cycle, plays an important role at the oxygen limited nitritation stage of OLAND nitrogen removal system. In this study, specific amplification of 16S rDNA fragment of ammonia oxidizer by nested PCR, separation of mixed PCR samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE), and the quantification of ammonia oxidizer by Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) were combined to investigate the shifts of community composition and quantity of ammonia oxidizer of the oxygen limited nitritation stage in OLAND system. It showed that the community composition of ammonia oxidizer changed drastically when dissolved oxygen was decreased gradually, and the dominant ammonia oxidizer of the steady nitrite accumulation stage were completely different from that of the early stage of oxygen limited nitritation identified by DGGE . It was concluded that the Nitrosomonas may be the dominant genus of ammonia oxidizer at the oxygen limited nitritation stage of OLAND system characterized by nested PCR-DGGE and FISH, and the percentage of Nitrosomonas was 72.5% ( 0.8% of ammonia oxidizer at the steady nitrite accumulation stage detected by FISH.

  7. Advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite from municipal landfill leachate using a two-stage UASB-A/O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Wu; Yongzhen Peng; Xiao Shi; Chengyao Peng; Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anoxic/aerobic (A/O) reactor was used to treat municipal landfill leachate. Denitrification took place in the first stage of the UASB re-actor (UASB1). The chemical oxygen demand of the UASB1 effluent was further decreased in the second stage (UASB2). Nitrification was accomplished in the A/O reactor. When diluted with tap water at a ratio of 1:1, the ammonia nitrogen concentration of the influent leachate was approximately 1200 mg·L−1, whereas that of the system effluent was approximately 8–11 mg·L−1, and the corresponding removal efficiency is about 99.08%. Stable partial nitrification was achieved in the A/O reactor with 88.61%–91.58%of the nitrite accumula-tion ratio, even at comparatively low temperature (16 °C). The results demonstrate that free ammonia (FA) con-centrations within a suitable range exhibit a positive effect on partial nitrification. In this experiment when FA was within the 1–30 mg·L−1 range, partial nitrification could be achieved, whereas when FA exceeded 280 mg·L−1, the nitrification process was entirely inhibited. Temperature was not the key factor leading to par-tial nitrification within the 16–29 °C range. The inhibitory influence of free nitrous acid (FNA) on nitrification was also minimal when pH was greater than 8.5. Thus, FA concentration was a major factor in achieving partial nitrification.

  8. Sensorless Reserved Power Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the reserved power control for grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control to estimate the available PV power and a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control...

  9. System implementation: managing project and post project stage - case study in an Indonesian company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govindaraju, Rajesri; Bruijn, de Erik Joost; Fisscher, Olaf M.; Laptaned, U.

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in this paper aims to get a better understanding of how the implementation process of enterprise systems (ES) can be managed, by studying the process from an organisational perspective. A review of the literature on previous research in ES implementation has been carried out an

  10. A predator-prey system with stage-structure for predator and nonlocal delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Z.G.; Pedersen, Michael; Zhang, Lai

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of solutions to the reaction-diffusion system under homogeneous Neumann boundary condition, which describes a prey-predator model with nonlocal delay. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of each equilibrium are derived by the Lyapunov functional and t...

  11. A Six‐Stage Workflow for Robust Application of Systems Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, K; Kirouac, DC; Mager, DE; van der Graaf, PH

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative and systems pharmacology (QSP) is increasingly being applied in pharmaceutical research and development. One factor critical to the ultimate success of QSP is the establishment of commonly accepted language, technical criteria, and workflows. We propose an integrated workflow that bridges conceptual objectives with underlying technical detail to support the execution, communication, and evaluation of QSP projects. PMID:27299936

  12. On the Performance of One Stage Massive Random Access Protocols in 5G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Pratas, Nuno; Jacobsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of cellular system is expected to experience a proliferation in the number of emerging use cases alongside supporting high speed mobile broadband services. Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC) catering to a large number of low-data rate, low-cost devices is such an emergi...

  13. The study of a patient's immune system may prove to be a useful noninvasive tool for stage classification in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Patrizia; Berghella, Anna Maria; Contasta, Ida; Del Beato, Tiziana; Adorno, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Therapy, and, therefore, prognosis, is strictly related to cancer stage, and hence, screening tests that can contribute to the early classification of disease stage represent a step forward in treatment. Unfortunately, few prognostic indices are available, especially noninvasive ones. Our study of the physiological network of the immune response, however, leads us to believe that it may well be possible to define immunological indices for the classification of cancer stage using blood parameters. In this paper, we show how the study of a patient's immune system can be used as a noninvasive tool for early-stage classification.

  14. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-11-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT) is one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. ELTs are built on top of a variety of highly sensitive and critical astronomical instruments. In particular, a new instrument called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used to drive the deformable mirror in real time from the measurements. A new numerical algorithm is proposed (1) to capture the actual experimental noise and (2) to substantially speed up previous implementations by exposing more concurrency, while reducing the number of floating-point operations. Based on the Matrices Over Runtime System at Exascale numerical library (MORSE), a dynamic scheduler drives all computational stages of the tomographic reconstruct or simulation and allows to pipeline and to run tasks out-of order across different stages on heterogeneous systems, while ensuring data coherency and dependencies. The proposed TR simulation outperforms asymptotically previous state-of-the-art implementations up to 13-fold speedup. At more than 50000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale AO problem submitted to computation, to date, and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. Explore the Energy-saving Effect of Decomposition Kiln System with Four-stage, Five-stage and Six-stage Preheater%四级、五级和六级预热预分解窑系统节能效果的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红建; 王国鸿; 周刘成; 李昌勇

    2013-01-01

    通过四级、五级和六级预热预分解窑系统节约煤电的比较,阐明了带余热发电的五级预热预分解窑系统的能源利用率高于带余热发电的四级预热预分解窑系统,而六级预热器系统比五级、四级预热器系统节能效果更好.采用六级预热器系统可以适当降低预热器出口废气温度,实现废气热焓的充分回收,从而有效地实现烧成系统的节能减排.%By contrasting energy-saving of decomposition kiln system with four-stage, five-stage and six-stage preheater, it clarified that energy efficiency of system with five-stage preheater and waste heat power generation was higher than system with four-stage preheater. The energy-saving effect of six-stage preheater is better than five-stage and four-stage preheater. Six-stage preheater system was appropriate to reduce the outlet exhaust gas temperature of the preheater, while the exhaust gas enthalpy could be fully recycled,which easily achieved the purpose of the energy-saving and emissions reduction of the firing system.

  16. Towards the Development of an M-Learning System: A New Stage to Enhance Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abou El-Seoud

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of high bandwidth wireless channels such as 3G-telecommunication infrastructure and wireless LAN, mobile learning (M-learning is becoming more feasible now. M-learning can be considered as an intersection of online learning and mobile computing. Through wireless devices (such as mobile telephones, Personal Digital Assistants - PDAs, tablet PC, and laptops and wireless applications, M-learning supports an integrated access to Web content and services in education anytime and anywhere. This paper describes the analysis, design, architecture, and experimental development of "Wireless Course Management System (WCMS", that provides a wireless access to course information content. The system allows the use of the wireless Web as a medium to administer, and deliver course content, to support wireless course management, tests and student wireless communications.

  17. The role of renin angiotensin system intervention in stage B heart failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collier, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    This article outlines the link between the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and various forms of cardiomyopathy, and also reviews the understanding of the effectiveness of RAAS intervention in this phase of ventricular dysfunction. The authors focus their discussion predominantly on patients who have had previous myocardial infarction or those who have left ventricular hypertrophy and also briefly discuss the role of RAAS activation and intervention in patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

  18. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the ascending stages of the auditory system in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Jan-Peter; Lüpke, Matthias; Dziallas, Peter; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Seifert, Hermann; Nolte, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique able to localize neural activity in the brain by detecting associated changes in blood flow. It is an essential tool for studying human functional neuroanatomy including the auditory system. There are only a few studies, however, using fMRI to study canine brain functions. In the current study ten anesthetized dogs were scanned during auditory stimulation. Two functional sequences, each in combination with a suitable stimu...

  19. A New System for the Rapid Collection of Large Numbers of Developmentally Staged Zebrafish Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Adatto; Christian Lawrence; Michael Thompson; Zon, Leonard I.

    2011-01-01

    The zebrafish is an excellent genetic and developmental model system used to study biology and disease. While the zebrafish model is associated with high fecundity, its reproductive potential has not been completely realized by scientists. One major issue is that embryo collection is inefficient. Here, we have developed an innovative breeding vessel designed to stimulate the natural reproductive behavior of the fish. This novel apparatus allows us to collect large numbers of developmentally s...

  20. Optimal design of a high-power picosecond laser system using a dual-stage ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An average power as high as 60 W with 73 W of pumping was achieved for an ytterbium-doped fibre-based dual-stage amplifier (MOFA) system seeded by a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser. The corresponding optical conversion efficiency is 80%. The laser system generates a steady pulse train with a pulse width of 11 ps at a repetition rate of 250 MHz or a peak power of 21.8 kW. Moreover, the output beam quality M2 ≈ 1.6. The length and pumping power for the Yb-doped fibres were optimized to suppress stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) while maintaining desirable output characteristics. (paper)

  1. Nontemplate-driven polymers: clues to a minimal form of organization closure at the early stages of living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Miguel Ángel

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of the first polymers played an essential role in the transition from the physicochemical to the biological domain, a perception that embodied many different world paradigms relying on only one primal polymer. However, biological complexity would have appeared with an increasing set of associated chemistries and molecular interactions of many different macromolecules. In agreement with this notion, here, the purpose is to focus specific attention on current knowledge of modern biochemistry of a set of widespread polymers likely present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor synthesized by nontemplate-driven reactions with references to their abiotic synthesis. The proposed overview describes the manner in which these polymers could have organized around two polymerization reaction cycles and integrated into a minimal organizational closure at the early stages of living systems, independently of template replication processes. This hypothesis could provide an alternative conceptual framework to evaluate a plausible scenario addressing the transition from nonliving to protocellular systems.

  2. Development of the high power multi-stage type circulator for BNCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for BNCT begins with a pharmaceutical agent that carries a neutron capture agent containing 10B (Boron 10) selectively into tumor cells. Thermal or epi-thermal neutrons then interact with the 10B and produce α and 7Li-particles. So far, BNCT have been provided only by nuclear reactors, because a neutron intensity of 1x109n/cm2/s, with energies between 0.5-eV and 10-keV is required. To realize BNCT using accelerator technologies, one of the big issuer is the high duty rf system, which will be used for 324 MHz, 1.2 MW peak klystron, 1 msec of an rf pulse width and a 200 Hz of cycle. A high power circulator is the most critical component among the waveguide system. It was redesigned from a linear accelerator of J-PARC to meet the 20% of a duty factor using a high saturation magnetization 4piMs has high curie temperature. Also, it was used thin ferrite layer to reduce the temperature rise and to reduce the temperature sensitivity. This paper reports the design work, the manufacture and a low power measurement. (author)

  3. Potential risk factors in systemic hypoplasia and dental caries at odontogenesis stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovach I.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesion of hard dental tissue with caries process and lesions not connected with caries present overwhelming majority of dental diseases. Causes leading to damage of enamel integrity and dentin with progressing demineralization are known; they allow to choose justified method of primary prophylaxis. Along with it, etiology and pathogenesis of enamel lesions with demineralization signs remains unexplored. Epidemiologic study of prevalence, incidence and severity of lesion of hard dental tissues in 330 pupils, who constantly live on endemic iodine-defficient territory, of three zones – mountain zone, foothill and valley. For comparison, schoolchildren migrated to this territory 2-3 years after birth, and children – residents of favorable as for iodine level in drinking water were examined, 30 children in each group. It was established, that overwhelming number of schoolchildren of endemic zone suffer from endemic goiter of various severity, which sufficiently impacts on protein-mineral ratio of the organism, bone skeleton and teeth including. It was also established, that residents of three various levels of iodine consumption are prone to development of multiple dental caries and systemic enamel hypoplasia. Children, residents of mountain zone suffer the most, with simultaneous lesion of thyroid gland. The role of endemic goiter in systemic dental enamel hypoplasia and multiple caries, which changes protein matrix, negatively impacts on odontogenesis and mineralization degree is underlined.

  4. Modified septic tank-anaerobic filter unit as a two-stage onsite domestic wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the performance evaluation of a uniquely designed two-stage system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic bioreactors, a modified septic tank followed by an upflow anaerobic filter, accommodated within a single cylindrical unit. The system was started up without inoculation at 24 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). It achieved a steady-state condition after 120 days. The system was observed to be remarkably efficient in removing pollutants during steady-state condition with the average removal efficiency of 88.6 +/- 3.7% for chemical oxygen demand, 86.3 +/- 4.9% for biochemical oxygen demand and 91.2 +/- 9.7% for total suspended solids. The microbial analysis revealed a high reduction (>90%) capacity of the system for indicator organism and pathogens. It also showed a very good endurance against imposed hydraulic shock load. Tracer study showed that the flow pattern was close to plug flow reactor. Mean HRT was also found to be close to the designed value. PMID:25145171

  5. Vitamin effects on the immune system: vitamins A and D take centre stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J Rodrigo; Iwata, Makoto; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2008-09-01

    Vitamins are essential constituents of our diet that have long been known to influence the immune system. Vitamins A and D have received particular attention in recent years as these vitamins have been shown to have an unexpected and crucial effect on the immune response. We present and discuss our current understanding of the essential roles of vitamins in modulating a broad range of immune processes, such as lymphocyte activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, tissue-specific lymphocyte homing, the production of specific antibody isotypes and regulation of the immune response. Finally, we discuss the clinical potential of vitamin A and D metabolites for modulating tissue-specific immune responses and for preventing and/or treating inflammation and autoimmunity.

  6. Systemic Chemotherapy for Progression of Brain Metastases in Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagla Abdel Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related mortality in men and women. Approximately 15% of lung cancers are small cell type. Chemotherapy and radiation are the mainstay treatments. Currently, the standard chemotherapy regimen includes platinum/etoposide. For extensive small cell lung cancer, irinotecan and cisplatin have also been used. Patients with relapsed small cell lung cancer have a very poor prognosis, and the morbidity increases with brain metastases. Approximately 10%–14% of small cell lung cancer patients exhibit brain metastases at the time of diagnosis, which increases to 50%–80% as the disease progresses. Mean survival with brain metastases is reported to be less than six months, thus calling for improved regimens. Here we present a case series of patients treated with irinotecan for progressive brain metastases in small cell lung cancer, which serves as a reminder of the role of systemic chemotherapy in this setting.

  7. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle;

    2016-01-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland’s only operating metalliferous mine until its...... closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multistage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in...... the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783–1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite...

  8. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 2, final report. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    The University of Minnesota Grid-ICES was divided into four identifiable programs in order to study the feasibility of each of the parts of the ICES independently. The total program involves cogeneration, fuel conversion, fuel substitution, and energy conservation by system change. This Phase II report substantiates the theory that the Basic Grid ICES is not only energy-effective, but it will become cost effective as unit operating costs adjust to supply and demand in the 1980's. The Basic Program involves the cogeneration of steam and electricity. The University of Minnesota has been following an orderly process of converting its Central Heating Plant from gas-oil to 100% coal since 1973. The first step in the transition is complete. The University is presently 100% on coal, and will begin the second step, the test burning of low Btu Western coal during the spring, summer, and fall, and high Btu Eastern coal during the high thermal winter period. The final step to 100% Western coal is planned to be completed by 1980. In conjunction with the final step a retired Northern States Power generating plant has been purchased and is in the process of being retrofitted for topping the existing plant steam output during the winter months. The Basic Plan of ICES involves the add-on work and expense of installing additional boiler capacity at Southeast Steam and non-condensing electric generating capability. This will permit the simultaneous generation of electricity and heat dependent upon the thermal requirements of the heating and cooling system in University buildings. This volume presents an overview of the Community and the ICES. (MCW)

  9. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design: pyrolysis and waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-08

    The University of Minnesota is studying and planning a grid-connected integrated community energy system to include disposal of wastes from health centers and utilizing the heat generated. Following initial definition of the 7-county metropolitan region for which the solid waste management system is to be planned, information is then necessary about the nature of the waste generated within this region. Estimates of the quantities generated, generation rates, and properties of the waste to be collected and disposed of are required in order to determine the appropriate size and capacity of the system. These estimates are designated and subsequently referred to as ''system input''. Institutional information is also necessary in designing the planned system, to be compatible with existing institutional operations and procedures, or to offer a minimum amount of problems to the participating institution in the region. Initial considerations of health care institutions generating solid waste within the defined region are made on a comprehensive basis without any attempt to select out or include feasible candidate institutions, or institutional categories. As the study progresses, various criteria are used in selecting potential candidate institutional categories and institutions within the 7-county region as offering the most feasible solid waste system input to be successfully developed into a centralized program; however, it is hoped that such a system if developed could be maintained for the entire 7-county region, and remain comprehensive to the entire health care industry. (MCW)

  10. Effect of intraarterial and systemic chemotherapy for stage IIb cervical carcinoma: assessment of therapeutic response using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intraarterial chemotherapy(IAC) and systemic chemotherapy(SC) in cases of locally advanced cervical carcinoma, and to assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance(MR) imaging for determining parametrial invasion after IAC or SC. Among 44 patients with stage IIb cervical carcinoma, IAC was performed in 25 and SC in 19. MR images obtained before and after IAC or SC were prospectively analyzed with regard to tumor volume and parametrial invasion, and tumor response to chemotherapy was classified as complete, partial, or progressive. Forty-one patients underwent radical hysterectomy within two weeks of the second MR examination, and postoperative pathologic findings were correlated with radiologic findings. The average reduction rate of tumor volume in the IAC and SC group was 89.2% and 66.3%, respectively. Between the two groups, there was no statistically significant difference(p>0.05). In the IAC group, 13 patients showed a complete response and 11 a partial response, and in one there was progression. In the SC group, eight patients showed a complete response and nine a partial response, and in two there was progression. The accuracy of MR imaging for determining parametrial invasion after chemotherapy was 87.8%. In each patient there was close correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings. There was no statistically significant difference in tumor reduction between the IAC and SC group. After chemotherapy for stage IIb cervical carcinoma, MR imaging is a valuable modality for determining surgical candidates.=20

  11. Influence of different substrates on the performance of a two-stage high pressure anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, A; Chen, Y; Lindner, J; Wonneberger, A M; Zielonka, S; Oechsner, H; Jungbluth, T

    2015-02-01

    The two-stage autogenerative high-pressure digestion technique is a novel and promising approach for the production of gaseous fuels or upgraded biogas. This new technique is described in the patent DE 10 2011 015415 A1 and integrates biogas production, its upgrading and pressure boosting in one process. Anaerobic digestion under elevated pressure conditions leads to decreasing pH-values in the digestate due to the augmented formation of carboxylic acid. Model calculations carried out to evaluate the two-stage design showed that the pH-value in the pressurized anaerobic filter has a major influence on the methane content of the biogas produced. Within this study, the influence of the nitrogen content as one of the most important buffering substances on the performance of the system has been tested. The results show that higher NH4 contents lead to higher pH-values in the digester and as a consequence to higher methane contents. PMID:25451774

  12. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2000-03-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of shiny in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  13. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hed, P. Paul (San Ramon, CA); Fuchs, Baruch A. (Aventura, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  14. Design of a control system for a macro-micro dual-drive high acceleration high precision positioning stage for IC packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YanJie; LI Teng; SUN LiNing

    2009-01-01

    A macro-micro dual-drive positioning system showing good potential for high acceleration and high precision positioning required in IC packaging applications is devised in this paper. The dual-drive positioning stage uses a VCM (voice coil motor) driven macro positioning stage and a PZT piezo-electric driven micro positioning stage. The coupling characteristics of the system are analyzed to produce a control structure with a micro positioning stage that can dynamically compensate for the positioning error produced by the macro positioning stage. Models of the two positioning stages are described. The models cover both the mechanism and the actuator. For the macro positioning stage,friction characteristics are taken into account, and a controller with an LQG (linear-quadratic-Gaussian)control algorithm combining a feed-forward compensation algorithm is derived. A PID controller is used to control the micro positioning stage. Detailed designs are derived for the proposed approach,and the performance is validated by simulation.

