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  1. Evaluation of the 7th AJCC TNM Staging System in Point of Lymph Node Classification

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    Kim, Sung Hoo; Ha, Tae Kyung; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The 7th AJCC tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system modified the classification of the lymph node metastasis widely compared to the 6th edition. To evaluate the prognostic predictability of the new TNM staging system, we analyzed the survival rate of the gastric cancer patients assessed by the 7th staging system. Materials and Methods Among 2,083 patients who underwent resection for gastric cancer at the department of surgery, Hanyang Medical Center from July 1992 to December 2009...

  2. Evaluation of the WHO 2010 grading and AJCC/UICC staging systems in prognostic behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B Araujo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence and heterogeneous behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (iNETs pose a clinicopathological challenge. Our goal was to decribe the prognostic value of the new WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems for iNETs. Moreover, outcomes of patients treated with somatostatin analogs were assessed. METHODS: We collected epidemiological and clinicopathological data from 93 patients with histologically proven iNETs including progression and survival outcomes. The WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems were applied for all cases. RECIST criteria were used to define progression. Kaplan-Meier analyses for progression free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were performed. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 58.6 months (4-213 months. WHO 2010 grading yielded PFS and disease-specific OS of 125.0 and 165.8 months for grade 1 (G1, 100.0 and 144.2 months for G2 and 15.0 and 15.8 months for G3 tumors (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001. Using AJCC staging, patients with stage I and II tumors had no progression and no deaths. Stage III and IV patients demonstrated PFS of 138.4 and 84.7 months (p = 0.003 and disease-specific OS of 210.0 and 112.8 months (p = 0.017. AJCC staging also provided informative PFS (91.2 vs. 50.0 months, p = 0.004 and OS (112.3 vs. 80.0 months, p = 0.005 measures with somatostatin analog use in stage IV patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the complementarity of WHO 2010 and AJCC classifications in providing better estimates of iNETS disease outcomes and extend the evidence for somatostatin analog benefit in patients with metastatic disease.

  3. Evaluation of Sixth Edition of AJCC Staging System for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Proposed Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the 6th edition of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to search for ways to improve the system. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of data from 749 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. All patients had undergone contrast-enhanced computed tomography and had received radiotherapy as their primary treatment. Results: The T stage, N stage, and stage group were significant, independent predictors for disease-specific death. No significant differences were found between Stage T2a and T1 in local failure-free survival or between Stage N3a and N2 in distant failure-free survival. Survival curves of the different T/N subsets showed a better segregation when T2a and N3a were downstaged to T1 and N2, respectively. The hazard ratio of disease-specific deaths for patients with T2N0 disease was similar to that of patients with T1N0 disease; the same result was found for the T3N0 and T4N0 subsets. Downstaging the T2N0 subset to Stage I, T3N0 to Stage II, and T4N0 to Stage III resulted in a more balanced patient distribution, better hazard consistency among subgroups, and improved hazard discrimination between overall stages. Conclusion: Using the 6th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system produced an acceptable distribution of patient numbers and segregation of survival curves among the different stage groups. The prognostic accuracy of the staging system could be improved by recategorization of the T, N, and group stage criteria

  4. How Does Magnetic Resonance Imaging Influence Staging According to AJCC Staging System for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Compared With Computed Tomography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the degree and pattern of influence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on staging according to the 6th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system compared with computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: The MRI and CT scans and medical records of 420 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were analyzed retrospectively. The tumors of all patients were staged according to the 6th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. Results: A significant difference (p <0.05) was found between CT and MRI in demonstrating involvement in the oropharynx (CT, 25.0% vs. MRI, 14.5%), prevertebral muscle (CT, 18.4% vs. MRI, 36.0%), parapharyngeal space (CT, 82.6% vs. MRI, 68.8%), skull base (CT, 31.0% vs. MRI, 52.6%), sphenoid sinus (CT, 13.6% vs. MRI, 16.7%), ethmoid sinus (CT, 7.1% vs. MRI, 3.3%), intracranial area (CT, 4.8% vs. MRI, 16.0%), and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (CT, 52.1% vs. MRI, 69.0%). The incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis and lymph node metastasis at each level was similar according to CT and MRI. MRI resulted in changes in 49.8% of T stage cases, 10.7% of N stage cases, and 38.6% of clinical stage cases. Conclusion: MRI demonstrated early primary tumor involvement more precisely and deep primary tumor infiltration more easily. The use of MRI caused dramatic changes in the results of the T stage and clinical staging and should be preferred to CT in staging NPC. Patients would benefit from changes in treatment strategies resulting from the use of MRI

  5. Promising treatment outcomes of intensity-modulated radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with N0 disease according to the seventh edition of the AJCC staging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) provides excellent locoregional control for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and has gradually replaced two-dimensional conventional radiotherapy as the first-line radiotherapy technique. Furthermore, in the new seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, retropharyngeal lymph nodes were upgraded from N0 to N1 disease as a result of their negative impact on the distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates of NPC. This retrospective study was conducted in order to review the treatment outcomes and patterns of failure in NPC patients with N0 disease after IMRT in order to effectively guide treatment in the future. We retrospectively reviewed data from 506 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic NPC patients. There were 191 patients with negative cervical lymph node involvement. According to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, 110 patients (21.7%) were staged with N0 disease, and 81 patients (16.0%) were reclassified with N1 disease due to the presence of RLN metastasis. All patients received IMRT as the primary treatment. In patients with negative cervical lymph node involvement, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was significantly higher in patients without retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) metastasis than those with RLN metastasis (95.9% vs. 88.1% respectively, P = 0.04). For N0 disease, the 5-year overall survival (OS), local relapse-free survival (LRFS), nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS) and DMFS rates were 93.8%, 97.1%, 99.1% and 95.9%, respectively. For T1N0, T2N0, T3N0 and T4N0, OS was 97.8%, 100%, 93.8% and 76.9%, LRFS was 100%, 92.9%, 100% and 88.9% and DMFS was 96.6%, 90.9%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. OS and LRFS were higher in T1-3 N0 patients than T4N0 patients (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively). The seventh edition of the AJCC N-staging system improves prognostic accuracy by upgrading RLN metastasis to N1 disease. IMRT

  6. Practical Concerns Regarding the 7th Edition AJCC Staging Guidelines

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    D. Buethe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual represents a dramatic shift in the way that cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC is staged, in that it is first attempt to incorporate evidence-based medicine into the staging guidelines for cSCC. In our opinion, the changes made to the seventh edition represent a significant improvement over previous editions and will ultimately lead to improved patient stratification, more accurate prognostic data, and a better framework to guide clinical decision making. However, there are a number of issues within the latest guidelines that require clarification or are impractical for clinical practice. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the key changes to the 6th edition staging manual as they pertain to cSCC, to point out impractical component of the 7th edition and/or aspects that require further clarification, and to make recommendations that address any current shortcomings to improve subsequent editions. Specific focus will be given to the inclusion of separate guidelines for cSCC and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, the incorporation of high-risk factors as modifiers of T stage, the addition of new guidelines for advanced T stage, and the changes in stratification of lymph node status. This paper is modified from a more comprehensive treatment of the staging of nonmelanoma skin cancer by Warner and Cockerell entitled “The new 7th edition American joint committee on cancer staging of cutaneous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a critical review,” in the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (paper accepted, pending publication.

  7. Hormone profiling, WHO 2010 grading, and AJCC/UICC staging in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms, exhibiting a complex spectrum of clinical behaviors. To examine the clinico-pathological characteristics associated with long-term prognosis we reviewed 119 patients with pNETs treated in a tertiary referral center using the WHO 2010 grading and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging systems, with a median follow-up of 38 months. Tumor size, immunohistochemistry (IHC) profiling and patient characteristics-determining stage were analyzed. Primary clinical outcomes were disease progression or death. The mean age at presentation was 52 years; 55% were female patients, 11% were associated with MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia 1) or VHL (Von Hippel–Lindau); mean tumor diameter was 3.3 cm (standard deviation, SD) (2.92). The clinical presentation was incidental in 39% with endocrine hypersecretion syndromes in only 24% of cases. Nevertheless, endocrine hormone tissue immunoreactivity was identified in 67 (56.3%) cases. According to WHO 2010 grading, 50 (42%), 38 (31.9%), and 3 (2.5%) of tumors were low grade (G1), intermediate grade (G2), and high grade (G3), respectively. Disease progression occurred more frequently in higher WHO grades (G1: 6%, G2: 10.5%, G3: 67%, P = 0.026) and in more advanced AJCC stages (I: 2%, IV: 63%, P = 0.033). Shorter progression free survival (PFS) was noted in higher grades (G3 vs. G2; 21 vs. 144 months; P = 0.015) and in more advanced AJCC stages (stage I: 218 months, IV: 24 months, P < 0.001). Liver involvement (20 vs. 173 months, P < 0.001) or histologically positive lymph nodes (33 vs. 208 months, P < 0.001) were independently associated with shorter PFS. Conversely, tissue endocrine hormone immunoreactivity, independent of circulating levels was significantly associated with less aggressive disease. Age, gender, number of primary tumors, and heredity were not significantly associated with

  8. Re-Evaluation of 6th Edition of AJCC Staging System for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Proposed Improvement Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use magnetic resonance imaging to re-evaluate and improve the 6th edition of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of the data from 924 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging examinations and received radiotherapy as their primary treatment. Results: The T classification, N classification, and stage group were independent predictors. No significant differences in the local failure hazards between adjacent T categories were observed between Stage T2b and T1, Stage T2b and T2a, and Stage T2b and T3. Although the disease failure hazards for Stage T1 were similar to those for Stage T2a, those for Stage T2b were similar to those for Stage T3. Survival curves of the different T/N subsets showed a better segregation when Stage T2a was downstaged to T1, T2b and T3 were incorporated into T2, and the nodal greatest dimension was rejected. The disease failure hazard for T3N0-N1 subsets were similar to those of the T1-T2N1 subsets belonging to Stage II; the same result was found for the T4N0-N2 subsets in the sixth American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. However, the staging system we propose shows more consistent hazards within the same stage group and better survival discrimination among T categories, N categories, and overall stages. Conclusion: Using the 6th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system produces an acceptable distribution of patient numbers and segregation of survival curves among the different stage groups. The prognostic accuracy of the staging system could be improved by recategorizing the T, N, and group stage criteria.

  9. Relationships between plain-film radiographic patterns and clinicopathologic variables in AJCC stage II osteosarcoma

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    Kim, Min Suk; Koh, Jae-Soo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Pathology, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Soo-Yong; Cho, Wan Hyeong; Song, Won Seok; Jeon, Dae-Geun [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jun Ah [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea); Yoo, Ji Young [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea); Jung, Sung Taek [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gwangju (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this retrospective study, we assessed the plain-film radiographic patterns of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage II osteosarcoma and analyzed the relationship between these patterns and clinicopathologic variables. We retrospectively reviewed 347 patients with AJCC stage II osteosarcoma who were treated at our institute. Patients were divided into three groups based on radiographic patterns, i.e., osteoblastic, osteolytic, and mixed. Fisher's exact chi-square test was performed to analyze correlations between radiographic patterns and clinicopathological variables. One hundred and eighty-eight patients had an osteoblastic tumor, 101 had an osteolytic tumor, and 58 had a mixed tumor. Tumors with an osteoblastic pattern showed a tendency to have the following characteristics: AJCC stage II-B, osteoblastic or chondroblastic subtype, and no pathologic fracture. Conversely, osteolytic tumors were frequently of AJCC stage II-A, had a fibroblastic or rare subtype, and were associated with a pathologic fracture. Finally, mixed tumors were frequently found in men. No survival difference was found according to radiographic pattern. Plain-film radiographic patterns were found to be related with clinicopathological features. We believe that it could be used to provide valuable information for treatment decision-making in cases of high-grade extremity osteosarcoma. (orig.)

  10. Proposal for the 8th edition of AJCC/UICC staging system for nasopharyngeal cancer in the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy%基于 IMRT 时代的第八版 AJCC/UICC鼻咽癌临床分期建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘建基; 郭巧娟; Wai Kuen Kan; 肖友平; Xu Wei; Quynh Thu Le; Christine M.Glastonbury; A.Dimtrios Colevas; Randal S.Weber; Jatin P.Shah; Anne W.M.Lee; Wai Tong Ng; 宗井凤; Lucy L.K.Chan; Brian O’Sullivan; 林少俊; Henry C.K.Sze; 陈韵彬; Horace C.W.Choi

    2016-01-01

    Objective An accurate staging system is crucial for cancer management .With the development of cancer staging systems and therapeutic methods, the applicability and improvement of staging systems should be evaluated constantly.Methods The clinical data of 1609 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients without metastasis at initial diagnosis , who were admitted to two tumor centers in Hong Kong and Mainland China and received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), were analyzed retrospectively based on the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) or International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system, and all the patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) before treatment.Results Among the T3 /T4 patients without involvement of other anatomic structures, overall survival (OS)showed no significant differences between the patients with masticator space (medial pterygoid muscle and/or lateral pterygoid muscle) involvement, prevertebral muscle involvement, and parapharyngeal space involvement.The OS was similar between the patients with extensive soft tissue (soft tissues other than the structures mentioned above) involvement and those with intracranial involvement or cranial nerve involvement.Only2% of the patients had lymph node metastasis >6 cm above the supraclavicular fossa (SCF), with an OS similar to that of the patients with lower cervical lymph node metastasis .Replacing SCF with the lower neck(below the caudal border of the cricoid cartilage ) did not affect the risk difference between different N stages.With the proposed T and N staging systems, the OS showed no significant differences between T 4N 0-2 and T1-4 N3 patients.Conclusions After a review by AJCC/UICC staging system preparatory committees, the changes recommended for the 8th edition include changing medial pterygoid muscle or lateral pterygoid muscle involvement from T4 to T2 , adding prevertebral muscle involvement to T2 stage, replacing SCF with the lower neck and

  11. Impact of esophageal cancer staging on overall survival and disease-free survival based on the 2010 AJCC classification by lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study investigated the effect of modifications presented in the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Manual for staging esophageal cancer on the characterization of the effectiveness of post-operative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, as measured by overall and disease-free survival. The seventh edition of the AJCC Manual classifies the number of lymph nodes (N) positive for regional metastasis into three subclasses. We used the AJCC classification system to characterize the cancers of 413 Chinese patients with esophageal cancer who underwent radical resection plus regional lymph node dissection over a 10-year period. The 10-year survival rate was 14.3% for stage N1 patients and 6.1% for stage N2 patients. Only one stage N3 patient was followed >4 years (53.4 months). The 10-year disease-free rate was 13.6% for stage N1 patients. Patients with stage N2 or N3 cancer were more likely to have tumor recurrences, metastases or death than patients with stage N1 cancer. Post-operative radiotherapy provided no survival benefit, and may have had a negative effect on survival. In this study, the N stage of esophageal cancer was an independent factor affecting overall and disease-free survival. Our results did not clarify whether or not radiotherapy after radical esophagectomy offers any survival benefit to patients with esophageal cancer. (author)

  12. Use of S-100B to Evaluate Therapy Effects during Bevacizumab Induction Treatment in AJCC Stage III Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kruijff, S.; Bastiaannet, E.; Brouwers, A. H.; Nagengast, W. B.; Speijers, M.J.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.; Hospers, G. A.; Hoekstra, H J

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the feasibility of using bevacizumab to improve the survival of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage III melanoma patients, we investigated how a single bevacizumab treatment affected nodal disease and a panel of biomarkers in clinically fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT)-staged, stage III melanoma patients, prior to therapeutic lymph node dissection (TLND). Methods Four weeks before TLND, nine patients (median age ...

  13. Comparison of CT and MRI findings in the staging of rectosigmoid carcinoma according to new AJCC classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in the staging of rectosigmoid carcinoma according to the new AJCC classification. Between August 1997 and October 1998, 36 patients with pathologically proven rectosigmoid carcinoma who underwent preoperative CT and MRI were evaluated. CT scans were performed with spiral CT in 27 cases and with conventional CT in nine. In all cases, MR images were obtained using a 1.5T unit and a body arrayed coil. T1-and T2-weighted images were obtained in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. On the basis of the results of CT scanning and MRI, tumor stage was determined by two radiologists using the AJCC cancer staging manual(1997). They reached a consensus and compared their results with the pathologic stage. The T-stage was T1 in three cases, T2 in two, T3 in 26, and T4 in five. The N-stage was N0 in 16 cases, N1 in seven, and N2 in 13. In the case of CT, the diagnostic accuracy of T-staging was 67%, and that of N-staging, 44%. For MRI, the corresponding figures were 83% and 67%. For T-staging, MRI was more accurate than CT(P=0.006), but for N-staging, the diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI was statistically equivalent (P>0.05). MRI using a body arrayed coil is a useful preoperative diagnostic tool for the local staging of rectosigmoid carcinoma

  14. Vitronectin and dermcidin serum levels predict the metastatic progression of AJCC I-II early-stage melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Martínez, Idoia; Gardeazabal, Jesús; Erramuzpe, Asier; Sanchez-Diez, Ana; Cortés, Jesús; García-Vázquez, María D; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Izu, Rosa; Luís Díaz-Ramón, Jose; de la Fuente, Ildefonso M; Asumendi, Aintzane; Boyano, María D

    2016-10-01

    Like many cancers, an early diagnosis of melanoma is fundamental to ensure a good prognosis, although an important proportion of stage I-II patients may still develop metastasis during follow-up. The aim of this work was to discover serum biomarkers in patients diagnosed with primary melanoma that identify those at a high risk of developing metastasis during the follow-up period. Proteomic and mass spectrophotometry analysis was performed on serum obtained from patients who developed metastasis during the first years after surgery for primary tumors and compared with that from patients who remained disease-free for more than 10 years after surgery. Five proteins were selected for validation as prognostic factors in 348 melanoma patients and 100 controls by ELISA: serum amyloid A and clusterin; immune system proteins; the cell adhesion molecules plakoglobin and vitronectin and the antimicrobial protein dermcidin. Compared to healthy controls, melanoma patients have high serum levels of these proteins at the moment of melanoma diagnosis, although the specific values were not related to the histopathological stage of the tumors. However, an analysis based on classification together with multivariate statistics showed that tumor stage, vitronectin and dermcidin levels were associated with the metastatic progression of patients with early-stage melanoma. Although melanoma patients have increased serum dermcidin levels, the REPTree classifier showed that levels of dermcidin stage II patients. These data suggest that vitronectin and dermcidin are potent biomarkers of prognosis, which may help to improve the personalized medical care of melanoma patients and their survival. PMID:27216146

  15. Metastatic lymph node ratio, 6th or 7th AJCC edition: witch is the best lymph node classification for esophageal cancer? Prognosis factor analysis in 487 patients

    OpenAIRE

    CORAL, Roberto V.; BIGOLIN, André V.; CORAL, Roberto P.; Hartmann, Antonio; DRANKA, Carolina; ROEHE, Adriana V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The esophageal cancer is one of the most common and aggressive worldwide. Recently, the AJCC changed the staging system, considering, among others, the important role of the lymph node metastasis on the prognosis. Aim To discuss the applicability of different forms of lymph node staging in a western surgical center. Methods Four hundred eighty seven patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled. Three staging systems were evaluated, the 6th and the 7th AJCC editions and the Lymph N...

  16. Circulating Tyrosinase and MART-1 mRNA does not Independently Predict Relapse or Survival in Patients with AJCC Stage I–II Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Sørensen, Boe S; Sjoegren, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    , Clark level, and histological subtype were analyzed together with tyrosinase and MART-1 mRNA treated as updated covariates in a Cox proportional-hazard model. After a median follow-up time of 66 months, 42 out of 236 patients (18%) had relapsed. The following variables were significantly associated with...... relapse-free survival in the univariate analyses: tyrosinase, MART-1, gender, ulceration, thickness, Clark level, and histological subtype. Entering these covariates into a multivariate Cox analysis resulted in thickness as the single independent prognostic factor (P<0.0001), whereas MART-1 (P=0.......07) approached significance at the 5% significance level. The serial measurements of tyrosinase and MART-1 mRNA in peripheral blood of stage I-II melanoma patients cannot be demonstrated to have independent prognostic impact on relapse-free survival....

  17. Circulating tyrosinase and MART-1 mRNA does not independently predict relapse or survival in patients with AJCC stage I-II melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Sørensen, Boe Sandahl; Sjøgren, Pia;

    2006-01-01

    relapsed. The following variables       were significantly associated with relapse-free survival in the univariate       analyses: tyrosinase, MART-1, gender, ulceration, thickness, Clark level,       and histological subtype. Entering these covariates into a multivariate       Cox analysis resulted in...... thickness as the single independent prognostic       factor (P<0.0001), whereas MART-1 (P=0.07) approached significance at the       5% significance level. The serial measurements of tyrosinase and MART-1       mRNA in peripheral blood of stage I-II melanoma patients cannot be       demonstrated to have...... independent prognostic impact on relapse-free       survival...

  18. Applications of a novel tumor-grading-metastasis staging system for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Tan, Chun-Lu; Zhang, Yi; Ke, Neng-Wen; Zeng, Lin; Li, Ang; Zhang, Hao; Xiong, Jun-Jie; Guo, Zi-Heng; Tian, Bo-Le; Liu, Xu-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The ability to stratify patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) into prognostic groups has been hindered by the absence of a commonly accepted staging system. Both the 7th tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging guidelines by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the 2010 grading classifications by the World Health Organization (WHO) were validated to be unsatisfactory. We aim to evaluate the feasibility of combining the latest AJCC and WHO criteria to devise a novel tumor-grading-metastasis (TGM) staging system. We also sought to examine the stage-specific survival rates and the prognostic value of this new TGM system for p-NETs. Data of 120 patients with surgical resection and histopathological diagnosis of p-NETs from January 2004 to February 2014 in our institution were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Based on the AJCC and WHO criteria, we replaced the stage N0 and N1 with stage Ga (NET G1 and NET G2) and Gb (NET G3 and MANEC) respectively, without changes of the definition of T or M stage. The present novel TGM staging system was grouped as follows: stage I was defined as T1–2, Ga, M0; stage II as T3, Ga, M0 or as T1–3, Gb, M0; stage III as T4, Ga–b, M0 and stage IV as any T, M1. The new TGM staging system successfully distributed 55, 42, 12, and 11 eligible patients in stage I to IV, respectively. Differences of survival compared stage I with III and IV for patients with p-NETs were both statistically significant (P current proposed TGM staging system was predictive for overall survival of p-NETs and could be more widely applied in clinical practice. PMID:27428224

  19. Prognostic factors and significance of the revised 6th edition of the AJCC classification in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogera-Fountzila, A.; Karanikolas, D.; Sarafopoulos, A.; Ikonomou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Dept. of Radiology, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece); Katodritis, N. [Bank of Cyprus Oncology Center, Nicosia (Cyprus); Samantas, E. [' ' Agii Anargiri' ' Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Zamboglou, N.; Tselis, N. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Fountzilas, G. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, ' ' Papageorgiou' ' General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) Data Office, Athens (Greece)

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the 4th edition 1992 and 6th edition 2002 of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems, to evaluate the paranasopharyngeal structures and lymph node involvement, and to define the prognostic significance of the above factors to overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: CT images of 162 patients, who were diagnosed with NPC and received irradiation alone or chemotherapy and irradiation, were retrospectively reviewed. CT scans, performed prior to and after the completion of treatment, were reviewed. Results: The parapharyngeal space was found to be involved very commonly (98%). 50 of 162 patients (31%) displayed parapharyngeal extension of the tumor to degree A, 59 patients (36%) showed degree B, and 50 patients (31%) degree C nasopharyngeal extension. According to the AJCC 6th edition 2002, patients were distributed into stages IIA, IIB, III, IVA, and IVB. By contrast, using the AJCC 4th edition 1992, patients were distributed into stages III and IV only. After a median follow up of 71.1 months, median survival was 60.7 months, with a 2-year survival rate of 71.3% and a 3-year survival rate of 62.2%. Multivariate analysis identified age, degree of parapharyngeal lateral extension, cavernous-sinus-infiltration, and size of infiltrated lymph nodes as independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion: The 6th revision of TNM staging reported herein, provides a more uniform distribution of patients between stages. The degree of tumor extension into the parapharyngeal space should be considered in future TNM staging revisions. (orig.)

  20. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is important in determining the best treatment plan. Several classification systems have been suggested to determine the operability and extent of surgery. Longitudinal tumor extent is especially important in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma because operative methods differ depending on the tumor extent. The Bismuth-Corlette classification system provides useful information when planning for surgery. However, this classification system is not adequate for selecting surgical candidates. Anatomic variation of the bile duct and gross morphology of the tumor must be considered simultaneously. Lateral spread of the tumor can be evaluated based on the TNM staging provided by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, there is a potential for ambiguity in the distinction of T1 and T2 cancer from one another. In addition, T stage does not necessarily mean invasiveness. Blumgart T staging is helpful for the assessment of resectability with the consideration of nodal status and distant metastasis as suggested by the AJCC cancer staging system. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the primary tools used in the assessment of longitudinal and lateral spread of a tumor when determining respectability. Diagnostic laparoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) may play additional roles in this regard. (orig.)

  1. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  2. Esophageal Cancer Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer.

  3. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  4. A simple and effective prognostic staging system based on clinicopathologic features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huabang; Jiang, Xiaolan; Li, Qiaomei; Hu, Jingyi; Zhong, Zhengrong; Wang, Hao; Wang, Hui; Yang, Bing; Hu, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are increasing. However, its prognostic predictive system associated with outcome after surgery remains poorly defined. In this study, we conducted retrospective survival analyses in a primary cohort of 370 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for ICC (2005 and 2009). We found that seven variables were significantly independent predictors for overall survival (OS): serum prealbumin (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.447; p = 0.015), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (HR: 1.438; p = 0.009), carcinoembryonic antigen (HR: 1.732; p = 0.002), tumor number (HR: 1.781; p < 0.001), vascular invasion (HR: 1.784; p < 0.001), regional lymphatic metastasis (HR: 2.003; p < 0.001) and local extrahepatic metastasis (HR: 1.506; p = 0.008). Using these independent predictors, we created a simple clinicopathologic prognostic staging system for predicting survival of ICC patients after resection. The validity of the prognostic staging system was prospectively assessed in 115 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy between January 2010 and December 2010 at the same institution. The prognostic power was quantified using likelihood ratio test and Akaike information criteria. Compared with the 6th and 7th AJCC staging systems, the new staging system in the primary cohort had a higher predictive accuracy for OS in terms of homogeneity and discriminatory ability. In the validation cohort, the homogeneity and discrimination of the new staging system were also superior to the two other staging systems. Conclusions: The new staging system based on clinicopathologic features may provide relatively higher accuracy in prognostic prediction for ICC patients after tumor resection. PMID:26175951

  5. [TNM staging system of lung carcinoma: historical notes, limitations and controversies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, G; Nahum, M A; Testa, T; Spinelli, E

    1995-01-01

    The TNM System as originally proposed by Denoix in 1946, provides a consistent, reproducible description of the anatomic extent of disease in cancer patients at a specific time in the life history of the cancer. C.F. Mountain first adapted this classification to lung cancer in 1973 on behalf of AJCC. In 1986 he presented the "New Intl. Staging System for Lung Cancers" mainly based on a 13 yr experience of the previous one, which was accepted world-wide through a round of international consensus meetings held in 1985. Clinical Staging is the best estimate of disease extent made prior to the institution of any therapy; Surgical-pathological Staging is the classification of disease extent as determined from pathological examination of resected specimens. Accordingly, once the diagnosis is made, it is necessary to stage accurately the tumour determining the size and location of the tumour (T status), the presence or absence of lymphnode involvement (N status), and whether the tumour is metastatic to distant sites (M status). Moreover the uniform staging criteria for lung cancer will assure for each patient the better selection of treatment, the evaluation of operability, the need for adjuvant therapy, as well as the estimation of prognosis. Equally important is the resultant ability to compare the outcome of treatment protocols from different centres. More recently C.F. Mountain has added to the Staging System a new standard logic or "convention" for classifying infrequently observed presentations of lung cancer with which the standard rules of Staging System itself don't fit. These conventions are based on empiric expectation for treatment selection and survival that are similar to those for the Staging definitions, which are based on actuarialsurvival data. Many different types of tumour such as multiple masses, synchronous multiple primitives, discontinuous tumour foci in visceral or parietal pleura as well neoplastic involvement of various mediastinal structures

  6. Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: Old controversies and recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Resch, Annika; Langner, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Outcome prediction based on tumor stage reflected by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the strongest prognostic parameter for patients with colorectal cancer. For affected patients, the indication for adjuvant therapy is mainly guided by the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. In addition to the extent of surgical lymph node removal and the thoroughness of the patholog...

  7. The New Lung Cancer Staging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank C. Detterbeck,MD, FCCP; Daniel J. Boffa, MD; Lynn T, Tanoue, MD, FCCP

    2009-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) has conducted an extensive initiative to inform the revision of the lung cancer staging system. This involved development of an international database along with extensive analysis of a large population of patients and their prognoses. This article reviews the recommendations of the IASLC International Staging Committee for the definitions for the TNM descriptors and the stage grouping in the new non-small cell lung cancer staging system.

  8. Developing a novel nodal grading system to standardize nodal classification in gastric cancer patients with limited lymph node resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To develop an easy applicable novel nodal grading system to improve the standardization of nodal classification in patients with limited lymphadenectomy. Methods: We formulated a new approach of nodal classification to classify this category of patients. Log-rank test was used for univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. We used linear trendχ2 tests, likelihood ratioχ2 test and Akaike information criterion (AIC) value to assess the homogeneity, discriminatory ability and monotonicity of gradients of the two nodal staging systems.Results:Statistical analysis supported that both the hypothesized N’ stage and hypothesized TN’M stage outperforms the present AJCC/UICC staging system.Conclusion:We developed an easy applicable and reproducible novel nodal grading system that has a greater predicting value than the current AJCC/UICC staging system to classify gastric cancer patients with limited lymphadenectomy.

  9. The seventh tumour-node-metastasis staging system for lung cancer: Sequel or prequel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Janssens, Annelies

    2013-09-01

    Anatomical cancer extent is an important predictor of prognosis and determines treatment choices. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification developed by Pierre Denoix replaced in 1968 the Veterans Administration Lung cancer Group (VALG) classification, which was still in use for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Clifton Mountain suggested several improvements based on a database of mostly surgically treated United States (US) patients from a limited number of centres. This database was pivotal for a uniform reporting of lung cancer extent by the American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union against Cancer (IUCC), but it suffered increasingly from obsolete diagnostic and staging procedures and did not reflect new treatment modalities. Moreover, its findings were not externally validated in large Japanese and European databases, resulting in persisting controversies which could not be solved with the available database. The use of different mediastinal lymph-node maps in Japan, the (US) and Europe facilitated neither the exchange nor the comparison of treatment results. Peter Goldstraw, a United Kingdom (UK) thoracic surgeon, started the process of updating the sixth version in 1996 and brought it to a good end 10 years later. His goals were to improve the TNM system in lung cancer by addressing the ongoing controversies, to validate the modifications and additional descriptors, to validate the TNM for use in staging SCLC and carcinoid tumours, to propose a new uniform lymph-node map and to investigate the prognostic value of non-anatomical factors. A staging committee was formed within the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) - which supervised the collection of the retrospective data from >100,000 patients with lung cancer - treated throughout the world between 1990 and 2000, analyse them with the help of solid statistics and validate externally with the Surveillance

  10. [New TNM Staging System for Thymic Malignancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takayuki; Yokoi, Kohei

    2016-05-01

    In patients with malignant tumors, the TNM classification has been widely used by clinicians as a guide for estimating prognosis, and is the basis for treatment decisions. Recently, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee and the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group have proposed a new classification for thymic malignancies to be included in the next official staging system of the forthcoming 8th edition of the TNM classification. In this study, we reviewed 154 consecutive patients with thymic epithelial tumors who underwent complete resection at our institution, and compared their characteristics and outcomes when classified according to the proposed system with those when classified under the current Masaoka-Koga system. The proportion of patients with stage I disease increased markedly to 77.3%under the proposed system because a certain number of patients with Masaoka-Koga stages II and III diseases were downstaged to the new stage I. Regarding histology, among 69 patients with type A, AB, or B1 thymoma, 68 tumors(99%)were diagnosed as new stage I disease. When using the proposed system, the recurrence-free survival rates showed significant deterioration with increasing stage, while the overall survival rates did not. Although the new TNM classification does not serve as an effective prognostic prediction model for overall survival, it appears to offer some benefit, especially in the analysis of recurrence-free survival. PMID:27210081

  11. Defining a Valid Age Cutoff in Staging of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Iain J.; Kuk, Deborah; Wreesmann, Volkert; Morris, Luc; Palmer, Frank L.; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal G.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok R.; Gönen, Mithat; Shah, Jatin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Age 45 years is used as a cutoff in the staging of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) as it represents the median age of most datasets. The aim of this study was to determine a statistically optimized age threshold using a large dataset of patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods Overall, 1807 patients with a median follow-up of 109 months were included in the study. Recursive partitioning was used to determine which American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) variables were most predictive of disease-specific death, and whether a different cutoff for age would be found. From the resulting tree, a new age cutoff was picked and patients were restaged using this new cutoff. Results The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) by Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) stage was 99.6, 100, 96, and 81 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Using recursive partitioning, the presence of distant metastasis was the most powerful predictor of DSS. For M0 patients, age was the next most powerful predictor, with a cutoff of 56 years. For M1 patients, a cutoff at 54 years was most predictive. Having reviewed the analysis, age 55 years was selected as a more robust age cutoff than 45 years. The 10-year DSS by new stage (using age 55 years as the cutoff) was 99.2, 98, 100, and 74 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Conclusion A change in age cutoff in the AJCC/UICC staging for WDTC to 55 years would improve the accuracy of the system and appropriately prevent low-risk patients being overstaged and overtreated. PMID:26215199

  12. The staging system: Display and edit module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E.; Bernier, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Display and Edit (D and E) Module described is one of six major modules being developed for the STAGING (STructural Analysis through Generalized INteractive Graphics) System. Several remarks are included concerning the computer environment and the architecture of the data base. The utility of this module is emphasized.

  13. Multi-stage LTL transport systems in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to unify concepts and to describe the multi-stage transport systems and their integratyion to supply chain management. Multi-stage distribution systems are common logistics management, and often they are assimilated to multi-stage transport strategies. However, transport is often considered as an external operation or a specific stage, even when it is a multi-stage system. First, the paper presents the main concepts of multi-stage transport systems by defining the concept an m...

  14. A simplified staging system based on the radiological findings in different stages of ochronotic spondyloarthropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Jebaraj; Binita Riya Chacko; George Koshy Chiramel; Thomas Matthai; Apurve Parameswaran

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a group of 26 patients with ochronotic spondyloarthropathy who were on regular treatment and follow-up at a tertiary level hospital and proposes a simplified staging system for ochronotic spondyloarthropathy based on radiographic findings seen in the thoracolumbar spine. This proposed classification makes it easy to identify the stage of the disease and start the appropriate management at an early stage. Four progressive stages are described: an inflammatory stage (stage ...

  15. Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma investigated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To investigate the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) sixth edition staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty-nine non-disseminated biopsy-proven NPC patients were studied with MRI before treatment. Retrieval of MRI information enabled us to restage all patients accurately according to the sixth edition of the AJCC staging system. Splitting the respective T and N stages by the significant defining factors identified, the cancer death hazard ratios were modeled by the Cox model in SPSS 10.0 for windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Results: Single site of skull base abnormality (HR=3.91, 95% CI: 0.74-20.56) has a superior result to others involved in T3 (HR=5.83, 95% CI: 1.24-27.29). Involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely (HR=6.02, 95% CI: 1.55-35.60) was not found to be as a poor prognostic indicator as others involved in T4 (HR=7.81, 95% CI: 1.81-33.63). Less than or equal to 3 cm of N1 (HR=4.01, 95% CI: 0.48-33.83) and N2 (HR=4.72, 95% CI: 0.62-35.78) have a better result than >3 cm of N1 (HR=8.09, 95% CI: 0.95-68.97) and N2 (HR=10.58, 95% CI: 1.32-84.62), respectively. Conclusions: Perhaps, it is better to down-stage single site of skull base abnormality from T3 to T2, and involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely from T4 to T3, meanwhile, ≤3 cm of N2 down-stage to N1, >3 cm of N1 up-stage to N2

  16. Computerized System for Staging Peritoneal Surface Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Sammartino, Paolo; Biacchi, Daniele; Cornali, Tommaso; Accarpio, Fabio; Sibio, Simone; Luraschi, Bernard; Impagnatiello, Alessio; Di Giorgio, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Background Peritoneal surface malignancies (PSMs) are usually staged using Sugarbaker’s Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) and completeness of cytoreduction score (CC-s). Although these staging tools are essential for selecting patients and evaluating outcome after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), both scoring models lack some anatomic information, thus making staging laborious and unreliable. Maintaining Sugarbaker’s original concepts, we therefo...

  17. Prediction of Pathological Stage in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Neuro-Fuzzy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Giovanni; Brown, David; Rees, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of cancer staging in prostate cancer is a process for estimating the likelihood that the cancer has spread before treatment is given to the patient. Although important for determining the most suitable treatment and optimal management strategy for patients, staging continues to present significant challenges to clinicians. Clinical test results such as the pre-treatment Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) level, the biopsy most common tumor pattern (Primary Gleason pattern) and the second most common tumor pattern (Secondary Gleason pattern) in tissue biopsies, and the clinical T stage can be used by clinicians to predict the pathological stage of cancer. However, not every patient will return abnormal results in all tests. This significantly influences the capacity to effectively predict the stage of prostate cancer. Herein we have developed a neuro-fuzzy computational intelligence model for classifying and predicting the likelihood of a patient having Organ-Confined Disease (OCD) or Extra-Prostatic Disease (ED) using a prostate cancer patient dataset obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. The system input consisted of the following variables: Primary and Secondary Gleason biopsy patterns, PSA levels, age at diagnosis, and clinical T stage. The performance of the neuro-fuzzy system was compared to other computational intelligence based approaches, namely the Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy C-Means, Support Vector Machine, the Naive Bayes classifiers, and also the AJCC pTNM Staging Nomogram which is commonly used by clinicians. A comparison of the optimal Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) points that were identified using these approaches, revealed that the neuro-fuzzy system, at its optimal point, returns the largest Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC), with a low number of false positives (FPR = 0.274, TPR = 0.789, AUC = 0.812). The proposed approach is also an improvement over the AJCC pTNM Staging Nomogram (FPR = 0.032, TPR

  18. Prediction of Pathological Stage in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Neuro-Fuzzy Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Cosma

    Full Text Available The prediction of cancer staging in prostate cancer is a process for estimating the likelihood that the cancer has spread before treatment is given to the patient. Although important for determining the most suitable treatment and optimal management strategy for patients, staging continues to present significant challenges to clinicians. Clinical test results such as the pre-treatment Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA level, the biopsy most common tumor pattern (Primary Gleason pattern and the second most common tumor pattern (Secondary Gleason pattern in tissue biopsies, and the clinical T stage can be used by clinicians to predict the pathological stage of cancer. However, not every patient will return abnormal results in all tests. This significantly influences the capacity to effectively predict the stage of prostate cancer. Herein we have developed a neuro-fuzzy computational intelligence model for classifying and predicting the likelihood of a patient having Organ-Confined Disease (OCD or Extra-Prostatic Disease (ED using a prostate cancer patient dataset obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA Research Network. The system input consisted of the following variables: Primary and Secondary Gleason biopsy patterns, PSA levels, age at diagnosis, and clinical T stage. The performance of the neuro-fuzzy system was compared to other computational intelligence based approaches, namely the Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy C-Means, Support Vector Machine, the Naive Bayes classifiers, and also the AJCC pTNM Staging Nomogram which is commonly used by clinicians. A comparison of the optimal Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC points that were identified using these approaches, revealed that the neuro-fuzzy system, at its optimal point, returns the largest Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC, with a low number of false positives (FPR = 0.274, TPR = 0.789, AUC = 0.812. The proposed approach is also an improvement over the AJCC pTNM Staging Nomogram (FPR

  19. Proposed Lymph Node Staging System Using the International Consensus Guidelines for Lymph Node Levels Is Predictive for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients From Endemic Areas Treated With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Fei; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Mo [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Li-Zhi [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Ai-Hua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To propose a lymph node (N) staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) based on the International Consensus Guidelines for lymph node (LN) levels and MRI-determined nodal variables. Methods and Materials: The MRI scans and medical records of 749 NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic significance of nodal level, laterality, maximal axial diameter, extracapsular spread, necrosis, and Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) size criteria were analyzed. Results: Nodal level and laterality were the only independent prognostic factors for distant failure and disease failure in multivariate analysis. Compared with unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (hazard ratio [HR] 1), retropharyngeal lymph node involvement alone had a similar prognostic value (HR 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.17; P=.17), whereas bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.06-2.58; P=.03) and levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement (HR 3.47; 95% CI 1.92-6.29; P<.01) both significantly increased the HR for distant failure. Thus we propose that the N category criteria could be revised as follows: N0, no regional LN metastasis; N1, retropharyngeal lymph node involvement, and/or unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N2, bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N3, levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement. Compared with the 7th edition of the UICC/AJCC criteria, the proposed N staging system provides a more satisfactory distinction between the HRs for regional failure, distant failure, and disease failure in each N category. Conclusions: The proposed N staging system defined by the International Consensus Guidelines and laterality is predictive and practical. However, because of no measurements of the maximal nodal diameter on MRI slices

  20. A proposed staging system and stage-specific interventions for familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynch, Patrick M; Morris, Jeffrey S; Wen, Sijin;

    2016-01-01

    scores were within ±1 stage of the mode. Sixty percent agreed on the intervention, and 86% chose an intervention within ±1 level of the mode. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed FAP colon polyposis staging system and stage-specific intervention is based on a high degree of agreement on the part of experts in the...... polyp burden as a sufficient chemoprevention trial treatment endpoint requiring a measure of "clinical-benefit." To develop endpoints for future industry-sponsored chemopreventive trials, the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors (InSIGHT) developed an FAP staging and intervention...... classification scheme for lower GI tract polyposis. METHODS: Twenty-four colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy videos were reviewed by 26 clinicians familiar with diagnosis and treatment of FAP. The reviewers independently assigned a stage to a case using the proposed system and chose a stage-specific intervention for...

  1. Development of Wireless Dimming Control System for LED Stage Light

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Hui Qin; Bai Shi Lei

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the existing wire dimming system of LED stage light which uses the heavy light operating console to adjust the brightness of stage light, a portable wireless dimming control system for LED stage lighting is proposed, fabricated and tested in this paper. The scheme with the core of ATmega16L microcontroller is composed of wireless transmission and reception units, constant current driving circuit of LED, and the control circuit between this two modules. Through the system present...

  2. The Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics: A proposed clinical staging system for paediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Buchholz, Annick; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Jetha, Mary M; Gaboury, Laurie; Hamilton, Jill; Birken, Catherine; Morrison, Katherine M; Legault, Laurent; Bridger, Tracey; Cook, Stephen R; Lyons, John; Sharma, Arya M; Ball, Geoff Dc

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical recommendations for assessing and managing paediatric obesity have relied on anthropometric measures, such as body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile and/or BMI z-score, to monitor health risks and determine weight management success. However, anthropometric measures do not always accurately and reliably identify children and youth with obesity-related health risks or comorbidities. The authors propose a new clinical staging system (the Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics, EOSS-P), adapted from the adult-oriented EOSS. The EOSS-P is used to stratify patients according to severity of obesity-related comorbidities and barriers to weight management into four graded categories (0 to 3) within four main health domains: metabolic, mechanical, mental health and social milieu (the 4Ms). The EOSS-P is based on common clinical assessments that are widely available and routinely completed by clinicians, and has the potential to provide clinical and prognostic information to help evaluate and inform the management of paediatric obesity. PMID:26941556

  3. CT for staging of systemic lymphatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 75 patients with lymphoma (46 Hodgkin's disease, 29 non-Hodgkin lymphomas) computed tomography was performed in order to detect neoplastic invasion of the abdominal organs (55 new cases) or to control the results of treatment (20 cases). In 30 cases enlarged retropertoneal or mesenteric lymphnodes and/or liver or spleen enlargement were found. Neoplastic involment of lymphnodes without enlargement was missed in two cases. CT failed also to demonstrate microscopic malignant invasion of liver and spleen. The false-negative rate in our series was 10.9%. Computed tomography is a non-invasive method which is very well suited for staging malignant lymphoma. (orig.)

  4. Improved Heuristics for Multi-Stage Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph D. Blackburn; Robert A. Millen

    1982-01-01

    Most of the recent studies of heuristic lot-sizing techniques for multi-stage material requirements planning systems have investigated the problem in the context of a single stage. In this paper, the multi-stage problem is first modeled analytically to indicate the potential errors inherent in the commonly proposed single-pass, stage-by-stage approaches (e.g., Wagner-Whitin). Then, based on this analysis, several simple cost modifications are suggested to improve the global optimality of thes...

  5. Compressor performance of two-stage turbocharging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the performance of high and low stage compressors and that of the system as a whole,a two-stage turbocharging system was matched,and a special two-stage turbocharging system test bench was built.For each test curve,the speeds of the two stage turbochargers were adjusted to the fixed data,and a compressor performance experiment was performed.The results showed many differences between the corrected mass flow and the actual mass flow of the high pressure (HP) stage compressor.To find out the actual supercharging effect of the two-stage turbocharging system,it is better to adopt the actual mass flow.The two-stage turbocharging system in this paper has much higher efficiency under most operating conditions if the pressure ratio assignment is 1:1.The system can get very high supercharging pressure when the speeds of the two stage turbochargers are rather low,which ensures the system's security and reliability.

  6. Diagnosis, staging and treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer for the surgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Ayesha S.; Cerfolio, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the risk factors, diagnostic tools, staging methods/modalities and treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Also presented is the new 7th edition American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) TNM classification for staging of NSCLC and a recommended treatment algorithm.

  7. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  8. End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This final rule implements a case-mix adjusted bundled prospective payment system (PPS) for Medicare outpatient end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis facilities...

  9. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: comparison of diffusion and perfusion characteristics between different tumour stages using intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Vincent; Li, Xiao; Huang, Bingsheng; Khong, Pek Lan [University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Ka On [University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Fong, Daniel Yee Tak [University of Hong Kong, School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, New Territories (China)

    2014-01-15

    To explore intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and relationships with different tumour stages. We prospectively recruited 80 patients with newly diagnosed undifferentiated NPC. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed and IVIM parameters (D, pure diffusion; f, perfusion fraction; D*, pseudodiffusion coefficient) were calculated. Patients were stratified into low and high tumour stage groups based on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and TNM staging for determination of the predictive powers of IVIM parameters using t test, multiple logistic regression and ROC curve analyses. D, f and D* were all statistically significantly lower in high-stage groups in AJCC, T and N staging. D, f and D* were all independent predictors of AJCC staging, f and D* were independent predictors of T staging, and D was an independent predictor of N staging. D was most powerful for AJCC and N staging, whereas f was most powerful for T staging. Optimal cut-off values (area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio) were as follows: AJCC stage, D = 0.782 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (0.915, 93.3 %, 76.2 %, 3.92, 0.09); T staging, f = 0.133 (0.905, 80.5 %, 92.5 %, 10.73, 0.21); N staging, D = 0.761 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (0.848, 87.5 %, 66.7 %, 2.62, 0.19). Multivariate analysis showed no diagnostic improvement. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has distinctive intravoxel incoherent motion characteristics parameters in different tumour staging, potentially helping pretreatment staging. (orig.)