  15. Development of a compact, fiber-coupled, six degree-of-freedom measurement system for precision linear stage metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiangzhi; Gillmer, Steven R; Woody, Shane C; Ellis, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    A compact, fiber-coupled, six degree-of-freedom measurement system which enables fast, accurate calibration, and error mapping of precision linear stages is presented. The novel design has the advantages of simplicity, compactness, and relatively low cost. This proposed sensor can simultaneously measure displacement, two straightness errors, and changes in pitch, yaw, and roll using a single optical beam traveling between the measurement system and a small target. The optical configuration of the system and the working principle for all degrees-of-freedom are presented along with the influence and compensation of crosstalk motions in roll and straightness measurements. Several comparison experiments are conducted to investigate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system in each degree-of-freedom independently. Comparison experiments to a commercial interferometer demonstrate error standard deviations of 0.33 μm in straightness, 0.14 μrad in pitch, 0.44 μradin yaw, and 45.8 μrad in roll.

  16. Biogas production from chicken manure at different organic loading rates in a mesophilic-thermopilic two stage anaerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkılıc, Kenan; Ugurlu, Aysenur

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the biogas production from chicken manure at different organic loading rates (OLRs), in a mesophilic-thermophilic two stage anaerobic system. The system was operated on semi continuous mode under different OLRs [1.9 g volatile solids (VS)/L·d - 4.7 g VS/L·d] and total solid (TS) contents (3.0-8.25%). It was observed that the anaerobic bacteria acclimatized to high total ammonia nitrogen concentration (>3000 mg/L) originated as a result of the degradation of chicken manure. High volatile fatty acid concentrations were tolerated by the system due to high pH in the reactors. The maximum average biogas production rate was found as 554 mL/g VSfeed while feeding 2.2 g VS/L-d (2.3% VS - 3.8% TS) to the system. Average methane content of produced biogas was 74% during the study.

  17. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim;

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological...

  18. The other stage

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Christopher Stephen Williamson

    2012-01-01

    An interactive electroacoustic music composition and solo mixed-media performance realized as an alternatively-staged one-night concert event. This project examines the tradition of staging live electronic music and the role of a solo computer music composer-performer. It is a four-movement interactive work with an appended generative music system performed solo within an alternative stage layout. It is derived from an interdisciplinary practice of combining electroacoustic music and electro...

  19. Effects of dissolved oxygen on microbial community of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal system treating simulating mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiale; Qing, Xiaoxia; He, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    The performance of four identical sequencing biofilm batch reactors (SBBR) for autotrophic nitrogen removal was investigated with 2000mg/L ammonia-containing mature landfill leachate at 30°C. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the performance and microbial community of single-stage nitrogen removal using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) system. At an applied load of 0.5kgNm(-3)d(-1), average total nitrogen removal efficiency (TNRE) above 90% was long-term achieved with an optimal DO concentration of 2.7mg/L. The microelectrode-measured profiles showed the microenvironments inside the biofilms. 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) amplicon pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to analyze the microbial variations of different DO concentrations and different positions inside one reactor. PMID:27450126

  20. Development of a straightness measurement and compensation system with multiple right-angle reflectors and a lead zirconate titanate-based compensation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a real-time straightness measurement and compensation system with an optical straightness measurement system and a single-axis flexure-hinge type lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based compensation stage. The optical straightness measurement system consists of a He-Ne laser, a quadrant photodiode detector, and five right-angle reflectors. Multiple laser beam reflections between the right-angle reflectors increase the sensitivity of the straightness measurement by a factor of 6. The right-angle reflectors can be moved by the flexure-hinge type PZT-based compensation stage that is actuated by a PZT actuator to ensure that the laser beam is always projected onto the center of the quadrant detector. These two systems are integrated and fixed on a scanning stage. The resolution of the straightness measurement system is 0.1 μm. Using the real-time straightness compensation system, the straightness error of the scanning stage is fed back to the control system. The compensated straightness error of the scanning stage system was reduced from 6.5 μm to less than 1 μm.

  1. Optimizing patient selection for dose escalation techniques using the prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy gleason score, and clinical T-stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Ideal candidates for 3D dose escalation conformal radiation or external beam + implant therapy are identified on the basis of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 American Joint Commission Cancer (AJCC) clinical T-stage. Methods and Materials: The pathologic findings of 1742 men with clinical stage T1c,2 prostate cancer managed with a radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1990 and 1998 were subjected to a logistic regression multivariable analysis. The endpoints examined included pathologic organ-confined (OC), specimen-confined (SC), and margin (M) or seminal vesicle (SV) positive disease. SC disease was defined as extracapsular extension (ECE) with a negative surgical margin. The clinical factors tested included PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 AJCC clinical T-stage. PSA failure-free (bNED) survival was calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: Significant negative predictors of pathologic OC-disease or positive predictors of M+ or SV+ disease included a PSA > 10 ng/ml (p + or SV+ disease respectively. Conclusions: Patients most likely to derive a survival benefit from the improved local control possible using dose escalation techniques were those who had both a low risk of having occult micrometastatic disease (+ or SV+) and a reasonable likelihood of remaining disease-free after RP (>50% 5-year bNED). These patients included those having T1c, 2a, PSA > 10-15 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤6 or T1c, 2a, 2b, PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤ 7 prostate cancer

  2. Optimisation of wide-band parametric amplification stages of a femtosecond laser system with coherent combining of fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Leshchenko, V. E.; Frolov, S. A.; Vasiliev, V. A.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time the pulses with the energy of ~150 mJ and the spectrum corresponding to the transform-limited duration of ~20 fs amplified in three-stage parametric amplifiers have been coherently combined in a dual-channel femtosecond laser system. The efficiency of coherent combining of above 90% has been obtained at the residual relative time jitter of amplified pulses of 110 as. For the first time the modulation of spectrum was experimentally observed under the parametric amplification of a wideband femtosecond radiation in crystals placed in series. The model of parametric luminescence evolution was developed which allows one to calculate the whole range of the frequency-angular spectrum that, in addition to simulations of the contrast of amplified pulses, gives the possibility of optimising the amplifier efficiency. The results of experiments on measuring the contrast are presented and compared with the calculated data. Methods for enhancing the contrast in the created laser system are analysed. Possible schemes of multibeam pumping of the output cascade are considered for obtaining a petawatt power in the laser system based on cascades of a parametric amplifier in LBO crystals which is being developed at the Institute of Laser Physics of SB RAS.

  3. The validation of a three-stage screening methodology for detecting active convulsive epilepsy in population-based studies in health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngugi Anthony K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC. Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are time-consuming and costly to implement in large populations required to generate accurate estimates. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology in detecting active convulsive epilepsy (ACE, which can be embedded within on-going census of demographic surveillance systems. We validated a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology on a randomly selected sample of participants of a three-stage prevalence survey of epilepsy. Diagnosis of ACE by an experienced clinician was used as ‘gold standard’. We further compared the expenditure of this method with the standard two-stage methodology. Results We screened 4442 subjects in the validation and identified 35 cases of ACE. Of these, 18 were identified as false negatives, most of whom (15/18 were missed in the first stage and a few (3/18 in the second stage of the three-stage screening. Overall, this methodology had a sensitivity of 48.6% and a specificity of 100%. It was 37% cheaper than a two-stage survey. Conclusion This was the first study to evaluate the performance of a multi-stage screening methodology used to detect epilepsy in demographic surveillance sites. This method had poor sensitivity attributed mainly to stigma-related non-response in the first stage. This method needs to take into consideration the poor sensitivity and the savings in expenditure and time as well as validation in target populations. Our findings suggest the need for continued efforts to develop and improve case-ascertainment methods in population-based epidemiological studies of epilepsy in LMIC.

  4. The Scientific Analysis System (SAS) and its Evolution Through the Different Stages of the XMM-Newton Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C.; Guainazzi, M.; Metcalfe, L.; Ibarra, A.; Ojero, E.; Saxton, R.

    2006-08-01

    European Space Astronomy Centre, Madrid, Spain An analysis system used for scientific data reduction of a living instru-ment needs permanent evolution. The calibration of working detectors never ends. A better understanding of the systems involved, their even-tual degradation, as well as new challenges reflected eventually in differ-ent observational modes lead normally to the necessity of extending the analysis capabilities of the software used as well as to an update of the calibration data used for derivation of final scientific products. Of course this leads immediately to the necessity of making those updates public as fast as possible, as well as making the whole analysis system publicly avail-able. On the other hand, standard high level products, derived under a fixed software / calibration configuration, optimise the generic approach to ex-ploiting the scientific contents of the observations. The SAS is our answer to these requirements. It serves both as the Interactive Analysis system, freely distributed by ESA's XMM-Newton SOC, located at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) near Madrid, Spain, and, through a subset of its functionality, it sup-ports the data processing pipeline, used centrally in the Science Survey Centre (SSC, University of Leicester, UK) for derivation of final products. The pipeline products are distributed to the observers through the cent-ral scientific archive (XSA) maintained at the SOC. The SAS is contributing in a decisive manner to the high rate (250-300 / year) of scientific refereed publications based on XMM-Newton data. Furthermore, a substantially upgraded new SAS version is sup-porting the ongoing general reprocessing of all of the XMM-Newton data gathered so far. Finishing before the summer of 2006, it will re-populate the XMM-Newton archive with a set of high-level homogeneously calib-rated scientific products. It will also generate the largest catalogue of hard X-ray sources ever compiled . We intend to review the

  5. Prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Validation and ranking of established staging-systems in a large western HCC-cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark op den Winkel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCC is diagnosed in approximately half a million people per year, worldwide. Staging is a more complex issue than in most other cancer entities and, mainly due to unique geographic characteristics of the disease, no universally accepted staging system exists to date. Focusing on survival rates we analyzed demographic, etiological, clinical, laboratory and tumor characteristics of HCC-patients in our institution and applied the common staging systems. Furthermore we aimed at identifying the most suitable of the current staging systems for predicting survival. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 405 patients with HCC were identified from an electronic medical record database. The following seven staging systems were applied and ranked according to their ability to predict survival by using the Akaike information criterion (AIC and the concordance-index (c-index: BCLC, CLIP, GETCH, JIS, Okuda, TNM and Child-Pugh. Separately, every single variable of each staging system was tested for prognostic meaning in uni- and multivariate analysis. Alcoholic cirrhosis (44.4% was the leading etiological factor followed by viral hepatitis C (18.8%. Median survival was 18.1 months (95%-CI: 15.2-22.2. Ascites, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, AFP, number of tumor nodes and the BCLC tumor extension remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Overall, all of the tested staging systems showed a reasonable discriminatory ability. CLIP (closely followed by JIS was the top-ranked score in terms of prognostic capability with the best values of the AIC and c-index (AIC 2286, c-index 0.71, surpassing other established staging systems like BCLC (AIC 2343, c-index 0.66. The unidimensional scores TNM (AIC 2342, c-index 0.64 and Child-Pugh (AIC 2369, c-index 0.63 performed in an inferior fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with six other staging systems, the CLIP-score was identified as the most suitable staging system for

  6. A Comparative Study between SVM and Fuzzy Inference System for the Automatic Prediction of Sleep Stages and the Assessment of Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gialelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two supervised learning algorithms for predicting the sleep stages based on the human brain activity. The first step of the presented work regards feature extraction from real human electroencephalography (EEG data together with its corresponding sleep stages that are utilized for training a support vector machine (SVM, and a fuzzy inference system (FIS algorithm. Then, the trained algorithms are used to predict the sleep stages of real human patients. Extended comparison results are demonstrated which indicate that both classifiers could be utilized as a basis for an unobtrusive sleep quality assessment.

  7. The Applicability of the International Staging System in Chinese Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Bortezomib or Thalidomide-Based Regimens as Induction Therapy: A Multicenter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Staging System (ISS is the most important prognostic system for multiple myeloma (MM. It was identified in the era of conventional agents. The outcome of MM has significantly changed by novel agents. Thus the applicability of ISS system in the era of novel agents in Chinese patients needs to be demonstrated. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes and prognostic significance of ISS system in 1016 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in Chinese patients between 2008 and 2012, who received bortezomib- or thalidomide-based regimens as first-line therapy. The median overall survival (OS of patients for ISS stages I/II/III was not reached/55.4 months/41.7 months (p<0.001, and the median progression-free survival (PFS was 30/29.5/25 months (p=0.072, respectively. Statistically significant difference in survival was confirmed among three ISS stages in thalidomide-based group, but not between ISS stages I and II in bortezomib-based group. These findings suggest that ISS system can predict the survival in the era of novel agents in Chinese MM patients, and bortezomib may have the potential to partially overcome adverse effect of risk factors on survival, especially in higher stage of ISS system.

  8. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Yanhong; Li, Shuisheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae), the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr) genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates. Seahorse leptin-a mRNA was highly expressed in brain, whereas lepr mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary and gill. Interestingly, both leptin-a and lepr mRNA were expressed in the brood pouch of male seahorse, suggesting the leptin system plays a role during the male pregnancy. Physiological experiments showed that the expression of hepatic leptin-a and lepr mRNA in unfed seahorses was significantly higher than that in those fed 100%, as well as 60%, of their food during the fasting stage, showing that seahorse might initiate the leptin system to regulate its energy metabolism while starving. Moreover, the expression of leptin-a in the brood pouch of pregnant seahorse was significantly upregulated compared with non-pregnant seahorse, whereas the expression of lepr was downregulated, suggesting that the leptin system might be involved in the male pregnancy. In conclusion, the leptin system plays a role in the energy metabolism and food intake, and might provide new insights into molecular regulation of male pregnancy in seahorse. PMID:27628034

  9. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixian Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae, the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus. Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates. Seahorse leptin-a mRNA was highly expressed in brain, whereas lepr mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary and gill. Interestingly, both leptin-a and lepr mRNA were expressed in the brood pouch of male seahorse, suggesting the leptin system plays a role during the male pregnancy. Physiological experiments showed that the expression of hepatic leptin-a and lepr mRNA in unfed seahorses was significantly higher than that in those fed 100%, as well as 60%, of their food during the fasting stage, showing that seahorse might initiate the leptin system to regulate its energy metabolism while starving. Moreover, the expression of leptin-a in the brood pouch of pregnant seahorse was significantly upregulated compared with non-pregnant seahorse, whereas the expression of lepr was downregulated, suggesting that the leptin system might be involved in the male pregnancy. In conclusion, the leptin system plays a role in the energy metabolism and food intake, and might provide new insights into molecular regulation of male pregnancy in seahorse.

  10. Development of a system based in a digital signal processor (DSP) for a simulator of power regulation in a reactor: first stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first stage of the development of a digital system based on a DSP is presented which forms part of an hybrid simulator for the power regulation in am model of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA reactor type. The DSP performs the regulation, using a Mandami type algorithm of diffuse control. In the algorithm, the universe of the output variable is discretized for performing in an unique stage the aggregation functions and dis-diffusization. (Author)

  11. N-acetylcysteine infusion reduces the resistance index of renal artery in the early stage of systemic sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edoardo ROSATO; Rosario CIANCI; Biagio BARBANO; Ginevra MENGHI; Antonietta GIGANTE; Carmelina ROSSI; Enrico M ZARDI; Antonio AMOROSO; Simonetta PISARRI; Felice SALSANO

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate resistance index (RI) changes in renal artery after N-acetylcysteine infusion in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods: In an open-label study 40 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) iv infusion over 5 consecutive hours, at a dose of 0.015g·kg~(-1)·h~(-1).Renal haemodynamic effects were evaluated by color Doppler examination before and after NAC infusion. Results: NAC infusion significantly reduced RI in a group of sclerodermic patients with early/active capillaroscopic pattern, modified Rodnan Total Skin Score (mRTSS)14 and severe-end stage score to the vascular domain of DSS. In patients with reduction of RI after NAC infusion, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide mean value was significantly higher than in those patients with an increase of RI. No significant differences in renal blood flow were found between patients with different subsets of SSc. Conclusion: In patients with low disease severity NAC ameliorates vascular renal function.

  12. Mixed culture polyhydroxyalkanoates production from sugar molasses: the use of a 2-stage CSTR system for culture selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M G E; Concas, S; Bengtsson, S; Reis, M A M

    2010-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising biodegradable polymers. The use of mixed microbial cultures (MMC) and low cost feedstocks have a positive impact on the cost-effectiveness of the process. It has typically been carried out in Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR). In this study, a 2-stage CSTR system (under Feast and Famine conditions) was used to effectively select for PHA-storing organisms using fermented molasses as feedstock. The effect of influent substrate concentration (60-120 Cmmol VFA/L) and HRT ratio between the reactors (0.2-0.5h/h) on the system's selection efficiency was assessed. It was shown that Feast reactor residual substrate concentration impacted on the selective pressure for PHA storage (due to substrate-dependent kinetic limitation). Moreover, a residual substrate concentration coming from the Feast to the Famine reactor did not jeopardize the physiological adaptation required for enhanced PHA storage. The culture reached a maximum PHA content of 61%. This success opens new perspectives to the use of wastewater treatment infrastructure for PHA production, thus valorizing either excess sludge or wastewaters.

  13. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    of the heating system in the glass moulding process considering detailed heating mechanisms therefore plays an important part in optimizing the heating system and the subsequent pressing stage in the lens manufacturing process.The current paper deals with three-dimensional transient thermal modelling...... of the multi-stage heating system in a wafer based glass moulding process. In order to investigate the importance of the radiation from the interior and surface of the glass, a simple finite volume code is developed to model one dimensional radiation–conduction heat transfer in the glass wafer for an extreme...... pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...

  14. A two-stage planning and control model toward Economically Adapted Power Distribution Systems using analytical hierarchy processes and fuzzy optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickardt, Gustavo [Instituto de Economia Energetica, Fundacion Bariloche, Centro Atomico Bariloche - Pabellon 7, Av. Bustillo km 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Miranda, Vladimiro [INESC Porto, Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto and FEUP, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents a model to evaluate the Distribution System Dynamic De-adaptation respecting its planning for a given period of Tariff Control. The starting point for modeling is brought about by the results from a multi-criteria method based on Fuzzy Dynamic Programming and on Analytic Hierarchy Processes applied in a mid/short-term horizon (stage 1). Then, the decision-making activities using the Hierarchy Analytical Processes will allow defining, for a Control of System De-adaptation (stage 2), a Vector to evaluate the System Dynamic Adaptation. It is directly associated to an eventual series of inbalances that take place during its evolution. (author)

  15. Application of the revised Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in eastern China: advantages and limitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Qin; Li-Jiang Sun; Li Cui; Qiang Cao; Jian Zhu; Pu Li; Gui-Ming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether the revised 2010 Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system could lead to a more accurate prediction of the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients.A total of 1216 patients who had undergone radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy for RCC from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled.All of the patients had pathologically confirmed clear cell RCC (ccRCC).All cases were staged by both the 2002 and 2010 TNM staging systems after pathological review,and survival data were collected.Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to evaluate cancer-specific survival (CSS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after surgery.Continuous variables,such as age and tumour diameter,were calculated as mean values and standard deviations (s.d.) or as median values.Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method,and the log-rank test assessed differences between groups.Statistically significant differences in CSS and PFS were noted among patients in T3 subgroups using the new 2010 staging system.Therefore,the revised 2010 TNM staging system can lead to a more accurate prediction of the prognosis of ccRCC patients.However,when using the revised 2010 staging system,we found that more than 92% of patients (288/313) with T3 tumours were staged in the T3a subgroup,and their survival data were not significantly different from those of patients with T2b tumours.In addition,T2 subclassification failed to independently predict survival in RCC patients.

  16. Expression of the zebrafish intermediate neurofilament Nestin in the developing nervous system and in neural proliferation zones at postembryonic stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driever Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intermediate filament Nestin has been reported as a marker for stem cells and specific precursor cell populations in the developing mammalian central nervous system (CNS. Nestin expressing precursors may give rise to neurons and glia. Mouse nestin expression starts at the onset of neurulation in the neuroectodermal cells and is dramatically down regulated when progenitor cells differentiate and become postmitotic. It has been reported that in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio active neurogenesis continues in all major subdivisions of the CNS, however few markers for zebrafish precursors cells are known, and Nestin has not been described in zebrafish. Results We cloned a zebrafish nestin gDNA fragment in order to find a marker for precursor cells in the developing and postembryonic brain. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that this zebrafish ortholog clusters with Nestin sequences from other vertebrates but not with other intermediate filament proteins. We analyzed nestin expression from gastrula stage to 4 day larvae, and in post-embryonic brains. We found broad expression in the neuroectoderm during somitogenesis. In the larvae, nestin expression progressively becomes restricted to all previously described proliferative zones of the developing and postembryonic central nervous system. nestin expressing cells of the forebrain also express PCNA during late embryogenesis, identifying them as proliferating precursor or neural stem cells. nestin is also expressed in the cranial ganglia, in mesodermal precursors of muscle cells, and in cranial mesenchymal tissue. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that in zebrafish, like in mammals, the expression of the intermediated neurofilament nestin gene may serve as a marker for stem cells and proliferating precursors in the developing embryonic nervous system as well as in the postembryonic brain.

  17. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  18. Experimental validation of a method for performance monitoring of the Impurity Processing stage in the TEP system of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) system within the Tritium Plant of ITER needs to be designed such that tritium is recovered from all exhaust gases produced during different modes and operational conditions of the vacuum vessel. The reference process for the TEP system of ITER is called CAPER and comprises three different, consecutive steps to recover hydrogen isotopes at highest purity for direct transfer to the cryogenic Isotope Separation System. The second step ('' impurity processing '', IP) of the CAPER process developed at TLK is carried out in a closed loop involving heterogeneously catalyzed cracking or conversion reactions to liberate tritium from tritiated hydrocarbons or tritiated water combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through a Pd/Ag permeator. This combination shifts chemical equilibria towards dehydrogenation and therefore enables detritiation factors higher than 1000 in the IP stage. A closed loop with a catalyst reactor and a permeator can in principle be operated in two different modes, the batch mode or the continuous mode. In the batch mode the loop is filled with the gas to be detritiated, its cycled for a certain time until the tritium level is sufficiently lowered, and then the loop is emptied for the next batch. In the continuous mode the loop is continuously fed with gas and simultaneously gas is withdrawn from the loop. Both modes are sensitive to different extents to the actual permeability of the Pd/Ag membrane, which unavoidably becomes deteriorated by the decomposition of methane and coverage with carbon. Therefore, the permeator needs to be repeatedly regenerated in order to sustain high decontamination factors. In a series of tritium experiments with the CAPER facility at TLK a method has been developed to determine the actual performance of the 2nd process step in both possible operation modes. During this experimental campaign the permeator has been operated with DT mixed with tritiated methane under conditions

  19. Power supply to the air-core transformer coils of a large tokamak by a multi-stage inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-stage inductive energy storage circuits have been studied by a simplex method to obtain an optimum design of a power supply system for the air-core transformer coils of a large tokamak. Parameters of the electric circuits subject to various constraints were determined by the method. The multi-stage inductive energy storage system is better than the single-stage system in viewpoint of the energy necessary to build up the plasma current. Circuit analysis including the plasma was made for the two cases: (1) the plasma resistance given as a function of time, and (2) the plasma resistance determined from a zero-dimensional plasma model. The plasma self-inductance and its time variation play an important role during the build up of plasma current, and influence largely on the optimal circuit parameters. (auth.)

  20. A Power Conditioning Stage Based on Analog-Circuit MPPT Control and a Superbuck Converter for Thermoelectric Generators in Spacecraft Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Wu, Hongfei; Cai, Yan; Xing, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a very important kind of power supply for spacecraft, especially for deep-space missions, due to its long lifetime and high reliability. To develop a practical TEG power supply for spacecraft, a power conditioning stage is indispensable, being employed to convert the varying output voltage of the TEG modules to a definite voltage for feeding batteries or loads. To enhance the system reliability, a power conditioning stage based on analog-circuit maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) control and a superbuck converter is proposed in this paper. The input of this power conditioning stage is connected to the output of the TEG modules, and the output of this stage is connected to the battery and loads. The superbuck converter is employed as the main circuit, featuring low input current ripples and high conversion efficiency. Since for spacecraft power systems reliable operation is the key target for control circuits, a reset-set flip-flop-based analog circuit is used as the basic control circuit to implement MPPT, being much simpler than digital control circuits and offering higher reliability. Experiments have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed power conditioning stage. The results show the advantages of the proposed stage, such as maximum utilization of TEG power, small input ripples, and good stability.

  1. Planar cell polarity: the Dachsous/Fat system contributes differently to the embryonic and larval stages of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Saavedra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal patterns of all three larval instars (L1–L3 of Drosophila are made by one unchanging set of cells. The seven rows of cuticular denticles of all larval stages are consistently planar polarised, some pointing forwards, others backwards. In L1 all the predenticles originate at the back of the cells but, in L2 and L3, they form at the front or the back of the cell depending on the polarity of the forthcoming denticles. We find that, to polarise all rows, the Dachsous/Fat system is differentially utilised; in L1 it is active in the placement of the actin-based predenticles but is not crucial for the final orientation of the cuticular denticles, in L2 and L3 it is needed for placement and polarity. We find Four-jointed to be strongly expressed in the tendon cells and show how this might explain the orientation of all seven rows. Unexpectedly, we find that L3 that lack Dachsous differ from larvae lacking Fat and we present evidence that this is due to differently mislocalised Dachs. We make some progress in understanding how Dachs contributes to phenotypes of wildtype and mutant larvae and adults.

  2. Development of an Animal Model for Burn-Blast Combined Injury and Cardiopulmonary System Changes in the Early Shock Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Quan; Chai, Jiake; Hu, Sen; Fan, Jun; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ma, Li; Duan, Hong-Jie; Liu, Lingying; Yang, Hongming; Li, Bai-Ling; Wang, Yi-He

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish an animal model for burn-blast combined injury research and elaborate cardiopulmonary system changes in the early shock stage. In this study, royal demolition explosive or RDX (hexagon, ring trimethylene nitramine) was used as an explosive source, and the injury conditions of the canine test subjects at various distances to the explosion (30, 50, and 70 cm) were observed by gross anatomy and pathology to determine a larger animal model of moderate blast injury. The canines were then subjected to a 35 % total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness flame injury using napalm, which completed the development of a burn-blast combined injury model. Based on this model, the hemodynamic changes and arterial blood gas analysis after the burn-blast combined injury were measured to identify the cardiopulmonary system characteristics. In this research, RDX explosion and flame injury were used to develop a severe burn-blast injury animal model that was stable, close to reality, and easily controllable. The hemodynamic and arterial blood gas changes in the canine subjects after burn-blast injury changed distinctly from the burn and blast injuries. Blood pressure and cardiac output fluctuated, and the preload was significantly reduced, whereas the afterload significantly increased. Meanwhile, the oxygen saturation (SO2) decreased markedly with carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2), and lactic acid (Lac) rose, and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) reduced. These changes suggested that immediate clinical treatment is important during burn-blast injury both to stabilize cardiac function and supply blood volume and to reduce the vascular permeability, thereby preventing acute pneumonedema or other complications. PMID:27011494

  3. Reactive Power Control of Single-Stage Three-Phase Photovoltaic System during Grid Faults Using Recurrent Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Faa-Jeng Lin; Kuang-Chin Lu; Hsuan-Yu Lee

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new active and reactive power control scheme for a single-stage three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system during grid faults. The presented PV system utilizes a single-stage three-phase current-controlled voltage-source inverter to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the PV panel with the function of low voltage ride through (LVRT). Moreover, a formula based on positive sequence voltage for evaluating the percentage of voltage sag is deri...

  4. Propuesta de un sistema de estadiaje de tumores de mediastino: A Proposal Staging System for Mediastinals Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salazar-Vargas

    2010-07-01

    total de la cavidad torácica será la suma del volumen del aire más el del tumor. La relación se obtiene al dividir el volumen tumoral por el torácico total. El corazón, la tráquea y los grandes vasos, comunes a todos, no se toman en cuenta. La I indica invasión de cualquier estructura, sea vena cava, tráquea, aorta, etc. La disminución o compromiso de la luz en 50%. La N se refiere a la presencia o no de ganglios linfáticos, particularmente en tumores no linfomatosos, y la M a la existencia o no de metástasis. El estadio del túmor de cada paciente puede determinarse según sea su combinación letras, como se indica en el texto.The mediastinum is an anatomic compartment that frequently lodges tumors of different histology, given the diversity of organs and structures that either occupy it or go through it, in one or another direction. Since the chest cavity is so large, is not uncommon to see patients presenting with pretty big tumors, sometimes invading vital organs, complicating their clinical status, anesthetic management and needed surgical procedures. Currently a common staging system applicable to patients with mediastinal tumors does not exist; the size of the mass and its relationships to neighboring organs is described from the imaging studies. If a TNM like system existed for mediastinal tumors, treating physicians could communicate and asses a particular lesion better, follow its response to treatment and could best define a prognosis for the patients. Based on the TNM system we propose herein an staging system for mediastinal tumors, utilizing the letters: T/I/N/M. The letter T expresses the relationship of volume of tumor, with the volume of the continent chest cavity; these volumes may be easily obtained from the CT scanner depending on its software. Otherwise the perimeter of the mass is drawn in the axial cuts, which are several millimeters thick and its density range is read in Hounsfield units. The computer determines the total volume of

  5. Compressor selection methods for multi-stage re-liquefaction system of liquefied CO2 transport ship for CCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, CCS (carbon dioxide capture and sequestration) has been receiving considerable attention as a possible means of dealing with emissions of CO2, a greenhouse gas. To this end, EOR (enhanced oil recovery) and EGR (enhanced gas recovery) are regarded as being viable options for economically sequestrating large amounts of CO2. A feasible approach would involve capturing CO2 from large-scale CO2 emission sources such as power plants, and then transporting that captured gas to near-depleted oil and gas wells to maintain the reservoir pressure and enhance the oil/gas recovery rate. In the future, CO2 will be transported large distances from emission sources in developed countries to oil/gas producing regions by pipelines or ships. The long-distance ship-based transport of CO2 would require that the gas be compressed or liquefied (LCO2). Furthermore, an LCO2 transport ship would have to be capable of processing boil-off gas while at sea. In this study, the selection method of compressors for re-liquefaction system of dedicated LCO2 transport ship was investigated by computational method. The performance of same compression ratio (SCR) method exhibited low levels of efficiency and reliability as for coefficient of performance (COP) and compressor discharge temperature in terms of oil degradation compared to that of intermediate pressure optimization (IPO). Of these three methods, IPO produced the highest level of performance of all, but could not guarantee compressor reliability as like SCR, too. Intermediate pressure optimization with same discharge temperature (IPODT) method was found to be better in terms of reliability, with a decrease in performance of only 5% relative to that obtained by IPO. Consequently, we recommend the use of the IPODT method for the design of a multi-stage compression system for the re-liquefaction cycle of an LCO2 transport ship. - Highlights: • Compressor selection methods for CO2 re-liquefaction system are compared. • Simulation

  6. Maintenance of radiation protection at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transformation into environmentally safe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, S Yu

    2015-12-01

    Special aspects of radiation protection maintenance at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transforma tion into environmentally safe system are shaped in the article. Information is provided on the basis of analysis of design plans and specifications both with project paperwork from activities at the ShO in 2002 2015 on accordance to requirements of the Ukrainian health legislation in the field of radiation hygiene regulations. Specific features of radiation factors at the ShO were identified accounting their emergency origination. Relevancy of assessment of a range of activity types and technologies impact on radiation situation in the operation environment was reviewed and substantiated. General characteristics of radiation exposure and resulting doses in personnel under the activi ty execution are provided followed by the requirements to estimates of anticipated radiation doses. Features and peculiarities of application of the Ukrainian health legislation in a field of radiation hygienic regulations are reviewed in a view of meeting the requirements of NRBU 97, NRBU 97/D 2000, OSPU 2005, SPORO 85, SP AES 88 and other health legislative regulatory documents under conditions of work at the ShO. By the virtue of analysis of radi ation hygienic factors at the ShO the special aspects of choice of individual and collective radiological protection arrangements for personnel were identified, namely the individual protective gear and respiratory protection equip ment, shielding, decontamination, dust suppression, ventilation, sanitary pass control, sanitary barriers, scope and types of radiological control, setting the design levels of radiological environment parameters, criteria for the most safe options (technologies) of work execution.

  7. Use of the University of California Los Angeles integrated staging system to predict survival in renal cell carcinoma: an international multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patard, J.J.; Kim, H.L.; Lam, J.; Dorey, F.J.; Pantuck, A.J.; Zisman, A.; Ficarra, V.; Han, K.R.; Cindolo, L.; Taille, A. De La; Tostain, J.; Artibani, W.; Dinney, C.P.; Wood, C.G.; Swanson, D.A.; Abbou, C.C.; Lobel, B.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Chopin, D.K.; Figlin, R.A.; Belldegrun, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate ability of the University of California Los Angeles Integrated Staging System (UISS) to stratify patients with localized and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) into risk groups in an international multicenter study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 4,202 patients from eight internationa

  8. The development of giftedness within the three-level system of music education in Poland and Serbia: Outcomes at different stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogaj Anna Antonina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of this article is theoretical and practice oriented, therefore offering educational implications for music educators and music psychologists. Its main objective is to give an overview of the most important musical and developmental changes of musically talented children and youth, at different stages of the three-level specialized music education. The theoretical background of the article refers to stage theories of development of gifted with the intention to point out correspondence between stages of development and the specificity of music education stages. Theoretical conceptions are used as a framework to synthesize and to interpret empirical data and practice-related professional experiences of psychologists in music schools in Poland and Serbia. Both countries, though culturally distinct in nature and in the character of traditional music, are characterized by a very similar system of specialized/professional music education. Further on, the article presents a review of the wide range of benefits/outcomes experienced by music school students, as a result of the highly simulative, systematic and supportive environment of music learning. The article begins with an introduction to the context of the specialized music education system in Poland and Serbia and then presents how a particular system of education for the gifted contributes to the development in the field of acquiring musical knowledge and skills, as well as to benefits/outcomes of the education system for the personal, social and professional development of the musically gifted, indicating a wide range of positive experiences.