  10. Acetic acid effects on methanogens in the second stage of a two-stage anaerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Keke; Guo, Chenghong; Zhou, Yan; Maspolim, Yogananda; Ng, Wun-Jern

    2016-02-01

    This study reports on biomass tolerance towards high concentrations of acetic acid (HAc) within the system. Biomass from the second stage of a two-stage anaerobic sludge digestion system was used for this study. Microbial community analysis by 454 pyrosequencing highlighted hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales was the predominant archaeal population in the second stage (>99% of the total archaeal community). Second stage biomass degraded HAc up to 4200 mg HAc L(-1) without observable lag phase. However, at HAc-shock loading of 7400 mg HAc L(-1), it showed a one day lag phase associated with decreased biomass activity. After stepwise HAc-acclimation over 27 d, the biomass degraded HAc of up to 8200 mg HAc L(-1) without observable lag phase. The dominance of Methanomicrobiales had remained unchanged in proportion - while the total archaeal population increased during acclimation. This study showed stepwise acclimation could be an approach to accommodate HAc accumulation and hence higher concentrations resulting from an enhanced first stage. PMID:26498097

  11. Analysis of multi-stage open shop processing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eggermont, Christian E.J.; Schrijver, Alexander; Woeginger, Gerhard J.

    2011-01-01

    We study algorithmic problems in multi-stage open shop processing systems that are centered around reachability and deadlock detection questions. We characterize safe and unsafe system states. We show that it is easy to recognize system states that can be reached from the initial state (where the system is empty), but that in general it is hard to decide whether one given system state is reachable from another given system state. We show that the problem of identifying reachable deadlock ...

  12. Stages: A system for generating strategic alternaties for forest management.

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic planning is important in forest management. However, it has never been described clearly in literature. In this study a framework for strategic planning was developed and based on this a STrategic Alternatives Generating System (STAGES) to support decision making in strategic planning for forest management. This strategic planning consists of deciding on zoning, future forest and transition management. STAGES consists of a zoning model (which addresses the zoning decision problem th...

  13. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF A TWO STAGE SOLAR ADSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    BAIJU. V; Muraleedharan, C.

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the performance of a two stage solar adsorption refrigeration system with activated carbon-methanol pair investigated experimentally. Such a system was fabricated and tested under the conditions of National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India. The system consists of a parabolic solar concentrator,two water tanks, two adsorbent beds, condenser, expansion device, evaporator and accumulator. In this particular system the second water tank is act as a sensi...

  14. Automata-Based Analysis of Stage Suspended Boom Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anping He; Jinzhao Wu; Shihan Yang; Yongquan Zhou; Juan Wang

    2013-01-01

    A stage suspended boom system is an automatic steeve system orchestrated by the PLC (programmable logic controller). Security and fault-recovering are two important properties. In this paper, we analyze and verify the boom system formally. We adopt the hybrid automaton to model the boom system. The forward reachability is used to verify the properties with the reachable states. We also present a case study to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed verification.

  15. Classification, imaging, biopsy and staging of osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zile Singh Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary osseous malignancy excluding malignant neoplasms of marrow origin (myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia and accounts for approximately 20% of bone cancers. It predominantly affects patients younger than 20 years and mainly occurs in the long bones of the extremities, the most common being the metaphyseal area around the knee. These are classified as primary (central or surface and secondary osteosarcomas arising in preexisting conditions. The conventional plain radiograph is the best for probable diagnosis as it describes features like sun burst appearance, Codman′s triangle, new bone formation in soft tissues along with permeative pattern of destruction of the bone and other characteristics for specific subtypes of osteosarcomas. X-ray chest can detect metastasis in the lungs, but computerized tomography (CT scan of the thorax is more helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the lesion delineates its extent into the soft tissues, the medullary canal, the joint, skip lesions and the proximity of the tumor to the neurovascular structures. Tc99 bone scan detects the osseous metastases. Positron Emission Tomography (PET is used for metastatic workup and/or local recurrence after resection. The role of biochemical markers like alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase is pertinent for prognosis and treatment response. The biopsy confirms the diagnosis and reveals the grade of the tumor. Enneking system for staging malignant musculoskeletal tumors and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC staging systems are most commonly used for extremity sarcomas.

  16. A Thermoelectric Generation System and Its Power Electronics Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Junling; Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian;

    2012-01-01

    stage and signal-conditioning circuits of the load, including DC–DC conversion, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, and other power management controllers. In this paper, a survey of existing power electronics designs for TEG systems is presented first. Second, a flat, wall-like TEG...... system consisting of 32 modules is experimentally optimized, and the improved power parameters are tested. Power-conditioning circuitry based on an interleaved boost DC–DC converter is then developed for the TEG system in terms of the tested power specification. The power electronics design features...... a combined control scheme with an MPPT and a constant output voltage as well as the low-voltage and high-current output characteristics of the TEG system. The experimental results of the TEG system with the power electronics stage and with purely resistive loads are compared. The comparisons verify...

  17. High precision measurement system based on coplanar XY-stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Miao, Jin-Wei; Gong, Wei; Zhang, You-Liang; Cheng, Fang

    2011-12-01

    A coplanar XY-stage, together with a high precise measurement system, is presented in this paper. The proposed coplanar XY-stage fully conforms to the Abbe principle. The symmetric structural design is considered to eliminate the structure deformation due to force and temperature changes. For consisting of a high precise measurement system, a linear diffraction grating interferometer(LDGI) is employed as the position feedback sensor with the resolution to 1 nm after the waveform interpolation, an ultrasonic motor HR4 is used to generate both the long stroke motion and the nano positioning on the same stage. Three modes of HR4 are used for positioning control: the AC mode in continuous motion control for the long stroke; the gate mode to drive the motor in low velocity for the short stroke; and the DC mode in which the motor works as a piezo actuator, enabling accurate positioning of a few nanometers. The stage calibration is carried out by comparing the readings of LDGI with a Renishaw laser interferometer and repeated 5 times. Experimental results show the XY-stage has achieved positioning accuracy in less than 20nm after the compensation of systematic errors, and standard deviation is within 20 nm for travels up to 20 mm.

  18. Embryonic staging using a 3D virtual reality system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that Carnegie Stages could be assigned to embryos visualized with a 3D virtual reality system. METHODS: We analysed 48 3D ultrasound scans of 19 IVF/ICSI pregnancies at 7-10 weeks' gestation. These datasets were visualized as 3D 'holog

  19. Stages: A system for generating strategic alternaties for forest management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic planning is important in forest management. However, it has never been described clearly in literature. In this study a framework for strategic planning was developed and based on this a STrategic Alternatives Generating System (STAGES) to support decision making in strategic planning for

  20. Central nervous system relapse of treated stage IV neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, S.; Egelhoff, J.C.; Koch, B.L.; Ball, W.S. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Morris, J.D. [Department of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in pediatrics. The long-term survival of patients with advanced-stage neurobastoma has remarkably improved secondary to aggressive treatment protocols including autologous bone marrow transplant (BMT). As a result, a different natural history of this disease is being reported with unusual, late manifestations. The central nervous system (CNS), once a rare site of disease, is being involved with increasing frequency. Appropriate neuroimaging in these patients is important. Two cases of patients with treated stage IV neuroblastoma who developed isolated CNS metastases are presented. The proposed pathogenesis and neuroradiologic manifestations of this complication are reviewed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 23 refs.

  1. A continuous two stage solar coal gasification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.; Manasse, F. K.; Venkataramanan, V.

    The characteristics of a two-stage fluidized-bed hybrid coal gasification system to produce syngas from coal, lignite, and peat are described. Devolatilization heat of 823 K is supplied by recirculating gas heated by a solar receiver/coal heater. A second-stage gasifier maintained at 1227 K serves to crack remaining tar and light oil to yield a product free from tar and other condensables, and sulfur can be removed by hot clean-up processes. CO is minimized because the coal is not burned with oxygen, and the product gas contains 50% H2. Bench scale reactors consist of a stage I unit 0.1 m in diam which is fed coal 200 microns in size. A stage II reactor has an inner diam of 0.36 m and serves to gasify the char from stage I. A solar power source of 10 kWt is required for the bench model, and will be obtained from a central receiver with quartz or heat pipe configurations for heat transfer.

  2. Ares I Stage Separation System Design Certification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Stephen L.; Beard, Bernard B.; Smith, R. Kenneth; Patterson, Alan

    2009-01-01

    NASA is committed to the development of a new crew launch vehicle, the Ares I, that can support human missions to low Earth orbit (LEO) and the moon with unprecedented safety and reliability. NASA's Constellation program comprises the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles, the Orion crew vehicle, and the Altair lunar lander. Based on historical precedent, stage separation is one of the most significant technical and systems engineering challenges that must be addressed in order to achieve this commitment. This paper surveys historical separation system tests that have been completed in order to ensure staging of other launch vehicles. Key separation system design trades evaluated for Ares I include single vs. dual separation plane options, retro-rockets vs. pneumatic gas actuators, small solid motor quantity/placement/timing, and continuous vs. clamshell interstage configuration options. Both subscale and full-scale tests are required to address the prediction of complex dynamic loading scenarios present during staging events. Test objectives such as separation system functionality, and pyroshock and debris field measurements for the full-scale tests are described. Discussion about the test article, support infrastructure and instrumentation are provided.

  3. Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20μW at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

  4. Ares I First Stage Booster Deceleration System: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ron; Hengel, John E.; Wolf, Dean

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Congressional NASA Authorization Act enacted a new space exploration program, the "Vision for Space Exploratien". The Constellation Program was formed to oversee the implementation of this new mission. With an intent not simply to support the International Space Station, but to build a permanent outpost on the Moon and then travel on to explore ever more distant terrains, the Constellation Program is supervising the development of a brand new fleet of launch vehicles, the Ares. The Ares lineup will include two new launch vehicles: the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. A crew exploration vehicle, Orion, will be launched on the Ares I. It will be capable of docking with the Space Station, the lunar lander, Altair, and the Earth Departure Stage of Ares V. The Ares V will be capable of lifting both large-scale hardware and the Altair into space. The Ares First Stage Team is tasked with developing the propulsion system necessary to liftoff from the Earth and loft the entire Ares vehicle stack toward low Earth orbit. The Ares I First Stage booster is a 12-foot diameter, five-segment, reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle's four segment reusable solid rocket booster (SRB). It is separated from the Upper Stage through the use of a Deceleration Subsystem (DSS). Booster Tumble Motors are used to induce the pitch tumble following separation from the Upper Stage. The spent Ares I booster must be recoverable using a parachute deceleration system similar to that of the Shuttle SRB heritage system. Since Ares I is much heavier and reenters the Earth's atmosphere from a higher altitude at a much higher velocity than the SRB, all of the parachutes must be redesigned to reliably meet the operational requisites of the new launch vehicles. This paper presents an overview of this new booster deceleration system. It includes comprehensive detail of the parachute deceleration system, its design and deployment sequences

  5. Nonlinear multivariate rainfall-stage model for large wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alaa

    2009-08-01

    SummaryWetland restoration is often measured by how close the spatial and temporal water level (stage) patterns are to the pre-drainage conditions. Driven by rainfall, such multivariate conditions are governed by nonstationary, nonlinear, and nonGaussian processes and are often simulated by physically based distributed models which are difficult to run in real time due to extensive data requirements. The objective of this study is to provide the wetland restorationists with a real time rainfall-stage modeling tool of simpler input structure and capability to recognize the wetland system complexity. A dynamic multivariate Nonlinear AutoRegressive network with eXogenous inputs (NARX) combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was developed. An implementation procedure was proposed and an application to Florida Everglade's wetland systems was presented. Inputs to the model are time lagged rainfall, evapotranspiration and previously simulated stages. Data locations, preliminary time lag selection, spatial and temporal nonstationarity are identified through exploratory data analysis. PCA was used to eliminate input variable interdependence and to reduce the problem dimensions by more than 90% while retaining more than 80% of the process variance. A structured approach to select optimal time lags and network parameters was provided. NARX model results were compared to those of the linear Multivariate AutoRegressive model with eXogenous inputs. While one step ahead prediction shows comparable results, recursive prediction by NARX is far more superior to that of the linear model. Also, NARX testing under drastically different climatic conditions from those used in the development demonstrates a very good and robust performance. Driven by net rainfall, NARX exhibited robust stage prediction with an overall Efficiency Coefficient of 88%, Mean Square Error less than 0.004 m 2, a standard error less than 0.06 m, a bias close to zero and normal probability plots show that

  6. System for quantifying the formation stages of corneal arcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Aulia; Fahdarina, Sally; Cahya, Deny I.

    2015-07-01

    Extensive research on interpreting the clinical signs of corneal-arcus formation and their related diagnostics potentials have found that there is a strong correlation of the arcus formation with the risk of coronary artery diseases and lipid stratification. Clinically the stages of the arcus formation are normally observed as separate grey-whitish arcs, that are formed at the inferior and then at the superior poles of the cornea. These arcs will by time being elongated to form a ring approximately 1 mm in width. In this paper, efforts to develop quantification system that is capable to recognize the stages of the arcus formation will be reported. The quantification was based on eye-images taken using prior developed low-cost digital image acquisition system, which self constructed from a plastic safety welding-goggle that was modified by placing two Logitec C525 webcam and LEDs lighting system. Pattern images of arcs with variation of arc's positions, lengths and thickness were used for pre-calibration purposes. Then these similar arcs are drawn on the of periphery of cornea images to simulate dummy corneal arcus, which mimick the stages of corneal arcus development. Using 672 data images, results of recognition show a good recognition rate, i.e. 93.6 % for determining arc's length (with maximum %RSD of 5.67 %) and 84.83 % for determining arc's thickness (with maximum %RSD of 5.67 %). Worser precision data were observed to happen for the small arc's length as well as small arc's thickness. Current efforts are devoted to translate the system for clinical trials.

  7. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  8. POST-OPERATIVE STAGING AND SURVIVAL BASED ON THE REVISED TNM STAGING SYSTEM FOR NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the factors affecting post-operative staging and survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients based on the revised TNM staging system adopted by the UICC in 1977. Methods: Data were collected from 1757 consecutively operated NSCLC patients, including those receiving complete tumor excision, tumor debulking and exploratory thoractomy from April 1969 through Dec. 1993. the end point of follow-up was Nov. 30, 1998. Cumulative survival and its influencing factors were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox model of SPSS software. Results: In this series, 30 patients (1.7%) were lost from follow-up. The 5-year cumulative survival was 88.0% for patients in stage I A, and 53.9% in stage IB, 33.5% in stage II, 14.7% in stage IIIA, 5.5% in stage IIIB and 7.0% in stage IV. The overall 5-year survival rate was 28.2%. The 5-year survivals were 39.8%, 14.4% and 4.2% in patients treated with completely tumor resection, tumor debulking and explorative thoractomy, respectively. The 10-year survival rate was 31.4%, 9.5% and 0, respectively. Factors affecting long-term cumulative survival, in the order of decreasing significance, were the type of operation, lymph node status, staging, size and pathological type of the primary tumor. Conclusion: the revised staging system for NSCLC is superior to that used since 1986 as far as the end results of treatment in patients in different stage and the staging specificity are concerned. The T3N1M0 classification and the definition of M1 need to be further studied.

  9. Single Stage Rocket Technology's real time data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglewede, Steven D.

    1994-01-01

    The Single Stage Rocket Technology (SSRT) Delta Clipper Experimental (DC-X) Program is a United States Air Force Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) rapid prototyping initiative that is currently demonstrating technology readiness for reusable suborbital rockets. The McDonnell Douglas DC-X rocket performed technology demonstrations at the U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico from April-October in 1993. The DC-X Flight Operations Control Center (FOCC) contains the ground control system that is used to monitor and control the DC-X vehicle and its Ground Support Systems (GSS). The FOCC is operated by a flight crew of three operators. Two operators manage the DC-X Flight Systems and one operator is the Ground Systems Manager. A group from McDonnell Douglas Aerospace at KSC developed the DC-X ground control system for the FOCC. This system is known as the Real Time Data System (RTDS). The RTDS is a distributed real time control and monitoring system that utilizes the latest available commercial off-the-shelf computer technology. The RTDS contains front end interfaces for the DC-X RF uplink/downlink and fiber optic interfaces to the GSS equipment. This paper describes the RTDS architecture and FOCC layout. The DC-X applications and ground operations are covered.

  10. A Multi-stage System for the Automated Detection of Epileptic Seizures in Neonatal EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Joyeeta; Glover, John R.; Ktonas, Periklis Y.; Thitai Kumar, Arun; Mukherjee, Amit; Karayiannis, Nicolaos B.; Frost, James D.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Mizrahi, Eli M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test results of a 3-stage automated system for neonatal EEG seizure detection. Stage I of the system is the initial detection stage, and identifies overlapping 5-s segments of suspected seizure activity in each EEG channel. In Stage II, the detected segments from Stage I are spatiotemporally clustered to produce multi-channel candidate seizures. In Stage III, the candidate seizures are processed further using measures of quality and context-based rules to e...

  11. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  12. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF A TWO STAGE SOLAR ADSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAIJU. V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the performance of a two stage solar adsorption refrigeration system with activated carbon-methanol pair investigated experimentally. Such a system was fabricated and tested under the conditions of National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India. The system consists of a parabolic solar concentrator,two water tanks, two adsorbent beds, condenser, expansion device, evaporator and accumulator. In this particular system the second water tank is act as a sensible heat storage device so that the system can be used during night time also. The system has been designed for heating 50 litres of water from 25oC to 90oC as well ascooling 10 litres of water from 30oC to 10oC within one hour. The performance parameters such as specific cooling power (SCP, coefficient of performance, solar COP and exergetic efficiency are studied. The dependency between the exergetic efficiency and cycle COP with the driving heat source temperature is also studied. The optimum heat source temperature for this system is determined as 72.4oC. The results show that the system has better performance during night time as compared to the day time. The system has a mean cycle COP of 0.196 during day time and 0.335 for night time. The mean SCP values during day time and night time are 47.83 and 68.2, respectively. The experimental results also demonstrate that the refrigerator has cooling capacity of 47 to 78 W during day time and 57.6 W to 104.4W during night time.

  13. Gas loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lee; Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John; Morris, John

    2015-06-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez and Teflon. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system, and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown. LA-UR-15-20521

  14. Updated Diagnostic Criteria and Staging System for Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2016-01-01

    There has been remarkable progress made in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The median survival of the disease has doubled as a result of several new active drugs. These advances have necessitated a revision of the disease definition and staging of MM. Until recently, MM was defined by the presence of end-organ damage, specifically hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions (CRAB features) that can be attributed to the clonal process. In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) updated the diagnostic criteria for MM to add three specific biomarkers that can be used to diagnose the disease in patients who did not have CRAB features: clonal bone marrow plasma cells greater than or equal to 60%, serum free light chain (FLC) ratio greater than or equal to 100 provided involved FLC level is 100 mg/L or higher, or more than one focal lesion on MRI. In addition, the definition was revised to allow CT and PET-CT to diagnose MM bone disease. These changes enable early diagnosis and allow the initiation of effective therapy to prevent the development of end-organ damage for patients who are at the highest risk. A new staging system has been developed that incorporates high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities in addition to standard laboratory markers of prognosis. PMID:27249749

  15. Is the International Staging System superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system? A comparison in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, P N; Zhang, M-J; Roy, V; Pérez, W S; Bashey, A; To, L B; Elfenbein, G; Freytes, C O; Gale, R P; Gibson, J; Kyle, R A; Lazarus, H M; McCarthy, P L; Milone, G A; Pavlovsky, S; Reece, D E; Schiller, G; Vela-Ojeda, J; Weisdorf, D; Vesole, D

    2009-08-01

    The international staging system (ISS) for multiple myeloma (MM) is a validated alternative to the Durie-Salmon staging system (DSS) for predicting survival at diagnosis. We compared these staging systems for predicting outcomes after upfront autologous stem cell transplantation by analyzing the outcomes of 729 patients between 1995 and 2002. With a median follow-up of 56 months, the univariate probabilities (95% CI) of non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 7, 68, 25 and 52%, respectively. The median OS for stages I, II, III by DSS and ISS were 82, 68, 50 and 64, 68, 45 months, respectively. The concordance between the two staging systems was only 36%. Staging systems were formally compared using Cox models fit with DSS and ISS stages. The relative risks of PFS and OS were significantly different for stages I vs II and II vs III for DSS, but only for stages II vs III for ISS. Although both systems were predictive of PFS and OS, the DSS was superior in formal statistical comparison using Brier score. However, neither system was strongly predictive of outcomes, indicating the need for newer schemes incorporating other prognostic markers. PMID:19322205

  16. IS THE INTERNATIONAL STAGING SYSTEM SUPERIOR TO THE DURIE SALMON STAGING SYSTEM? A COMPARISON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA PATIENTS UNDERGOING AUTOLOGOUS TRANSPLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Parameswaran N.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Roy, Vivek; Pérez, Waleska S; Bashey, Asad; To, Luen Bik; Elfenbein, Gerald; Freytes, Cesar O.; Gale, Robert Peter; Gibson, John; Kyle, Robert A.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Milone, Gustavo A.; Pavlovsky, Santiago; Reece, Donna E.; Schiller, Gary; Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; Weisdorf, Daniel; Vesole, David

    2009-01-01

    The International staging system (ISS) for multiple myeloma (MM) is a validated alternative to the Durie Salmon staging system (DSS) for predicting survival at diagnosis. We compared these staging systems for predicting outcomes after upfront autologous stem cell transplantation by analyzing the outcomes of 729 patients between 1995 and 2002. With a median follow-up of 56 months the univariate probabilities (95% CI) of non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 7%, 68%, 25% and 52%, respectively. The median overall survival for stages I, II, III by DSS and ISS were 82, 68, 50 and 64, 68, 45 months, respectively. The concordance between the two staging systems was only 36%. Staging systems were formally compared using Cox models fit with DSS and ISS stages. Relative risks of PFS and OS were significantly different for stages I vs. II and II vs. III for DSS but only for stages II vs. III for ISS. Although both systems were predictive of PFS and OS; the DSS was superior in formal statistical comparison using Brier Score. However, neither system was strongly predictive of outcomes indicating the need for newer schemes incorporating other prognostic markers. PMID:19322205

  17. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  18. Design and test of a differential scanning stage system for an x-ray nanoprobe instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, D.; Maser, J.; Holt, M.; Lai, B.; Vogt, S.; Wang, Y.; Preissner, C.; Han, Y.; Tieman, B.; Winarski, R.; Smolyanitskiy, A.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a prototype instrument with a novel interferometrically controlled differential scanning stage system. The system consists of 9 DC-motor-driven stages, 4 picomotor-driven stages, and 2 PZT-driven stages. A custom-built laser Doppler displacement meter system provides two-dimensional (2D) differential displacement measurement with subnanometer resolution between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder. The entire scanning system was designed with high stiffness, high repeatability, low drift, flexible scanning schemes, and possibility of fast feedback for differential motion. Designs of the scanning stage system, as well as preliminary mechanical test results, are presented in this paper.

  19. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  20. METAHEURISTICS FOR OPTIMIZING SAFETY STOCK IN MULTI STAGE INVENTORY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Badurina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing the right level of inventory is critical in order to achieve the targeted level of customer service, but it also carries significant cost in supply chain. In majority of cases companies define safety stock on the most downstream level, i.e. the finished product level, using different analytical methods. Safety stock on upstream level, however, usually covers only those problems which companies face on that particular level (uncertainty of delivery, issues in production, etc.. This paper looks into optimizing safety stock in a pharmaceutical supply considering the three stages inventory system. The problem is defined as a single criterion mixed integer programming problem. The objective is to minimize the inventory cost while the service level is predetermined. In order to coordinate inventories at all echelons, the variable representing the so-called service time is introduced. Because of the problem dimensions, metaheuristics based on genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are constructed and compared, using real data from a Croatian pharmaceutical company. The computational results are presented evidencing improvements in minimizing inventory costs.

  1. Two-stage fuel cycles with accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ongoing efforts to assess nuclear fuel cycle options, four fuel cycle options based on the same two reactor technologies have been studied. All four options are composed of two stages, one which contains pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and the other, fast spectrum accelerator-driven systems (ADS). The performance characteristics and material mass flows have been determined for the fuel cycle options considered, and compared. The three major difficulties encountered when modeling and analyzing these fuel cycle options have been to maintain the PWR fuel temperature reactivity coefficient negative when multi-recycling MOX fuel, to design the ADS core to be a breeder, and to achieve a high enough keff in the ADS to avoid the accelerator power consumption to be larger than the power generated by the ADS core. The differences observed in the performance characteristics and mass flows between the four fuel cycle options analyzed are discussed in this paper. Overall it is found that despite the four fuel cycle options being based on the same reactor technologies and seemingly similar at first sight, they perform differently and offer different features: resource utilization, need for uranium enrichment, required reprocessing capacity, and material type to be stored. (author)

  2. The implementation method of stage video monitoring system based on network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihua; Zhang, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhicong; Luan, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    In view of the problems of inflexible saving and calling data and low reliability and being difficult to compatiable with other system for domestic stage video monitoring system, the authors proposed a video supervision and scheduling system of stage based on IP camera. Audio and video technology, multimedia technology and computer network technology were used in the stage video surveillance and scheduling system. The structure of the system were designed and the main functions of the system were tested. The results show that this system can satisfy the modern stage performance effect and monitoring requirements.

  3. The global stability of a delayed predator-prey system with two stage-structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengyan [College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)], E-mail: wangfy68@163.com; Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin Guangxi 537000 (China)

    2009-04-30

    Based on the classical delayed stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we introduce and study a delayed predator-prey system, where prey and predator have two stages, an immature stage and a mature stage. The time delays are the time lengths between the immature's birth and maturity of prey and predator species. Results on global asymptotic stability of nonnegative equilibria of the delay system are given, which generalize and suggest that good continuity exists between the predator-prey system and its corresponding stage-structured system.

  4. The global stability of a delayed predator-prey system with two stage-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the classical delayed stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we introduce and study a delayed predator-prey system, where prey and predator have two stages, an immature stage and a mature stage. The time delays are the time lengths between the immature's birth and maturity of prey and predator species. Results on global asymptotic stability of nonnegative equilibria of the delay system are given, which generalize and suggest that good continuity exists between the predator-prey system and its corresponding stage-structured system.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/MRI for Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-07-01

    Tumor, lymph node, and metastasis (TNM) classification of lung cancer is typically performed with the TNM staging system, as recommended by the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC), the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Radiologic examinations for TNM staging of lung cancer patients include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), and FDG-PET combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) and are used for pretherapeutic assessments. Recent technical advances in MR systems, application of fast and parallel imaging and/or introduction of new MR techniques, and utilization of contrast media have markedly improved the diagnostic utility of MRI in this setting. In addition, FDG-PET can be combined or fused with MRI (PET/MRI) for clinical practice. This review article will focus on these recent advances in MRI as well as on PET/MRI for lung cancer staging, in addition to a discussion of their potential and limitations for routine clinical practice in comparison with other modalities such as CT, FDG-PET, and PET/CT. PMID:27075745

  6. A Time Delay Predator-Prey System with Three-Stage-Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Qiaoqin Gao; Zhen Jin

    2014-01-01

    A predator-prey system was studied that has a discrete delay, stage-structure, and Beddington-DeAngelis functional response, where predator species has three stages, immature, mature, and old age stages. By using of Mawhin's continuous theorem of coincidence degree theory, a sufficient condition is obtained for the existence of a positive periodic solution.

  7. Design of a Scalable Modular Production System for a Two-stage Food Service Franchise System

    OpenAIRE

    Matt, [No Value; D.T.; Rauch; E.

    2012-01-01

    The geographically distributed production of fresh food poses unique challenges to the production system design because of their stringent industry and logistics requirements. The purpose of this research is to examine the case of a European fresh food manufacturer’s approach to introduce a scalable modular production concept for an international two‐stage gastronomy franchise system in order to identify best practice guidelines and to derive a framework for the design of distributed producti...

  8. A Hybrid System based on Multi-Agent System in the Data Preprocessing Stage

    CERN Document Server

    Kularbphettong, Kobkul; Meesad, Phayung

    2010-01-01

    We describe the usage of the Multi-agent system in the data preprocessing stage of an on-going project, called e-Wedding. The aim of this project is to utilize MAS and various approaches, like Web services, Ontology, and Data mining techniques, in e-Business that want to improve responsiveness and efficiency of systems so as to extract customer behavior model on Wedding Businesses. However, in this paper, we propose and implement the multi-agent-system, based on JADE, to only cope data preprocessing stage specified on handle with missing value techniques. JADE is quite easy to learn and use. Moreover, it supports many agent approaches such as agent communication, protocol, behavior and ontology. This framework has been experimented and evaluated in the realization of a simple, but realistic. The results, though still preliminary, are quite.

  9. H∞ SYNCHRONIZATION CONTROL OF LINEAR SYSTEMS AND ITS APPLICATION TO WAFER-RETICAL STAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Di

    2005-01-01

    For the outputs of two nth-order linear control systems to work in synchronization and meanwhile to track their commands, a H∞ synchronization control scheme is presented. In terms of two uncoupled single variable linear systems, a multivariable coupled system is established by choosing one output and the difference of the two outputs as a new output vector, so that both command tracking and synchronization properties can be demonstrated by a H∞ performance index. To improve the synchronization and tracking performance and to guarantee the system robust stability, the mixed sensitivity H∞ design methodology is adopted. The presented synchronization scheme is then extended to the case where one of the two systems include two input variables, and then applied to the position synchronization control of a wafer-retical stage. The wafer-reticle stage consists of a wafer stage, a reticle coarse stage, and a reticle fine stage. The reticle coarse stage picks up the reticle fine stage. The three stages ought to tack their commands, but synchronization between the wafer stage and the reticle fine stage must be stressed in the tracking process. In the application, by appropriately determining the weighting matrices for the sensitivity function and the complementary sensitivity function, a satisfactory H∞ synchronization controller is obtained to realize highly accurate position synchronization,and to guarantee tracking performance. The above results are verified by simulation experiments.

  10. High energy high current neutral beam injector operation with single-stage and two-stage multiaperture extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three electrode extraction system, for 80 keV operation was developed, which was based on the standard triode concept, but takes advantage of the additional room between apertures necessary for water cooling, to give a pseudo-Pierce shape to the plasma electrode and thus produce beams with good optics. This system has been operated up to 40 A extracted ion beam at 80 keV energy. We have also, after these experiments, operated the injector with a two stage extraction system developed at Culham Laboratory and which was intended for J.E.T. injectors. Some significative results of the study (which cover over two years of experimental work) of these two different extraction systems are presented and discussed

  11. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage is......In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...

  12. Performance analysis of a two stage pad cooling system in broiler houses

    OpenAIRE

    Petek, Metin; DİKMEN, Serdal; OĞAN, Mehmet Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The cooling performance of a traditional (control) and two stage evaporative pad cooling system (experiment), including pad and fan with tunnel ventilation, for poultry houses and the growth performance of broilers reared in these systems was compared in a study performed during extreme summer temperatures. The experimental unit had a two stage pad cooling system, which consisted of underground tubes and a box, followed by a pad cooling system with tunnel ventilation. The control unit had a t...

  13. Towards the Application of Security Metrics at Different Stages of Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad Ahmad Mir

    2011-01-01

    A formal approach to the measurement of security in Information Systems is essential. However little thought has been given to this aspect of Information system life cycle. Traditionally security has been treated as an afterthought leading to a cycle of penetrates and patch. Security metrics play a vital role at every stage of Information Systems development and in operational environment. This paper focus on the applicability of security metrics at the different stages of Information Systems...

  14. Non-small cell lung cancer staging: proposed revisions to the TNM system

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Bryan J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) require careful staging at the time of diagnosis to determine prognosis and guide treatment recommendations. The seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors is scheduled to be published in 2009 and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) created the Lung Cancer Staging Project (LCSP) to guide revisions to the current lung cancer staging system. These recommendations will be submitted to the ...

  15. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  16. High energy, high current neutral beam injector operation with single stage and two-stage multi-aperture extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral beam development for JET injectors at FAR laboratory has led to the study of properties of a single stage (triode) and a two-stage (tetrode) multi-aperture extraction system at ion beam powers exceeding the megawatt level and up to 80 keV beam energy. The results of the experimental measurements and of a numerical study of the beam optical qualities and grid power loadings of these systems are presented. Grid power loading levels of less than 1% of the high-voltage drain power were measured in both the triode and the tetrode accelerators. This would allow long pulse operation (10 s with water-cooling) as required for JET. The beam divergence angle (α approx.= 0.70) and the transmission characteristics were almost identical. At the same energy, higher current densities, at optimum perveance, were obtained with the triode at a lower electric field stress on the high-voltage gap. The triode offers the additional advantage of being simpler from the mechanical and electrical points of view. Operation of the injection line with an electrostatic beam dump associated with a grounded source is also demonstrated for a 25 A ion beam up to 60 keV. (orig.)

  17. High energy, high current neutral beam injector operation with single stage and two-stage multi-aperture extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherer, R.; Desmons, M.; Fumelli, M.; Raimbault, P.; Valckx, F. P. G.

    1982-12-01

    Neutral beam development for JET injections at FAR laboratory has led to the study of properties of a single stage (triode) and a two-stage (tetrode) multi-aperture extraction system at ion beam powers exceeding the megawatt level and up to 80 keV beam energy. The results of the experimental measurements and of a numerical study of the beam optical qualities and grid power loadings of these systems are presented. Grid power loading levels of less than 1% of the high-voltage drain power were measured in both the triode and the tetrode accelerators. This would allow long pulse operation (10 s with water-cooling) as required for JET. The beam divergence angle (α ≅ 0.7°) and the transmission characteristics were almostidentical. At the same energy, higher current densities, at optimum perveance, were obtained with the triode at a lower electric field stress on the high-voltage gap. The triode offers the additional advantage of being simpler from the mechanical and electrical points of view. Operation of the injection line with an electrostatic beam dump associated with a grounded source is also demonstrated for a 25 ion beam up to 60 keV.

  18. Analysis and optimization of subcritical two-stage vapor injection heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermodynamical analysis of a two stage compression cycles. • Optimization of the displacement ratio for COP in ideal two stage cycles. • Analysis of the influence of compressor efficiency in real system. • Influence of the charge in the optimum conditions of a two stage cycle. • Control in two stage systems with electronic expansion valves. - Abstract: Two of the major problems of heat pump systems working in extreme conditions are the loss of efficiency of the system and the high compressor discharge temperatures. One possibility in order to overcome these issues is to perform the compression in two stages. In this frame the use of vapor injection two stage cycles represent an economic and effective solution. This study analyzes the influence of design parameters and injection conditions for two different configurations of two stage cycles, for four refrigerants (R407C, R290, R22 and R32). Design parameters, such as the displacement ratio, are optimized in terms of COP in ideal conditions for both injection systems. A deeper analysis taking into account the efficiencies of the compressor is done finding that two stage systems could reach improvements of 30% in terms of COP compared with one stage systems and that a bad design of this type of systems could represent a loss of improvement between 6% and 10%. Finally a method to control the system at any operating point in order to make it works in its optimum is done. From all the analysis, guidelines for the optimum design and control of such systems are obtained in terms of capacity, Coefficient of Performance (COP), seasonal performance factor and discharge temperature criteria

  19. A graph based system for multi-stage attacks recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Safaa O. Al-Mamory; Zhai Jianhong; Zhang Hongli

    2008-01-01

    Building attack scenario is one of the most important aspects in network security. This paper proposed a system which collects intrusion alerts, clusters them as sub-attacks using alerts abstraction, aggregates the similar sub-attacks, and then correlates and generates correlation graphs. The scenarios were represented by alert classes instead of alerts themselves so as to reduce the required rules and have the ability of detecting new variations of attacks. The proposed system is capable of passing some of the missed attacks. To evaluate system effectiveness, it was tested with different datasets which contain multi-step attacks. Compressed and easily understandable correlation graphs which reflect attack scenarios were generated. The proposed system can correlate related alerts, uncover the attack strategies, and detect new variations of attacks.

  20. Proposal of a new and simple staging system of colorectal liver metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikuo Nagashima; Tadahiro Takada; Hirokazu Nagawa; Tetsuichiro Muto; Kota Okinaga

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To create a new, simple and useful staging system for colorectal liver metastasis analogous to the Tumor Node Metastasis classification system of International Union Against Cancer.MFTHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of 81 consecutive patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases (group 1). Clinical and pathological features of both primary and metastatic liver cancers were entered into a multivariate analysis to determine independent variables helpful in accurately predicting long-term prognosis after hepatectomy. Using selected variables, we created a new staging system like TNM classification. The usefulness of the new staging system was examined in a series of 92 patients from another hospital (group 2).RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that 81 patients in group 1 had significant multiple hepatic tumors with the largest tumor being more than 5 cm in diameter,resectable extrahepatic distant metastases, and independent prognostic factors for poor survival after hepatectomy. Using these three variables, we created a new staging system to classify patients with colorectal liver metastases. Finally, our new staging system classified the patients both in group 1 and in group 2.CONCLUSION: Our new staging system of colorectal liver metastasis is simple and useful for staging patients.

  1. Solar Multi-stage Refrigeration Systems on the Basis of Absorber with the Internal Evaporative Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko A.V.; Kirillov V.H.; Antonova A.R.; Liudnicky K.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the article, the developed schematics are presented for the alternative refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution. Multi-stage principle of construction of drying and cool contours of solar systems is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cooler. An absorber with internal evaporative cooling, allowing to remove the separate evaporated cooler, usually included ...

  2. Experiment and surge analysis of centrifugal two-stage turbocharging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yituan HE; Chaochen MA

    2008-01-01

    To study a centrifugal two-stage turbocharging system's surge and influencing factors, a special test bench was set up and the system surge test was performed. The test results indicate that the measured parameters such as air mass flow and rotation speed of a high pressure (HP) stage compressor can be converted into corrected para-meters under a standard condition according to the Mach number similarity criterion, because the air flow in a HP stage compressor has entered the Reynolds number (Re) auto-modeling range. Accordingly, the reasons leading to a two-stage turbocharging system's surge can be analyzed according to the corrected mass flow characteristic maps and actual operating conditions of HP and low pressure (LP) stage compressors.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF OPEN LOOP MULTI-STAGE IMPEDANCE PUMPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism, where an elastic tube is joined to a more rigid one; a periodic asymmetrical pinching on the elastic tube will produce a unidirectional flow. This pumping concept offers a low energy, low noise alternative at both micro and macro scales. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the performance of a two-stage, open loop impedance pump. The results show that, when compared to a single stage open loop impedance pump, the two-stage impedance pump can achieve a significant pressure head and flow rate increment. A pressure head increment of 240 Pa is obtained in the single stage system compared to 480 Pa for the two-stage system. The corresponding flow rates were 5 mL/s and 8 mL/s respectively. This is an indication that impedance pumping system can be scaled up to achieve a variety of pumping assignments.

  4. Pathological stage after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy superiorly predicts survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To assess the usefulness of pathological stage according to the 7th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control–American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC–AJCC) as a prognostic tool in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy (trimodality therapy, TMT) for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Material and methods: One hundred twenty-five eligible patients completing TMT were enrolled for analysis. The clinical (cTNM7) and pathological (ypTNM7) stage groups of their tumors were prospectively classified, and re-grouped by the 6th edition (ypTNM6). Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to compare the performance of staging systems. Results: With a median follow-up of 24.6 months, 54 patients (43.2%) died. Forty patients (32%) achieved pathological complete remission (pCR). The median survival was 31.8 months. On multivariate analysis, ypTNM7 (but not pCR or pN) was the only independent factor affecting overall survival (p < 0.001). The ypTNM7 was superior to cTNM7 or ypTNM6 in predicting both overall and recurrence-free survival after TMT based on AIC values and Cox proportional hazard model analysis. Conclusions: In patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing TMT, ypTNM7 is the best predictor of survival

  5. Evaluation of high step-up power electronics stages in thermoelectric generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min;

    2013-01-01

    To develop practical thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems, especially radioisotope thermoelectric power supplies for deep-space exploration, a power conditioning stage with high step-up gain is indispensable. This stage is used to step up the low output voltage of thermoelectric generators to the...

  6. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  7. Control Issues in Single-Stage Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Mastromauro, Rosa; Liserre, Marco; Dell’Aquila, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic Systems (PVS) can be easily integrated in residential buildings hence they will be the main responsible of making low-voltage grid power flow bidirectional. Control issues on both the PV side and on the grid side have received much attention from manufacturers, competing for efficiency...

  8. Sentinel lymph nodes in gynaecological malignancies: frontline between TNM and clinical staging systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous investigations have recently proved the importance of sentinel lymph node detection in various malignant tumours. It is widely accepted that this procedure is to be recommended only in patients with early stage tumours. The lymph node status and prognosis are closely related. Appropriate staging is essential in the management of malignant tumours and should be individualised. In many cases, the nodal status does not correlate with the clinical stage of the disease. In this survey, we consider some of the most common gynaecological malignancies and the type of staging most appropriate to them. Differences between these staging systems, and controversies concerning them, are related to the concept of sentinel lymph node investigation. The authors believe that sentinel node sampling is in fact a beneficial method in both early and advanced stage disease for determination of the tumour status and individualisation of surgical interventions. (orig.)

  9. Staging queues in material handling and transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gue, Kevin R.; Kang, Keebom

    2001-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference B. A. Peters, J. S. Smith, D. J. Medeiros, and M. W. Rohrer, eds. In most physical queueing applications, customers join a queue andmove forward after each service, leaving room for others to join behind them. Some queues found in material handling and transportation systems do not operate like this because the queued entities (pallets or unoccupied cars, for example) are incapable of moving forward autonomously. We ...

  10. Attainability and minimum energy of multiple-stage cascade membrane Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-08-12

    Process design and simulation of multi-stage membrane systems have been widely studied in many gas separation systems. However, general guidelines have not been developed yet for the attainability and the minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane system. Such information is important for conceptual process design and thus it is the topic of this work. Using a well-mixed membrane model, it was determined that the attainability curve of multi-stage systems is defined by the pressure ratio and membrane selectivity. Using the constant recycle ratio scheme, the recycle ratio can shift the attainability behavior between single-stage and multi-stage membrane systems. When the recycle ratio is zero, all of the multi-stage membrane processes will decay to a single-stage membrane process. When the recycle ratio approaches infinity, the required selectivity and pressure ratio reach their absolute minimum values, which have a simple relationship with that of a single-stage membrane process, as follows: View the MathML sourceSn=S1, View the MathML sourceγn=γ1, where n is the number of stages. The minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane process is primarily determined by the membrane selectivity and recycle ratio. A low recycle ratio can significantly reduce the required membrane selectivity without substantial energy penalty. The energy envelope curve can provide a guideline from an energy perspective to determine the minimum required membrane selectivity in membrane process designs to compete with conventional separation processes, such as distillation.

  11. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yoon Young; An, Ji Yeong; Katai, Hitoshi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukagawa, Takeo; OKUMURA, YASUHIRO; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer...

  12. A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 periapical radiographs, of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian′s stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results and Discussion: The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine was found to be significant in both male and female groups. When the canine calcification stages were compared with the MP3 stages it was found that with the exception of the D stage of canine calcification the remaining stages showed a very high correlation with the modified MP3 stages. Conclusion: The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages, and the MP3 stages was found to be significant. The canine calcification could be used as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  13. Prognostic factors and staging systems of multiple myeloma:a single centre study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Zhong-fei; FU Wei-jun; YUAN Zhen-gang; WANG Dong-xing; CHEN Yu-bao; HOU Jian

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies found a range of prognostic factors but no consensus about the proper staging system for multiple myeloma has been achieved. This study explored the prognostic factors to find a staging system for multiple myeloma most suitable for Chinese patients.Methods Between February 1990 to August 2004, 206 patients (138 men and 68 women, mean aged (59±11) years)who were initially diagnosed as multiple myeloma in Changzheng Hospital (Shanghai, China) and had followup records were enrolled in this study. Potential prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Four staging systems were applied to compare their suitability for the patients.Results The median survival time of the patients was 33 months. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 80.18%,48.08% and 33.7% respectively. Factors identified as adversely affecting survival were older age, severe bone lesions,low haemoglobin, low platelet, low serum calcium, low serum albumin, high proportion of plasma cells in marrow, high serum creatinine, high serum β2 microglobulin and high C-reactive protein. Among these, only C-reactive protein, β2 microglobulin, albumin and age were the independent prognostic factors. There were statistically significant survival differences among the three groups in Durie Salmon staging system and Bataille staging system, but not in British Medical Research Council staging system or International Staging System.Conclusions High β2 microglobulin, high C-reactive protein, low albumin and old age are independent prognostic factors of multiple myeloma. Bataille staging system appears to be optimal for Chinese multiple myeloma patients.

  14. Single-Phase Single-Stage PV-Grid System Using VSI Based on Simple Control Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Slamet Riyadi

    2012-01-01

    Integrating electric energy generated by PV with utilities has been developed. Some of these using two-stage converters and the others using single stage converters. For systems with two-stage converters, the first stage converter acts as a MPPT to maximize power generated by PV and the second stage is used as an interface to the utilities. In the single-stage system, an inverter is used for both function. In this paper, PV-Grid System using a single-stage Voltage Source Inverter is proposed....

  15. Bidirectional output stage matrix converter applied to a distributed generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Manuel; Jurado, Francisco; Roa, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In this article a new bidirectional output stage ultra-sparse matrix converter (BOSUMC) is presented. This converter is designed for connecting a hybrid electrical system to a distributed generation network. The proposed converter comprises an input stage and an output stage with six bidirectional switches in such a way that both the input and output stages are linked with a DC link, which can be coupled to an electrolyser and a fuel cell. The converter allows the current to flow in both ways in its output stage, and if there is an excess of energy in the network, it can be transformed into electric direct current and later into hydrogen for its exploitation. For verifying the control algorithm of the BOSUMC, a laboratory prototype has been prepared using among other elements a Spectrum Digital eZdsp™ TMS320F2812 card.

  16. Fundamental two-stage formulation for Bayesian system identification, Part I: General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Siu-Kui; Zhang, Feng-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the determination of structural model parameters (e.g., stiffness, mass) based on measured response data collected from the subject structure. For linear structures, one popular strategy is to adopt a 'two-stage' approach. That is, modal identification (e.g., frequency, mode shape) is performed in Stage I, whose information is used for inferring the structural parameters in Stage II. Different variants of Bayesian two-stage formulations have been proposed in the past. A prediction error model is commonly introduced to build a link between Stages I and II, treating the most probable values of the natural frequencies and mode shapes identified in Stage I as 'data' for Stage II. This type of formulation, which casts a prediction error model through descriptive statistics, involves heuristics that distort the fundamental nature of the Bayesian approach, although it has appeared to be inevitable. In this paper, a fundamental theory is developed for the Bayesian two-stage problem. The posterior distribution of structural parameters is derived rigorously in terms of the information available in the problem, namely the prior distribution of structural parameters, the posterior distribution of modal parameters in Stage I and the distribution of modal parameters conditional on the structural parameters that connects Stages I and II. The theory reveals a fundamental principle that ensures no double-counting of prior information in the two-stage identification process. Mathematical statements are also derived that provide insights into the role of the structural modeling error. Beyond the original structural model identification problem that motivated the work, the developed theory can be applied in more general settings. In the companion paper, examples with synthetic and real experimental data are provided to illustrate the proposed theory.

  17. Solar Multi-stage Refrigeration Systems on the Basis of Absorber with the Internal Evaporative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the developed schematics are presented for the alternative refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution. Multi-stage principle of construction of drying and cool contours of solar systems is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cooler. An absorber with internal evaporative cooling, allowing to remove the separate evaporated cooler, usually included after the absorber of the proper stage, is developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus of film-type, entering in the complement of drying and cool contours compatible and executed on the basis of multichannel compositions from polymeric materials. The preliminary comparative analysis of possibilities of the solar refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems is executed.

  18. Lumbar spine radiography for osteoporosis via a staging system - CT densitometry of lumbar vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbar spine radiographs in 47 patients with manifest or clinically suspected osteoporosis were evaluated, using a staging system, and correlated to quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of lumbar vertebrae. The accuracy of osteoporosis assessment, obtained with plain film analysis, was 60%, the sensitivity 67%, the specificity 56%. Statistical correlation showed high standard deviation of each of the QCT-mean values according to the respective stage groups, and altogether poor linear correlation between increasing morphological stages of osteoporosis and decreasing QCT-values. As our results show plain film differentiation of normal from reduced trabecular bone mineral content is unreliable, even by use of a staging system. The diagnostic value of spine radiographs therefore remains limited to demonstration of advanced osteoporotic changes. (orig.)

  19. Systems reliability evaluation under aging by the device of stages optimized through genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is developed based on the method of stages optimized through genetic algorithms to allow reliability evaluation of plant stand by systems. This methodology allows the transformation of on-Markovian models into equivalent Markovian ones by considering a set of fictitious states, called stages. Therefore, a state with a time-dependent transition rate is represented by a combination of stages (series, parallel or series/parallel) with constant transition rate. The optimization is necessary to overlap the difficulties presented to find the identification parameter of the device of stages, which is a complex optimization problem and requires a robust and efficient optimization tool, e.g the genetic algorithms. results concerning initial applications to Auxiliary Feedwater Systems (AFW) pumps are shown and commented, for which Weibull and lognormal distribution are employed respectively for modeling failures and repair times. (author)

  20. Multi-stage polymer systems for the autonomic regeneration of large damage volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Cruz, Windy Ann

    Recovery of catastrophic damage requires a robust chemistry capable of addressing the complex challenges encountered by autonomic regeneration. Although self-healing polymers have the potential to increase material lifetimes and safety, these systems have been limited to recovery of internal microcracks and surface damage. Current technologies thereby fail to address the restoration of large, open damage volumes. A regenerative chemistry was developed by incorporating a gel scaffold within liquid healing agents. The healing system undergoes two stages, sol-gel and gel-polymer. Stage 1, rapid formation of a crosslinked gel, creates a synthetic support for the healing agents as they deposit across the damage region. Stage 2 comprises the polymerization of monomer using a room temperature redox initiation system to recover the mechanical properties of the substrate. The two stages are chemically compatible and only react when a specific reaction trigger is introduced -- an acid catalyst for gelation and initiator-promoter for polymerization. Cure kinetics, chemical and mechanical properties can be tuned by employing different monomer systems. The versatile gelation chemistry gels over 20 vinyl monomers to yield both thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. The healing efficacy of the two-stage system was studied in thin, vascularized epoxy sheets. By splitting the chemistry into two low viscosity fluids, we demonstrated regeneration of gaps up to 9 mm in diameter. The combination of microvascular networks and a new healing chemistry demonstrates an innovative healing system that significantly exceeds the performance of traditional methods.

  1. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Choi

    Full Text Available Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0-new N3 according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560 were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node-positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage. Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative.

  2. A new multi-motor drive system based on two-stage direct power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    The two-stage AC to AC direct power converter is an alternative matrix converter topology, which offers the benefits of sinusoidal input currents and output voltages, bidirectional power flow and controllable input power factor. The absence of any energy storage devices, such as electrolytic capacitors, has increased the potential lifetime of the converter. In this research work, a new multi-motor drive system based on a two-stage direct power converter has been proposed, with two motors c...

  3. Brain Metastasis is Predetermined in Early-Stages of Cutaneous Melanoma by CD44v6 Expression through Epigenetic Regulation of the Spliceosome

    OpenAIRE

    Marzese, Diego M.; Liu, Michelle; Huynh, Jamie L.; Hirose, Hajime; Donovan, Nicholas C.; Huynh, Kelly T.; Kiyohara, Eiji; Chong, Kelly; Cheng, David; Tanaka, Ryo; Morton, Donald L.; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Daniel F. Kelly; Hoon, Dave S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma brain metastasis (MBM) is frequent and has a very poor prognosis with no current predictive factors or therapeutic molecular targets. Our study unravels the molecular alterations of cell-surface glycoprotein CD44 variants during melanoma progression to MBM. High expression of CD44 splicing variant 6 (CD44v6) in primary melanoma (PRM) and regional lymph node metastases from AJCC Stage IIIC patients significantly predicts MBM-development. The expression of CD44v6 also enhances the migr...

  4. Low cryogen inventory, forced flow Ne cooling system with room temperature compression stage and heat recuperation

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A; Wolf, A

    2014-01-01

    We present design and commissioning results of a forced flow cooling system utilizing neon at 30 K. The cryogen is pumped through the system by a room-temperature compression stage. To decouple the cold zone from the compression stage a recuperating counterflow tube-in-tube heat exchanger is used. Commissioning demonstrated successful condensation of neon and transfer of up to 30 W cooling power to the load at 30 K using only 30 g of the cryogen circulating in the system at pressures below 170 kPa.

  5. A clinical staging system and treatment guidelines for maxillary osteoradionecrosis in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a clinical staging system for maxillary osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Methods and Materials: The data of maxillary ORN cases among 1,758 irradiated NPC patients were analyzed. A staging system based on the degrees of bone exposure (E), infection (I), and bleeding (B) was developed. Correlations between various clinical parameters and stages of maxillary ORN and relationships between treatment modalities and outcomes at each stage were evaluated. Cumulative success of treatment and risk factors that affect treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: The incidence of maxillary ORN was 2.7% (48/1,758). TNM stage of NPC (p < 0.001), radiation dose (p = 0.029), and tooth extraction (p < 0.001) appeared to have significant influences on disease severity. Success rates between conservative therapy and surgical treatment were not significantly different for Stage I ORN but differed significantly for Stage II (p = 0.013) and Stage III (p = 0.008) lesions. Grade 3 infection and bleeding significantly jeopardized treatment success (p = 0.043 and 0.015, respectively). The risk ratios of treatment failure for Grade 3 infection and bleeding were 2.523 (p = 0.034) and 3.141 (p = 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: More serious maxillary ORN tended to occur in cases with more advanced NPC, higher radiation dose, and history of tooth extraction. Surgical treatment was usually required in Stage II and III ORN. The grades of infection and bleeding are important factors in guidance of treatment and prediction of outcomes

  6. A two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The optimal design of distributed energy systems under uncertainty is studied. ► A stochastic model is developed using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method. ► The proposed system possesses inherent robustness under uncertainty. ► The inherent robustness is due to energy storage facilities and grid connection. -- Abstract: A distributed energy system is a multi-input and multi-output energy system with substantial energy, economic and environmental benefits. The optimal design of such a complex system under energy demand and supply uncertainty poses significant challenges in terms of both modelling and corresponding solution strategies. This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems. A two-stage decomposition based solution strategy is used to solve the optimization problem with genetic algorithm performing the search on the first stage variables and a Monte Carlo method dealing with uncertainty in the second stage. The model is applied to the planning of a distributed energy system in a hotel. Detailed computational results are presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. The impacts of demand and supply uncertainty on the optimal design of distributed energy systems are systematically investigated using proposed modelling framework and solution approach.

  7. PERIODIC SOLUTION TO A DELAYED PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM WITH STAGE STRUCTURE AND DISPERSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a delayed two-species predator-prey system with stage structure and diffiusion is investigated. Based on the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory,the suficient conditions for the existence of positive ω-periodic solution to the system are derived. The numerical simulation of an example verifies our main result.

  8. Production system and harvesting stage influence on nitrate content and quality of butterhead lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fairuz Yosoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables such as lettuce grown under different production systems may accumulate different concentrations of nitrate which may reach to the levels potentially toxic to humans. Moreover, nitrate accumulation varies in various plant parts and physiological age of the plant. Therefore, to determine the effect of production system and harvesting stage on nitrate accumulation and quality of butterhead lettuce, a study was conducted considering two lettuce production systems namely hydroponic and organic, and four different harvesting stages such as 35, 38, 41 and 44 days after transplanting (DAT. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD with four replications. Hydroponic and organic systems performed similar in terms of yield, quality and nitrate content of butterhead lettuce. Delaying harvesting can not only increase yield but also can minimize nitrate accumulation and health hazard risk as well. Delay in harvesting stage may result in quality deterioration of lettuce and increased production cost. Thus, a compromise is necessary to consider 41 DAT as the optimum stage to harvest butterhead lettuce with significantly higher reduction of nitrate content in both outer adult leaf blades and young leaves of hydroponic lettuce. Fresh weight, firmness and color of butterhead lettuce at this stage were still acceptable.

  9. Usefulness of staging systems and prognostic scores for hepatocellular carcinoma treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhoute, Xavier; Penaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Le Treut, Patrice; Bollon, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Castellani, Paul; Perrier, Hervé; Bourlière, Marc

    2016-06-18

    Therapeutic management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quite complex owing to the underlying cirrhosis and portal vein hypertension. Different scores or classification systems based on liver function and tumoral stages have been published in the recent years. If none of them is currently "universally" recognized, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system has become the reference classification system in Western countries. Based on a robust treatment algorithm associated with stage stratification, it relies on a high level of evidence. However, BCLC stage B and C HCC include a broad spectrum of tumors but are only matched with a single therapeutic option. Some experts have thus suggested to extend the indications for surgery or for transarterial chemoembolization. In clinical practice, many patients are already treated beyond the scope of recommendations. Additional alternative prognostic scores that could be applied to any therapeutic modality have been recently proposed. They could represent complementary tools to the BCLC staging system and improve the stratification of HCC patients enrolled in clinical trials, as illustrated by the NIACE score. Prospective studies are needed to compare these scores and refine their role in the decision making process. PMID:27330679

  10. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of energy demand for such systems will tend asymptotically to unity as the number of sub-systems increases

  11. Two-Stage Fault Diagnosis Method Based on the Extension Theory for PV Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Hui Wang; Mu-Jia Chen

    2012-01-01

    In order to shorten the maintenance time and make sure of the photovoltaic (PV) power generation system steadily in operation, a fault diagnosis system for photovoltaic power generation system was proposed in this paper. First, a PSIM software is used to simulate a 2.2 kW PV system, it can take the operating date of the PV system under different sunlight intensity and temperature conditions. In this paper, a two-stage diagnosis system based on the extension theory for PV power systems is prop...

  12. A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages

    OpenAIRE

    Gautham Hegde; Nanditha Hegde; Anil Kumar; Keshavaraj,

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mand...

  13. Penetration of aerosol particles through two-stage HEPA filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the measures for the removal of airborne radioactivity in the exhaust air from nuclear facilities is to filtrate the air with multi-stage HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters. The efficiency of a two-stage HEPA filter system has been investigated for polydispersed DOP (di-octyle phthalate) and NaCl aerosols, in a stainless steel test duct; the size of HEPA filters was 200 mm x 200 mm x 150 mm. The penetration increased with the face velocity, and this trend was nearly the same in both the first and the second stage filters. The particles larger than 0.5 μm were not detected behind the second stage filter at any face velocity. The penetration of DOP particles increased with the loaded mass on the filter. The penetration of NaCl particles decreased exponentially with the increase of the loaded mass, while the pressure drop increased. (Mori, K.)

  14. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push......-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this cascaded structure simplifies the power management. The control strategy for the whole system is analyzed and...

  15. A Gas-Spring-Loaded X-Y-Z Stage System for X-ray Microdiffraction Sample Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Cai, Zhonghou; Lai, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a gas-spring-loaded x-y-z stage system for x-ray microdiffraction sample manipulation at the Advanced Photon Source XOR 2-ID-D station. The stage system includes three DC-motor-driven linear stages and a gas-spring-based heavy preloading structure, which provides antigravity forces to ensure that the stage system keeps high-positioning performance under variable goniometer orientation. Microdiffraction experiments with this new stage system showed significant sample manipulation performance improvement.

  16. A Gas-Spring-Loaded X-Y-Z Stage System for X-ray Microdiffraction Sample Manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed and constructed a gas-spring-loaded x-y-z stage system for x-ray microdiffraction sample manipulation at the Advanced Photon Source XOR 2-ID-D station. The stage system includes three DC-motor-driven linear stages and a gas-spring-based heavy preloading structure, which provides antigravity forces to ensure that the stage system keeps high-positioning performance under variable goniometer orientation. Microdiffraction experiments with this new stage system showed significant sample manipulation performance improvement

  17. Obtaining of hot electron plasma in two-stage beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The space region of plasma formation and heating one are separated by pressure gradient in two-stage beam-plasma system. It is shown, that the temperature of plasma electron most part can reach some hundreds electronvolt when beam of some unit kiloelectronvolt energy is injected in system. The range of basic macroscopic parameters of system (current and energy of beam, operating gas pressure, plasma column length, magnetic field strength) corresponding to electron maximum heating is determined

  18. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik Rajendran; Azam Jeihanipour; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Solmaz Aslanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system) and the other without recirculation (open system). For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; st...

  19. FDG PET in early stage cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) is not recommended in early stage melanoma; however, a significant number of cases are referred to our institution for FDG PET. We refer to early stage disease as American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I and II, which includes all cases without metastases. A retrospective review was undertaken to determine the clinical utility of FDG PET in this patient group. A retrospective study of FDG scans on all patients presenting to the WA PET Centre with early stage melanoma over a 5½ year period was undertaken. The positivity rate of the initial study for detection of malignant melanoma was determined. In patients with an initially negative FDG PET, the time from initial diagnosis to a positive surveillance study was determined. Both the initial positivity rate and time to a positive study were correlated with Breslow staging. Three hundred twenty-two patients were included in the study, of which 74 had initial positive FDG PET scans (23%). Adequate follow-up was available in 51 patients with the PET result confirmed as true positive in 37 (positive predictive value 73%). One hundred eight of 248 patients initially negative had follow-up scans during the follow-up period, of which 48 became positive. The 73% of recurrences were over 12 months post-diagnosis. No correlation with Breslow thickness was demonstrated. Despite FDG PET not being recommended for early cutaneous malignant melanoma, 27% of melanoma cases referred for FDG PET during the study period were AJCC stage I or II. Our results suggest FDG PET in early stage melanoma demonstrates occult disease in 17% of cases.

  20. A three-stage treatment system for highly polluted urban road runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, Rita; Schriewer, Alexander; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2013-10-15

    A three-stage treatment device for polluted urban road runoff was installed and tested at a highly trafficked urban road over a period of one year. In the first stage coarse material and particles from the runoff are removed by a special gutter system. The second stage eliminates particles using a hydrodynamic separator. In the third stage dissolved pollutants are adsorbed in a filter unit with lignite as filter material. Twenty-four rain events were sampled over the one year period and analyzed for dissolved and particulate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), suspended solids (SS), total organic carbon (TOC), sodium (Na), and pH value. The treatment system was able to safely retain all relevant pollutants during the investigated period, except Na. In the effluent of the treatment device Pb could never be detected, values measured for Zn were in the range of the detection limit. Cu, the element most frequently detected in the effluent, never exceeded the critical value of 50 μg/L set by the German Federal Soil Protection Act and Ordinance. The median Cu concentration in the effluent of the treatment system was 8.13 μg/L. The treatment system proved to be very effective. Highly polluted road runoff can be purified by the system to an extent that no contamination risk for soil and groundwater remains when infiltrated into the soil. PMID:23770438

  1. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. PMID:26945521

  2. MRI of prostate cancer using three different coil systems: image quality, tumor detection, and staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare three MRI coil systems in terms of image quality, delineation of prostate cancer, and tumor staging. Materials and Methods: 49 patients with prostate cancer underwent MRI at 1.5 Tesla using a combination of an endorectal coil with a phased-array body coil (combination coil) prior to radical prostatectomy. Images were reconstructed from the data sets acquired with the endorectal coil alone and from those acquired with the combined coil. In addition, 19 patients of the study patients were examined with the body phased-array coil alone without the endorectal coil. The prostate was imaged at a slice thickness of 3 mm using axial and coronal T2-weighted sequences and an axial T1-weighted sequence. Preoperative analysis of all images acquired was done to determine the accuracy of MRI in local staging of prostate cancer. An additional retrospective analysis served to compare the different coil systems in terms of overall image quality, delineation and localization of the tumor, and criteria for local staging of prostate cancer. Results: Preoperative analysis showed MRI to have an accuracy of 59% in local tumor staging. Retrospective coil-by-coil analysis demonstrated image quality and tumor delineation to be best for the combination coil and the endorectal coil. Regarding the staging criteria for transcapsular tumor extension and infiltration of adjacent organs, a significant advantage of the combination coil compared to the endorectal coil was identified only for the criterion of smooth bulging. In addition, the endorectal coil and the combination coil were found to be superior to the body phased-array coil in assessing 15 of 17 criteria for local tumor staging but the differences were not significant. Conclusion: In view of the achieved superior image quality, the combination coil or the endorectal coil is the preferred method for staging prostate cancer. (orig.)

  3. New J-STAGE system accelerates digitization and distribution of academic journals from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryuichi; Kubota, Soichi; Aoyama, Kota; Tsuchiya, Eri; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    13 years have passed since J-STAGE was launched. At present no one could deny that its user interface and functions were already out of date comparing to foreign established e-journals. So JST has developed a new system called “J-STAGE3” in order to offer better usability and give powerful dissemination of academic papers from Japan. As the result of it, they will be able to enjoy the following things: 1) integration of two databases, Journal@rchive and J-STAGE, 2) new design/interface, 3) introduction of international standard XML format, 4) advanced subscription management, 5) saving cost of publishers, and 6) improving J-STAGE online submission and review system. At the end of March 2011, we conducted a market research on current status of digitization on Japanese society journals. The report told us that digitization ratio of those was 62% in total but it was 34% in humanities/social sciences. Or it was 92% in English journals and 55% in Japanese ones. It means that we need further promotion of digitization. In this paper, we discuss functions and direction of J-STAGE3 as well as our role in promotion of digitization of Japanese society journals.

  4. Design and optimization of a single stage centrifugal compressor for a solar dish-Brayton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongsheng; Wang, Kai; Tong, Zhiting; Lin, Feng; Nie, Chaoqun; Engeda, Abraham

    2013-10-01

    According to the requirements of a solar dish-Brayton system, a centrifugal compressor stage with a minimum total pressure ratio of 5, an adiabatic efficiency above 75% and a surge margin more than 12% needs to be designed. A single stage, which consists of impeller, radial vaned diffuser, 90° crossover and two rows of axial stators, was chosen to satisfy this system. To achieve the stage performance, an impeller with a 6:1 total pressure ratio and an adiabatic efficiency of 90% was designed and its preliminary geometry came from an in-house one-dimensional program. Radial vaned diffuser was applied downstream of the impeller. Two rows of axial stators after 90° crossover were added to guide the flow into axial direction. Since jet-wake flow, shockwave and boundary layer separation coexisted in the impeller-diffuser region, optimization on the radius ratio of radial diffuser vane inlet to impeller exit, diffuser vane inlet blade angle and number of diffuser vanes was carried out at design point. Finally, an optimized centrifugal compressor stage fulfilled the high expectations and presented proper performance. Numerical simulation showed that at design point the stage adiabatic efficiency was 79.93% and the total pressure ratio was 5.6. The surge margin was 15%. The performance map including 80%, 90% and 100% design speed was also presented.

  5. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, R J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of ener...

  6. Thermodynamic Investigation of Two-Stage Absorption Refrigeration System Connected by a Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kairouani; E. Nehdi; R. B. Iffa

    2005-01-01

    The present work is to analyze a two-stage cycle based on the ammonia-water absorption system, with intermediate compression. The two generators of the system are heated by geothermal energy at low temperature. The study shows that this system makes it possible at lower generator temperature, under the limits permitted by the systems suggested up to now. For Tg = 335 K, Tc = Ta = 308 K and Te = 263 K, based on the electric consumption, the system efficiency is 8.2. The comparative study of th...

  7. The Validity of Preservice Teacher Use of Kohlberg's Issue Stage Scoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Social studies preservice teachers received background information on Kohlberg's theory of moral development and were trained to use one of the rater guides in his new "issue stage scoring system." They were directed to score sample moral thought statements, some on an intuitive basis and some with the rater guides. No overall differences between…

  8. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  9. 78 FR 72155 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... January 1, 2012, did function for 3 or more years (76 FR 70289). The 3-year MLR is designed to represent a...) Prospective Payment System (PPS) On August 12, 2010, we published in the Federal Register a final rule (75 FR... Register, a final rule (76 FR 70228 through 70316) titled, ``Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal...

  10. 77 FR 40951 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... rule (75 FR 49030 through 49214) titled, ``End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System... November 10, 2011, we published in the Federal Register, a final rule (76 FR 70228 through 70316) titled... the CY 2012 ESRD PPS final rule (76 FR 70228), we clarified the following: For the low-volume...

  11. ACTUAL STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT FOR BASEL II AND EFFECTS ON ROMANIAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM SOUNDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN FIRTESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article draws attention to the actual stage of Basel II implementation in Romania and its effects on financial system stability. An overview of the Basel I and II Accords and their possible future outcomes are debated. Some significant features of the law that approves Basel II framework in Romania are taken into discussion.

  12. Crosstalk between behavior and immune system during the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Torres-Lista, Virginia; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The crosstalk in the functional interplay of the neuroimmune system is essential to ensure homeostasis preservation and health. Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be understood in the context of aging of this neuroimmune communication. AD has an important genderdependent component and is benefitted by lifestyle strategies such as physical exercise, enriched environments and nutrition. Recently, the functional and redox state of peripheral immune cells has been proposed as a useful tool for measuring the progression of AD. The present review summarizes the relevance of the disruption of crosstalk among neurons, glial cells, immune mediators and cells from the very beginning of the prodromal stages of AD, when early BPSD symptoms have already started but cognitive function still seems apparently normal. The study of the role of neuroimmune system and how its disruption contributes to the onset of disease may help in understanding its biological mechanisms and in finding behavioral parameters and immunological biomarkers for the prodromic phases. Here we present results of 3xTg-AD mice from pre-morbid to early-stages of AD and how early BPSD-like symptoms correlate with changes in the organometrics of thymus and spleen that are indirect indicators of the immunological status. These functional relationships between behavioral and peripheral system also revealed the existence of differences between biological and chronological ages (an advanced biological age) since the prodromal stages. Overall, the data available suggest that the crosstalk between behavior (nervous) and immune system plays an important role since prodromal stages of AD. PMID:24588823

  13. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System (POP–Q) – a new era in pelvic prolapse staging

    OpenAIRE

    Persu, C; Chapple, CR; Cauni, V; Gutue, S; Geavlete, P

    2011-01-01

    The prolapse of one or several pelvic organs is a condition that has been known by medicine since its early days, and different therapeutic approaches have been proposed and accepted. But one of the main problems concerning the prolapse of pelvic organs is the need for a universal, clear and reliable staging method. Because the prolapse has been known and recognized as a disease for more than one hundred years, so are different systems proposed for its staging. But none has proved itself to r...

  14. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this...

  15. Multi-stage genetic fuzzy systems based on the iterative rule learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    González Muñoz, Antonio; Herrera Triguero, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) represent a class of adaptive search techniques inspired by natural evolution mechanisms. The search properties of GAs make them suitable to be used in machine learning processes and for developing fuzzy systems, the so-called genetic fuzzy systems (GFSs). In this contribution, we discuss genetics-based machine learning processes presenting the iterative rule learning approach, and a special kind of GFS, a multi-stage GFS based on the iterative rule...

  16. Comparison of five staging systems of lymph node metastasis in the gastric carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Chehrei; Sakineh Amoueian; Jamshid Ansari; Mehdi Montazer; Mohammad Hossein Sanei

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of metastatic lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for gastric carcinoma; however, the optimal system for the accurate staging of lymph node metastasis for patients with gastric cancer remains controversial. This study was designed to compare five systems in relation to the N classification of gastric carcinoma. Materials and Methods: This multicentric historical cohort study was conducted on 148 patients with M0 gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent gas...

  17. System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources/storages utilizing a cascaded DC-AC inverter, thereby eliminating the need for a DC-DC converter. The ability to segment the energy sources and energy storages improves the maintenance capability and system reliability of the distributed generation system, as well as achieve wide range reactive power compensation. In the absence of a DC-DC converter, single stage energy conversion can be achieved to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  18. EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGES AND RANGE SYSTEMS ON VEGETATION ATTRIBUTES, CARRYING CAPACITY, STOCKING RATE AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY, NORTH KORDOFAN, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Moniem M.A. El hag

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The range vegetation attributes, carrying capacity, stocking rates and forage productivity were studied in close and open range systems at the flowering and seed setting stages during the September and November 2010, respectively, in El Rosa (El-khuwei locality. Sampling was done by locating 2Km2 in close and open range systems in a radiating manner from the centre of each site. Completely Randomized Design (CRD was used to analyses treatments. Biomass production of plants and plant cover at the flowering stage in the close range system were significantly (P<0.0001 higher than that at the seed setting stage in the open range system. The plant density was significant (P<0.05 higher in the close rang system at the flowering stage and lower at the seed setting stage in the open range system. Bare soil and litter was significantly higher (P<0.0001 in the open range system during the seed setting stage and lower in the close range system during the flowering stage. Forage productivity of plants and shrubs browse kg/ha on rangeland was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the close range system during the flowering stage and lower in open range system at the seed setting stage. Carrying capacity was significantly higher (P<0.0001 in the close range system at the seed setting stage and lower in the open range at the flowering stage. Stoking rates in open range system during the seed setting stage was significantly higher (P<0.0001 and lower in the close range system during the seed setting stage. The frequencies of Huskneet (Cenchrus biflorus, Bano, (Eragrostis tremula, Difra (Echinocloa colonum, leflef Luffa aegyptiaca, Gaw (Aristida sp, Shuleny Zornia glochidiata and Aborakhus Andropogon gayanus were higher in close system during the two stages of growth. Plants such as Abodaib Ceraotheca sesamoid, Bigual Blepharis linarifolia, Tmrfar (Oldenlandia senegalensis, Rabaa (Zalea sp, Himeira Hymerocardia, Diresa (Tribulus terrestris and Huntot Merremia pinnata

  19. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  20. Scout fourth stage attitude and velocity control (AVC) system feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout fourth stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, generation of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. Fourth stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.

  1. Mortality prediction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comparing the GOLD 2007 and 2011 staging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Joan B; Lamprecht, Bernd; Ramírez, Ana S; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Kaiser, Bernhard; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban, Cristobal; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J; de-Torres, Juan P; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R; Marin, Jose M; Puhan, Milo A; Sobradillo, Patricia; Lange, Peter; Sternberg, Alice L; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Turner, Alice M; Han, MeiLan K; Langhammer, Arnulf; Leivseth, Linda; Bakke, Per; Johannessen, Ane; Roche, Nicolas; Sin, Don D

    2015-01-01

    accuracy of the staging documents for mortality. METHODS: We searched reports published from Jan 1, 2008, to Dec 31, 2014. Using data from cohorts that agreed to participate and had a minimum amount of information needed for GOLD 2007 and 2011, we did a patient-based pooled analysis of existing data. With...... distribution to more severe categories. There were nearly three times more COPD patients in stage D than in former stage IV (p<0·05). The predictive capacity for survival up to 10 years was significant for both systems (p<0·01) but area under the curves were only 0·623 (GOLD 2007) and 0·634 (GOLD 2011), and...

  2. Effect of growth stages and systems on range vegetation characteristics in el Rosa, north Kordofan, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M.A. El Hag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The range vegetation characteristics were studied in closed and open systems at flowering and seeding in (El Rosa El khuwei locality at September and November 2009. Sampling was using 2Km2 plots in a radiating manner from the centre of plot. CRD was used to analyses all parameters. Results of biomass, plant density and plant cover in the closed systems at the flowering were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher. These parameters were significantly lower in the open system at seeding. Bare soil and litter were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher in the open system at seeding. Total forage productivity kg/ha was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in the closed system at the flowering and least in the open system at seeding. Carrying capacity was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher in closed system at seeding and leas in open at flowering. Stoking rates in the closed system at flowering were significantly (P < 0.0001 higher and least in the open system at seeding. Plant frequencies were higher in the closed system at the two growth stages than open system like Huskneet (Cenchrus biflorus Bano (Eragrostis tremula Gaw (Aristida sp Difra (Echinocloa colonum Aboelrakhus (Andropogon gayanus Fisiya (Fimbristyls hispidula and Tmrfar (Oldenlandia senegalensis had higher frequencies. However leflef (Luffa aegyptiaca and Himeira (Hymenocardia acida had lower frequencies.  Simeima (Sesamum alatum Buid (Commelinia subulata Abodaib (Ceraotheca sesamoid Shuleny (Zornia glochidiata and Rabaa (Zalea sp were found only in the closed system at flowering. Nuida (Sida cordofolia were only found in the open system at the two growth stages. It was concluded that the closed system had higher plant density and cover, biomass, plant frequencies and forage production. Bare soil and litter were higher in open system at seeding. Carrying capacity was higher in the closed system at seeding. Stoking rates in the closed system at flowering were higher. Indicate that direct effects on

  3. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the

  4. Design of an Image-Servo Mask Alignment System Using Dual CCDs with an XXY Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jer Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mask alignment of photolithography technology is used in many applications, such as micro electro mechanical systems’ semiconductor process, printed circuits board, and flat panel display. As the dimensions of the product are getting smaller and smaller, the automatic mask alignment of photolithography is becoming more and more important. The traditional stacked XY-Θz stage is heavy and it has cumulative flatness errors due to its stacked assembly mechanism. The XXY stage has smaller cumulative error due to its coplanar design and it can move faster than the traditional XY-Θz stage. However, the relationship between the XXY stage’s movement and the commands of the three motors is difficult to compute, because the movements of the three motors on the same plane are coupling. Therefore, an artificial neural network is studied to establish a nonlinear mapping from the desired position and orientation of the stage to three motors’ commands. Further, this paper proposes an image-servo automatic mask alignment system, which consists of a coplanar XXY stage, dual GIGA-E CCDs with lens and a programmable automatic controller (PAC. Before preforming the compensation, a self-developed visual-servo provides the positioning information which is obtained from the image processing and pattern recognition according to the specified fiducial marks. To obtain better precision, two methods including the center of gravity method and the generalize Hough Transformation are studied to correct the shift positioning error.

  5. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  6. Assessment of Serosal Invasion and Criteria for the Classification of Pathological (p) T4 Staging in Colorectal Carcinoma: Confusions, Controversies and Criticisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmural spread by colorectal carcinoma can result in tumor invasion of the serosal surface and, hence, more likely dissemination within the peritoneal cavity and potentially to additional metastatic sites. The adverse prognostic significance of serosal invasion is widely accepted and its presence may be considered an indication for chemotherapy in patients with node negative disease. However, controversy persists regarding the most appropriate criteria for diagnosis and there are also practical difficulties associated with histological assessment in some cases. Therefore, serosal invasion may be under-diagnosed in a significant proportion of tumors, potentially leading to sub-optimal treatment of high-risk patients. The examination of multiple microscopic sections combined with ancillary studies such as cytology preparations, elastin stains, and immunohistochemistry may prove beneficial in selected problematic cases, but these are not used routinely. The relative prognostic significance of serosal invasion and of direct tumor spread to other organs, both of which are incorporated within the pT4 category of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, remains unclear. Further studies are required to demonstrate whether recent adjustments to the TNM staging of pT4 tumors are appropriate

  7. The early development of the nervous system in staged insectivore and primate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R

    1980-10-01

    The early development of the nervous system was studied in stage embryos of hemicentetes semispinosus, Microcebus murinus, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus appella, Cebus albifrons, macaca mulatta, and Homo sapiens. The specimens were assigned to Carnegie stages 11-13. Serial transverse sections were examined and graphic reconstructions were prepared. The early development of the neural tube is basically similar in all the species investigated but differences in detail are noticeable. The mesencephalic flexure serves in all cases as a landmark for malpighi's tripartite subdivision of the brain. The nonhuman embryos seem to show a little more variation than the human in the closure of the neuropores in relation to somitic count. With the exception of the later-appearing terminal-vomeronasal component, all major portions of the neural crest as classified by O'Rahilly ('65) are represented in both the nonhuman and the human embryos studied. No crest is present at the level of rhombomere 1, nor at rhombomere 3 except in the platyrrhines and some human embryos, nor at rhombomere 5 except in certain human specimens. An indication of the division of the trigeminal ganglion into its primary divisions is rare at stage 11 (C. apella), may be visible at stage 12 (Alouatta, macaca, Homo), and is definite (in Homo) at stage 13. Ganglionic contributions from head ectoderm (epipharyngeal placodes), as previously described in the human and some other vertebrate embryos, were sought and found in Cebus apella. In both nonhuman and human, a tendency is noted whereby the rostral limit of the occipitospinal crest, high at stage 11, seems to descend relatively at stage 12, and ascend again at stage 13 (at least in the human) to become associated with the appearance of the accessory and hypoglossal nerves. In general, the motor components of the nerves are identifiable before the sensory elements, and, in the present study, nerve fibers were first observed in the human at stage 13 in some of

  8. Single-Phase Single-Stage PV-Grid System Using VSI Based on Simple Control Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Riyadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating electric energy generated by PV with utilities has been developed. Some of these using two-stage converters and the others using single stage converters. For systems with two-stage converters, the first stage converter acts as a MPPT to maximize power generated by PV and the second stage is used as an interface to the utilities. In the single-stage system, an inverter is used for both function. In this paper, PV-Grid System using a single-stage Voltage Source Inverter is proposed. The simple control circuit to make PV generate maximum power and keeping power equilibrium between PV and inverter output power is used. To verify the analysis, simulations are done.

  9. Analysis of Fourth Stage of Automatic Depressurization System Failure to Open in AP1000 LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guozhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Depressurization System (ADS is a very important part of passive core cooling system in passive safety nuclear plant AP1000. ADS have four stages with each stage having two series and only ADS4 utilizes squib valves. During the accident, emergency core injecting is realized by gravity driven passive safety injection system like makeup tank (CMT, accumulator and In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST. The objective e of this study is to analyze the system response and phenomenon under part of failure of ADS in AP1000 LOCA. The plant model is built by using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD 3.4 code. The chosen accident scenario is small and medium LOCAs followed by failure of ADS4 to open, whose location is different from the other three stages. The results indicate that long time core cooling from IRWST is postponed greatly through intentional depressurization only by ADS1, 2, 3. In addition, LOCAs with equivalent diameter 25.4 cm and 34.1 cm will not lead to core melt while 5.08 cm break LOCA will. Meanwhile, high water level in the pressurizer will appear during all of three LOCAs.

  10. Heating of electron plasma in two-stage beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regions of plasma production in two-stage beam-plasma system is separated from that of plasma heating by a density gradient. The temperature of bulk plasma electrons in this system is shown to reach several hundred electron volts under the injection of electron beam with the energy in the units of kiloelectronvolt. The range of optimal plasma electron heating is determined with respect to basic macroscopic parameters of the system (beam energy and current, pressure of neutral gas, length of a plasma column, strength of a magnetic field)

  11. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Dong; Hui Ren; Jianghui Dong; Liping Wang

    2015-01-01

    A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring ...

  12. Influence of the Application of MRI on the T, N Staging System of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuanmiaoXie; BilingLiang; HaogaoUn; PeihongWu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the influence of utilizing MRI on the T, N staging system (the 5th edition, UICC) and on the 1992 China staging systems (Fuzhou-Guangzhou,China) by comparing the results of CT and MRI examinations of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).METHODS All 56 NPC patients, which were confirmed by histology,accepted both CT and MRI examinations. CT system scans were obtained by using an Elscient CT Twin Flash with the conventional axial scan. Three cases were examined by an additional coronary scan and 16 patients received an enhanced CT. The MR imaging was performed with a 0.5T MR system (Philips T5- II Ultra-Magnetic). The conventional axial, sagittal and coronary sections with SE sequences were obtained. The scan field was from the supra sellar cistern to the inferior border of C2. Most patients (50/56) accepted contrast enhanced MRI.RESULTS The pharyngobasilar fascia can clearly be seen on MRI but not on CT, so MRI can accurately determine the lesion in the nasopharyngeal cavity. MRI is more sensitive for evaluation of tumor involvement of soft tissue such as the Iongus colli muscle (14 cases by CT and 26 by MRI), tensor veli patalini muscle and levator veli palatini muscle (17 cases by CT and 23 by MRI), and skull-base bone marrow invasion (15 cases by CT and 42 by MRI). MRI can also demonstrate the invasion of the carotid sheath area and the enlargement of retropharyngeal lymph nodes more definitely than CT.The involvement of the trigeminal nerve can be detected on MRI, which may influence the clinical staging directly.CONCLUSION Of the 56 cases examined, 16 (28.6%) changed the staging based on UICC staging; while 33.9% (19/56) cases changed based on the 1992 China-stagin9 system. The major influence of MRI examinations on the 1992 staging was to differentiate the involvement of the carotid sheath area from metastasis of the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. There also was a significant difference in finding early invasion of the skull base.

  13. Evolution of International Space Station GN&C System Across ISS Assembly Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roscoe; Frank, K. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system for the International Space Station is initially implemented by the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) which was built by the Khrunichev Space Center under direct contract to Boeing. This element (Stage 1A/R) was launched on 20 November 1998 and is currently operating on-orbit. The components and capabilities of the FGB Motion Control System (MCS) are described. The next ISS element, which has GN&C functionality will be the Service Module (SM) built by Rocket Space Corporation-Energia. This module is scheduled for launch (Stage 1R) in early 2000. Following activation of the SM GN&C system, the FGB MCS is deactivated and no longer used. The components and capabilities of the SM GN&C system are described. When a Progress vehicle is attached to the ISS it can be used for reboost operations, based on commands provided by the Mission Control Center-Moscow. When a data connection is implemented between the SM and the Progress, the SM can command the Progress thrusters for attitude control and reboosts. On Stage 5A, the U.S. GN&C system will become activated when the U.S. Laboratory is de loyed and installed (launch schedule is currently TBD). The U.S. GN&C system provides non-propulsive control capabilities to support micro-gravity operations and minimize the use of propellant for attitude control, and an independent capability for determining the ISS state vector, attitude, attitude rate. and time.. The components and capabilities of the U.S. GN&C system are described and the interactions between the U.S. and Russian Segment GN&C systems are also described.

  14. Power Frequency Oscillation Suppression Using Two-Stage Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller for Multigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Bhateshvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to develop a linearized model of automatic generation control (AGC for an interconnected two-area reheat type thermal power system in deregulated environment. A comparison between genetic algorithm optimized PID controller (GA-PID, particle swarm optimized PID controller (PSO-PID, and proposed two-stage based PSO optimized fuzzy logic controller (TSO-FLC is presented. The proposed fuzzy based controller is optimized at two stages: one is rule base optimization and other is scaling factor and gain factor optimization. This shows the best dynamic response following a step load change with different cases of bilateral contracts in deregulated environment. In addition, performance of proposed TSO-FLC is also examined for ±30% changes in system parameters with different type of contractual demands between control areas and compared with GA-PID and PSO-PID. MATLAB/Simulink® is used for all simulations.

  15. Flash flood detection through a multi-stage probabilistic warning system for heavy precipitation events

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, L.; Velasco, D.; Thielen, J.

    2011-01-01

    The deadly combination of short to no warning lead times and the vulnerability of urbanized areas makes flash flood events extremely dangerous for the modern society. This paper contributes to flash flood early warning by proposing a multi-stage warning system for heavy precipitation events based on threshold exceedances within a probabilistic framework. It makes use of meteorological products at different resolutions, namely, numerical weather predictions (NWP), radar-NWP b...

  16. Block Two-stage Methods for Singular Systems and Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Migallón Gomis, Violeta; Penadés, Jose; Szyld, Daniel B.

    2007-01-01

    Research Report 95-121, Department of Mathematics, Temple University, December 1995. This paper appeared, in revised form, in Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications, vol. 3 (1996) 413-426. The use of block two-stage methods for the iterative solution of consistent singular linear systems is studied. In particular, hypotheses are provided for the convergence of non-stationary methods, i.e., when the number of inner iterations may vary from block to block and from one outer iteration to ...

  17. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  18. Kefir grains production - An approach for volume optimization of two stage bioreactor system

    OpenAIRE

    Goršek, Andreja; Tramšek, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to design a continuous two-stage bioreactor system for kefir grains production. Based on the experimental data of time-depended kefir grain mass increase and average pH profile during kefir grains batch propagation, parameters of predictive growth and exponential pH models were initially estimated. Afterwards, the non-linear programming (NLP) optimization problem for estimating the optimal volumes of two unequal in series connected continuously stir...

  19. Improved Duct Systems Task Report with StageGate 2 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Neil [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Stroer, Dennis [Calcs-Plus, Venice, FL (United States)

    2007-12-31

    This report is about Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership's work with two industry partners, Davalier Homes and Southern Energy Homes, in constructing and evaluating prototype interior duct systems. Issues of energy performance, comfort, DAPIA approval, manufacturability and cost is addressed. A stage gate 2 analysis addresses the current status of project showing that there are still refinements needed to the process of incorporating all of the ducts within the air and thermal boundaries of the envelope.

  20. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  1. Performance comparison between a conventional vapor compression and compression-absorption single-stage and double-stage systems used for refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports a comparison from the first and second law of thermodynamics of a conventional vapor compression cooling system, a compression-absorption single-stage (CASS) system, and a compression-absorption double-stage (CADS) system operating with CO2 and R134a in the compression cycle and H2O/LiBr in the absorption cycles. The CADS system is being by the first time proposed in the literature. The performance of the systems were analyzed as function of diverse operating parameters. It was found that the electrical energy consumption in the refrigeration cycles was about 45% lower than in the classical compression refrigeration cycles using CO2 and R134a as refrigerants under the same operating conditions. The results showed that the COP for the CADS could be 50% higher than those obtained with the CASS system. The systems operating with R134a always achieved higher COP than those obtained using CO2. From the exergy analysis it was clear that the highest irreversibilities occurs in the absorber and the evaporator for both mixtures. It was also found that the irreversibilities of the proposed system using R134a in the compression cycle were 17% lower than those obtained with the system using CO2 - Highlights: • A compression-absorption double-stage (CADS) system is by the first time proposed. • The compression power in cascade cycles was 45% lower than in compression cycles. • The COP for proposed system was up to 45.2% higher than those with other systems. • The systems operating with R134a achieved higher COP than those obtained using CO2. • The irreversibilities for the CADS using R134a were 17% lower than using CO2

  2. Single stage three level grid interactive MPPT inverter for PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A three phase three-level NPC inverter for grid interactive PV systems is proposed. • A novel MPPT algorithm is introduced for single stage systems. • The proposed algorithm is robust with respect to parameter variations of PV system. • THD level is measured as 3.45% and it meets the international standards (<5%). • Total system efficiency is measured as 93.08%. - Abstract: In this study, three-phase, single stage neutral point clamped grid interactive inverter is designed and implemented. The reference current of the voltage source inverter is determined by maximum power point tracking sub-program in order to obtain maximum power from photovoltaic modules instantaneously. Proposed control is realized via TMS320F28335 32-bit floating point processor. The modified incremental conductance method is applied for maximum power point tracking; the PI regulator is used to control the inverter output current shape and level. Galvanic isolation is provided by a line frequency transformer that matches inverter output voltage to the grid voltage level and prevents DC current injection into the grid. Experimental results show that the designed inverter imports energy to the grid with unity power factor, total harmonic distortion level is 3.45% and this value is in the limits of the international standards. In addition, the total efficiency of the system is measured as 93.08%. The proposed system gets the maximum power from photovoltaic module and dispatches into the grid without using additional DC/DC converter

  3. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. PMID:26210232

  4. Low cost optical tweezers systems using double coil driving stepping motor to controlling sample stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowattanatham, N.; Cheamanunkul, N.; Plaipichit, S.; Buranasiri, P.; Nuansri, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this research, the low cost optical tweezers systems using X-Y stage has been developed by using 5-phase stepping motor. By using sequential double coil driving, we can obtain the driving torque larger than using the single coil driving. The moving scale is fine resolution at 0.2 micrometer. The overall systems based on microcontroller PIC18F458 and joystick controller with LabView® graphical user interface (GUI). The mechanical damping has been included in the system for decreasing the vibrational noise. By using this method, our optical tweezers system is cheaper than the other commercial system that has been used the piezoelectric driving, and still has the same efficiency.

  5. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Elderly vs Young Patients: A Comparative Analysis using STNMP Staging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Syedmukith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the foremost type of oral cancer usually seen in elderly patients. The intention of this study is to correlate clinicopathological fea- tures and recurrence of OSCC between patients who are above 40 years of age with that of patients below 40 years of age using site, tumor, node, metastasis and pathology (STNMP system. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients who reported with OSCC and underwent treatment. A total of 50 patients above 40 years of age (group I and 25 patients below 40 years of age (group II were included. Clinico- pathologic data, treatment, and follow-up for 5 years were obtained from archives of concerned departments. The relevant details required for STNMP grading of patients and recurrence within a period of 5 years was recorded. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of all the patients reported with OSCC in 8 years, 22.14% were below 40 years of which 64% were males. Among younger patients, overall STNMP stages were in higher stages when compared with elder patients. Comparison of percen- tage of uncontrolled cases between groups did not show any signi fi cant difference; also this study showed higher the stage at diagnosis more the recurrence after treatment in both groups. Interpretation and conclusion : OSCC is in alarming raise among young patients, showing higher stages clinicopatho- logically at presentation. However, these higher stages at diag- nosis did not affecting the treatment outcome when compared to elder patients hence, advanced studies on OSCC affecting younger patients are very crucial

  6. ARM Based Automatic Control System of Nano Positioning Stage for Micromanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh Naruka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A microcontroller based control system to drive the Physik Instrumente (PI piezoelectric ultrasonic nano-positioning (PUN sta ge for a micro-factory has been proposed by the author. The tuning parameters of th e PI Line Controller are chosen such that the PUN stage shows optimum step response . The microcontroller i.e. LPC2478R provides the user with the choices of oper ations on the 3.2” QVGA LCD screen and the choice can be made by a 5-key joysti ck. The PUN stage moves in different geometrical patterns as chosen by the use r. The stage is placed in the workspace of the Clark-MXRR,Inc. CPA-2101 femto-sec ond laser. Different patterns are made on the material in question. As compared t o the previous works in this area, the user is given the power for position control, r eal time tracking, and trajectory planning of the actuator. The user interface has be en made very easy to comprehend. The repeatability of tasks, portability of the as- sembly, the reduction in the size of the system , power consumption and the human involvemen t are the major achievements after the inclusion of a microcontroller

  7. Anti-apoptotic role of Sonic hedgehog protein at the early stages of nervous system organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, J B; Lapointe, F; Le Douarin, N M; Teillet, M A

    2001-10-01

    In vertebrates the neural tube, like most of the embryonic organs, shows discreet areas of programmed cell death at several stages during development. In the chick embryo, cell death is dramatically increased in the developing nervous system and other tissues when the midline cells, notochord and floor plate, are prevented from forming by excision of the axial-paraxial hinge (APH), i.e. caudal Hensen's node and rostral primitive streak, at the 6-somite stage ( Charrier, J. B., Teillet, M.-A., Lapointe, F. and Le Douarin, N. M. (1999). Development 126, 4771-4783). In this paper we demonstrate that one day after APH excision, when dramatic apoptosis is already present in the neural tube, the latter can be rescued from death by grafting a notochord or a floor plate fragment in its vicinity. The neural tube can also be recovered by transplanting it into a stage-matched chick embryo having one of these structures. In addition, cells engineered to produce Sonic hedgehog protein (SHH) can mimic the effect of the notochord and floor plate cells in in situ grafts and transplantation experiments. SHH can thus counteract a built-in cell death program and thereby contribute to organ morphogenesis, in particular in the central nervous system. PMID:11641224

  8. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes, mainly urbanization and climatic change, leads to increased runoff and peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to reduce potential damage and inconvenience. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the conveyance capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. Contemporary practice is to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in the climate- and the urban environment, this approach is no longer appropriate, and explicit consideration of gradual changes during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and responses over the analysis period. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  9. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes mainly, the urbanization and the climatic change leads to increased runoff and increased peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to overcome possible damage and inconveniences caused by the induced flooding. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. The traditional practice was to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in climate-environment, this approach is no longer economically viable and safe, and explicit consideration of changes that gradually take place during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and amounts throughout the lifespan of the drainage network. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  10. Precision control system of two-DOF stage with linear ultrasonic motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanlei ZHANG; Yunlai SHI; Chunsheng ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Using an appropriate control method, linear ultrasonic motors can be used in applications requiring high position accuracy. In this paper, a closed loop PI control system is designed to achieve high position accu-racy during the control of a two-DOF stage driven by linear ultrasonic motors, Two ultrasonic motors are mounted on the stage to generate motion in two ortho-gonal directions. The PI control algorithm is used to increase the stability and accuracy of position control. The x-axis mover covers 30 mm forward and backward in less than 0.3 s settling time and the y-axis mover in less than 0.4 s. Experimental results denote that the control strategy proposed in this paper appears to have high effi-ciency, quick response, and high accuracy.