  9. Image-based Multilevel Subdivision of M1 Category in TNM Staging System for Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lujun; Li, Wang; Wang, Siyang; Xie, Guofeng; Zeng, Qi; Chen, Chen; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Ming; Shu, Wanhong; Pan, Changchuan; Xia, Yunfei; Wu, Peihong

    2016-09-01

    . The multilevel subdivision system could be further used to discriminate among subgroups of differential OS under the M1b subcategory. Findings from analysis of multilevel subgroups suggested that patients with a single metastatic lesion (M1-B1, M1-L1, M1-H1, M1-N1) or two lesions in the liver only (M1-H2) had high rates of complete response (CR) or complete surgical resection (CSR) and 3-year OS after treatment (CR plus CSR rates >30%, and 3-year OS rates >50%); there were high 3-year OS rates (>50%) in patients with stage M1-B2, M1-L2, or M1-H3 disease but relatively low rates of CR or CSR. Conclusion Use of the multilevel M1 subdivision system in patients with NPC could facilitate more precise prognosis prediction and better identification of patients who will respond well to treatment than the conventional subdivision strategy. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27023116

  10. Proposal of a new staging system for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Analysis of surgical patients from a nationwide survey of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Michiie; Izumi, Namiki; Kadoya, Masumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Ku, Yonson; Kudo, Masatoshi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Nakashima, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the current American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer staging system (seventh edition) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), tumor size was excluded, and periductal invasion was added as a new tumor classification‐defining factor. The objective of the current report was to propose a new staging system for ICC that would be better for stratifying the survival of patients based on data from the nationwide Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan database. METHODS Of 756 patients who underwent surgical resection for ICC between 2000 and 2005, multivariate analyses of the clinicopathologic factors of 419 patients who had complete data sets were performed to elucidate relevant factors for inclusion in a new tumor classification and staging system. RESULTS Overall survival data were best stratified using a cutoff value of 2 cm using a minimal P value approach to discriminate patient survival. The 5‐year survival rate of 15 patients who had ICC measuring ≤2 cm in greatest dimension without lymph node metastasis or vascular invasion was 100%, and this cohort was defined as T1. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for 267 patients with lymph node‐negative and metastasis‐negative (N0M0) disease indicated that the number of tumors, the presence arterial invasion, and the presence major biliary invasion were independent and significant prognostic factors. The proposed new system, which included tumor number, tumor size, arterial invasion, and major biliary invasion for tumor classification, provided good stratification of overall patient survival according to disease stage. Macroscopic periductal invasion was associated with major biliary invasion and an inferior prognosis. CONCLUSIONS The proposed new staging system, which includes a tumor cutoff size of 2 cm and major biliary invasion, may be useful for assigning patients to surgery. Cancer 2016;122:61–70. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley

  11. The Application of the HOAC Stage Wagon System in a Korean Theatre%霍阿克车台在韩国剧场中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加布里埃莱·霍格; 钟睿

    2012-01-01

      Based on the case of a Korean theatre, a brief introduction of the innovative stage wagon system from HOAC, which enables flexibility within limited stage space.%  结合韩国剧场项目中的应用实例,简要介绍德国霍阿克(HOAC)公司开发的一套独立车台系统,在舞台有限的空间内如何实现达到高灵活度的使用目的。

  12. Design, Modelling and Simulation of Two-Phase Two-Stage Electronic System with Orthogonal Output for Supplying of Two-Phase ASM

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Prazenica; Branislav Dobrucky; Peter Sekerak; Lukas Kalamen

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the two-stage two-phase electronic systems with orthogonal output voltages and currents - DC/AC/AC. Design of two-stage DC/AC/AC high frequency converter with two-phase orthogonal output using single-phase matrix converter is also introduced. Output voltages of them are strongly nonharmonic ones, so they must be pulse-modulated due to requested nearly sinusoidal currents with low total harmonic distortion. Simulation experiment results of matrix converter for both steady...

  13. Clinical staging of malignant tumours of the head and neck by the TNM system: The contribution of modern imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanski, M.; Wernecke, K.; Naszaly, F.; Deitmer, T.

    1987-08-01

    Staging of malignant tumours of the head and neck should be based on modern imaging techniques in order to assure high diagnostic validity. CT is indispensable in determining the size of tumours of the internal nose, paranasal sinuses, and epipharynx. The situation is similar for the mesopharynx and salivary glands, although histological grading is more important here for prognosis and therapy. In case of tumours of the larynx and hypopharynx, the CT is rivalled by microlaryngoscopsy and biopsy, which is just as efficient a diagnostic technique. In lymph node staging, sonography is the method of choice today. CT is an alternative if it would be applied anyway for staging of the primary tumour, or if standardized sectional images are to be established for radiotherapy planning.

  14. The research of functional state of the systems of providing of motion for footballers on the preparatory stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitko S.M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The features of neurodynamic reactions are presented on the different stages of playing activity of footballers. In research took part 18 footballers at the age of 18-22. Research was conducted in the first part of day (9-11 hours on each of the stages. Changeability of neurodynamic indexes is certain in time of the high functional state of organism and after his fatigue. The most informing indexes of neurodynamic reactions of footballers are exposed. The most informing indexes of the state of footballers are offered.

  15. The research of functional state of the systems of providing of motion for footballers on the preparatory stage

    OpenAIRE

    Bitko S.M.; Mokhun'ko A.D.

    2010-01-01

    The features of neurodynamic reactions are presented on the different stages of playing activity of footballers. In research took part 18 footballers at the age of 18-22. Research was conducted in the first part of day (9-11 hours) on each of the stages. Changeability of neurodynamic indexes is certain in time of the high functional state of organism and after his fatigue. The most informing indexes of neurodynamic reactions of footballers are exposed. The most informing indexes of the state ...

  16. A new, mainly dynamical, two-stage scenario for forming the Sun's planetary system and its relation to exoplanet findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2009-04-01

    radiation, and were then pushed outward by the plasma-driven Protoplanetary Disk Wind (PDW), with smaller material moving past them as feedstock. This purely radial force offers a unique (and demonstrably quantitative) resolution of the planetary a.m. problem - the a.m. grows as radius from the centre increases, and none of it came from the Sun. To achieve an individual planet's a.m. both the protoplanet and its feedstock must have acquired similar a.m., so planetary growth must be largely completed while the PDW is present. This conflicts with the current belief, based on time-demanding models for iron core formation by percolation, that accretion had continued for long after nebular departure. In our new scenario, however, the infall, being from a very cold (~10K) second-cloud source, and much of the flow having been dust-shielded from solar heat, yielded a disk at present, thus generating the solar system's water [3] - a model long favoured (1960-1978) by A.E. Ringwood to resolve this still-extant problem. The prograde orbits that characterize the satellite populations of the Giant Planets tells us their ~10ME silicate 'cores' were completed by tidal capture [3], their massive gas envelopes being final acquisitions as the nebula was expelled from the inner solar system. Viewed overall, the spacing and silicate core masses of the solar planets crudely profile the cloud density during the traverse. This 2-stage scenario for the solar system bears close comparison with several exoplanet features. Of the 334 discovered (as at Jan 2009), 73 lie within 10 solar radii of their star's axis, far too close to have been there long, and certainly much less than the age of their star. We must be seeing them soon after leaving their second cloud and now deprived of the shielding by its dust. Contrasting with the

  17. Characteristics of agricultural system at different development stages in Northeastern China%东北地区农业系统发展的阶段性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦珂; 王思明

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture, as the foundation of the national economy, has its strong internal organic system as well as its relevance with the external world. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze evolution of agricultural system from a historical perspective in a macroscopic view and to objectively judge the reasona- bleness of the structural change of agricultural system and its functional evolvement. The paper explored that development of agricultural systems experienced four stages in the Northeast of China historically, which were: 1) the differentiation stage between the hunting and fishing system and the acquisition sys- tem; 2) the differentiation stage between the agricultural and pastoral system and the fishing and hunting; 3) the long-term complementary coexistence phase of agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and hunting; and 4) the differentiation stage of the farming system and the livestock system. At each stage, organiza- tional form and function of the agricultural system structure were different; and the system development trend was the structure plurality and function stability. Finally, the paper summarized factors of promo- ting evolution of the agricultural system in Northeastern of China, which included ecological constraints and climate disturbance; war famine and pastoral policies; migration and economic exchange; cultural radi- ation and technological diffusion; religion and dietary customs; and transportation conditions and market exchange etc.%农业作为国民经济的基础,具有较强的内在有机性和外部关联性。宏观地考察农业系统的演变历史及发展规律,对于客观判断农业结构变动是否合理以及功能衍变是否良性,具有重要意义。东北地区农业系统的发展经历了4个阶段(渔猎系统同采集系统的分化阶段,农牧系统同渔猎系统的分化阶段,农牧渔猎长期共存互补阶段以及农耕系统同畜牧系统的分化阶段)。在

  18. Validation of an integrated staging system toward improved prognostication of patients with localized renal cell carcinoma in an international population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, K.R.; Bleumer, I.; Pantuck, A.J.; Kim, H.L.; Dorey, F.J.; Janzen, N.K.; Zisman, A.; Dinney, C.P.; Wood, C.G.; Swanson, D.A.; Said, J.W.; Figlin, R.A.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Belldegrun, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Outcome prediction for patients with renal cell carcinoma is based on a combination of factors. In this study a previously published clinical outcome algorithm based on 1997 T stage, Fuhrman grade and performance score is validated using an international database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A t

  19. New Methods in Design Education: The Systemic Methodology and the Use of Sketch in the Conceptual Design Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Juan Carlos Briede; Ortuno, Bernabe Hernandis

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of a new product concurrent design methodologies in the context in the education of industrial design. The use of the sketch has been utilized many times as a tool of creative expression especially in the conceptual design stage, in an intuitive way and a little out of the context of the reality needs that the…

  20. A novel two-stage evaluation system based on a Group-G1 approach to identify appropriate emergency treatment technology schemes in sudden water source pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Hu, Qi; You, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Sudden water source pollution resulting from hazardous materials has gradually become a major threat to the safety of the urban water supply. Over the past years, various treatment techniques have been proposed for the removal of the pollutants to minimize the threat of such pollutions. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically select the most desirable alternative for different threat degrees. Therefore, a novel two-stage evaluation system was developed based on a circulation-correction improved Group-G1 method to determine the optimal emergency treatment technology scheme, considering the areas of contaminant elimination in both drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, the threat degree caused by the pollution was predicted using a threat evaluation index system and was subdivided into four levels. Then, a technique evaluation index system containing four sets of criteria weights was constructed in stage 2 to obtain the optimum treatment schemes corresponding to the different threat levels. The applicability of the established evaluation system was tested by a practical cadmium-contaminated accident that occurred in 2012. The results show this system capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technologies for drinking water source security. PMID:26449677

  1. Analysis of local chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate combined with systemic inflammation improves prognostication in stage II colon cancer independent of standard clinicopathologic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Natalie; Wong, Hui-Li; Templeton, Arnoud; Tripathy, Sagarika; Whiti Rogers, Te; Croxford, Matthew; Jones, Ian; Sinnathamby, Mathuranthakan; Desai, Jayesh; Tie, Jeanne; Bae, Susie; Christie, Michael; Gibbs, Peter; Tran, Ben

    2016-02-01

    In Stage II colon cancer, multiple independent studies have shown that a dense intratumoural immune infiltrate (local inflammation) is associated with improved outcomes, while systemic inflammation, measured by various markers, has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, previous studies have not considered the interaction between local and systemic inflammation, nor have they assessed the type of inflammatory response compared with standard clinicopathologic criteria. In order to evaluate the potential clinical utility of inflammatory markers in Stage II colon cancer, we examined local and systemic inflammation in a consecutive series of patients with resected Stage II colon cancer between 2000 and 2010 who were identified from a prospective clinical database. Increased intratumoural chronic inflammatory cell (CIC) density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >5, as calculated from pre-operative full blood counts, was used to represent systemic inflammation. In 396 eligible patients identified, there was a non-significant inverse relationship between local and systemic inflammation. Increased CIC density was significantly associated with improved overall (HR 0.45, p = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR 0.37, p = 0.003). High NLR was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (HR 2.56, p < 0.001). The combination of these markers further stratified prognosis independent of standard high-risk criteria, with a dominant systemic inflammatory response (low CIC/high NLR) associated with the worst outcome (5-year overall survival 55.8%). With further validation this simple, inexpensive combined inflammatory biomarker might assist in patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage II colon cancer.

  2. The axial mixing influence on the number stages of countercurrent absorbers in absorbing NH3-CO2-H2O mixture in NaCl-H2O system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Micic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of axial or longitudinal mixing of stages on the number stages in a countercurrent absorber in absorbing vapour-gas mixture of NH3-CO2-H2O in the multicomponent system NaCl-H2O. The number stages in ideal mixing of phases NT and the number of stages which involves axial mixing ND were determined. The authors of this paper conclude that the influence of axial mixing does not affect the number stages in the countercurrent absorber. Otherwise, absorption in this concrete system is practically present in the process of soda ash production.

  3. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  4. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  5. Intercalation chemistry in a LDH system: anion exchange process and staging phenomenon investigated by means of time-resolved, in situ X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviot-Guého, Christine; Feng, Yongjun; Faour, Azzam; Leroux, Fabrice

    2010-07-14

    Using time-resolved, in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), the formation of interstratified LDH structures, with alternate interlayer spaces occupied by different anions, have been demonstrated during anion exchange reactions. Novel hybrid LDH nanostructures can thus be prepared, combining the physicochemical properties of two intercalated anions plus those of the LDH host. A general trend is that inorganic-inorganic anion exchange reactions occur in a one-step process while inorganic-organic exchanges may proceed via a second-stage intermediate, suggesting that staging occurs partly as a result of organic-inorganic separation. Yet, other influencing parameters must be considered such as LDH host composition, LDH affinity for different anions and LDH particle size as well as extrinsic parameters like the reaction temperature. Hence, a correlation between the occurrence of staging phenomenon and the difficulty of the exchange of the initial anion is observed, suggesting that staging is needed to overcome the energy barrier in the case of the exchange by organic anions. Notwithstanding the LiAl(2) system, staging has mainly been observed with Zn(2)Cr LDH host so far, a peculiar LDH composition with a unique Zn/Cr ratio of two and a local order of the cations within the hydroxide layers. The formation of a higher order-staged intermediate than stage two, observed during the exchange reaction of CO(3)(2-) or SO(4)(2-) anions with Zn(2)Cr-tartrate, is in favour of a Daumas-Herold model although this model implies a bending of LDH layers. The analysis of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of Zn(2)Cr-Cl/tartrate second-stage intermediate, isolated almost as a pure phase during the exchange of Cl(-) with tartrate anions in Zn(2)Cr LDH, indicates a disorder in the stacking sequence and a relative proportion of the two kinds of interlayers slightly different from 50/50. Besides, the microstructural analysis of the XRD pattern reveals a great reduction of the

  6. Experimental evaluation of desuperheating and oil cooling process through liquid injection in two-staged ammonia refrigeration systems with screw compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the problem of achieving desuperheating through liquid injection in two-staged refrigeration systems based on screw compressors. The oil cooling process by refrigerant injection is also included. The basic thermodynamic principles of desuperheating and compressor cooling as well as short comparison with traditional method with a thermosyphon system have also been presented. Finally, the collected data referring to a big refrigeration plant are analyzed in the paper. Specific ammonia system concept applied in this refrigeration plant has demonstrated its advantages and disadvantages. - Highlights: ► An experiment was setup during a frozen food factory refrigeration system reconstruction and adaptation. ► Desuperheating and low-stage compressors oil cooling process were investigated. ► Efficiency of compression process and high-stage compressors functioning were examined. ► Evaporation temperature reduction has great influence on the need for injected liquid refrigerant. ► Several cases in which desuperheating and oil cooling process application are justified were determined.

  7. Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.; Nielsen, Arne Høj

    2008-01-01

    motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd......Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3...

  8. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH SUPPORTED BY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO SPECIFICATION STAGE IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan TOKTAŞ

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a process progressing from a description of needs and functions to one or more abstract models, and finally to the prediction of the actual behavior and performance of the object being designed. In this paper, a methodology for the specification stage in conceptual design is presented. The specification stage provides requirements and transforms them into functions of the designed object. It occurs at the highest level of abstraction and it must provide enough information for the synthesis process where functions are transformed into design components that are further synthesized into the designed object. Methodology allows for problem solving in an active interaction with the designer. An important part of the proposed methodology is the requiremental and functional tree representing the overall logic and structure at the design problem. The methodology presented is illustrated with an example.

  9. Design, Modelling and Simulation of Two-Phase Two-Stage Electronic System with Orthogonal Output for Supplying of Two-Phase ASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kalamen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the two-stage two-phase electronic systems with orthogonal output voltages and currents - DC/AC/AC. Design of two-stage DC/AC/AC high frequency converter with two-phase orthogonal output using single-phase matrix converter is also introduced. Output voltages of them are strongly nonharmonic ones, so they must be pulse-modulated due to requested nearly sinusoidal currents with low total harmonic distortion. Simulation experiment results of matrix converter for both steady and transient states for IM motors are given in the paper, also experimental verification under R-L load, so far. The simulation results confirm a very good time-waveform of the phase current and the system seems to be suitable for low-cost application in automotive/aerospace industries and application with high frequency voltage sources.

  10. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Lijiao; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 d...

  11. Global Existence and Convergence of Solutions to a Cross-Diffusion Cubic Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure for the Prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmao Fu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a cubic predator-prey system with stage structure for the prey. This system is a generalization of the two-species Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. Firstly, we consider the asymptotical stability of equilibrium points to the system of ordinary differential equations type. Then, the global existence of solutions and the stability of equilibrium points to the system of weakly coupled reaction-diffusion type are discussed. Finally, the existence of nonnegative classical global solutions to the system of strongly coupled reaction-diffusion type is investigated when the space dimension is less than 6, and the global asymptotic stability of unique positive equilibrium point of the system is proved by constructing Lyapunov functions.

  12. Two-stage transjugular intrahepatic porta-systemic shunt for patients with cirrhosis and a high risk of portal-systemic encephalopathy patients as a bridge to orthotopic liver transplantation: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wroblewski; O. Rowinski; B. Ziarkiewicz-Wroblewska; B. Gornicka; J. Albrecht; E.A. Jones; M. Krawczyk

    2006-01-01

    Aim. Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic porta-systemic shunt (TIPS) is a therapeutic option for the management of bleeding esophageal varices. However, the procedure is associated with an increased risk of portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE). In this study, a two-stage modification of the sta

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  14. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment. PMID:27008710

  15. Conversion of organic solid waste to hydrogen and methane by two-stage fermentation system with reuse of methane fermenter effluent as diluting water in hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Moon, Chungman; Cho, Si-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a two-stage system converting organic solid waste (food waste+sewage sludge) to H2 and CH4 was operated. In the first stage of dark fermentative hydrogen production (DFHP), a recently proposed method that does not require external inoculum, was applied. In the second stage, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBr) were followed to treat H2 fermenter effluent. (H2+CH4-ASBR) system showed better performance in terms of total biogas conversion (78.6%), while higher biogas production rate (2.03 L H2/Lsystem/d, 1.96 L CH4/Lsystem/d) was achieved in (H2+CH4-UASBr) system. To reduce the alkali addition requirement in DFHP process, CH4 fermenter effluent was tested as a diluting water. Both the ASBR and UASBr effluent was effective to keep the pH above 6 without CH4 production. In case of using ASBR effluent, H2 production dropped by 15%, but alkali addition requirement was reduced by 50%.

  16. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Hong; Fang, Yu-Jing; Li, Cai-Xia; Ou, Qing-Jian; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De Sen

    2016-04-19

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment.

  17. Conversion of organic solid waste to hydrogen and methane by two-stage fermentation system with reuse of methane fermenter effluent as diluting water in hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Moon, Chungman; Cho, Si-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a two-stage system converting organic solid waste (food waste+sewage sludge) to H2 and CH4 was operated. In the first stage of dark fermentative hydrogen production (DFHP), a recently proposed method that does not require external inoculum, was applied. In the second stage, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBr) were followed to treat H2 fermenter effluent. (H2+CH4-ASBR) system showed better performance in terms of total biogas conversion (78.6%), while higher biogas production rate (2.03 L H2/Lsystem/d, 1.96 L CH4/Lsystem/d) was achieved in (H2+CH4-UASBr) system. To reduce the alkali addition requirement in DFHP process, CH4 fermenter effluent was tested as a diluting water. Both the ASBR and UASBr effluent was effective to keep the pH above 6 without CH4 production. In case of using ASBR effluent, H2 production dropped by 15%, but alkali addition requirement was reduced by 50%. PMID:23648761

  18. Investigation on a two-stage solar liquid-desiccant (LiBr) dehumidification system assisted by CaCl2 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage solar powered liquid-desiccant dehumidification system, for which two kinds of desiccant solution (lithium chloride and calcium bromide) are fed to the two dehumidification stages separately, has been studied. In the studied system air moisture (latent) load is separately removed by a pre-dehumidifier using cheap calcium chloride (CaCl2) and a main dehumidifier using stable lithium bromide (LiBr). Side-effect of mixing heat rejected during dehumidification process is considerably alleviated by an indirect evaporative cooling unit added between the two dehumidification stages. The feasibility of high-desiccant concentration difference achieved by reusing desiccant solution to dehumidify air and regenerating desiccant repeatedly is analyzed. By increasing desiccant concentration difference, desiccant storage capacity is effectively explored. It is found that the pre-dehumidification effect of CaCl2 solution is significant in high ambient humidity condition. Also seen is that the desiccant investment can be decreased by 53%, though the cost of equipments is somewhat increased, and the Tcop and COP of the proposed system can reach 0.97 and 2.13, respectively

  19. Locoregional Failure in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Mastectomy and Adjuvant Systemic Therapy: Which Patients Benefit From Postmastectomy Irradiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovo, Marco, E-mail: marcotrovo33@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Durofil, Elena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Polesel, Jerry [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Roncadin, Mario [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Perin, Tiziana [Department of Pathology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Mileto, Mario; Piccoli, Erica [Department of Surgery, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Quitadamo, Daniela [Scientific Direction, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Massarut, Samuele [Department of Surgery, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Carbone, Antonino [Department of Pathology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Trovo, Mauro G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the locoregional failure in patients with Stage I-II breast cancer treated with radical mastectomy and to evaluate whether a subset of these patients might be at sufficiently high risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) to benefit from postmastectomy irradiation (PMRT). Methods and Materials: Stage I-II breast cancer patients (n = 150) treated with radical mastectomy without adjuvant irradiation between 1999 and 2005 were analyzed. The pattern of LRR was reported. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate rates of LRR, and Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate potential risk factors. Results: Median follow-up was 75 months. Mean patient age was 56 years. One-hundred forty-three (95%) patients received adjuvant systemic therapy: 85 (57%) hormonal therapy alone, 14 (9%) chemotherapy alone, and 44 (29%) both chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Statistically significant factors associated with increased risk of LRR were premenopausal status (p = 0.004), estrogen receptor negative cancer (p = 0.02), pathologic grade 3 (p = 0.02), and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.001). T and N stage were not associated with increased risk of regional recurrence. The 5-year LRR rate for patients with zero or one, two, three, and four risk factors was 1%, 10.3%, 24.2%, and 75%, respectively. Conclusions: A subset of patients with early-stage breast cancer is at high risk of LRR, and therefore PMRT might be beneficial.

  20. "We live on earth : rotating systems" : performance by J. Jarosz (PL) done at the Physics on Stage Festival

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2000-01-01

    Part of the Physics on Stage Festival (04-10 November 2000). During this event, the national competion winners, science teachers, science communicators, publishers, top scientists and high-level representatives of the ministries and European organisations will brainstorm future solutions to bolster physics' popularity. The programme will also include spectacular demonstrations of new educational tools; the best will be disseminated over the national TV networks and other media to the European public. A the end of the film, Dutch Performance by The Eindhoven Circus of Physics, Prof. De Waele from the Eindhoven University of Technology

  1. SEPS guidance and navigation autonomy selection via mission analysis. [Solar Electric Propulsion Stage for Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.; Shenfish, K. L.; Wallace, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic rationale for selecting a cost-effective guidance and navigation (G & N) autonomy level for the solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS) vehicle is developed. After a definition of autonomy levels, a mission analysis is performed for representative SEPS missions using realistic G & N sensor hardware. Cost data for fabricating, integrating and refurbishing onboard avionics hardware and the ground costs corresponding to each autonomy level are generated. Results are presented that indicate performance of various G & N sensor hardware sets and the dominating factors which influence G & N autonomy level selection.

  2. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Martin R L; Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V; Parry, R Mitchell; Gaul, David A; Wang, May D; Matzuk, Martin M; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  3. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R L Paine

    Full Text Available High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy.

  4. First-line systemic treatment of advanced stage non-small-cell lung cancer in Asia: consensus statement from the Asian Oncology Summit 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Ross A; Anderson, Benjamin O; Cho, Byoung Chul; Yang, Chih-Hsin; Liao, Meilin; Lim, Wan-Teck; Goldstraw, Peter; Mok, Tony S

    2009-11-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an increasing global challenge, especially in low-income countries. Most guidelines for the management of advanced-stage NSCLC have limited effect in countries with resource constraints. Following a systematic literature search, we present an overview of the management of advanced-stage NSCLC in the first-line setting, discuss resources required for systemic therapy, and provide treatment recommendations stratified to four resources levels. Treatment guidelines appropriate for different resource levels offer a realistic approach to management of advanced-stage NSCLC, by recognising the limitations of a particular health-care system. Although there are many barriers to cancer control in low-resource countries, these can be overcome by using measures that are culturally appropriate, economically feasible, and evidence-based. Initiatives include strategic planning, tobacco control, training of health-care workers, access to therapeutic agents, acquisition of information, public education, and alliances with established institutions and international organisations. PMID:19880064

  5. 10 m/25 Gbps LiFi transmission system based on a two-stage injection-locked 680 nm VCSEL transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chu, Chien-An; Lu, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Rui; Wu, Chang-Jen; Lin, Dai-Hua

    2015-10-01

    A 10  m/25  Gbps light-based WiFi (LiFi) transmission system based on a two-stage injection-locked 680 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) transmitter is proposed. A LiFi transmission system with a data rate of 25 Gbps is experimentally demonstrated over a 10 m free-space link. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time a two-stage injection-locked 680 nm VCSEL transmitter in a 10  m/25  Gbps LiFi transmission system has been employed. Impressive bit error rate performance and a clear eye diagram are achieved in the proposed systems. Such a 10  m/25  Gbps LiFi transmission system provides the advantage of a communication link for higher data rates that could accelerate the deployment of visible laser light communication. PMID:26421582

  6. The Presentation of a Two Stages Model for an Optimum Operation of a Hybrid System of Wind-Pumped Storage Power Plant in the Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akbarpour

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a new method in power market environment. One of the weaknesses in the utilization of wind units is severe dependence of output power level on wind. However, considering the high uncertainty in the prediction of wind speed and wind forecast unit production capacity is also having an error. Also, regarding to the uncontrollable generators of this type, it is better to use combined systems for utilization. This study presents a new model based on the a two stage for an optimum operation of a hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant in the power market environment that causes to provide a successful presentation condition in market environments for the producers of wind power. In the suggestive hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant of this study the modeling is done in two stages for the optimum presence in power market environment with the a most possible benefit. At first, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in the prediction of power price and producing the wind power, for presenting the suggestion of power to market, in order to gain the most benefit. At the second stage, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in producing wind power, in order to gain the most benefit and paying the least penalty for unbalancing in market for operation of the system. In this study, the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO is used for optimization. At the end of a model example for applying the results of the proposed model will be examined and analyzes the results. Results show that the model is an appropriate method for the operation of this combined system in market environment.

  7. All-stages-implicit and strong-stability-preserving implicit-explicit Runge-Kutta time discretization schemes for hyperbolic systems with stiff relaxation terms

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Shu-Chao

    2016-01-01

    We construct eight implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes up to third order of the type in which all stages are implicit so that they can be used in the zero relaxation limit in a unified and convenient manner. These all-stages-implicit (ASI) schemes attain the strong-stability-preserving (SSP) property in the limiting case, and two are SSP for not only the explicit part but also the implicit part and the entire IMEX scheme. Three schemes can completely recover to the designed accuracy order in two sides of the relaxation parameter for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium initial conditions. Two schemes converge nearly uniformly for equilibrium cases. These ASI schemes can be used for hyperbolic systems with stiff relaxation terms or differential equations with some type constraints.

  8. A WTG system for local grid supply substitution: stages to implementation and monitoring. Report on the institutional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The demonstration project consisted of installing one 50 kW wind turbine generator in a rural area of Scotland to supply electricity both locally and for sale of surplus to the existing grid network. The paper reports on the difficulties encountered at the local planning application stage and in negotiating a connection to the UK national grid. Technical difficulties encountered with respect to equipment specification and suitability for connection to the grid network should serve as a warning to other potential contractors. The difficulties encountered were of sufficient magnitude that it became necessary to involve the National Engineering Laboratory as facilitator. The paper should be useful to anyone considering installing wind turbines in the UK.

  9. Survival rates according to barcelona clinic liver cancersub-staging system after transarterial embolization forintermediate hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leandro Armani Scaffaro; Steffan Frosi Stella; Mario Reis Alvares-Da-Silva; Cleber Dario Pinto Kruel

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the survival rates after transarterialembolization (TAE).METHODS: One hundred third six hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) patients [90 barcelona clinic livercancer (BCLC) B] were submitted to TAE betweenAugust 2008 and December 2013 in a single centerwere retrospectively studied. TAE was performed viasuperselective catheterization followed by embolizationwith polyvinyl alcohol or microspheres. The date of thefirst embolization until death or the last follow-up datewas used for the assessment of survival. The survivalrates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method,and the groups were compared using the log-rank test.RESULTS: The overall mean survival was 35.8 mo(95%CI: 25.1-52.0). The survival rates of the BCLC Apatients (33.7%) were 98.9%, 79.0% and 58.0% at12, 24 and 36 mo, respectively, and the mean survivalwas 38.1 mo (95%CI: 27.5-52.0). The survival rates ofthe BCLC B patients (66.2%) were 89.0%, 69.0% and49.5% at 12, 24 and 36 mo, respectively, and the meansurvival was 29.0 mo (95%CI: 17.2-34). The survivalrates according to the BCLC B sub-staging showedsignificant differences between the groups, with meansurvival rates in the B1, B2, B3 and B4 groups of 33.5mo (95%CI: 32.8-34.3), 28.6 mo (95%CI: 27.5-29.8),19.0 mo (95%CI: 17.2-20.9) and 13 mo, respectively (P= 0.013).CONCLUSION: The BCLC sub-staging systemcould add additional prognosis information for postembolizationsurvival rates in HCC patients.

  10. Water safety plans. Hazard study and risk assessment of a water supply system in Bizkaia. Application to the water catchment stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Astillero Pinilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The best way to guarantee a safe and high quality water supply is to establish a control and management plan for the water supply system that focuses on risk prevention. In this study, the methodology and analytical steps established in the Water Safety Plan Manual (WHO and the Guide to the Control and Management of Water Supply Systems (Autonomous Government of the Basque Country were used to carry out hazard and risk assessment in a water supply system in Bizkaia. Although the application has only been carried out in the water catchment stage, it has already provided information about the benefits, as well as the problems encountered. Therefore, from the results obtained, it can be seen that this methodology is clearly effective for determining risks that had passed unnoticed, and for establishing new control measures. It also demonstrates the importance of co-operation between the bodies not directly related to the operation of the water supply system.

  11. Performance evaluation of coherent free space optical communications with a double-stage fast-steering-mirror adaptive optics system depending on the Greenwood frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Huang, Danian; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Liang; Lv, Yaowen

    2016-06-13

    The Greenwood frequency (GF) is influential in performance improvement for the coherent free space optical communications (CFSOC) system with a closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) unit. We analyze the impact of tilt and high-order aberrations on the mixing efficiency (ME) and bit-error-rate (BER) under different GF. The root-mean-square value (RMS) of the ME related to the RMS of the tilt aberrations, and the GF is derived to estimate the volatility of the ME. Furthermore, a numerical simulation is applied to verify the theoretical analysis, and an experimental correction system is designed with a double-stage fast-steering-mirror and a 97-element continuous surface deformable mirror. The conclusions of this paper provide a reference for designing the AO system for the CFSOC system. PMID:27410346

  12. Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell during initial stage of shell expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafyeva Liudmila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell, created under laser heating of nanoparticle in water, were theoretically investigated. Vapor shell expansion leads to decreasing up to one to two orders of magnitude in comparison with initial values of scattering and extinction of the radiation with wavelengths 532 and 633 nm by system while shell radius is increased up to value of about two radii of nanoparticle. Subsequent increasing of shell radius more than two radii of nanoparticle leads to rise of scattering and extinction properties of system over initial values. The significant decrease of radiation scattering and extinction by system of nanoparticle-vapor shell can be used for experimental detection of the energy threshold of vapor shell formation and investigation of the first stages of its expansion. PACS: 42.62.BE. 78.67. BF

  13. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-05-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  14. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    OpenAIRE

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim; Ridzuan Ramli; Che Rahmat Che Mat; Choo Yuen May; Nasrin Abu Bakar; Nu’man Abdul Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column heig...

  15. An Enhanced Droop Control Scheme for Resilient Active Power Sharing in Paralleled Two-Stage PV Inverter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2016-01-01

    generation) due to the intermittency. In that case, unbalance in active power generation may occur among the paralleled systems. Additionally, most droop-controlled systems have been assumed to be a single dc-ac inverter with a fixed dc input source. The dc-dc converter as the front-end of a two...

  16. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Outline specifications of cogeneration plant; continued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Specifications are presented for the electrical equipment, site preparation, building construction and mechanical systems for a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota campus. This power plant will supply steam and electrical power to a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  17. Axioms for SNABOK, a System and Network Administration Body of Knowledge : missing link stage of ontology process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    SNABOK, a system an network administration body of knowledge, is coined as an attempt to complement the well-known and quite influential SWEBOK (software engineering body of knowledge) for the less prominent but equally critical profession of system and network administration. General remarks concer

  18. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  19. Effects and Safety of Linagliptin as an Add-on Therapy in Advanced-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy Patients Taking Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuichiro; Ishii, Hiroki; Kitano, Taisuke; Shindo, Mitsutoshi; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Ito, Kiyonori; Hirai, Keiji; Kaku, Yoshio; Mori, Honami; Hoshino, Taro; Ookawara, Susumu; Kakei, Masafumi; Tabei, Kaoru; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We investigated the effects and safety of linagliptin as an add-on therapy in patients with advanced-stage diabetic nephropathy (DMN) taking renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. METHOD Twenty advanced-stage DMN patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 24.5 ± 13.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) taking RAAS blockers were administered 5 mg/day linagliptin for 52 weeks. Changes in glucose and lipid metabolism and renal function were evaluated. RESULTS Linagliptin decreased glycosylated hemoglobin levels (from 7.32 ± 0.77% to 6.85 ± 0.87%, P < 0.05) without changing fasting blood glucose levels, and significantly decreased total cholesterol levels (from 189.6 ± 49.0 to 170.2 ± 39.2 mg/dL, P < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (from 107.1 ± 32.4 to 90.2 ± 31.0 mg/dL, P < 0.05) without changing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Urine protein/creatinine ratio and annual change in eGFR remained unchanged. No adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSION Linagliptin as an add-on therapy had beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism without impairment of renal function, and did not have any adverse effects in this population of patients with advanced-stage DMN taking RAAS blockers. PMID:27660406

  20. Federal Information System on Grey Literature in Russia: a New Stage of Development in Digital and Network Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Starovoitov, Aleksandr V. (CITIS); Bastrykin, Aleksandr M. (CITIS); Borzykh, Anton I. (CITIS); Pavlov, Leonid P. (VNTIC); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2011-01-01

    Since the late nineties when the Russian grey literature (GL) system in the sphere of scientific and technical information was first presented to the international GL community in Luxembourg we have had several opportunities to describe one or another aspect of the Federal Information System on GL in Russia [1,2,3,4,5]. This time we would like to dwell upon the system as a whole following its development from the past through present times to the prospective view all the more as this year a n...