  11. Beam focusing by aperture displacement in two-stage acceleration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of beam focusing and the influence of total beam deflection on injection efficiency are estimated numerically for the neutral beam injectors of large tokamaks such as the JT-60. It is shown that beam focusing is important in improving injection efficiency in such a large device. As one method of focusing, beam focusing by aperture displacement was investigated in the two-stage acceleration system on the basis of a thin lens approximation. The simultaneous displacement of apertures in the plasma and gradient grids (or suppressor and exit grids) was found to be adequate for beam focusing, because the focal point hardly depends on the field intensity ratio which determines the two-stage ion beam optics. (author)

  12. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  13. Predictive properties of different multidimensional staging systems in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oga T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Toru Oga1, Mitsuhiro Tsukino2, Takashi Hajiro3, Akihiko Ikeda4, Koichi Nishimura5 1Department of Respiratory Care and Sleep Control Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hikone Municipal Hospital, Hikone, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Japan; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kobe, Japan; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is considered to be a respiratory disease with systemic manifestations. Some multidimensional staging systems, not based solely on the level of airflow limitation, have been developed; however, these systems have rarely been compared. Methods: We previously recruited 150 male outpatients with COPD for an analysis of factors related to mortality. For this report, we examined the discriminative and prognostic predictive properties of three COPD multidimensional measurements. These indices were the modified BODE (mBODE, which includes body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity; the ADO, composed of age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction; and the modified DOSE (mDOSE, comprising dyspnea, airflow obstruction, smoking status, and exacerbation frequency. Results: Among these indices, the frequency distribution of the mBODE index was the most widely and normally distributed. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analyses revealed that the scores on three indices were significantly predictive of 5-year mortality of COPD (P < 0.001. The scores on the mBODE and ADO indices were more significantly predictive of mortality than forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the Medical Research Council dyspnea score, and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score. However, peak oxygen uptake on progressive cycle ergometry was more significantly related to mortality than the scores on

  14. Electron heating in a two-stage beam-plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of electron heating in a two-stage plasma system using electron beam as a power surce is investigated. The system comprises two differentially pumped-out volumes separated by a discharge chamber. The whole system is located in a homogenous magnetic field of 3.5 kOe. Current density of the electron beam was equal to 1A/cm2 at the energy of 2 keV. The investigations revealed that neutral gas pressure is the parameter strongly affecting electron temperature in the system. Dependences of electron temperature and plasma density on neutral gas pressure are presented. Obtaining electron temperatures of the order of hundreds eV is shown to be possible in the given device

  15. Multi-Stage Optimization Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic voltage control (AVC) system for power systems with limited continuous voltage control capability. The objective is to minimize the operational cost over a period, which consists of the power loss in the grid, the shunt switching cost, the transformer tap change...... cost and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal...... electricity control center, where study cases based on the western Danish power system demonstrate the superiority of the proposed AVC system in term of the cost minimization. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to verify the proposed method on the robustness improvements....

  16. America's Next Great Ship: Space Launch System Core Stage Transitioning from Design to Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstock, Benjamin; Kauer, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is essential to achieving the Nation's and NASA's goal of human exploration and scientific investigation of the solar system. As a multi-element program with emphasis on safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS is becoming America's next great ship of exploration. The SLS Core Stage includes avionics, main propulsion system, pressure vessels, thrust vector control, and structures. Boeing manufactures and assembles the SLS core stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA, a historical production center for Saturn V and Space Shuttle programs. As the transition from design to manufacturing progresses, the importance of a well-executed manufacturing, assembly, and operation (MA&O) plan is crucial to meeting performance objectives. Boeing employs classic techniques such as critical path analysis and facility requirements definition as well as innovative approaches such as Constraint Based Scheduling (CBS) and Cirtical Chain Project Management (CCPM) theory to provide a comprehensive suite of project management tools to manage the health of the baseline plan on both a macro (overall project) and micro level (factory areas). These tools coordinate data from multiple business systems and provide a robust network to support Material & Capacity Requirements Planning (MRP/CRP) and priorities. Coupled with these tools and a highly skilled workforce, Boeing is orchestrating the parallel buildup of five major sub assemblies throughout the factory. Boeing and NASA are transforming MAF to host state of the art processes, equipment and tooling, the most prominent of which is the Vertical Assembly Center (VAC), the largest weld tool in the world. In concert, a global supply chain is delivering a range of structural elements and component parts necessary to enable an on-time delivery of the integrated Core Stage. SLS is on plan to launch humanity into the next phase of space exploration.

  17. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring pressure of flow. When the monitored data exceeds the normal range, some failure may occur in the stage hydraulic system. If any failure occurs in the circuit, the maintainers can be informed immediately, which can greatly improve maintenance efficiency, ensuring the failure to be eliminated in time. Meanwhile, we can take advantage of wireless sensor network (WSN to connect the multiple loops and then monitor the loops by using ZigBee technology, which greatly improves the efficiency of monitoring.

  18. Analysis of effects of a new environmental pollutant, bisphenol A, on antioxidant systems in soybean roots at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Li, Xingyi; Zhou, Li; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material. Because of its widespread use and increasing release into environment, BPA has become a new environmental pollutant. Previous studies about BPA’s effects in plants focus on a certain growth stage. However, the plant’s response to pollutants varies at different growth stages. Therefore, in this work, BPA’s effects in soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the reactive oxygen species levels, membrane lipid fatty acid composition, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant systems. The results showed that low-dose BPA exposure slightly caused membrane lipid peroxidation but didn’t activate antioxidant systems at the seedling stage, and this exposure did not affect above process at other growth stages; high-dose BPA increased reactive oxygen species levels and then caused membrane lipid peroxidation at all growth stages although it activated antioxidant systems, and these effects were weaker with prolonging the growth stages. The recovery degree after withdrawal of BPA exposure was negatively related to BPA dose, but was positively related to growth stage. Taken together, the effects of BPA on antioxidant systems in soybean roots were associated with BPA exposure dose and soybean growth stage.

  19. Thermodynamic Investigation of Two-Stage Absorption Refrigeration System Connected by a Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kairouani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is to analyze a two-stage cycle based on the ammonia-water absorption system, with intermediate compression. The two generators of the system are heated by geothermal energy at low temperature. The study shows that this system makes it possible at lower generator temperature, under the limits permitted by the systems suggested up to now. For Tg = 335 K, Tc = Ta = 308 K and Te = 263 K, based on the electric consumption, the system efficiency is 8.2. The comparative study of the hybrid system and vapor compression systems shows the superiority of the proposed system. Supplied by the geothermal sources of the Tunisian south, the system makes it possible to obtain for a pilot geothermal station, a production of 75 tons of ice per day. The greenhouse gas emissions should thus be reduced by about 2.38 tons of CO2 per day. Therefore, based on the typical geothermal energy sources in Tunisia which present a global refrigeration potential of 4.4 MW, the daily quantity of ice that could be produced is about 865 tons. The greenhouse gas emissions should thus be reduced by about 10,000 tons of CO2 per year.

  20. Organic matter transformations and kinetics during sewage sludge composting in a two-stage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowska, Dorota; Klimiuk, Ewa

    2011-12-01

    The use of different proportions of rape straw and grass as amendments in the composting of dewatered sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was tested in a two-stage system (first stage, an aerated bioreactor and second stage, a periodically turned windrow). The composition of feedstock affected the temperature and organic matter degradation in the bioreactor and the formation of humic substances, especially humic acids (HA), during compost maturation in the windrow. The total HA content (the sum of labile and stable HA) increased according to first-order kinetics, whereas labile HA content was constant and did not exceed 12% of total HA. ΔlogK of 1.0-1.1 indicated that HA was of R-type, indicating a low degree of humification. Temperature during composting was the main factor affecting polymerization of fulvic acids to HA and confirmed the value of the degree of polymerization, which increased only when thermophilic conditions were obtained. PMID:21978622

  1. Development of the embryo, larva and early juvenile of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Developmental staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-05-01

    We described the developmental stages for the embryonic, larval and early juvenile periods of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to elucidate sequential events of craniofacial development. Craniofacial development of cichlids, especially differentiation and morphogenesis of the pharyngeal skeleton, progresses until about 30 days postfertilization (dpf). Because there is no comprehensive report describing the sequential processes of craniofacial development up to 30 dpf, we newly defined 32 stages using a numbered staging system. For embryonic development, we defined 18 stages (stages 1-18), which were grouped into seven periods named the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula and hatching periods. For larval development, we defined seven stages (stages 19-25), which were grouped into two periods, early larval and late larval. For juvenile development until 30 dpf, we defined seven stages (stages 26-32) in the early juvenile period. This developmental staging system for Nile tilapia O. niloticus will benefit researchers investigating skeletogenesis throughout tilapia ontogeny and will also facilitate comparative evolutionary developmental biology studies of haplochromine cichlids, which comprise the species flocks of Lakes Malawi and Victoria. PMID:17501907

  2. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  3. Permanence extinction and global asymptotic stability in a stage structured system with distributed delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengqiang; Kouche, Mahiéddine; Tatar, Nasser-Eddine

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider a nonautonomous stage-structured competitive system of n-species population growth with distributed delays which takes into account the delayed feedback in both interspecific and intraspecific interactions. We obtain, by using the method of repeated replace, sufficient conditions for permanence and extinction of the species. The global attractivity of the unique positive equilibrium is proved in the autonomous case. Our results extend previous ones obtained by Liu et al. in [Nonlinear Anal. 51 (2002) 1347-1361; J. Math. Anal Appl. 274 (2002) 667-684].

  4. Three-stage hybrid constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment and reuse in warm climate regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila Martín, Cristina; Garfi, Marianna; García Serrano, Joan

    2013-01-01

    tAn experimental hybrid constructed wetland system consisting of 3 stages of different wetland config-urations (i.e. two vertical flow beds (1.5 m2each) alternating feed-rest cycles followed by a horizontalsubsurface flow (2 m2) and a free water surface (2 m2) wetlands in series) and the quality of its finaleffluent were evaluated for about one year. Mean overall removal rates were as 97% TSS, 78% COD, 91%BOD5, 94% NH4-N, 46% TN and 4% PO4-P. Vertical flow beds achieved high organic matter re...

  5. Markers, Cofactors and Staging Systems in the Study of HIV Disease Progression: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Portela

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive review of markers, cofactors and staging systems used for HIV disease, focusing on some aspects that nowadays could even be considered historical, and advancing in current issues such as the prognostic value of viral load measurements, viral genotypic and phenotypic characterization, and new HIV disease treatment protocols. CD4+ cell values, combined with the new viral markers mentioned are promising as a parsimonious predictor set for defining both severity and progression. An adequate predictor of patient resource use for planning purposes still needs to be defined

  6. The microfossils in phosphate deposit in Doushantuo stage, Sinian System, Weng'an, Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the microfossils in phosphate deposit in the Doushantuo stage, Sinian System, Weng'an, Guizhou Province. Based on the detailed observation in morphology and microstructures, it is considered that those acritarchs with interior spicules probably belong to sponge animals. However, some explanations for a part of soft-tissue are still contrioversial. The reliable conclusion still needs more evidence to study. The scientific significance of this study and the key questions for further studies are suggested here.

  7. China National Unified System for Certification on Information Security Products Entering the Stage of Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recently, China National Administrative Committee for Certification on Information Security Products was officially established,symbolizing that the established national unified system for certification on information security products has entered the stage of implementation. Director of General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine of P. R.China (AQSIQ) Li Changjiang, Director of Certification and Accreditation Administration of P. R. China(CNCA) Wang Fengqing and Vice Director of the State Council Office for informationization work Qu Weizhi addressed at the establishing meeting.

  8. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yu; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pineda, Salvador; Sánchez, María Jesús; Solana, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    -stage decision-making model is proposed to determine the diesel power output that minimizes the cost of running and maintaining the wind–diesel power system. Optimized operational decisions for each time period are generated dynamically considering the path-dependent nature of the optimal dispatch policy, given...... the plausible future realizations of the wind power production. A numerical case study is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the proposed stochastic dynamic optimization model significantly outperforms the traditional deterministic dispatch strategies.......An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi...

  9. Multifunctional Solar Systems Based On Two-Stage Regeneration Absorbent Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of multifunctional dehumidification solar systems, heat supply, cooling, and air conditioning based on the open absorption cycle with direct absorbent regeneration developed. The solar systems based on preliminary drainage of current of air and subsequent evaporated cooling. The solar system using evaporative coolers both types (direct and indirect. The principle of two-stage regeneration of absorbent used in the solar systems, it used as the basis of liquid and gas-liquid solar collectors. The main principle solutions are designed for the new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors. Analysis of the heat losses in the gas-liquid solar collectors, due to the mechanism of convection and radiation is made. Optimal cost of gas and liquid, as well as the basic dimensions and configuration of the working channel of the solar collector identified. Heat and mass transfer devices, belonging to the evaporative cooling system based on the interaction between the film and the gas stream and the liquid therein. Multichannel structure of the polymeric materials used to create the tip. Evaporative coolers of water and air both types (direct and indirect are used in the cooling of the solar systems. Preliminary analysis of the possibilities of multifunctional solar absorption systems made reference to problems of cooling media and air conditioning on the basis of experimental data the authors. Designed solar systems feature low power consumption and environmental friendliness.

  10. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Reginald; Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2001-01-01

    Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to all other systems, as is the case with SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In particular, the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results in high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately calculate the TPS mass of this type of vehicle several engineering disciplines and analytical tools must be used preferably in an environment that data is easily transferred and multiple iterations are easily facilitated.

  11. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR = 11.53, p = 0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR = 12.00, p = 0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR = 3.19, p = 0.010). Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women

  12. Grating exchange system of independent mirror supported by floating rotary stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhuan; Tao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Nan, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The performance of The Grating Exchange System can satisfy the Thirty Meter Telescope - TMT for astronomical observation WFOS index requirements and satisfy the requirement of accuracy in the grating exchange. It is used to install in the MOBIE and a key device of MOBIE. The Wide Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) is one of the three first-light observing capabilities selected by the TMT Science Advisory Committee. The Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) instrument design concept has been developed to address the WFOS requirements as described in the TMT Science-Based Requirements Document (SRD). The Grating Exchange System uses a new type of separate movement way of three grating devices and a mirror device. Three grating devices with a mirror are able to achieve independence movement. This kind of grating exchange system can effectively solve the problem that the volume of the grating change system is too large and that the installed space of MOBIE instruments is too limit. This system adopts the good stability, high precision of rotary stage - a kind of using air bearing (Air bearing is famous for its ultra-high precision, and can meet the optical accuracy requirement) and rotation positioning feedback gauge turntable to support grating device. And with a kind of device which can carry greater weight bracket fixed on the MOBIE instrument, with two sets of servo motor control rotary stage and the mirror device respectively. And we use the control program to realize the need of exercising of the grating device and the mirror device. Using the stress strain analysis software--SolidWorks for stress and strain analysis of this structure. And then checking the structure of the rationality and feasibility. And prove that this system can realize the positioning precision under different working conditions can meet the requirements of imaging optical grating diffraction efficiency and error by the calculation and optical performance analysis.

  13. Evaluation of Pachymetric Measurements with Scheimpflug Photography-Based System and Optical Coherence Tomography Pachymetry at Different Stages of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül İlkay Sezgin Akçay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the central and peripheral pachymetric measurements determined with Sirius system and Visante OCT and evaluate the agreement between them at different stages of keratoconus. Measurements were not significantly different in all patients and subgroups and showed high correlation for the corneal thicknesses of the entire cornea in different stages of keratoconus.

  14. Two-stage scheduling algorithm based on priority table for clusters with inaccurate system parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU An-feng; CHEN Zhi-gang; XIONG Ce

    2006-01-01

    A new two-stage soft real-time scheduling algorithm based on priority table was proposed for task dispatch and selection in cluster systems with inaccurate parameters. The inaccurate characteristics of the system were modeled through probability analysis. By taking into account the multiple important system parameters, including task deadline, priority, session integrity and memory access locality, the algorithm is expected to achieve high quality of service. Lots of simulation results collected under different load conditions demonstrate that the algorithm can not only effectively overcome the inaccuracy of the system state, but also optimize the task rejected ratio, value realized ratio, differentiated service guaranteed ratio, and session integrity ensured ratio with the average improvement of 3.5%, 5.8%, 7.6% and 5.5%, respectively. Compared with many existing schemes that cannot deal with the inaccurate parameters of the system, the proposed scheme can achieve the best system performance by carefully adjusting scheduling probability. The algorithm is expected to be promising in systems with soft real-time scheduling requirement such as E-commerce applications.

  15. Actualization the risks local payment systems on the present stage of the national payment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeinikova Olga Mikhailovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented and estimated systematically possibilities of minimization the general and specific risks local payment systems and their participants, which actualized due to the activation of formation of national payment system in Russia amid increasing global political and financial risks and the need for economic security.

  16. Development and applications of a two-dimensional tip-tilting stage system with nanoradian-level positioning resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Deming, E-mail: shu@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lee, Wah-Keat; Liu, Wenjun [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [MST Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6132 (United States); Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Kim, Kwang-Je [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

  17. Development and Applications of a Two-dimensional Tip-Tilting Stage System with Nanoradian-Level Positioning Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Lee, Wah-Keat [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Shvyd' ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kim, Kwang-Je [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

  18. Development and applications of a two-dimensional tip-tilting stage system with nanoradian-level positioning resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Lee, Wah-Keat [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Shvyd' ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kim, Kwang-Je [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

  19. Development and applications of a two-dimensional tip-tilting stage system with nanoradian-level positioning resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

  20. Development and Applications of a Two-dimensional Tip-Tilting Stage System with Nanoradian-Level Positioning Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

  1. Predicting prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma; comparison of staging system in pakistani cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical, biochemical and radiological prognostic indicators and to compare the performance of six staging systems in patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Study Design:Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gastroenterology, Doctors Hospital, Lahore, from October 2007 to December 2013. Methodology:Patients with HCC were included. Baseline clinical, hematological and radiological variables were noted. Patients were followed for 5 years or till death. Survival predictors were identified using Cox proportional hazard analysis and 6 prognostic staging systems were evaluated by determining homogeneity, discriminatory ability and monotonicity. Results: Of the 228 patients included, male to female ratio was 2.6/1 (165/63) and mean age was 56.5 ± 10.4 years. Majority of patients 189 (82.9%) were anti-HCV positive. Solitary HCC lesion was seen in 121 (53.1%) patients, 16 (7%) had 2 lesions while 73 (32%) had 3 or more lesions. Only 36 (15.8%) patients had palliative therapy for HCC. Survival rate was 45.2%, 25%, 12.3%, 7%, 2.2% and 1% for 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years respectively. Male gender, portal vein thrombosis, serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl, tumor size =6 cm and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) =147 U/ml were bad prognostic indicators. OKUDA, GRETCH and early stages of CLIP had better homogeneity while CLIP showed superior discriminatory ability and monotonicity for predicting survival. Conclusion: Male gender, presence of portal vein thrombosis, low serum albumin, large tumor size and high AFP level are poor prognostic indicators in patients of HCC. CLIP has better performance in predicting mortality. (author)

  2. Control and measuring system of a two-dimensional scanning nanopositioning stage based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Gao, Si-Tian; Li, Wei; Chen, Ben-Yong; Shi, Yu-Shu; Li, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A control and measuring system of two-dimensional nanopositioning stage is designed for the multiple selection and combinations control based on LabVIEW. The signal generator of the system can not only generate the commonly used control signals such as sine, square, triangle and sawtooth waves, but also generate special signals such as trapezoidal wave and step wave with DAQ data acquisition card. The step wave can be triggered by the other signals for the strict timing corresponding relation between X-Y control signals. Finally, the performance of the control system of two-dimensional nanopositioning stage is conducted by the heterodyne interferometer. The results show that the operation of the system is stable and reliable and the noise peak - valley value is superior to 2nm while the stage moving with 6nm step. The system can apply to the field requiring the precise control to the positioning stage in nano-measurement and metrology.

  3. Puesta al día: estadificación del carcinoma de células renales Update on staging of renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Paganini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de células renales o adenocarcinoma renal es el tumor renal maligno más frecuente en adultos, con una incidencia mayor entre la cuarta y sexta décadas de la vida. Los hombres se afectan el doble que las mujeres. En Argentina, por año se calcula una incidencia de 6,1 casos por 100.000 habitantes, con una mortalidad anual de 3,4 casos por 100.000 habitantes. Para la estadificación se utiliza el sistema TNM de la American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC, actualizado en su séptima edición (2010. Allí se reflejan algunos cambios en el T, con subdivisión de la categoría T2 (T2a > 7 cm y 10 cm. Asimismo, se considera T4 a la invasión por contigüidad de la glándula suprarrenal homolateral y T3a al compromiso de la vena renal. También se simplificó el N en N0 y N1.Renal cell cancer or renal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignant renal tumor in adults, with a higher incidence between the fourth and sixth decades of life. It is twice more frequent in men than in women. In Argentina, the estimated incidence is 6.1 cases per 100000 inhabitants per year with a mortality rate of 3.4 cases per 100000 inhabitants per year. Staging is performed using the TNM system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC, which has been updated in its seventh edition, (2010 reflecting changes in T, with T2 subdivision (T2a > 7 cm and 10 cm, reclassification of ipsilateral adrenal involvement as T4 if there is contiguous invasion and reclassification of renal vein involvement as T3a. Nodal involvement was simplified to N0 and N1.

  4. Development of the excretory system in a polyplacophoran mollusc: stages in metanephridial system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeumler Natalie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two types of excretory systems, protonephridia and metanephridial systems are common among bilaterians. The homology of protonephridia of lophotrochozoan taxa has been widely accepted. In contrast, the homology of metanephridial systems – including coelomic cavities as functional units – among taxa as well as the homology between the two excretory systems is a matter of ongoing discussion. This particularly concerns the molluscan kidneys, which are mostly regarded as being derived convergently to the metanephridia of e.g. annelids because of different ontogenetic origin. A reinvestigation of nephrogenesis in polyplacophorans, which carry many primitive traits within molluscs, could shed light on these questions. Results The metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata develops rapidly in the early juvenile phase. It is formed from a coelomic anlage that soon achieves endothelial organization. The pericardium and heart are formed from the central portion of the anlage. The nephridial components are formed by outgrowth from lateral differentiations of the anlage. Simultaneously with formation of the heart, podocytes appear in the atrial wall of the pericardium. In addition, renopericardial ducts, kidneys and efferent nephroducts, all showing downstream ciliation towards the internal lumen, become differentiated (specimen length: 0.62 mm. Further development consists of elongation of the kidney and reinforcement of filtration and reabsorptive structures. Conclusions During development and in fully formed condition the metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata shares many detailed traits (cellular and overall organization with the protonephridia of the same species. Accordingly, we suggest a serial homology of various cell types and between the two excretory systems and the organs as a whole. The formation of the metanephridial system varies significantly within Mollusca, thus the mode of formation cannot be used

  5. Development of the excretory system in a polyplacophoran mollusc: stages in metanephridial system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Two types of excretory systems, protonephridia and metanephridial systems are common among bilaterians. The homology of protonephridia of lophotrochozoan taxa has been widely accepted. In contrast, the homology of metanephridial systems – including coelomic cavities as functional units – among taxa as well as the homology between the two excretory systems is a matter of ongoing discussion. This particularly concerns the molluscan kidneys, which are mostly regarded as being derived convergently to the metanephridia of e.g. annelids because of different ontogenetic origin. A reinvestigation of nephrogenesis in polyplacophorans, which carry many primitive traits within molluscs, could shed light on these questions. Results The metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata develops rapidly in the early juvenile phase. It is formed from a coelomic anlage that soon achieves endothelial organization. The pericardium and heart are formed from the central portion of the anlage. The nephridial components are formed by outgrowth from lateral differentiations of the anlage. Simultaneously with formation of the heart, podocytes appear in the atrial wall of the pericardium. In addition, renopericardial ducts, kidneys and efferent nephroducts, all showing downstream ciliation towards the internal lumen, become differentiated (specimen length: 0.62 mm). Further development consists of elongation of the kidney and reinforcement of filtration and reabsorptive structures. Conclusions During development and in fully formed condition the metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata shares many detailed traits (cellular and overall organization) with the protonephridia of the same species. Accordingly, we suggest a serial homology of various cell types and between the two excretory systems and the organs as a whole. The formation of the metanephridial system varies significantly within Mollusca, thus the mode of formation cannot be used as a homology criterion

  6. Design of a linear-motion dual-stage actuation system for precision control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actuators with high linear-motion speed, high positioning resolution and a long motion stroke are needed in many precision machining systems. In some current systems, voice coil motors (VCMs) are implemented for servo control. While the voice coil motors may provide the long motion stroke needed in many applications, the main obstacle that hinders the improvement of the machining accuracy and efficiency is their limited bandwidth. To fundamentally solve this issue, we propose to develop a dual-stage actuation system that consists of a voice coil motor that covers the coarse motion, and a piezoelectric stack actuator that induces the fine motion, thus enhancing the positioning accuracy. The focus of this present research is the mechatronics design and synthesis of the new actuation system. In particular, a flexure hinge based mechanism is developed to provide a motion guide and preload to the piezoelectric stack actuator that is serially connected to the voice coil motor. This mechanism is built upon parallel plane flexure hinges. A series of numerical and experimental studies are carried out to facilitate the system design and the model identification. The effectiveness of the proposed system is demonstrated through open-loop studies and preliminary closed-loop control practice. While the primary goal of this particular design is aimed at enhancing optical lens machining, the concept and approach outlined are generic and can be extended to a variety of applications

  7. Design and evaluation of multiple level data staging for Blue Gene systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaila, F.; Blas, J. G.; Carretero, J.; Latham, R.; Ross, R. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. Carlos III de Madrid)

    2011-06-01

    Parallel applications currently suffer from a significant imbalance between computational power and available I/O bandwidth. Additionally, the hierarchical organization of current Petascale systems contributes to an increase of the I/O subsystem latency. In these hierarchies, file access involves pipelining data through several networks with incremental latencies and higher probability of congestion. Future Exascale systems are likely to share this trait. This paper presents a scalable parallel I/O software system designed to transparently hide the latency of file system accesses to applications on these platforms. Our solution takes advantage of the hierarchy of networks involved in file accesses, to maximize the degree of overlap between computation, file I/O-related communication, and file system access. We describe and evaluate a two-level hierarchy for Blue Gene systems consisting of client-side and I/O node-side caching. Our file cache management modules coordinate the data staging between application and storage through the Blue Gene networks. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture achieves significant performance improvements through a high degree of overlap between computation, communication, and file I/O.

  8. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Rajendran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system and the other without recirculation (open system. For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; starch and cotton. The digestion of starch and cotton in the closed system resulted in production of 91% and 80% of the theoretical methane yield during the first 60 days. In contrast, in the open system the methane yield was decreased to 82% and 56% of the theoretical value, for starch and cotton, respectively. The OLR could successfully be increased to 4 gVS/L/day for cotton and 10 gVS/L/day for starch. It is concluded that the recirculation supports the microorganisms for effective hydrolysis of polyhydrocarbons in CSTR and to preserve the nutrients in the system at higher OLRs, thereby improving the overall performance and stability of the process.

  9. Research on coal staged conversion poly-generation system based on fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjiang Ni; Chao Li; Mengxiang Fang; Qinhui Wang; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

    2014-01-01

    A new coal staged conversion poly-generation system combined coal combustion and pyrolysis has been developed for clean and high efficient utilization of coal. Coal is the first pyrolysed in a fluidized pyrolyzer. The pyrolysis gas is then purified and used for chemical product or liquid fuel production. Tar is collected during purification and can be processed to extract high value product and to make liquid fuels by hydro-refining. Semi-coke from the pyrolysis reactor is burned in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor for heat or power generation. The system can realize coal multi-product generation and has a great potential to increase coal utilization value. A 1 MW poly-generation system pilot plant and a 12 MW CFB gas, tar, heat and power poly-generation system was erected. The experimental study focused on the two fluidized bed operation and characterization of gas, tar and char yields and compositions. The results showed that the system could operate stable, and produce about 0.12 m3/kg gas with 22 MJ/m3 heating value and about 10 wt%tar when using Huainan bituminous coal under pyrolysis temperature between 500 and 600 ?C. The produced gases were mainly H2, CH4, CO, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6 and C3H8. The CFB combustor can burn semi-coke steadily. The application prospect of the new system was discussed.

  10. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  11. Development of an automated multi-stage modal synthesis system for NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, D. N.; Hoesly, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mode synthesis development to be scheduled in the NASTRAN multi-level substructuring system for general dynamics applications is described. The method combines the better features of several state of the art mode synthesis techniques, yet is general enough to provide for any arbitrary combination of boundary degrees of freedom and normal mode boundary conditions. Normal modes or complex eigenvectors may be used in the definition of a structure component which may be combined with other components of any type. Combination structures fabricated from component modes may be processed as normal substructures, including further multi-stage mode synthesis reductions. Included are discussions of the user control of the system and advantages in actual application.

  12. Performance study on three-stage power system of compressed air vehicle based on single-screw expander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new compressed-air engine system based on three-stage single screw expander was proposed to improve the performance of power system.Three different structure styles were presented,and the studies on the power performance and the distribution of expansion ratios between stages were carried out by programming and mathematical modeling of each style.Research results indicated that the best matches of expansion ratios with equal heat temperature for the air tank of pressure 30 MPa were seven-five-three for"first-stage heating"style,eight-five-three for"two-stage heating"style and five-five-four for"three-stage heating"style,respectively.Results also showed that heating up inlet air or increasing the expander efficiency might improve the power performance.The output power of the"two-stage heating"style is far higher than that of"first-stage heating"style and is a little lower than that of"three-stage heating"style.The new system showed good structure and power performances.

  13. Collaborative Analysis Tool for Thermal Protection Systems for Single Stage to Orbit Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Reginald Andrew; Stanley, Thomas Troy

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system and in the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately determine insulation masses for a vehicle such as the one described above, the aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thickness that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to reduce

  14. Briefly introduction of developing trends of stage lighting system%灯光系统发展趋势浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈令梅; 胡定平

    2003-01-01

    It briefly introduces some new techniques which are used in stage lighting system, included dimmer network protocol such as ACN protocol, ARTNET protocol, LGBT technique, LCD monitor, and intelligent lamp and so on.

  15. Development of pre pre-driver amplifier stage for generator of SST-1 ICRH system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Sinh Makwana, Azad; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system for SST1 consists mainly of the cwrf power generator to deliver 1.5MW for 1000sec duration at the frequencies 22.8, 24.3 and 45.6±1MHz, the transmission line and the antenna. This is planned to develop a independent and dedicated cwrf generator that consists of a oscillator, buffer, rf switch, modulator, rf attenuator, directional coupler, three stage solid state low power amplifier and four stage triode & tetrode based high power amplifier with specific performance at 45.6±1MHz including frequencies 22.8 and 24.3±1MHz. The pre pre-driver high power amplifier stage is fabricated about triode 3CX3000A7. The tube has sufficient margin in terms of plate dissipation and grid dissipation that makes it suitable to withstand momentarily load mismatch and to upgrade the source in terms of output power later. This indigenously developed amplifier is integrated inside a radiation resistant rack with all required biasing power supplies, cooling blower, controls, monitors and interlocks for manual or remote control operation. This grounded grid mode amplifier will be operated at plate with 3.8KV/ 800mA in class AB for 1.8KW cwrf output power rating. The input circuit is broadband and the output circuit is tunable with slide variable inductor and a vacuum variable capacitor in the frequency range of 22.8 to 45.6MHz. It is designed for a gain of about 12dB, fabrication completed and undergoing cwrf power testing. This paper presents specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters, tests conducted and the results obtained.

  16. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Lloyd Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bartram, Brian Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morris, John Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures.The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.

  17. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Optimal decision-making model for isolated hybrid wind–diesel power system is proposed. • Wind power uncertainty and conditional operating cost are considered. • Battery wear cost of the energy storage system is included in the model. • The results are compared with deterministic dispatch strategies. - Abstract: An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi-stage decision-making model is proposed to determine the diesel power output that minimizes the cost of running and maintaining the wind–diesel power system. Optimized operational decisions for each time period are generated dynamically considering the path-dependent nature of the optimal dispatch policy, given the plausible future realizations of the wind power production. A numerical case study is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the proposed stochastic dynamic optimization model significantly outperforms the traditional deterministic dispatch strategies

  18. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  19. SOLAR MULTI-STAGE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS. NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND POSSIBILITIES ANALYSISD GAS LOW-TEMPERATURE CONDENSATION PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    А.В. Дорошенко; В.Х. Кириллов; К.В. Людницкий

    2015-01-01

    The developed schematics for the solar refrigeration systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution are presented in the article. Cascade (two-stage) principle of construction of contours is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cascade. The solar absorbing systems in the basic variants of cooling and air-conditioning are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus of film-type, entering in the complement of conto...

  20. Non-Toxic Reaction Control System for the Reusable First Stage Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, E. L.; Rothschild, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Boeing Reusable Space Systems vision of a Reaction Control System (RCS) for the Reusable First Stage (RFS) being considered as a replacement for the Solid Rocket Booster for the Space Shuttle. The requirement is to achieve reliable vehicle control during the upper atmospheric portion of the RFS trajectory while enabling more efficient ground operations, unhindered by constraints caused by operating with highly toxic RCS propellants. Boeing's objective for this effort is to develop a safer, more efficient and environmentally friendly RCS design approach that is suitable for the RFS concept of operations, including a low cost, efficient turnaround cycle. The Boeing RCS concept utilizes ethanol and liquid oxygen in place of the highly toxic, suspected carcinogen, ozone-depleting mono-methyl-hydrazine and highly toxic nitrogen tetroxide. The Space Shuttle Upgrade program, under the leadership of the NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, is currently developing liquid oxygen and ethanol (ethyl alcohol) technology for use as non-toxic orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and RCS. The development of this liquid oxygen and ethanol technology for the Space Shuttle offers a significant leverage to select much of the same technology for the RFS program. There are significant design and development issues involved with bringing this liquid oxygen and ethanol technology to a state of maturity suitable for an operational RCS. The risks associated with a new LOX and Ethanol RCS are mitigated by maintaining kerosene and hydrogen peroxide RCS technology as an alternative. These issues, presented within this paper, include managing the oxygen supply and achieving reliable ignition in the short pulse mode of engine operation. Performance, reliability and operations requirements are presented along with a specific RCS design concept to satisfying these requirements. The work reported in this paper was performed under NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Contract Number

  1. Thermal design and analysis of a multi-stage 30 K radiative cooling system for EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2010-09-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator further cools a large Focal Plane to ˜100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented ˜45° relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at ˜0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  2. The ISUP system of staging, grading and classification of renal cell neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamali Samaratunga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant changes in the staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia in recent times. Major changes have occurred in our understanding of extra-renal extension by renal cell cancer and how gross specimens must be handled to optimally display extra-renal spread. Since the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO classification of renal tumors, in which only a handful of different entities were reported, many new morphological types have been described in the literature, resulting in 50 different entities reported in the 2004 WHO classification. Since 2004, further new entities have been recognized and reported necessitating an update of the renal tumor classification. There have also been numerous grading systems for renal cell carcinoma with Fuhrman grading, the most widely used system. In recent times, the prognostic value and the applicability of the Fuhrman grading system in practice has been shown to be, at best, suboptimal. To address these issues and to recommend reporting guidelines, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP undertook a review of adult renal neoplasia through an international consensus conference in Vancouver in 2012. The conduct of the conference was based upon evidence from the literature and the current practice amongst recognized experts in the field. Working groups selected to deal with key topics evaluated current data and identified points of controversy. A pre-meeting survey of the ISUP membership was followed by the consensus conference at which a formal ballot was taken on each key issue. A 65% majority vote was taken as consensus. This review summarizes the outcome and recommendations of this conference with regards to staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia.

  3. Thermal Design and Analysis of a Multi-Stage 30K Radiative Cooling System for EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator further cools a large focal plane to approx.100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented approx. 45 degrees relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at approx. 0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  4. Two-Stage orders sequencing system for mixed-model assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemczak, M.; Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, the authors focus on the NP-hard problem of orders sequencing, formulated similarly to Car Sequencing Problem (CSP). The object of the research is the assembly line in an automotive industry company, on which few different models of products, each in a certain number of versions, are assembled on the shared resources, set in a line. Such production type is usually determined as a mixed-model production, and arose from the necessity of manufacturing customized products on the basis of very specific orders from single clients. The producers are nowadays obliged to provide each client the possibility to determine a huge amount of the features of the product they are willing to buy, as the competition in the automotive market is large. Due to the previously mentioned nature of the problem (NP-hard), in the given time period only satisfactory solutions are sought, as the optimal solution method has not yet been found. Most of the researchers that implemented inaccurate methods (e.g. evolutionary algorithms) to solving sequencing problems dropped the research after testing phase, as they were not able to obtain reproducible results, and met problems while determining the quality of the received solutions. Therefore a new approach to solving the problem, presented in this paper as a sequencing system is being developed. The sequencing system consists of a set of determined rules, implemented into computer environment. The system itself works in two stages. First of them is connected with the determination of a place in the storage buffer to which certain production orders should be sent. In the second stage of functioning, precise sets of sequences are determined and evaluated for certain parts of the storage buffer under certain criteria.

  5. NASAwide electronic publishing system: Electronic printing and duplicating, stage-2 evaluation report (GSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Lane, Robert; Hart, Susan V.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office was assigned the responsibility to continue with the expansion of the NASAwide networked electronic duplicating effort by including the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as an additional node to the existing configuration of networked electronic duplicating systems within NASA. The subject of this report is the evaluation of a networked electronic duplicating system which meets the duplicating requirements and expands electronic publishing capabilities without increasing current operating costs. This report continues the evaluation reported in 'NASA Electronic Publishing System - Electronic Printing and Duplicating Evaluation Report' (NASA TM-106242) and 'NASA Electronic Publishing System - Stage 1 Evaluation Report' (NASA TM-106510). This report differs from the previous reports through the inclusion of an external networked desktop editing, archival, and publishing functionality which did not exist with the previous networked electronic duplicating system. Additionally, a two-phase approach to the evaluation was undertaken; the first was a paper study justifying a 90-day, on-site evaluation, and the second phase was to validate, during the 90-day evaluation, the cost benefits and productivity increases that could be achieved in an operational mode. A benchmark of the functionality of the networked electronic publishing system and external networked desktop editing, archival, and publishing system was performed under a simulated daily production environment. This report can be used to guide others in determining the most cost effective duplicating/publishing alternative through the use of cost/benefit analysis and return on investment techniques. A treatise on the use of these techniques can be found by referring to 'NASA Electronic Publishing System -Cost/Benefit Methodology' (NASA TM-106662).

  6. CAT SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR SINGLE STAGE SUPPLY CHAIN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH FIXED CHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manimaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO Algorithm is proposed for single stage supply chain distribution system with a fixed cost. This paper considers two kinds of cost: a continuous cost, that linearly increases with the amount transported between a supplier and a customer and a fixed cost, which is incurred whenever a non-zero quantity is transported between a supplier and a customer and it is independent of the amount transported. The aim of this paper is to determine the quantities to be distributed to satisfy the customer demand with minimum cost. Since fixed costs results discontinuities in the objective function, solution procedures are become more difficult and are known to be non-deterministic polynomial (NP hard. In this paper Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO Algorithm is proposed for the optimization of single stage supply chain problem to provide optimal or near optimal solution. The results of the proposed model of this paper have been compared with a spanning tree-based Genetic Algorithm and binary coded Genetic Algorithm. Computational results show the superiority of CSO algorithm over other algorithms.

  7. Inspection logistics planning for multi-stage production systems with applications to semiconductor fabrication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kyle Dakai

    Since the market for semiconductor products has become more lucrative and competitive, research into improving yields for semiconductor fabrication lines has lately received a tremendous amount of attention. One of the most critical tasks in achieving such yield improvements is to plan the in-line inspection sampling efficiently so that any potential yield problems can be detected early and eliminated quickly. We formulate a multi-stage inspection planning model based on configurations in actual semiconductor fabrication lines, specifically taking into account both the capacity constraint and the congestion effects at the inspection station. We propose a new mixed First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) and Last-Come-First-Serve (LCFS) discipline for serving the inspection samples to expedite the detection of potential yield problems. Employing this mixed FCFS and LCFS discipline, we derive approximate expressions for the queueing delays in yield problem detection time and develop near-optimal algorithms to obtain the inspection logistics planning policies. We also investigate the queueing performance with this mixed type of service discipline under different assumptions and configurations. In addition, we conduct numerical tests and generate managerial insights based on input data from actual semiconductor fabrication lines. To the best of our knowledge, this research is novel in developing, for the first time in the literature, near-optimal results for inspection logistics planning in multi-stage production systems with congestion effects explicitly considered.

  8. Russian and Brazil media systems at the modern stage of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova Viktoria Alexandrovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main characteristics of modern mass communication and media systems in Russia and Brazil. The so-called first-level media - are of elite character, aimed at the ruling classes. They are strengthening their position in the global space and almost are blurring geographical and cultural boundaries. Media audience of the second level is national, they usually focus on the middle and lower segment of the audience, if to divide it by income, education and culture. Informatization and digitalization of media lead to the formation of hybrid media systems, where there is a growing role of new media, in particular, social networks and Twitter. It is important to emphasize that the nature of the social, spiritual and cultural changes caused by informatization, depends not only on information technology, but also on the social conditions of the socioeconomic system where the implemented processes of mass communication are realized. The paper discusses the factors that determine the possibility of functioning of media systems at the present stage: the willingness of the reader to consume information and pay for it by the example of Russia and Brazil, describes the processes of globalization, information technology and digitalization of society and the media. It is presented media preferences and trust in the media in Russia and Brazil in the XXI century, as well as the main indicators of the advertising market in these countries.

  9. Design and demonstration of Bolt Retractor Separation system for X-38 Deorbit Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.; Johnston, A. S.; Garrison, J. C.; Gaines, J. L.; Waggoner, J. D.

    2003-09-01

    A separation system was designed for the X-38 experimental crew return vehicle program to allow the Deorbit Propulsion Stage (DPS) to separate from the X-38 lifting body during reentry operations. The configuration chosen was a spring-loaded plunger, known as the Bolt Retractor Subsystem (BRS), that retracts each of the six DPS-to-lifting body attachment bolts across the interface plane after being triggered by a separation nut mechanism. The system was designed to function on the ground in an atmospheric environment as well as in space. The BRS provides the same functionality as that of a completely pyrotechnic shear separation system that would normally be considered ideal for this application, but at a much lower cost. This system also could potentially be applied to future space station crew return vehicles. The design goal of 40 ms retraction time was successfully met in a series of demonstrations performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Pyrotechnic Shock Facility (PSF) and Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL). It must be emphasized that a full-scale test series was not performed on the BRS due to program schedule and cost constraints.

  10. The development of an expert system for finding fragility curves of building structural systems in the preliminary design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is a starting point for the development of an expert system for determining seismic fragility curves of structural systems in a nuclear power plant or conventional building at the preliminary design stage. The resulting system assists an engineer with moderate engineering background and limited reliability knowledge to analyze the failure functions of building structures. It simulates the performance of an expert in identifying the potential failure modes and their variabilities for a structure of interest. On reviewing the methodology of seismic fragility evaluation for existing building structures in the nuclear power plant industry, one finds that the investigation process starts with the identification of critical components or substructures, whose failures result in the functional failure of safety related equipment or the failure of structural integrity itself, and follows with complicated numerical analyses to estimate the capacity functions associated with the limit states of these components or substructures

  11. A two-stage optimal planning and design method for combined cooling, heat and power microgrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A two-stage optimal method is presented for CCHP microgrid system. • Economic and environmental performance are considered as assessment indicators. • Application case demonstrates its good economic and environmental performance. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-stage optimal planning and design method for combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) microgrid system was presented. The optimal objective was to simultaneously minimize the total net present cost and carbon dioxide emission in life circle. On the first stage, multi-objective genetic algorithm based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) was applied to solve the optimal design problem including the optimization of equipment type and capacity. On the second stage, mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) algorithm was used to solve the optimal dispatch problem. The approach was applied to a typical CCHP microgrid system in a hospital as a case study, and the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified

  12. A multi-stage approach for damage detection in structural systems based on flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, E.; Imbimbo, M.

    2016-08-01

    The paper proposes a fusion approach for damage detection in structural applications in the case of multiple damage locations and three-dimensional systems. Based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, a multi-stage approach is proposed with the mode shapes assumed as primary sources and local decisions based on a flexibility method. The proposed approach has been applied to two case studies, a a fixed end beam analyzed in other papers and a three dimensional structures codified in a Benchmark problem. Both the case studies have shown the ability and the efficiency of the proposed approach to detect damage also in the case of multiple damage, limited number of identified parameters and noise measurements.

  13. Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2007-01-01

    In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through the...... dedication of a storage tank. This type of situation has hardly been investigated, although planners struggle with it in practice. This paper aims at investigating the fundamental effect of prioritization and dedicated storage in a two-stage production system, for various product mixes. We show the...... performance improvements for the prioritized product, as well as the negative effects for the other products. We also show how the effect decreases with more storage tanks, and increases with more products....

  14. Two-stage SQUID systems and transducers development for MiniGRAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present measurements on a two-stage SQUID system based on a dc-SQUID as a sensor and a DROS as an amplifier. We measured the intrinsic noise of the dc-SQUID at 4.2 K. A new dc-SQUID has been fabricated. It was specially designed to be used with MiniGRAIL transducers. Cooling fins have been added in order to improve the cooling of the SQUID and the design is optimized to achieve the quantum limit of the sensor SQUID at temperatures above 100 mK. In this paper we also report the effect of the deposition of a Nb film on the quality factor of a small mass Al5056 resonator. Finally, the results of Q-factor measurements on a capacitive transducer for the current MiniGRAIL run are presented

  15. Value of five-stage prognostic system in predicting short-term outcome of patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical value of five-stage prognostic system in predicting the short-term outcome of patients with liver cirrhosis, and to compare it with the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP and Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD scores. MethodsTwo hundred and one hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis in the Department of Gastroenterology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2011 to January 2014 were enrolled in the study and followed up for at least six months. Patients were classified accorded to the five-stage prognostic system, and the mortality rate in each stage was measured. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC were used to assess the accuracy of the five-stage prognostic system in predicting the short-term death risk of cirrhotic patients, which was then compared with the CTP and MELD scores. Categorical data were analyzed by chi-square test. Comparison of AUC was made by normal distribution Z test. Spearman′s correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation of the five-stage prognostic system with the CTP and MELD scores. ResultsThe study used the admission time as the starting point and the death of patients or study termination time as the endpoint. Among the 201 patients, 50 (24.9% died within six months. Based on the five-stage prognostic system, the mortality rates for stages 1 to 5 were 0(0/11, 0(0/18, 4.2%(2/48, 16.3% (7/43, and 50.6%(41/81, respectively. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis (stages 3, 4, and 5, the mortality increased with stage, and the differences in mortality between patients in stages 3 and 4, 3 and 5, and 4 and 5 were all significant (χ2=3.89, 35.33, and 13.96, respectively; P=0.049, 0.000, and 0.049, respectively. The AUC for the five-stage prognostic system, five-stage prognostic system combined with CTP and MELD score, and CTP score were 0820, 0.915, 0.888, and 0

  16. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S; Conner, James M; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  17. NASAwide electronic publishing system: Prototype STI electronic document distribution, stage-4 evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Collins, Mary; Caswell, Pamela; Haynes, Bob; Nelson, Michael L.; Holm, Jeanne; Buquo, Lynn; Tingle, Annette; Cooper, Bill; Stiltner, Roy

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation report contains an introduction, seven chapters, and five appendices. The Introduction describes the purpose, conceptual frame work, functional description, and technical report server of the STI Electronic Document Distribution (EDD) project. Chapter 1 documents the results of the prototype STI EDD in actual operation. Chapter 2 documents each NASA center's post processing publication processes. Chapter 3 documents each center's STI software, hardware, and communications configurations. Chapter 7 documents STI EDD policy, practices, and procedures. The appendices, which arc contained in Part 2 of this document, consist of (1) STI EDD Project Plan, (2) Team members, (3) Phasing Schedules, (4) Accessing On-line Reports, and (5) Creating an HTML File and Setting Up an xTRS. In summary, Stage 4 of the NASAwide Electronic Publishing System is the final phase of its implementation through the prototyping and gradual integration of each NASA center's electronic printing systems, desktop publishing systems, and technical report servers to be able to provide to NASA's engineers, researchers, scientists, and external users the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the result thereof to their work stations.