  1. Application of the new GOLD COPD staging system to a US primary care cohort, with comparison to physician and patient impressions of severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapel, Douglas W; Dalal, Anand A; Johnson, Phaedra T; Becker, Laura K; Hunter, Alyssa Goolsby

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2011, the traditional Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD spirometry-based severity classification system was revised to also include exacerbation history and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC) scores. This study examined how COPD patients treated in primary care are reclassified by the new GOLD system compared to the traditional system, and each system’s level of agreement with patient’s or physician’s severity assessments. Methods In this US multicenter cross-sectional study, COPD patients were recruited by 83 primary care practitioners (PCPs) to complete spirometry testing and a survey. Patients were classified by the traditional spirometry-based system (stages 1–4) and under the new system (grades A, B, C, D) using spirometry, exacerbation history, mMRC, and/or CAT results. Concordance between physician and patient-reported severity, spirometry stage, and ABCD grade based on either mMRC or CAT scores was examined. Results Data from 445 patients with spirometry-confirmed COPD were used. As compared to the traditional system, the GOLD mMRC system reclassifies 47% of patients, and GOLD CAT system reclassifies 41%, but the distributions are very different. The GOLD mMRC system resulted in relatively equal distributions by ABCD grade (33%, 22%, 19%, 26%, respectively), but the GOLD CAT system put most into either B or D groups (9%, 45%, 4%, and 42%). The addition of exacerbation history reclassified only 19 additional patients. Agreement between PCPs’ severity rating or their patients’ self-assessment and the new ABCD grade was very poor (κ=0.17 or less). Conclusion As compared to the traditional system, the GOLD 2011 multidimensional system reclassified nearly half of patients, but how they were reclassified varied greatly by whether the mMRC or CAT questionnaire was chosen. Either way, the new system had little correlation with the PCPs or their patients

  2. Application of the new GOLD COPD staging system to a US primary care cohort, with comparison to physician and patient impressions of severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapel DW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Douglas W Mapel,1 Anand A Dalal,2 Phaedra J Johnson,3 Laura K Becker,3 Alyssa Goolsby Hunter3 1Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Research, Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, NM, 2US Health Outcomes and Medical Policy, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3Life Sciences, Optum, Eden Prairie, MN, USA Background: In 2011, the traditional Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD COPD spirometry-based severity classification system was revised to also include exacerbation history and COPD Assessment Test (CAT and modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC scores. This study examined how COPD patients treated in primary care are reclassified by the new GOLD system compared to the traditional system, and each system’s level of agreement with patient’s or physician’s severity assessments. Methods: In this US multicenter cross-sectional study, COPD patients were recruited by 83 primary care practitioners (PCPs to complete spirometry testing and a survey. Patients were classified by the traditional spirometry-based system (stages 1–4 and under the new system (grades A, B, C, D using spirometry, exacerbation history, mMRC, and/or CAT results. Concordance between physician and patient-reported severity, spirometry stage, and ABCD grade based on either mMRC or CAT scores was examined. Results: Data from 445 patients with spirometry-confirmed COPD were used. As compared to the traditional system, the GOLD mMRC system reclassifies 47% of patients, and GOLD CAT system reclassifies 41%, but the distributions are very different. The GOLD mMRC system resulted in relatively equal distributions by ABCD grade (33%, 22%, 19%, 26%, respectively, but the GOLD CAT system put most into either B or D groups (9%, 45%, 4%, and 42%. The addition of exacerbation history reclassified only 19 additional patients. Agreement between PCPs’ severity rating or their patients’ self-assessment and the new ABCD grade was very poor

  3. Two-stage Voltage Closed Loop Control Scheme for Hybrid Excited Synchronous Generator-matrix Converter Generation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Mingming; ZHOU Bo; WEI Jiadan; MAO Yiran

    2012-01-01

    Matrix Converter (MC), a direct AC-AC converter which is capable of bidirectional power flow, unity input power factor control and efficiency improvement. Thus, it is more suitable for integration of motor machine and power electronics systems.

  4. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.

  5. Development of a novel two-stage liquid desiccant dehumidification system assisted by CaCl2 solution using exergy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air conditioning system based on liquid desiccant has been recognized as an efficient independent air humidity control HVAC system. To improve thermal coefficient of performance, a novel two-stage liquid desiccant dehumidification system assisted by calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is developed through exergy analysis based on the second thermodynamic law. Compared with the basic liquid desiccant dehumidification system, the proposed system is improved by two ways, i.e. increasing the concentration variance and the pre-dehumidification of CaCl2. The exergy loss in the desiccant-desiccant heat recovery process can be significantly reduced by increasing desiccant concentration variance between strong desiccant solution after regeneration and weak desiccant solution after dehumidification. Meanwhile, the pre-dehumidification of CaCl2 solution can reduce the irreversibility in the regeneration/dehumidification process. Compared to the basic system, the thermal coefficient performance and exergy efficiency of the proposed system are increased from 0.24 to 0.73 and from 6.8% to 23.0%, respectively, under the given conditions. Useful energy storage capacity of CaCl2 solution and LiCl solution at concentration of 40% reach 237.8 and 395.1 MJ/m3, respectively. The effects of desiccant regeneration temperature, air mass flux, desiccant mass flux, etc., on the performance of the proposed system are also analyzed.

  6. Practical electronic information system and printed recording promote management accuracy in an early-stage small-scale non-automatic biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhimei; Gu, Yijun; Lv, Zhibao; Yu, Guangjun; Zhou, Junmei

    2015-02-01

    It is particularly necessary for biomedical researchers to obtain applicable biosamples accurately and efficiently, especially from a biobank with multiple-disease catalogs. To optimize the retrieval procedure, especially in the early stages of a non-automatic biobank, we developed a procedure that combined the electronic information system with a graphically designed printed recording system, which assisted in retrieving the samples quickly in a visualized way. In this procedure, we designed tables depending on the structure of equipment and registered the corresponding information in the tables layer by layer. Different samples from different types of diseases were first registered in the electronic system with the specific pre-allocation and barcodes. Then they were stored in the allocated position using their respective barcodes. In this way, the sample number and the location information in the electronic database were completely matched with the printed record. When the samples are needed, it is convenient to check the electronic information with the printed record. This procedure provides a convenient way to record the sample information during its lifecycle, and helps the administrator to double check information about the sample. The current solution offers an easy way for the transformation of a non-automatic biobank from the small-scale early-stage to the large-scale highly-automated level.

  7. Some implications of Scale Relativity theory in avascular stages of growth of solid tumors in the presence of an immune system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzea, C Gh; Agop, M; Moraru, Evelina; Stana, Bogdan A; Gîrţu, Manuela; Iancu, D

    2011-08-01

    We present a traveling-wave analysis of a reduced mathematical model describing the growth of a solid tumor in the presence of an immune system response in the framework of Scale Relativity theory. Attention is focused upon the attack of tumor cells by tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic lymphocytes (TICLs), in a small multicellular tumor, without necrosis and at some stage prior to (tumor-induced) angiogenesis. For a particular choice of parameters, the underlying system of partial differential equations is able to simulate the well-documented phenomenon of cancer dormancy and propagation of a perturbation in the tumor cell concentration by cnoidal modes, by depicting spatially heterogeneous tumor cell distributions that are characterized by a relatively small total number of tumor cells. This behavior is consistent with several immunomorphological investigations. Moreover, the alteration of certain parameters of the model is enough to induce soliton like modes and soliton packets into the system, which in turn result in tumor invasion in the form of a standard traveling wave. In the same framework of Scale Relativity theory, a very important feature of malignant tumors also results, that even in avascular stages they might propagate and invade healthy tissues, by means of a diffusion on a Newtonian fluid.

  8. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  9. Axioms for SNABOK, a System and Network Administration Body of Knowledge : missing link stage of ontology process

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    SNABOK, a system an network administration body of knowledge, is coined as an attempt to complement the well-known and quite influential SWEBOK (software engineering body of knowledge) for the less prominent but equally critical profession of system and network administration. General remarks concerning the scope and limits of a SNABOK are discussed and cast in terms of ‘axioms’. Preliminary to a Stoneman, Ironman or Steelman version which should eventually emerge, Missing Link work expresses...

  10. Modeling and optimization of unbalanced multi-stage logistic system%非平衡多阶段物流系统建模与优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杭; 徐榕; 叶庆泰

    2005-01-01

    To decompose an unbalanced multi-stage logistic system to multiple independent single-stage logistic systems,a new notion of parameterized interface distribution is presented.For encoding the logistic pattern on each stage,the Prüfer number is used.With the improved decoding procedure,any Prüfer number produced stochastically can be decoded to a feasible logistic pattern,which can match with the capacities of the nodes of the logistic system.With these two innovations,a new modeling method based on parameterized interface distribution and the Prüfer number coding is put forward.The corresponding genetic algorithm,named as PIP-GA,can find better solutions and require less computational time than st-GA.Although requiring a little more consumption of memory,PIP-GA is still an efficient and robust method in the modeling and optimization of unbalanced multi-stage logistic systems.%首先提出了参数化界面分布的新概念,将一个非平衡多阶段物流系统转化为多个相互独立的单一阶段物流系统,然后采用Prüfer数对每个阶段上的物流模式进行编码.通过一种改进的解码方法,任何一个随机产生的Prüfer数都能够被解码为一个与物流系统的节点容量相匹配的可行的物流模式.基于这2点创新,建立了一种新的基于参数化界面分布和Prüfer数编码的系统建模方法,相应的遗传算法称为PIP-GA方法.与st-GA方法相比,PIP-GA不但具有更好的优化结果,而且需要的计算时间更少;虽然所需的存储空间有所增加,PIP-GA仍然是一种有效而稳健的非平衡多阶段物流系统建模与优化方法.

  11. Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System. Phase II: detailed feasibility analysis and preliminary design. Final report, Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the economic and environmental feasibility of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) based on a multifuel (gas, oil, treated solid wastes, and coal) design with which to serve any or all the institutions within the Louisiana Medical Complex in cooperation with the Health Education Authority of Louisiana (HEAL). In this context, a preliminary design is presented which consists of ICES plant description and engineering analyses. This demonstration system is capable of meeting 1982 system demands by providing 10,000 tons of air conditioning and, from a boiler plant with a high-pressure steam capacity of 200,000 lb/h, approximately 125,000 lb/h of 185 psig steam to the HEAL institutions, and at the same time generating up to 7600 kW of electrical power as byproduct energy. The plant will consist of multiple-fuel steam boilers, turbine generator, turbine driven chillers and necessary auxiliaries and ancillary systems. The preliminary design for these systems and for the building to house the central plant systems are presented along with equipment and instrumentation schedules and outline specifications for major components. Costs were updated to reflect revised data. The final preliminary cost estimate includes allowances for contingencies and escalation, as well as cost for the plant site and professional fees. This design is for a facility specifically with coal burning capability, recognizing that it is more capital-intensive than a gas/oil facility. In the opinion of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the relatively modest allocations made for scrubbing and ash removal involve less than is implied in standard industry (EPRI) cost increments of over 30% for these duties. The preliminary environmental assessment is included. (LCL)

  12. Understanding the formative stage of technological innovation system development: The case of natural gas as an automotive fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Kieboom, S.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to insights into mechanisms that influence the successes and failures of emerging energy technologies. It is assumed that for an emerging technology to fruitfully develop, it should be fostered by a Technological Innovation System (TIS), which is the network of actors, institu

  13. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Preliminary design of cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    The preliminary design of a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota is described. This coal-fired plant will produce steam and electric power for a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  14. Brain on the stage - spotlight on nervous system development in zebrafish: EMBO practical course, KIT, Sept. 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholpp, Steffen; Poggi, Lucia; Zigman, Mihaela

    2013-12-19

    During the EMBO course 'Imaging of Neural Development in Zebrafish', held on September 9-15th 2013, researchers from different backgrounds shared their latest results, ideas and practical expertise on zebrafish as a model to address open questions regarding nervous system development.

  15. Triassic to Cenozoic multi-stage intra-plate deformation focused near the Bogd Fault system, Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen; Dickson Cunningham; Gijsbert B. Straathof; Morgan Ganerød; Bart W.H. Hendriks; Arjan H. Dijkstra

    2015-01-01

    The Gobi Altai region of southern Mongolia has been in the Eurasian plate interior since the mid-Mesozoic, yet has experienced episodic phases of deformation since that time. In this paper, we docu-ment field evidence to characterize and date the intra-plate tectonic history of the Gobi Altai region from the Triassic to the present. To this end, we provide detailed mapping of the structure and stratigraphy of the eastern flanks of Mt. Ih Bogd that contains the widest variety of rock-time units in the area. We carry out geochronological analysis of basaltic lavas and basement granite in the area. We demonstrate that a crystalline basement with a 502 ? 8 Ma granitoid (U/Pb) underwent two phases of basin formation in the Mesozoic, which we date with new 40Ar/39Ar lava ages of 218.5 ? 1.5, 123.2 ? 0.7 and 124.8 ? 1.2 Ma, respectively. Both phases are linked to deposition of fluvio-lacustrine sediments and trap-like basaltic volcanics, with cumulative thicknesses of 1000e1500 m. Both basins were likely north-facing half-gra-bens that developed under wNeS extension, but were subsequently overthrusted by Paleozoic and older crystalline basement during a less well constrained, but likely mid-Cretaceous phase of NeS shortening and basin inversion. Our results are consistent with recent seismic imaging of rift basins w100 km to the NE of the study area where a similar history was reconstructed. The multiple phases of intra-plate deformation appear to have parallel structural trends, most likely due to reactivated Paleozoic base-ment structures created during the original terrane amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt continental crust. This strong basement heterogeneity may predispose it to reactivation, and make it sensitive to changes in the overall stress field of the Eurasian plate driven by forces at its margins and base. Detailed study of Mongolia’s multi-stage tectonic history may thus provide a key proxy for the long-term dynamics of the Eurasian plate. In

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of the WHO clinical staging system for defining eligibility for ART in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigomezgo Munthali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO recommends that HIV-positive adults with CD4 count ≤500 cells/mm3 initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART. In many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, CD4 count is not widely available or consistently used and instead the WHO clinical staging system is used to determine ART eligibility. However, concerns have been raised regarding its discriminatory ability to identify patients eligible to start ART. We therefore reviewed the accuracy of WHO stage 3 or 4 assessment in identifying ART eligibility according to CD4 count thresholds for ART initiation. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and Global Health databases and conference abstracts using a comprehensive strategy for studies that compared the results of WHO clinical staging with CD4 count thresholds. Studies performed in sub-Saharan Africa and published in English between 1998 and 2013 were eligible for inclusion according to our predefined study protocol. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2 tool. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity were derived for each CD4 count threshold and hierarchical summary receiver operator characteristic curves were plotted. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including 25,032 participants from 14 countries. Most studies assessed individuals attending ART clinics prior to treatment initiation. WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 disease had a sensitivity of 60% (95% CI: 45–73%, Q=914.26, p<0.001 and specificity of 73% (95% CI: 60–83%, Q=1439.43, p<0.001 for a CD4 threshold of ≤200 cells/mm3 (11 studies; sensitivity and specificity for a threshold of CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm3 were 45% (95% CI: 26–66%, Q=1607.31, p<0.001 and 85% (95% CI: 69–93%, Q=896.70, p<0.001, respectively (six studies. For the threshold of CD4 count ≤500 cells/mm3 sensitivity was

  17. Modeling the competition between PHA-producing and non-PHA-producing bacteria in feast-famine SBR and staged CSTR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marang, Leonie; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2015-12-01

    Although the enrichment of specialized microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is generally performed in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), the required feast-famine conditions can also be established using two or more continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) in series with partial biomass recirculation. The use of CSTRs offers several advantages, but will result in distributed residence times and a less strict separation between feast and famine conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the reactor configuration, and various process and biomass-specific parameters, on the enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria. A set of mathematical models was developed to predict the growth of Plasticicumulans acidivorans-as a model PHA producer-in competition with a non-storing heterotroph. A macroscopic model considering lumped biomass and an agent-based model considering individual cells were created to study the effect of residence time distribution and the resulting distributed bacterial states. The simulations showed that in the 2-stage CSTR system the selective pressure for PHA-producing bacteria is significantly lower than in the SBR, and strongly affected by the chosen feast-famine ratio. This is the result of substrate competition based on both the maximum specific substrate uptake rate and substrate affinity. Although the macroscopic model overestimates the selective pressure in the 2-stage CSTR system, it provides a quick and fairly good impression of the reactor performance and the impact of process and biomass-specific parameters.