  18. Affective systems induce formal thought disorder in early-stage psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Breier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been described since early conceptualizations of psychosis, its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests FTD may be influenced by affective and cognitive systems; however, few have examined these relationships-with none focusing on early-stage psychosis (EP). In this study, positive FTD and speech production were measured in sex- and race-matched EP (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 19) groups by assessing "reactivity"-a change in experimental compared with baseline conditions-across baseline, affective, and cognitive conditions. Relationships with functioning were also examined within each group. Three key findings emerged: (a) the EP group displayed large differences in positive FTD and speech production, (b) those with EP exhibited affective reactivity for positive FTD, and (c) positive FTD and affective reactivity were linked with poor real-world functioning in EP and these relationships did not considerably change when controlling for positive symptom (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) severity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that affective, but not cognitive, systems play a critical role in positive FTD. Affective reactivity, in particular, may aid in predicting those with EP who go on to develop serious social impairments. Future work should focus on whether affective systems differentially influence those at separate points on the psychosis-spectrum in an effort to establish evidence-based treatments for FTD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999283

  19. Experimental study on an innovative multifunction heat pipe type heat recovery two-stage sorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative multifunction heat pipe type sorption refrigeration system is designed, in which a two-stage sorption thermodynamic cycle based on two heat recovery processes was employed to reduce the driving heat source temperature, and the composite sorbent of CaCl2 and activated carbon was used to improve the mass and heat transfer performances. For this test unit, the heating, cooling and heat recovery processes between two reactive beds are performed by multifunction heat pipes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cycled characteristics of two-stage sorption refrigeration system with heat recovery processes. The two sub-cycles of a two-stage cycle have different sorption platforms though the adsorption and desorption temperatures are equivalent. The experimental results showed that the pressure evolutions of two beds are nearly equivalent during the first stage, and desorption pressure during the second stage is large higher than that in the first stage while the desorption temperatures are same during the two operation stages. In comparison with conventional two-stage cycle, the two-stage cycle with heat recovery processes can reduce the heating load for desorber and cooling load for adsorber, the coefficient of performance (COP) has been improved more than 23% when both cycles have the same regeneration temperature of 103 deg. C and the cooling water temperature of 30 deg. C. The advanced two-stage cycle provides an effective method for application of sorption refrigeration technology under the condition of low-grade temperature heat source or utilization of renewable energy

  20. Staged discharge out of hospital of the Novacor left ventricular assist system (LVAS) recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganó, M; Scuri, S; Cobelli, F; Opasich, C; Pagani, F M; Minzioni, G; Martinelli, L; Tavazi, L; Viganó, M

    1997-04-01

    The mobility afforded by the wearable Novacor LVAS provides the possibility for the recipients to leave the hospital, with undoubted improvements in their quality of life. A staged program for discharging LVAS recipients from the hospital has been set up at the Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia together with the Rehabilitation Center of Montescano and Baxter Novacor Service support, in order to proceed smoothly towards patient's self sufficiency and to minimize any associated risk. The steps are: stay in the hospital ward, discharge to Rehabilitation Center and discharge to home. Several excursions with and without an LVAS team member are encouraged before final discharge to home. Simple criteria of eligibility must be fulfilled to move to the next step. Every move towards a reduced presence of specialized personnel includes an appropriate training of the patient and relatives and a technical checkout of the needed equipment. During the stay at the Rehabilitation Center primarily the physical training and psychological preparation are taken care of by means of tailored programs. When the patient is discharged to home, the check of patient condition is performed weekly at the Rehab Center, bloodwork and technical evaluation is assessed once every two weeks and technical inspections at home twice per year. Complications are reported as in hospital protocol. Control parameters of the LVAS are reported only in case of alarms or abnormal operation. Periodic review of patient training is performed during the check visits, mostly focused on how to address emergency situations. The hospital is responsible for providing one LVAS operator available on call (all hours). Up to date, 11 patients received an implant of LVAS, 9 of them with the wearable system. All of these 9 patients made excursions out of the hospital and 4 patients have successfully undergone the staged program, showing a satisfactory general condition and restoration to social life. PMID:9271181

  1. Study of the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: Forty-six MSA patients with cerebellar or Parkinsonian symptoms and 18 healthy controls with similar age as patients were included. According to the disease duration,the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (≤ 12 months, n=14), group 2 (13-24 months, n=13), group 3 (≥ 25 months, n=19). All patients and controls underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging. To compare metabolic distributions between different groups, SPM 8 software and two-sample t test were used for image data analysis. When P<0.005, the result was considered statistically significant. Results: At the level of P<0.005, the hypometabolism in group 1 (all t>3.49) was identified in the frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, insula lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus and anterior cerebellar hemisphere. The regions of hypometabolism extended to posterolateral putamen and part of posterior cerebellar hemisphere in group 2 (all t>3.21). In group 3, the whole parts of putamen and cerebellar hemisphere were involved as hypometabolism (all t>4.08). In addition to the hypometabolism regions, there were also stabled hypermetabolism regions mainly in the parietal lobe, medial temporal lobe and the thalamus in all patient groups (all t>3.27 in group 1, all t>3.02 in group 2,all t>3.30 in group 3). Conclusions: Disease duration is closely related to the FDG metabolism in the MSA patients. Frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus can be involved at early stage of the disease. Putaminal hypometabolism begins in its posterolateral part. Cerebellar hypometabolism occurs early at its anterior part. Besides, thalamus shows hypermetabolism in the whole duration. 18F-FDG metabolic changes of brain can reflect the development of mixed-type MSA. (authors)

  2. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle; Bagas, Leon; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-07-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland's only operating metalliferous mine until its closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783-1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite-arsenopyrite-sericite-actinolite-pyrrhotite(-chlorite-plagioclase-löllingite-tourmaline-titanite), which is best developed in areas of exceptionally high gold grades. Aplite dykes dated to ca. 1762 Ma cross-cut the gold-quartz veins, providing a minimum age for mineralisation. A hydrothermal calcite-titanite alteration assemblage is dated to ca. 1766 Ma; however, this alteration is highly isolated, and as a result, its field relationships are poorly constrained. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralisation is cut by several generations of ca. 1745-Ma biotite granodiorite accompanied by brittle deformation. A ca. 1745-Ma lower greenschist facies hydrothermal epidote-calcite-zoisite alteration assemblage with numerous accessory minerals forms halos surrounding the late-stage fractures. The contrasting hydrothermal alteration styles at Nalunaq indicate a complex history of exhumation from amphibolite facies conditions to lower greenschist facies conditions in an orogenic belt which resembles modern Phanerozoic orogens.

  3. Performance Comparison of Single-Stage and Cascade Refrigeration Systems Using R134a as the Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    HOŞÖZ, Murat

    2005-01-01

    This study presents an experimental comparison of single-stage and cascade vapour-compression refrigeration systems using R134a as the refrigerant. The experimental plants employ a vapour-compression refrigeration cycle serving as a base unit, a cooling tower and another vapour-compression refrigeration cycle serving as a higher-temperature unit in the cascade operation. In the single-stage operation the condenser of the base unit was connected to the cooling tower, whereas in the ca...

  4. Stages in the development of a dedicated positron emission tomography system for imaging small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stages in the development of a small diameter positron emission tomograph for the study of small animals are described. Initial experiments were performed with a pair of commercial, 4 mm multicrystal detectors at an inter-detector separation of 100 mm. The system's performance in this geometry was evaluated using physical and biological studies. These indicated the feasibility of using such detectors at this separation to delineate regional tracer kinetic information from small experimental animals. A small diameter, septa-less tomograph incorporating the detectors was simulated and biological data acquired which indicated the benefits of tomography compared with planar studies for imaging small animals. A tomograph incorporating 16 of the latest generation of block detector (3 mm crystals) in a ring diameter of 115 mm was constructed. The detectors were mounted on a 1 m2 vertical gantry and the system incorporated commercial hardware and software for data acquisition. The physical performance of the tomograph indicated that the spatial resolutions expected from the crystal size could be achieved at the centre of the field of view for all axes. However, the small diameter of the system resulted in larger degradation of the spatial resolution off-axis due to non-uniformity of detector sampling and photon penetration into neighbouring crystals. In spite of the physical problems posed by the small diameter of the system, useful in vivo studies on small animals are being routinely performed which assist in the development of novel radioligands and the interpretation of clinical positron emission tomography data and, in addition, provide a unique methodology to study the serial aspects of animal models of human disease. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen; Mashek, Debra J; Strong, Greg; Li, Haifang; Brown, Lucy L

    2005-07-01

    Early-stage romantic love can induce euphoria, is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates. It has an important influence on social behaviors that have reproductive and genetic consequences. To determine which reward and motivation systems may be involved, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and studied 10 women and 7 men who were intensely "in love" from 1 to 17 mo. Participants alternately viewed a photograph of their beloved and a photograph of a familiar individual, interspersed with a distraction-attention task. Group activation specific to the beloved under the two control conditions occurred in dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation, namely the right ventral tegmental area and the right postero-dorsal body and medial caudate nucleus. Activation in the left ventral tegmental area was correlated with facial attractiveness scores. Activation in the right anteromedial caudate was correlated with questionnaire scores that quantified intensity of romantic passion. In the left insula-putamen-globus pallidus, activation correlated with trait affect intensity. The results suggest that romantic love uses subcortical reward and motivation systems to focus on a specific individual, that limbic cortical regions process individual emotion factors, and that there is localization heterogeneity for reward functions in the human brain. PMID:15928068

  6. Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater with a staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Rihye; Kim, Jeonghwan; McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho

    2012-09-01

    A laboratory-scale staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR) system was used to treat a municipal wastewater primary-clarifier effluent. It was operated continuously for 192 days at 6-11 L/m(2)/h flux and trans-membrane pressure generally of 0.1 bar or less with no fouling control except the scouring effect of the fluidized granular activated carbon on membrane surfaces. With a total hydraulic retention time of 2.3h at 25°C, the average effluent chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand concentrations of 25 and 7 mg/L yielded corresponding removals of 84% and 92%, respectively. Also, near complete removal of suspended solids was obtained. Biosolids production, representing 5% of the COD removed, equaled 0.049 g VSS/g BOD(5) removed, far less than the case with comparable aerobic processes. The electrical energy required for the operation of the SAF-MBR system, 0.047 kW h/m(3), could be more than satisfied by using the methane produced. PMID:22784964

  7. TWO-STAGE UTILITY MAXIMIZATION AND IMPORT DEMAND SYSTEMS REVISITED: LIMITATIONS AND AN ALTERNATIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, George C.; Jensen, Kimberly L.

    1994-01-01

    Two-stage utility maximization theory has been widely used in the literature to estimate import demand for agricultural commodities that are often inputs. This article examines the overlooked conceptual and empirical limitations of applying two-stage utility maximization theory to model the demand for imported commodities that are inputs. A discussion is presented about how the underutilized theory of two-stage profit maximization overcomes these limitations. Also discussed are the conditions...

  8. Design and modelling of an innovative three-stage thermal storage system for direct steam generation CSP plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Pierre; Vuillerme, Valéry; Olcese, Marco; El Mourchid, Nadim

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Energy Storage systems (TES) for a Direct Steam Generation (DSG) solar plant feature preferably three stages in series including a latent heat storage module so that steam can be recovered with a limited temperature loss. The storage system designed within the Alsolen Sup project is characterized by an innovative combination of sensible and latent modules. A dynamic model of this three-stage storage has been developed and applied to size the storage system of the Alsolen Sup® plant demonstrator at CEA Cadarache. Results of this simulation show that this promising concept is an efficient way to store heat in DSG solar plants.

  9. Off-design Characteristics of IGCC System Based on Two-stage Coal-slurry Gasification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU gaoxin; WU Shaohua; LI Zhenzhong; WANG Yang

    2012-01-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle system (IGCC) is often operated at off-design condition which has attracted much attention. But little research has been done on the IGCC system based on the two-stage coalslurry gasification technology which can increase the cold gas efficiency and decrease the oxygen consumption.

  10. Least Squares Based and Two-Stage Least Squares Based Iterative Estimation Algorithms for H-FIR-MA Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenwei Shi; Zhicheng Ji

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the identification of Hammerstein finite impulse response moving average (H-FIR-MA for short) systems. A new two-stage least squares iterative algorithm is developed to identify the parameters of the H-FIR-MA systems. The simulation cases indicate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  11. UVC-induced lysis and detritus production of Oscillatoria limnetica in a two-stage continuous-flow system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hannen, E.J.; Gons, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study in model systems the role of heterotrophic micro-organisms in the aquatic microbial food web, a natural food source consisting of senescent primary producer cells is indispensable. A two-stage continuous-flow system with the ability to produce detritus continuously is presented. In

  12. 78 FR 40835 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... published in the Federal Register a final rule (75 FR 49030 through 49214) titled, ``End-Stage Renal Disease... rule (77 FR 67450 through 67531) titled, ``Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective... quarters of ASP+6 and then used the Producer Price Index (PPI) to inflate the prices to CY 2011 (75...

  13. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. PMID:27521934

  14. Optimization of the method of stages through genetic algorithms for unavailable protection systems analysis considering aging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a safety system is under aging the failure times follow non-exponential distributions, and its interstate transition rates become time-dependent. It follows, therefore, that the stochastic process employed in the modeling becomes Nonmarkovian. In this thesis, this analysis is developed using an alternative method, called the device of stages which allows the transformation of Nonmarkovian models into equivalent Markovian ones. That transformation consists in reshaping the state transition diagram with time-dependent transition rates into a new one where fictitious states (called stages) are added and whose transition rates are constant. The number of added stages and their connections are identification parameters of the device of stages used for the equivalent Markovian model and requires a robust and efficient optimization tool. In order to perform a global search in such a topologically complex space, a genetic algorithm has been developed to automatically determine the stages combination and set of parameters which better represent the analyzed distribution. The developed genetic algorithm has demonstrated a good ability for optimizing the method of stages. Results concerning the application to a nuclear reactor protection system are shown and commented, in which the Weibull distribution is employed for modelling failure times. (author)

  15. Battery Systems for X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) and Deorbit Propulsion Stage (DPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    1998-01-01

    A 28V 32 Ah cell Li/MnO2 and a 28V NiMH battery systems for the Deorbit Propulsion Stage (DPS) and the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) are developed in Friwo-Silforkraft, Germany with the following objectives and approach: Provide safe battery designs for lowest volume and cost, and within schedule; Take advantage of less complex requests for V201 vs OPS CRV to simplify design and reduce cost; Use only existing commercial cell designs as building blocks for larger battery; Derive battery designs from the ASTRO-SPAS design which is the largest lithium battery design with Shuttle flight experience; Place maximum amount of battery energy on DPS; DPS battery is non rechargeable; and CRV batteries are rechargeable. This paper contains the following sections: a brief introduction on CRV requirements, CRV advantages over Soyuz, and X-38 programs; Battery objectives and approach; Battery requirements and groundrules (performance, on-orbit operation, etc); Design trades, solutions, redundancy plan, and margins; Envelope, size, and mass; Interfaces (structural, electrical & thermal); and Deviation from OPS CRV.

  16. Extinction and permanence in delayed stage-structure predator-prey system with impulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin, Guangxi 537000 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Wang Fengyan [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000 (China); College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Chen Lansun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Based on the classical stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, an impulsive delayed differential equation to model the process of periodically releasing natural enemies at fixed times for pest control is proposed and investigated. We show that the conditions for global attractivity of the 'pest-extinction' ('prey-eradication') periodic solution and permanence of the population of the model depend on time delay. We also show that constant maturation time delay and impulsive releasing for the predator can bring great effects on the dynamics of system by numerical analysis. As a result, the pest maturation time delay is considered to establish a procedure to maintain the pests at an acceptably low level in the long term. In this paper, the main feature is that we introduce time delay and pulse into the predator-prey (natural enemy-pest) model with age structure, exhibit a new modelling method which is applied to investigate impulsive delay differential equations, and give some reasonable suggestions for pest management.

  17. A stage-structured, spatially explicit migration model for Myotis bats: mortality location affects system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Russell, Robin E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Jennifer A. Szymanski; Jennifer A. Szymanski

    2014-01-01

    Bats are ecologically and economically important species because they consume insects, transport nutrients, and pollinate flowers.  Many species of bats, including those in the Myotis genus, are facing population decline and increased extinction risk.  Despite these conservation concerns, few models exist for providing insight into the population dynamics of bats in a spatially explicit context.  We developed a model for bats by considering the stage-structured colonial life history of Myotis bats with their annual migration behavior.  This model provided insight into network dynamics.  We specifically focused on two Myotis species living in the eastern United States: the Indiana bat (M. sodalis), which is a Federally listed endangered species, and the little brown bat (M. lucifugus), which is under consideration for listing as an endangered species.  We found that multiple equilibria exist for the local, migratory subpopulations even though the total population was constant.  These equilibria suggest the location and magnitude of stressors such as White-nose Syndrome, meteorological phenomena, or impacts of wind turbines on survival influence system dynamics and risk of population extirpation in difficult to predict ways.

  18. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yun Chen,1,* Qian Li,1,2,* Qingsheng Wu1 1Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai; 2Shanghai Institute of Quality Inspection and Technical Research, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4 at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded. Keywords: stearic acid, emulsion solvent evaporation method, drug delivery, cis-DIDP, in vitro

  19. Human papillomavirus genotyping and p16 expression as prognostic factors for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech;

    2014-01-01

    -specific survival (DSS) in patients diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HPV genotyping polymerase chain reaction (high-risk subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) and immunohistochemical expression of p16 were analyzed by....... In univariable survival analysis, HPV positivity was significantly correlated with improved OS (74% v 52%; P=.036) and DSS (84% v 52%; P=.002), and p16 positivity was significantly correlated with improved OS (76% v 30%; P<.001) and DSS (85% v 30%; P<.001). In multivariable COX analysis that included...

  20. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the feasibility and the toxicity of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We analyzed 77 previously untreated and histologically confirmed advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy at the Seoul National University Hospital between 1984 and 1996. The stage distribution was as follows: AJCC stage 111-2, stage IV-75. Sixty-six patients received infusion of 5-FU (1000 mg/m2, on Day 1-5) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2, on Day 1), eleven patients received infusion of 5.FU (1000 mg/m2, on Day 1-5) and carboplatin (300 mg/m2, on Day 1) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 44 months. The overall chemotherapy response rates were 87%. The toxicities of chemotherapy were mild. Only 3 patients experienced Grade 3 toxicities (1 for cytopenia, 2 for nausea/vomiting). The degree of radiation induced mucositis was not severe, and ten patients developed Grade 2 mucositis. The 5-year overall survival rates were 68% and the 5-year disease free survival rates were 65%. The 5-year freedom from distant metastasis rates were 82% and 5-year locoregional control rates were 75%. This single institution experience suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves overall survival and disease free survival for patients with advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma without increase of toxicity

  1. Different lymph node staging systems in patients with gastric cancer from Korean: What is the best prognostic assessment tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Won; Ali, Bandar; Park, Cho Hyun; Song, Kyo Young

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) system is a more accurate prognostic tool than the number-based (pN) or ratio-based (rN) lymph node staging system in Korean patients with gastric cancer (GC).The LODDS is a recently proposed staging modality in surgical oncology. However, it is unclear whether LODDS is superior to the pN or rN system in terms of predicting the prognosis of GC patients who underwent radical gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy and had a greater number of retrieved lymph nodes.Clinicopathological data from 3929 patients who had undergone curative gastrectomy for GC were reviewed. In addition, overall survival rates according to pN and rN classification stratified by the LODDS were analyzed. A multivariate analysis of survival rate was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model.pN, rN, and LODDS were significantly correlated with 5-year survival rate. Spearman correlation test showed no correlation between LODDS and number of lymph nodes retrieved. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that the 3 staging systems had comparable prognostic accuracy (P system demonstrated that LODDS is superior to pN and rN.The LODDS is independently and significantly associated with the OS of Korean patients with GC, and its prognostic value is superior to that of the other lymph node staging systems in Korean patients. PMID:27336871

  2. The 7th lung cancer TNM classification and staging system: Review of the changes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in males, accounting for more than 1.4 million deaths in 2008. It is a growing concern in China, Asia and Africa as well. Accurate staging of the disease is an important part of the management as it provides estimation of patient’s prognosis and identifies treatment sterategies. It also helps to build a database for future staging projects. A major revision of lung cancer staging has been announced with effect from January 2010. The ne...

  3. A Stage-Structured Predator-Prey System with Impulsive Effect and Holling Type-II Functional Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Shu WANG; Rui XU; Guang Hui FENG

    2011-01-01

    A stage-structured predator-prey system with impulsive effect and Holling type-II functional response is investigated.By the Floquet theory and small amplitude perturbation skills,it is proved that there exists a global stable pest-eradication periodic solution when the impulsive period is less than some critical values.Further,the conditions for the permanence of system are established.Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the impulsive effect on the dynamics of the system.

  4. Management accounting and control systems used by R&D intensive firms in different organizational life-cycle stages

    OpenAIRE

    Silvola, H. (Hanna)

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation investigates the use of management accounting and control systems in R&D intensive firms in different organizational life-cycle stages. The thesis consists of four essays focusing on two categories of management accounting and control systems: capital budgeting decisions and management control systems. First, we investigate the evaluation and financing of investment projects in R&D intensive firms. Second, we moreover investigate how R&D intensive fir...

  5. Performance evaluation of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) system modeling involves a number of process variables. An estimation of all these process variables requires both analytical solutions and experimental/field analysis. However, the accurate estimate of variables related to the brine heater operation in a MSF system is very important for a reliable operation of the system. For example, steam operating conditions as well as the brine properties including fouling of the brine heater tubes have a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the brine heater, which in turn influence the distillate output from the system. In this study, the effect of various design as well as operating conditions on the performance ratio (PR), brine temperature and salinity as it leaves the last flash stage are investigated in a once-through system. Increasing the number of stages from 24 to 32 has a significant effect on the PR, it ranges between 79% (for ΔT = 1.5) and 327% (for ΔT = 2.3) for a top-brine temperature of 106 oC. This value increase as the top-brine temperature increases. Increasing the stage-to-stage temperature difference increases the water salinity as it leaves the final stage and reduces its temperature that would imply better energy utilization within the plant. Results show that brine side heat exchanger fouling has a significant effect in decreasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, which reduces the production rate as the fouling increases with time. A sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters, which can have a significant influence on the desalination plant performance, is carried out in an attempt to contribute a better understanding and operation of MSF desalination processes.

  6. 18F-FDG PET/CT in mediastinal lymph node staging of non-small-cell lung cancer in a tuberculosis-endemic country: consideration of lymph node calcification and distribution pattern to improve specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in mediastinal lymph node staging of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a region with a high prevalence of granulomatous disease. Between March 2004 and February 2006, all patients with NSCLC underwent FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced thoracic CT, and subsequent surgical resection. PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT images of 182 patients (126 men and 56 women; mean age 60.7 years) with NSCLC were acquired. Mediastinal node staging was determined using the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Surgical and histological findings served as the reference standard. A total of 182 patients with 778 mediastinal node stations were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced CT were 36% and 80% on a per-patient basis and 23% and 92% on a per-node station basis. Sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT were 81% and 73% on a per-patient basis and 75% and 85% on a per-node station basis. After lymph nodes with calcification and bilateral hilar distribution were considered benign, sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT were 75% and 89% on a per-patient basis and 66% and 96% on a per-node station basis. This prospective study suggests that FDG PET/CT can more accurately stage mediastinal lymph nodes than CT. Considering lymph node calcification and distribution pattern could improve specificity at the cost of a decrease in sensitivity. (orig.)

  7. The pulsers of the damping injection oscillation systems for the UNK I-stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hard requirement to the emittance of the beam is a characteristic feature of the designed and constructed accelerators for high and super-high energy. It is determined by working regime of an accelerator as a collider or buster for the next acceleration stage. The I-stage of the IHEP UNK is a Proton synchrotron accelerating the beam with a common particle number 5.1014 In the beam at the energy from 70 GeV to 400 GeV. The beam consists of the 12 trains each of 4.6 μsec length with intervals between trains 0.6 μsec. At the full pack of the ring the interval between the 12th and 1st trains is 5.2 μsec. Each train is modulated by frequency 200 MHz. The I-stage is a buster for the 2nd accelerator stage at 3 TeV. The both stages occupy one tunnel together. The long distance from the injector to the I stage UNK (the order ∼ 6.5 km) may be followed by the maximum amplitude of injection oscillations to the consequent error of 5 mm

  8. Single stage biological nitrogen removal by nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in biofilm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, C; Tromm, C; Hippen, A; Rosenwinkel, K H; Seyfried, C F; Kunst, S

    2001-01-01

    In full scale wastewater treatment plants with at times considerable deficits in the nitrogen balances, it could hitherto not be sufficiently explained which reactions are the cause of the nitrogen losses and which micro-organisms participate in the process. The single stage conversion of ammonium into gaseous end-products--which is henceforth referred to as deammonification--occurs particularly frequently in biofilm systems. In the meantime, one has succeeded to establish the deammonification processes in a continuous flow moving-bed pilot plant. In batch tests with the biofilm covered carriers, it was possible for the first time to examine the nitrogen conversion at the intact biofilm. Depending on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, two autotrophic nitrogen converting reactions in the biofilm could be proven: one nitritation process under aerobic conditions and one anaerobic ammonium oxidation. With the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, ammonium as electron donor was converted with nitrite as electron acceptor. The end-product of this reaction was N2. Ammonium and nitrite did react in a stoichiometrical ratio of 1:1.37, a ratio which has in the very same dimension been described for the ANAMMOX-process (1:1.31 +/- 0.06). Via the oxygen concentration in the surrounding medium, it was possible to control the ratio of nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the nitrogen conversion of the biofilm. Both processes were evenly balanced at a DO concentration of 0.7 mg/l, so that it was possible to achieve a direct, almost complete elimination of ammonium without addition of nitrite. One part of the provided ammonium did participate in the nitritation, the other in the anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Through the aerobic ammonium oxidation into nitrite within the outer oxygen supplied layers of the biofilm, the reaction partner was produced for the anaerobic ammonium oxidation within the inner layers of the biofilm. PMID:11379106

  9. Development of the pressure driven AGMD process applicable to a multi-stage oxygen isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane distillation (MD) has been developed especially for desalination of seawater since 1960's. MD process appears to be more useful for removal of salt compared to the conventional reverse osmosis (RO) process. However, it is still under the development stage due to its high energy expenditure for generating thermal gradient to membrane interface compared to the RO process. Nevertheless, its compactness, high separation factors and durability of materials are still attractive to the researchers and engineers searching for the advanced separation process. In addition to MD application to desalination, isotope separation of the light isotopes such as oxygen and hydrogen isotopes contained in water has been investigated for a decade since Chmielewski firstly showed its usefulness for isotope separation in early 90's. AGMD (Air Gap Membrane Distillation) of a single permeation cell showed separation of oxygen isotope with the degree of 1.01 ∼ 1.03. In practice, it is necessary to build a multi-stage MD system to enrich isotopes. Permeation fluxes and the degree of oxygen isotope separation of AGMD and VEMD (Vacuum Enhanced Membrane Distillation) were explored. VEMD shows slightly higher isotopic separation degree with higher permeation flux compared to AGMD. It is however virtually impossible to build a multi-stage system due to its system complexity. Although AGMD is suitable for constructing a multi-stage cascade system, permeation flux for AGMD is still too low to be applied to an operational production system. In this investigation, we increased permeation flux using the pressure driven AGMD process, which is different from VEMD, while isotope selectivity was also increased. Permeation flux and the degree of isotope separation of the pressure driven AGMD process were measured by using a multi-stage system

  10. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic mechanisms at the first stage of integration in the electroreception system of the shark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotem, Naama; Sestieri, Emanuel; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær;

    2014-01-01

    afferent nerve originating from the ampullae of Lorenzini targets specific neurons located at the Dorsal Octavolateral Nucleus (DON), the first stage of integration in the electroreception system. Using intracellular recordings in an isolated brainstem preparation from the shark we analyze the properties...

  11. Chance-constrained two-stage fractional optimization for planning regional energy systems in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A chance-constrained two-stage fractional regional energy model is developed. • CTFO-REM generates useful results for planning British Columbia’s energy systems. • Results allow in-depth analyses of objectives, scenarios, and expansions. • A conventional model is also considered to demonstrate CTFO-REM’s advantages. • Results of two models show significant differences between CTFO-REM and TCMIP. - Abstract: In this study, a chance-constrained two-stage fractional optimization (CTFO) method is proposed for planning regional energy systems in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Through simultaneously integrating two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), chance-constrained programming (CCP), and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) techniques into a linear fractional programming (LFP) framework, CTFO can effectively tackle multiobjective and capacity-expansion issues, as well as uncertainties described as probability distributions in the constraints and objectives. Based on the developed CTFO method, a chance-constrained two-stage fractional regional energy model (CTFO-REM) is developed in this study for supporting energy management in the province of British Columbia. Conflicts between environmental protection that maximizes the renewable energy resource utilization and economic development that minimizes the system cost can be effectively addressed through the CTFO-REM model without setting a factor for each objective. The results also indicate that the CTFO-REM model can facilitate dynamic analysis of the interactions among efficiency, policy scenarios, economic cost, and system reliability

  12. Comorbidity, age, race and stage at diagnosis in colorectal cancer: a retrospective, parallel analysis of two health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Krista L

    2008-11-01

    earlier stage of CRC diagnosis. Multiple factors, perhaps including increased interactions with the healthcare system due to comorbidity, might contribute to this finding. Such increased interactions are seen among patients within a healthcare system like the VA system in the US versus sporadic interactions which may be seen with FFS healthcare.

  13. Performance characteristics of a two-stage dark fermentative system producing hydrogen and methane continuously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyazze, G; Dinsdale, R; Guwy, A J; Hawkes, F R; Premier, G C; Hawkes, D L

    2007-07-01

    The performance of a mesophilic two-stage system generating hydrogen and methane continuously from sucrose (10-30 g/L) was investigated. A hydrogen-generating CSTR followed by an upflow anaerobic filter were both inoculated with anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and ORP, pH, gas output, %H(2), %CH(4) and %CO(2) monitored. pH was controlled with NaOH, KOH or Ca(OH)(2). Using NaOH as alkali with 10 g/L sucrose, yields of 1.62 +/- 0.2 mol H(2)/mol hexose added and 323 mL CH(4)/gCOD added to the hydrogen and methane reactors respectively were achieved. The overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was 92.6% with 0.90 +/- 0.1 g/L sodium and 316 +/- 40 mg/L residual acetate in the methane reactor. Operation at 20 g/L sucrose and NaOH as alkali led to impaired volatile fatty acid (VFA) degradation in the methane reactor with 2.23 +/- 0.2 g/L sodium, 1,885 mg/L residual acetate, a hydrogen yield of 1.47 +/- 0.1 mol/mol hexose added, a methane yield of 294 mL/gCOD added and an overall COD reduction of 83%. Using Ca(OH)(2) as alkali with 20 g/L sucrose gave a hydrogen yield of 1.29 +/- 0.3 mol/mol hexose added, a methane yield of 337 mL/gCOD added and improved the overall COD reduction to 91% with residual acetate concentrations of 522 +/- 87 mg/L. Operation at 30 g/L sucrose with Ca(OH)(2) gave poorer overall COD reduction (68%), a hydrogen yield of 1.47 +/- 0.2 mol/mol hexose added, a methane yield of 138 mL/gCOD added and residual acetate 7,343 +/- 715 mg/L. It was shown that sodium toxicity and overloading are important issues for successful anaerobic digestion of effluent from biohydrogen reactors in high rate systems. PMID:17163512

  14. Optimization of Unbalanced Multi-stage Logistics Systems Based on Prüfer Number and Effective Capacity Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unbalanced multi-stage logistics systems are optimized using an improved genetic algorithm based on the Prüfer number and the effective capacity coding. The improved decoding procedure uses the node capacity of the logistics system as an important factor, which influences the decoding procedure. As a result, any Prüfer number produced stochastically can be decoded to a feasible logistics pattern, which matchs the node capacities of the logistics system. With effective capacity coding, an unbalanced logistics system can be converted to a set of balanced systems. The effective capacity coding was combined with the Prüfer number to construct the chromosome for the new method to search the whole solution space of the unbalanced multi-stage logistics system. Simulation results show that the new method finds a better solution with less computational time than st-GA. Although using a little more memory, the new method is still an efficient and robust method for optimizing unbalanced multi-stage logistics systems.

  15. The role of Magnetic resonance sialography in evaluating radiation-induced xerostomia for patients with early stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance sialography (MRS) as a noninvasive tool in evaluating major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Methods: From August 2009 to June 2010, patients with stage I and IIa (AJCC/UICC 2002) nasopharyngeal carcinoma were enrolled. All the patients were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy alone. MRS with salivary stimulation was performed in patients before and after RT on a 3.0T MR scanner. An MRS categorical scoring system was used to compare the visibility of ducts pre-RT and post-RT. The relationship between MRS score and EORTC Core QOL and EORTC Head and Neck QOL was analyzed. Spearman rank correlation test was performed to analyze the non-stimulated and stimulated MRS findings and the clinical severity of xerostomia. Results: All 10 enrolled patients completed planned treatment.The mean dose of the parotid glands and submandibular glands were (37.99 ± 3.70) Gy and (55.65 ± 2.99) Gy, respectively. Good-quality MRS images were obtained. The visibility scores of both the parotid and submandibular ducts were increased after secretion stimulation. Irradiation decreased the visualization of the salivary ducts and attenuated the response to secretion stimulation. There were specific correlations between post-RT secretion response of the parotid gland and EORTC QLQ scales (global QOL scale in QLQ-C30 (rs =0.636, P =0.048) and xerostomia scale in QLQ H and N35 (rs =- 0.694, P =0.026)). Conclusions: MRS can be used as a non-invasive way to evaluated of the functional changes of major salivary glands before and after RT and as a promising approach for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia. (authors)

  16. Biogas upgrading by injection of hydrogen in a two-stage Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura;

    methanogens. In this study, a novel serial biogas reactor system is presented, in which the produced biogas from the first stage reactor was introduced in the second stage, where also H2 was injected. The effects of the H2 addition on the process performance and on the microbial community were investigated......An innovative method for biogas upgrading (i.e. CH4 content more than 90%) combines the coupling of H2, which could be produced by water electrolysis using surplus renewable electricity produced from wind mills, with the CO2 of the biogas. CO2 is biologically converted to CH4 by hydrogenotrophic...

  17. Frequency and distribution pattern of distant metastases in patients with ENT tumors and their consequences for pretherapeutic staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To address the following questions: which parameters influenced the frequency of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced ear-nose-throat (ENT) tumors, which was the distribution pattern of metastases, and what were the diagnostic consequences for pretherapeutic staging? Patients and Methods: 600 patients (526 men, 76 women, median age 56 years) with ENT tumors (squamous cell carcinoma histology) were studied retrospectively. The distribution of primary tumor site and stage (AJCC) was as follows: oropharynx: n = 161 (26.8%), hypopharynx: n = 187 (31.2%), oral cavity: n = 89 (14.8%), larynx: n = 118 (19.7%), cancer of unknown origin: n = 13 (2.2%), others: n = 32(5.3%), I: n = 24 (4%), II: n = 49 (8.2%), III: n = 89 (14.8%), IV: n = 438 (73%). 270 patients (45%) received radiochemotherapy, 330 (55%) postoperative radiotherapy. The following parameters were analyzed in association with distant metastases: tumor localization, T- and N-category, primary treatment, local tumor control, and second neoplasms. Results: 114/600 patients (19%) developed distant metastases, 29/600 (4.9%) at presentation, 50% within 9.3 months after diagnosis of the primary tumor. Distant metastases were most frequent in stage IV (24.2%), carcinoma of the hypopharynx (25.7%), local recurrence (24.3%), and second neoplasm (31.7%) with the following distribution pattern: pulmonary 61/114 (53.5%), pleural 15/114 (13.1%), osseous 45/114 (39.5%), hepatic 14/114 (12.3%), cerebral 8/114 (7%), cutaneous 14/114 (12.3%). 34/114 patients (29.8%) presented monotopic, 80/114 (70.2%) polytopic metastases. 82/600 (13.6%) patients additionally had second neoplasms, 20 corresponding with synchronous or metachronous bronchial tumors. Conclusion: With locally advanced ENT tumor stage IVa/b, carcinoma of the hypopharynx, local recurrence or second neoplasms, at least a pretherapeutic CT of the thorax should be performed because every seventh patient (88/600) developed metastases or second

  18. Radiation monitoring during the last stage of the dismantling of the system in the CIEMAT-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various operations which include the removal of irradiated fuel storage ten wells have been during this final stage. The SPR has established since the start of these operations a radiological surveillance program of workers that includes the use of official external dosimetry and direct-reading, and the control of internal contamination (direct and indirect measurements), in addition to daily monitoring of environmental pollution and external contamination. After decontamination and dismantling operations, there are plans to tackle the final characterisation of the installation and the declassification of the material generated as declassificable. As stage one of these processes has been developed an isotope-type from the analytical results of samples operational s taken from the Home of this last stage of dismantling. (Author)

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF OPEN LOOP MULTI-STAGE IMPEDANCE PUMPING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI; K. C. WOO; YOUSIF A. ABAKR; VINCENT C. C. LEE

    2011-01-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism, where an elastic tube is joined to a more rigid one; a periodic asymmetrical pinching on the elastic tube will produce a unidirectional flow. This pumping concept offers a low energy, low noise alternative at both micro and macro scales. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the performance of a two-stage, open loop impedance pump. The results show that, when compared to a single stage open loop impedance pump, the two-st...

  20. Calibration of the Hall Measurement System for a 6-DOF Precision Stage Using Self-Adaptive Hybrid TLBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers.

  1. Mouse embryo motion and embryonic development from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage using mechanical vibration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yuka; Matsuura, Koji

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of mechanical stimuli on mouse embryonic development from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage to evaluate physical factors affecting embryonic development. Shear stress (SS) applied to embryos using two mechanical vibration systems (MVSs) was calculated by observing microscopic images of moving embryos during mechanical vibration (MV). The MVSs did not induce any motion of the medium and the diffusion rate using MVSs was the same as that under static conditions. Three days of culture using MVS did not improve embryonic development. MVS transmitted MV power more efficiently to embryos than other systems and resulted in a significant decrease in development to the morula or blastocyst stage after 2 days. Comparison of the results of embryo culture using dynamic culture systems demonstrated that macroscopic diffusion of secreted materials contributes to improved development of mouse embryos to the blastocyst stage. These results also suggest that the threshold of SS and MV to induce negative effects for mouse embryos at stages earlier than the blastocyst may be lower than that for the blastocyst, and that mouse embryos are more sensitive to physical and chemical stimuli than human or pig embryos because of their thinner zona pellucida. PMID:23697534

  2. Calibration of the Hall Measurement System for a 6-DOF Precision Stage Using Self-Adaptive Hybrid TLBO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyu; Liu, Yang; Fu, Zhenxian; Song, Shenmin; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization) is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers. PMID:27314349

  3. The Prognostic Value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for Early Recurrence in Operable Breast Cancer: Comparison with TNM Stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O, Joo Hyun; Choi, Woo Hee; Han, Eun Ji; Choi, Eunkyoung; Chae, Byung Joo; Park, Yonggyu; Kim, Sung Hoon [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We evaluated whether the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of primary tumor from the initial staging by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) of patients with breast cancer could identify patients at risk for early recurrence within 2 years, particularly in comparison to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage. We reviewed the staging {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images of patients with primary breast cancer and their medical records. The SUV{sub max} of the primary tumor was measured. The presence or absence of FDG uptake in the axillary lymph node (ALN) was also assessed. The patient's pathologic primary tumor stage (pT), pathologic regional lymph node stage (pN), stage grouping, age, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy history were evaluated with the FDG uptake parameters for recurrence within 2 years following the end of first-line therapy. Recurrence within 2 years was present in 9.1%(n =40) out of the 441 patients assessed. The FDG uptake in ALN, pT, pN, stage grouping and neoadjuvant chemotherapy history were prognostic for early recurrence, while primary tumor SUV{sub max}, age, and ER or PR status were not significant on logistic regression. On multivariate analysis, only the stage grouping (odds ratio 2.79; 95 % CI 1.73, 4.48; p <0.0001) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy history (odds ratio 2.70; 95 % CI 1.22, 5.98; p =0.0141) could identify patients at increased risk for recurrence within 2 years. Primary tumor FDG uptake measured by SUV{sub max}, and visual assessment of FDG uptake in the ALN in the initial staging PET/CT of patients with breast cancer may not have additional prognostic value compared with the AJCC stage grouping for early recurrence.

  4. Design of a control system for a macro-micro dual-drive high acceleration high precision positioning stage for IC packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A macro-micro dual-drive positioning system showing good potential for high acceleration and high precision positioning required in IC packaging applications is devised in this paper. The dual-drive positioning stage uses a VCM (voice coil motor) driven macro positioning stage and a PZT piezo-electric driven micro positioning stage. The coupling characteristics of the system are analyzed to produce a control structure with a micro positioning stage that can dynamically compensate for the positioning error produced by the macro positioning stage. Models of the two positioning stages are described. The models cover both the mechanism and the actuator. For the macro positioning stage, friction characteristics are taken into account, and a controller with an LQG (linear-quadratic-Gaussian) control algorithm combining a feed-forward compensation algorithm is derived. A PID controller is used to control the micro positioning stage. Detailed designs are derived for the proposed approach, and the performance is validated by simulation.

  5. Asymptotic behavior of a delay predator-prey system with stage structure and variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Hernandez-Pinzon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish a global attractor for a Lotka-Volterra type reaction-diffusion predator-prey model with stage structure for the predator, delay due to maturity and variable coefficients. This attractor is found by the method of upper and lower solutions and is given in terms of bounds for the coefficients.

  6. 76 FR 70227 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System and Quality Incentive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Budget-Neutrality Adjustment'') published on April 6, 2011 (76 FR 18930). Additionally, effective January 12, 2012 the interim rule amending 42 CFR Part 414, published on January 16, 2009 (74 FR 2873), is... Federal Register, a final rule (75 FR 49030 through 49214), entitled, ``End-Stage Renal...

  7. Treatment of natural rubber processing wastewater using a combination system of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, D; Syutsubo, K; Hatamoto, M; Fukuda, M; Takahashi, M; Choeisai, P K; Yamaguchi, T

    2016-01-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of natural rubber processing wastewater treatment was conducted using a combination system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for more than 10 months. The system achieved a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 95.7% ± 1.3% at an organic loading rate of 0.8 kgCOD/(m(3).d). Bacterial activity measurement of retained sludge from the UASB showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), especially hydrogen-utilizing SRB, possessed high activity compared with methane-producing bacteria (MPB). Conversely, the acetate-utilizing activity of MPB was superior to SRB in the second stage of the reactor. The two-stage UASB-DHS system can reduce power consumption by 95% and excess sludge by 98%. In addition, it is possible to prevent emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as methane, using this system. Furthermore, recovered methane from the two-stage UASB can completely cover the electricity needs for the operation of the two-stage UASB-DHS system, accounting for approximately 15% of the electricity used in the natural rubber manufacturing process. PMID:27120630

  8. Exergy and energy analysis of three stage auto refrigerating cascade system using Zeotropic mixture for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zeotropic mixture of R290/R23/R14 works with 22.6% increased exergic efficiency. • Zeotropic mixture of mass fraction 0.218:0.346:0.436 offers COP of 0.253. • Since emphasis on COP, evaporating temperature 0.253 COP became the only alternate. • This is the only alternate refrigerant mixture for three stage ARC system at −97 °C. - Abstract: The Zeotropic mixture of environment friendly refrigerants (HC’s and HFC’s) being the only alternatives for working fluid in low temperature refrigeration system and hence three stage auto refrigerating cascade (ARC) system was studied for the existence using two combinations of (R290/R23/R14, R1270/R170/R14) three component Zeotropic mixture of five different refrigerants. The exergy analysis confirmed the existence of three stage ARC system. The performances of the system like Coefficient of Performance (COP), exergy lost, exergic efficiency, efficiency defect and the evaporating temperature achieved were investigated for different mass fractions in order to verify the effect of mass fraction on them. In accordance with the environmental issues and the process of sustainable development, the three component Zeotropic mixture of R290/R23/R14 with the mass fraction of 0.218:0.346:0.436 was performing better and hence can be suggested as an alternative refrigerant for three stage ARC system operating at very low evaporating temperature in the range of 176 K (−97 °C) at COP of 0.253 with 58.5% exergic efficiency (comparatively 22.6% increased value)

  9. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume. PMID:20390881

  10. Testing of polyimide second-stage rod seals for single-state applications in advanced aircraft hydraulic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    Machined polyimide second-stage rod seals were evaluated to determine their suitability for single-stage applications where full system pressure acts on the upstream side of the seal. The 6.35-cm (2.5-in.) K-section seal was tested in impulse screening tests where peak pressure was increased in 3.448-MPa (500-psi) increments each 20,000 cycles. Seal failure occurred at 37.92 MPa (5,500 psi), indicating a potential for acceptability in a 27.58-MPa (4,000-psi) system. Static pressurization for 600 sec at pressures in excess of 10.34 MPa (1,500 psi) revealed structural inadequacy of the seal cross section to resist fracture and extrusion. Endurance testing showed the seals capable of at least 65,000 1.27-cm (0.5-in.) cycles at 450 K (350 F) without leakage. It was concluded that the second-stage seals were proven to be exceptional in the 1.379-MPa (200-psi) applications for which they were designed, but polyimide material properties are not adequate for use in this design at pressure loading equivalent to that present in single-stage applications.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes using an annealing control primer system in stage III serous ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed with advanced stage disease (i.e., stage III-IV), which is associated with a poor prognosis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in stage III serous ovarian carcinoma compared to normal tissue were screened by a new differential display method, the annealing control primer (ACP) system. The potential targets for markers that could be used for diagnosis and prognosis, for stage III serous ovarian cancer, were found by cluster and survival analysis. The ACP-based reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) technique was used to identify DEGs in patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma. The DEGs identified by the ACP system were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of the expression profile produced by quantitative real-time PCR and survival analysis was carried out by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards multivariate model; the results of gene expression were compared between chemo-resistant and chemo-sensitive groups. A total of 114 DEGs were identified by the ACP-based RT PCR technique among patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma. The DEGs associated with an apoptosis inhibitory process tended to be up-regulated clones while the DEGs associated with immune response tended to be down-regulated clones. Cluster analysis of the gene expression profile obtained by quantitative real-time PCR revealed two contrasting groups of DEGs. That is, a group of genes including: SSBP1, IFI6 DDT, IFI27, C11orf92, NFKBIA, TNXB, NEAT1 and TFG were up-regulated while another group of genes consisting of: LAMB2, XRCC6, MEF2C, RBM5, FOXP1, NUDCP2, LGALS3, TMEM185A, and C1S were down-regulated in most patients. Survival analysis revealed that the up-regulated genes such as DDAH2, RNase K and TCEAL2 might be associated with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the prognosis of patients with chemo-resistance was predicted to be very poor when genes such

  12. Correlation of immunoglobulin G expression and histological subtype and stage in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokai Yang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recently, growing evidence indicates that immunoglobulins (Igs are not only produced by mature B lymphocytes or plasma cells, but also by various normal cells types at immune privileged sites and neoplasm, including breast cancer. However, the association of breast cancer derived IgG with genesis and development of the disease has not yet been established. METHODS: In this study we examined the expression of IgG in 186 breast cancers, 20 benign breast lesions and 30 normal breast tissues. Both immunohistochemistry with antibodies to Igκ (immunoglobulin G κ light chain and Igγ (immunoglobulin G heavy chain and in situ hybridization with an antisense probe to IgG1 heavy chain constant region gene were performed. Various clinicopathological features were also analyzed. RESULTS: We found that IgG is specifically expressed in human breast cancer cells. Both infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma had significantly greater numbers of Igκ and Igγ positive cancer cells as compared with medullary carcinoma, carcinoma in situ, and benign lesions (all p<0.05. In addition, IgG expression was correlated with breast cancer histological subtypes (p<0.01 and AJCC stages (p<0.05, with more abundance of IgG expression in more malignant histological subtypes or in more advanced stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: IgG expression in breast cancer cells is correlated with malignancy and AJCC stages of the cancers. This suggests that breast cancer derived IgG may be associated with genesis, development and prognosis of the cancer.

  13. A mathematical model for predicting the performance of the solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system, with one-rotor six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The desiccant wheels used honeycombed silica gel six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system was studied. • The mathematical model has been validated with the experimental data. • The optimal rotation speed increases with increasing the inlet temperature of the regeneration air. - Abstract: A mathematical model for predicting the performance of solar energy assisted hybrid air conditioning system (SEAHACS) is presented. The honeycombed silica gel desiccant wheel is used in this study. One-rotor six-stage rotary desiccant cooling system, (two-stage dehumidification process, two-stage pre-cooling process and two-stage regeneration process) are realized by only one wheel. Three air streams are involved in the present system. The mathematical model has been validated with the experimental data. The range of regeneration air inlet temperature changed from 65 to 140 °C, area ratio of process air to regeneration air change from 1 to 3.57, regeneration air inlet velocity from 1.5 to 5.5 m/s have been examined for a range of rotation speed from 6 to 20 rev/h. The optimization of these parameters is conducted based on the moisture removal capacity D, relative moisture removal capacity, dehumidification coefficient of performance and thermal coefficient of performance. At last, the influences of these main parameters on optimal rotation speed are discussed

  14. Complementary system for monitoring and control of neutron flux during a fuel outage and during reactor start up stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is an example for that, how with modern technical instruments is possible to compensate disadvantage and to increase technical resources of the old systems, without a change of given system totally with new one. The system detail design and implementation was possible mostly, due to the international conferences and courses organised by IAEA and technical information provided by the agency. The designed system plays a role of complementary system to the in-situ operational systems for monitoring and control of the reactor core neutron flux, allowing its measurement and control during a fuel outage and during reactor start up stage. Additionally, the system recalculates the reactivity in beta units and according to its value the reactor criticality fixed up reactivity is defined. (author)

  15. Two-stage sample-to-answer system based on nucleic acid amplification approach for detection of malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Nam, Jeonghun; Kim, Sangho; Lim, Chwee Teck; Park, Mi Kyoung; Shin, Yong

    2016-08-15

    Rapid, early, and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for effective disease management and surveillance, and can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Although significant advances have been achieved for the diagnosis of malaria, these technologies are still far from ideal, being time consuming, complex and poorly sensitive as well as requiring separate assays for sample processing and detection. Therefore, the development of a fast and sensitive method that can integrate sample processing with detection of malarial infection is desirable. Here, we report a two-stage sample-to-answer system based on nucleic acid amplification approach for detection of malaria parasites. It combines the Dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)/Thin film Sample processing (DTS) technique as a first stage and the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer-Isothermal solid-phase DNA Amplification (MZI-IDA) sensing technique as a second stage. The system can extract DNA from malarial parasites using DTS technique in a closed system, not only reducing sample loss and contamination, but also facilitating the multiplexed malarial DNA detection using the fast and accurate MZI-IDA technique. Here, we demonstrated that this system can deliver results within 60min (including sample processing, amplification and detection) with high sensitivity (malaria in low-resource settings. PMID:27031184

  16. A Two-Stage Kalman Filter Approach for Robust and Real-Time Power System State Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinghe; Welch, Greg; Bishop, Gary; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-04-01

    As electricity demand continues to grow and renewable energy increases its penetration in the power grid, realtime state estimation becomes essential for system monitoring and control. Recent development in phasor technology makes it possible with high-speed time-synchronized data provided by Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). In this paper we present a two-stage Kalman filter approach to estimate the static state of voltage magnitudes and phase angles, as well as the dynamic state of generator rotor angles and speeds. Kalman filters achieve optimal performance only when the system noise characteristics have known statistical properties (zero-mean, Gaussian, and spectrally white). However in practice the process and measurement noise models are usually difficult to obtain. Thus we have developed the Adaptive Kalman Filter with Inflatable Noise Variances (AKF with InNoVa), an algorithm that can efficiently identify and reduce the impact of incorrect system modeling and/or erroneous measurements. In stage one, we estimate the static state from raw PMU measurements using the AKF with InNoVa; then in stage two, the estimated static state is fed into an extended Kalman filter to estimate the dynamic state. Simulations demonstrate its robustness to sudden changes of system dynamics and erroneous measurements.

  17. Determination of the archaeal and bacterial communities in two-phase and single-stage anaerobic systems by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspolim, Yogananda; Zhou, Yan; Guo, Chenghong; Xiao, Keke; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-10-01

    2-Phase anaerobic digestion (AD), where the acidogenic phase was operated at 2day hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the methanogenic phase at 10days HRT, had been evaluated to determine if it could provide higher organic reduction and methane production than the conventional single-stage AD (also operated at 12days HRT). 454 pyrosequencing was performed to determine and compare the microbial communities. The acidogenic reactor of the 2-phase system yielded a unique bacterial community of the lowest richness and diversity, while bacterial profiles of the methanogenic reactor closely followed the single-stage reactor. All reactors were predominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, mainly Methanolinea. Unusually, the acidogenic reactor contributed up to 24% of total methane production in the 2-phase system. This could be explained by the presence of Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter, and their activities could also help regulate reactor alkalinity during high loading conditions through carbon dioxide production. The enrichment of hydrolytic and acidogenic Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Bacteroidetes in the acidogenic reactor would have contributed to the improved sludge volatile solids degradation, and ultimately the overall 2-phase system's performance. Syntrophic acetogenic microorganisms were absent in the acidogenic reactor but present in the downstream methanogenic reactor, indicating the retention of various metabolic pathways also found in a single-stage system. The determination of key microorganisms further expands our understanding of the complex biological functions in AD process. PMID:26456614

  18. Combined intra-arterial infusion and systemic chemoradiotherapy for stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to show the effectiveness of combining intra-arterial infusion and systemic chemotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy for treatment of stage IV mandibular gingival cancer. A total of 23 patients with mandibular gingival cancer were treated with either docetaxel by intra-arterial infusion followed by systemic chemoradiotherapy with cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil as a monthly regimen, or with docetaxel and cisplatinum by intra-arterial infusion followed by systemic chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil as a weekly or biweekly regimen. Tumor responses, locoregional control, overall survival, disease-specific survival, and adverse events were evaluated. Of the 23 patients enrolled in the study, 22 completed the treatment. With regard to clinical stages, 82% were diagnosed as IVA and 18% IVB. Complete and partial response was observed in 82 and 18%, respectively. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and locoregional control were 51, 70, and 72%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was seen between the monthly regimen and the weekly plus biweekly regimen, although the latter resulted in longer survival and 88% control. Combined intra-arterial infusion and systemic chemoradiotherapy may be an effective treatment for patients with stage IV mandibular gingival cancer. (author)

  19. Two-stage open-loop velocity compensating method applied to multi-mass elastic transmission system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Deli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel vibration-suppression open-loop control method for multi-mass system is proposed, which uses two-stage velocity compensating algorithm and fuzzy I + P controller. This compensating method is based on model-based control theory in order to provide a damping effect on the system mechanical part. The mathematical model of multi-mass system is built and reduced to estimate the velocities of masses. The velocity difference between adjacent masses is calculated dynamically. A 3-mass system is regarded as the composition of two 2-mass systems in order to realize the two-stage compensating algorithm. Instead of using a typical PI controller in the velocity compensating loop, a fuzzy I + P controller is designed and its input variables are decided according to their impact on the system, which is different from the conventional fuzzy PID controller designing rules. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed velocity compensating method is effective in suppressing vibration on a 3-mass system and it has a better performance when the designed fuzzy I + P controller is utilized in the control system.

  20. History of the Phoenix VTOL SSTO and recent developments in single-stage launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    The history of the VTOL SSTO (single stage to orbit) concept and the Phoenix designs is reviewed. The role the Phoenix concept played in stimulating consideration of the SSTO approach by the U.S. Government in ongoing SSTO concept studies is also discussed. It is pointed out that these studies are currently expected to lead to prototype hardware development aimed at demonstrating the SSTO approach by 1995-1997 in the form of the McDonnell-Douglas DC-Y.

  1. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes. PMID:26931536

  2. Multi-stage diffused bubble aeration system for the removal of volatile organics and radon--A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community acceptance of a water treatment plant project in the 1990's is just as important as the technical performance of the equipment. The low profile of the multi-stage diffused bubble aeration system, as well as the technical performance of this equipment, provides the perfect solution for water treatment facilities that are constructed in residential areas. This case history involves the installation of a multi-stage diffused bubble system in a residential neighborhood in New Jersey without compromising any of the aesthetic qualities. As a result of a routine monitoring program, low levels of trichloroethylene were detected in the outcrop area. At the same time, routine analysis for radon in the source of supplies indicated that the wells located in the outcrop area showed levels of radon between 800 and 1,150 picoCuries per liter

  3. Improving the performance of fluidized bed biomass/waste gasifiers for distributed electricity: A new three-stage gasification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods to increase the conversion of char and tar in fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) are discussed, with the focus on small to medium-size biomass/waste gasifiers for power production (from 0.5 to 10 MWe). Optimization of such systems aims at (i) maximizing energy utilization of the fuel (maximizing char conversion), (ii) minimizing secondary treatment of the gas (by avoiding complex tar cleaning), and (iii) application in small biomass-to-electricity gasification plants. The efficiency of various measures to increase tar and char conversion within a gasification reactor (primary methods) is discussed. The optimization of FBG by using in-bed catalysts, by addition of steam and enriched air as gasification agent, and by secondary-air injection, although improving the process, is shown to be insufficient to attain the gas purity required for burning the gas in an engine to produce electricity. Staged gasification is identified as the only method capable of reaching the targets mentioned above with reasonable simplicity and cost, so it is ideal for power production. A promising new stage gasification process is presented. It is based on three stages: FB devolatilization, non-catalytic air/steam reforming of the gas coming from the devolatilizer, and chemical filtering of the gas and gasification of the char in a moving bed supplied with the char generated in the devolatilizer. Design considerations and comparison with one-stage FBG are discussed. - Highlights: ► Optimization of fluidized bed biomass gasifiers is reviewed. ► The effectiveness of primary measures for tar and char conversion for small/medium scale units are discussed. ► Feasible measures for adjusting operation of fluidized bed gasifiers are assessed. ► A new three-staged-fluidized-bed gasification system for biomasses and wastes is proposed.

  4. A comparison of uterine papillary serous, clear cell carcinomas, and grade 3 endometrioid corpus cancers using 2009 FIGO staging system

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ha-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to compare survival outcomes of patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) or clear cell carcinoma (CC) to those of patients with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) according to 1988 and 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging systems. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients with endometrial cancer treated at a single institution between 1995 and 2009. Among the 647 patients with endometrial cancer, 5...

  5. United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Allan J.; Foley, Robert N; Gilbertson, David T.; Chen, Shu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) began in 1989 through US Congressional authorization under National Institutes of Health competitive contracting. Its history includes five contract periods, two of 5 years, two of 7.5 years, and the fifth, awarded in February 2014, of 5 years. Over these 25 years, USRDS reporting transitioned from basic incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), modalities, and overall survival, as well as focused special studies on dialysis, in th...

  6. Matrix System for Provision of Performance Characteristics of Gte Heavy-Duty parts at the Design Stage of Technological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.; Eroshkov, V. Yu

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights the methods to assign technological conditions for machining providing the required performance characteristics due to control of quality parameters of a surface layer and machining accuracy. Assignment of technological conditions for machining is performed at the design stage of technological conditions in accordance with the methods developed based on the matrix system of analysis and computation of groups of technological and operational factors.

  7. Gastric Stump Cancer: More Than Just Another Proximal Gastric Cancer and Demanding a More Suitable TNM Staging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa-Pinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Considerable controversy persists about the biological behavior of gastric stump cancer (GSC. The aim of this study is to clarify if this cancer is just another proximal gastric cancer or if it emerges as a distinctive clinicopathologic entity. Methods. This review of a prospectively collected gastric cancer database identified 73 patients with GSC in a single institution between January 1980 and June 2012 and compared them with 328 patients with proximal gastric cancer (PGC and 291 patients with esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC. Results. Patients with GSC were predominantly males. Eighty-three percent of GSC penetrated the subserosal or the serosal layers. The median number of lymph nodes retrieved in GSC patients was significantly lower than in PGC patients or in EGJC patients. Cumulative survival curves were not different between GSC, PGC, or EGJC patients. Unlike that observed in PGC and in EGJC, no significant differences in cumulative survival according to the TNM staging system were observed in GSC cases. Conclusions. The outcome of patients with GSC displayed significant differences when compared to those with other proximal gastric cancers concerning the lack of survival association with the TNM staging system. Therefore a more suitable staging system should be designed for these unique cancers.

  8. Applicability of the BCLC staging system to patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea: analysis at a single center with a liver transplant center

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Han Chu; Kim, Kang Mo; Lim, Young-Suk; Chung, Young-Hwa; Lee, Yung Sang; Suh, Dong Jin

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is logical for the staging and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because it was based on survival data. This study evaluated the applicability of the BCLC staging system and reasons for divergence from BCLC-recommended treatments in Korean HCC patients. Methods One hundred and sixty consecutive HCC patients were prospectively enrolled. Treatments were generally recommended according to the guideline of the Ameri...

  9. GRID-CONNECTECD DOUBLE-STAGE AC-AC POWER CONVERTER FOR CSP RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sorrentino, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the renewable energy sources have known a state of their advanced diffusion considering their advantages compared to the traditional energy sources like fossil fuels. For this reason the combined heat and power (CHP) plant fueled by renewable sources are widely used. The purpose of this Ph.D. thesis is the design of a new Grid-connected Double-Stage AC-DC/DC-AC Power Converter (DSACPC) for a Concentrating Solar plant for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CS-CHP), th...

  10. Silicon concentrator cells in a two-stage photovoltaic system with a concentration factor of 300x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, A.

    2005-06-15

    In this work a rear contacted silicon concentrator cell was developed for an application in a two stage concentrator photovoltaic system. This system was developed at Fraunhofer ISE some years ago. The innovation of this one-axis tracked system is that it enables a high geometrical concentration of 300x in combination with a high optical efficiency (around 78%) and a large acceptance angle of {+-}23.5 all year through. For this, the system uses a parabolic mirror (40.4x) and a three dimensional second stage consisting of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs, 7.7x). For the concentrator concept and particularly for an easy cell integration, the rear line contacted concentrator (RLCC) cells with a maximum efficiency of 25% were developed and a hybrid mounting concept for the RLCC cells is presented. The optical performance of different CPC materials was tested and analysed in this work. Finally, small modules consisting of six series interconnected RLCC cells and six CPCs were integrated into the concentrator system and tested outdoor. A system efficiency of 16.2% was reached at around 800 W/m2 direct irradiance under realistic outdoor conditions. (orig.)

  11. The Evolution of the Local and System Therapy of Breast Cancer Stage I: 27-Years’s Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyadina I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the dynamics of approaches in surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and systemic therapy for breast cancer stage I over the past 27 years. Materials and Methods. In the study included 1341 women (aged 21–88 years with invasive breast cancer stage I, who had received treatment in N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center and Clinic of RMAPE (Moscow from 1985 to 2012. The first stage of treatment for all the patients included radical surgery (43.5% patients — radical mastectomy; and 56.5% — breast-conserving surgery. More than half of the patients (58.9% received adjuvant radiotherapy; adjuvant systemic therapy was used in 821 patients (61.0%, endocrine therapy alone — in the third of patients (432 women, 32.1%, chemotherapy alone — in 124 women (9.2%, and 526 patients (19.7% received a combined systemic therapy (chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. We analyzed the change of approach to the surgical treatment, adjuvant radiotherapy and systemic therapy from 1985 to 2012. A statistical analysis was made by international statistical program SPSS 20.0. Results. Over the past 27 years local treatment structure of stage I breast cancer has changed: radiotherapy has become an indispensible part of breast conserving therapy, and was added by “boost” (radiotherapy with a dose of 14–16 Gy on tumor bed by a half of women (50.3%. The part of patients who received radiotherapy after radical mastectomy has decreased (from 14.6 to 4.5%, p < 0.05. Adjuvant systemic therapy has been used by the majority of women (86.7%: a part of patients receiving endocrine therapy has significantly increased (from 20.7 to 44.3%, chemotherapy (from 2.6 to 13.6%, or chemo-hormone therapy (from 8.4 to 28.8%, p < 0.05. Chemotherapy regimens have been changed: non-anthracycline combinations are used instead of anthracycline regimens, and after 2005 — taxanes. HER2-status detection has been used in clinical practice since 2000, and

  12. Development of hydrogen pellet acceleration system using a two-stage light gas gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen pellets without sabots were accelerated to high speeds using a two-stage light gas gun for Heliotron-E. The primary application of this technology is plasma fueling of fusion devices. Conventional pellet injectors have limited pellet speeds in the range of 1-2km/s. Higher velocities are desirable for more flexible density profile control and for deep penetration into a high temperature plasma. By developing a new fast valve with high conductance to accelerate the piston and other components, a 2 mm-diam hydrogen pellet with a velocity of 3.2km/s has been successfully accelerated without a sabot. The pipe gun technique for freezing hydrogen isotopes in the gun barrel was used. The fundamanetal operation is simulated with the code MYKE developed by KSL. Development of new pistons instead of the plastic piston for the repetitive two-stage pellet injector is being carried out, using metal and ceramic, as the surface of the plastic piston tends to wear out through repetitive operation and also, carbon powder produced from the plastic piston may cause trouble with the fusion device. The equipment, operation of the device, experimental results will be presented in this paper

  13. Oil Migration on Single and Two Stage Heat Pump Systems (Calibration Tests and Process Design Phase 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Michele; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    The subject of this project is to develop a high performance air water heat pump which is able to be introducted in the retrofit market. The system requirements of this market are heating temperatures of 65°C, at ambient temperatures descending until -12°C. To provide higher base performance ratings, the choice of the thermodynamic system is a two stage heat pump with economizer exchanger. This type of heat pump has improved performances over a large range of application. For heat output adju...

  14. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  15. Optimal analysis of gas cooler and intercooler for two-stage CO2 trans-critical refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simplified model for tube-fin gas cooler for CO2 refrigeration system was presented and validated. • Several parameters were investigated using 1st law and 2nd law in component and system level. • Practical guidelines of optimum for tube-fin gas cooler and intercooler were proposed. - Abstract: Energy-based 1st law and exergy-based 2nd law are both employed in the paper to assess the optimal design of gas cooler and intercooler for two-stage CO2 refrigeration system. A simplified mathematical model of the air-cooled coil is presented and validated against experimental data with good accuracy. The optimum circuit length under the influence of frontal air velocity and deep rows is investigated first. Thereafter, designed coil with optimum circuit length is further evaluated within the two-stage refrigeration system. It is found out the optimum point using 1st law does not coincide with the point using 2nd law in isolated component and the simulation results from isolated component by 2nd law are closer to system analysis. Results show optimum circuit length is much bigger for gas cooler than intercooler and the influence on the length from variation of frontal air velocity and deep rows may be neglected. There does exist optimum frontal air velocity which will decrease with more number of deep rows

  16. Comparison of bacterial communities of conventional and A-stage activated sludge systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Lotti, T.; Garcia-Ruiz, M.J.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of 10 different wastewater treatment systems and their influents has been investigated through pyrosequencing, yielding a total of 283486 reads. These bioreactors had different technological configurations: conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and very highly

  17. A pilot study of dentists' assessment of caries detection and staging systems applied to early caries: PEARL Network findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Van P; Schenkel, Andrew B; Penugonda, Bapanaiah; Wolff, Mark S; Zeller, Gregory G; Wu, Hongyu; Vena, Don; Grill, Ashley C; Curro, Frederick A

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) and the Caries Classification System (CCS) are caries stage description systems proposed for adoption into clinical practice. This pilot study investigated clinicians' training in and use of these systems for detection of early caries and recommendations for individual tooth treatment. Patient participants (N = 8) with a range of noncavitated lesions (CCS ranks 2 and 4 and ICDAS II ranks 2-4) identified by a team of calibrated examiners were recruited from the New York University College of Dentistry clinic. Eighteen dentists-8 from the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network and 10 recruited from the Academy of General Dentistry-were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 5 dentists used only visual-tactile (VT) examination, 7 were trained in the ICDAS II, and 6 were trained in the CCS. Lesion stage for each tooth was determined by the ICDAS II and CCS groups, and recommended treatment was decided by all groups. Teeth were assessed both with and without radiographs. Caries was detected in 92.7% (95% CI, 88%-96%) of the teeth by dentists with CCS training, 88.8% (95% CI, 84%-92%) of the teeth by those with ICDAS II training, and 62.3% (95% CI, 55%-69%) of teeth by the VT group. Web-based training was acceptable to all dentists in the CCS group (6 of 6) but fewer of the dentists in the ICDAS II group (5 of 7). The modified CCS translated clinically to more accurate caries detection, particularly compared to detection by untrained dentists (VT group). Moreover, the CCS was more accepted than was the ICDAS II, but dentists in both groups were open to the application of these systems. Agreement on caries staging requires additional training prior to a larger validation study. PMID:27148652

  18. Influence of maintenance policies on multi-stage manufacturing systems in dynamic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Renna, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Manufacturing systems are subject to a degradation process that leads to machine failures if no actions are taken. Machine failures decrease the performance of the manufacturing system with loss of profits. The research proposed concerns the evaluation of the manufacturing system performance in dynamic conditions when different maintenance policies are implemented in a multi-machines manufacturing system controlled by Multi Agent Architecture. There are two extreme mainten...

  19. Hydrogen Isotope Separation Factor Measurement for Single Stage Hydrogen Separators and Parameters for a Large-Scale Separation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Concept design for large-scale hydrogen ISS based on a single Pd alloy membrane separator cascade has been presented. Separators to investigate the feasibility of the Pd membrane separator cascade concept have been designed and the separation performance of the separators is given. Results show that the separation factors, which are between 1.4 and 1.8 at the operation temperature, are large enough for a practical separation system design. Estimation results indicate that a 2.0m2 Pd membrane is needed for a 20mol/h and 12 stages batch ISS, and an approximately 50m2 Pd membrane is needed for a 200mol/h and 26 stages ISS. It is clear that the separator cascade concept is both reasonable and practicable for large-scale hydrogen isotope separation

  20. A Two-Stage State Recognition Method for Asynchronous SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zimu; DENG Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    A two-stage state recognition method is proposed for asynchronous SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential) based brain-computer interface (SBCI) system.The two-stage method is composed of the idle state (IS) detection and control state (CS) discrimination modules.Based on blind source separation and continuous wavelet transform techniques,the proposed method integrates functions of multi-electrode spatial filtering and feature extraction.In IS detection module,a method using the ensemble IS feature is proposed.In CS discrimination module,the ensemble CS feature is designed as feature vector for control intent classification.Further,performance comparisons are investigated among our IS detection module and other existing ones.Also the experimental results validate the satisfactory performance of our CS discrimination module.

  1. Periodic solutions of a nonautonomous predator-prey system with stage structure and time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2006-11-01

    A nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model with stage structure and time delays is investigated. It is assumed in the model that the individuals in each species may belong to one of two classes: the immatures and the matures, the age to maturity is presented by a time delay, and that the immature predators do not feed on prey and do not have the ability to reproduce. By some comparison arguments we first discuss the permanence of the model. By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of positive periodic solutions to the model. By means of a suitable Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions are obtained for the uniqueness and global stability of the positive periodic solutions to the model.

  2. Prognostic Impact of Erythropoietin Expression and Erythropoietin Receptor Expression on Locoregional Control and Survival of Patients Irradiated for Stage II/III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prognostic factors can guide the physician in selecting the optimal treatment for an individual patient. This study investigates the prognostic value of erythropoietin (EPO) and EPO receptor (EPO-R) expression of tumor cells for locoregional control and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Fourteen factors were investigated in 62 patients irradiated for stage II/III NSCLC, as follows: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), histology, grading, TNM/American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, surgery, chemotherapy, pack years (average number of packages of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked), smoking during radiotherapy, hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy, EPO expression, and EPO-R expression. Additionally, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R were compared to those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and to those expressing neither EPO nor EPO-R. Results: On univariate analysis, improved locoregional control was associated with AJCC stage II cancer (p 70 (p = 0.08), an N stage of 0 to 1 (p = 0.07), and no EPO-R expression (p = 0.10). On multivariate analysis, AJCC stage II and no EPO expression remained significant. No smoking during radiotherapy was almost significant. On univariate analysis, improved survival was associated with N stage 0 to 1 (p = 0.009), surgery (p = 0.039), hemoglobin levels of ≥12 g/d (p = 0.016), and no EPO expression (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, N stage 0 to 1 and no EPO expression maintained significance. Hemoglobin levels of ≥12 g/d were almost significant. On subgroup analyses, patients with tumors expressing both EPO and EPO-R had worse outcomes than those expressing either EPO or EPO-R and those expressing neither EPO nor RPO-R. Conclusions: EPO expression of tumor cells was an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control and survival in patients irradiated for NSCLC. EPO-R expression showed a trend

  3. Prognostic Impact of the 6th and 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Staging Systems on Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The new 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system is based on pathologic data from esophageal cancers treated by surgery alone. There is no information available on evaluation of the new staging system with regard to prognosis of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the new staging system on esophageal cancer patients treated with CRT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 301 consecutive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with CRT. Comparisons were made of the prognostic impacts of the 6th and 7th staging systems and the prognostic impacts of stage and prognostic groups, which were newly defined in the 7th edition. Results: There were significant differences between Stages I and III (p < 0.01) according to both editions. However, the 7th edition poorly distinguishes the prognoses of Stages III and IV (p = 0.36 by multivariate analysis) in comparison to the 6th edition (p = 0.08 by multivariate analysis), although these differences were not significant. For all patients, T, M, and gender were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For the Stage I and II prognostic groups, survival curves showed a stepwise decrease with increase in stage, except for Stage IIA. However, there were no significant differences seen between each prognostic stage. Conclusions: Our study indicates there are several problems with the 7th TNM staging system regarding prognostic factors in patients undergoing CRT.

  4. Post-Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Using A Two-Stage Fluidized Bed Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Hossein Safari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran. The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage. Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L and chlorine (1 mg/L were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5–10 m/h, about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination.

  5. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Golam Hossein; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Zarrabi, Mansur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5-10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination. PMID:24499570

  6. Experimental validation of a method for performance monitoring of the impurity processing stage in the TEP system of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) system within the Tritium Plant of ITER needs to be designed such that tritium is recovered from all exhaust gases produced during different modes and operational conditions of the vacuum vessel. The reference process for the TEP system of ITER is called CAPER and comprises three different, consecutive steps to recover hydrogen isotopes at highest purity for direct transfer to the cryogenic Isotope Separation system. The second step ('impurity processing', IP) is carried out in a closed loop involving heterogeneously catalyzed cracking or conversion reactions to liberate tritium from tritiated hydrocarbons or tritiated water combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through a Pd/Ag permeator. This combination shifts chemical equilibria towards dehydrogenation and, therefore, enables detritiation factors higher than 1000 in the IP stage. Such a high decontamination factor requires the optimal performance of the permeator, which on the other hand is operated under conditions which provoke coking of the permeator membrane by hydrocarbon cracking. For this reason the permeator in the impurity processing loop needs to be repeatedly regenerated in order to sustain decontamination factors higher/in the order of 1000. At the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) a method to measure the actual performance of the second stage of the CAPER process has been developed. This method has been successfully tested with the CAPER facility and appears feasible for the TEP system of ITER

  7. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the 'stone sack' to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods

  8. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the `stone sack` to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods.

  9. The Next Stage of Devolution? A (D)evolving Criminal Justice System for Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Jackie Jones

    2008-01-01

    The coalition government in Wales has committed itself to seriously consider devolving the criminal justice system for Wales. It is seen as the next possible step in the devolution process. To some extent many of the structures for a devolved criminal justice system are already being put in place to support devolved policy making and provision of criminal justice services in Wales. However, the One Wales agreement proposes to place the most emphasis on a devolved criminal justice system on yo...

  10. New School Stages for Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James Hull

    A new and dynamic approach to auditorium stage design is presented. Contents include--(1) modified proscenium stage plan--a definition, (2) benefits of a modified proscenium stage plan, and (3) details of a modified proscenium stage plan--basic concepts, a typical layout, projection systems, and scenic design for space stage. (RH)

  11. In-place testing of multiple stage filter systems without disruption of plant operations in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility has a number of multiple-stage air-cleaning systems. These systems operate on a continuous basis and economic considerations require that shutting down of the ventilation systems due to in-place testing be kept to a minimum. Earlier methods of testing multiple-stage filter systems required scheduled shut down of the filter system. Methods such as injecting the test aerosol between the stages have proven costly because of the need to install temporary injection ducts and completely close off the ventilation from the process area. Also, additional personnel were needed to install and move injection and bypass ducts from one system to another. After considering these costly methods, current methods of testing were improved to prevent interruption of plant operations. The modified procedure uses a laser particle size spectrometer that has the capability of counting single particles downstream of two filter stages where decontamination factors of the first stage and overall system effectiveness is established. This procedure is similar to that of Nuclear Standard NEF 3-4IT, ''In-Place Testing of HEPA filter systems by the Single-Particle, Particle-Size Spectrometer Method.'' Decontamination factors of 109 are measured downstream of two stages. Particle size analyses of the challenge and the aerosol penetrating the first and second stages have been established. A cost estimation comparing two test methods show considerable savings in operational costs

  12. Developing Adaptive Systems at Early Stages of Children's Foreign Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Ana Belen Cumbreno; Garcia, Mercedes Rico; Fuentes, Alejandro Curado; Gomez, Eva Ma Dominguez

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of hypermedia adaptive systems for foreign language learners at an early age. Our research project is concerned with exploring the relationship between language learning and information technology according to six different phases: a preliminary study of the plausible adaptive system; the development of lessons…

  13. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  14. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact that...

  15. Numerical simulation of neptunium extraction behavior in co-decontamination stage for late split Purex system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation of neptunium concentration profiles is carried out in order to understand the extraction behavior of neptunium in the co-decontamination stage which decontaminate through two extraction banks before the uranium and plutonium partitioning steps. Simulation results show that leaking of neptunium to the waste stream at the second extraction bank is caused by reduction from Np(VI) to Np(V) unextracted by TBP in the presence of nitrous acid of 10-3 mol/l. It is found that the prevention of the reduction reaction from Np(VI) to Np(V) is effective for the recovery of neptunium with uranium and plutonium into the product stream. Two methods for the recovery of neptunium are suggested; i) to decrease residence time in the acid adjustment vessel located between first and second extraction banks, ii) to diminish nitrous acid in the aqueous phase by hydrazine. Simulation results show that the recovery of neptunium with uranium and plutonium is improved from 40 to 60% and from 40 to 70% by the first and the second methods, respectively. (author)

  16. Chromium-induced modulation in the antioxidant defense system during phenological growth stages of Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Chromium-induced modulation in the enzymes and metabolites of antioxidants was investigated at various phenological stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. cv Pusa Jai Kisan)], grown with various levels of chromium (Cr) in pots under natural environmental conditions. Chromium accumulation in the root, stem and leaves increased with the advancement in the age of the plants. Growth of Indian mustard was not affected significantly by the supply of Cr up to the levels of 400 mg kg(-1) soil. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxide (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in the leaves of Cr-treated plants, when compared with control. High activities of antioxidant enzymes supported by high Cr concentrations in roots and aerial parts (except seeds) established the Indian mustard as a potential hyperaccumulator anda hypertolerant species to Cr stress. For this study, an edible crop was chosen intentionally so as to tap maximum benefit by remediating the contaminated site on one hand and getting uncontaminated seeds to raise the next generation, on the other. PMID:20734612

  17. Optimum performance analysis of a two-stage irreversible magnetization Brayton refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage magnetization Brayton refrigeration cycle model using a paramagnetic material as the working substance is established, in which the regeneration and the irreversibility in the adiabatic processes are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a paramagnetic material, the expressions of some important parameters such as the coefficient of performance, refrigeration load and work input are derived and used to analyse the performance characteristics of the refrigeration cycle. The influence of the inter-magnetization process, irreversibility in the adiabatic processes and regeneration on the performance of the cycle is discussed in detail. The advantage of adding the inter-magnetization process is expounded and the magnetic field ratio related to the inter-magnetization process is optimized. Moreover, the optimal values of the temperatures of the working substance at different state points and the optimally operating region of the cycle are determined. The results obtained here are compared with those derived from some relevant magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycles, and consequently, some significant conclusions are obtained

  18. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients

  19. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joan Young; Hwang, Ji Hye; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients.

  20. Judicial Reform of the 1864 as a Stage of Russian Judicial System Democratic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov F. Miloserdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author considers the place of judicial reform of 1864 in the public and social reforms of Alexander II. This paper attempts to show the place of justice in the legal system of Russian Empire in the post-reform period. Author emphasizes democratic and progressive nature of judicial reform of 1864, noting lack of preconditions for the formation of democratic judicial system under the autocracy. Author analyzes relationship and development of the judicial system and the dynamics of social relations. Author also revealed the way of judicial system in the formation of civil society prerequisites. This paper attempts to show and prove that judicial reform is actually a first step towards the formation of the Russian system of powers separation. Author concludes that undertaken by the Government of Russian Empire in the mid-nineteenth century attempt of the Russian Empire judicial system democratization had neither political nor social assumptions. In conclusion, author concludes that in the present conditions of judicial system democratization in modern Russian Federation a number of principles and institutions of judicial reform of 1864 was applied.

  1. Research on the Power Recovery of Diesel Engines with Regulated Two-Stage Turbocharging System at Different Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovering the boost pressure is very important in improving the dynamic performance of diesel engines at high altitudes. A regulated two-stage turbocharging system is an adequate solution for power recovery of diesel engines. In the present study, the change of boost pressure and engine power at different altitudes was investigated, and a regulated two-stage turbocharging system was constructed with an original turbocharger and a matched low pressure turbocharger. The valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery, which formed the basis of the power recovery method, are presented here. The simulation results showed that this system was effective in recovering the boost pressure at different speeds and various altitudes. The turbine bypass valve and compressor bypass valve had different modes to adapt to changes in operating conditions. The boost pressure recovery could not ensure power recovery over the entire operating range of the diesel engine, because of variation in overall turbocharger efficiency. The fuel-injection compensation method along with the valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery was able to reach the power recovery target.

  2. A two-stage anaerobic system for biodegrading wastewater containing terephthalic acid and high strength easily degradable pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high strength easily biodegradable pollutants(represented by CODE) are strong inhibitors of terephthalic acid(TA) anaerobic biodegradation. At the same time, TA can inhibiteasily biodegradable pollutants removal under anaerobic conditionsto a limited extent. This mutual inhibition could happen and causea low removal efficiency of both TA and CODE, when the effluentfrom TA workshops containing TA and easily biodegradable pollutantsare treated by a single anaerobic reactor system. Based upon thetreatment kinetics analysis of both TA degradation and CODEremoval, a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and up-flowfixed film reactor(UASB-UAFF) system for dealing with this kind ofwastewater was developed and run successfully at laboratory scale.An UASB reactor with the methanogenic consortium as the first stageremoves the easily biodegradable pollutants(CODE). An UAFF reactor as the second stage is mainly in charge of TA degradation. At aHRT 18.5h, the CODE and TA removal rate of the system reached 89.2% and 71.6%, respectively.

  3. An embedded pair of method of orders 6(4) with 6 stages for special systems of ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olemskoy, I. V.; Eremin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    We construct here an embedded Dormand-Prince pair of explicit methods of orders 6 and 4 for systems of ordinary differential equations with special structure, namely with two parts, in which the right-hand sides are dependent only on the unknown functions from the other group. The number of stages is six, which is fewer than for general explicit Runge-Kutta methods. The comparison to Dormand-Prince method of the same computation cost is made showing the higher accuracy of the suggested method.

  4. The minimal stage, energy preserving Runge-Kutta method for polynomial Hamiltonian systems is the Averaged Vector Field method

    OpenAIRE

    Celledoni, Elena; Owren, Brynjulf; Sun, Yajuan

    2012-01-01

    No Runge-Kutta method can be energy preserving for all Hamiltonian systems. But for problems in which the Hamiltonian is a polynomial, the Averaged Vector Field (AVF) method can be interpreted as a Runge-Kutta method whose weights $b_i$ and abscissae $c_i$ represent a quadrature rule of degree at least that of the Hamiltonian. We prove that when the number of stages is minimal, the Runge-Kutta scheme must in fact be identical to the AVF scheme.

  5. New York State energy-analytic information system: first-stage implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.; Carroll, O.; Fiore, L.

    1979-09-01

    So that energy policy by state government may be formulated within the constraints imposed by policy determined at the national level - yet reflect the diverse interests of its citizens - large quantities of data and sophisticated analytic capabilities are required. This report presents the design of an energy-information/analytic system for New York State, the data for a base year, 1976, and projections of these data. At the county level, 1976 energy-supply demand data and electric generating plant data are provided as well. Data-base management is based on System 2000. Three computerized models provide the system's basic analytic capacity. The Brookhaven Energy System Network Simulator provides an integrating framework while a price-response model and a weather sensitive energy demand model furnished a short-term energy response estimation capability. The operation of these computerized models is described. 62 references, 25 figures, 39 tables.

  6. Exergy Assessment of Single Stage Solar Adsorption Refrigeration System Using ANN

    OpenAIRE

    Baiju, V.; C. Muraleedharan

    2012-01-01

    A new approach based on artificial intelligence is proposed here for the exergy assessment of solar adsorption refrigeration system working with activated carbon-methanol pair. Artificial neural network model is used for the prediction of exergy destruction and exergy efficiency of each component of the system. Pressure, temperature and solar insolation are used as input variables for developing the artificial neural network model. The back propagation algorithm with three different variants ...

  7. Planning and establishment of information system at the preliminary stage of a nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the practice of Hainan Nuclear Power Project, this paper analyses the urgent need of information system during the preliminary work of a nuclear power project, and presents the solution, i.e. near-term planning plus overall planning. Then the paper discusses how to implement management system at EPC mode, and puts forward the orientation and role of informationization in corporation management. (authors)

  8. Problems of heat sources modeling on stage of isolated power systems expansion planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to use computer codes for evaluation of possible applications and role of nuclear district heating plants in the local self-balancing power and heating systems, which are to be located in the remote isolated and hardly accessible regions in the Far North of Russia. Key factors in determining system configurations and its performances are: (1) interdependency of electricity, heat and fuel supply; (2) long distance between energy consumer centres (from several tens up to some hundred kilometers); and (3) difficulty in export and import of the electricity, especially the fuel in and from neighbouring and remote regions. The problem to challenge is to work out an optimum expansion plan of the local electricity and heat supply system. The ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) software package, which was developed by IAEA together with the USA Argonne National Laboratory, was chosen for this purpose. The Chaun-Bilibino power system (CBPS), an isolated power system in far North-East region of Russia, was selected as the first case of the ENPEP study. ENPEP allows a complex approach in the system expansion optimization planning in the time frame of planning period of up to 30 years. The key ENPEP module, ELECTRIC, considers electricity as the only product. The cogeneration part (heat production) must be considered outside the ELECTRIC model and then the results to be transfer ed to ELECTRIC. The ENPEP study on the Chaun-Bilibino isolated power system has shown that the modelling of the heat supply sources in ENPEP is not a trivial problem. It is very important and difficult to correctly represent specific features of cogeneration process at the same time. (author)

  9. Community analysis of ammonia oxidizer in the oxygen-limited nitritation stage of OLAND system by DGGE of PCR amplified 16S rDNA Fragments and FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dan; ZHANG De-min; LIU Yao-ping; CAO Wen-wei; CHEN Guan-xiong

    2004-01-01

    OLAND(oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification and denitrification) nitrogen removal system was constructed by coupling with oxygen limited nitritation stage and anaerobic ammonium oxidation stage. Ammonia oxidizer, as a kind of key bacteria in N cycle, plays an important role at the oxygen limited nitritation stage of OLAND nitrogen removal system. In this study, specific amplification of 16S rDNA fragment of ammonia oxidizer by nested PCR, separation of mixed PCR samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE), and the quantification of ammonia oxidizer by Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) were combined to investigate the shifts of community composition and quantity of ammonia oxidizer of the oxygen limited nitritation stage in OLAND system. It showed that the community composition of ammonia oxidizer changed drastically when dissolved oxygen was decreased gradually, and the dominant ammonia oxidizer of the steady nitrite accumulation stage were completely different from that of the early stage of oxygen limited nitritation identified by DGGE . It was concluded that the Nitrosomonas may be the dominant genus of ammonia oxidizer at the oxygen limited nitritation stage of OLAND system characterized by nested PCR-DGGE and FISH, and the percentage of Nitrosomonas was 72.5% ( 0.8% of ammonia oxidizer at the steady nitrite accumulation stage detected by FISH.

  10. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist of...... recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined...

  11. Advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite from municipal landfill leachate using a two-stage UASB-A/O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Wu; Yongzhen Peng; Xiao Shi; Chengyao Peng; Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anoxic/aerobic (A/O) reactor was used to treat municipal landfill leachate. Denitrification took place in the first stage of the UASB re-actor (UASB1). The chemical oxygen demand of the UASB1 effluent was further decreased in the second stage (UASB2). Nitrification was accomplished in the A/O reactor. When diluted with tap water at a ratio of 1:1, the ammonia nitrogen concentration of the influent leachate was approximately 1200 mg·L−1, whereas that of the system effluent was approximately 8–11 mg·L−1, and the corresponding removal efficiency is about 99.08%. Stable partial nitrification was achieved in the A/O reactor with 88.61%–91.58%of the nitrite accumula-tion ratio, even at comparatively low temperature (16 °C). The results demonstrate that free ammonia (FA) con-centrations within a suitable range exhibit a positive effect on partial nitrification. In this experiment when FA was within the 1–30 mg·L−1 range, partial nitrification could be achieved, whereas when FA exceeded 280 mg·L−1, the nitrification process was entirely inhibited. Temperature was not the key factor leading to par-tial nitrification within the 16–29 °C range. The inhibitory influence of free nitrous acid (FNA) on nitrification was also minimal when pH was greater than 8.5. Thus, FA concentration was a major factor in achieving partial nitrification.

  12. A predator-prey system with stage-structure for predator and nonlocal delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Z.G.; Pedersen, Michael; Zhang, Lai

    This paper deals with the behavior of solutions to the reaction-diffusion system under homogeneous Neumann boundary condition, which describes a prey-predator model with nonlocal delay. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of each equilibrium are derived by the Lyapunov functional and the...

  13. 77 FR 67449 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... information are critical to better understanding the quality of care beneficiaries receive, particularly a...; health care systems; and nurses. In this final rule, we provide a summary of each proposed provision, a... Statistics BMI Body Mass Index BSA Body Surface Area CAH Critical Access Hospital CBSA Core-Based...

  14. Artificial immune system and sheep flock algorithms for two-stage fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Devika; Govindan, Kannan; Soleimani, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    approaches are unable to solve real-world instances of such NP-hard problems in a reasonable time. These approaches involve cumbersome computational steps in real-size cases. In order to solve the mixed integer linear programming model, we develop an artificial immune system and a sheep flock algorithm to...

  15. Wind power integration studies using a multi-stage stochastic electricity system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Weber, C.

    A large share of integrated wind power causes technical and financial impacts on the operation of the existing electricity system due to the fluctuating behaviour and unpredictability of wind power. The presented stochastic electricity market model optimises the unit commitment considering four k...

  16. On the Performance of One Stage Massive Random Access Protocols in 5G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Pratas, Nuno; Jacobsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of cellular system is expected to experience a proliferation in the number of emerging use cases alongside supporting high speed mobile broadband services. Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC) catering to a large number of low-data rate, low-cost devices is such an emergi...

  17. Stages of vermicular cast iron properties modeling in the intelligent design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkova, K. V.; Petrovich, S. V.; Simonova, L. A.; Yusupov, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    This article presents the structure of intelligent system of the cast iron with vermicular graphite iron (CGI) design under the conditions of current production, the technique of the optimal process TP parameters of the production of CGI parts in the preparatory phase of production based on mental models is designed.

  18. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-11-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT) is one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. ELTs are built on top of a variety of highly sensitive and critical astronomical instruments. In particular, a new instrument called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used to drive the deformable mirror in real time from the measurements. A new numerical algorithm is proposed (1) to capture the actual experimental noise and (2) to substantially speed up previous implementations by exposing more concurrency, while reducing the number of floating-point operations. Based on the Matrices Over Runtime System at Exascale numerical library (MORSE), a dynamic scheduler drives all computational stages of the tomographic reconstruct or simulation and allows to pipeline and to run tasks out-of order across different stages on heterogeneous systems, while ensuring data coherency and dependencies. The proposed TR simulation outperforms asymptotically previous state-of-the-art implementations up to 13-fold speedup. At more than 50000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale AO problem submitted to computation, to date, and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Towards the Development of an M-Learning System: A New Stage to Enhance Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abou El-Seoud

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of high bandwidth wireless channels such as 3G-telecommunication infrastructure and wireless LAN, mobile learning (M-learning is becoming more feasible now. M-learning can be considered as an intersection of online learning and mobile computing. Through wireless devices (such as mobile telephones, Personal Digital Assistants - PDAs, tablet PC, and laptops and wireless applications, M-learning supports an integrated access to Web content and services in education anytime and anywhere. This paper describes the analysis, design, architecture, and experimental development of "Wireless Course Management System (WCMS", that provides a wireless access to course information content. The system allows the use of the wireless Web as a medium to administer, and deliver course content, to support wireless course management, tests and student wireless communications.

  20. Staged Deployment in Mirage, an Integrated Software Upgrade Testing and Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Crameri, Olivier; Knezevic, Nikola; Kostic, Dejan; Bianchini, Ricardo; Zwaenepoel, Willy

    2007-01-01

    Despite major advances in the engineering of maintainable and robust software over the years, upgrading software remains a primitive and error-prone activity. In this paper, we argue that several problems with upgrading software are caused by a poor integration between upgrade deployment, user-machine testing, and problem reporting. To support this argument, we present a characterization of softwareupgrades resulting from a survey we conducted of 50 system administrators. Motivated by the sur...

  1. SOLAR MULTI-STAGE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS BASED ON FILM TYPE HEAT-MASS EXCHANGE APPARATUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Дорошенко, О.В.; Антонова, А.Р.; Людницький, К.В.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the developed circuit solutions for alternative refrigeration systems based on the of heat-absorption cycle and solar energy utilization for regeneration (recovery) of the absorbent solution. Cascade principle of heat-mass exchange apparatuses construction was applied, of drying and cooling loops with varying of  temperature level and increasing  of absorbent concentration on the cascade steps. Film type heat and mass transfer equipment, which is the part of the drying and ...

  2. The role of renin angiotensin system intervention in stage B heart failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collier, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    This article outlines the link between the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and various forms of cardiomyopathy, and also reviews the understanding of the effectiveness of RAAS intervention in this phase of ventricular dysfunction. The authors focus their discussion predominantly on patients who have had previous myocardial infarction or those who have left ventricular hypertrophy and also briefly discuss the role of RAAS activation and intervention in patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the ascending stages of the auditory system in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Jan-Peter; Lüpke, Matthias; Dziallas, Peter; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Seifert, Hermann; Nolte, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique able to localize neural activity in the brain by detecting associated changes in blood flow. It is an essential tool for studying human functional neuroanatomy including the auditory system. There are only a few studies, however, using fMRI to study canine brain functions. In the current study ten anesthetized dogs were scanned during auditory stimulation. Two functional sequences, each in combination with a suitable stimu...

  4. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: survival and growth during the early stages

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmer Espinoza; Argenis Mora; Danni Guzman; Osmary Araque; Jaimez, Ramón E.; Wilmer Tezara

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, increased emphasis has been placed on diversifying the types of trees to shade cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and to achieve additional services. Agroforestry systems that include profitable and native timber trees are a viable alternative but it is necessary to understand the growth characteristics of these species under different environmental conditions. Thus, timber tree species selection should be based on plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. The aims of this st...