  18. Functional correction of neurological and somatic disorders at later stages of disease in MPS IIIA mice by systemic scAAV9-hSGSH gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haiyan; Cataldi, Marcela P; Ware, Tierra A; Zaraspe, Kimberly; Meadows, Aaron S; Murrey, Darren A; McCarty, Douglas M

    2016-01-01

    The reversibility of neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases, including MPS IIIA, is a major goal in therapeutic development, due to typically late diagnoses and a large population of untreated patients. We used self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) serotype 9 vector expressing human N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH) to test the efficacy of treatment at later stages of the disease. We treated MPS IIIA mice at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 months of age with an intravenous injection of scAAV9-U1a-hSGSH vector, leading to restoration of SGSH activity and reduction of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and somatic tissues at a dose of 5E12 vg/kg. Treatment up to 3 months age improved learning ability in the Morris water maze at 7.5 months, and lifespan was normalized. In mice treated at 6 months age, behavioral performance was impaired at 7.5 months, but did not decline further when retested at 12 months, and lifespan was increased, but not normalized. Treatment at 9 months did not increase life-span, though the GAG storage pathology in the CNS was improved. The study suggests that there is potential for gene therapy intervention in MPS IIIA at intermediate stages of the disease, and extends the clinical relevance of our systemic scAAV9-hSGSH gene delivery approach. PMID:27331076

  19. Deadly competition and life-saving predation: the potential for alternative stable states in a stage-structured predator-prey system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Benjamin J; Rombado, Bianca R; Rudolf, Volker H W

    2016-08-31

    Predators often undergo complete ontogenetic diet shifts, engaging in resource competition with species that become their prey during later developmental stages. Theory posits that this mix of stage-specific competition and predation, termed life-history intraguild predation (LHIGP), can lead to alternative stable states. In one state, prey exclude predators through competition (i.e. juvenile competitive bottleneck), while in the alternative, adult predators control prey density to limit competition and foster coexistence. Nevertheless, the interactions leading to these states have not been demonstrated in an empirical LHIGP system. To address this gap, we manipulated densities of cannibalistic adult cyclopoid copepods (Mesocyclops edax) and their cladoceran prey (Daphnia pulex) in a response-surface design and measured the maturation and survival of juvenile copepods (nauplii). We found that Daphnia reduced and even precluded both nauplii maturation and survival through depletion of a shared food resource. As predicted, adult copepods enhanced nauplii maturation and survival through Daphnia consumption, yet this positive effect was dependent on the relative abundance of Daphnia as well as the absolute density of adult copepods. Adult copepods reduced nauplii survival through cannibalism at low Daphnia densities and at the highest copepod density. This work demonstrates that predation can relax a strong juvenile competitive bottleneck in freshwater zooplankton, though cannibalism can reduce predator recruitment. Thus, our results highlight a key role for cannibalism in LHIGP dynamics and provide evidence for the interactions that drive alternative stable states in such systems. PMID:27581881

  20. Reactive Power Control of Single-Stage Three-Phase Photovoltaic System during Grid Faults Using Recurrent Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faa-Jeng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new active and reactive power control scheme for a single-stage three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system during grid faults. The presented PV system utilizes a single-stage three-phase current-controlled voltage-source inverter to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT control of the PV panel with the function of low voltage ride through (LVRT. Moreover, a formula based on positive sequence voltage for evaluating the percentage of voltage sag is derived to determine the ratio of the injected reactive current to satisfy the LVRT regulations. To reduce the risk of overcurrent during LVRT operation, a current limit is predefined for the injection of reactive current. Furthermore, the control of active and reactive power is designed using a two-dimensional recurrent fuzzy cerebellar model articulation neural network (2D-RFCMANN. In addition, the online learning laws of 2D-RFCMANN are derived according to gradient descent method with varied learning-rate coefficients for network parameters to assure the convergence of the tracking error. Finally, some experimental tests are realized to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  1. Modeling the competition between PHA-producing and non-PHA-producing bacteria in feast-famine SBR and staged CSTR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marang, Leonie; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2015-12-01

    Although the enrichment of specialized microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is generally performed in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), the required feast-famine conditions can also be established using two or more continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) in series with partial biomass recirculation. The use of CSTRs offers several advantages, but will result in distributed residence times and a less strict separation between feast and famine conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the reactor configuration, and various process and biomass-specific parameters, on the enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria. A set of mathematical models was developed to predict the growth of Plasticicumulans acidivorans-as a model PHA producer-in competition with a non-storing heterotroph. A macroscopic model considering lumped biomass and an agent-based model considering individual cells were created to study the effect of residence time distribution and the resulting distributed bacterial states. The simulations showed that in the 2-stage CSTR system the selective pressure for PHA-producing bacteria is significantly lower than in the SBR, and strongly affected by the chosen feast-famine ratio. This is the result of substrate competition based on both the maximum specific substrate uptake rate and substrate affinity. Although the macroscopic model overestimates the selective pressure in the 2-stage CSTR system, it provides a quick and fairly good impression of the reactor performance and the impact of process and biomass-specific parameters. PMID:26059321

  2. Coping with an Advanced Stage Lung Cancer Diagnosis: Patient, Caregiver, and Provider Perspectives on the Role of the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K M; Opoku, Samuel T; Apenteng, Bettye A; Fetrick, Ann; Ryan, June; Copur, M; Tolentino, Addison; Vaziri, Irfan; Ganti, Apar K

    2016-09-01

    Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the USA, there have been few studies on patient-centered advanced lung cancer treatment practices. As part of a larger research study on how to use a patient-inclusive approach in late-stage lung cancer treatment, this present study describes patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on the role of the health care system in helping patients cope with an advanced stage lung cancer diagnosis. Four focus group sessions were conducted with six to eleven participants per group for a total of 36 participants. Two focus groups were held with patients and family members/caregivers and two with physicians and nurses. A major theme that emerged concerned coping with an advanced lung cancer diagnosis, which is the subject of this paper. The patients, caregivers, and providers spoke passionately about interactions with the health care system and volunteered examples of supportive and non-supportive relationships between patients and clinicians. They advocated for better patient-provider communication practices as well as the expanded use of patient navigation and new patient orientation programs. This study contributes additional knowledge by including the perspectives of caregivers and providers who live and work closely with patients with advanced lung cancer. The findings can inform the development of comprehensive patient-centered care plans for patients living with an advanced lung cancer diagnosis. PMID:25900672

  3. An evolution in demographics, treatment, and outcomes of oropharyngeal cancer at a major cancer center: A staging system in need of repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Kristina R.; Calzada, Gabriel; Hanby, Jennifer D.; Garden, Adam S.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Li, Guojun; Roberts, Dianna B.; Weber, Randal S.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2012-01-01

    Background This retrospective review examines demographic/clinical characteristics and overall survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) at a tertiary cancer center and reports the characteristics influencing any observed survival trends over time. Methods The study included 3891 newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients presenting to our institution between 1955 and 2004. Results Over time, patients presented at younger ages and were more likely to have base of tongue or tonsil tumors and to be never or former smokers. Patients diagnosed in 1995–2004 were almost half as likely to die as those diagnosed before 1995 (HR,0.6; 95% CI,0.6–0.8). In both multivariable and recursive partitioning survival analyses, the TNM staging system predicted survival of patients treated before 1995 but not of patients treated in 1995–2004. Conclusion Survival among patients with SCCOP improved substantially over the past 50 years. The main contributing factors were changes in clinical characteristics, in particular surrogates for HPV positivity. The current TNM staging system for SCCOP is inadequate. Incorporation of HPV status and perhaps smoking status is encouraged. PMID:22736261

  4. Optimization of design and operating parameters on the year round performance of a multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system using transient mathematical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Vishwanath; Kaviti, Ajay Kumar; Prakash, Om [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sagar Institute of Science and Technology, Gandhinagar, Bhopal, M.P. (India); Reddy, K.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-01

    The available fresh water resources on the earth are limited. About 79% of water available on the earth is salty, only one percent is fresh and the rest 20% is brackish. Desalination of brackish or saline water is a good method to obtain fresh water. Conventional desalination systems are energy intensive. Solar desalination is a cost effective method to obtain potable water because of freely available clean and green energy source. In this paper, a transient mathematical model was developed for the multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system to achieve the optimum system configuration for the maximum year round performance and distillate yield. The effect of various design and operating parameters on the thermal characteristics and performance of the system were analyzed. It was found that an optimum configuration of four stages with 100mm gap between them when supplied with a mass flow rate of 55kg/m2/day would result in best performance throughout the year. The maximum and minimum yields of 28.044 kg/m2/day and 13.335 kg/m2/day for fresh water at a distillate efficiency of 50.989% and 24.245% and overall thermal efficiency of 81.171% and 40.362% are found in the months of March and December respectively owing to the climatic conditions. The yield decreases to 18.614 kg/m2/day and 9.791 kg/m2/day for brine solution at a distillate efficiency of 33.844% and 17.802% and overall thermal efficiency of 53.876% and 29.635% for March and December respectively The maximum yield of 53.211 kg/m2/day is found in March at an operating pressure of 0.03 bar. The multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system is economically viable and can meet the needs of rural and urban communities to necessitate 10 to 30 kg per day of fresh water.

  5. Optimization of design and operating parameters on the year round performance of a multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system using transient mathematical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vishwanath Kumar, Ajay Kumar Kaviti, Om Prakash1, K.S. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The available fresh water resources on the earth are limited. About 79% of water available on the earth is salty, only one percent is fresh and the rest 20% is brackish. Desalination of brackish or saline water is a good method to obtain fresh water. Conventional desalination systems are energy intensive. Solar desalination is a cost effective method to obtain potable water because of freely available clean and green energy source. In this paper, a transient mathematical model was developed for the multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system to achieve the optimum system configuration for the maximum year round performance and distillate yield. The effect of various design and operating parameters on the thermal characteristics and performance of the system were analyzed. It was found that an optimum configuration of four stages with 100mm gap between them when supplied with a mass flow rate of 55kg/m2/day would result in best performance throughout the year. The maximum and minimum yields of 28.044 kg/m2/day and 13.335 kg/m2/day for fresh water at a distillate efficiency of 50.989% and 24.245% and overall thermal efficiency of 81.171% and 40.362% are found in the months of March and December respectively owing to the climatic conditions. The yield decreases to 18.614 kg/m2/day and 9.791 kg/m2/day for brine solution at a distillate efficiency of 33.844% and 17.802% and overall thermal efficiency of 53.876% and 29.635% for March and December respectively The maximum yield of 53.211 kg/m2/day is found in March at an operating pressure of 0.03 bar. The multi-stage evacuated solar desalination system is economically viable and can meet the needs of rural and urban communities to necessitate 10 to 30 kg per day of fresh water.

  6. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent.

  7. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Outline specifications of cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Specifications are presented for major components of the dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota campus. This power plant will supply steam and electric power to a proposed grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. The capital costs and capital budget for the power plant and specifications for auxiliary equipment, such as the interconnecting heat tunnel, are included. (LCL)

  8. THE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTION OF APPLICATIONS FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE MINISTRY OF TAXES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevov A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the gradual development of an information system for automated distribution of applications, the development of the necessary organizational diagrams, decomposition charts, as well as constraints the design stage. With the help of a program complex, the request from the client is submitted to the Deputy Director for production, which makes the decision about treatment (accepts or cancels the request. Also via software package, the application is sent to the Deputy Director for the status of implementation, as well as the Director, the chief accountant and the client. Each Department has the ability to contact the Deputy Director for operations for the consultation when a problem occurs with the implementation of the application. After obtaining the status of completed applications in the software package, the chief accountant reports to the Director. A set of methods and techniques of organization of information processes in production systems which allow the selection and the use of an information technology solution for the synthesis of knowledge about the work situation is the content of the concept of formation of information resource management for system knowledge-intensive production. Management system information space manufacturing organizations are formed in a specific environment, which is characterized as an information resource management system – a system of organization of internal and external flows of information, as well as methods and tools for searching, processing and distribution of information in the organization

  9. Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara-Fernandez, Alberto; Vargas, Gisela [Escuela de Ingenieria Ambiental, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Manuel Montt 56, Casilla 15-D, Temuco (Chile); Alarcon, Nelson [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Catolica del Norte (Chile); Velasco, Antonio [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental del Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (CENICA-INE), Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Del. Iztapalapa, 09340, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The marine algae are considered an important biomass source; however, their utilization as energy source is still low around the world. The technical feasibility of marine algae utilization as a source of renewable energy was studied to laboratory scale. The anaerobic digestion of Macrocystis pyrifera, Durvillea antarctica and their blend 1:1 (w/w) was evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system, which consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The results show that 70% of the total biogas produced in the system was generated in the UAF, and both algae species have similar biogas productions of 180.4({+-}1.5) mL g{sup -1} dry algae d{sup -1}, with a methane concentration around 65%. The same methane content was observed in biogas yield of algae blend; however, a lower biogas yield was obtained. In conclusion, either algae species or their blend can be utilized to produce methane gas in a two-phase digestion system. (author)

  10. Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine algae are considered an important biomass source; however, their utilization as energy source is still low around the world. The technical feasibility of marine algae utilization as a source of renewable energy was studied to laboratory scale. The anaerobic digestion of Macrocystis pyrifera, Durvillea antarctica and their blend 1:1 (w/w) was evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system, which consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF). The results show that 70% of the total biogas produced in the system was generated in the UAF, and both algae species have similar biogas productions of 180.4(±1.5) mL g-1 dry algae d-1, with a methane concentration around 65%. The same methane content was observed in biogas yield of algae blend; however, a lower biogas yield was obtained. In conclusion, either algae species or their blend can be utilized to produce methane gas in a two-phase digestion system

  11. An Inexact Mix-Integer Two-Stage Linear Programming Model for Supporting the Management of a Low-Carbon Energy System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Cai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In view of the great contribution of coal-fired units to CO2 emissions, the coupled coal and power system with consideration of CO2 mitigation is a typical sub-system of the highly emitting Chinese energy system for low-carbon studies. In this study, an inexact mix-integer two-stage programming (IMITSP model for the management of low-carbon energy systems was developed based on the integration of multiple inexact programming techniques. Uncertainties and complexities related to the carbon mitigation issues in the coupled coal and power system can be effectively reflected and dealt with in this model. An optimal CO2 mitigation strategy associated with stochastic power-generation demand under specific CO2 mitigation targets could be obtained. Dynamic analysis of capacity expansion, facility improvement, coal selection, as well as coal blending within a multi-period and multi-option context could be facilitated. The developed IMITSP model was applied to a semi-hypothetical case of long-term coupled management of coal and power within a low-carbon energy system in north China. The generated decision alternatives could help decision makers identify desired strategies related to coal production and allocation, CO2 emission mitigation, as well as facility capacity upgrade and expansion under various social-economic, ecological, environmental and system-reliability constraints. It could also provide interval solutions with a minimized system cost, a maximized system reliability and a maximized power-generation demand security. Moreover, the developed model could provide an in-depth insight into various CO2 mitigation technologies and the associated environmental and economic implications under a given reduction target. Tradeoffs among system costs, energy security and CO2 emission reduction could be analyzed.

  12. Design and development of single stage purification of papain using Ionic Liquid based aqueous two phase extraction system and its Partition coefficient studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Rathnasamy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging trend in bioseparation, aqueous two phase extractions based on phosponium ionic liquid have been utilized in this work to extract papain from Carica papaya fruit latex and the same wascompared with conventional aqueous two phase extraction system. Factors affecting the partition coefficient of papain such as ionic liquid concentration, pH of the extraction system and temperature have been investigated. The optimization studies show that ionic liquid concentrations and pH are majorly influencing the phaseformations and papain partitioning. It reveals the importance of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the papain partitioning. Purification studies performed on Gel Filtration Chromatography shows that 96% of the papain enzyme could be extracted with the phosponium based ionic liquid in a single stage extraction. The final fraction containing papain enzyme was confirmed by SDS Page analysis.

  13. High and Stable Conversion Efficiency Obtaining in Single-Stage Multi-Crystal Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yong-Liang; LENG Yu-Xin; ZHAO Bao-Zhen; WANG Cheng; LIANG Xiao-Yan; LU Hai-He; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2005-01-01

    @@ An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification system is demonstrated to provide 32.9% pump-to-signal con-version efficiency. Special techniques are used to make the signal and pump pulses match with each other inboth spectral and temporal domains. The broadband 9.5-mJ pulses are produced at the repetition rate of 1 Hzwith the gain of over 1.9 × 108. The output energy fluctuation of 7.8% is achieved for the saturated amplificationprocess against the pump fluctuation of 10%.

  14. Ole Romer's method still on the stage. The study of two bound eclipsing binaries in quintuple system V994 Her

    CERN Document Server

    Zasche, P; 10.1093/mnras/sts616

    2013-01-01

    More than three hundred years ago, Ole Romer measured the speed of light only by observing the periodic shifting of the observed eclipse arrival times of Jupiter's moons arising from the varying Earth-Jupiter distance. The same method of measuring the periodic modulation of delays is still used in astrophysics. The ideal laboratories for this effect are eclipsing binaries. The unique system V994 Her consists of two eclipsing binaries orbiting each other. However, until now it was not certain whether these are gravitationally bound and what their orbital period is. We show that the system is in fact quintuple and the two eclipsing binaries are orbiting each other with period about 6.3 years. This analysis was made only from studying the periodic modulation of the two periods, when during the periastron passage one binary has an apparently shorter period, while the other one longer, exactly as required by a theory. Additionally, it was found that both inner eclipsing pairs orbit with slightly eccentric orbits u...

  15. Test Data Analysis of a Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Liquid Hydrogen Vent System for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Bailey, J. W.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.

    2003-01-01

    To support development of a zero-gravity pressure control capability for liquid hydrogen (LH2), a series of thermodynamic venting system (TVS) tests was conducted in 1996 and 1998 using the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). These tests were performed with ambient heat leaks =20 and 50 W for tank fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. TVS performance testing revealed that the spray bar was highly effective in providing tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band (131-138 Wa), and complete destratification of the liquid and the ullage was achieved with all test conditions. Seven of the MHTB tests were correlated with the TVS performance analytical model. The tests were selected to encompass the range of tank fill levels, ambient heat leaks, operational modes, and ullage pressurants. The TVS model predicted ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature obtained from the TVS model were compared with the test data. During extended self-pressurization periods, following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured. However, once the system entered the cyclic mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar.

  16. 慢性肾脏病分期及短信提醒系统%Chronic Kidney D isease Stages and SMS Alerts System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐燕; 王苹

    2014-01-01

    根据医院肾病科的需求,设计并实现基于B/S三层体系结构的慢性肾脏病分期及短信提醒系统。该系统对慢性肾脏病患者按肾小球滤过率( GFR)进行分级管理,以发送手机短信的方式,为不同级别患者发送相应的治疗和护理等指导信息,帮助患者更好地控制和治疗疾病。本文从系统需求分析、体系架构、系统业务流程、数据库的设计及系统实现中的关键技术等方面介绍慢性肾脏病分期及短信提醒系统的设计与实现。目前,系统正在试运行阶段,如果使用效果良好,可以推广到其他慢性病的防治中去,意义重大。%This paper introduced the design and implementation of chronic kidney disease stage and short message notification system based on B/S three layer architecture according to the requirements of hospital department of nephropathy requirements. The system manages patient information of chronic kidney disease according to glomerular filtration rate ( GFR) , sends treatment and nursing guidance information by a mobile phone text messages according to the different levels of patients to help patients bet -ter control and treatment of the disease.The system design and implementation of chronic kidney disease and SMS alerts are intro -duced from the system requirements analysis, system design and to system architecture,business processes, database implemen-tation of key technology and so on.At present, the system is in the stage of trial operation .If it gets good effect,the system can be extended to other chronic disease prevention and control , which is of great significance.