  5. A New System for the Rapid Collection of Large Numbers of Developmentally Staged Zebrafish Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Adatto; Christian Lawrence; Michael Thompson; Zon, Leonard I.

    2011-01-01

    The zebrafish is an excellent genetic and developmental model system used to study biology and disease. While the zebrafish model is associated with high fecundity, its reproductive potential has not been completely realized by scientists. One major issue is that embryo collection is inefficient. Here, we have developed an innovative breeding vessel designed to stimulate the natural reproductive behavior of the fish. This novel apparatus allows us to collect large numbers of developmentally s...

  6. Optimal design of a high-power picosecond laser system using a dual-stage ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Jing; Lin, Chih-Hsuan; Zaytsev, Alexey; Tsai, Feng-Hua; Wang, Chi-Luen; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2013-07-01

    An average power as high as 60 W with 73 W of pumping was achieved for an ytterbium-doped fibre-based dual-stage amplifier (MOFA) system seeded by a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser. The corresponding optical conversion efficiency is 80%. The laser system generates a steady pulse train with a pulse width of 11 ps at a repetition rate of 250 MHz or a peak power of 21.8 kW. Moreover, the output beam quality M2 ≈ 1.6. The length and pumping power for the Yb-doped fibres were optimized to suppress stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) while maintaining desirable output characteristics.

  7. Optimal design of a high-power picosecond laser system using a dual-stage ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An average power as high as 60 W with 73 W of pumping was achieved for an ytterbium-doped fibre-based dual-stage amplifier (MOFA) system seeded by a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser. The corresponding optical conversion efficiency is 80%. The laser system generates a steady pulse train with a pulse width of 11 ps at a repetition rate of 250 MHz or a peak power of 21.8 kW. Moreover, the output beam quality M2 ≈ 1.6. The length and pumping power for the Yb-doped fibres were optimized to suppress stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) while maintaining desirable output characteristics. (paper)

  8. High power neutral beam operation at 120 keV with a single stage extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 37 A, 120 keV, 0.1 s pulse length, perveance matched hydrogen beam has been obtained reliably by using a three electrode extraction system with shaped circular apertures illuminated by a rectangular periplasmatron ion source of 12 x 38 cm2 full extraction area. The length of the ''accel'' gap was 2 cm and the extracted ion current density, at 120 keV, J+ = 200 mA/cm2. The injector was operated with a neutralizing gas cell of nl approximately = 7.1015 mol/cm2 gas target thickness. Divergence angles as low as 0.65deg in hydrogen and 0.4deg in argon have been measured. The grid power loadings, normalized to the H.V drain power and to the ion source filling pressure (mTorr) were: 0.1% for the plasma grid, 0.02% for the negative grid and 0.07% for the neutralizer grid. The results show that such a 3-grid system is suitable for high energy injectors required for the JET device and that it can be advantageously utilized instead of a 4-grid system on account of its greater simplicity. (author)

  9. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim;

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  10. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lewczuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields.

  11. The remote monitoring system for nuclear reactors (KFUe) in Bavaria (2nd stage of development)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remote monitoring system for nuclear reactors (KFUe) is made up of a variety of technical equipment, such as measuring instruments for on-site and in-plant measurements, equipment for long-distance data transmission, process computers, and a variety of tasks to be performed by the reactor supervisory personnel. Especially in case of incidents or accidents in nuclear power plants, a rapid assessment of consequences, and thus rapid response to prevent radiation hazards, is feasible only through automated data preparation and prompt availability of supervisory personnel, e.g. by an appropriate system of stand-by duty. The Bavarian Pollution Control Office put special emphasis on the recording of meteorological data measured in the vicinity of nuclear power stations. The 1977 report on the performance of meteorological data acquisition has been taken as a basis to decide about the type and equipment of the measuring towers installed or to be installed at the Grafenrheinfeld and Gundremmingen II nuclear power stations. (orig./HP)

  12. Potential risk factors in systemic hypoplasia and dental caries at odontogenesis stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovach I.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesion of hard dental tissue with caries process and lesions not connected with caries present overwhelming majority of dental diseases. Causes leading to damage of enamel integrity and dentin with progressing demineralization are known; they allow to choose justified method of primary prophylaxis. Along with it, etiology and pathogenesis of enamel lesions with demineralization signs remains unexplored. Epidemiologic study of prevalence, incidence and severity of lesion of hard dental tissues in 330 pupils, who constantly live on endemic iodine-defficient territory, of three zones – mountain zone, foothill and valley. For comparison, schoolchildren migrated to this territory 2-3 years after birth, and children – residents of favorable as for iodine level in drinking water were examined, 30 children in each group. It was established, that overwhelming number of schoolchildren of endemic zone suffer from endemic goiter of various severity, which sufficiently impacts on protein-mineral ratio of the organism, bone skeleton and teeth including. It was also established, that residents of three various levels of iodine consumption are prone to development of multiple dental caries and systemic enamel hypoplasia. Children, residents of mountain zone suffer the most, with simultaneous lesion of thyroid gland. The role of endemic goiter in systemic dental enamel hypoplasia and multiple caries, which changes protein matrix, negatively impacts on odontogenesis and mineralization degree is underlined.

  13. Development of the high power multi-stage type circulator for BNCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process for BNCT begins with a pharmaceutical agent that carries a neutron capture agent containing 10B (Boron 10) selectively into tumor cells. Thermal or epi-thermal neutrons then interact with the 10B and produce α and 7Li-particles. So far, BNCT have been provided only by nuclear reactors, because a neutron intensity of 1x109n/cm2/s, with energies between 0.5-eV and 10-keV is required. To realize BNCT using accelerator technologies, one of the big issuer is the high duty rf system, which will be used for 324 MHz, 1.2 MW peak klystron, 1 msec of an rf pulse width and a 200 Hz of cycle. A high power circulator is the most critical component among the waveguide system. It was redesigned from a linear accelerator of J-PARC to meet the 20% of a duty factor using a high saturation magnetization 4piMs has high curie temperature. Also, it was used thin ferrite layer to reduce the temperature rise and to reduce the temperature sensitivity. This paper reports the design work, the manufacture and a low power measurement. (author)

  14. Modified septic tank-anaerobic filter unit as a two-stage onsite domestic wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the performance evaluation of a uniquely designed two-stage system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic bioreactors, a modified septic tank followed by an upflow anaerobic filter, accommodated within a single cylindrical unit. The system was started up without inoculation at 24 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). It achieved a steady-state condition after 120 days. The system was observed to be remarkably efficient in removing pollutants during steady-state condition with the average removal efficiency of 88.6 +/- 3.7% for chemical oxygen demand, 86.3 +/- 4.9% for biochemical oxygen demand and 91.2 +/- 9.7% for total suspended solids. The microbial analysis revealed a high reduction (>90%) capacity of the system for indicator organism and pathogens. It also showed a very good endurance against imposed hydraulic shock load. Tracer study showed that the flow pattern was close to plug flow reactor. Mean HRT was also found to be close to the designed value. PMID:25145171

  15. Analysis of survival prediction value using modification 7th UICC esophageal cancer staging system for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with preoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of the international union against cancer (UICC)stage,pathologic complete response (pCR), and the estimated treatment response as various means for prognostic stratifying patients after surgery in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus who received preoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 311 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who received RT before the esophagectomy. Data collected included the demographics, the RT details, the pathologic findings,and the survival. Prognostic survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and Logrank test. Results: The follow-up rate was 96.5%, 89 and 43 patients, respectively were followed up more than 5 and 10 years. In univariate analysis, residual disease and the number of positive lymph node were predictors of the overall survival (T-pCR, χ2 =11.53, P =0.001; 0, 1 -3, ≥4, χ2=42.13, P=0.000, respectively). Further study found the 7th stage system of UICC cannot (can or cannot) entirely predict the prognosis of this group of patients. If categorizing the stages of their lymph nodes into three groups: N0 (0), N1 (1-3) and N2 (≥4)), and the modified UICC system can accurately distinguish ypStage I with ypStage II (T0-3 N1 M0 + T3 N0 M0) (χ2 =11.15, P =0.001) and ypStage II with ypStage III (T4 N0-1 M0 and T0-3 N2 M0) (χ2 =23.39, P =0.000). Conclusions: The pathologic post-radiotherapy T stage and the number of positive lymph node are predictors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma receiving preoperative radiotherapy. The modified UICC stage system can be a better survival predictor than the 7th UICC stage system. (authors)

  16. Systemic Chemotherapy for Progression of Brain Metastases in Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagla Abdel Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related mortality in men and women. Approximately 15% of lung cancers are small cell type. Chemotherapy and radiation are the mainstay treatments. Currently, the standard chemotherapy regimen includes platinum/etoposide. For extensive small cell lung cancer, irinotecan and cisplatin have also been used. Patients with relapsed small cell lung cancer have a very poor prognosis, and the morbidity increases with brain metastases. Approximately 10%–14% of small cell lung cancer patients exhibit brain metastases at the time of diagnosis, which increases to 50%–80% as the disease progresses. Mean survival with brain metastases is reported to be less than six months, thus calling for improved regimens. Here we present a case series of patients treated with irinotecan for progressive brain metastases in small cell lung cancer, which serves as a reminder of the role of systemic chemotherapy in this setting.

  17. A Palaeoproterozoic multi-stage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq gold deposit, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Robin-Marie; Kolb, Jochen; Waight, Tod Earle;

    2016-01-01

    Nalunaq is an orogenic, high gold grade deposit situated on the Nanortalik Peninsula, South Greenland. Mineralisation is hosted in shear zone-controlled quartz veins, located in fine- and medium-grained amphibolite. The deposit was the site of Greenland’s only operating metalliferous mine until its...... closure in 2014, having produced 10.67 t of gold. This study uses a combination of field investigation, petrography and U/Pb zircon and titanite geochronology to define a multistage hydrothermal alteration system at Nalunaq. A clinopyroxene-plagioclase-garnet(-sulphide) alteration zone (CPGZ) developed in...... the Nanortalik Peninsula, close to regional peak metamorphism and prior to gold-quartz vein formation. The ca. 1783–1762-Ma gold-quartz veins are hosted in reactivated shear zones with a hydrothermal alteration halo of biotite...

  18. Advanced optical design and control of multi-colored SSL system for stage lighting application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita

    wavelength for a laser color mixing system can be detected by a new speckle based wavemeter, which is easy for use and cost‐effective compared to the commercially available expensive spectrometers. The thesis also reports on the fabrication of a tool for replicating the microlens structure used for beam......The thesis deals with a novel LED color mixing light engine which is designed, developed, and subsequently demonstrated by making a prototype of the same, which is experimentally investigated. Further, the design optimization solves the problems of achieving collimated high luminous flux in a color...... light output from the light engine is energy and optically efficient as well as environmentally friendly. The light output stability during the operational time is investigated by using the Monte Carlo simulation and a color sensor is implemented along with the pre‐calibrated lookup table to a feedback...

  19. Cluster emission at pre-equilibrium stage in Heavy Nuclear Reactions. A Model considering the Thermodynamics of Small Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster emission at pre-equilibrium stage, in heavy ion fusion reactions of 12C and 16O nuclei with 116Sn, 208Pb, 238U are studied. the energy of the projectile nuclei was chosen at 0.25GeV, 0.5GeV and 1GeV. A cluster formation model is developed in order to calculate the cluster size. Thermodynamics of small systems was used in order to examine the cluster behavior inside the nuclear media. This model is based on considering two phases inside the compound nucleus, on one hand the nuclear media phase, and on the other hand the cluster itself. The cluster acts like an instability inside the compound nucleus, provoking an exchange of nucleons with the nuclear media through its surface. The processes were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. We obtained that the cluster emission probability shows great dependence on the cluster size. This project is aimed to implement cluster emission processes, during the pre-equilibrium stage, in the frame of CRISP code (Collaboration Rio-Sao Paulo). (Author)

  20. Influence of different substrates on the performance of a two-stage high pressure anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, A; Chen, Y; Lindner, J; Wonneberger, A M; Zielonka, S; Oechsner, H; Jungbluth, T

    2015-02-01

    The two-stage autogenerative high-pressure digestion technique is a novel and promising approach for the production of gaseous fuels or upgraded biogas. This new technique is described in the patent DE 10 2011 015415 A1 and integrates biogas production, its upgrading and pressure boosting in one process. Anaerobic digestion under elevated pressure conditions leads to decreasing pH-values in the digestate due to the augmented formation of carboxylic acid. Model calculations carried out to evaluate the two-stage design showed that the pH-value in the pressurized anaerobic filter has a major influence on the methane content of the biogas produced. Within this study, the influence of the nitrogen content as one of the most important buffering substances on the performance of the system has been tested. The results show that higher NH4 contents lead to higher pH-values in the digester and as a consequence to higher methane contents. PMID:25451774

  1. Effect of intraarterial and systemic chemotherapy for stage IIb cervical carcinoma: assessment of therapeutic response using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intraarterial chemotherapy(IAC) and systemic chemotherapy(SC) in cases of locally advanced cervical carcinoma, and to assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance(MR) imaging for determining parametrial invasion after IAC or SC. Among 44 patients with stage IIb cervical carcinoma, IAC was performed in 25 and SC in 19. MR images obtained before and after IAC or SC were prospectively analyzed with regard to tumor volume and parametrial invasion, and tumor response to chemotherapy was classified as complete, partial, or progressive. Forty-one patients underwent radical hysterectomy within two weeks of the second MR examination, and postoperative pathologic findings were correlated with radiologic findings. The average reduction rate of tumor volume in the IAC and SC group was 89.2% and 66.3%, respectively. Between the two groups, there was no statistically significant difference(p>0.05). In the IAC group, 13 patients showed a complete response and 11 a partial response, and in one there was progression. In the SC group, eight patients showed a complete response and nine a partial response, and in two there was progression. The accuracy of MR imaging for determining parametrial invasion after chemotherapy was 87.8%. In each patient there was close correlation between MR imaging and pathologic findings. There was no statistically significant difference in tumor reduction between the IAC and SC group. After chemotherapy for stage IIb cervical carcinoma, MR imaging is a valuable modality for determining surgical candidates.=20

  2. The first stages of planet formation in binary systems: How far can dust coagulation proceed?

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras; Dullemond, Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    We examine the first phase of the core accretion model, namely the dust growth/fragmentation in binary systems. In our model, a gas and dust disk is present around the primary star and is perturbed by the secondary. We study the effects of a secondary with/without eccentricity on the dust population to determine what sizes the aggregates can reach and how that compares to the dust population in disks around single stars. We find that the secondary star has two effects on the dust population. 1.) The disk is truncated due to the presence of the secondary star and the maximum mass of the particles is decreased in the lowered gas densities. This effect is dominant in the outer disk. 2.) The perturbation of the secondary pumps up the eccentricity of the gas disk, which in turn increases the relative velocity between the dust and the gas. Therefore the maximum particle sizes are further decreased. The second effect of the secondary influences the entire disk. Coagulation is efficiently reduced even at the very inn...

  3. Performance of a single stage vertical flow constructed wetland system treating raw domestic sewage in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, L C O; Moraes, D C; von Sperling, M; Morato, M L N; Vasconcellos, G R; Paraense, M O; Moreira, T P A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the behaviour of two intermittently fed vertical flow constructed wetlands (one planted with Tifton 85 and the other unplanted) working in parallel, treating raw municipal sewage in Brazil for a population equivalent around 100 inhabitants. Based on a monitoring programme of over 2 years, the following items were evaluated: influence of batch frequency and the presence of Tifton 85 on the wetlands performance in terms of several physico-chemical and biological constituents. The unit with plants performed better than the one without, indicating a positive influence of the presence of plants. More attachment by total and volatile solids and larger amount of bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle were observed in the planted filter medium, which can explain its higher nitrification and solids removal. The application of a smaller influent volume with a higher batch frequency improved the performance of both units. No signs of medium clogging have been observed in both units. The system simplicity and the good removal efficiency of organic matter, suspended solids, ammonia and helminth eggs indicate its high applicability in small communities in developing countries such as Brazil. PMID:24135110

  4. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: survival and growth during the early stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Espinoza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, increased emphasis has been placed on diversifying the types of trees to shade cacao (Theobromacacao L. and to achieve additional services. Agroforestry systems that include profitable and native timber trees are a viable alternative but it is necessary to understand the growth characteristics of these species under different environmental conditions. Thus, timber tree species selection should be based on plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. The aims of this study were (1 to evaluate growth rates and leaf area indices of the four commercial timber species: Cordia thaisiana, Cedrela odorata, Swietenia macrophylla and Tabebuia rosea in conjunction with incidence of insect attacks and (2 to compare growth rates of four Venezuelan Criollo cacao cultivars planted under the shade of these four timber species during the first 36 months after establishment. Parameters monitored in timber trees were: survival rates, growth rates expressed as height and diameter at breast height and leaf area index. In the four Cacao cultivars: height and basal diameter. C. thaisiana and C. odorata had the fastest growth and the highest survival rates. Growth rates of timber trees will depend on their susceptibility to insect attacks as well as to total leaf area. All cacao cultivars showed higher growth rates under the shade of C. odorata. Growth rates of timber trees and cacao cultivars suggest that combinations of cacao and timber trees are a feasible agroforestry strategy in Venezuela.

  5. Design of a control system for a macro-micro dual-drive high acceleration high precision positioning stage for IC packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YanJie; LI Teng; SUN LiNing

    2009-01-01

    A macro-micro dual-drive positioning system showing good potential for high acceleration and high precision positioning required in IC packaging applications is devised in this paper. The dual-drive positioning stage uses a VCM (voice coil motor) driven macro positioning stage and a PZT piezo-electric driven micro positioning stage. The coupling characteristics of the system are analyzed to produce a control structure with a micro positioning stage that can dynamically compensate for the positioning error produced by the macro positioning stage. Models of the two positioning stages are described. The models cover both the mechanism and the actuator. For the macro positioning stage,friction characteristics are taken into account, and a controller with an LQG (linear-quadratic-Gaussian)control algorithm combining a feed-forward compensation algorithm is derived. A PID controller is used to control the micro positioning stage. Detailed designs are derived for the proposed approach,and the performance is validated by simulation.

  6. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design: pyrolysis and waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-08

    The University of Minnesota is studying and planning a grid-connected integrated community energy system to include disposal of wastes from health centers and utilizing the heat generated. Following initial definition of the 7-county metropolitan region for which the solid waste management system is to be planned, information is then necessary about the nature of the waste generated within this region. Estimates of the quantities generated, generation rates, and properties of the waste to be collected and disposed of are required in order to determine the appropriate size and capacity of the system. These estimates are designated and subsequently referred to as ''system input''. Institutional information is also necessary in designing the planned system, to be compatible with existing institutional operations and procedures, or to offer a minimum amount of problems to the participating institution in the region. Initial considerations of health care institutions generating solid waste within the defined region are made on a comprehensive basis without any attempt to select out or include feasible candidate institutions, or institutional categories. As the study progresses, various criteria are used in selecting potential candidate institutional categories and institutions within the 7-county region as offering the most feasible solid waste system input to be successfully developed into a centralized program; however, it is hoped that such a system if developed could be maintained for the entire 7-county region, and remain comprehensive to the entire health care industry. (MCW)

  7. The other stage

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Christopher Stephen Williamson

    2012-01-01

    An interactive electroacoustic music composition and solo mixed-media performance realized as an alternatively-staged one-night concert event. This project examines the tradition of staging live electronic music and the role of a solo computer music composer-performer. It is a four-movement interactive work with an appended generative music system performed solo within an alternative stage layout. It is derived from an interdisciplinary practice of combining electroacoustic music and electro...

  8. Accuracy of preoperative CT T staging of renal cell carcinoma: which features predict advanced stage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To characterise CT findings in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and establish which features are associated with higher clinical T stage disease, and to evaluate patterns of discrepancy between radiological and pathological staging of RCC. Materials and methods: Preoperative CT studies of 92 patients with 94 pathologically proven RCCs were retrospectively reviewed. CT stage was compared with pathological stage using the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), 7th edition (2010). The presence or absence of tumour necrosis, perinephric fat standing, thickening of Gerota's fascia, collateral vessels were noted, and correlated with pT stage. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for predicting pT stage ≥pT3a were derived separately for different predictors using cross-tabulations. Results: Twenty-four lesions were pathological stage T1a, 21 were T1b, seven were T2a, 25 were T3a, 11 were T3b, four were T3c, and two were T4. There were no stage T2b. Sixty-three (67%) patients had necrosis, 27 (29%) thickening of Gerota's fascia (1 T1a), 25 had collateral vessels (0 T1a), 28 (30%) had fat stranding of <2 mm, 20 (21%) of 2–5mm and one (1%) of >5 mm. For pT stage ≥pT3a, the presence of perinephric fat stranding had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 74%, 65%, 63%, and 76%, respectively. Presence of tumour necrosis had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 81%, 44%, 54%, and 72%, respectively. Thickening of Gerota's fascia had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 52%, 90%, 81% and 70%, respectively; and enlarged collateral vessels had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV value of 52%, 94%, 88%, and 71% respectively. Conclusion: The presence of perinephric stranding and tumour necrosis were not reliable signs for pT stage >T3a. Thickening of Gerota's fascia and the presence of collateral vessels in the peri- or paranephric fat had 90% and 94% specificity, with 82% and 88

  9. A two stage Bayesian stochastic optimization model for cascaded hydropower systems considering varying uncertainty of flow forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Peng, Yong; Fu, Guangtao; Zhou, Huicheng

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new Two Stage Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming (TS-BSDP) model for real time operation of cascaded hydropower systems to handle varying uncertainty of inflow forecasts from Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts. In this model, the inflow forecasts are considered as having increasing uncertainty with extending lead time, thus the forecast horizon is divided into two periods: the inflows in the first period are assumed to be accurate, and the inflows in the second period assumed to be of high uncertainty. Two operation strategies are developed to derive hydropower operation policies for the first and the entire forecast horizon using TS-BSDP. In this paper, the newly developed model is tested on China's Hun River cascade hydropower system and is compared with three popular stochastic dynamic programming models. Comparative results show that the TS-BSDP model exhibits significantly improved system performance in terms of power generation and system reliability due to its explicit and effective utilization of varying degrees of inflow forecast uncertainty. The results also show that the decision strategies should be determined considering the magnitude of uncertainty in inflow forecasts. Further, this study confirms the previous finding that the benefit in hydropower generation gained from the use of a longer horizon of inflow forecasts is diminished due to higher uncertainty and further reveals that the benefit reduction can be substantially mitigated through explicit consideration of varying magnitudes of forecast uncertainties in the decision-making process.

  10. Simulation and parameter analysis of a two-stage desiccant cooing/heating system driven by solar air collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A solar desiccant cooling/heating system is simulation studied. ► The mean deviation is about 10.5% for temperature and 9.6% for humidity ratio. ► The 51.7% of humidity load and 76% of the total cooling can be handled. ► About 49.0% of heating load can be handled by solar energy. ► An optimization of solar air collector has been investigated. - Abstract: To increase the fraction of solar energy might be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building, a solar desiccant cooling and heating system was modeled in Simulink. First, base case performance models were programmed according to the configuration of the installed solar desiccant system and verified by the experimental data. Then, the year-round performance about the system was simulated. Last, design parameters of solar air collectors were optimized that include collector area, air leakage and thermal insulation. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows good agreement. During the simulation, the humidity load for 63 days (51.7%) can be totally handled by the two-stage desiccant cooling unit. For seasonal total heating load, about 49.0% can be handled by solar energy. Based on optimized results, the thermal energy subsystem functioned to its expected performance in solar energy collection and thermal storage

  11. Validity of metrological expertise for quality of information-measuring systems at a stage of their serial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The up-to-day features of metrological expertise for quality of measuring-information systems produced by enterprises of nuclear instrument making are discussed. All nuclear instrument modules are subjected to obligatory metrological expertise for quality. The procedure of probabilistic estimation of errors during metrological expertise for quality of serially produced nuclear instrumentation is presented. For conditions of serial production of nuclear instrumentation, the probabilistic factors characterizing the processes of realizing of the ready products at market are evaluated at optimization of quality control with respect to several metrological parameters.The quality of ready nuclear instrumentation can be improved by means of various combinations of procedures and methods of metrological expertise at stages of their manufacturing and output performance testing

  12. Computerization of the iteration procedure for calculating the number of stages in counter-current solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvent extraction of metals is a powerful technique for the purification and separation of various metals. This report gives some of the applications of solvent extraction for separation of metals on an industrial scale, and gives the solvents and other chemicals added for promoting extraction or separation. The power of the technique arises from the fact that the process can lend itself to multisage operation without increased consumption of heat or chemicals. In a design for a solvent extraction system, the size of the plant is determined by the number of stages required for desired extraction or separation. The present paper concerns with the development of a computer programme for these calculations. (orig./A.B)

  13. Effects of dissolved oxygen on microbial community of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal system treating simulating mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiale; Qing, Xiaoxia; He, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    The performance of four identical sequencing biofilm batch reactors (SBBR) for autotrophic nitrogen removal was investigated with 2000mg/L ammonia-containing mature landfill leachate at 30°C. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the performance and microbial community of single-stage nitrogen removal using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) system. At an applied load of 0.5kgNm(-3)d(-1), average total nitrogen removal efficiency (TNRE) above 90% was long-term achieved with an optimal DO concentration of 2.7mg/L. The microelectrode-measured profiles showed the microenvironments inside the biofilms. 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) amplicon pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to analyze the microbial variations of different DO concentrations and different positions inside one reactor. PMID:27450126

  14. Two-stage actuation system using DC motors and piezoelectric actuators for controllable industrial and automotive brakes and clutches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.; Bucknor, Norman K.

    2005-05-01

    High bandwidth actuation systems that are capable of simultaneously producing relatively large forces and displacements are required for use in automobiles and other industrial applications. Conventional hydraulic actuation mechanisms used in automotive brakes and clutches are complex, inefficient and have poor control robustness. These lead to reduced fuel economy, controllability issues and other disadvantages. This paper involves the design, development, testing and control of a two-stage hybrid actuation mechanism by combining classical actuators like DC motors and advanced smart material actuators like piezoelectric actuators. The paper also discusses the development of a robust control methodology using the Internal Model Control (IMC) principle and emphasizes the robustness property of this control methodology by comparing and studying simulation and experimental results.

  15. Development of a straightness measurement and compensation system with multiple right-angle reflectors and a lead zirconate titanate-based compensation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a real-time straightness measurement and compensation system with an optical straightness measurement system and a single-axis flexure-hinge type lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based compensation stage. The optical straightness measurement system consists of a He-Ne laser, a quadrant photodiode detector, and five right-angle reflectors. Multiple laser beam reflections between the right-angle reflectors increase the sensitivity of the straightness measurement by a factor of 6. The right-angle reflectors can be moved by the flexure-hinge type PZT-based compensation stage that is actuated by a PZT actuator to ensure that the laser beam is always projected onto the center of the quadrant detector. These two systems are integrated and fixed on a scanning stage. The resolution of the straightness measurement system is 0.1 μm. Using the real-time straightness compensation system, the straightness error of the scanning stage is fed back to the control system. The compensated straightness error of the scanning stage system was reduced from 6.5 μm to less than 1 μm.

  16. Optimisation of wide-band parametric amplification stages of a femtosecond laser system with coherent combining of fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Leshchenko, V. E.; Frolov, S. A.; Vasiliev, V. A.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time the pulses with the energy of ~150 mJ and the spectrum corresponding to the transform-limited duration of ~20 fs amplified in three-stage parametric amplifiers have been coherently combined in a dual-channel femtosecond laser system. The efficiency of coherent combining of above 90% has been obtained at the residual relative time jitter of amplified pulses of 110 as. For the first time the modulation of spectrum was experimentally observed under the parametric amplification of a wideband femtosecond radiation in crystals placed in series. The model of parametric luminescence evolution was developed which allows one to calculate the whole range of the frequency-angular spectrum that, in addition to simulations of the contrast of amplified pulses, gives the possibility of optimising the amplifier efficiency. The results of experiments on measuring the contrast are presented and compared with the calculated data. Methods for enhancing the contrast in the created laser system are analysed. Possible schemes of multibeam pumping of the output cascade are considered for obtaining a petawatt power in the laser system based on cascades of a parametric amplifier in LBO crystals which is being developed at the Institute of Laser Physics of SB RAS.

  17. NASAwide electronic publishing system-prototype STI electronic document distribution: Stage-4 evaluation report. Part 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Collins, Mary; Caswell, Pamela; Haynes, Bob; Nelson, Michael L.; Holm, Jeanne; Buquo, Lynn; Tingle, Annette; Cooper, Bill; Stiltner, Roy

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation report contains an introduction, seven chapters, and five appendices. The Introduction describes the purpose, conceptual framework, functional description, and technical report server of the Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Electronic Document Distribution (EDD) project. Chapter 1 documents the results of the prototype STI EDD in actual operation. Chapter 2 documents each NASA center's post processing publication processes. Chapter 3 documents each center's STI software, hardware. and communications configurations. Chapter 7 documents STI EDD policy, practices, and procedures. The appendices consist of (A) the STI EDD Project Plan, (B) Team members, (C) Phasing Schedules, (D) Accessing On-line Reports, and (E) Creating an HTML File and Setting Up an xTRS. In summary, Stage 4 of the NASAwide Electronic Publishing System is the final phase of its implementation through the prototyping and gradual integration of each NASA center's electronic printing systems, desk top publishing systems, and technical report servers, to be able to provide to NASA's engineers, researchers, scientists, and external users, the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the result thereof to their work stations.

  18. Colour removal of dyes from synthetic and real textile wastewaters in one- and two-stage anaerobic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Paulo Igor M; da Silva, Marcos Erick R; Cervantes, Francisco J; dos Santos, André B

    2010-10-01

    Decolourisation of the azo dye model compound, Congo Red (CR), and real textile wastewater, was assessed in one- and two-stage anaerobic treatment systems (R₁ and R₂, respectively). High colour removals were achieved in both treatment systems even when a very high CR concentration (1.2 mM) was applied. However, R₂ presented a slightly better stability, in which the acidogenic reactor (R(2,A)) played a major role on dye reduction, as compared to the methanogenic reactor (R(2,M)), evidencing the role of fermentative microorganisms. The minimum electron donor concentration required to sustain dye reduction was much higher than the stoichiometric amount. Additionally, a decrease on the hydraulic retention time (from 24 to 12 h) did not significantly affect decolourisation, indicating that electron transfer was not a concern. Finally, experiments with real textile wastewater showed low decolourisation efficiencies in both systems, most likely due to the presence of dyes not susceptible to reductive decolourisation under these experimental conditions. PMID:20542688

  19. Prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Validation and ranking of established staging-systems in a large western HCC-cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark op den Winkel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCC is diagnosed in approximately half a million people per year, worldwide. Staging is a more complex issue than in most other cancer entities and, mainly due to unique geographic characteristics of the disease, no universally accepted staging system exists to date. Focusing on survival rates we analyzed demographic, etiological, clinical, laboratory and tumor characteristics of HCC-patients in our institution and applied the common staging systems. Furthermore we aimed at identifying the most suitable of the current staging systems for predicting survival. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 405 patients with HCC were identified from an electronic medical record database. The following seven staging systems were applied and ranked according to their ability to predict survival by using the Akaike information criterion (AIC and the concordance-index (c-index: BCLC, CLIP, GETCH, JIS, Okuda, TNM and Child-Pugh. Separately, every single variable of each staging system was tested for prognostic meaning in uni- and multivariate analysis. Alcoholic cirrhosis (44.4% was the leading etiological factor followed by viral hepatitis C (18.8%. Median survival was 18.1 months (95%-CI: 15.2-22.2. Ascites, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, AFP, number of tumor nodes and the BCLC tumor extension remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Overall, all of the tested staging systems showed a reasonable discriminatory ability. CLIP (closely followed by JIS was the top-ranked score in terms of prognostic capability with the best values of the AIC and c-index (AIC 2286, c-index 0.71, surpassing other established staging systems like BCLC (AIC 2343, c-index 0.66. The unidimensional scores TNM (AIC 2342, c-index 0.64 and Child-Pugh (AIC 2369, c-index 0.63 performed in an inferior fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with six other staging systems, the CLIP-score was identified as the most suitable staging system for

  20. Non-Asymptotic Delay Bounds for (k,l) Fork-Join Systems and Multi-Stage Fork-Join Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, Markus; JIANG, Yuming

    2015-01-01

    Parallel systems have received increasing attention with numerous recent applications such as fork-join systems, load-balancing, and l-out-of-k redundancy. Common to these systems is a join or resequencing stage, where tasks that have finished service may have to wait for the completion of other tasks so that they leave the system in a predefined order. These synchronization constraints make the analysis of parallel systems challenging and few explicit results are known. In this work, we mode...

  1. Designing a Time-Aware Service System: Bridging the Front and Back Stages in Service System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    A service "system" implies a systematic strategy, design, implementation, operation, and evaluation of services. This systematic approach enables to more specifically define intrinsic problems of services and solve them. One of the problems involves time efficiency; it affects the quality of each service and, as a result, customer satisfaction. In other words, time efficiency has been one of the most critical factors in services' competitive power. Therefore, this paper recognizes the importa...

  2. A Comparative Study between SVM and Fuzzy Inference System for the Automatic Prediction of Sleep Stages and the Assessment of Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gialelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two supervised learning algorithms for predicting the sleep stages based on the human brain activity. The first step of the presented work regards feature extraction from real human electroencephalography (EEG data together with its corresponding sleep stages that are utilized for training a support vector machine (SVM, and a fuzzy inference system (FIS algorithm. Then, the trained algorithms are used to predict the sleep stages of real human patients. Extended comparison results are demonstrated which indicate that both classifiers could be utilized as a basis for an unobtrusive sleep quality assessment.

  3. Early renin-angiotensin system intervention is more beneficial than late intervention in delaying end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schievink, B; Kröpelin, T; Mulder, S; Parving, H-H; Remuzzi, G; Dwyer, J; Vemer, P; de Zeeuw, D; Lambers Heerspink, H J

    2016-01-01

    the BENEDICT, IRMA-2, RENAAL and IDNT trials that assessed effects of RAS intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes. We built a model with discrete disease stages based on albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Using survival analyses, we assessed the effect of RAS......AIMS: To develop and validate a model to simulate progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) from early onset until end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to assess the effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) intervention in early, intermediate and advanced stages of DKD. METHODS: We used data from...

  4. Two-Stage Control Design of a Buck Converter/DC Motor System without Velocity Measurements via a Σ−Δ-Modulator

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bautista-Quintero; H. Taud; M. Marcelino-Aranda; V. M. Hernández-Guzmán; R. Silva-Ortigoza; J. R. García-Sánchez; J. M. Alba-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a two-stage control design for the “Buck power converter/DC motor” system, which allows to perform the sensorless angular velocity trajectory tracking task. The differential flatness property of the DC-motor model is exploited in order to propose a first-stage controller, which is designed to achieve the desired angular velocity trajectory. This controller provides the voltage profiles that must be tracked by the Buck converter. Then, a second-stage controller is meant to ...

  5. The Applicability of the International Staging System in Chinese Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Bortezomib or Thalidomide-Based Regimens as Induction Therapy: A Multicenter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Staging System (ISS is the most important prognostic system for multiple myeloma (MM. It was identified in the era of conventional agents. The outcome of MM has significantly changed by novel agents. Thus the applicability of ISS system in the era of novel agents in Chinese patients needs to be demonstrated. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes and prognostic significance of ISS system in 1016 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in Chinese patients between 2008 and 2012, who received bortezomib- or thalidomide-based regimens as first-line therapy. The median overall survival (OS of patients for ISS stages I/II/III was not reached/55.4 months/41.7 months (p<0.001, and the median progression-free survival (PFS was 30/29.5/25 months (p=0.072, respectively. Statistically significant difference in survival was confirmed among three ISS stages in thalidomide-based group, but not between ISS stages I and II in bortezomib-based group. These findings suggest that ISS system can predict the survival in the era of novel agents in Chinese MM patients, and bortezomib may have the potential to partially overcome adverse effect of risk factors on survival, especially in higher stage of ISS system.

  6. Development of a system based in a digital signal processor (DSP) for a simulator of power regulation in a reactor: first stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first stage of the development of a digital system based on a DSP is presented which forms part of an hybrid simulator for the power regulation in am model of the punctual kinetics of a TRIGA reactor type. The DSP performs the regulation, using a Mandami type algorithm of diffuse control. In the algorithm, the universe of the output variable is discretized for performing in an unique stage the aggregation functions and dis-diffusization. (Author)

  7. Hydrogen pellet acceleration with a two-stage system consisting of a gas gun and a fuseless electromagnetic railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen pellets are successfully accelerated for the first time using a two-stage system consisting of a pneumatic gun and an electromagnetic railgun. The pneumatic gun preaccelerator forms cylindrical hydrogen ice pellets (1.6-mm diam x 2.15-mm long) and accelerates them with high-pressure helium gas to velocities in excess of 500 m/s. The booster accelerator, which is a fuseless, circular-bore electromagnetic railgun, derives its propulsive force from a plasma arc armature. The plasma arc armature is formed by electrically breaking down the propellant gas which follows the pellet from the gas gun into the railgun. The diagnostics are for the monitoring of the main capacitor bank and rail currents, for the pellet detection and velocity measurements at the breech and muzzle ends of the railgun, for the recording of the plasma-arc-armature movement inside the railgun bore, and for the photographing of the hydrogen pellet exiting the railgun. Using the system, which is a 60-cm long proof-of-principle machine for refueling magnetic fusion devices, hyrogen pellet velocities exceeding 1 km/s have been achieved for pellets exiting the gas gun at velocities of approx.500 m/s

  8. Expression of thioredoxin system and related peroxiredoxin proteins is associated with clinical outcome in radiotherapy treated early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Deregulated redox systems provide cancer cells protection from increased oxidative stress, such as that induced by ionizing radiation. Expression of the thioredoxin system proteins (thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin interacting protein) and downstream peroxiredoxins (I-VI), was examined in tumor specimens from early stage breast cancer patients, subsequently treated by breast conserving surgery and locoregional radiotherapy, to determine if redox protein expression is associated with clinical outcome. Material and methods: Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression was assessed using conventional immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 224 tumors. Results: High expression of cytoplasmic peroxiredoxin-I correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence (p = 0.009). When nuclear and cytoplasmic expression patterns were combined, patients with low nuclear but high cytoplasmic expression of peroxiredoxin-I increased significance (p = 0.005). Both were independent factors (p = 0.006 and 0.003) from multivariate analysis. Associations were obtained between tumor grade and nuclear thioredoxin interacting protein (p = 0.01) and with cytoplasmic expression of peroxiredoxin-V (p = 0.007) but not with peroxiredoxin-I suggesting that the latter may exert influence via regulation of oxidative stress rather than via altering the tumor phenotype. Conclusions: Results highlight the potential of using redox protein expression, namely peroxiredoxin-I, to predict clinical outcome and support further studies to validate its usefulness as an independent prognostic, and potentially predictive, marker.

  9. Continuous power generation and microbial community structure of the anode biofilms in a three-stage microbial fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyungmi; Okabe, Satoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-15

    A mediator-less three-stage two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) system was developed and operated continuously for more than 1.5 years to evaluate continuous power generation while treating artificial wastewater containing glucose (10 mM) concurrently. A stable power density of 28 W/m3 was attained with an anode hydraulic retention time of 4.5 h and phosphate buffer as the cathode electrolyte. An overall dissolved organic carbon removal ratio was about 85%, and coulombic efficiency was about 46% in this MFC system. We also analyzed the microbial community structure of anode biofilms in each MFC. Since the environment in each MFC was different due to passing on the products to the next MFC in series, the microbial community structure was different accordingly. The anode biofilm in the first MFC consisted mainly of bacteria belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, identified as Aeromonas sp., while the Firmicutes dominated the anode biofilms in the second and third MFCs that were mainly fed with acetate. Cyclic voltammetric results supported the presence of a redox compound(s) associated with the anode biofilm matrix, rather than mobile (dissolved) forms, which could be responsible for the electron transfer to the anode. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the anode biofilms were comprised of morphologically different cells that were firmly attached on the anode surface and interconnected each other with anchor-like filamentous appendages, which might support the results of cyclic voltammetry. (orig.)

  10. N-acetylcysteine infusion reduces the resistance index of renal artery in the early stage of systemic sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edoardo ROSATO; Rosario CIANCI; Biagio BARBANO; Ginevra MENGHI; Antonietta GIGANTE; Carmelina ROSSI; Enrico M ZARDI; Antonio AMOROSO; Simonetta PISARRI; Felice SALSANO

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate resistance index (RI) changes in renal artery after N-acetylcysteine infusion in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods: In an open-label study 40 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) iv infusion over 5 consecutive hours, at a dose of 0.015g·kg~(-1)·h~(-1).Renal haemodynamic effects were evaluated by color Doppler examination before and after NAC infusion. Results: NAC infusion significantly reduced RI in a group of sclerodermic patients with early/active capillaroscopic pattern, modified Rodnan Total Skin Score (mRTSS)14 and severe-end stage score to the vascular domain of DSS. In patients with reduction of RI after NAC infusion, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide mean value was significantly higher than in those patients with an increase of RI. No significant differences in renal blood flow were found between patients with different subsets of SSc. Conclusion: In patients with low disease severity NAC ameliorates vascular renal function.

  11. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    of the multi-stage heating system in a wafer based glass moulding process. In order to investigate the importance of the radiation from the interior and surface of the glass, a simple finite volume code is developed to model one dimensional radiation–conduction heat transfer in the glass wafer for an...... different pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...... of the heating system in the glass moulding process considering detailed heating mechanisms therefore plays an important part in optimizing the heating system and the subsequent pressing stage in the lens manufacturing process.The current paper deals with three-dimensional transient thermal modelling...

  12. Impact of the new international association for the study of lung cancer staging system in non-small cell lung cancer: With comparison to the union for international cancer control 6th tumor, node, metastasis edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Jae; Lee, So Won; Shim, Sung Shine; Ryu, Yon Ju; Kim, Yoo Kyung [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the impact of the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system on staging and outcome of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With a total of 501 NSCLC patients with staging according to Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), 6th TNM (TNM-6) were reclassified according to the IASLC proposed TNM staging (TNM-7). The impact of TNM-7 in comparison with TNM-6 was evaluated at three levels: change in substage, staging, and outcome. The outcome measure was to compare the stage-specific overall survival of NSCLC between the two groups of patients. A total of 214 (42.7%) patients had changed TNM staging, and 101 (20.2%) patients had changed stage groupings in TNM-7 compared to TNM-6. Among 100 patients showing changed stage grouping, 72 (14.4%) showed upstage and 29 (5.8%) demonstrated downstage. The TNM-7 system resulted in better separation of survival curves among stage-specific NSCLC than TNM-6 system, especially in separation of stage IIA vs. IIB (p 0.023) and stage IIIB vs. IV (p < 0.001). TNM-7 for lung cancer appears to be superior in defining stage-specific survival groups than TNM-6, especially between stage IIA vs. stage IIB and stage IIIB vs. stage IV.

  13. Impact of the new international association for the study of lung cancer staging system in non-small cell lung cancer: With comparison to the union for international cancer control 6th tumor, node, metastasis edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the impact of the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system on staging and outcome of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With a total of 501 NSCLC patients with staging according to Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), 6th TNM (TNM-6) were reclassified according to the IASLC proposed TNM staging (TNM-7). The impact of TNM-7 in comparison with TNM-6 was evaluated at three levels: change in substage, staging, and outcome. The outcome measure was to compare the stage-specific overall survival of NSCLC between the two groups of patients. A total of 214 (42.7%) patients had changed TNM staging, and 101 (20.2%) patients had changed stage groupings in TNM-7 compared to TNM-6. Among 100 patients showing changed stage grouping, 72 (14.4%) showed upstage and 29 (5.8%) demonstrated downstage. The TNM-7 system resulted in better separation of survival curves among stage-specific NSCLC than TNM-6 system, especially in separation of stage IIA vs. IIB (p 0.023) and stage IIIB vs. IV (p < 0.001). TNM-7 for lung cancer appears to be superior in defining stage-specific survival groups than TNM-6, especially between stage IIA vs. stage IIB and stage IIIB vs. stage IV.

  14. Power supply to the air-core transformer coils of a large tokamak by a multi-stage inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-stage inductive energy storage circuits have been studied by a simplex method to obtain an optimum design of a power supply system for the air-core transformer coils of a large tokamak. Parameters of the electric circuits subject to various constraints were determined by the method. The multi-stage inductive energy storage system is better than the single-stage system in viewpoint of the energy necessary to build up the plasma current. Circuit analysis including the plasma was made for the two cases: (1) the plasma resistance given as a function of time, and (2) the plasma resistance determined from a zero-dimensional plasma model. The plasma self-inductance and its time variation play an important role during the build up of plasma current, and influence largely on the optimal circuit parameters. (auth.)

  15. Experimental validation of a method for performance monitoring of the Impurity Processing stage in the TEP system of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) system within the Tritium Plant of ITER needs to be designed such that tritium is recovered from all exhaust gases produced during different modes and operational conditions of the vacuum vessel. The reference process for the TEP system of ITER is called CAPER and comprises three different, consecutive steps to recover hydrogen isotopes at highest purity for direct transfer to the cryogenic Isotope Separation System. The second step ('' impurity processing '', IP) of the CAPER process developed at TLK is carried out in a closed loop involving heterogeneously catalyzed cracking or conversion reactions to liberate tritium from tritiated hydrocarbons or tritiated water combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through a Pd/Ag permeator. This combination shifts chemical equilibria towards dehydrogenation and therefore enables detritiation factors higher than 1000 in the IP stage. A closed loop with a catalyst reactor and a permeator can in principle be operated in two different modes, the batch mode or the continuous mode. In the batch mode the loop is filled with the gas to be detritiated, its cycled for a certain time until the tritium level is sufficiently lowered, and then the loop is emptied for the next batch. In the continuous mode the loop is continuously fed with gas and simultaneously gas is withdrawn from the loop. Both modes are sensitive to different extents to the actual permeability of the Pd/Ag membrane, which unavoidably becomes deteriorated by the decomposition of methane and coverage with carbon. Therefore, the permeator needs to be repeatedly regenerated in order to sustain high decontamination factors. In a series of tritium experiments with the CAPER facility at TLK a method has been developed to determine the actual performance of the 2nd process step in both possible operation modes. During this experimental campaign the permeator has been operated with DT mixed with tritiated methane under conditions

  16. Optimizing patient selection for dose escalation techniques using the prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy gleason score, and clinical T-stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Ideal candidates for 3D dose escalation conformal radiation or external beam + implant therapy are identified on the basis of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 American Joint Commission Cancer (AJCC) clinical T-stage. Methods and Materials: The pathologic findings of 1742 men with clinical stage T1c,2 prostate cancer managed with a radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1990 and 1998 were subjected to a logistic regression multivariable analysis. The endpoints examined included pathologic organ-confined (OC), specimen-confined (SC), and margin (M) or seminal vesicle (SV) positive disease. SC disease was defined as extracapsular extension (ECE) with a negative surgical margin. The clinical factors tested included PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, and the 1992 AJCC clinical T-stage. PSA failure-free (bNED) survival was calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier. Results: Significant negative predictors of pathologic OC-disease or positive predictors of M+ or SV+ disease included a PSA > 10 ng/ml (p + or SV+ disease respectively. Conclusions: Patients most likely to derive a survival benefit from the improved local control possible using dose escalation techniques were those who had both a low risk of having occult micrometastatic disease (+ or SV+) and a reasonable likelihood of remaining disease-free after RP (>50% 5-year bNED). These patients included those having T1c, 2a, PSA > 10-15 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤6 or T1c, 2a, 2b, PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, and biopsy Gleason ≤ 7 prostate cancer

  17. Development of an Animal Model for Burn-Blast Combined Injury and Cardiopulmonary System Changes in the Early Shock Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Quan; Chai, Jiake; Hu, Sen; Fan, Jun; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ma, Li; Duan, Hong-Jie; Liu, Lingying; Yang, Hongming; Li, Bai-Ling; Wang, Yi-He

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish an animal model for burn-blast combined injury research and elaborate cardiopulmonary system changes in the early shock stage. In this study, royal demolition explosive or RDX (hexagon, ring trimethylene nitramine) was used as an explosive source, and the injury conditions of the canine test subjects at various distances to the explosion (30, 50, and 70 cm) were observed by gross anatomy and pathology to determine a larger animal model of moderate blast injury. The canines were then subjected to a 35 % total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness flame injury using napalm, which completed the development of a burn-blast combined injury model. Based on this model, the hemodynamic changes and arterial blood gas analysis after the burn-blast combined injury were measured to identify the cardiopulmonary system characteristics. In this research, RDX explosion and flame injury were used to develop a severe burn-blast injury animal model that was stable, close to reality, and easily controllable. The hemodynamic and arterial blood gas changes in the canine subjects after burn-blast injury changed distinctly from the burn and blast injuries. Blood pressure and cardiac output fluctuated, and the preload was significantly reduced, whereas the afterload significantly increased. Meanwhile, the oxygen saturation (SO2) decreased markedly with carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2), and lactic acid (Lac) rose, and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) reduced. These changes suggested that immediate clinical treatment is important during burn-blast injury both to stabilize cardiac function and supply blood volume and to reduce the vascular permeability, thereby preventing acute pneumonedema or other complications. PMID:27011494

  18. The 7th lung cancer TNM classification and staging system:Review of the changes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsadraee, Saeed; Oswal, Dilip; Alizadeh, Yalda; Caulo, Andrea; van Beek, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in males, accounting for more than 1.4 million deaths in 2008. It is a growing concern in China, Asia and Africa as well. Accurate staging of the disease is an important part of the management as it provides estimation of patient's prognosis and identifies treatment sterategies. It also helps to build a database for future staging projects. A major revision of lung cancer staging has been announced with effect from January 2010. The ne...

  19. A novel approach to TEM preparation with a (7-axis stage) triple-beam FIB-SEM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jamil J.

    2015-10-01

    Preparation of lamellae from bulk to grid for Cs-corrected Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observation has mostly become routine work on the latest FIB-SEM systems, with standardized techniques that often are left to automation for the initial steps. The finalization of lamellae however, has mostly become, non-routine, non-repeatable and often driven by user experience level in most cases to produce high quality damage-less cross section. Materials processing of the latest technologies, with ever-shrinking Nano-sized structures pose challenges to modern FIB-SEM systems. This can often lead to specialized techniques and hyper-specific functions for producing ultra-thin high quality lamellae that often are lab specific, preventing practical use of such techniques across multiple materials and applications. Several factors that should be incorporated in processing fine structured materials successfully include how the use of electron and ion scan conditions can affect a thin section during ion milling, the type of ion species applied for material processing during the finalization of lamellae with gallium ions or of a smaller ion species type such as Ar/Xe, sample orientation of the lamella during the thinning process which is linked to ion beam incident angle as a direct relationship in the creation of waterfall effects or curtain effects, and how software can be employed to aid in the reduction of these artifacts with reproducible results regardless of FIB-SEM experience for site-specific lift outs. A traditional TEM preparation was performed of a fine structure specimen in pursuit of a process technique to produce a high quality TEM lamella which would address all of the factors mentioned. These new capabilities have been refined and improved upon during the FIB-SEM design and development stages with an end result of a new approach that yields an improvement in quality by the reduction of common ion milling artifacts such as curtain effects, amorphous

  20. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    . Nevertheless, people’s experience of the environment is sought manipulated in a variety of contexts, often without offering a less ‘true’ experience of a situation than if it had not been manipulated by people. In fact, orchestrations of space are often central to sociality, politics and aesthetics. This...... introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  1. Propuesta de un sistema de estadiaje de tumores de mediastino: A Proposal Staging System for Mediastinals Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salazar-Vargas

    2010-07-01

    total de la cavidad torácica será la suma del volumen del aire más el del tumor. La relación se obtiene al dividir el volumen tumoral por el torácico total. El corazón, la tráquea y los grandes vasos, comunes a todos, no se toman en cuenta. La I indica invasión de cualquier estructura, sea vena cava, tráquea, aorta, etc. La disminución o compromiso de la luz en 50%. La N se refiere a la presencia o no de ganglios linfáticos, particularmente en tumores no linfomatosos, y la M a la existencia o no de metástasis. El estadio del túmor de cada paciente puede determinarse según sea su combinación letras, como se indica en el texto.The mediastinum is an anatomic compartment that frequently lodges tumors of different histology, given the diversity of organs and structures that either occupy it or go through it, in one or another direction. Since the chest cavity is so large, is not uncommon to see patients presenting with pretty big tumors, sometimes invading vital organs, complicating their clinical status, anesthetic management and needed surgical procedures. Currently a common staging system applicable to patients with mediastinal tumors does not exist; the size of the mass and its relationships to neighboring organs is described from the imaging studies. If a TNM like system existed for mediastinal tumors, treating physicians could communicate and asses a particular lesion better, follow its response to treatment and could best define a prognosis for the patients. Based on the TNM system we propose herein an staging system for mediastinal tumors, utilizing the letters: T/I/N/M. The letter T expresses the relationship of volume of tumor, with the volume of the continent chest cavity; these volumes may be easily obtained from the CT scanner depending on its software. Otherwise the perimeter of the mass is drawn in the axial cuts, which are several millimeters thick and its density range is read in Hounsfield units. The computer determines the total volume of

  2. Compressor selection methods for multi-stage re-liquefaction system of liquefied CO2 transport ship for CCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, CCS (carbon dioxide capture and sequestration) has been receiving considerable attention as a possible means of dealing with emissions of CO2, a greenhouse gas. To this end, EOR (enhanced oil recovery) and EGR (enhanced gas recovery) are regarded as being viable options for economically sequestrating large amounts of CO2. A feasible approach would involve capturing CO2 from large-scale CO2 emission sources such as power plants, and then transporting that captured gas to near-depleted oil and gas wells to maintain the reservoir pressure and enhance the oil/gas recovery rate. In the future, CO2 will be transported large distances from emission sources in developed countries to oil/gas producing regions by pipelines or ships. The long-distance ship-based transport of CO2 would require that the gas be compressed or liquefied (LCO2). Furthermore, an LCO2 transport ship would have to be capable of processing boil-off gas while at sea. In this study, the selection method of compressors for re-liquefaction system of dedicated LCO2 transport ship was investigated by computational method. The performance of same compression ratio (SCR) method exhibited low levels of efficiency and reliability as for coefficient of performance (COP) and compressor discharge temperature in terms of oil degradation compared to that of intermediate pressure optimization (IPO). Of these three methods, IPO produced the highest level of performance of all, but could not guarantee compressor reliability as like SCR, too. Intermediate pressure optimization with same discharge temperature (IPODT) method was found to be better in terms of reliability, with a decrease in performance of only 5% relative to that obtained by IPO. Consequently, we recommend the use of the IPODT method for the design of a multi-stage compression system for the re-liquefaction cycle of an LCO2 transport ship. - Highlights: • Compressor selection methods for CO2 re-liquefaction system are compared. • Simulation

  3. Use of the University of California Los Angeles integrated staging system to predict survival in renal cell carcinoma: an international multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patard, J.J.; Kim, H.L.; Lam, J.; Dorey, F.J.; Pantuck, A.J.; Zisman, A.; Ficarra, V.; Han, K.R.; Cindolo, L.; Taille, A. De La; Tostain, J.; Artibani, W.; Dinney, C.P.; Wood, C.G.; Swanson, D.A.; Abbou, C.C.; Lobel, B.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Chopin, D.K.; Figlin, R.A.; Belldegrun, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate ability of the University of California Los Angeles Integrated Staging System (UISS) to stratify patients with localized and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) into risk groups in an international multicenter study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 4,202 patients from eight internationa

  4. The development of giftedness within the three-level system of music education in Poland and Serbia: Outcomes at different stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogaj Anna Antonina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of this article is theoretical and practice oriented, therefore offering educational implications for music educators and music psychologists. Its main objective is to give an overview of the most important musical and developmental changes of musically talented children and youth, at different stages of the three-level specialized music education. The theoretical background of the article refers to stage theories of development of gifted with the intention to point out correspondence between stages of development and the specificity of music education stages. Theoretical conceptions are used as a framework to synthesize and to interpret empirical data and practice-related professional experiences of psychologists in music schools in Poland and Serbia. Both countries, though culturally distinct in nature and in the character of traditional music, are characterized by a very similar system of specialized/professional music education. Further on, the article presents a review of the wide range of benefits/outcomes experienced by music school students, as a result of the highly simulative, systematic and supportive environment of music learning. The article begins with an introduction to the context of the specialized music education system in Poland and Serbia and then presents how a particular system of education for the gifted contributes to the development in the field of acquiring musical knowledge and skills, as well as to benefits/outcomes of the education system for the personal, social and professional development of the musically gifted, indicating a wide range of positive experiences.

  5. Image-based Multilevel Subdivision of M1 Category in TNM Staging System for Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lujun; Li, Wang; Wang, Siyang; Xie, Guofeng; Zeng, Qi; Chen, Chen; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Ming; Shu, Wanhong; Pan, Changchuan; Xia, Yunfei; Wu, Peihong

    2016-09-01

    . The multilevel subdivision system could be further used to discriminate among subgroups of differential OS under the M1b subcategory. Findings from analysis of multilevel subgroups suggested that patients with a single metastatic lesion (M1-B1, M1-L1, M1-H1, M1-N1) or two lesions in the liver only (M1-H2) had high rates of complete response (CR) or complete surgical resection (CSR) and 3-year OS after treatment (CR plus CSR rates >30%, and 3-year OS rates >50%); there were high 3-year OS rates (>50%) in patients with stage M1-B2, M1-L2, or M1-H3 disease but relatively low rates of CR or CSR. Conclusion Use of the multilevel M1 subdivision system in patients with NPC could facilitate more precise prognosis prediction and better identification of patients who will respond well to treatment than the conventional subdivision strategy. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27023116

  6. Observer variation in FDG PET-CT for staging of non-small-cell lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Michael S. [St Thomas' Hospital, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)]|[Southern Health, Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Smeeton, Nigel C. [King' s College London, Division of Health and Social Care Research, London (United Kingdom); Rankin, Sheila C.; Nunan, Tom; O' Doherty, Michael J. [St Thomas' Hospital, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Error and variation in reporting remains one of the weakest features of clinical imaging despite enormous technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate agreement amongst experienced readers in staging non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PET-CT. A series of {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT scans from 100 consecutive patients were reviewed independently by three experienced readers, with two readers reviewing each scan series a second time. Individual mediastinal lymph node stations were assessed as benign/inflammatory, equivocal or malignant, and AJCC N and M stage were also assigned. Kappa ({kappa}) was used to compare ratings from two categories and weighted kappa ({kappa}{sub w}) for three or more categories, and kappa values were interpreted according to the Landis-Koch benchmarks. Both intra- and interobserver agreement for N and M staging were high. For M staging there was almost perfect intra- and interobserver agreement ({kappa} = 0.90-0.93). For N staging, agreement was either almost perfect or substantial (intraobserver {kappa}{sub w} = 0.79, 0.91; interobserver {kappa}{sub w} = 0.75-0.81). Importantly, there was almost perfect agreement for N0/1 vs N2/3 disease ({kappa} = 0.80-0.97). Agreement for inferior and superior mediastinal nodes (stations 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9) was either almost perfect or substantial ({kappa}{sub w} = 0.71-0.88), but lower for hilar nodes (10; {kappa}{sub w} = 0.56-0.71). Interreporter variability was greatest for aortopulmonary nodes (5, 6; {kappa}{sub w} = 0.48-0.55). Amongst experienced reporters in a single centre, there was a very high level of agreement for both mediastinal nodal stage and detection of distant metastases with PET-CT. This supports the use of PET-CT as a robust imaging modality for staging NSCLC. (orig.)

  7. The Application of the HOAC Stage Wagon System in a Korean Theatre%霍阿克车台在韩国剧场中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加布里埃莱·霍格; 钟睿

    2012-01-01

      Based on the case of a Korean theatre, a brief introduction of the innovative stage wagon system from HOAC, which enables flexibility within limited stage space.%  结合韩国剧场项目中的应用实例,简要介绍德国霍阿克(HOAC)公司开发的一套独立车台系统,在舞台有限的空间内如何实现达到高灵活度的使用目的。

  8. Design, Modelling and Simulation of Two-Phase Two-Stage Electronic System with Orthogonal Output for Supplying of Two-Phase ASM

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Prazenica; Branislav Dobrucky; Peter Sekerak; Lukas Kalamen

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the two-stage two-phase electronic systems with orthogonal output voltages and currents - DC/AC/AC. Design of two-stage DC/AC/AC high frequency converter with two-phase orthogonal output using single-phase matrix converter is also introduced. Output voltages of them are strongly nonharmonic ones, so they must be pulse-modulated due to requested nearly sinusoidal currents with low total harmonic distortion. Simulation experiment results of matrix converter for both steady...

  9. Clinical staging of malignant tumours of the head and neck by the TNM system: The contribution of modern imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanski, M.; Wernecke, K.; Naszaly, F.; Deitmer, T.

    1987-08-01

    Staging of malignant tumours of the head and neck should be based on modern imaging techniques in order to assure high diagnostic validity. CT is indispensable in determining the size of tumours of the internal nose, paranasal sinuses, and epipharynx. The situation is similar for the mesopharynx and salivary glands, although histological grading is more important here for prognosis and therapy. In case of tumours of the larynx and hypopharynx, the CT is rivalled by microlaryngoscopsy and biopsy, which is just as efficient a diagnostic technique. In lymph node staging, sonography is the method of choice today. CT is an alternative if it would be applied anyway for staging of the primary tumour, or if standardized sectional images are to be established for radiotherapy planning.

  10. The research of functional state of the systems of providing of motion for footballers on the preparatory stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitko S.M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The features of neurodynamic reactions are presented on the different stages of playing activity of footballers. In research took part 18 footballers at the age of 18-22. Research was conducted in the first part of day (9-11 hours on each of the stages. Changeability of neurodynamic indexes is certain in time of the high functional state of organism and after his fatigue. The most informing indexes of neurodynamic reactions of footballers are exposed. The most informing indexes of the state of footballers are offered.

  11. The research of functional state of the systems of providing of motion for footballers on the preparatory stage

    OpenAIRE

    Bitko S.M.; Mokhun'ko A.D.

    2010-01-01

    The features of neurodynamic reactions are presented on the different stages of playing activity of footballers. In research took part 18 footballers at the age of 18-22. Research was conducted in the first part of day (9-11 hours) on each of the stages. Changeability of neurodynamic indexes is certain in time of the high functional state of organism and after his fatigue. The most informing indexes of neurodynamic reactions of footballers are exposed. The most informing indexes of the state ...

  12. Two-Stage Control Design of a Buck Converter/DC Motor System without Velocity Measurements via a Σ−Δ-Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2013-01-01

    differential flatness property of the DC-motor model is exploited in order to propose a first-stage controller, which is designed to achieve the desired angular velocity trajectory. This controller provides the voltage profiles that must be tracked by the Buck converter. Then, a second-stage controller is meant to assure the aforementioned. This controller is based on flatness property of the Buck power converter model, which provides the input voltage to the DC motor. Due to the fact that the two-stage controller proposed uses the average model of the system, as a practical and effective implementation of this controller, a Σ − Δ-modulator is employed. Finally, in order to verify the control performance of this approach, numerical simulations are included.

  13. A new, mainly dynamical, two-stage scenario for forming the Sun's planetary system and its relation to exoplanet findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2009-04-01

    radiation, and were then pushed outward by the plasma-driven Protoplanetary Disk Wind (PDW), with smaller material moving past them as feedstock. This purely radial force offers a unique (and demonstrably quantitative) resolution of the planetary a.m. problem - the a.m. grows as radius from the centre increases, and none of it came from the Sun. To achieve an individual planet's a.m. both the protoplanet and its feedstock must have acquired similar a.m., so planetary growth must be largely completed while the PDW is present. This conflicts with the current belief, based on time-demanding models for iron core formation by percolation, that accretion had continued for long after nebular departure. In our new scenario, however, the infall, being from a very cold (~10K) second-cloud source, and much of the flow having been dust-shielded from solar heat, yielded a disk at present, thus generating the solar system's water [3] - a model long favoured (1960-1978) by A.E. Ringwood to resolve this still-extant problem. The prograde orbits that characterize the satellite populations of the Giant Planets tells us their ~10ME silicate 'cores' were completed by tidal capture [3], their massive gas envelopes being final acquisitions as the nebula was expelled from the inner solar system. Viewed overall, the spacing and silicate core masses of the solar planets crudely profile the cloud density during the traverse. This 2-stage scenario for the solar system bears close comparison with several exoplanet features. Of the 334 discovered (as at Jan 2009), 73 lie within 10 solar radii of their star's axis, far too close to have been there long, and certainly much less than the age of their star. We must be seeing them soon after leaving their second cloud and now deprived of the shielding by its dust. Contrasting with the

  14. Characteristics of agricultural system at different development stages in Northeastern China%东北地区农业系统发展的阶段性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦珂; 王思明

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture, as the foundation of the national economy, has its strong internal organic system as well as its relevance with the external world. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze evolution of agricultural system from a historical perspective in a macroscopic view and to objectively judge the reasona- bleness of the structural change of agricultural system and its functional evolvement. The paper explored that development of agricultural systems experienced four stages in the Northeast of China historically, which were: 1) the differentiation stage between the hunting and fishing system and the acquisition sys- tem; 2) the differentiation stage between the agricultural and pastoral system and the fishing and hunting; 3) the long-term complementary coexistence phase of agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and hunting; and 4) the differentiation stage of the farming system and the livestock system. At each stage, organiza- tional form and function of the agricultural system structure were different; and the system development trend was the structure plurality and function stability. Finally, the paper summarized factors of promo- ting evolution of the agricultural system in Northeastern of China, which included ecological constraints and climate disturbance; war famine and pastoral policies; migration and economic exchange; cultural radi- ation and technological diffusion; religion and dietary customs; and transportation conditions and market exchange etc.%农业作为国民经济的基础,具有较强的内在有机性和外部关联性。宏观地考察农业系统的演变历史及发展规律,对于客观判断农业结构变动是否合理以及功能衍变是否良性,具有重要意义。东北地区农业系统的发展经历了4个阶段(渔猎系统同采集系统的分化阶段,农牧系统同渔猎系统的分化阶段,农牧渔猎长期共存互补阶段以及农耕系统同畜牧系统的分化阶段)。在

  15. Validation of an integrated staging system toward improved prognostication of patients with localized renal cell carcinoma in an international population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, K.R.; Bleumer, I.; Pantuck, A.J.; Kim, H.L.; Dorey, F.J.; Janzen, N.K.; Zisman, A.; Dinney, C.P.; Wood, C.G.; Swanson, D.A.; Said, J.W.; Figlin, R.A.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Belldegrun, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Outcome prediction for patients with renal cell carcinoma is based on a combination of factors. In this study a previously published clinical outcome algorithm based on 1997 T stage, Fuhrman grade and performance score is validated using an international database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A t

  16. Georgetown University Integrated Community Energy System (GU-ICES). Phase III, Stage I: feasibility analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Victor

    1980-10-01

    Candidate energy alternatives are analyzed in Phase III, Stage I, and the appendices are presented for the feasibility analysis. Information in eight appendices includes the following: detailed statement of work; PEPCO rate schedules; cogeneration schemes; added coal, limestone, and ash storage; hot and cold thermal storage; absorption refrigeration; high temperature heat pumps; and life cycle cost analysis. (MCW)

  17. A novel two-stage evaluation system based on a Group-G1 approach to identify appropriate emergency treatment technology schemes in sudden water source pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Hu, Qi; You, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Sudden water source pollution resulting from hazardous materials has gradually become a major threat to the safety of the urban water supply. Over the past years, various treatment techniques have been proposed for the removal of the pollutants to minimize the threat of such pollutions. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically select the most desirable alternative for different threat degrees. Therefore, a novel two-stage evaluation system was developed based on a circulation-correction improved Group-G1 method to determine the optimal emergency treatment technology scheme, considering the areas of contaminant elimination in both drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, the threat degree caused by the pollution was predicted using a threat evaluation index system and was subdivided into four levels. Then, a technique evaluation index system containing four sets of criteria weights was constructed in stage 2 to obtain the optimum treatment schemes corresponding to the different threat levels. The applicability of the established evaluation system was tested by a practical cadmium-contaminated accident that occurred in 2012. The results show this system capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technologies for drinking water source security. PMID:26449677

  18. The axial mixing influence on the number stages of countercurrent absorbers in absorbing NH3-CO2-H2O mixture in NaCl-H2O system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Micic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of axial or longitudinal mixing of stages on the number stages in a countercurrent absorber in absorbing vapour-gas mixture of NH3-CO2-H2O in the multicomponent system NaCl-H2O. The number stages in ideal mixing of phases NT and the number of stages which involves axial mixing ND were determined. The authors of this paper conclude that the influence of axial mixing does not affect the number stages in the countercurrent absorber. Otherwise, absorption in this concrete system is practically present in the process of soda ash production.

  19. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  20. Experimental evaluation of desuperheating and oil cooling process through liquid injection in two-staged ammonia refrigeration systems with screw compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the problem of achieving desuperheating through liquid injection in two-staged refrigeration systems based on screw compressors. The oil cooling process by refrigerant injection is also included. The basic thermodynamic principles of desuperheating and compressor cooling as well as short comparison with traditional method with a thermosyphon system have also been presented. Finally, the collected data referring to a big refrigeration plant are analyzed in the paper. Specific ammonia system concept applied in this refrigeration plant has demonstrated its advantages and disadvantages. - Highlights: ► An experiment was setup during a frozen food factory refrigeration system reconstruction and adaptation. ► Desuperheating and low-stage compressors oil cooling process were investigated. ► Efficiency of compression process and high-stage compressors functioning were examined. ► Evaporation temperature reduction has great influence on the need for injected liquid refrigerant. ► Several cases in which desuperheating and oil cooling process application are justified were determined.

  1. Possibly enhanced Gd excretion in dialysate, but no major clinical benefit of 3-5 months of treatment with sodium thiosulfate in late stages of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.; Sloth, J.J.; Nielsen, Arne Høj

    2008-01-01

    motion and skin abnormalities. The dialysate Gd content was raised by the treatment, up to fivefold. Conclusions. We could not confirm that sodium thiosulfate treatment results in marked and rapid improvement in late stages of Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, dialysate contents of Gd......Background. Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was successfully treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate according to a recent case report. Methods. Four haemodialysis patients with severe Gd-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis were treated with intravenous sodium thiosulfate for 3...

  2. Numerical simulation for design of a two-stage acceleration system in a megawatt power ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of the neutral-beam injectors for large tokamaks such as JT-60 planned in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the optimum configuration of extraction grids and the operating conditions were studied numerically for a two-stage acceleration in a high-power ion source. Results of the calculations show the feasibility of extracting a proton beam with energy 75 keV and current 15 A of about 0.60 divergence from the 12-cm-diam extraction grids of transparency 40%. Beam divergence in the two-stage configuration depends largely on the field intensity ratio; the optimum ratio that gives a minimum beam divergence is about 0.3--0.5

  3. System Implementation, Work Life Quality and the Third Stage of Pathology Career Path (Maintenance) among Esfahan Steel Company Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Taheri; Seyyedali Siadat; Mohammad Mohammadisadr

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to examine the relation between work life quality (structural-managerial, psychological, and social) and the third stage of career path (maintenance) among Esfahan Steel Company staff. The research method used was descriptive/correlational. The research population consisted of all Esfahan Steel Company staff in 2011, from which 214 out of 1200 individuals were selected through proportional stratified random sampling. The reliability of the results of the questionnaire w...

  4. Stability and Hopf bifurcation analysis in a prey-predator system with stage-structure for prey and time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A delay-differential modelling with stage-structure for prey is investigated. Its dynamics are studied in terms of local analysis and Hopf bifurcation theory, and its linear stability and Hopf bifurcation are demonstrated by studying the characteristic equation. The stability and direction of Hopf bifurcation are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold argument, and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical result

  5. Design, Modelling and Simulation of Two-Phase Two-Stage Electronic System with Orthogonal Output for Supplying of Two-Phase ASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kalamen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the two-stage two-phase electronic systems with orthogonal output voltages and currents - DC/AC/AC. Design of two-stage DC/AC/AC high frequency converter with two-phase orthogonal output using single-phase matrix converter is also introduced. Output voltages of them are strongly nonharmonic ones, so they must be pulse-modulated due to requested nearly sinusoidal currents with low total harmonic distortion. Simulation experiment results of matrix converter for both steady and transient states for IM motors are given in the paper, also experimental verification under R-L load, so far. The simulation results confirm a very good time-waveform of the phase current and the system seems to be suitable for low-cost application in automotive/aerospace industries and application with high frequency voltage sources.

  6. Cardiac Fibrosis in End-Stage Human Heart Failure and the Cardiac Natriuretic Peptide Guanylyl Cyclase System: Regulation and Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Tomoko; Schirger, John A; Huntley, Brenda K; Brozovich, Frank C; Maleszewski, Josef J; Sandberg, Sharon M; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Park, Soon J; Burnett, John C

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support has been used in the treatment of end-stage heart failure (HF), however use of anti-fibrotic co-therapies may improve prognosis. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) possess anti-fibrotic properties through their receptors, GC-A/GC-B/NPR-C. We sought to evaluate cardiac fibrosis and the endogenous NP system in end-stage HF with and without LVAD therapy and to assess the anti-fibrotic actions of the dual GC-A/-B activator CD-NP in vitro. Collagen (Col) protein content was assessed by Picrosirius Red staining and NPs, NP receptors, and Col I mRNA expression were determined by qPCR in LV tissue from patients in end-stage HF (n=13), after LVAD support (n=5) and in normal subjects (n=6). Col I mRNA and protein levels in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) pretreated with CD-NP were compared to BNP or CNP pretreatment. The LV in end-stage HF was characterized by higher Col I mRNA expression and Col protein deposition compared to normal which was sustained after LVAD support. ANP and BNP mRNA expressions were higher while CNP was lower in end-stage HF LV. GC-A expression did not change while GC-B and NPR-C increased compared to normal LV. The changes in NP system expression were not reversed after LVAD support. In vitro, CD-NP reduced Col I production stimulated by TGF-beta 1 greater than BNP or CNP in CFs. We conclude that the failing LV is characterized by increased fibrosis and reduced CNP gene expression. LVAD support did not reverse Col deposition nor restore CNP production, suggesting a therapeutic opportunity for CD-NP. PMID:25117468

  7. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  8. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Lijiao; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for energy-efficient domestic wastewater treatment, but the effluent quality has typically not been sufficient for discharge without further treatment. A two-stage laboratory-scale combined treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR), was examined here to produce high quality effluent with minimal energy demands. The combined system was operated continuously for 50 d...

  9. Global Existence and Convergence of Solutions to a Cross-Diffusion Cubic Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure for the Prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmao Fu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a cubic predator-prey system with stage structure for the prey. This system is a generalization of the two-species Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. Firstly, we consider the asymptotical stability of equilibrium points to the system of ordinary differential equations type. Then, the global existence of solutions and the stability of equilibrium points to the system of weakly coupled reaction-diffusion type are discussed. Finally, the existence of nonnegative classical global solutions to the system of strongly coupled reaction-diffusion type is investigated when the space dimension is less than 6, and the global asymptotic stability of unique positive equilibrium point of the system is proved by constructing Lyapunov functions.

  10. Conversion of organic solid waste to hydrogen and methane by two-stage fermentation system with reuse of methane fermenter effluent as diluting water in hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Moon, Chungman; Cho, Si-Kyung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a two-stage system converting organic solid waste (food waste+sewage sludge) to H2 and CH4 was operated. In the first stage of dark fermentative hydrogen production (DFHP), a recently proposed method that does not require external inoculum, was applied. In the second stage, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBr) were followed to treat H2 fermenter effluent. (H2+CH4-ASBR) system showed better performance in terms of total biogas conversion (78.6%), while higher biogas production rate (2.03 L H2/Lsystem/d, 1.96 L CH4/Lsystem/d) was achieved in (H2+CH4-UASBr) system. To reduce the alkali addition requirement in DFHP process, CH4 fermenter effluent was tested as a diluting water. Both the ASBR and UASBr effluent was effective to keep the pH above 6 without CH4 production. In case of using ASBR effluent, H2 production dropped by 15%, but alkali addition requirement was reduced by 50%. PMID:23648761

  11. Investigation on a two-stage solar liquid-desiccant (LiBr) dehumidification system assisted by CaCl{sub 2} solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z.Q. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Dai, Y.J. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: yjdai@sjtu.edu.en; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-04-15

    A two-stage solar powered liquid-desiccant dehumidification system, for which two kinds of desiccant solution (lithium chloride and calcium bromide) are fed to the two dehumidification stages separately, has been studied. In the studied system air moisture (latent) load is separately removed by a pre-dehumidifier using cheap calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and a main dehumidifier using stable lithium bromide (LiBr). Side-effect of mixing heat rejected during dehumidification process is considerably alleviated by an indirect evaporative cooling unit added between the two dehumidification stages. The feasibility of high-desiccant concentration difference achieved by reusing desiccant solution to dehumidify air and regenerating desiccant repeatedly is analyzed. By increasing desiccant concentration difference, desiccant storage capacity is effectively explored. It is found that the pre-dehumidification effect of CaCl{sub 2} solution is significant in high ambient humidity condition. Also seen is that the desiccant investment can be decreased by 53%, though the cost of equipments is somewhat increased, and the Tcop and COP of the proposed system can reach 0.97 and 2.13, respectively.

  12. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment. PMID:27008710

  13. Investigation on a two-stage solar liquid-desiccant (LiBr) dehumidification system assisted by CaCl2 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage solar powered liquid-desiccant dehumidification system, for which two kinds of desiccant solution (lithium chloride and calcium bromide) are fed to the two dehumidification stages separately, has been studied. In the studied system air moisture (latent) load is separately removed by a pre-dehumidifier using cheap calcium chloride (CaCl2) and a main dehumidifier using stable lithium bromide (LiBr). Side-effect of mixing heat rejected during dehumidification process is considerably alleviated by an indirect evaporative cooling unit added between the two dehumidification stages. The feasibility of high-desiccant concentration difference achieved by reusing desiccant solution to dehumidify air and regenerating desiccant repeatedly is analyzed. By increasing desiccant concentration difference, desiccant storage capacity is effectively explored. It is found that the pre-dehumidification effect of CaCl2 solution is significant in high ambient humidity condition. Also seen is that the desiccant investment can be decreased by 53%, though the cost of equipments is somewhat increased, and the Tcop and COP of the proposed system can reach 0.97 and 2.13, respectively

  14. Locoregional Failure in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Mastectomy and Adjuvant Systemic Therapy: Which Patients Benefit From Postmastectomy Irradiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovo, Marco, E-mail: marcotrovo33@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Durofil, Elena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Polesel, Jerry [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Roncadin, Mario [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Perin, Tiziana [Department of Pathology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Mileto, Mario; Piccoli, Erica [Department of Surgery, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Quitadamo, Daniela [Scientific Direction, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Massarut, Samuele [Department of Surgery, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Carbone, Antonino [Department of Pathology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy); Trovo, Mauro G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico of Aviano, Aviano (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the locoregional failure in patients with Stage I-II breast cancer treated with radical mastectomy and to evaluate whether a subset of these patients might be at sufficiently high risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) to benefit from postmastectomy irradiation (PMRT). Methods and Materials: Stage I-II breast cancer patients (n = 150) treated with radical mastectomy without adjuvant irradiation between 1999 and 2005 were analyzed. The pattern of LRR was reported. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate rates of LRR, and Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate potential risk factors. Results: Median follow-up was 75 months. Mean patient age was 56 years. One-hundred forty-three (95%) patients received adjuvant systemic therapy: 85 (57%) hormonal therapy alone, 14 (9%) chemotherapy alone, and 44 (29%) both chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Statistically significant factors associated with increased risk of LRR were premenopausal status (p = 0.004), estrogen receptor negative cancer (p = 0.02), pathologic grade 3 (p = 0.02), and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.001). T and N stage were not associated with increased risk of regional recurrence. The 5-year LRR rate for patients with zero or one, two, three, and four risk factors was 1%, 10.3%, 24.2%, and 75%, respectively. Conclusions: A subset of patients with early-stage breast cancer is at high risk of LRR, and therefore PMRT might be beneficial.

  15. Locoregional Failure in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Mastectomy and Adjuvant Systemic Therapy: Which Patients Benefit From Postmastectomy Irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the locoregional failure in patients with Stage I–II breast cancer treated with radical mastectomy and to evaluate whether a subset of these patients might be at sufficiently high risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) to benefit from postmastectomy irradiation (PMRT). Methods and Materials: Stage I–II breast cancer patients (n = 150) treated with radical mastectomy without adjuvant irradiation between 1999 and 2005 were analyzed. The pattern of LRR was reported. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate rates of LRR, and Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate potential risk factors. Results: Median follow-up was 75 months. Mean patient age was 56 years. One-hundred forty-three (95%) patients received adjuvant systemic therapy: 85 (57%) hormonal therapy alone, 14 (9%) chemotherapy alone, and 44 (29%) both chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Statistically significant factors associated with increased risk of LRR were premenopausal status (p = 0.004), estrogen receptor negative cancer (p = 0.02), pathologic grade 3 (p = 0.02), and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.001). T and N stage were not associated with increased risk of regional recurrence. The 5-year LRR rate for patients with zero or one, two, three, and four risk factors was 1%, 10.3%, 24.2%, and 75%, respectively. Conclusions: A subset of patients with early-stage breast cancer is at high risk of LRR, and therefore PMRT might be beneficial.

  16. [Controversy and confusion in preoperative imaging precise staging of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei

    2016-02-25

    AJCC determined the pathological standards for staging of gastric cancer, but no corresponding radiological signs of a single stage were described or documented. The vacancy of authority standards and limitation of the existing radiological modalities has caused the "stage fright" of the radiologists during the clinical practices. The controversy and confusion under different cognitive aspects can be summarized as follows: (1) If the gastric submucosal layer is not detected, it can only take the indirect standard of "50% thickness ratio" to distinguish T1 and T2. (2) T2 tumors may be overstaged as T3, as a result of the undetectable thin subserosa layer. (3) T3 tumors may be overstaged as T4, because of the inflammatory and fibrosis strands and spiculations near the serosa, and the existence of the gastric bare area. (4) The diagnostic imaging criteria for T4b are still controversial, and the opinions are not uniform about the resectable signs. Some significantly infiltrated unresectable tumors lack typical radiology signs. (5) Size is still the widely-used direct criterion for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis, however the accuracy of N staging is only 50%-70%. (6) It lacks the typical sign for the diagnosis of early peritoneal metastasis, with a diagnostic sensitivity of only 50%. There is no fundamental breakthrough for the existing imaging modalities to solve the above controversies on the preoperative precise staging. However, the situations can be improved by standardization of the examination and reporting process (oral filling, multi-phase enhancement, multi planar reconstruction, and window width/level technique, etc.), the exploration of the fine signs(hyperattenuating serosa sign, smudge sign, etc.) and the exploration of new modalities (spectral CT, diffusion weighted MR imaging, etc.). PMID:26831881

  17. "We live on earth : rotating systems" : performance by J. Jarosz (PL) done at the Physics on Stage Festival

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2000-01-01

    Part of the Physics on Stage Festival (04-10 November 2000). During this event, the national competion winners, science teachers, science communicators, publishers, top scientists and high-level representatives of the ministries and European organisations will brainstorm future solutions to bolster physics' popularity. The programme will also include spectacular demonstrations of new educational tools; the best will be disseminated over the national TV networks and other media to the European public. A the end of the film, Dutch Performance by The Eindhoven Circus of Physics, Prof. De Waele from the Eindhoven University of Technology

  18. High-energy fibre CPA system based on a single stage rod type fiber amplifier in double pass configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaouter, Y.; Morin, F.; Hoenninger, C.; Mottay, E.

    2011-02-01

    In this contribution, we report the generation of high energy, high temporal quality, ultrashort pulses from a single stage double-pass short length Ytterbium-doped rod type fibre chirped pulse amplification setup. The fibre used as gain medium is a 95-cm long rod type microstructured fibre with a 80 μm core diameter and 200 μm pump cladding diameter seeded by 3 nJ pulses at 100 kHz of repetition rate. We demonstrate amplification and compression up to 200 μJ energy in 250 fs (assuming sech² pulse shape) with good temporal quality leading to ~ 750 MW peak power.

  19. Development of a laser-based high-precision six-degrees-of-freedom motion errors measuring system for linear stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a useful measuring system for the simultaneous measurement of six-degrees-of-freedom motion errors of a moving stage. The system integrates a miniature fiber coupled laser interferometer with specially designed optical paths and quadrant detectors, capable of measuring six-degrees-of-freedom motion errors. Using this model, the proposed measuring method provides rapid performance, simplicity of setup, and preprocess verification of a linear stage. The experimental setups and measuring procedures, and a systematic calculated method for the error verification are presented in the paper. The system's resolution of measuring straightness error component is about 25 nm. The resolution of measuring the pitch and yaw angular error component is about 0.06 arcs. With the comparison between the HP calibration system and the proposed system in the measuring range of 120 mm, the system accuracy of measuring straightness error and angular error is within the range ±0.6 μm and ±0.3 arcs

  20. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Gaul, David A.; Wang, May D.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  1. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R L Paine

    Full Text Available High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy.

  2. 10 m/25 Gbps LiFi transmission system based on a two-stage injection-locked 680 nm VCSEL transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chu, Chien-An; Lu, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Rui; Wu, Chang-Jen; Lin, Dai-Hua

    2015-10-01

    A 10  m/25  Gbps light-based WiFi (LiFi) transmission system based on a two-stage injection-locked 680 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) transmitter is proposed. A LiFi transmission system with a data rate of 25 Gbps is experimentally demonstrated over a 10 m free-space link. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time a two-stage injection-locked 680 nm VCSEL transmitter in a 10  m/25  Gbps LiFi transmission system has been employed. Impressive bit error rate performance and a clear eye diagram are achieved in the proposed systems. Such a 10  m/25  Gbps LiFi transmission system provides the advantage of a communication link for higher data rates that could accelerate the deployment of visible laser light communication. PMID:26421582

  3. The First Stage Modification Of The Servo-spill Feedback System For The Slow Resonant Beam Extraxtion From The Ihep 70 Gev Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Lapin, V V; Yaichkov, V A; Zyatkov, O V

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first stage modification of the servo-spill feedback system for the slow resonant beam extraction from the IHEP 70 GeV proton synchrotron. The system has a time delay caused by resonance evolution. In the past the time delay was estimated equal from 1ms to 1.8ms, and the maximum open loop frequency cut-off was considered equal to a few tens Hz. The servo-spill feedback system was being used with the open loop frequency cut-off no more than 20Hz for many years. The qualitative analysis of the beam motion on the phase plot, the modeling of the system on the base of the Hamilton's equations numerical solution and the analysis of the experimental frequency responses indicated that the time delay value is noticeably less than former estimations. The first stage modification of the servo-spill feedback system has increased the open loop frequency cut-off at the beginning of extraction process up to approximately 300 Hz. The suppression coefficients of the beam intensity ripple...

  4. The Presentation of a Two Stages Model for an Optimum Operation of a Hybrid System of Wind-Pumped Storage Power Plant in the Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akbarpour

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a new method in power market environment. One of the weaknesses in the utilization of wind units is severe dependence of output power level on wind. However, considering the high uncertainty in the prediction of wind speed and wind forecast unit production capacity is also having an error. Also, regarding to the uncontrollable generators of this type, it is better to use combined systems for utilization. This study presents a new model based on the a two stage for an optimum operation of a hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant in the power market environment that causes to provide a successful presentation condition in market environments for the producers of wind power. In the suggestive hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant of this study the modeling is done in two stages for the optimum presence in power market environment with the a most possible benefit. At first, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in the prediction of power price and producing the wind power, for presenting the suggestion of power to market, in order to gain the most benefit. At the second stage, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in producing wind power, in order to gain the most benefit and paying the least penalty for unbalancing in market for operation of the system. In this study, the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO is used for optimization. At the end of a model example for applying the results of the proposed model will be examined and analyzes the results. Results show that the model is an appropriate method for the operation of this combined system in market environment.

  5. All-stages-implicit and strong-stability-preserving implicit-explicit Runge-Kutta time discretization schemes for hyperbolic systems with stiff relaxation terms

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Shu-Chao

    2016-01-01

    We construct eight implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes up to third order of the type in which all stages are implicit so that they can be used in the zero relaxation limit in a unified and convenient manner. These all-stages-implicit (ASI) schemes attain the strong-stability-preserving (SSP) property in the limiting case, and two are SSP for not only the explicit part but also the implicit part and the entire IMEX scheme. Three schemes can completely recover to the designed accuracy order in two sides of the relaxation parameter for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium initial conditions. Two schemes converge nearly uniformly for equilibrium cases. These ASI schemes can be used for hyperbolic systems with stiff relaxation terms or differential equations with some type constraints.

  6. A WTG system for local grid supply substitution: stages to implementation and monitoring. Report on the institutional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The demonstration project consisted of installing one 50 kW wind turbine generator in a rural area of Scotland to supply electricity both locally and for sale of surplus to the existing grid network. The paper reports on the difficulties encountered at the local planning application stage and in negotiating a connection to the UK national grid. Technical difficulties encountered with respect to equipment specification and suitability for connection to the grid network should serve as a warning to other potential contractors. The difficulties encountered were of sufficient magnitude that it became necessary to involve the National Engineering Laboratory as facilitator. The paper should be useful to anyone considering installing wind turbines in the UK.

  7. A WTG system for local grid supply substitution: stages to implementation and monitoring. Report on the institutional aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demonstration project consisted of installing one 50 kW wind turbine generator in a rural area of Scotland to supply electricity both locally and for sale of surplus to the existing grid network. The paper reports on the difficulties encountered at the local planning application stage and in negotiating a connection to the UK national grid. Technical difficulties encountered with respect to equipment specification and suitability for connection to the grid network should serve as a warning to other potential contractors. The difficulties encountered were of sufficient magnitude that it became necessary to involve the National Engineering Laboratory as facilitator. The paper should be useful to anyone considering installing wind turbines in the UK

  8. Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell during initial stage of shell expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafyeva Liudmila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear thermo-optical properties of two-layered spherical system of gold nanoparticle core and water vapor shell, created under laser heating of nanoparticle in water, were theoretically investigated. Vapor shell expansion leads to decreasing up to one to two orders of magnitude in comparison with initial values of scattering and extinction of the radiation with wavelengths 532 and 633 nm by system while shell radius is increased up to value of about two radii of nanoparticle. Subsequent increasing of shell radius more than two radii of nanoparticle leads to rise of scattering and extinction properties of system over initial values. The significant decrease of radiation scattering and extinction by system of nanoparticle-vapor shell can be used for experimental detection of the energy threshold of vapor shell formation and investigation of the first stages of its expansion. PACS: 42.62.BE. 78.67. BF

  9. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  10. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-05-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  11. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    OpenAIRE

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim; Ridzuan Ramli; Che Rahmat Che Mat; Choo Yuen May; Nasrin Abu Bakar; Nu’man Abdul Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column heig...

  12. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  13. Axioms for SNABOK, a System and Network Administration Body of Knowledge : missing link stage of ontology process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    SNABOK, a system an network administration body of knowledge, is coined as an attempt to complement the well-known and quite influential SWEBOK (software engineering body of knowledge) for the less prominent but equally critical profession of system and network administration. General remarks concer

  14. An Enhanced Droop Control Scheme for Resilient Active Power Sharing in Paralleled Two-Stage PV Inverter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2016-01-01

    Traditional droop-controlled systems assume that the generators are able to provide sufficient power as required. This is however not always true, especially in renewable systems, where the energy sources (e.g., photovoltaic source) may not be able to provide enough power (or even loss of power...... strategy is carried out. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the proposed droop control scheme....

  15. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Outline specifications of cogeneration plant; continued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Specifications are presented for the electrical equipment, site preparation, building construction and mechanical systems for a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota campus. This power plant will supply steam and electrical power to a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  16. Study on Multi-stage Logistics System Design Problem with Inventory Considering Demand Change by Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hisaki; Gen, Mitsuo

    The logistics model used in this study is 3-stage model employed by an automobile company, which aims to solve traffic problems at a total minimum cost. Recently, research on the metaheuristics method has advanced as an approximate means for solving optimization problems like this model. These problems can be solved using various methods such as the genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing, and tabu search. GA is superior in robustness and adjustability toward a change in the structure of these problems. However, GA has a disadvantage in that it has a slightly inefficient search performance because it carries out a multi-point search. A hybrid GA that combines another method is attracting considerable attention since it can compensate for a fault to a partial solution that early convergence gives a bad influence on a result. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid random key-based GA(h-rkGA) that combines local search and parameter tuning of crossover rate and mutation rate; h-rkGA is an improved version of the random key-based GA (rk-GA). We attempted comparative experiments with spanning tree-based GA, priority based GA and random key-based GA. Further, we attempted comparative experiments with “h-GA by only local search” and “h-GA by only parameter tuning”. We reported the effectiveness of the proposed method on the basis of the results of these experiments.

  17. Federal Information System on Grey Literature in Russia: a New Stage of Development in Digital and Network Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Starovoitov, Aleksandr V. (CITIS); Bastrykin, Aleksandr M. (CITIS); Borzykh, Anton I. (CITIS); Pavlov, Leonid P. (VNTIC); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2011-01-01

    Since the late nineties when the Russian grey literature (GL) system in the sphere of scientific and technical information was first presented to the international GL community in Luxembourg we have had several opportunities to describe one or another aspect of the Federal Information System on GL in Russia [1,2,3,4,5]. This time we would like to dwell upon the system as a whole following its development from the past through present times to the prospective view all the more as this year a n...

  18. Effects of atorvastatin on systemic and renal NO dependency in patients with non-diabetic stage II-III chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Frank Holden; Larsen, Thomas; Jensen, Janni Majgaard; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Bech, Jesper Nørgaard; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Clinical trials suggest that statins have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system independent from their cholesterol lowering properties. In patients with chronic kidney disease stage II-III, we tested the hypothesis that atorvastatin increased systemic and renal nitric oxide (NO......) availability using L-N(G) -monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) as an inhibitor of NO production. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study patients were treated with atorvastatin for 5 days with standardized diet and fluid intake. Glomerular filtration reate (GFR), fractional excretions of sodium...... and after systemic administration of the NO inhibitor L-NMMA. RESULTS: Atorvastatin caused a significant reduction in U-ENaCγ , but sodium excretion, C H 2 O , FENa and u-AQP2 were not changed by atorvastatin. L-NMMA reduced renal effect variables, including GFR, FENa and u-ENaCγ and increased...

  19. Development of a novel two-stage liquid desiccant dehumidification system assisted by CaCl2 solution using exergy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air conditioning system based on liquid desiccant has been recognized as an efficient independent air humidity control HVAC system. To improve thermal coefficient of performance, a novel two-stage liquid desiccant dehumidification system assisted by calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is developed through exergy analysis based on the second thermodynamic law. Compared with the basic liquid desiccant dehumidification system, the proposed system is improved by two ways, i.e. increasing the concentration variance and the pre-dehumidification of CaCl2. The exergy loss in the desiccant-desiccant heat recovery process can be significantly reduced by increasing desiccant concentration variance between strong desiccant solution after regeneration and weak desiccant solution after dehumidification. Meanwhile, the pre-dehumidification of CaCl2 solution can reduce the irreversibility in the regeneration/dehumidification process. Compared to the basic system, the thermal coefficient performance and exergy efficiency of the proposed system are increased from 0.24 to 0.73 and from 6.8% to 23.0%, respectively, under the given conditions. Useful energy storage capacity of CaCl2 solution and LiCl solution at concentration of 40% reach 237.8 and 395.1 MJ/m3, respectively. The effects of desiccant regeneration temperature, air mass flux, desiccant mass flux, etc., on the performance of the proposed system are also analyzed.

  20. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.