  17. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. PMID:25157746

  18. Critical Stage Rule-Based Real Time Dispatch(RTD)System in Highly-Mixed-Products (HMP) FAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUXiao-hua; XIANGYu-qun

    2005-01-01

    An improving utilization and efficiency of critical equipments in semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities are concerned. Semiconductor manufacturing FAB is one of the most complicated and cost sensitive environments. A good dispatching tool will make big difference in equipment utilization and FAB output as a whole. The equipment in this paper is In-Line DUV Scanner.There are many factors impacting utilization and output on this equipment group. In HMP environment one of the issues is changing of reticule in this area and idle counts due to load unbalance between equipments. Here we'll introduce a rule-based RTD system which aiming at decreasing the number of recipe change and idle counts among a group of scanner equipment in a high-mixedproducts FAB.

  19. Critical Stage Rule-Based Real Time Dispatch(RTD) System in Highly-Mixed-Products (HMP) FAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-hua; XIANG Yu-qun

    2005-01-01

    An improving utilization and efficiency of critical equipments in semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities are concerned. Semiconductor manufacturing FAB is one of the most omplicated and cost sensitive environments. A good dispatching tool will make big difference in equipment utilization and FAB output as a whole. The equipment in this paper is In-Line DUV Scanner.There are many factors impacting utilization and output on this equipment group. In HMP environment one of the issues is changing of reticule in this area and idle counts due to load unbalance between equipments. Here we'll introduce a rule-based RTD system which aiming at decreasing the number of recipe change and idle counts among a group of scanner equipment in a high-mixedproducts FAB.

  20. Case Study on the Deficiencies and Difficulties of Project Management since the Promotion Stage of Integrated Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca CUCINSCHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present case study focuses on the shortcomings and difficulties encountered in the management of projects in the environment protection area, respectively of integrated waste management systems, observed in similar projects, promoted simultaneously in five counties in Romania, counties located in different development regions. Thus, following a European funding, five counties were selected to receive free consultancy services for the elaboration of the county master in the field of environment protection, respectively waste management. One of the requirements that the counties had to fulfil was the expressed unequivocal willingness to implement the project at county level. A Project Implementation Unit (PIU was set up at county council level with the precise purpose of managing and implementing the project. Even though the counties benefited from free technical assistance, major delays in finalizing and approving the application were encountered in all the cases studied, due to reasons that depended mostly on the manner the project management was conducted.

  1. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  2. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in resilient participants (i.e., individuals who had never had PTSD despite exposure to high-impact trauma) were not seen with PTSD. In this study, we examined the impact of PTSD vs. resilience on ANS activity as a function of sleep stage and time of sleep. Participants (age 18-35) with current PTSD (n=38) and resilience (n=33) completed two overnight polysomnography recordings in a lab setting. The second night electrocardiogram was analyzed for frequency domain HRV parameters and heart rate within rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Results indicated that ANS arousal indexed by HRV was greater during REM compared with NREM sleep and that the REM-NREM difference was greater in the PTSD than in the resilient participants. This effect of PTSD was reduced to non-significance when analyses controlled for REM sleep percentage, which was lower with PTSD. Exploratory analyses revealed that the REM-NREM difference in HRV was correlated with REM sleep percentage in resilient participants, but not with PTSD. In contrast with our data from home settings, the present study did not find increased overall nocturnal ANS arousal with PTSD. Analyses did reveal higher heart rate during initial NREM sleep with more rapid decline over the course of NREM sleep with PTSD compared with resilience. Findings suggest that elevated ANS arousal indexed by heart rate with PTSD is specific to the early part of sleep and possible impairment in regulating ANS activity with PTSD related to

  3. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnosis Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search by state Get Weekly E-News Stay up-to-date on Alzheimer's treatments and care. First ...

  4. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  5. Staging in oesophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plukker, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate staging defines groups for stage-specific treatment, minimising inappropriate treatment. Application of dedicated staging methods - including 16-64 multidetector computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and positron emission tomography (PET)

  6. Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

  7. Unconstrained underwater multi-target tracking in passive sonar systems using two-stage PF-based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2014-03-01

    A robust particle filter (PF)-based multi-target tracking solution for passive sonar systems able to track an unknown time-varying number of multiple targets, while keeping continuous tracks of such targets, is presented in this article. PF is a nonlinear filtering technique that can accommodate arbitrary sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF is employed and is called Mixture PF. The commonly used sampling/importance resampling PF samples from the prior importance density, while Mixture PF samples from both the prior and the observation likelihood. In order to be able to track an unknown time-varying number of multiple targets, two Mixture PFs are used, one for target detection and the other for tracking multiple targets, and a density-based clustering technique is used after the first filter. This article demonstrates the applicability of the proposed technique for the passive problem, which suffers from the lack of measurements and the small detection range of the buoys, especially for weak signals. A contact-level simulation was used to generate different scenarios and the performance of the proposed technique called Clustered-Mixture PF was examined with either bearing measurement only or bearing and Doppler measurements, and it demonstrated its high performance.

  8. Nomogram Prediction of Survival and Recurrence in Patients With Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Changhoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyubo, E-mail: kyubokim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chie, Eui Kyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To develop nomograms for predicting the overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation therapy after curative resection. Methods and Materials: From January 1995 through August 2006, a total of 166 consecutive patients underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, and this Cox model was used as the basis for the nomograms of OS and RFS. We calculated concordance indices of the constructed nomograms and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Results: The OS rate at 2 years and 5 years was 60.8% and 42.5%, respectively, and the RFS rate at 2 years and 5 years was 52.5% and 38.2%, respectively. The model containing age, sex, tumor location, histologic differentiation, perineural invasion, and lymph node involvement was selected for nomograms. The bootstrap-corrected concordance index of the nomogram for OS and RFS was 0.63 and 0.62, respectively, and that of AJCC staging for OS and RFS was 0.50 and 0.52, respectively. Conclusions: We developed nomograms that predicted survival and recurrence better than AJCC staging. With caution, clinicians may use these nomograms as an adjunct to or substitute for AJCC staging for predicting an individual's prognosis and offering tailored adjuvant therapy.

  9. Nomogram Prediction of Survival and Recurrence in Patients With Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop nomograms for predicting the overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation therapy after curative resection. Methods and Materials: From January 1995 through August 2006, a total of 166 consecutive patients underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, and this Cox model was used as the basis for the nomograms of OS and RFS. We calculated concordance indices of the constructed nomograms and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Results: The OS rate at 2 years and 5 years was 60.8% and 42.5%, respectively, and the RFS rate at 2 years and 5 years was 52.5% and 38.2%, respectively. The model containing age, sex, tumor location, histologic differentiation, perineural invasion, and lymph node involvement was selected for nomograms. The bootstrap-corrected concordance index of the nomogram for OS and RFS was 0.63 and 0.62, respectively, and that of AJCC staging for OS and RFS was 0.50 and 0.52, respectively. Conclusions: We developed nomograms that predicted survival and recurrence better than AJCC staging. With caution, clinicians may use these nomograms as an adjunct to or substitute for AJCC staging for predicting an individual's prognosis and offering tailored adjuvant therapy

  10. Impact of salt stress on the features and activities of root system for three desert halophyte species in their seedling stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI LiangPeng; MA Jian; LI Yan

    2007-01-01

    Linkage between belowground and aboveground sections of ecological system is mainly depending on root system. But root system is the parts of plant that people less understand. The absorption function of root system is closely related to their morphology and activity. Moreover root system can interact with the environmental stress under the adverse situation, and adjust its system to take adaptation responses in morphology and physiology to strengthen its survival chance. This research is focused on three desert halophyte species of H. ammodendron (C.A.Mey.) Bge., S. physophora Pall., and S.nitraria Pall. under solution culture, to study the differences of their root system morphology and activity in the seedling stage under varying salt concentration conditions. The study results show that: A certain salt concentration can promote development of these three halophytes; but rather high salt concentration will restrain their growth, in particular inhibit the root system development. Under the same salt concentration condition, S. nitraria Pall. grows fast and accumulates the largest amount of biomass. Under relatively low salt concentration, the length of axial root and the total length of root system of these three halophyte species are all increased; and compared to the checking samples, S.physophora Pall. occupies the top place of root system growth, but the high salt concentration will restrain the increase of total root length; among them, the impact intensity on S. physophora Pall. is lighter than to H. ammodendron (C.A.Mey.) Bge. and S. nitraria Pall. is lighter; the salinity does not bring distinct influence on the average diameter of root system of these three plant species, but trends to reducing the size; under the solution culture conditions, the middle and lower parts of the axial root of H. ammodendron (C.A.Mey.) Bge. and S. physophora Pall. are rather equally distributed, but the central zone of S. nitraria Pall. root system is more significantly

  11. Combined organic matter and nitrogen removal from a chemical industry wastewater in a two-stage MBBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S M S; Fontoura, G A T; Dezotti, M; Bassin, J P

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-producing factories generate highly polluting wastewaters containing toxic and hazardous compounds which should be reduced to acceptable levels before discharge. In this study, a chemical industry wastewater was treated in a pre-denitrification moving-bed biofilm reactor system subjected to an increasing internal mixed liquor recycle ratio from 2 to 4. Although the influent wastewater characteristics substantially varied over time, the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon was quite stable and mostly higher than 90%. The highest fraction of the incoming organic matter was removed anoxically, favouring a low COD/N environment in the subsequent aerobic nitrifying tank and thus ensuring stable ammonium removal (90-95%). However, during pH and salt shock periods, nitrifiers were severely inhibited but gradually restored their full nitrifying capability as non-stressing conditions were reestablished. Besides promoting an increase in the maximum nitrification potential of the aerobic attached biomass from 0.34 to 0.63 mg [Formula: see text], the increase in the internal recycle ratio was accompanied by an increase in nitrogen removal (60-78%) and maximum specific denitrification rate (2.7-3.3 mg NOx(-)--N). Total polysaccharides (PS) and protein (PT) concentrations of attached biomass were observed to be directly influenced by the influent organic loading rate, while the PS/PT ratio mainly ranged from 0.3 to 0.5. Results of Microtox tests showed that no toxicity was found in the effluent of both the anoxic and aerobic reactors, indicating that the biological process was effective in removing residual substances which might adversely affect the receiving waters' ecosystem. PMID:26086717

  12. Methodological aspects of forming abilities and skills of physical self-improvement at different stages of realization of educational objectives of the system of physical education of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuravel' O. O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is shown the problem of realization of humanism principles, consciousness and activity in the process of physical education of students of higher educational institutions. Developed a method of obtaining knowledge regarding the benefits of systematic exercise and determined organizational features of the implementation of the appropriate control. The proposed guidelines also provide for the presence of several stages of formation of skills of independent studies of physical culture taking into account the interests and needs of the student contingent. On the first course is offered to acquire knowledge and ensuring the skills of independent planning of individual classes. On the second year of education provides for the implementation of the personal creative potential of students in the process independent of physical exercises under the guidance of the teacher. It is suggested to examine personality of student as open dynamic system with many intercommunications and structural connections, which is apt at self-perfection.

  13. Systematic design of membership functions for fuzzy-logic control: A case study on one-stage partial nitritation/anammox treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    A methodology is developed to systematically design the membership functions of fuzzy-logic controllers for multivariable systems. The methodology consists of a systematic derivation of the critical points of the membership functions as a function of predefined control objectives. Several...... rules, determine the long term reachability of the control objectives by the fuzzy logic controller. The methodology is highlighted using a single-stage side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox reactor as a case study. As a result, a new fuzzy-logic controller for high and stable total nitrogen removal......, the controller was tested, and showed robustness, against measurement noise levels typical for wastewater sensors. A feedforward-feedback configuration using the present controller would give even better performance. In comparison, a previously developed fuzzy-logic controller using merely expert and intuitive...

  14. A Three-section Algorithm of Dynamic Programming Based on Three-stage Decomposition System Model for Grade Transition Trajectory Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujie Wei; Yongheng Jiang; Dexian Huang⁎

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a practical solving scheme of gradetransition trajectory optimization (GTTO) problems under typical certificate-checking–updating framework. Due to complicated kinetics of polymerization, differential/algebraic equations (DAEs) always cause great computational burden and system non-linearity usual y makes GTTO non-convex bearing multiple optima. Therefore, coupled with the three-stage decomposi-tion model, a three-section algorithm of dynamic programming (TSDP) is proposed based on the general iteration mechanism of iterative programming (IDP) and incorporated with adaptivegrid allocation scheme and heuristic modifications. The algorithm iteratively performs dynamic programming with heuristic modifications under constant calculation loads and adaptively allocates the valued computational resources to the regions that can further improve the optimality under the guidance of local error estimates. TSDP is finally compared with IDP and interior point method (IP) to verify its efficiency of computation.

  15. Biodegradation of Reactive blue 13 in a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic fluidized beds system with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Zhang, Xingwang; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain L1 capable of degrading the azo textile dye Reactive blue 13, was isolated from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. A continuous two-stage anaerobic/aerobic biological fluidized bed system was used to decolorize and mineralize Reactive blue 13. The key factors affecting decolorization were investigated and the efficiency of degradation was also optimized. An overall color removal of 83.2% and COD removal of 90.7% was achieved at pH 7, a residence time of 70 h and a glucose concentration of 2 g/L, HRT=70 h and C(glucose)=2000 mg/L. Oxygen was contributing to blocking the azo bond cleavage. Consequently, decolorization occurred in the anaerobic reactor while partial mineralization was achieved in the aerobic reactor. A possible degradation pathway based on the analysis of intermediates and involving azoreduction, desulfonation, deamination and further oxidation reactions is presented.

  16. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  17. The association of race with timeliness of care and survival among Veterans Affairs health care system patients with late-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 William R Carpenter,2 Dawn T Provenzale,1,3 Morris Weinberger,1,2 Bryce B Reeve,2 Christina D Williams,1 George L Jackson1,4 1Center of Excellence for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Background: Non-small cell lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Patients with late-stage disease (stage 3/4 have five-year survival rates of 2%–15%. Care quality may be measured as time to receiving recommended care and, ultimately, survival. This study examined the association between race and receipt of timely non-small cell lung cancer care and survival among Veterans Affairs health care system patients. Methods: Data were from the External Peer Review Program, a nationwide Veterans Affairs quality-monitoring program. We included Caucasian or African American patients with pathologically confirmed late-stage non-small cell lung cancer in 2006 and 2007. We examined three quality measures: time from diagnosis to (1 treatment initiation, (2 palliative care or hospice referral, and (3 death. Unadjusted analyses used log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. Adjusted analyses used Cox proportional hazard models. Results: After controlling for patient and disease characteristics using Cox regression, there were no racial differences in time to initiation of treatment (72 days for African American versus 65 days for Caucasian patients, hazard ratio 1.04, P = 0.80 or palliative care or hospice referral (129 days versus 116 days, hazard ratio 1.10, P = 0.34. However, the adjusted model found longer survival for African American patients than for Caucasian patients (133 days versus 117 days, hazard ratio 0

  18. Characterization of the InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell with a two-stage dish-style concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A mathematical model of triple-junction solar cell is established. • The calculated results compare well with outdoor experimental data. • A high efficiency heat pipe exchanger is specially designed to cool the cell. • The effect of the homogenizer is more significant at small direct solar radiation. • The impact of solar radiation on the experimental error is researched. - Abstract: Research on automatic tracking solar concentrator photovoltaic systems has gained increasing focus recently in order to develop high efficient solar PV technologies. A paraboloidal concentrator with a secondary optical system (with a concentration ratio in the range of 100–200×) and a sun tracking system was developed in this work. The performance of a heat-pipe cooled triple-junction GaInP/GalnAs/Ge solar cell was characterized. The experiments showed that the system achieved an average output power of 1.52 W/cm2 and an average efficiency of 29.3% when average direct solar radiation is 450 W/m2, while keeping the maximum cell temperature below 64.9 °C, which were 23.3% and 9.1% higher than those of single stage concentrating system respectively. Moreover, the experimental error is increases with the solar radiation. The experimental results for Voc and Isc compared reasonable well with the predictions from a mathematical model, and the calculated values were out of the measured error, which suggested that the model can be used to analyze the influence of relevant parameters on the performance of high concentration photovoltaic systems

  19. A multi-objective optimization problem for multi-state series-parallel systems: A two-stage flow-shop manufacturing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research investigates a redundancy-scheduling optimization problem for a multi-state series parallel system. The system is a flow shop manufacturing system with multi-state machines. Each manufacturing machine may have different performance rates including perfect performance, decreased performance and complete failure. Moreover, warm standby redundancy is considered for the redundancy allocation problem. Three objectives are considered for the problem: (1) minimizing system purchasing cost, (2) minimizing makespan, and (3) maximizing system reliability. Universal generating function is employed to evaluate system performance and overall reliability of the system. Since the problem is in the NP-hard class of combinatorial problems, genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find optimal/near optimal solutions. Different test problems are generated to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of proposed approach and compared to simulated annealing optimization method. The results show the proposed approach is capable of finding optimal/near optimal solution within a very reasonable time. - Highlights: • A redundancy-scheduling optimization problem for a multi-state series parallel system. • A flow shop with multi-state machines and warm standby redundancy. • Objectives are to optimize system purchasing cost, makespan and reliability. • Different test problems are generated and evaluated by a unique genetic algorithm. • It locates optimal/near optimal solution within a very reasonable time

  20. MR staging accuracy for endometrial cancer based on the new FIGO stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been frequently used to determine a preoperative treatment plan for gynecologic cancers. However, the MR accuracy for staging an endometrial cancer is not satisfactory based on the old FIGO staging system. Purpose: To evaluate MR accuracy for staging endometrial cancer using the new FIGO staging system. Material and Methods: Between January 2005 and May 2009, 199 women underwent surgery due to endometrial cancer. In each patient, an endometrial cancer was staged using MR findings based on the old FIGO staging system and then repeated according to the new FIGO staging system for comparison. Histopathologic findings were used as a standard of reference. Results: The accuracy of MRI in the staging of endometrial carcinoma stage I, II, III, and IV using the old FIGO staging system were 80% (159/199), 89% (178/199), 90% (179/199), and 99% (198/199), respectively, compared to 87% (174/199), 97% (193/199), 90% (179/199), and 99% (198/199), respectively, when using the new FIGO staging criteria. The overall MR accuracy of the old and new staging systems were 51% (101/199) and 81% (161/199), respectively. Conclusion: MRI has become a more useful tool in the preoperative staging of endometrial cancers using the new FIGO staging system compared to the old one with increased accuracy